WorldWideScience

Sample records for berkelium 239

  1. New berkelium isotope: 242Bk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new isotope of berkelium, 242Bk, was produced with a cross section of approx. 10 μb in reactions of boron on uranium and nitrogen on thorium. It decays by electron capture with a half-life of 7 +- 1.3 minutes. The branching ratio for this isotope for alpha decay is less than 1% and that for spontaneous fission is less than 0.03%. 2 figures, 2 tables

  2. Characterization of berkelium(III) dipicolinate and borate compounds in solution and the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Mark A; Cary, Samantha K; Johnson, Jason A; Baumbach, Ryan E; Arico, Alexandra A; Luckey, Morgan; Urban, Matthew; Wang, Jamie C; Polinski, Matthew J; Chemey, Alexander; Liu, Guokui; Chen, Kuan-Wen; Van Cleve, Shelley M; Marsh, Matthew L; Eaton, Teresa M; van de Burgt, Lambertus J; Gray, Ashley L; Hobart, David E; Hanson, Kenneth; Maron, Laurent; Gendron, Frédéric; Autschbach, Jochen; Speldrich, Manfred; Kögerler, Paul; Yang, Ping; Braley, Jenifer; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2016-08-26

    Berkelium is positioned at a crucial location in the actinide series between the inherently stable half-filled 5f(7) configuration of curium and the abrupt transition in chemical behavior created by the onset of a metastable divalent state that starts at californium. However, the mere 320-day half-life of berkelium's only available isotope, (249)Bk, has hindered in-depth studies of the element's coordination chemistry. Herein, we report the synthesis and detailed solid-state and solution-phase characterization of a berkelium coordination complex, Bk(III)tris(dipicolinate), as well as a chemically distinct Bk(III) borate material for comparison. We demonstrate that berkelium's complexation is analogous to that of californium. However, from a range of spectroscopic techniques and quantum mechanical calculations, it is clear that spin-orbit coupling contributes significantly to berkelium's multiconfigurational ground state. PMID:27563098

  3. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... drying process. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the...

  4. 32 CFR 239.5 - Benefit elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefit elections. 239.5 Section 239.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.5 Benefit elections. Section 3374 of Title...

  5. 32 CFR 239.7 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 239.7 Section 239.7 National... HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.7 Responsibilities. (a) The DUSD(I&E), under the... Chief of Engineers, has been delegated authority and responsibility for the execution of HAP....

  6. 32 CFR 239.8 - Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding. 239.8 Section 239.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.8 Funding. (a) Revolving Fund Account. The revolving...

  7. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision...

  8. 14 CFR 121.239 - Oil valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil valves. 121.239 Section 121.239..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.239 Oil valves. (a) Each oil valve must— (1) Comply with § 121.257; (2) Have positive stops or suitable index provisions in the...

  9. 32 CFR 239.10 - Management Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management Controls. 239.10 Section 239.10...) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.10 Management Controls. (a). Management Systems. Headquarters, USACE has an existing information management system that manages all...

  10. 32 CFR 239.12 - Tax Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax Documentation. 239.12 Section 239.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.12 Tax Documentation. For...

  11. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... human ingress and their impact on project functions. (d) Effect of the cover on inspection and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  12. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  13. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  14. 48 CFR 239.7409 - Special assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special assembly. 239.7409... Services 239.7409 Special assembly. (a) Special assembly is the designing, manufacturing, arranging... general use equipment. (b) Special assembly rates and charges shall be based on estimated costs....

  15. 33 CFR 239.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 239.3 Section 239.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... References. (a) Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management, 24 May 1977. (b) ER 1105-2-200. (c) ER...

  16. 48 CFR 239.7001 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Information Technology 239.7001 Policy. Agencies shall follow the procedures in DoD 4140.1-R, DoD Supply Chain Materiel Management Regulation, Chapter 9, Section C9.5, when considering the exchange or sale...

  17. Speciation of 239U and 239Np by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research thesis is to contribute to a better knowledge of chemical effects associated with nuclear transformations of 238U(n, γ) 239U(β) and 239Np in different uranium salts in solid state or aqueous solutions. A method of separation of tetravalent and hexavalent uranium and of tetravalent and pentavalent neptunium has been developed. The best separations have been obtained by using an equimolar aqueous solution of nitric acid and oxalic acid with elution durations between 2 and 9 minutes. Several uranyl and uranium compounds have been irradiated and the distribution of 239U and 239Np depending on the oxidation level has been measured with respect to the nature of the irradiated compound, to the irradiation duration, and to the composition of the dissolution medium. The stabilisation of 239U and 239Np is discussed in terms of chemical forces, mechanical recoil, and localised radiolysis due to Auger electrons

  18. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet...

  19. 48 CFR 239.7405 - Delegated authority for telecommunications resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... telecommunications resources. 239.7405 Section 239.7405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7405 Delegated authority for telecommunications resources. The contracting officer may enter into a telecommunications service contract on a month-to-month basis or for...

  20. 47 CFR 73.239 - Use of common antenna site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of common antenna site. 73.239 Section 73.239 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.239 Use of common antenna site. No FM broadcast...

  1. Gamma-ray intensities of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative intensities of 239Pu γ-rays were precisely measured with a Ge(Li) detector which was accurately calibrated and corrections were made for self-absorption of γ-rays. Accuracies of 1-2% were obtained for strong γrays. Detector efficiences were calibrated with a standard source of 133Ba and γ-ray sources of 152Eu, 154Eu and 182Ta. Intensities per decay were determined by the measured γ-ray intensities, weight and isotopic abundance of plutonium in the source. (author)

  2. Adsorption behavior of 239Pu by Gaomiaozi bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption behavior of 239Pu by Gaomiaozi bentonite as a function of the factors of aqueous phase pH value, 239Pu initial concentration and ionic species is studied by static adsorption experiments in this paper. The following results are obtained. Adsorption equilibrium time of 239Pu by Gaomiaozi bentonite samples is about 24 h, and the adsorption distribution ratio Kd value of 239Pu increases with the pH value, but decreases with increasing initial concentration of 239Pu. And adsorption of 239Pu by bentonite samples with different ionic species show that anions affect the most on adsorption of bentonite is CO32-, followed by HCO3- and SO42-, whereas Cl- and NO3- hardly have any influence on the adsorption of bentonite. (authors)

  3. 48 CFR 352.239-71 - Standard for encryption language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... language. 352.239-71 Section 352.239-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Standard for encryption language. As prescribed in 339.101(d)(2), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Standard for Encryption Language (January 2010) (a) The Contractor shall use...

  4. 40 CFR 86.238-94-86.239-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 86.238-94-86.239-94 Section 86.238-94-86.239-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  5. 48 CFR 1552.239-70 - Rehabilitation act notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rehabilitation act notice. 1552.239-70 Section 1552.239-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... substantially to the language of this clause, including this paragraph, unless otherwise authorized by...

  6. 48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... computer viruses. The contractor shall be responsible for examining all such products prior to their... resulting from computer virus damage or malicious destruction of computer information arising from the... Virus Security. 2452.239-71 Section 2452.239-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  7. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  8. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  9. Radiography Facility - Building 239 Independent Validation Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenbach, T J; Beaulieu, R A; Watson, J F; Wong, H J

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of this task was to perform an Independent Validation Review to evaluate the successful implementation and effectiveness of Safety Basis controls, including new and revised controls, to support the implementation of a new DSA/TSR for B239. This task addresses Milestone 2 of FY10 PEP 7.6.6. As the first IVR ever conducted on a LLNL nuclear facility, it was designated a pilot project. The review follows the outline developed for Milestone 1 of the PEP, which is based on the DOE Draft Guide for Performance of Independent Verification Review of Safety Basis Controls. A formal Safety Basis procedure will be developed later, based on the lessons learned with this pilot project. Note, this review is termed a ''Validation'' in order to be consistent with the PEP definition and address issues historically raised about verification mechanisms at LLNL. Validation is intended to confirm that implementing mechanisms realistically establish the ability of TSR LCO, administrative control or safety management program to accomplish its intended safety function and that the controls are being implemented. This effort should not, however, be confused with a compliance assessment against all relevant DOE requirements and national standards. Nor is it used as a vehicle to question the derivation of controls already approved by LSO unless a given TSR statement simply cannot be implemented as stated.

  10. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock...

  11. Biosorption of 239Pu by immobilized sargassum fusiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargassum fusiforme was immobilized with calcium alginates and its biosorption property to 239Pu was studied by batch and column methods. Biosorption equilibrium time of immobilized Sargassum fusiforme biosorbent to 239Pu is 120 min and biosorption efficiency is over 99.2% when the initial concentration of 239Pu is 21.5 kBq/L and pH is 2.5-5.0. After five times repetition biosorption-desorption cycles biosorption efficiency is still over 98.0% when the velocity of flow is 2 ml/min in column experiment. Immobilized Sargassum fusiforme biosorbent is better to 239Pu due to its better chemical stability, mechanical strength, lower cost, high biosorption efficiency and repeated biosorption-desorption cycles. (authors)

  12. Effects of monomeric 239Pu on the pregnant rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 239Pu treatment (0, 10 or 40 μCi/kg) on hematological measurements in pregnant rabbits were studied at 29 days of gestation. Mean clotting times were significantly increased in all plutonium-treated rabbits. There was also a significant increase in clotting time with increasing time between plutonium dosing and sample collection in rabbits injected with 10 μCi/kg. Platelet counts were significantly decreased in all rabbits exposed to 239Pu for 14 days or greater. Hematocrits were significantly depressed in rabbits exposed to 239Pu for 20 days. It is speculated that monomeric 239Pu accumulates at a hematopoietic site close to that affected in X-irradiated animals. (U.K.)

  13. [ECG indices in dogs after inhalation of 239Pu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, V N

    1985-11-01

    Dogs of both sexes aged 2 to 4 were subjected to inhalation inoculation with polymer 239Pu or submicron 239PuO2 aerosols in amounts close to acute, subacute and chronically effective ones. ECG was recorded in standard, amplified and single leads (V3). All calculations were done by lead II. Signs of the right heart overburdening were noted in the presence of the P-pulmonale complex, deep S1 wave or cardiac electrical axis of SI-SII-SIII type. Signs of the right heart overburdening were revealed after inhalation of polimer 239Pu (70%). The absence of similar changes in damage caused by 239Pu could be attributed to its fast resorption from the lungs resulting in more moderate lesion of the respiratory organs.

  14. Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/ Pu-239 atom ratios in the water column off Sanriku, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo

    2013-04-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami occurred in the Pacific Ocean off northern Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 which caused severe damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has resulted in a substantial release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and ocean, and has caused extensive contamination of the environment. However, no information is available on the amounts of radionuclides such as Pu isotopes released into the ocean at this time. Investigating the background baseline concentration and atom ratio of Pu isotopes in seawater is important for assessment of the possible contamination in the marine environment. Pu-239 (half-life: 24,100 years), Pu-240 (half-life: 6,560 years) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 years) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater samples collected in the western North Pacific off Sanriku before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant will provide useful background baseline data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing additional Pu sources. Seawater samples were collected with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the KH-98-3 cruise of the R/V Hakuho-Maru. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations were 2.07 and 1.67 mBq/m3 in the surface water, respectively, and increased with depth; a subsurface maximum was identified at 750 m depth, and the concentrations decreased with depth, then increased at the bottom layer. The total Pu-239+240 inventory in the entire water column (depth interval 0

  15. Fetal doses from plutonium-239 and polonium-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 239Pu and 210Po from the maternal circulation to the developing embryo and fetus was studied in rodents. The highest concentrations of both isotopes were measured in the yolk sac. In utero doses to haemopoietic tissue have been calculated taking account of transfer to the blastocyst/egg cylinder, yolk sac, liver and bone marrow. From animal data, the concentration ratios relative to maternal liver for these tissues were taken to be 0.1, 2, 0.01 and o.02, respectively for 239Pu; and 1, 2, 0.1 and 0.1, respectively, for 210Po. These concentration ratios were applied to periods of human gestation of 0-2.5 weeks, 2.5-6 weeks, 6-12 weeks and 12-38 weeks, and used to calculate fetal tissue doses for chronic maternal intake by ingestion of 1 kBq 239Pu or 2 kBq 210Po in the year of pregnancy (1 ALI for a member of the public). On this basis, the total in utero dose to haemopoietic tissue was about 1 μSv from 239Pu and 60 μSv from 210Po compared with red bone marrow doses to the mother in the year of 19 μSv from 239Pu and 160 μSv from210Po. The yolk sac and bone marrow dominated in utero doses from both nuclides. For 239Pu, because of its long half life, an important consideration was activity present in the offspring at birth and committed dose equivalents to red bone marrow in the child and mother. The total dose to haemopoietic tissue in the offspring to age 70 years, including in utero doses, was calculated as 13 μSv compared with a maternal dose to red bone marrow of 1400 μSv. For both isotopes the risk of leukaemia in the year of pregnancy was estimated to be of the same order for mother and fetus. For 239Pu, the overall risk to 70 years of age was two orders of magnitude higher for the mother than her offspring. For 239Pu, an acute intake of 1 kBq by ingestion during the period of yolk sac haemopoiesis would result in the highest in utero dose, estimated at about 20 μSv. However, activity at birth would be lower and the overall risk would be

  16. Strain differences in the embryotoxicity of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of the embryolethality of monomeric 239Pu injected at 9 days of gestation demonstrated that the sensitivity of Charles River CD strain was greater than that of Hilltop Wistar rats. Subsequent comparisons showed that rats derived from the Hilltop Fischer strain were more sensitive than the Wistar and, although not directly compared, more sensitive than the CD

  17. Preliminary Study on the Determination of ~(235)U and ~(239)Pu Using Delayed Neutron Counting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary study on the fast measurements of 235U and 239Pu in samples containing 235U, 239Pu and 235U-239Pu mixture using delayed neutron counting method is introduced. All samples were irradiated for 30 s using the 30 kW Miniature Neutron

  18. Role of protracted exposure on the toxicology of inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were initiated to examine in rats the effects of a protracted exposure to inhaled 239PuO2. Graphs are presented to show effect of multiple exposures to 239PuO2 on the deposition and clearance of 239Pu in the alveoli

  19. 48 CFR 1352.239-72 - Security requirements for information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.239-72 Security requirements for information technology resources. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1339.270(b), insert the following clause: Security Requirements for Information Technology Resources... information technology resources. 1352.239-72 Section 1352.239-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  20. Metabolic pathways of 239Pu immediately after administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    239Pu chloride was given to male rats intravenously or by the oral route. The early stages of the Pu metabolism are characterized by a fast distribution in liver and skeleton and a high concentration in the intestine and the muscle tissue. The rate of elimination from the liver and muscles was the same for both types of application. With injection into different parts of the vascular system, the binding to protein and other tissue components was identical. 239Pu is practically not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract if given perorally. The absorbed fraction had an osteotropic character, i.e. the plutonium was bound to the organic as well as to the mineral fraction. When Pu chloride is injected intravenously, there is a slow redistribution from the characteristic hepatotropic to the osteotropic type. The function of the liver as a barrier against the plutonium is not very prominent and seems to depend on the type of compound given. (MG/AK)

  1. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifying effects of a pre-existing lung disease (emphysema) on the deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239PuO2 in the rat are being investigated. Preliminary observations indicated that the deposition and retention patterns for 239Pu particles inhaled by rats with emphysema and control rats were similar, but the distribution of inhaled 239Pu immediately after exposure was different. Respiratory function measured through one year after exposure to 239Pu was consistent with emphysema and was not altered by the 239Pu lung burden. Long-term observations are continuing. 4 references, 2 tables

  2. The risk of bone sarcoma from plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is postulated that the risk of bone sarcoma induction by 239Pu in humans can be quantitated from a consideration of the well-documented induction of bone sarcomas by sup(226,228)Ra. The basic assumption is that the risk of this malignancy is a function of the energy deposited by alpha particles in the layer of cells adjacent to bone surfaces. From calculations of the energy delivered to this cellular layer by bone-deposited 239Pu and 226Ra the ratio of the systemic intakes required to produce equal bone-cell doses is obtained. A dose-response relationship of the form I = βD2esup(-γD) was found to provide the best fit to the observed bone-sarcoma incidence for female radium dial workers, where I was the number of bone sarcomas per person x year of risk and D was the quantity of radium that entered the systemic circulation. It is proposed that such an expression, modified for the energy effectiveness of plutonium compared with radium, provides the best estimate of the risk of induction of bone sarcomas by 239Pu. The derived risk estimate is tested by comparing its predictions of bone sarcomas in two groups of people carrying known body burdens of plutonium. The predictions are not contradicted by the lack of any observed bone sarcomas in either the 27 workers exposed at Los Alamos during World War II, or in the 18 seriously ill cases injected with plutonium in 1945-47. Its form permits an immediate evaluation of the risk at any level of intake. (author)

  3. Disposition of plutonium-239 via production of fission molybdenum-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, A

    2011-04-01

    A heritage of physical consequences of the U.S.-Soviet arms race has accumulated, the weapons-grade plutonium (WPu), which will become excess as a result of the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons under the arms reduction agreements. Disposition of Pu has been proposed by mixing WPu with high-level radioactive waste with subsequent vitrification into large, highly radioactive glass logs or fabrication into mixed oxide fuel with subsequent irradiation in existing light water reactors. A potential option may be the production of medical isotope molybdenum-99 by using Pu-239 targets.

  4. Decommissioning of a 239Pu contaminated incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1978, a plutonium contaminated incinerator facility at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned. The project involved dismantling the facility and disposal by burial or by retrievable storage of the debri at an on-site waste disposal area. Contaminated soil from the 0.5 hectare area was buried. The facility was constructed in 1951 to incinerate plutonium contaminated wastes. It was later used as a decontamination facility. The major features included a 185 m2 control building, incinerator, cyclone dust collector, spray cooler, venturi scrubber, air filter bank, ash separator, and two 140,000 litres ash storage tanks. Preliminary soil contamination surveys were performed by a LASL developed portable phoswich detector system. Final soil contamination levels were measured with a zinc sulphide gross alpha scintillation system. Six hundred cubic metres of debris and 1200 m3 of soil contaminated with less than 10 nCi 239 Pu/g were buried at the LASL disposal area. Five cubic metres of 239 Pu contaminated ash residues were packed and stored to meet the Department of Energy's 20 year retrievable storage criteria. (author)

  5. Low level 239PuO2 life-span studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this projet is to determine the dose-response curve for lung-tumor incidence in rats following inhalation of 239PuO2 at levels producing a lifespan radiation dose of 2 to 100 rad. In preliminary studies, rats were intratracheally instilled with, or inhaled 169Yb-239PuO2 or 169Yb-Yb2O3 particles. Whole-body, excreta and tissue levels of 169Yb were determined by external gamma counting; 239Pu levels were determined radiochemically by scintillation counting. It was found that 169Yb dissociated from 239PuO2 and was cleared more rapidly from the lung and the whole body. Despite this fact, however, whole-body counts performed at 7 days after exposure to 169Yb-239PuO2 gave a reproducible measure of the 239Pu lung burden

  6. Vertical distributions of radionuclides ((239+240)Pu, (240)Pu/(239)Pu, and (137)Cs) in sediment cores of Lake Bosten in Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Haiqing; Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Wu, Fengchang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-01

    Artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu, (241)Am) deposited in lacustrine sediments have been used for dating as well as radionuclide source identification. In the present work, we investigated the vertical distributions of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities, (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in sediment cores collected from Lake Bosten, which is the lake closest to the Lop Nor Chinese Nuclear Weapon Test site in northwestern China. Uniformly high concentrations of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs were found in the upper layers deposited since 1964 in the sediment cores, and these were controlled by the resuspension of soil containing radionuclides from the nearby land surface. As the Chinese nuclear tests varied remarkably in yield, the mixing of the tropospheric deposition from these tests and the stratospheric deposition of global fallout has led to a (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio that is similar to that of global fallout and to a (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio that is slightly higher than that of global fallout. However, a low (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio of 0.080 and high (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio of 0.087, significantly different from the global fallout values, were observed in one sediment core (07BS10-2), indicating the inhomogenous tropospheric deposition from the Chinese nuclear tests in Lake Bosten during 1967-1973. These results are important to understand the influence of the CNTs on the radionuclide contamination in Lake Bosten.

  7. Random Probability Analysis of 48Ca +239Pu Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Abdullin, A. F. Sh.; Brewer, N. T.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeyko, M. V.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Voinov, A. A.; Vostokin, G. K.

    2014-09-01

    Element 114 (Fl), was discovered at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) using the 48Ca +244Pu reaction and the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS). The structural properties of the super heavy elements are still largely unknown. The extent of the region of enhanced stability near Z = 114 and N = 184 is not completely known. To examine these properties, a new experimental data set has been taken using the 48Ca +239Pu reaction at the DGFRS, in an effort to look for lighter isotopes of Fl. Progress on the production of lighter isotopes of Fl, cross-section measurements, and any nuclear decay properties will be discussed. Comparisons with reactions using heavier 242,244Pu targets and Monte Carlo random probability analysis will be highlighted. Element 114 (Fl), was discovered at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) using the 48Ca +244Pu reaction and the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS). The structural properties of the super heavy elements are still largely unknown. The extent of the region of enhanced stability near Z = 114 and N = 184 is not completely known. To examine these properties, a new experimental data set has been taken using the 48Ca +239Pu reaction at the DGFRS, in an effort to look for lighter isotopes of Fl. Progress on the production of lighter isotopes of Fl, cross-section measurements, and any nuclear decay properties will be discussed. Comparisons with reactions using heavier 242,244Pu targets and Monte Carlo random probability analysis will be highlighted. This work was performed under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and Grant DE-NA0002135.

  8. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  9. 48 CFR 252.239-7012 - Title to telecommunication facilities and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Title to telecommunication... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7012 Title to telecommunication facilities and equipment. As prescribed in 239.7411(b), use the following clause: Title to Telecommunication Facilities...

  10. 40 CFR 725.239 - Use of specific microorganisms in activities conducted outside a structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of specific microorganisms in activities conducted outside a structure. 725.239 Section 725.239 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Bradyrhizobium japonicum. (2) Modification of traits. (i) The introduced genetic material must meet the...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 239 - Schedule of Civil Penalties 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...,000 6,000 (ii) Emergency windows tested too infrequently 1,500 3,000 (b)(3) Failure to repair an... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Pt. 239, App. A Appendix A to... Requirements: 239.101(a) Failure of a railroad to adopt a written emergency preparedness plan $7,500 $11,000...

  12. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary emphysema on deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239PuO2 in the rat were investigated. The presence of emphysema in the rats tested was indicated by respiratory function measurements and confirmed microscopically. Initial lung burdens of 239Pu per kg body weight were less in rats with emphysema than in control rats; however, the retention of 239Pu was similar in emphysematous and control rats. Survival and lung tumor occurrence were similar in emphysematous and control rats exposed to 239PuO2. We concluded that rats with pre-existing pulmonary emphysema were not more sensitive to the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 than control rats. (author)

  13. Calculation of 239Pu neutron inelastic cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on 239Pu between 0.001 and 5 MeV, with particular emphasis on inelastic scattering. Coupled-channel and Hauser-Feshbach statistical models were used. Within the coupled-channel calculations we employed neutron optical parameters derived from simultaneous fits to total, elastic, inelastic, and resonance data. The resulting transmission coefficients were used in Hauser-Feshbach statistical calculations having a fission channel based on a double-humped barrier representation. Barrier parameters and transition state enhancements needed to reproduce well the (n,f) cross sections between 0.001 and 5 MeV were in general agreement with those from other published analyses. Calculated compound-nucleus and direct-reaction components for inelastic scattering were combined incoherently, and the resultant cross sections agreed well with the Bruyeres-le-Chatel measurements for scattering from levels occupying the ground state rotational band. Our results are in substantial disagreement with ENDF/B-V values for these levels. We are presently performing DWBA calculations to determine direct-reaction components for states occupying higher-lying vibrational bands

  14. Concentrations of sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am in drinking water and organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an investigation of the chemistry and aquatic distribution of fallout-derived sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am in the aquatic environment a study has been made of the concentration of these nuclides in the drinking water and organic fertilizer, distributed to the populace of the Chicago area. The results clearly indicate that the concentration of sup(239,240)Pu is always lower in the water which has been treated at the Chicago Central Water Filtration Plant than in the raw water before treatment. Raw water levels are consistent with normal levels of sup(239,240)PU found in Lake Michigan waters which are approx 6 orders of magnitude below the maximum permissible concentration standard for drinking water. An additional possible source of sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am to humans can be through the distribution of the organic fertilizer, 'Nu Earth', by the Metropolitan Sanitary District, free of charge, for the use in home gardens. 'Nu Earth' consists primarily of sediment from an Imhoff Process which has been air-dried and aged in large, open-air piles. Samples of this organic fertilizer were analysed for sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am. The results indicate that there is little evidence to indicate that sup(239,240)Pu in drinking water or sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am from organic sludge will be health hazards in the Chicago area under current conditions. (U.K.)

  15. A Method for Continuous (239)Pu Determinations in Arctic and Antarctic Ice Cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, M M; McConnell, J R; Chellman, N; Criscitiello, A S; Curran, M; Fritzsche, D; Kipfstuhl, S; Mulvaney, R; Nolan, M; Opel, T; Sigl, M; Steffensen, J P

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (NWT) resulted in the injection of plutonium (Pu) into the atmosphere and subsequent global deposition. We present a new method for continuous semiquantitative measurement of (239)Pu in ice cores, which was used to develop annual records of fallout from NWT in ten ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The (239)Pu was measured directly using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer, thereby reducing analysis time and increasing depth-resolution with respect to previous methods. To validate this method, we compared our one year averaged results to published (239)Pu records and other records of NWT. The (239)Pu profiles from the Arctic ice cores reflected global trends in NWT and were in agreement with discrete Pu profiles from lower latitude ice cores. The (239)Pu measurements in the Antarctic ice cores tracked low latitude NWT, consistent with previously published discrete records from Antarctica. Advantages of the continuous (239)Pu measurement method are (1) reduced sample preparation and analysis time; (2) no requirement for additional ice samples for NWT fallout determinations; (3) measurements are exactly coregistered with all other chemical, elemental, isotopic, and gas measurements from the continuous analytical system; and (4) the long half-life means the (239)Pu record is stable through time. PMID:27244483

  16. A Method for Continuous (239)Pu Determinations in Arctic and Antarctic Ice Cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, M M; McConnell, J R; Chellman, N; Criscitiello, A S; Curran, M; Fritzsche, D; Kipfstuhl, S; Mulvaney, R; Nolan, M; Opel, T; Sigl, M; Steffensen, J P

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (NWT) resulted in the injection of plutonium (Pu) into the atmosphere and subsequent global deposition. We present a new method for continuous semiquantitative measurement of (239)Pu in ice cores, which was used to develop annual records of fallout from NWT in ten ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The (239)Pu was measured directly using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer, thereby reducing analysis time and increasing depth-resolution with respect to previous methods. To validate this method, we compared our one year averaged results to published (239)Pu records and other records of NWT. The (239)Pu profiles from the Arctic ice cores reflected global trends in NWT and were in agreement with discrete Pu profiles from lower latitude ice cores. The (239)Pu measurements in the Antarctic ice cores tracked low latitude NWT, consistent with previously published discrete records from Antarctica. Advantages of the continuous (239)Pu measurement method are (1) reduced sample preparation and analysis time; (2) no requirement for additional ice samples for NWT fallout determinations; (3) measurements are exactly coregistered with all other chemical, elemental, isotopic, and gas measurements from the continuous analytical system; and (4) the long half-life means the (239)Pu record is stable through time.

  17. Observation of an isomeric level in 239U by means of the 238U(n,γ)239U reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy-capture gamma-ray spectra (238U up to a neutron energy of 350 eV. The data were obtained using a 25-cm3 Ge(Li) detector at the Harwell 45 MeV Electron Linac. Capture events were recorded as functions of gamma-ray energy and neutron time-of-flight, and by suitable analysis of the data time-of-flight spectra have been obtained for individual gamma-rays. The strongest low-energy gamma-ray, at 134 keV, depopulates a level in 239U at the same energy by an E2-transition to the ground state. The time-of-flight spectrum for this transition indicates that the 134-keV level is isomeric with a half-life of approximately 1 microsecond. This is evident from the long tails on the low-energy side of each resonance, which are not present for other regions of the gamma-ray spectrum. The possibility of using low-energy gamma-rays as a measure of the total capture cross-section is investigated by comparing the time-of-flight spectrum for the 134-keV transition with that for a Moxon-Rae detector under the same experimental conditions. (author)

  18. Worldwide data on fluxes of 239,240Pu, 238Pu to the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to measurements (GEOSECS) the world's oceans contain approximately 16 PBq 239,240Pu, of which one-fourth is in the Atlantic and three-fourths in the Pacific Ocean. The expected inventory (from nuclear weapons testing) in the world's oceans is 12 PBq 239,240Pu including local fallout at the test sites. In the Irish Sea a local contamination of 0.3 PBq 239,240Pu from the Sellafield reprocessing plant resides in the sediments. No other sources than fallout and reprocessing add significantly to the 239,240Pu inventories in the oceans. The discrepancy between measurements and expectations are assumed to be due to an underestimate of the rainfall and dry fallout (seaspray) and thus of the Pu-deposition over the oceans, but may also to some degree be due to inadequate sampling

  19. Search for the ''missing'' α-decay branch in 239Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for the α-decay of 239Cm was carried out via the fusion reaction 232Th(12C, 5n)239Cm at GSI, applying nuclear chemistry techniques. The 239Cm α-decay would provide a link between known nuclear masses and α-decay energies measured in the region of the superheavy elements. Three different 12C beam energies were chosen in the present experiments. The α peaks of 238,240Cm were observed clearly at a 12C energy of 74 MeV, while 238Cm disappeared at 70 MeV to provide an undisturbed α-spectrum for a sensitive search of 239Cm decay. No α-events between 6.34 and 6.50 MeV, which could be assigned to 239Cm with confidence, were observed in this experiment. The upper limit of the α-branch of 239Cm was less than 1.0 x 10-5. (orig.)

  20. Plutonium isotopes 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios in the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara I. Strumińska-Parulska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the results of plutonium findings in atmospheric fallout samples and marine samples from the southern Baltic Sea during our research in 1986-2007. The activities of 238Pu and 239+240Pu isotopes were measured with an alpha spectrometer. The activities of 241Pu were calculated indirectly by 241Am activity measurements 16-18 years after the Chernobyl accident. The 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. The 241Pu activities indicate that the main impact of the Chernobyl accident was on the plutonium concentration in the components of the Baltic Sea ecosystem examined in this work. The highest 241Pu/239+240Pu activity ratio was found in sea water (140 ± 33. The AMS measurements of atmospheric fallout samples collected during 1986 showed a significant increase in the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio from 0.29 ± 0.04 in March 1986 to 0.47 ± 0.02 in April 1986.

  1. Low-level inhaled-239PuO2 life-span studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study determined the dose-response curve for lung tumor incidence in rats after inhalation of high-fired 239PuO2, which gave radiation doses to the lung of from ∼5 to >1000 rads. Exposed rats were given a single, nose-only, inhalation exposure to 169Yb-239PuO2 aerosol (AMAD, 1.6 +- 0.11 μm). The effective half-time for 169Yb in the lung was 14 days, whereas ∼76% of 239Pu was cleared with a half-time of 20 days and 24%, with a half-time of 180 days. Whole-body counting for 169Yb at 14 days after exposure was an accurate method for determining 239Pu IAD in individual rats, even at IAD's as low as 0.60 nCi of 239Pu. The 239Pu lung-clearance curve and an equation describing changes in lung weight with body weight and age were used to determine lung radiation doses. The IAD's of exposure groups were 0.60 +- 0.15 nCi of 239Pu (1000 rats), 0.98 +- 0.25 (531 rats), 2.4 +- 0.69 (209 rats), 5.7 +- 1.2 (98 rats), and 7.5 +- 2.0 to 150 +- 37 nCi (300 rats); corresponding radiation doses to the lung estimated at 3 years after exposure were 8.3, 14, 33, 79, and 100 to 2100 rads, respectively. 71 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Migration Simulation of 239 Pu in Groundwater From Melt Glass%熔岩玻璃体239Pu在地下水中的迁移模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包敏; 王群书

    2014-01-01

    针对内华达核试验场CHESHIRE地下核试验状况和近场水文地质参数,建立了熔岩玻璃体239 Pu的溶解释放和迁移模型。估算了熔岩玻璃体释放产生239 Pu的速率,将释放出的239 Pu分为溶解态和胶体态,以软件FEFLOW作为建模工具,数值模拟了10万年内溶解态239 Pu和胶体态239 Pu在地下水中的污染羽分布。模拟结果表明,溶解态239 Pu不能发生远距离迁移,影响迁移的关键参数是分配系数,当分配系数大于10 mL/g后,可忽略溶解态239 Pu的远距离迁移;胶体态239 Pu在爆心下游形成较固定的污染晕,距爆心1.3 km处的胶体态239 Pu的模拟活度浓度长期处于10-2 Bq/L ;影响胶体态239 Pu迁移的主要因素包括熔岩玻璃体的溶解速度、熔岩玻璃体释放239 Pu形成胶体态239 Pu的比例、岩层渗透系数。由模拟结果可见,只有当239 Pu形成胶体粒子后才可能发生远距离迁移。%According to the circumstances of an underground nuclear test CHESHIRE at the Nevada Test Site ,a model was developed to simulate the dissolution and migration of 239 Pu from melt glass in groundwater .The release rate of 239 Pu was calculated and the released 239 Pu was divided into dissolved fraction and colloid fraction . The pollution plumes for dissolved 239 Pu and colloid 239 Pu were simulated in 100 000 years by software FEFLOW .The results show that the dissolved 239 Pu can’t migration far away from the melt glass and sorption coefficient is the key parameter .If sorption coefficient is more than 10 mL/g ,the long distance migration of dissolved 239 Pu can be ignored .The colloid 239 Pu plume will be long-standing in the downstream of the melt glass .The 239 Pu con-centration at 1.3 km away from the melt glass would be 10-2 Bq/L for a long time .The parameters effecting colloid 239 Pu migration are the melt glass release rate ,the colloid fraction ratio and aquifer conductivity .It can be concluded

  3. 熔岩玻璃体239Pu在地下水中的迁移模拟研究%Migration Simulation of 239 Pu in Groundwater From Melt Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包敏; 王群书

    2014-01-01

    According to the circumstances of an underground nuclear test CHESHIRE at the Nevada Test Site ,a model was developed to simulate the dissolution and migration of 239 Pu from melt glass in groundwater .The release rate of 239 Pu was calculated and the released 239 Pu was divided into dissolved fraction and colloid fraction . The pollution plumes for dissolved 239 Pu and colloid 239 Pu were simulated in 100 000 years by software FEFLOW .The results show that the dissolved 239 Pu can’t migration far away from the melt glass and sorption coefficient is the key parameter .If sorption coefficient is more than 10 mL/g ,the long distance migration of dissolved 239 Pu can be ignored .The colloid 239 Pu plume will be long-standing in the downstream of the melt glass .The 239 Pu con-centration at 1.3 km away from the melt glass would be 10-2 Bq/L for a long time .The parameters effecting colloid 239 Pu migration are the melt glass release rate ,the colloid fraction ratio and aquifer conductivity .It can be concluded that only colloid 239 Pu can migrate far away from the melt glass .%针对内华达核试验场CHESHIRE地下核试验状况和近场水文地质参数,建立了熔岩玻璃体239 Pu的溶解释放和迁移模型。估算了熔岩玻璃体释放产生239 Pu的速率,将释放出的239 Pu分为溶解态和胶体态,以软件FEFLOW作为建模工具,数值模拟了10万年内溶解态239 Pu和胶体态239 Pu在地下水中的污染羽分布。模拟结果表明,溶解态239 Pu不能发生远距离迁移,影响迁移的关键参数是分配系数,当分配系数大于10 mL/g后,可忽略溶解态239 Pu的远距离迁移;胶体态239 Pu在爆心下游形成较固定的污染晕,距爆心1.3 km处的胶体态239 Pu的模拟活度浓度长期处于10-2 Bq/L ;影响胶体态239 Pu迁移的主要因素包括熔岩玻璃体的溶解速度、熔岩玻璃体释放239 Pu形成胶体态239 Pu的比例、岩层渗透系数。由

  4. Migration of 239Pu in soluble and insoluble forms in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment study was performed at the rural site of South-East Lithuania. The main tasks of the study included an evaluation of the peculiarities of partition of 239Pu in soluble (239Pu(NO3)4, 239PuCl3) and insoluble (239PuO2) forms in soddy and forest soil horizons. The results of durable experiments (418 and 326 days) have shown that from 44.1% to 92.2% of 239Pu of investigated chemical forms were accumulated in the top (0-5 cm) soil layer. Some share (5.7-39.2%) of plutonium from studied chemical forms was found in the 5-20 cm layers of studied soil samples (columns). Obtained distribution of plutonium in soil layers may be attributed to the consideration that the migration rate to the soil depth for plutonium is 0.1-1.0 cm x y-1 but for some part of plutonium 10 times higher migration rate is characteristic as well. Plutonium transfer factor (TF) to the grassland plants was calculated, the values ranged from 10-2 to 10-1. (author)

  5. A comparison of fallout (236)U and (239)Pu uptake by Australian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Dietze, M M A; Tims, S G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U and (239)Pu, both produced during nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950s and 1960s, are present in the environment and may be used as tracers for soil erosion studies. Although these radionuclides occur only at ultra-trace levels in nature, they can be readily measured by accelerator mass spectrometry with the 14UD heavy ion accelerator at the Australian National University. We have analysed a series of vegetation samples for their (236)U and (239)Pu concentration and compared the results with those found in the surrounding soil. (236)U could be measured in all collected samples whereas (239)Pu could not be detected in several vegetation samples due to its very low concentration, although it was readily detectable in the soil. We find that, relative to plutonium, (236)U is preferentially taken up by plants with enrichment factors ((236)U/(239)Pu)veg/((236)U/(239)Pu)soil that range between 7 and 52 in the present study. PMID:26141188

  6. Extension of 239+240Pu sediment geochronology to coarse-grained marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven A.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Sediment geochronology of coastal sedimentary environments dominated by sand has been extremely limited because concentrations of natural and bomb-fallout radionuclides are often below the limit of measurement using standard techniques. ICP-MS analyses of 239+240Pu from two sites representative of traditionally challenging (i.e., low concentration) environments provide a "proof of concept" and demonstrate a new application for bomb-fallout radiotracers in the study of sandy shelf-seabed dynamics. A kasten core from the New Zealand shelf in the Southern Hemisphere (low fallout), and a vibracore from the sandy nearshore of North Carolina (low particle surface area) both reveal measurable 239+240Pu activities at depth. In the case of the New Zealand site, independently verified steady-state sedimentation results in a 239+240Pu profile that mimics the expected atmospheric fallout. The depth profile of 239+240Pu in the North Carolina core is more uniform, indicating significant sediment resuspension, which would be expected in this energetic nearshore environment. This study, for the first time, demonstrates the utility of 239+240Pu in the study of sandy environments, significantly extending the application of bomb-fallout isotopes to coarse-grained sediments, which compose the majority of nearshore regions.

  7. Comparison and modification of Pu-239 kinetics in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is obvious that the biokinetics of bone-seeking radionuclides are influenced by skeletal growth and remodelling, the rate of which in general decreases with increasing age. For plutonium, Mahlum and Sikov (1974) observed that rats injected with Pu-239 as weanlings retained a lower percentage in the liver and more in the bones than the animals injected as adults. However, skeletal Pu-239 was diluted more rapidly in the young rats because of intensive new bone formation and this led to a more pronounced reduction in the accumulation of radiation dose than was the case in adult animals. The aim of the present experiments was to study: a) The age effect on Pu-239 biokinetics in adult rates as influenced by the sex of the animals. b) Early retention and distribution of Pu-239 in the bones of young and adult rats injected with an optimal osteosarcomogenic dose. c) The effectiveness of a delayed prolonged administration of Zn-DTPA in drinking water for the mobilization of injected Pu-239 in rats of various age. 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  8. Establishment of AIDS Animal Model with SIVmac239 Infected Chinese Rhesus Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the present research, two Chinese rhesus monkeys were inoculated intravenously with 5000 TCID50 of SIVmac239. The changes in the numbers of CD4+T lymphocyte in peripheral blood,plasma viral loads, proviral DNA and humoral antibodies against virus were periodically monitored during 121 days. At the early stage of infection, proviral DNA had been detected in PBMCs, and infectious SIVmac239 virus had been isolated from PBMCs. At the same period, the numbers of CD4+T lymphocytes were significantly decreased, and maintained at low level during the 121-day period of infection. Plasma viral loads reached the peak at week 2 post-inoculation and kept at a steady state subsequently. Moreover, antibodies against viral proteins were detected from plasma. All the results showed that the two Chinese rhesus monkeys had been infected with SIVmac239 successfully. This animal model can be applied for further AIDS researches.

  9. Biochemical effects of inhaled 239PuO2 on lung lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experiments carried out to assess the effect of 239Pu α irradiation on lung lipid biosynthesis and to determine the lungs ability to incorporate palmitate into lavage lecithin and its turnover are reported. The experiments were carried out on rats which had inhaled 239PuO2 particles. The study of palmitate incorporation into lipids shows conclusively that for medium (23 to 42 nCi) or high (more than 100 nCi) lung depositions the incorporation by isolated mitochondria is significantly (P 239PuO2 were positive, with respect to controls in 8 of 10 instances, when measured following the label of palmitate in lung lavage lecithin. The interpretation of the significant result (P < 0.05) is that: (1) initial and/or final lecithin pool sizes were different, (2) transfer rates were affected between blood and lung, or (3) rates of degradation of lung lavage lecithin were affected. (U.K.)

  10. Pulmonary immune response of dogs after exposure to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the cell-mediated (CMI) and humoral immune responses in four Beagle dogs five to six years after single inhalation exposures to different monodisperse 239PuO2 aerosols (0.72-1.4μm activity median aerodynamic diameter). These exposures resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 19 to 35kBq. The immune responses induced by lung immunization of dogs that had inhaled 239PuO2 were not suppressed by large doses of chronic alpha irradiation of the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, indicating that local pulmonary immune responses are preserved despite severe radiation-induced alteration of these tissues. (author)

  11. Effects of 239Pu administered at 9 days of gestation on hematologic development of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection of pregnant rats with monomeric 239Pu after 9 days of gestation decreased their leukocyte and reticulocyte counts at 5 and 10 days postexposure. Most of the fetal hematologic enumerative values were unaffected by injection of monomeric 239Pu. There was, however, a major change in the maturation of the cells of the erythroid series, as indicated by a difference in the distribution between cell types. The weight of the yolk sac and fetal liver, and the cellularity of the fetal spleen were decreased

  12. Response of CR-39 plastic track detector to 239Pu and 252Cf sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CR-39 plastic track detectors have been irradiated with 239Pu and 252Cf sources separately at nuclear physics laboratory B.H.U., Varanasi to investigate track recording properties of detector material. All detectors etched in 6.25N NaOH solution at different temperatures for different hours. The bulk and track etch rates are calculated for both detectors (irradiated by 239Pu and 252Cf sources separately). The diameter and sensitivity along the trajectory of the track have been determined at different temperatures. (author)

  13. Effect of inhaled 239PuO2 on alveolar Type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological changes of rat alveolar type II (AT-II) cells were studied at 8 and 10 months following inhalation of 239PuO2 to elucidate the biological role of AT-II cells in the induction of lung tumours. TEM micrographs of random sections of lung were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using an automatic image analyser. Eighteen morphometric parameters were obtained according to stereological principles. The results showed that, following the inhalation of 239PuO2, AT-II cells became less differentiated and the metabolism of the pulmonary surfactant in AT-II cells was disturbed. (author)

  14. Effect of inhaled 239PuO2 on alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological changes of rat alveolar type II (AT-II) cells were studied at 8 and 10 months following inhalation of 239PuO2 to elucidate the biological role of At-II cells in the induction of lung tumours. TEM micrographs of random sections of lung were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using an automatic image analyser. Eighteen morphometric parameters were obtained according to stereo logical principles. The results showed that, following the inhalation of 239PuO2, AT-II cells became less differentiated and the metabolism of the pulmonary surfactant in AT-II cells was disturbed

  15. 17 CFR 239.17a - Form N-3, registration statement for separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as management investment companies. 239.17a Section 239.17a... accounts organized as management investment companies. Form N-3 shall be used for registration under the... register under the Investment Company Act of 1940 as management investment companies, and certain...

  16. Potential of Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash for phytoremediation of plutonium ((239)Pu): Chelate assisted uptake and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D P; Kaushik, C P

    2016-10-01

    Plants have demonstrated a great potential to remove toxic elements from soils and solutions and been successfully used for phytoremediation of important radionuclides. Uptake potential of vetiver plants (V. zizanoides) for the remediation of (239)Pu in hydroponic and soil conditions was studied in the present work. High efficiency of V. zizanoides for the removal of (239)Pu was recorded with 66.2% being removed from the hydroponic solution after 30 days. However, remediation of (239)Pu from soil was limited. Remediation of (239)Pu from soil was increased with the addition of chelating agents citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Accumulation of (239)Pu was recorded higher in roots than shoots, however its translocation from roots to shoots increased in the presence of chelators in hydroponic as well as soil conditions. DTPA was found more effective than CA showing higher translocation index (TI). Increase in TI was observed 8 and 6 times in the solution and soil respectively when plants were exposed to (239)Pu-DTPA in comparison to only (239)Pu. The present study demonstrates that V. zizanoides plant is a potential plant for phytoremediation of (239)Pu. PMID:27318195

  17. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer...

  18. Potential of Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash for phytoremediation of plutonium ((239)Pu): Chelate assisted uptake and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D P; Kaushik, C P

    2016-10-01

    Plants have demonstrated a great potential to remove toxic elements from soils and solutions and been successfully used for phytoremediation of important radionuclides. Uptake potential of vetiver plants (V. zizanoides) for the remediation of (239)Pu in hydroponic and soil conditions was studied in the present work. High efficiency of V. zizanoides for the removal of (239)Pu was recorded with 66.2% being removed from the hydroponic solution after 30 days. However, remediation of (239)Pu from soil was limited. Remediation of (239)Pu from soil was increased with the addition of chelating agents citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Accumulation of (239)Pu was recorded higher in roots than shoots, however its translocation from roots to shoots increased in the presence of chelators in hydroponic as well as soil conditions. DTPA was found more effective than CA showing higher translocation index (TI). Increase in TI was observed 8 and 6 times in the solution and soil respectively when plants were exposed to (239)Pu-DTPA in comparison to only (239)Pu. The present study demonstrates that V. zizanoides plant is a potential plant for phytoremediation of (239)Pu.

  19. Phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism in the facultative methylotroph Nocardia sp. 239

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L. de; Harder, W.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1988-01-01

    Nocardia sp. 239 is able to use L-tyrosine and both D- and L-phenylalanine as carbon-, energy- and nitrogen sources for growth. The catabolism of these compounds is by way of (4-hydroxy)phenylpyruvate and (4-hydroxy)phenylacetate as intermediates and the pathways merge at the level of homogentisate.

  20. Regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph Nocardia sp. 239

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L. de; Vrijbloed, J.W.; Grobben, G.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Nocardia sp. 239 was studied. In cell-free extracts 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase activity was inhibited in a cumulative manner by tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Chorismate mutase was inhibited by both phenyl

  1. Presence of plutonium isotopes, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, in soils from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M., E-mail: manugar@us.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes sn, 41012 Seville (Spain); Peruchena, J.I., E-mail: jiperuchena@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Cereceda, F., E-mail: francisco.cereceda@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Vidal, V., E-mail: victor.vidal@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Pinilla, E., E-mail: epinilla@unex.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas sn, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Miro, C., E-mail: cmiro@unex.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad sn, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20-40 Degree-Sign Southern latitude range, with {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30-53 Degree-Sign S latitude range (0.185 {+-} 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The {sup 239+240}Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  2. R-matrix analysis of the 239Pu cross sections up to 1 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are reported of an R-matrix resonance analysis of the 239Pu neutron cross sections up to 1 keV. After a description of the method of analysis the nearly 1600 resonance parameters obtained are listed and extensive graphical and numerical comparisons between calculated and measured cross-section and transmission date are presented. 47 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs

  3. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  4. 48 CFR 252.239-7016 - Telecommunications security equipment, devices, techniques, and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telecommunications... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7016 Telecommunications... clause: Telecommunications Security Equipment, Devices, Techniques, and Services (DEC 1991)...

  5. Yield-Energy Evaluation of 85Kr of 239Pu+n Fission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The yields of 85Kr, the important production of the 239Pu fission, were re-evaluated over the incident neutron energy 1-15 MeV, based upon all the experimental data. The yields as function of energ

  6. 48 CFR 352.239-73 - Electronic information and technology accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 352.239-73 Electronic information and technology accessibility. (a) As prescribed in 339.201-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following provision: Electronic and Information Technology... Board Electronic and Information (EIT) Accessibility Standards (36 CFR Part 1194), require that,...

  7. Influence of thermal and resonance neutron on fast neutron flux measurement by Pu-239 fission chamber

    CERN Document Server

    zeng, Lina; Song, Lingli; Zheng, Chun

    2014-01-01

    The Pu-239 fission chambers are widely used to measure fission spectrum neutron flux due to a flat response to fast neutrons. However, in the mean time the resonance and thermal neutrons can cause a significant influence on the measurement if they are moderated, which could be eliminated by using B and Cd covers. At a column enriched uranium fast neutron critical assembly, the fission reaction rates of Pu-239 are measured as 1.791*10-16,2.350*10-16 and 1.385*10-15 per second for 15mm thick B cover, 0.5mm thick Cd cover, and no cover respectively. While the fission reaction rate of Pu-239 is rapidly increased to 2.569*10-14 for a 20mm thick polythene covering fission chamber. The average Pu-239 fission cross-section of thermal and resonance neutrons is calculated to be 500b and 24.95b with the assumption of 1/v and 1/E spectra respectively, then thermal, resonance and fast neutron flux are achieved to be 2.30*106,2.24*106 and 1.04*108cm-2s-1.

  8. 48 CFR 652.239-70 - Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information Technology... Clauses 652.239-70 Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation. As prescribed in 639.107-70(a), insert the following provision: Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation (SEP 2007)...

  9. 48 CFR 1252.239-71 - Information technology security plan and accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.239-71 Information technology security plan and accreditation. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1239.70, insert the following provision: Information Technology Security Plan and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information...

  10. Modifying effects of pre-existing fibrosis in rats exposed to aerosols of 239PuO2. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have initiated a study using rats to determine the modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis on the retention and biological effects of inhaled 239PuO2. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of 8.5 IU/kg body weight of bleomycin at 45 to 49 days before inhalation exposure to an aerosol of 239PuO2. The clearance of 239Pu from the lungs of rats was decreased significantly (p 239Pu, apparently by entrapping the particles in fibrotic areas of the lung. The life span of the rats with pulmonary fibrosis was decreased by up to 25% compared with control rats having similar initial lung burdens of 239Pu. (author)

  11. 239+240pn as a dating marker in lake sediments: An example from Lake Chenghai, China%239+240Pu作为湖泊沉积物计年时标:以云南程海为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万国江; 吴丰昌; J Zheng; 万恩源; 廖海清; Y Masatoshi; 王长生

    2011-01-01

    137 CS time mark combined with210Pb dating has been widely applied to recent sedimentation. The 137Cs specific activity is, however, hard to detect after decay for two half-lifes. Due to its comparatively long - term half - life, plutonium from global fallout is expected to provide a dating mark for sedimentation. In the present work, we discuss the vertical distribution of 239 + 240Pu and 137 Cs specific activities, and the 240 pu/239 Pu atom ratio in a sediment core of Lake Chenghai. The distribution pattern of 239 +240pu was similar to those of 137Cs specific activities( decay corrected to deposition time)in the sediment core, and also corresponded well with the annual deposition of 137Cs in the northern hemisphere. These results demonstrate that the 239 +240pu specific activity is available to construct recent chronology for lacustrine sediment. In the examined sediment core, the values of 0. 016 for average 239 +24Opu/137Cs activity ratio and 0.012 for ∑239+240Pu/∑ 137Cs, are close to that of global fallout. The vertical variation of 239+240Pu/137Cs activity ratio indicated that the postdepositional transport of plutonium is much less than radiocesium. The average 240Pu/239 Pu atom ratio is 0. 195 ±0. 021, which means plutonium in Lake Chenghai originated from global fallout. The abnormal distribution of 239+240Pu and 137Cs at 8 cm in the sediment core may be explained by the influence of Chernobyl-source radionuclides.%在近代沉积作用领域137Cs时标与210Pb计年结合,获得了广泛而有效的应用.然而,137Cs经过两个半衰期的衰变已难于辩识.环境中的Pu核素具有相对较长的半衰期,也随全球大气扩散而散落于地球表面,可望作为沉积计年的时间标志.通过程海沉积物柱芯中239+240Pu比活度、240Pu/239Pu原子比率及校正到沉积年代的137Cs比活度的对比研究表明:二者比活度的垂直剖面基本相似、239+240pu比活度与北半球137Cs逐年沉降量之间也具有很

  12. Characterization of a neutron source of {sup 239}PuBe; Caracterizacion de una fuente de neutrones de {sup 239}PuBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez V, R.; Chacon R, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Mercado, G. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Direccion General de Innovacion y Tecnologia de Informacion, Av. Heroes de Nacozari Sur 2301, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, 20276 Aguascalientes (Mexico)], e-mail: ruben_zac@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    The spectrum equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose f a {sup 239}PuBe source have been determined. The appropriate handling of a neutron source depends on the knowledge of its characteristics, such as its energy distribution, total rate of flowing and dosimetric magnitudes. In many facilities have not spectrometer that allows to determine the spectrum and then area monitors are used that give a dosimetric magnitude starting from measuring the flowing rate and the use of conversion factors, however this procedure has many limitations and it is preferable to measure the spectra and starting from this information the interest dosimetric magnitudes are calculated. In this work a Bonner sphere spectrometer has been used with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator obtaining the count rates that produce, to a distance of 100 cm, a {sup 239}PuBe source of 1.85E(11) Bq. The spectrum was reconstructed starting from the count rates using BUNKIUT code and response matrix UTA4. With the spectrum information was calculated the source intensity, total flow, energy average, equivalent dose rate, environmental equivalent dose rate, equivalent dose coefficient and environmental equivalent dose coefficient. By means of two area monitors for neutrons, Eberline ASP-1 and LB 6411 of Berthold the equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose were measured. The determinate values were compared with those reported in literature and it found that are coincident inside 17%. (Author)

  13. Evaluation both level and 239+240Pu spatial contamination of the Lira object and the neighbouring areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work the generalization of considerable data collection for revealing of 239+240Pu content range discriminative for Lira object and neighbouring areas is carried out. 239+240Pu mean specific activity in the soil cover surface and in the Berezovka River bottom sedimentations are determined. The correlation dependence between 239+240Pu artificial radionuclides and 137Cs is revealed. The general source of artificial radionuclide origination for examined isotopes is shown up, and it is related with global radioactive fallout

  14. Early effects of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (4 of 5) at the highest dosage level, 14 to 25 mo postexposure. There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported

  15. Prompt γ-ray production in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Hayes, A. C.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Gostic, J.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Background: The prompt gamma-ray spectrum from fission is important for understanding the physics of nuclear fission, and also in applications involving fission. Relatively few measurements of the prompt gamma spectrum from 239Pu(n,f) have been published.Purpose: This experiment measured the multiplicity, individual gamma energy spectrum, and total gamma energy spectrum of prompt fission gamma rays from 239Pu(n,f) in the neutron energy range from thermal to 30 keV, to test models of fission and to provide information for applications.Method: Gamma rays from neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE gamma-ray calorimeter. Fission events were tagged by detecting fission products in a parallel-plate avalanche counter in the center of DANCE. The measurements were corrected for detector response using a geant4 model of DANCE. A detailed analysis for the gamma rays from the 1+ resonance complex at 10.93 eV is presented.Results: A six-parameter analytical parametrization of the fission gamma-ray spectrum was obtained. A Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach calculation provided good general agreement with the data, but some differences remain to be resolved.Conclusions: An analytic parametrization can be made of the gamma-ray multiplicity, energy distribution, and total-energy distribution for the prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. This parametrization may be useful for applications. Modern Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach calculations can do a good job of calculating the fission gamma-ray emission spectrum, although some details remain to be understood.

  16. Regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph Nocardia sp. 239

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, L; Vrijbloed, J W; Grobben, G.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Nocardia sp. 239 was studied. In cell-free extracts 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase activity was inhibited in a cumulative manner by tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Chorismate mutase was inhibited by both phenylalanine and tyrosine, whereas prephenate dehydratase was very sensitive to inhibition by phenylalanine. Tyrosine was a strong activator of the latter enzyme, whereas anthranilate synthase was inhib...

  17. Phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism in the facultative methylotroph Nocardia sp. 239

    OpenAIRE

    De Boer, L.; Harder, W; Dijkhuizen, L

    1988-01-01

    Nocardia sp. 239 is able to use L-tyrosine and both D- and L-phenylalanine as carbon-, energy- and nitrogen sources for growth. The catabolism of these compounds is by way of (4-hydroxy)phenylpyruvate and (4-hydroxy)phenylacetate as intermediates and the pathways merge at the level of homogentisate. The conversion of the amino acids into (4-hydroxy)phenylpyruvate is catalyzed by an inducible NAD-dependent phenylalanine dehydrogenase and L-tyrosine aminotransferase, respectively. Incubation of...

  18. Dosimetry of inhaled plutonium-239 dioxide in rodent lung: a morphometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, K.

    1979-06-01

    Morphometric analysis of rat and hamster lung did not demonstrate any extensive changes in lung composition or structure following inhalation exposure to /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ at levels near that for maximum tumor yield in rats. The problem of dosimetry for this compound thus appears to be relatively uncomplicated by any major radiation-induced pathological alterations in the lung. Rat and hamster lung were found to be similar in structure and composition, with few significant differences which could be directly related to the different tumor responses. The distribution of /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ particles was not uniform in all regions of the lung; thus estimation of the dose to specific tissues or regions within the lung requires a correction for this effect. Species differences were found for particle distribution in the subpleural region and major airways, and in the spatial association of particles, both of which may affect the tumor development process. These regions contain the principal target cells for tumor production and serve as foci for the origin of tumors. Different dose distributions within these regions may therefore explain, at least in part, the difference in tumor response to inhaled /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ for rats and hamsters.

  19. Background distributions of 239+240Pu and 137Cs of upland soil in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background distributions of Pu and 137Cs in soil were investigated in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, where the first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is now being constructed. Soil core samples to 1 m depth were collected at 13 upland fields in Rokkasho and control sites in Hachinohe and Hirosaki. Since fields under yam (Dioscorea babatus) cultivation, which is a common crop in Rokkasho, were dug to approximately 1 m depth at harvesting, depth profiles of fallout radionuclides are heavily disturbed for most fields in Rokkasho. The mean inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs in three fields with no yam cultivation history were 116 Bq m-2 and 3.4 kBq m-2, respectively and similar to values in Hachinohe. However, the inventories were approximately a half of those in Hirosaki. The mean ratio of 239Pu/240Pu for all studied fields was 0.18±0.04, and similar to that of global fallout. The Pu concentrations correlate very well with 137Cs (r=0.97) in spite of heavy disturbance of soil, and the ratio of 239+240Pu/137Cs was 0.037±0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. (author)

  20. Dosimetry of inhaled plutonium-239 dioxide in rodent lung: a morphometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphometric analysis of rat and hamster lung did not demonstrate any extensive changes in lung composition or structure following inhalation exposure to 239Pu02 at levels near that for maximum tumor yield in rats. The problem of dosimetry for this compound thus appears to be relatively uncomplicated by any major radiation-induced pathological alterations in the lung. Rat and hamster lung were found to be similar in structure and composition, with few significant differences which could be directly related to the different tumor responses. The distribution of 239Pu02 particles was not uniform in all regions of the lung; thus estimation of the dose to specific tissues or regions within the lung requires a correction for this effect. Species differences were found for particle distribution in the subpleural region and major airways, and in the spatial association of particles, both of which may affect the tumor development process. These regions contain the principal target cells for tumor production and serve as foci for the origin of tumors. Different dose distributions within these regions may therefore explain, at least in part, the difference in tumor response to inhaled 239Pu02 for rats and hamsters

  1. Clinical features of 239 cases of pituitary adenomas%垂体肿瘤239例临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 卓雅芬; 姚瑾; 梁继兴; 黄惠彬; 李连涛; 林丽香

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study clinical feature and therapeutic choice of pituitary adenomas. Methods The clinical data of 239 cases of pituitary adenomas were analyzed. Results Total 93 male and 146 female cases were recruited. The average age was (43.8 ± 14.9 ) years old (3.9-77 years). Prolactinomas were the most common pituitary adenomas (26.8%) , 179 patients (74.9%) underwent surgery, of which 108 (60.3%) with transsphenoidal approach and 71 (39.7%) transcranial approach. The other 60 cases were treated nonsurgically. Conclusions Pituitary adenomas may present hormonal abnormalities or neurological symptoms.Some adenomas were accidently detected by MRI. Prolactinomas were the most common pituitary adenomas.%目的 探讨垂体瘤的临床特征及治疗方案.方法 回顾性分析福建省立医院自1994年1月至2007年6月间收住的239例垂体瘤患者的临床资料.结果 239例垂体腺瘤中,男性93例(38.9%),女性146例(61.1%).诊断时的平均年龄为(43.8±14.9)岁(范围为3.9~77岁).依据临床表现、影像学及内分泌检查、免疫组织化学染色所示,催乳素瘤为最常见的肿瘤(26.8%).手术治疗179例(74.9%),其中经蝶入路108例(60.3%),经额入路71例(39.7%),非手术治疗及随访者60例(25.1%).结论 垂体瘤可表现为内分泌异常、神经系统症状或其他原因行MRI意外发现;催乳素瘤为最常见的肿瘤.

  2. Investigations of the chemical forms of 239Pu and 241Am in estuarine sediments and a salt marsh soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estuarine sediments and a salt marsh soil have been fractionated by non-destructive procedures. The distribution of 239Pu and 241Am in these fractions has been determined by gel permeation chromatography and extraction with complexing agents. (author)

  3. Studies of the Pu-239/240 content in tissues from non-occupationally exposed individuals. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental levels of alpha-emitting actinides, specifically plutonium 239, 240 have been determined in tissues from non-occupationally exposed individuals of different ages, sexes and geographical areas and the results compared with those from other laboratories

  4. SKIN DOSIMETRY IN CONDITIONS OF ITS CONSTANT SURFACE CONTAMINATION WITH SOLUTIONS OF PLUTONIUM-239 AND AMERICIUM-241

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Ershov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, on the basis of experimental data, the issue of assessing dose burdens to the skin basal layer in conditions of its permanent contamination with solutions of plutonium-239 and americium-241 and subsequent decontamination.

  5. Group cross-sections and resonance self-shielding factors for 239Pu in the unresolved resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyse experimental data on the transmission and fission self-indication functions for 239Pu in the unresolved resonance region. Use is made of the method of generating a cross-section structure based on the multi-level R-matrix formalism (stochastic K-matrix method). Evaluations of the average resonance parameters and group constants for 239Pu are made. (author)

  6. Neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential-neutron-emission cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu are measured between approx. = 1.0 and 3.5 MeV with the angle and magnitude detail needed to provide angle-integrated emission cross sections to approx. 232Th, 233U, 235U and 238U inelastic-scattering values, poor agreement is observed for 240Pu, and a serious discrepancy exists in the case of 239Pu

  7. 血流感染MRSA中的ST239克隆株快速检测与分析%Application of rapid detection of MRSA ST239 clones in bloodstream infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚杰; 杨凯; 刘周; 陈礼文; 周强; 管世鹤

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价多重PCR法对耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA) ST239克隆株的快速检测及合肥地区血流感染MRSA的分子流行现状.方法 收集2008年至2013年安徽医科大学第一附属医院及第二附属医院临床分离的血流感染金黄色葡萄球菌的106株MRSA进行相关耐药性分析,并采用多重PCR技术对ST239型克隆株进行快速检测,同时运用多位点序列分型(MLST)加以确认及葡萄球菌染色体mec基因盒(SCCmec)分型分析.结果 106株血流感染金黄色葡萄球菌中MRSA有51株,占48.1%,MRSA均为多耐药菌,对红霉素、氨基糖苷类和喹诺酮类耐药率明显高于甲氧西林敏感金黄色葡萄球菌(MSSA),MRSA和MSSA对磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶的敏感率分别为86.3%和 94.5%;51株MRSA中有47株为ST239快速检测阳性,阳性率高达92.2%;随机选取20株ST239初筛阳性的MRSA经MLST验证和SCCmec分型后确认为MRSA-ST239-SCCmecⅢ型.结论 合肥地区血流感染MRSA近半数为多重耐药克隆MRSA-ST239-SCCmecⅢ型,运用多重PCR技术能够快速检测ST239克隆株.%Objective To evaluation the method of rapid detection of Methicillin-resistant Stphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST239 clones with multiplex PCR assay and investigation of the epidemic status of MRSA blood stream infections in Hefei area.Methods Antibiotic susceptibility testing were applied to MRSA isolates from bloodstream infection,rapid screening and confirmation of MRSA ST239 clones by using multiplex PCR,Multilocus Sequence typing (MLST) and Staphyloccoccal Cassette Chromosome mec(SCCmec) typing.Results 51 of 106 clinic isolates Staphylococcus aureus were identified as MRSA,accounting for 48.1%.The resistance rate of MRSA to erythromycin,aminoglycosides and quinolone were significantly higher than Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).Both MRSA and MSSA had a high sensitivity to cotrimoxazole,the sensivity rates were 86.3% and 94.5%,respectively; 47 of 51

  8. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of (239+240)Pu as soil erosion tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael; Park, Ji-Hyung; Sandor, Tarjan; Porto, Paolo; Alewell, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as (137)Cs and (210)Pbex. As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (>25tha(-1)yr(-1)). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of (239+240)Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of (137)Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of (137)Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of (239+240)Pu through less preferential transport compared to (137)Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, (239+240)Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the soil and lateral transport during water erosion was shown to differ from that of (137)Cs, there is a clear

  9. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of (239+240)Pu as soil erosion tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael; Park, Ji-Hyung; Sandor, Tarjan; Porto, Paolo; Alewell, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as (137)Cs and (210)Pbex. As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (>25tha(-1)yr(-1)). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of (239+240)Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of (137)Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of (137)Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of (239+240)Pu through less preferential transport compared to (137)Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, (239+240)Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the soil and lateral transport during water erosion was shown to differ from that of (137)Cs, there is a clear

  10. Staphylococcal Protein A Promotes Colonization and Immune Evasion of the Epidemic Healthcare-Associated MRSA ST239

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xufen; Qin, Juanxiu; Li, Tianming; Dai, Yingxin; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Qian; He, Lei; Lu, Huiying; Gao, Qianqian; Lin, Yong; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    The highly successful epidemic of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) ST239 is a growing concern worldwide, due to its progressive adaptation to the highly selective environment of the healthcare system. HA-MRSA ST239 display the reduced virulence and successfully colonize in hospital settings, while the emergent community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) maintain full virulence and cause infections in the community environment. Our aim was to investigate what enables S. aureus ST239 to be highly adaptive under hospital circumstances and gradually progress to a series of widespread invasive infections. We found that spa expression of HA-MRSA ST239 is much higher than that of CA-SA ST398. And we discovered that the highly production of staphylococcal protein A (SpA), having no concern with spa gene structure, enhances nasal colonization and cell adhesion in ST239. S. aureus ST239 defends against the adaptive immune response by resisting phagocytosis and inducing apoptosis of B cells through expression of surface-anchored and released protein A, facilitating its dissemination within the circulatory system to other organs. Protein A also plays another key role in subverting the host immune response through its ability to induce early shedding of TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) from phagocytic cells. The increased levels of soluble TNFR1 present during experimental S. aureus ST239 infection may neutralize circulating TNF-α and impair the host inflammatory response. Protein A is also a virulence factor, as tested in our bacteremia model in mice, contributing to the durative tissue damage of abscess formation sites in ST239 infection. These functions of protein A eventually benefit to widespread infections of S. aureus ST239. We draw the conclusion that Staphylococcal Protein A may be a crucial determinant in the colonization and immune evasion of ST239 infections, contributing to persistent spread in the hospital settings. These results

  11. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. PMID:26119579

  12. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment.

  13. Neutron activation determination of uranium in geologic objects with 239U radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of instrumental determination of uranium in geological objects using short-time (1 min) activation by epithermal neutrons and intensity measurement of 74.7 keV uranium-239 radionuclide γ-radiation using gamma-spectrometer with low-background Ge(Li)-detector of the planar type is presented. In addition, the possibility of thorium and cobalt determination at the same conditions from short-lived thorium-233 and cobalt-60 m radionuclide radiations is shown. Results of twelve standard rocks analysis are presented

  14. Direct reduction of 238PuO2 and 239PuO2 to metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for reducing 700 g 239PuO2 to metal is a standard procedure at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This process is based on research for reducing 200 g 238PuO2 to metal. This report describes in detail the experiments and development of the 200-g process. The procedure uses calcium metal as the reducing agent in a molten CaCl2 solvent system. The process to convert impure plutonia to high-purity metal by oxide reduction followed by electrorefining is also described

  15. 'In-vivo' and bioassay results from two contrasting cases of plutonium-239 inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'In-vivo' and bioassay measurements following two incidents involving plutonium-239 inhalation are described and contrasted. Incident 1, involving the inhalation of insoluble plutonium oxide, resulted in a lung content of about 20 nCi after the initial clearance. Urine excretion was negligible and the estimation of exposure was based on 'in-vivo' data and faecal excretion. Incident,2, involving the inhalation of soluble plutonium, proved negligible and the estimation of exposure, based on urinary excretion, was 0.6 nCi. (author)

  16. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author)

  17. {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents Sea Regions. Sources and radioecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The radioecological assessment for {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents sea regions was made using the compartment modelling approach. The following sources of radioactive contamination were under consideration: global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, transport of {sup 239+240}Pu from the Sellafield and La Hauge nuclear plants and underwater testing of nuclear weapons in Chernaya Bay, Novaya Zemlya. The box model developed at NRPA uses a modified approach for compartmental modeling, which takes into account the dispersion of radionuclides over time. The box structures for surface, mid-depth and deep water layers have been developed based on the description of polar, Atlantic and deep waters in the Arctic Ocean and the Northern Seas, as well as site-specific information for the boxes. The volume of the three water layers in each box has been calculated using detailed bathymetry together with Geographical Information Systems. The box model includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing and a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers. Radioactive decay is calculated for all compartments. The contamination of biota is further calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumptions, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota are determined on the basis of calculated radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. Results of the calculations show that atmospheric deposition is the dominant source for the Barents Sea, except for the Chernaya Bay region. It is also demonstrated that the impact of the Sellafield nuclear facilities has

  18. Repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to aerosols of 239PuO2. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed once or semi-annually for 10 yr by inhalation to aerosols of 239PuO2 to study the relative doses and effects of these two types of exposures. All exposures have been completed. Dogs exposed at high levels died predominantly of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Dogs exposed at lower levels, either once or repeatedly, are dying of a variety of causes including lung cancer. Dogs have survived up to 11 yr after their first exposure. Preliminary results suggest that single and repeated exposures cause similar health effects for equal accumulated radiation doses. (author)

  19. Simulation of neutron rich nuclei production through 239U fission at intermediates energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical part and some results obtained from a model realised for fission processes in wide range of mass-asymmetries are presented. The fission barriers are computed in a tridimensional configuration space using the Yukawa - plus - exponential macroscopic energies corrected within the Strutinsky procedure. It is assumed that channel probabilities are proportional with Gamow penetrabilities. The model is applied for the disintegration of the 239U in order to determine the relative yields for the production of neutron rich nuclei at diverse intermediate energies. (author)

  20. Functional state of the bronchopulmonary system in Mayak nuclear workers inhaled plutonium-239 aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, Z.; Grigoryeva, E.; Khokhryakov, V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The current system of the individual and collective protection facilities for nuclear personnel permits decreasing the radiation dose from internal emitters at the most. At the same time, specific production conditions do not exclude possible inhalation of plutonium-239 aerosols. As the lung is the critical organ for this isotope, the study of respiratory function is aimed at detecting of pre-clinical lung pathology. Early detection of internal exposure effects on functional state of respiratory apparatus is difficult due to a number of confounding actors of non-radiation nature, one of which is smoking. Functional state of bronchopulmonary system was studied in 386 males, workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. 1198 examinations were carried out during medical inspection as well as hospitalization for routine preventive inspection. Most of males (39.4%) started working at the age of 21-26 years and 27.2% at the age of 20 years. The main factors of occupational exposure were exposure to plutonium-239 aerosols and the external gamma -rays. The absorbed dose to lungs from incorporated plutonium-239 was 0-435.8 c Gy. Whole-body external gamma dose varied from 0 to 382 c Gy at the examination. Individual dosimetry data were provided by the Mayak Radiation Safety Department and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute. While studying respiratory function, the most informative indices characterizing the state of lung tissue and tracheobronchial system such as vital capacity inspiration, forced expiratory volume, forced inspiratory volume, test Tiffno, diffusion capacity, characteristics of the flow vs. volume of the forced vital capacity inspiration curve, and resistance were used. Analysis was done separately for smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking index, i.e. product of number of smoked cigarettes per day and number of years of smoking was considered an integral value. The study did not reveal the

  1. Consistent Data Assimilation of Actinide Isotopes: 235U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report we illustrate the methodology of the consistent data assimilation that allows to use the information coming from integral experiments for improving the basic nuclear parameters used in cross section evaluation. A series of integral experiments were analyzed using the EMPIRE evaluated files for 235U, 238U, and 239Pu. Inmost cases the results have shown quite large worse results with respect to the corresponding existing evaluations available for ENDF/B-VII. The observed discrepancies between calculated and experimental results were used in conjunction with the computed sensitivity coefficients and covariance matrix for nuclear parameters in a consistent data assimilation. Only the GODIVA and JEZEBEL experimental results were used, in order to exploit information relative to the isotope of interest that are, in this particular case: 235U and 239Pu. The results obtained by the consistent data assimilation indicate that with reasonable modifications (mostly within the initial standard deviation) it is possible to eliminate the original large discrepancies on the Keff of the two critical configurations. However, some residual discrepancy remains for a few fission spectral indices that are, most likely, to be attributed to the detector cross sections.

  2. SALT reveals the barium central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2-39

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Jones, D; Karakas, A I; Köppen, J; Tyndall, A A; Mohamed, S S; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Santander-García, M

    2013-01-01

    Classical barium stars are binary systems which consist of a late-type giant enriched in carbon and slow neutron capture (s-process) elements and an evolved white dwarf (WD) that is invisible at optical wavelengths. The youngest observed barium stars are surrounded by planetary nebulae (PNe), ejected soon after the wind accretion of polluted material when the WD was in its preceeding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Such systems are rare but powerful laboratories for studying AGB nucleosynthesis as we can measure the chemical abundances of both the polluted star and the nebula ejected by the polluter. Here we present evidence for a barium star in the PN Hen 2-39. The polluted giant is very similar to that found in WeBo 1. It is a cool (Teff=4250 +/- 150 K) giant enhanced in carbon ([C/H]=0.42 +/- 0.02 dex) and barium ([Ba/Fe]=1.50 +/- 0.25 dex). A spectral type of C-R3 C_24 nominally places Hen 2-39 amongst the peculiar early R-type carbon stars, however the barium enhancement and likely binary status mea...

  3. Comparison between Different Scheduling Strategies by Using Cost239 Optical Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Meena, Manish Shrivastava, Sushil Chaturvedi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present different demand policies in scheduled lightpath demand (SLDs .SLD is a demand for a set of lightpaths (connections, defined by a tuple (s,d,n,α,ω where s and d are the source and destination nodes of the lightpaths, n is the number of requested lightpaths α, ω and are the set-up and tear-down times of the lightpaths. The objective of this paper to increase resource utilization ratio by using channel reuse. In this paper we works on Cost 239 network by assigning the same channel to several lightpaths, by using different wavelengths which varies according to the time (set-up and tear-down.By comparison of demand policies which also depend upon time(set-up and tear-down every demand policy has own schedule. By using Cost 239 network we found the result which demand policy is effective and scheduled first and we compare each policy by using graphical representation and then find which policy is best for scheduling and increase the resource utilization .

  4. New data on the toxicity and translocation of inhaled 239PuO2 in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973-1974, baboons were exposed to a polydispersed aerosol of 239PuO2, prepared at 10000C, at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France. The data published in 1978 for these baboons were used by Bair et al (1980), for comparison with those obtained in beagles exposed to 239PuO2 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, USA. Since our 1978 publication, 8 baboons have died or were killed by euthanasia when moribund, and 11 were still alive when the present report was drafted. Two of the eight baboons died of lung squamous cell carcinoma at 2171 and 2528 days respectively. The remaining 6 died of fibrosis, interstitial pneumonia or diseases unrelated to Pu toxicity. The relationship observed in the eight baboons between initial lung burden and survival time shows that their lifespan was longer than expected from the data curve based on the findings for the first 1000 days. However, this increased survival time was not observed if the lifespan was expressed as a function of the average lung burden. (author)

  5. Comparison of acute mortality in baboons and dogs after inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from experiments with baboons were compared with those from experiments with dogs to determine the relative sensitivity of the two species to acute mortality from inhaled 239PuO2. To assure a valid comparison of data developed at two laboratories, methodology differences were minimized by establishing a common pool of raw data, using the same computer programs to analyze the data, and standardizing assumptions regarding the calculation of radiation doses to lungs. Several comparison methods were used involving variations in estimating different parameters such as the concentration of plutonium in the lungs. Although nearly all comparisons suggested baboons were slightly more sensitive, none of the methods for comparing the relationship between dose and survival time showed consistently significant differences between baboons and dogs. Although the baboons were physiologically and morphologically immature when exposed to plutonium, whereas the dogs were mature, it was concluded that adult baboons and dogs are similarly sensitive to the acute effects of inhaled 239PuO2. Since only acute mortality was considered in this comparison, the results do not apply to possible late effects caused by much lower levels of plutonium than were used in these experiments

  6. Subcellular distribution of Pu-239 in the liver of rat, mouse, Syrian and Chinese hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our studies was to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the differences in the biological half life of actinides in the liver of different mammalian species. Rats and mice were chosen as models for rapid elimination, and Syrian and Chinese hamsters as models for slow elimination. To distinguish between fixation in lysosomes and mitochondria, the lysosomes were isolated following injection of Triton WR1339 6 days after 239Pu administration. The animals were sacrificed 4 days later. In order to study the possible association with ferritin, 59Fe was also injected. Liver homogenates were subjected to differential and isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. The typical shift in the density of the lysosomal marker acid phosphatase from rho approximately 1.2 to rho approximately 1.1 following Triton WR1339 injection was observed in all species. It was possible therefore to separate lysosomes from other cell organelles, especially mitochondria. It was concluded that: 1) Mitochondria can virtually be excluded as binding sites in all four species; 2) Lysosomes are one important storage site in rats, mice and Syrian hamsters; 3) If 239Pu is bound to another cell constituent in addition to lysosomes in the hamster species (which is not yet proven) its density should be approximately 1.17. (H.K.)

  7. Evaluation of 239+240Pu, 137Cs and natural 210Pb fallout in agricultural upland fields in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background distributions of 239+240Pu and 137Cs fallout in agricultural soil were investigated in Rokkasho where Japan's first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is now being constructed. The mean inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs in three fields with non-yam-cultivation history were 116 Bq x m-2 and 3.4 kBq x m-2, respectively. The mean atomic ratio of 240Pu/239Pu for all studied fields was 0.18±0.04, and was similar to that of global fallout. The 239+240Pu concentrations correlated very well with 137Cs (r = 0.97) in spite of heavy disturbance of the soil, and the activity ratio of 239+240Pu/137Cs was 0.037 ± 0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. These results showed that the nuclides had similar behavior in agricultural upland fields in Rokkasho. Since 210Pb is steadily deposited from the atmosphere to the land, this nuclide could be an index for the degree of disturbance of a field and of soil lost from the field. The ratio of excess 210Pb inventory in the soil to the equivalent inventory of atmospheric 210Pb deposition was 96%, and indicated that soil was not lost from the cultivated fields. (author)

  8. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

  9. Microlocalization of 239Pu in structural elements of the interalveolar septa after inhalation of its various compounds and pentacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative and qualitative evaluation of 239 Pu mictodistribution in the structural elements of the interalveolar septa after inhalation of three plutonium compounds different in solubility is made. Thirty minutes after the inhalation 55.3-85.3% of plutonium (dioxide>nitrate>=citrate) was revealed in rhe cells, predominantly in the microphages. More than half of the isotope found in the noncellular elements, lies in the surface layer of the alveoli and the intercellular matter. First 239Pu is seen as ''stars'' of tracks (dioxide), mainly (nitrate) or exclusively (citrate) as individual tracks. The different extent of plutonium elimination from the interalveolar septa (dioxide239Pu from the cells is mainly determined by its escape from the macrophages (dioxide) or from all cellular elements (nitrate, citrate). Pentacin accelates elimination of plutonium from the most of the structural elements of the interalveolar septa (citrate>nitrate)

  10. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu, Thule, North-West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strodl Andersen, J. (JSA EnviroStat (Denmark))

    2011-10-15

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241Am and 239,240Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241Am is 2.8x105 Bq m-2. Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241Am is 1.9-104 Bq m-2. Prediction of the overall amount of 241Am and 239,240Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  11. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu, Thule, North-West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strodl Andersen, Jens

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241Am and 239,240Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241Am is 2.8×105 Bq m-2. Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most...... intensively. In Grønnedal the maximum observed level of 241Am is 1.9×104 Bq m-2. Prediction of the overall amount of 241Am and 239,240Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial...... model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240Pu is 270 GBq....

  12. 239Pu(n,2n) 238Pu cross section inferred from IDA calculations and GEANIE measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Ormand, W E; Dietrich, F S

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the latest {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross sections inferred from calculations performed with the nuclear reaction-modeling code system, IDA, coupled with experimental measurements of partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for incident neutron energies ranging from 5.68 to 17.18 MeV. It is found that the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section peaks at E{sub inc} {approx} 11.4 MeV with a peak value of approximately 326 mb. At E{sub inc} {approx} 14 MeV, the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section is found to be in good agreement with previous radio-chemical measurements by Lockheed. However, the shape of the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section differs significantly from previous evaluations of ENDL, ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI. In our calculations, direct, preequilibrium, and compound reactions are included. Also considered in the modeling are fission and {gamma}-cascade processes in addition to particle emission. The main components of physics adopted and the parameters used in our calculations are discussed. Good agreement of the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross sections derived separately from IDA and GNASH calculations is shown. The two inferences provide an estimate of variations in the deduced {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section originating from modeling.

  13. Analysis of Fuel Temperature Reactivity Coefficients According to Burn-up and Pu-239 Production in CANDU Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonances for some kinds of nuclides such as U-238 and Pu-239 are not easy to be accurately processed. In addition, the Pu-239 productions from burnup are also significant in CANDU, where the natural uranium is used as a fuel. In this study, the FTCs were analyzed from the viewpoints of the resonance self-shielding methodology and Pu-239 build-up. The lattice burnup calculations were performed using the TRITON module in the SCALE6 code system, and the BONAMI module was executed to obtain self-shielded cross sections using the Bondarenko approach. Two libraries, ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII.0, were used to compare the Pu-239 effect on FTC, since the ENDF/B-VII has updated the Pu-239 cross section data. The FTCs of the CANDU reactor were newly analyzed using the TRITON module in the SCALE6 code system, and the BONAMI module was executed to apply the Bondarenko approach for self-shielded cross sections. When compared with some reactor physics codes resulting in slightly positive FTC in the specific region, the FTCs evaluated in this study showed a clear negativity over the entire fuel temperature range on fresh/equilibrium fuel. In addition, the FTCs at 960.15 K were slightly negative during the entire burnup. The effects on FTCs from the library difference between ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII.0 are recognized to not be large; however, they appear more positive when more Pu-239 productions with burnup are considered. This feasibility study needs an additional benchmark evaluation for FTC calculations, but it can be used as a reference for a new FTC analysis in CANDU reactors

  14. Investigation of forming mechanism of instantaneous neutron spectrum of 235U, 239Pu, 252Cf nuclei fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation mechanism of prompt neutrons spectrum during the fission of the 235U, 239Pu nuclei by thermal and fast neutrons and spontaneous fission of 252Cf is investigated. The formation procedure for prompt neutrons spectrum during the fission of nuclei as superposition of three partial evaporation Weisskopf spectra with the mean energy of neutrons 0.4, 2.06 and 2.8 MeV is proposed. Formation mechanism of the spectrum just as during the fission of the 235U, 239Pu nuclei by thermal and fast neutrons, so spontaneous fission of the 252Cf nuclei is identical

  15. Characterization of a {sup 239}PuBe isotopic neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez, A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    A Bonner sphere spectrometer was used to determine the features of a {sup 239}PuBe neutron source used to operate the ESFM-Ipn Subcritical Reactor. The spectrometer is a {sup 6}Lil(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 inches-diameter polyethylene spheres, that was located 100 cm from the neutron source. The count rates obtained with the spectrometer were unfolded using the NSDUAZ code and neutron spectrum, total fluence, and ambient dose equivalent were determined. A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNP5 code, was carried out to estimate the spectrum and integral features being less that values obtained experimentally due to the presence of {sup 241}Pu in the Pu used to fabricate the source. Using the experimental information the actual neutron yield and the mass fraction of {sup 241}Pu was estimated. (Author)

  16. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and plutonium-239 dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. The purpose of this ongoing study is to investigate potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, Be metal, or these agents in combination. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high-linear-energy transfer, alpha-particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be. As a result, Be is classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United STates and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This study is in progress.

  17. Calculation of 239Pu fission observables in an event-by-event simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J; Pruet, J; Younes, W

    2010-03-31

    The increased interest in more exclusive fission observables has demanded more detailed models. We describe a new computational model, FREYA, that aims to meet this need by producing large samples of complete fission events from which any observable of interest can then be extracted consistently, including any interesting correlations. The various model assumptions are described and the potential utility of the model is illustrated. As a concrete example, we use formal statistical methods, experimental data on neutron production in neutron-induced fission of {sup 239}Pu, along with FREYA, to develop quantitative insights into the relation between reaction observables and detailed microscopic aspects of fission. Current measurements of the mean number of prompt neutrons emitted in fission taken together with less accurate current measurements for the prompt post-fission neutron energy spectrum, up to the threshold for multi-chance fission, place remarkably fine constraints on microscopic theories.

  18. Quantitative scanning electron microscopic autoradiography of inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain autoradiographs of particles of 239PuO2 deposited in rat lung. The technique was used to obtain quantitative information on the clearance rates of particles from the alveoli, bronchioles and trachea up to 240 d after exposure. At all times, the concentration of particles on the surface of the bronchioles was an order of magnitude greater than on the tracheal surface. The clearance of Pu from both regions followed a biphasic pattern, similar to that obtained by radiometric analysis of the whole lung. Most of the radiation dose to the bronchiolar epithelium originated from Pu particles in peribronchiolar alveoli in which they were preferentially retained, compared to other alveolar regions. The prolonged retention of particles in the peribronchiolar alveoli may be a significant factor in the induction of lung carcinomas

  19. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography. [Pu-238, Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martin, F.M.; Fore, C.S. (comps.)

    1977-03-01

    This eighth published bibliography of 427 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium in the critical organs of man and animals. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keyword(s), taxon, title, and publication description.

  20. Comparison of rats and dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats and dogs inhaled aerosols of 239PuO2 at comparable ages relative to their lifespan. Both received a single exposure. The estimated lung doses at death in dogs were between 1100 and 11,000 rad. From two inhalation experiments, rats receiving doses in this range were chosen from the high-level exposed animals for comparison. Based on this data base, several comparisons were investigated. Metabolism of the material was compared for all animals and for animals which developed lung tumors. The differences in histopathology and tumor incidence in the lung were also reviewed. Although there were several differences between species, there were also many similarities. On-going research in dogs should produce data which will allow clarification of these relationships

  1. Thermal-Neutron-Induced Fission of U235, U233 and Pu239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used solid-state detectors to measure the kinetic energies of the coincident fission fragments in the thermal-neutron-induced fission of U235, U233 and Pu239. Special care has been taken to eliminate spurious-events near symmetry to give an accurate measure of such quantities as the average total kinetic energy at symmetry. For each fissioning system over 106 events were recorded. As a result the statistics are good enough to see definite evidence for fine structure over a wide range of masses and energies. The data have been analysed to give mass yield curves, average kinetic energies as a function of mass, and other quantities of interest. For each fissioning system the average total kinetic energy goes through a maximum for a heavy fragment mass of about 132 and for the corresponding light fragment mass. There is a pronounced minimum at symmetry, although not as deep as that found in time-of-flight experiments. The difference between the maximum average kinetic energy and that at symmetry is about 32 MeV for U235, 18 MeV for U233 and 20 MeV for Pu239. The dispersion of kinetic energies at symmetry is also smaller than that found in time-of-flight experiments. Fine structure is apparent in two different representations of the data. The energy spectrum of heavy fragments in coincidence with light fragment energies is greater than the most probable value. This structure becomes more pronounced as the light fragment energy increases. The mass yield curves for a given total kinetic energy show a structure suggesting a preference for fission fragments with masses ∼134, ∼140 and ∼145 (and their light fragment partners). Much of the structure observed can be understood by considering a semi-empirical mass surface and a simple model for the nuclear configuration at the saddle point. (author)

  2. Dosimetry and response in rat pulmonary epithelium following inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of inhaled 239PuO2 and pathologic changes have been studied in the lung of rats. The clearance of inhaled 237239PuO2 from the lung is a function of the amount of deposited Pu with a decrease in early alveolar clearance with increasing lung burden. With increasing time post-exposure there is a greater concentration of PuO2 and an increased aggregation of PuO2 particles in subpleural regions of the lung. Fibrotic and metaplastic lesions in the lung were usually focal, being found in subpleural regions associated with aggregates of PuO2. An average of 12 +- 6 percent of the lung volume was fibrotic at 530 days after an initial alveolar deposition of 180 nCi 239Pu. Lung tumors occupied 4 +- 6 percent and epithelial metaplasias less than 1 percent of the lung volume at this time. Cell proliferation as assayed by tritiated thymidine autoradiography was greater in fibrotic, metaplastic and neoplastic regions than in areas of normal alveolar-bronchiolar epithelium. Turnover times ranged from about 6 days for fibrotic lesions to 1 to 3 days for metaplastic and neoplastic lesions. The lung tumor doubling times were 57 to 116 days due to tumor cell necrosis and other factors that limit tumor cell survival. Cell proliferation rates for adenomatous metaplasia were similar to those for adenocarcinoma while those for squamous cell metaplasia were similar to those for squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous lesions exhibited a more rapid growth than did adenomatous lesions

  3. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia); Wisnubroto, Djarot S. [The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup −1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup −1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup −3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup −3}.

  4. 5 CFR 591.239 - How do agencies treat COLAs and post differentials for the purpose of overtime pay and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do agencies treat COLAs and post differentials for the purpose of overtime pay and other entitlements? 591.239 Section 591.239 Administrative... treat COLAs and post differentials for the purpose of overtime pay and other entitlements? (a)...

  5. 17 CFR 239.18 - Form S-11, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate companies. 239.18 Section 239.18... Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate companies. This form shall be used for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of (a) securities issued by real estate investment trusts,...

  6. 17 CFR 239.38 - Form F-8, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tender offer. (i) In the case of a business combination, less than 25 percent of the class of securities... offers or a business combination. 239.38 Section 239.38 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... issuers to be issued in exchange offers or a business combination. (a) Form F-8 may be used...

  7. 17 CFR 239.41 - Form F-80, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tender offer. (i) In the case of a business combination, less than 40 percent of the class of securities... offers or a business combination. 239.41 Section 239.41 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... issuers to be issued in exchange offers or a business combination. (a) Form F-80 may be used...

  8. Purification, characterization and regulation of a monomeric L-phenylalanine dehydrogenase from the facultative methylotroph Nocardia sp. 239

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L. de; Rijssel, M. van; Euverink, G.J.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1989-01-01

    In Nocardia sp. 239 D-phenylalanine is converted into L-phenylalanine by an inducible amino acid racemase. The further catabolism of this amino acid involves an NAD-dependent L-phenylalanine dehydrogenase. This enzyme was detected only in cells grown on L- or D-phenylalanine and in batch cultures hi

  9. Initial deposition and early clearance of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from exposures of 113 beagle dogs to 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols were analyzed for effects of aerosol properties on deposition and early clearance. The percent of inhaled aerosols deposited was not significantly dependent on particle size or aerosol concentration. The early clearance rate was significantly slower at the highest exposure levels than at medium and low levels

  10. The inflow of 238Pu and 239+240Pu from the Vistula River catchment area to the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was to estimate plutonium inflow from the Vistula River's catchments area to the Baltic Sea. There were differences in plutonium activities depending on season and sampling site. The highest activities of 238Pu and 239+240Pu were transported from the Vistula River watershed to the Baltic Sea in spring and the lowest in summer. Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched via the Vistula River with 10.3 MBq of 238Pu and 89.0 MBq of 239+240Pu. The enhanced concentration of plutonium in water from the Vistula River is the result of its runoff from the Vistula drainage area, mostly from snowmelt, enhanced rainfalls and leached materials from river bed. - Highlights: → We estimated plutonium inflow from the Vistula River catchment area to the Baltic Sea. → We found differences in Pu activities depending on season and sampling site. → The highest amount of 239 + 240Pu was transported in spring and the lowest in summer. → Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched with 89.0 MBq of 239 + 240Pu. → Enhanced Pu amount in water came from snowmelt, rainfalls and leached materials.

  11. Measurement of fallout radionuclides, (239)(,240)Pu and (137)Cs, in soil and creek sediment: Sydney Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B S; Child, D P; Fierro, D; Harrison, J J; Heijnis, H; Hotchkis, M A C; Johansen, M P; Marx, S; Payne, T E; Zawadzki, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples from the Sydney basin were measured to ascertain fallout radionuclide activity concentrations and atom ratios. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) was measured using gamma spectroscopy, and plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) were quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Fallout radionuclide activity concentrations were variable ranging from 0.6 to 26.1 Bq/kg for (137)Cs and 0.02-0.52 Bq/kg for (239+240)Pu. Radionuclides in creek sediment samples were an order of magnitude lower than in soils. (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentration in soils were well correlated (r(2) = 0.80) although some deviation was observed in samples collected at higher elevations. Soil ratios of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu (decay corrected to 1/1/2014) ranged from 11.5 to 52.1 (average = 37.0 ± 12.4) and showed more variability than previous studies. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.117 to 0.165 with an average of 0.146 (±0.013) and an error weighted mean of 0.138 (±0.001). These ratios are lower than a previously reported ratio for Sydney, and lower than the global average. However, these ratios are similar to those reported for other sites within Australia that are located away from former weapons testing sites and indicate that atom ratio measurements from other parts of the world are unlikely to be applicable to the Australian context.

  12. Measurement of fallout radionuclides, (239)(,240)Pu and (137)Cs, in soil and creek sediment: Sydney Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B S; Child, D P; Fierro, D; Harrison, J J; Heijnis, H; Hotchkis, M A C; Johansen, M P; Marx, S; Payne, T E; Zawadzki, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples from the Sydney basin were measured to ascertain fallout radionuclide activity concentrations and atom ratios. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) was measured using gamma spectroscopy, and plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) were quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Fallout radionuclide activity concentrations were variable ranging from 0.6 to 26.1 Bq/kg for (137)Cs and 0.02-0.52 Bq/kg for (239+240)Pu. Radionuclides in creek sediment samples were an order of magnitude lower than in soils. (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentration in soils were well correlated (r(2) = 0.80) although some deviation was observed in samples collected at higher elevations. Soil ratios of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu (decay corrected to 1/1/2014) ranged from 11.5 to 52.1 (average = 37.0 ± 12.4) and showed more variability than previous studies. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.117 to 0.165 with an average of 0.146 (±0.013) and an error weighted mean of 0.138 (±0.001). These ratios are lower than a previously reported ratio for Sydney, and lower than the global average. However, these ratios are similar to those reported for other sites within Australia that are located away from former weapons testing sites and indicate that atom ratio measurements from other parts of the world are unlikely to be applicable to the Australian context. PMID:26344369

  13. Suitability of 239+240Pu and 137Cs as tracers for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides have been distributed globally due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. While the negative consequences of this radioactive contamination are self-evident, the ubiquitous fallout radionuclides (FRNs) distribution form the basis for the use as tracers in ecological studies, namely for soil erosion assessment. Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. We compare the suitability of the anthropogenic FRNs, 137Cs and 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracers in two alpine valleys of Switzerland (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri, Central Swiss Alps and Val Piora, Ticino, Southern Alps). We sampled reference and potentially erosive sites in transects along both valleys. 137Cs measurements of soil samples were performed with a Li-drifted Germanium detector and 239+240Pu with ICP-MS. Our data indicates a heterogeneous deposition of the 137Cs, since most of the fallout origins from the Chernobyl April/May 1986 accident, when large parts of the European Alps were still snow-covered. In contrast, 239+240Pu fallout originated mainly from 1950s to 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, resulting in a more homogenous distribution and thus seems to be a more suitable tracer in mountainous grasslands. Soil erosion assessment using 239+240Pu as a tracer pointed to a huge dynamic and high heterogeneity of erosive processes (between sedimentation of 1.9 and 7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.2-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the Urseren Valley and sedimentation of 0.4-20.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.1-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) at Val Piora). Our study represents a novel and successful application of 239+240Pu as a tracer of soil erosion in a mountain environment. PMID:24374184

  14. Effect of alpha irradiation of the lungs from inhaled 239PuO2 on the immunity of mice to Listeria monocytogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulmonary clearance of inhaled Listeria monocytogenes from the lungs of nonimmunized and immunized mice was observed 3 to 4 or 26 wks after prior exposure to 239PuO2 to achieve initial lung burdens of 2.6, 5.0 and 11.9 nanocuries (nCi). Mice from 239PuO2 and sham-exposed groups were immunized against L. monocytogenes and 1 wk later challenged via the respiratory route. Pulmonary clearance was suppressed in mice with an 11.9 nCi initial lung burden of 239Pu 26 wk after 239PuO2 inhalation but not in the mice with initial lung burdens of 2.6 and 5.0 nCi at 4 to 5 or 27 wk after 239PuO2 exposure. Mice with a mean initial lung burden of 11.9 nCi of 239Pu, which were immunized against L. monocytogenes 26 wk after 239PuO2 inhalation, had a decreased survival after respiratory challenge with L. monocytogenes when compared to immunized control animals. Body weight gain and hematological differences did not correlate with suppressed pulmonary clearance or decreased survival. Pulmonary lavage studies indicated that fewer alveolar macrophages were recoverable from mice with a mean initial lung burden of 11.9 nCi of 239Pu 26 wk after 239PuO2 inhalation. It was concluded that an initial lung burden of 11.9 nCi of 239Pu which delivered approximately 700 rads of alpha radiation to the lungs of mice resulted in decreased pulmonary clearance and decreased survival of mice which had been immunized against L. monocytogenes

  15. Pu-239 organ specific dosimetric model applied to non-human biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Matthew Jason

    There are few locations throughout the world, like the Maralinga nuclear test site located in south western Australia, where sufficient plutonium contaminate concentration levels exist that they can be utilized for studies of the long-term radionuclide accumulation in non-human biota. The information obtained will be useful for the potential human users of the site while also keeping with international efforts to better understand doses to non-human biota. In particular, this study focuses primarily on a rabbit sample set collected from the population located within the site. Our approach is intended to employ the same dose and dose rate methods selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adapted by the scientific community for similar research questions. These models rely on a series of simplifying assumptions on biota and their geometry; in particular; organisms are treated as spherical and ellipsoidal representations displaying the animal mass and volume. These simplifications assume homogeneity of all animal tissues. In collaborative efforts between Colorado State University and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), we are expanding current knowledge on radionuclide accumulation in specific organs causing organ-specific dose rates, such as Pu-239 accumulating in bone, liver, and lungs. Organ-specific dose models have been developed for humans; however, little has been developed for the dose assessment to biota, in particular rabbits. This study will determine if it is scientifically valid to use standard software, in particular ERICA Tool, as a means to determine organ-specific dosimetry due to Pu-239 accumulation in organs. ERICA Tool is normally applied to whole organisms as a means to determine radiological risk to whole ecosystems. We will focus on the aquatic model within ERICA Tool, as animal organs, like aquatic organisms, can be assumed to lie within an infinite uniform medium. This model would

  16. 239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra Impact on a Set of Criticality and Experimental Reactor Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneliau, Y.; Litaize, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.

    2014-04-01

    A large set of nuclear data are investigated to improve the calculation predictions of the new neutron transport simulation codes. With the next generation of nuclear power plants (GEN IV projects), one expects to reduce the calculated uncertainties which are mainly coming from nuclear data and are still very important, before taking into account integral information in the adjustment process. In France, future nuclear power plant concepts will probably use MOX fuel, either in Sodium Fast Reactors or in Gas Cooled Fast Reactors. Consequently, the knowledge of 239Pu cross sections and other nuclear data is crucial issue in order to reduce these sources of uncertainty. The Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra (PFNS) for 239Pu are part of these relevant data (an IAEA working group is even dedicated to PFNS) and the work presented here deals with this particular topic. The main international data files (i.e. JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0, BRC-2009) have been considered and compared with two different spectra, coming from the works of Maslov and Kornilov respectively. The spectra are first compared by calculating their mathematical moments in order to characterize them. Then, a reference calculation using the whole JEFF-3.1.1 evaluation file is performed and compared with another calculation performed with a new evaluation file, in which the data block containing the fission spectra (MF=5, MT=18) is replaced by the investigated spectra (one for each evaluation). A set of benchmarks is used to analyze the effects of PFNS, covering criticality cases and mock-up cases in various neutron flux spectra (thermal, intermediate, and fast flux spectra). Data coming from many ICSBEP experiments are used (PU-SOL-THERM, PU-MET-FAST, PU-MET-INTER and PU-MET-MIXED) and French mock-up experiments are also investigated (EOLE for thermal neutron flux spectrum and MASURCA for fast neutron flux spectrum). This study shows that many experiments and neutron parameters are very sensitive to

  17. Using 239Pu as a tracer for fine sediment sources in the Daly River, Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, R.; Fifield, L. K.; Tims, S. G.; Wasson, R. J.; Howe, D.

    2015-04-01

    The Daly River drains a large (52500 km2) and mainly undisturbed catchment in the Australian wet-dry tropics. Clearing and cropping since 2002 have raised concerns about possible increased sediment input into the river and motivated this study of its fine sediment sources. Using 239Pu as a tracer it is shown that the fine sediments originate mainly from erosion by gullying and channel change. Although the results also indicate that the surface soil contribution to the river channel sediments from sheet erosion has increased to 5-22% for the Daly River and 7-28% for the Douglas River (a tributary of the Daly River) in 2009 vs. 3-6% for the Daly River and 4-9% for the Douglas River in 2005. This excess top soil likely originates from thecleared land adjacent to the Daly River since 2005. However, channel widening largely as a result of hydrologic change is still the dominant sediment source in this catchment.

  18. Using 239Pu as a tracer for fine sediment sources in the Daly River, Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Daly River drains a large (52500 km2 and mainly undisturbed catchment in the Australian wet–dry tropics. Clearing and cropping since 2002 have raised concerns about possible increased sediment input into the river and motivated this study of its fine sediment sources. Using 239Pu as a tracer it is shown that the fine sediments originate mainly from erosion by gullying and channel change. Although the results also indicate that the surface soil contribution to the river channel sediments from sheet erosion has increased to 5-22% for the Daly River and 7-28% for the Douglas River (a tributary of the Daly River in 2009 vs. 3-6% for the Daly River and 4-9% for the Douglas River in 2005. This excess top soil likely originates from thecleared land adjacent to the Daly River since 2005. However, channel widening largely as a result of hydrologic change is still the dominant sediment source in this catchment.

  19. Pu239 Cross-Section Variations Based on Experimental Uncertainties and Covariances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigeti, David Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, D. Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-18

    Algorithms and software have been developed for producing variations in plutonium 239 neutron cross sections based on experimental uncertainties and covariances. The varied cross- section sets may be produced as random samples from the multi- variate normal distribution defined by an experimental mean vector and covariance matrix, or they may be produced as Latin- Hypercube/Orthogonal-Array samples (based on the same means and covariances) for use in parametrized studies. The variations obey two classes of constraints that are obligatory for cross-section sets and which put related constraints on the mean vector and covariance matrix that detemine the sampling. Because the experimental means and covariances do not obey some of these constraints to sufficient precision, imposing the constraints requires modifying the experimental mean vector and covariance matrix. Modification is done with an algorithm based on linear algebra that minimizes changes to the means and covariances while insuring that the operations that impose the different constraints do not conflict with each other.

  20. Effects of the herbicide glyphosate on the uptake of 239Pu and 241Am to vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyphosate (n-phosphonomethyl glycine) is a broad spectrum herbicide widely used in lowland agriculture, forestry and improved upland pastures. Although its metal chelating properties are well established, its interaction with radionuclides remains unknown. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of soil applications of glyphosate on the uptake of 239Pu and 241Am to peas and carrots grown in loam, peat and sand soils. Soil-to-plant transfer factors were calculated for treated and untreated soils at harvest. The most marked effect was an increase in 241Am uptake to crops grown in loam soil. Supplementary laboratory batch experiments were conducted by shaking radiolabelled soil and its associated soil solution with glyphosate. The activity concentration of 241Am increased ten fold in the liquid phase of loam soils treated with glyphosate. It is postulated that this 241Am desorption could have been mediated by the formation of a stable Am-glyphosate complex which was subsequently more available for crop uptake than Am alone. (author)

  1. Beta and gamma decay-heat measurements for fast and thermal reactors, particularly for Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The mounting evidence suggests (a) that the ORNL thermal-neutron fission decay heat data are likely correct to within stated uncertainties; (b) present data files (ENDF/B-V and others related to it) require more effort, and as improvements are made agreement with ORNL results is likely to become better; and (c) fast fission decay heat, induced by reactor-spectrum neutrons, appears to be little, if any, different from thermal-neutron fission-decay heat. The ANS 5.1 working group seems to be moving toward the above position but the standard for /sup 235/U has not yet been revised. Using /sup 235/U decay-heat data for /sup 239/Pu is quite conservative. Use of /sup 235/U decay-heat data for /sup 241/Pu decay-heat data as required in the standard is conservative only because of the over-statement (by approx. = 8%) of the /sup 235/U data in the standard.

  2. Incidence of liver tumors in beagles with body burdens of 239Pu or 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetravalent 239Pu or trivalent 241Am in a citrate buffer, given via a single intravenous injection to beagles, induced very pronounced liver changes, usually at relatively long postinjection times. The lesions consisted of cell injury or cell necrosis which was followed by nodular hyperplasia and a significant incidence of primary liver tumors. The most frequent neoplasm was the bile duct adenoma, followed by the bile duct carcinoma. A lesser number of sarcomas were also induced, especially fibrosarcomas. The number of hepatic cell tumors was low. An abnormally high incidence of both hyperplastic nodules and primary liver tumors occurred at long postinjection times and at average doses extending down to ∼10 rads. The various nodular lesions and liver tumors frequently occurred as incidental findings in dogs dying from other causes, especially bone cancer. In comparison to bone neoplasia, the liver was a much less important target organ in the high-dose level groups, but in some of the low-dose groups, especially in the 241Am groups, the risk of radiation-induced liver cancer was approximately equal to or exceeded the risk of skeletal tumors. However, in any projection of the risks observed in this animal model to man, one should be mindful that the beagle skeleton is approximately 25 times more sensitive to radiation-induced bone neoplasia than is the human skeleton (Mays et al., 1976) and that the radiosensitivity difference for the beagle and human liver is unknown. 41 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Distribution of 239Pu and 241Am in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 241Am and 239Pu distribution in the skeletons of two former nuclear workers has been measured. The skeletons of both individuals appear to be within normal limits for Caucasian men about 50 y old. Both had lower limb bones that were heavier than the age controls and Case I had upper-body bones that were lighter than the age control group. The distribution of americium in the skeleton of Case I, 25 years post exposure, indicated that a more rapid turnover of initially deposited americium on the bone surfaces of cancellous bone, as compared to that deposited on the bone surfaces of compact bone, had occurred. This resulted in a larger proportion of americium located in the compact bone of the extremities and a lesser quantity in the more cancellous bones of the vertebral column, pelvis and rib cage. A similar shift in the distribution of plutonium occurred in Case II in the 35 y since initial deposition, but at a slower rate than that for americium. The ratio of each actinide in the liver to that in the systemic system (liver content/systemic system content) was 0.065 and 0.436, for americium and plutonium, respectively, suggesting that a much more rapid turnover of americium in the liver, compared to plutonium, provided a much larger fraction of that nuclide for circulatory feedback to the remodeling skeletal system. 8 references, 3 tables

  4. Evaluation of the thermal cross sections of 239Pu and 241Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal neutron cross sections of the isotopes 239Pu and 241Pu have been evaluated in the thermal neutron energy region below 1.0 eV. The method of evaluation fitted energy-dependent data constrained by a modified Adler-Adler multilevel resonance fission and capture formalism and multilevel Breit-Wigner scattering theory. The energy dependence of the number of neutrons per fission was prescribed in the theory by introducing nu as fitted resonance spin-dependent values. The data were fitted in a resonance parameter fitting code, RPFC, using the method of maximum likelihood. The code fits simultaneously the total and partial energy-dependent cross section data to the theory. The types of data explicitly fitted are total, fission, capture, total scattering, coherent scattering, and absorption cross sections plus the quantities alpha, total nu and eta. Relative energy-dependent data with precision errors are fitted along with absolute values and errors at chosen energies. RPFC also allows energy-scale adjustment and Doppler broadening of selected data sets, and fits correlated data of two isotopes simultaneously. Reference experimental data bases of original data plus condensed and modified data were assembled for the evaluation for each isotope. 19 figures, 9 tables

  5. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu with 22-MeV bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianfei; Yang, Haori

    2016-06-01

    In homeland security and nuclear safeguards applications, non-destructive techniques to identify and quantify special nuclear materials are in great demand. Although nuclear materials naturally emit characteristic radiation (e.g. neutrons, γ-rays), their intensity and energy are normally low. Furthermore, such radiation could be intentionally shielded with ease or buried in high-level background. Active interrogation techniques based on photofission have been identified as effective assay approaches to address this issue. In designing such assay systems, nuclear data, like photofission product yields, plays a crucial role. Although fission yields for neutron-induced reactions have been well studied and readily available in various nuclear databases, data on photofission product yields is rather scarce. This poses a great challenge to the application of photofission techniques. In this work, short-lived high-energy delayed γ-rays from photofission of 238U were measured in between linac pulses. In addition, a list-mode system was developed to measure relatively long-lived delayed γ-rays from photofission of 238U and 239Pu after the irradiation. Time and energy information of each γ-ray event were simultaneously recorded by this system. Cumulative photofission product yields were then determined using the measured delayed γ-ray spectra.

  6. Revisiting the U-238 thermal capture cross section and gamma-raymission probabilities from Np-239 decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkov, A.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Firestone,R.B.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Nichols, A.L.; Moxon, M.C.

    2005-03-03

    The precise value of the thermal capture cross section of238U is uncertain, and evaluated cross sections from various sourcesdiffer by more than their assigned uncertainties. A number of theoriginal publications have been reviewed to assess the discrepant data,corrections were made for more recent standard cross sections andotherconstants, and one new measurement was analyzed. Due to the strongcorrelations in activation measurements, the gamma-ray emissionprobabilities from the beta decay of 239Np were also analyzed. As aresult of the analysis, a value of 2.683 +- 0.012 barns was derived forthe thermal capture cross section of 238U. A new evaluation of thegamma-ray emission probabilities from 239Np decay was alsoundertaken.

  7. Assessment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu, in marine sediments of the oceans Atlantic and Pacific of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation samples of marine sediments were taken from 14 places representatives of the oceans coast of Guatemala. For the assesment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in sediments a radiochemical method was used to mineralize sediments and by ionic interchange it was separated from other elements, after that an electrodeposition of plutonium was made in metallic discs. The radioactivity of plutonium was measured by alpha spectrometry system and the alpha spectrums were obtained. The levels of plutonium are not higher than other countries that shown contamination. The contamination of isotope of 239+240Pu is higher than 238Pu and the contamination by two isotopes of plutonium is higher in the Atlantic than the Pacific ocean

  8. Derivation of decay heat benchmarks for U235 and Pu239 by a least squares fit to measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A least squares technique used by previous authors has been applied to an extended set of available decay heat measurements for both U235 and Pu239 to yield simultaneous fits to the corresponding beta, gamma and total decay heat. The analysis takes account of both systematic and statistical uncertainties, including correlations, via calculations which use covariance matrices constructed for the measured data. The results of the analysis are given in the form of beta, gamma and total decay heat estimates following fission pulses and a range of irradiation times in both U235 and Pu239. These decay heat estimates are considered to form a consistent set of benchmarks for use in the assessment of summation calculations. (author)

  9. Pulmonary retention and tissue distribution of 239Pu nitrate in F344 rats and syrian hamsters inhaling carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is possible that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to CCl4 and plutonium compounds. Potential for future exposure exists during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapon production sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. The current Threshold Limit Value for CCl4 is 5 ppm; however, concentrations of CCl4 occurring in the nuclear weapons facilities over the past 40-50 y are unknown and may have exceeded this value. The pilot study described in this report is designed to determine whether subchronic inhalation of CCl4 by CDFregister(F-344)/CrlBR rats and Syrian golden hamsters, at concentrations expected to produce some histologic changes in liver, alters the hepatic retention and toxic effects of inhaled 239Pu nitrate 239Pu(NO3)4

  10. Probing energy dissipation, γ-ray and neutron multiplicity in the thermal neutron-induced fission of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Mirfathi, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    The incorporation of the four-dimensional Langevin equations led to an integrative description of fission cross-section, fragment mass distribution and the multiplicity and energy distribution of prompt neutrons and γ-rays in the thermal neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. The dynamical approach presented in this paper thoroughly reproduces several experimental observables of the fission process at low excitation energy.

  11. Comparison of evaluations for 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu with integral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluations for 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu are considered. Intercomparison is made of the neutron cross section data from INDL/A, ENDL-84, ENDF/B-5 and ENDF/B-6 (where applicable). Integral measurements of the spectrum averaged cross sections are compared to the values derived from evaluated data libraries. (author). 40 refs, 49 figs, 11 tabs

  12. Diverse Host Responses and Outcomes following Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239 Infection in Sooty Mangabeys and Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amitinder; Grant, Robert M.; Means, Robert E.; McClure, Harold; Feinberg, Mark; Johnson, R. Paul

    1998-01-01

    Sooty mangabeys naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop immunodeficiency despite the presence of viral loads of 105 to 107 RNA copies/ml. To investigate the basis of apathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys, three sooty mangabeys and three rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 and evaluated longitudinally for 1 year. SIVmac239 infection of sooty mangabeys resulted in 2- to 4-log-lower viral loads than in macaques and did not reproduce the high viral loads observed in natural SIVsmm infection. During acute SIV infection, polyclonal cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity coincident with decline in peak plasma viremia was observed in both macaques and mangabeys; 8 to 20 weeks later, CTL activity declined in the macaques but was sustained and broadly directed in the mangabeys. Neutralizing antibodies to SIVmac239 were detected in the macaques but not the mangabeys. Differences in expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes or in the percentage of naive phenotype T cells expressing CD45RA and CD62L-selection did not correlate with development of AIDS in rhesus macaques. In macaques, the proportion of CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD25 declined during SIV infection, while in mangabeys, CD25-expressing CD4+ T lymphocytes increased. Longitudinal evaluation of cytokine secretion by flow cytometric analysis of unstimulated lymphocytes revealed elevation of interleukin-2 and gamma interferon in a macaque and only interleukin-10 in a concurrently infected mangabey during acute SIV infection. Differences in host responses following experimental SIVmac239 infection may be associated with the divergent outcome in sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques. PMID:9811693

  13. Probing energy dissipation, γ-ray and neutron multiplicity in the thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 239}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahlavani, M.R.; Mirfathi, S.M. [University of Mazandaran, Department of Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The incorporation of the four-dimensional Langevin equations led to an integrative description of fission cross-section, fragment mass distribution and the multiplicity and energy distribution of prompt neutrons and γ-rays in the thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 239}Pu. The dynamical approach presented in this paper thoroughly reproduces several experimental observables of the fission process at low excitation energy. (orig.)

  14. Extrapolation to man of the relation between activity and damage to organism of laboratory animals internally contaminated with 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relations were analyzed between the initial amount of the radionuclide deposited and mortality. The mortality curves were analyzed using the Gompaertz relation and the exponential relation was found between the rate of the mortality changes and 239Pu activity. Using comparative analysis the results of the model were approximated to man and compared with data published in the literature on human contamination. The comparison did not exclude the validity of the applied model. (author)

  15. Study of neutron-deficient isotopes of Fl in the 239Pu, 240Pu + 48Ca reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. A.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Brewer, N. T.; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Abdullin, F. Sh; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Tsyganov, Yu S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Vostokin, G. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Stoyer, M. A.; Strauss, S. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The results of the experiments aimed at the synthesis of Fl isotopes in the 239Pu + 48Ca and 240Pu + 48Ca reactions are presented. The experiment was performed using the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator at the U400 cyclotron. In the 239Pu+48Ca experiment one decay of spontaneously fissioning 284Fl was detected at 245-MeV beam energy. In the 240Pu+48Ca experiment three decay chains of 285Fl were detected at 245 MeV and four decays were assigned to 284Fl at the higher 48Ca beam energy of 250 MeV. The α-decay energy of 285Fl was measured for the first time and decay properties of its descendants 281Cn, 277Ds, 273Hs, 269Sg, and 265Rf were determined more precisely. The cross section of the 239Pu(48Ca,3n)284Fl reaction was observed to be about 20 times lower than those predicted by theoretical models and 50 times less than the value measured in the 244Pu+48Ca reaction. The cross sections of the 240Pu(48Ca,4-3n)284,285Fl at both 48Ca energies are similar and exceed that observed in the reaction with lighter isotope 239Pu by a factor of 10. The decay properties of the synthesized nuclei and their production cross sections indicate rapid decrease of stability of superheavy nuclei with departing from the neutron number N=184 predicted to be the next magic number.

  16. Distribution and source of (129)I, (239)(,240)Pu, (137)Cs in the environment of Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ežerinskis, Ž; Hou, X L; Druteikienė, R; Puzas, A; Šapolaitė, J; Gvozdaitė, R; Gudelis, A; Buivydas, Š; Remeikis, V

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for (129)I, (137)Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of (238)Pu/((239,24)0)Pu, (129)I/(127)I and (131)I/(137)Cs were used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02-0.18 and 0.18-0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 10(-9) to 10(-6) for (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio revealed that the source of (129)I in Lithuania is global fallout in most cases though several sampling sites shows a possible impact of reprocessing releases. Estimated (129)I/(131)I ratio in soil samples from the southern part of Lithuania shows negligible input of the Chernobyl fallout. No correlation of the (137)Cs and Pu isotopes with (129)I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout. PMID:26476410

  17. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  18. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahannah, F.N.; Maxwell, S.L. III.

    1992-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U{sup 235} and Pu{sup 239}. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U{sup 235} content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu{sup 239,240} by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U{sup 235} concentrations to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu{sup 239,240} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} g/L.

  19. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahannah, F.N.; Maxwell, S.L. III

    1992-08-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U{sup 235} and Pu{sup 239}. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U{sup 235} content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu{sup 239,240} by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U{sup 235} concentrations to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu{sup 239,240} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} g/L.

  20. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U235 and Pu239. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U235 content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu239,240 by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U235 concentrations to 1 x 10-4 g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu239,240 to 2 x 10-6 g/L

  1. Distribution and source of 129I, 239,240Pu, 137Cs in the environment of Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezerinskis, Z.; Hou, Xiaolin; Druteikiene, R.;

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for 129I, 137Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu, 129I/127I and 131I/137Cs were...... used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The 238Pu/239þ240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02e0.18 and 0.18e0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 109 to 106 for 129I/127I atomic....... No correlation of the 137Cs and Pu isotopes with 129I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout....

  2. Distribution and source of (129)I, (239)(,240)Pu, (137)Cs in the environment of Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ežerinskis, Ž; Hou, X L; Druteikienė, R; Puzas, A; Šapolaitė, J; Gvozdaitė, R; Gudelis, A; Buivydas, Š; Remeikis, V

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for (129)I, (137)Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of (238)Pu/((239,24)0)Pu, (129)I/(127)I and (131)I/(137)Cs were used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02-0.18 and 0.18-0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 10(-9) to 10(-6) for (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio revealed that the source of (129)I in Lithuania is global fallout in most cases though several sampling sites shows a possible impact of reprocessing releases. Estimated (129)I/(131)I ratio in soil samples from the southern part of Lithuania shows negligible input of the Chernobyl fallout. No correlation of the (137)Cs and Pu isotopes with (129)I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout.

  3. Pb-210 and Pu-239,240 in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pb-210, Ra-226, and Pu-239,240 activities were measured in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments. Sediment cores were collected from the Mississippi delta, and the western Gulf of Mexico shelf. Mississippi delta cores which exhibit significantly higher sedimentation rates show larger inventories of Pb-210. The measured Pu levels from the western shelf are lower than from the delta at comparable depths. In three of the western shelf cores, the observed Pu inventory is considerably less than predicted from atmospheric flux. Therefore, Pu is not being removed to the sediment, or is being released following deposition. A key difference between these isotopes is that Pu exists in a less particle-reactive state. The ratio of excess Pb-210 to Pu levels increases with water depth in the delta and the western shelf. Water depth acts as an integrator of depth-sensitive processes. Pu scavenging is more sensitive to these processes. A sub-surface Pu maximum has been observed. Excess Pb-210 and Pu levels correlate well with sedimentation rates. This suggests that particle flux is important in removal of Pb-210 and Pu to the sediment. The flux of Mn out of the sediment is correlated with inventory data, suggesting that redox cycling of Mn may play a role in increasing Pb-210 and Pu sediment inventories. It is unclear whether the effects of increased sedimentation rates and increased Mn fluxes can be evaluated independently. Mixing of surface sediment correlates with inventory data. Increased sediment mixing allows for additional scavenging of Pb-210 and Pu from overlying waters. Mixing of sediment at depths below the mixed surface layer may play a role in increasing sediment inventories of Pb-210 and Pu

  4. Spa therapy for elderly: a retrospective study of 239 older patients with osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Dişçi, Rian; Gürdal, Hatice; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2016-10-01

    Very few studies tested the effectiveness of spa therapy in older patients with osteoarthritis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of spa therapy in patients aged 65 years and older with generalized, knee, hip, and cervical and lumbar spine osteoarthritis. In an observational retrospective study design at the Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology Department of Istanbul Medical Faculty, we analyzed the records of 239 patients aged over 65 years with the diagnosis of all types of osteoarthritis who were prescribed a spa therapy course in some spa resorts in Turkey between 7 March 2002 and 31 December 2012. They travelled to a spa resort where they stayed at a thermal spa hotel and followed the usual therapy packages for 2 weeks. Patients were assessed by an experienced physician within a week before the spa journey and within a week after the completion of the spa therapy. Compared with baseline in whole sample, statistically significant improvements were observed in pain (visual analog scale, VAS), patient and physician global assessments (VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), Lequesne algofunctional index (LAFI) for knee, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC), Waddell disability index (WDI), and Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD). According to Outcome Measures in Rheumatology—Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) Set of Responder Criteria, responder rate were 63.8 % (51/80) in generalized, 52 % (13/25) in knee, 50 % (2/4) in hip, 66.7 % (8/12) in lumbar, and 100 % (6/6) in cervical osteoarthritis subgroups. Spa therapy improved pain and physical functional status in older patients with osteoarthritis, especially generalized osteoarthritis and multiple joint osteoarthritis with involvement of knee. This improvement was clinically important in majority of the patients. To confirm the results of this preliminary study, there is a need of a randomized controlled clinical study

  5. Spa therapy for elderly: a retrospective study of 239 older patients with osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Dişçi, Rian; Gürdal, Hatice; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Very few studies tested the effectiveness of spa therapy in older patients with osteoarthritis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of spa therapy in patients aged 65 years and older with generalized, knee, hip, and cervical and lumbar spine osteoarthritis. In an observational retrospective study design at the Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology Department of Istanbul Medical Faculty, we analyzed the records of 239 patients aged over 65 years with the diagnosis of all types of osteoarthritis who were prescribed a spa therapy course in some spa resorts in Turkey between 7 March 2002 and 31 December 2012. They travelled to a spa resort where they stayed at a thermal spa hotel and followed the usual therapy packages for 2 weeks. Patients were assessed by an experienced physician within a week before the spa journey and within a week after the completion of the spa therapy. Compared with baseline in whole sample, statistically significant improvements were observed in pain (visual analog scale, VAS), patient and physician global assessments (VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), Lequesne algofunctional index (LAFI) for knee, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC), Waddell disability index (WDI), and Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD). According to Outcome Measures in Rheumatology—Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) Set of Responder Criteria, responder rate were 63.8 % (51/80) in generalized, 52 % (13/25) in knee, 50 % (2/4) in hip, 66.7 % (8/12) in lumbar, and 100 % (6/6) in cervical osteoarthritis subgroups. Spa therapy improved pain and physical functional status in older patients with osteoarthritis, especially generalized osteoarthritis and multiple joint osteoarthritis with involvement of knee. This improvement was clinically important in majority of the patients. To confirm the results of this preliminary study, there is a need of a randomized controlled clinical study

  6. Comparative genomics and drug resistance of a geographic variant of ST239 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Two distinct classes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are spreading in hospitals (as hospital-acquired MRSA, HA-MRSA and in the community (as community-acquired MRSA, CA-MRSA. Multilocus sequence type (ST 239 MRSA, one of the most worldwide-disseminated lineages, has been noted as a representative HA-MRSA. Here, we isolated ST239 MRSA (spa type 3 [t037] and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec [SCCmec] type III.1.1.1 and its novel variant with ST239/spa351 (t030/SCCmecIII.1.1.4 (SCCmecIII(R not only from hospitals but also from patients with urethritis in the community in Russia. The Russian variant (strain 16K possessed a hybrid genome consisting of CC8 and CC30, similar to the ST239/spa3/SCCmecIII.1.1.1 HA-MRSA (TW20 genome, but with marked diversity. The 16K' CC30 section had SCCmecIII(R carrying the dcs-carrying unit (which corresponded to the SCCmecIVc J3 joining region of ST30 CA-MRSA, lacked SCCmercury, and possessed a novel mobile element structure (MES16K carrying the ccrC-carrying unit (with the recombinase gene ccrC1 allele 3 and drug resistance tranposons. The Russian variant included strains with a high ability to transfer its multiple drug resistance by conjugation; e.g., for strain 16K, the transfer frequency of a chloramphenicol resistance plasmid (p16K-1 with 2.9 kb in size reached 1.4×10(-2, followed by Tn554 conjugative transfer at 3.6×l0(-4. The Russian variant, which has been increasing recently, included divergent strains with different plasmid patterns and pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles. The data demonstrate the alternative nature of ST239 MRSA as CA-MRSA and also as a drug resistance disseminator, and its micro but dynamic evolution in Russia.

  7. Photonuclear reactions of U-233 and Pu-239 near threshold induced by thermal neutron capture gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photonuclear cross sections of U-293 and Pu-239 have been studied by using monochromatic and discrete photons, in the energy interval from 5.49 to 9.72 MeV, produced by thermal neutron capture. The gamma fluxes incident on the samples were measured using a ( 3 x 3 )'' NaI (TI) crystal. The photofission fragments were detected in Makrofol-Kg (SSNTD). A possible structure was observed in the U-233 cross sections, near 7.23 MeV. The relative fissionability of the nuclides was determined at each excitation energy and shown to be energy independent: ( 2.12 ± 0.25) for U-233 and ( 3.32 ± 0.41 ) for Pu-239. The angular distribution of photofission fragments of Pu-239 were measured at two mean excitation energies of 5.43 and 7.35 MeV. An anisotropic distribution of ( 12.2 ± 3.6 ) % was observed at 5.43 MeV. The total neutron cross sections were measured by using a long counter detector. The photoneutron cross sections were calculated by using energy dependent neutron multiplicities values, γ(E), obtained in the literature. The competition Γn/γf was also determined at each excitation energy, and shown to be energy independent: ( 0.54 ± 0.05 ) for U-233 and ( 0.44 ± 0.05 ) for Pu-239, and were correlated to the parameters Z sup(2)/A, ( Ef'-Bn'), A. According to the FUJIMOTO-YAMAGUCHI and CONSTANT NUCLEAR TEMPERATURE models, the nuclear temperatures were calculated. The total photoabsorption cross sections were also calculated as a sum of the photofission and photoneutron cross sections at each energy excitation. From these results the competition Γf/ΓA, called fission probability Pf, were obtained: ( 0.66 ± 0.02) for U-233 and ( 0.70 ± 0.02 ) for Pu-239. (author)

  8. On uncertainties and fluctuations of averaged neutron cross sections in unresolved resonance energy region for 235U, 238U, 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the reasons for the differences which exist between group-averaged evaluated cross-section data from different evaluated data files for U235, U238 and Pu239 in the unresolved resonance energy region. (author)

  9. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation......, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference...... values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of 239+240Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of 239Pu and 240Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure 239Pu and 240Pu separately but also 241...

  10. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl4 and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl4 by hamsters reduces uptake of 239Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the 239Pu to the skeleton

  11. Simultaneous evaluation for (n,f) cross section of 235U, 239Pu, 238U and (n,γ) cross sections of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission cross sections for 235U, 238U, 239Pu, the capture cross sections for 238U and the ratios for 239Pu(n,f)/235U(n,f), 238U(m,f)/235U(n,f), 238U(n,γ)/235U(n,f) were firstly evaluated respectively. The experimental data were collected, analysed, selected and corrected. The data were fitted with spline fit program

  12. Characterization of ^{239,240}Pu Radionuclide Adsorption to Soil Particles and Mineral Dust Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatro, D. P.; Arimoto, R.; McMillan, N. J.; Barnes, M.

    2006-12-01

    The release of ^{239,240}Pu into the environment by nuclear weapons testing 50 years ago initiated the cyclic mobilization of Pu-contaminated soil particles via the resuspension of dust resulting in a widespread distribution of Pu and other radionuclides. It is unclear what enables the aeolian transport of Pu in the environment; plausible hypotheses of Pu binding to dust and soil particles include Pu adsorption to iron oxides/hydroxides, organic acids, or silicate minerals such as clays. To investigate the connections between surface soils, dust and radionuclides, samples of soil and/or dust were collected from the Project Gnome Site in Eddy County, NM, the Jemez Mountains near Los Alamos, NM, and two 50-year old attics and wind-blown dust in Big Spring, TX. This study tests the hypothesis that Pu is adsorbed onto Fe oxides and hydroxides that coat dust/soil particles. The samples are generally low in organic carbon (0.2 - 4.8%, except for the unburned Los Alamos sample at 9.4%), as measured by LOI (Loss On Ignition) at 360 °C. The citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite method (CDB) of Fe oxide removal, first proposed by Mehra and Jackson in 1960, was used to selectively extract Fe oxides from the samples while leaving silicate Fe intact. Chemical digestion of each sample creates two fractions, the extracted supernatant and a solid pellet residue. If the Pu were associated with Fe oxides, then Fe and Pu should both be selectively removed from the bulk sample during the CBD process, leaving the pellet depleted in Fe and Pu and the supernatant enriched. For Fe, this was confirmed by scanning electron microscope and petrographic analyses. Preliminary radiochemical analyses of Pu activity also verify this hypothesis. Pu activity is significantly lower in pellets than bulk samples (Pu activitypellet/Pu activitybulk average = 0.07, range 0.02-0.12); Pu activity in supernatants is significantly higher than in bulk samples (Pu activitysupernatant/Pu activitybulk average = 4

  13. Photofission cross sections of U-233 and Pu-239 near threshold induced by gamma-rays from thermal neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photofission cross sections of U-233 and PU-239 have been studied using monochromatic photons produced by thermal neutron capture in several materials placed in a radial beam hole of the IEA-R1, 2 MW pool type research reactor, in the energy interval from 5.43 MeV to 9.72 MeV. The gamma flux incident on the samples were measured using a (3X3) inch. NaI(Tl) crystal. The photofission fragments were detected in MAKROFOL-KG (solid state nuclear track detector) etched 30 min. in a KOH (35%wt) solution at 600C. The efficiency of the detector was obtained using a Californium-252 calibrated source and its value was (0.4323 ± 3%). The tracks were counted by means of an automatic spark counting. Analyzing the photofission data we have observed similarities between the cross sections obtained for the two samples in comparison with other authors. A structure was also observed in the U-233 cross section near the energy of 7.23 MeW. Acoording to the liquid drop model the height of the simple fission barrier were determined: (5.6 ± 0.2) MeV and (5.7 ± 0.2) MeV for U-233 and Pu-239 respectively. The relative fissionability of the samples to U-238 were also determined in each excitation energy and showed to be energy independent: (2.12 +-0.25) for U-233, and (3.32+-0.41) for Pu-239. (author)

  14. Bioturbation depths, rates and processes in Massachusetts Bay sediments inferred from modeling of 210Pb and 239 + 240Pu profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, John; Bothner, Michael H.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2004-01-01

    Profiles of 210Pb and 239 + Pu from sediment cores collected throughout Massachusetts Bay (water depths of 36-192 m) are interpreted with the aid of a numerical sediment-mixing model to infer bioturbation depths, rates and processes. The nuclide data suggest extensive bioturbation to depths of 25-35 cm. Roughly half the cores have 210Pb and 239 + 240Pu profiles that decrease monotonically from the surface and are consistent with biodiffusive mixing. Bioturbation rates are reasonably well constrained by these profiles and vary from ~0.7 to ~40 cm2 yr-1. As a result of this extensive reworking, however, sediment ages cannot be accurately determined from these radionuclides and only upper limits on sedimentation rates (of ~0.3 cm yr-1) can be inferred. The other half of the radionuclide profiles are characterized by subsurface maxima in each nuclide, which cannot be reproduced by biodiffusive mixing models. A numerical model is used to demonstrate that mixing caused by organisms that feed at the sediment surface and defecate below the surface can cause the subsurface maxima, as suggested by previous work. The deep penetration depths of excess 210Pb and 239 + 240Pu suggest either that the organisms release material over a range of >15 cm depth or that biodiffusive mixing mediated by other organisms is occurring at depth. Additional constraints from surficial sediment 234Th data suggest that in this half of the cores, the vast majority of the present-day flux of recent, nuclide-bearing material to these core sites is transported over a timescale of a month or more to a depth of a few centimeters below the sediment surface. As a consequence of the complex mixing processes, surface sediments include material spanning a range of ages and will not accurately record recent changes in contaminant deposition.

  15. Determination of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study allowed to determine the concentration of radioactivity alpha, due to contamination for plutonium in cultivated soils of different regions of Guatemala. They were carried out samplings for convenience in cultivated soils of 15 departments of the republic, determined in each soils sample, the activity concentration for plutonium 238Plutonium and 239+240Plutonium expressed in mili-becquerel by kilogram (mBq/Kg), which has been caused from all over the world by the different provoked liberations or accidents of radioactive particles to the atmosphere

  16. Reactor decay heat in 239Pu: solving the γ discrepancy in the 4-3000-s cooling period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, A; Jordan, D; Taín, J L; Rubio, B; Agramunt, J; Perez-Cerdan, A B; Molina, F; Caballero, L; Nácher, E; Krasznahorkay, A; Hunyadi, M D; Gulyás, J; Vitéz, A; Csatlós, M; Csige, L; Aysto, J; Penttilä, H; Moore, I D; Eronen, T; Jokinen, A; Nieminen, A; Hakala, J; Karvonen, P; Kankainen, A; Saastamoinen, A; Rissanen, J; Kessler, T; Weber, C; Ronkainen, J; Rahaman, S; Elomaa, V; Rinta-Antila, S; Hager, U; Sonoda, T; Burkard, K; Hüller, W; Batist, L; Gelletly, W; Nichols, A L; Yoshida, T; Sonzogni, A A; Peräjärvi, K

    2010-11-12

    The β feeding probability of (102,104,105,106,107)Tc, 105Mo, and 101Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the γ component of the decay heat for 239Pu in the 4-3000 s range. PMID:21231223

  17. Reactor Decay Heat in 239Pu: Solving the Gamma Discrepancy in the 4–3000-s Cooling Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algora, A.; Sonzogni, A.; Algora,A.; Jordan,D.; Tain,J.L.; Rubio,B.; Agramunt,J.; Perez-Cerdan,A.B.; Molina,F; Caballero,L.; Nacher,E.; Krasznahorkay,A.; Hunyadi,M.D.; Gulyas,J; Vitez,A.; Csatlos,M.; Csige,L.; Aysto,J.; Penttila,H.; Moore,I.D.; Eronen,T.; Jokinen,A.; Nieminen,A.; Hakala,J.; Karvonen,P.; Kankainen,A.; Saastamoinen,A.; Rissanen,J.; Kessler,T.; Weber,C.; Ronkainen,J.; Rahaman,S.; Elomaa,V.; Rinta-Antila,S.; Hager,U.; Sonoda,T.; Burkard,K.; Huller,W.; Batist,L.; Gelletly,W.; Nichols,A.L.; Yoshida,T.; Sonzogni,A.A.; Perajarvi,K.

    2010-11-08

    The {beta} feeding probability of {sup 102,104,105,106,107}Tc, {sup 105}Mo, and {sup 101}Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the {gamma} component of the decay heat for {sup 239}Pu in the 4-3000 s range.

  18. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963); Metabolisme et toxicologie du plutonium 239 - evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [French] Apres avoir passe en revue les principales proprietes metaboliques et toxicologiques du plutonium 239, ainsi que les normes professionnelles actuellement en vigueur, le rapport aborde le probleme difficile de l'evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees. Cette evaluation est fonction de l'organisation pratique de la surveillance: - surveillance systematique par des analyses periodiques de Pu urinaire et surveillance speciale en cas d'incidents par des examens appropries a chaque cas. Une interpretation simple des analyses systematiques, ainsi que des methodes d'evaluation utilisables dans les principaux cas de contamination accidentelle sont exposees. (auteur)

  19. Migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239+240Pu in Mediterranean forests: influence of bioavailability and association with organic acids in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of downward migration of anthropogenic radionuclides in soil is a key factor in the assessment of their environmental behavior. There are several factors that can affect this process, such as the radionuclide source, their chemical form, soil and environmental characteristics, etc. Two Mediterranean pinewood ecosystems in Spain, which were affected mainly by global fallout, were selected to assess the migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239+240Pu. Using auxiliary modeling (diffusion–convection equation and compartmental model), it followed from field observations that the migration velocities of 90Sr and 239+240Pu were similar and higher than that of 137Cs. The downward migration of radionuclides can be considered a consequence of their association with soil particles. A sequential speciation procedure also confirmed that 90Sr was the most bioavailable radionuclide followed by 239+240Pu and 137Cs. Although this can explain the different velocity of 90Sr and 137Cs, bioavailability could not explain by itself the similar velocities of 239+240Pu and 90Sr. The presence of organic acids in the soil can also influence the migration of radionuclides attached to them, which decreased in the order: 239+240Pu > 90Sr > 137Cs. Thus, the joint consideration of bioavailable and humic + fulvic acid fractions can explain the observed differences in the downward velocities. - Highlights: • Downward migration velocities of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in two Mediterranean forests were determined. • Downward migration velocities: 90Sr ≈ 239+240Pu > 137Cs. • Bioavailability by itself (90Sr > 239+240Pu > 137Cs) does not explain differences in migration velocities. • Humic + Fulvic acids: 239+240Pu > 90Sr > 137Cs. • Humic + Fulvic acids and bioavailable fraction can explain the downward migration velocities

  20. First measurements of (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratios in a Southern Hemisphere soil far from nuclear test or reactor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srncik, M; Tims, S G; De Cesare, M; Fifield, L K

    2014-06-01

    The variation of the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations as a function of depth has been studied in a soil profile at a site in the Southern Hemisphere well removed from nuclear weapon test sites. Total inventories of (236)U and (239)Pu as well as the (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio were derived. For this investigation a soil core from an undisturbed forest area in the Herbert River catchment (17°30' - 19°S) which is located in north-eastern Queensland (Australia) was chosen. The chemical separation of U and Pu was carried out with a double column which has the advantage of the extraction of both elements from a relatively large soil sample (∼20 g) within a day. The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using the 14UD pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. The highest atom concentrations of both (236)U and (239)Pu were found at a depth of 2-3 cm. The (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio in fallout at this site, as deduced from the ratio of the (236)U and (239)Pu inventories, is 0.085 ± 0.003 which is clearly lower than the Northern Hemisphere value of ∼0.2. The (236)U inventory of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10(11) at/m(2) was more than an order of magnitude lower than values reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The (239)Pu activity concentrations are in excellent agreement with a previous study and the (239+240)Pu inventory was (13.85 ± 0.29) Bq/m(2). The weighted mean (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio of 0.142 ± 0.005 is slightly lower than the value for global fallout, but our results are consistent with the average ratio of 0.173 ± 0.027 for the southern equatorial region (0-30°S).

  1. Determination of 90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu in waters with use of preliminary concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the simultaneous determination of artificial radionuclides (90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu) in water samples is described. The following preconcentration steps are used: co-precipitation of cesium on copper ferrocyanide; co-precipitation of plutonium on iron hydroxide; and precipitation of strontium in the carbonate form. The chemical yield is determined by using the tracers: 88Y, 85Sr, 134Cs and 236Pu or 242Pu. The method was applied to the determination of artificial radionuclides in water sources at nuclear test sites - the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and the 'Azgir' and 'Lira' test sites. The volume of water samples was 0.5 - 30.0 l, and the mineralization ranged from 0.1g/l to 100 g/l. The determination limits were: < 1 mBq/l for cesium-137; 0.02 mBq/l for plutonium-(239+240); and 1.5 mBq/l for strontium-90. The chemical yield was 60 - 90%

  2. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Justin; Skutnik, Steven; Glasgow, David; Kapsimalis, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Rapid nondestructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis facility has developed a generalized nondestructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and makes use of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a complete characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% recovery bias have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 ng in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 198 ng of fissile mass with less than 7% recovery bias. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. It is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation facilities, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.

  3. Investigation of resonance structure and Doppler-effect of cross sections for 232 Th, 235 U and 239 Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measuring the neutron transmissions for 232 Th, 235 U and 239 Pu metal samples carried out at the 60 m, 123 m and 1006 m flight paths of the Dubna IBR-30 booster in the neutron energy range of 2 eV - 200 keV are given and discussed. The measurements were made at the room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The batteries of 3 boron and 26 helium counters were used as detectors. The results of the calculations of analogous transmissions realized on the base of the evaluated data libraries BROND-2, ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3 by means of the GRUCON computer program package are also given. It is concluded that the 235 U Doppler coefficients and effective total cross sections taken from measured transmissions are in a good agreement with calculation results based on the ENDF/B-6 library at energies of 2.15 eV - 200 keV. The BROND-2 and JENDL-3 parameters give the Doppler coefficients and effective cross sections which are 10-30% higher than the experimental and ENDF/B-6 ones at the resonance energies of 46.5 - 465 eV. For 239 Pu there is agreement of the experimental and calculational results within the experimental error limits. For 232 Th experimental values for the Doppler coefficients and effective cross sections are 10-15% higher than the calculated ones with all libraries in resonance energy region. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. The induction of nuclear abnormalities in the alveolar macrophages of mouse lung after inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of inhaled 239PuO2 on the free-cell population of the lungs of CBA/H mice have been studied using broncho-alveolar lavage following initial alveolar depositions (IADs) of 209 to 2800 Bq. The numbers of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were quantified using a radioactive tracer technique. The number of PAM declined soon after exposure; the extent of the depression and the time taken to reach the nadir were both dose-dependent. Numbers eventually returned to normal but, with high IADs, only after 3 months. The number of binucleate PAM and those with micronuclei increased following relatively low IADs in a dose-dependent manner. Micronucleate PAM were the most sensitive indicator of cellular damage as a result of 239PuO2 inhalation, providing a short-term assessment of radiation damage to lung cells at doses known to produce lung tumors. The results also provide further evidence that mitosis in PAM, or in their precursor cells, does occur within the lung. (author)

  5. 242Pu as tracer for simultaneous determination of 237Np and 239,240Pu in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.;

    2002-01-01

    A procedure has been developed using Pu-242 as tracer for simultaneous determination of Np-237 and Pu-239,Pu-240 in environmental samples. The validity of the method has been demonstrated by ICPMS and alpha-spectroscopy for up to 10 gram soil and sediment, seawater up to 200 litres. The paper...... describes a suitable chemical procedure for Np and Pu including a quantitative pre-concentration of neptunium and plutonium, preparation of Np4+ and Pu4+, NP(NO3)(6)(2-) and Pu(NO3)(6)(2-), The ratio of Np-237/Pu-242 (or Np-237/Pu-239) before and after the procedure has been determined using 10 g soil (free...... from Np and Pu) R-before/R-after = 1.004 +/- 3.3% (S.D n = 20) and 1 litre seawater R-before/R-after = 1.019+/-1.9% (S.D., n = 12). Results from the intercomparison samples LAEA-135, LAEA-381 and from environmental samples are presented....

  6. Determination of Pu-239, 240 tissue concentrations in non-occupationally exposed residents of New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.

    1977-03-01

    The study reports on the Pu-239, 240 concentrations in various tissues obtained from individuals residing in New York City. Twenty-six tissue samples have been analyzed for their Pu-239, 240 content, which include sections from the right lung, the liver, bone (4th and 5th vertebrae) and the kidney. The tissues were obtained at autopsy from a selected population not occupationally exposed to plutonium and whose deaths were the result of causes other than metabolic disorders. A detailed description is presented of the radiochemical procedures employed to separate Pu and electrochemically deposit plutonium isotopes prior to alpha spectrometry with Si surface-barrier detectors. Results of these measurements are given as activity per gram wet weight and activity per gram of calcium in the individual tissue. All results have been compared to similar measurements made at other laboratories and with estimates of concentration based on metabolic models. To date, the magnitudes and the distribution of the measured values are consistent with the values inferred from the ICRP lung model and measured concentrations of air.

  7. A modelling study on {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu behaviour in the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perianez, R. [Departamento Fisica Aplicada I, E.U. Ingenieria Tecnica Agricola, Universidad de Sevilla, Ctra., Utrera km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: rperianez@us.es

    2008-04-15

    A model for simulating the dispersion processes of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in the Alboran Sea is described. The model consists of two hydrodynamic models: a 2D depth-averaged model and a two-layer model which provide tidal and geostrophic currents, respectively; a sediment transport model which provides suspended particle concentrations and sedimentation rates over the domain; and the radionuclide dispersion model including interactions of dissolved radionuclides with suspended particles and bed sediments. These processes are formulated using kinetic transfer coefficients. The hydrodynamic and sediment models are run and validated in advance, and their results are then used to simulate the dispersion of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu, which are introduced from atmospheric fallout. Radionuclide concentrations in the water column and distributions in bed sediments have been compared with measurements in the sea. Both set of data are, in general, in agreement. The model has also been applied to calculate radionuclide fluxes through the Strait of Gibraltar. These computed fluxes have been compared with previous estimations as well.

  8. Migration of (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (239+240)Pu in Mediterranean forests: influence of bioavailability and association with organic acids in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J; Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Muñoz-Muñoz, J G

    2015-06-01

    The understanding of downward migration of anthropogenic radionuclides in soil is a key factor in the assessment of their environmental behavior. There are several factors that can affect this process, such as the radionuclide source, their chemical form, soil and environmental characteristics, etc. Two Mediterranean pinewood ecosystems in Spain, which were affected mainly by global fallout, were selected to assess the migration of (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (239+240)Pu. Using auxiliary modeling (diffusion-convection equation and compartmental model), it followed from field observations that the migration velocities of (90)Sr and (239+240)Pu were similar and higher than that of (137)Cs. The downward migration of radionuclides can be considered a consequence of their association with soil particles. A sequential speciation procedure also confirmed that (90)Sr was the most bioavailable radionuclide followed by (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs. Although this can explain the different velocity of (90)Sr and (137)Cs, bioavailability could not explain by itself the similar velocities of (239+240)Pu and (90)Sr. The presence of organic acids in the soil can also influence the migration of radionuclides attached to them, which decreased in the order: (239+240)Pu > (90)Sr > (137)Cs. Thus, the joint consideration of bioavailable and humic + fulvic acid fractions can explain the observed differences in the downward velocities.

  9. Soluble guanylyl cyclase-activated cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell migration independent of VASP-serine 239 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Andrew W; Martin, Danielle N; Shaver, Patti R; Adderley, Shaquria P; Stone, Joshua D; Joshi, Chintamani N; Francisco, Jake T; Lust, Robert M; Weidner, Douglas A; Shewchuk, Brian M; Tulis, David A

    2016-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for over half of all cardiovascular disease-related deaths. Uncontrolled arterial smooth muscle (ASM) cell migration is a major component of CAD pathogenesis and efforts aimed at attenuating its progression are clinically essential. Cyclic nucleotide signaling has long been studied for its growth-mitigating properties in the setting of CAD and other vascular disorders. Heme-containing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and maintains vascular homeostasis predominantly through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling. Considering that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can interfere with appropriate sGC signaling by oxidizing the cyclase heme moiety and so are associated with several CVD pathologies, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that heme-independent sGC activation by BAY 60-2770 (BAY60) maintains cGMP levels despite heme oxidation and inhibits ASM cell migration through phosphorylation of the PKG target and actin-binding vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). First, using the heme oxidant ODQ, cGMP content was potentiated in the presence of BAY60. Using a rat model of arterial growth, BAY60 significantly reduced neointima formation and luminal narrowing compared to vehicle (VEH)-treated controls. In rat ASM cells BAY60 significantly attenuated cell migration, reduced G:F actin, and increased PKG activity and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation (pVASP·S239) compared to VEH controls. Site-directed mutagenesis was then used to generate overexpressing full-length wild type VASP (FL-VASP/WT), VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-mimetic (FL-VASP/239D) and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-resistant (FL-VASP/239A) ASM cell mutants. Surprisingly, FL-VASP/239D negated the inhibitory effects of FL-VASP/WT and FL-VASP/239A cells on migration. Furthermore, when FL-VASP mutants were treated with BAY60, only the FL-VASP/239D group showed reduced migration compared to its VEH controls

  10. Soluble guanylyl cyclase-activated cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell migration independent of VASP-serine 239 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Andrew W; Martin, Danielle N; Shaver, Patti R; Adderley, Shaquria P; Stone, Joshua D; Joshi, Chintamani N; Francisco, Jake T; Lust, Robert M; Weidner, Douglas A; Shewchuk, Brian M; Tulis, David A

    2016-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for over half of all cardiovascular disease-related deaths. Uncontrolled arterial smooth muscle (ASM) cell migration is a major component of CAD pathogenesis and efforts aimed at attenuating its progression are clinically essential. Cyclic nucleotide signaling has long been studied for its growth-mitigating properties in the setting of CAD and other vascular disorders. Heme-containing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and maintains vascular homeostasis predominantly through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling. Considering that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can interfere with appropriate sGC signaling by oxidizing the cyclase heme moiety and so are associated with several CVD pathologies, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that heme-independent sGC activation by BAY 60-2770 (BAY60) maintains cGMP levels despite heme oxidation and inhibits ASM cell migration through phosphorylation of the PKG target and actin-binding vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). First, using the heme oxidant ODQ, cGMP content was potentiated in the presence of BAY60. Using a rat model of arterial growth, BAY60 significantly reduced neointima formation and luminal narrowing compared to vehicle (VEH)-treated controls. In rat ASM cells BAY60 significantly attenuated cell migration, reduced G:F actin, and increased PKG activity and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation (pVASP·S239) compared to VEH controls. Site-directed mutagenesis was then used to generate overexpressing full-length wild type VASP (FL-VASP/WT), VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-mimetic (FL-VASP/239D) and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-resistant (FL-VASP/239A) ASM cell mutants. Surprisingly, FL-VASP/239D negated the inhibitory effects of FL-VASP/WT and FL-VASP/239A cells on migration. Furthermore, when FL-VASP mutants were treated with BAY60, only the FL-VASP/239D group showed reduced migration compared to its VEH controls

  11. Pertubation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediments following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, P.I.; León Vintró, L.; Dahlgaard, H.;

    1997-01-01

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marinesediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratio of similar to 0.18. Measurement of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had...... been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing (e.g. Bikini Atoll, Nevada test site, Mururoa Atoll), has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the Pu-240/Pu-239 ratio has been examined...... in samples of sediment (and soil) collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The Pu-240/Pu-239 ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry...

  12. Generation of neutralizing antibodies and divergence of SIVmac239 in cynomolgus macaques following short-term early antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Ozkaya Sahin

    Full Text Available Neutralizing antibodies (NAb able to react to heterologous viruses are generated during natural HIV-1 infection in some individuals. Further knowledge is required in order to understand the factors contributing to induction of cross-reactive NAb responses. Here a well-established model of experimental pathogenic infection in cynomolgus macaques, which reproduces long-lasting HIV-1 infection, was used to study the NAb response as well as the viral evolution of the highly neutralization-resistant SIVmac239. Twelve animals were infected intravenously with SIVmac239. Antiretroviral therapy (ART was initiated ten days post-inoculation and administered daily for four months. Viral load, CD4(+ T-cell counts, total IgG levels, and breadth as well as strength of NAb in plasma were compared simultaneously over 14 months. In addition, envs from plasma samples were sequenced at three time points in all animals in order to assess viral evolution. We report here that seven of the 12 animals controlled viremia to below 10(4 copies/ml of plasma after discontinuation of ART and that this control was associated with a low level of evolutionary divergence. Macaques that controlled viral load developed broader NAb responses early on. Furthermore, escape mutations, such as V67M and R751G, were identified in virus sequenced from all animals with uncontrolled viremia. Bayesian estimation of ancestral population genetic diversity (PGD showed an increase in this value in non-controlling or transient-controlling animals during the first 5.5 months of infection, in contrast to virus-controlling animals. Similarly, non- or transient controllers displayed more positively-selected amino-acid substitutions. An early increase in PGD, resulting in the generation of positively-selected amino-acid substitutions, greater divergence and relative high viral load after ART withdrawal, may have contributed to the generation of potent NAb in several animals after SIVmac239 infection

  13. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author)

  14. Development of 239Pu total cross section multilevel parameters determination technique by analysing experiments on neutron transmission in resolved resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is development of S-matrix multilevel resonance parameters determination technique with neutron transmission data used in resolved resonance region. Experimental transmission data values were obtained for the Pu-239 thickness range 0.00217-0.1234 nucl/barns on the time-of-flight spectrometer with 70 ns/m resolution. S-matrix Adler's formalism with least square method fit were used for experimental data description. The method developed enables to justify the resonance-resonance interference parameters H. Its possibilities are demonstrated by determination of these parameters for four resonances of the Pu-239 total cross section

  15. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  16. Applicability of {sup 239}Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, R., E-mail: rajeev.lal@anu.edu.au [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Tims, S.G.; Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wasson, R.J.; Howe, D. [Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of {sup 239}Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (<25a) and which had a history of grazing and cultivation the measured soil loss rates over the past {approx}50 years were 7.5-19.5 t ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}. The measured rates are up to 5 times higher compared to agricultural and uncultivated areas within soil conservation banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  17. Applicability of 239Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, R.; Tims, S. G.; Fifield, L. K.; Wasson, R. J.; Howe, D.

    2013-01-01

    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of 239Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (soil loss rates over the past ∼50 years were 7.5-19.5 t ha-1 a-1. The measured rates are up to 5 times higher compared to agricultural and uncultivated areas within soil conservation banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  18. Development of a rapid radiochemical procedure for the separation of /sup 235m/U from 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a rapid radiochemical procedure for the isolation and purification of /sup 235m/U (t/sub 1/2/ = 26 minutes) from 239Pu samples up to 250 mg. Purpose of developing the procedure was to measure the thermal neutron fission cross section of the isomeric meta state of 235U. We used rapid small-scale anion exchange columns that absorbed uranium in concentrated HBr but did not absorb plutonium. Uranium was easily eluted with very dilute HF. The separation time required 25 to 35 minutes. We were able to attain a separation factor of uranium from plutonium of approximately 1 x 1010 with samples ranging from 1 x 1010 to 3 x 1011. The ratio of the fission cross sections for the meta to ground state was measured to be 1.42. 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Alpha and Conversion Electron Spectroscopy of 238, 239Pu and 241Am and Alpha-Conversion Electron Coincidence Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-05-17

    A technique to determine the isotopics of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by measuring the coincidence of the alpha particle during radioactive decay with the conversion electron (or Auger) emitted during the relaxation of the daughter isotope. This presents a unique signature to allow the deconvolution of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector. A passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector provided measurements of alpha spectroscopy. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20–55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information to aid in the coincident measurement approach.

  20. The deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled 239PuO2 in the lungs of rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individuals with chronic obstructive lung disease, such as emphysema, may be more susceptible to injury from other inhaled pollutants. However, dose-response studies of inhaled radionuclides conducted to aid in estimating the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in man have typically used healthy laboratory animals. Changes in radionuclide deposition, distribution and retention in the lungs as the result of pre-existing lung diseases could alter the radiation dose or the resulting biological effects. An experimental animal model for human emphysema, in which emphysema is induced by the intratracheal instillation of either elastase or papain, has been reviewed. This model was used to study the effects of pulmonary emphysema on the deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled 239PuO2 in rats. (author)

  1. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n,f) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Regnier, D; Schunck, N; Verriere, M

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically using the time dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in tw...

  2. Evaluating the 239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Induced by Thermal to 30 MeV Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudecker, D.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Kahler, A. C.; Rising, M. E.; White, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new evaluation of the 239Pu prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) induced by thermal to 30 MeV neutrons. Compared to the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, this one includes recently published experimental data as well as an improved and extended model description to predict PFNS. For instance, the pre-equilibrium neutron emission component to the PFNS is considered and the incident energy dependence of model parameters is parametrized more realistically. Experimental and model parameter uncertainties and covariances are estimated in detail. Also, evaluated covariances are provided between all PFNS at different incident neutron energies. Selected evaluation results and first benchmark calculations using this evaluation are briefly discussed.

  3. Evaluating the 239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Induced by Thermal to 30 MeV Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neudecker D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new evaluation of the 239Pu prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS induced by thermal to 30 MeV neutrons. Compared to the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, this one includes recently published experimental data as well as an improved and extended model description to predict PFNS. For instance, the pre-equilibrium neutron emission component to the PFNS is considered and the incident energy dependence of model parameters is parametrized more realistically. Experimental and model parameter uncertainties and covariances are estimated in detail. Also, evaluated covariances are provided between all PFNS at different incident neutron energies. Selected evaluation results and first benchmark calculations using this evaluation are briefly discussed.

  4. Handling of a glove box accident. Surgical treatment of a wound contaminated by a mixture of plutonium-239 and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An employee of the Valduc Centre (France) suffered an injury to his right thumb when working in a glove-box on a pipeline which had contained a solution of 239Pu and Am. The lesion was slight but attempts at decontamination were fruitless. The contamination was deep-seated (activity of not less than 18nCi). DTPA was injected intravenously, and it was decided to excise the lesion surgically. Thanks to the quality of its physical facilities and the professional quality of its radiation medicine and surgery team, the Valduc Centre was able to carry out the operation successfully. The result was excellent, and the contamination was eliminated to the satisfaction of both the patient and the physician. (author)

  5. Polonium 210Po, uranium (234U, 238U and plutonium (238Pu, 239+240Pu bioaccumulation in marine birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the determination of 210Po, 234U, 238U, 238Pu and 239+240Pu concentration in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the southern Baltic Sea coast. We chose 11 species of seabirds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that analyzed radionuclides are non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver. The highest uranium content was found in liver, rest of viscera and feathers, while plutonium in the digestion organs and feathers. Omnivore seabirds accumulated more polonium, plutonium than species that feed on fish, while herbivore seabirds accumulated more uranium than carnivore.

  6. References to Studies of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in the Pacific Ocean a Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    2001-02-01

    This report contains a listing of publications known to this author on reported concentrations, reviews and discussions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in seawater, sediment and the biota from parts of the North and South Pacific Ocean. Each reference has been assigned an accession number consisting of the first three letters of the first author's last name followed by the first letter of the first name, the year of the publication and an assigned number. Studies in both the coastal areas and the open ocean are included as well as those providing data within lagoons of coral atolls. Some references to the radionuclides in the Indian Ocean are also provided.

  7. Technical Basis for Safe Operations with Pu-239 in NMS and S Facilities (F and H Areas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium-239 is now being processed in HB-Line and H-Canyon as well as FB-Line and F-Canyon. As part of the effort to upgrade the Authorization Basis for H Area facilities relative to nuclear criticality, a literature review of Pu polymer characteristics was conducted to establish a more quantitative vs. qualitative technical basis for safe operations. The results are also applicable to processing in F Area facilities.The chemistry of Pu polymer formation, precipitation, and depolymerization is complex. Establishing limits on acid concentrations of solutions or changing the valence to Pu(III) or Pu(VI) can prevent plutonium polymer formation in tanks in the B lines and canyons. For Pu(IV) solutions of 7 g/L or less, 0.22 M HNO3 prevents polymer formation at ambient temperature. This concentration should remain the minimum acid limit for the canyons and B lines when processing Pu-239 solutions. If the minimum acid concentration is compromised, the solution may need to be sampled and tested for the presence of polymer. If polymer is not detected, processing may proceed. If polymer is detected, adding HNO3 to a final concentration above 4 M is the safest method for handling the solution. The solution could also be heated to speed up the depolymerization process. Heating with > 4 M HNO3 will depolymerize the solution for further processing.Adsorption of Pu(IV) polymer onto the steel walls of canyon and B line tanks is likely to be 11 mg/cm2, a literature value for unpolished steel. This value will be confirmed by experimental work. Tank-to-tank transfers via steam jets are not expected to produce Pu(IV) polymer unless a larger than normal dilution occurs (e.g., >3 percent) at acidities below 0.4 M

  8. Fission Product Yield Study of 235U, 238U and 239Pu Using Dual-Fission Ionization Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B.; Howell, C.; Tornow, W.; Gooden, M.; Kelley, J.; Arnold, C.; Bond, E.; Bredeweg, T.; Fowler, M.; Moody, W.; Rundberg, R.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D.; Wilhelmy, J.; Becker, J.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.; Stoyer, M.; Tonchev, A.

    2014-05-01

    To resolve long-standing differences between LANL and LLNL regarding the correct fission basis for analysis of nuclear test data [M.B. Chadwick et al., Nucl. Data Sheets 111, 2891 (2010); H. Selby et al., Nucl. Data Sheets 111, 2891 (2010)], a collaboration between TUNL/LANL/LLNL has been established to perform high-precision measurements of neutron induced fission product yields. The main goal is to make a definitive statement about the energy dependence of the fission yields to an accuracy better than 2-3% between 1 and 15 MeV, where experimental data are very scarce. At TUNL, we have completed the design, fabrication and testing of three dual-fission chambers dedicated to 235U, 238U, and 239Pu. The dual-fission chambers were used to make measurements of the fission product activity relative to the total fission rate, as well as for high-precision absolute fission yield measurements. The activation method was employed, utilizing the mono-energetic neutron beams available at TUNL. Neutrons of 4.6, 9.0, and 14.5 MeV were produced via the 2H(d,n)3He reaction, and for neutrons at 14.8 MeV, the 3H(d,n)4He reaction was used. After activation, the induced γ-ray activity of the fission products was measured for two months using high-resolution HPGe detectors in a low-background environment. Results for the yield of seven fission fragments of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and a comparison to available data at other energies are reported. For the first time results are available for neutron energies between 2 and 14 MeV.

  9. Deposition of [sup 210]Pb, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu, and [sup 241]Am in the Antarctic peninsula area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P.; Holm, E.; Persson, R.B.R. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics); Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

    1994-01-01

    [sup 210]Pb, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu, and [sup 241]Am were analysed in lichen, moss, grass and soil samples, as well as in lake sediments, from the South Shetland Islands, the Antarctic, in order to evaluate the flux and deposition of these elements. Average inventories of the analysed radionuclides in 1988 are given. The ratios [sup 238]Pu/[sup 239+240]Pu and [sup 241]Am/[sup 239+240]Pu of 0.21 [+-] 0.04 and 0.35 [+-] 0.08 respectively agree well with expected values in this area. A significant difference in [sup 137]Cs/[sup 239+240]Pu ratios between lichens and moss/grass/soil is observed which may be an effect of submerging and melt water altering radionuclide ratios. From one of three lakes studied it is possible to perform [sup 210]Pb dating with reasonable accuracy showing an average annual sediment accumulation in this lake of about 45 g m[sup -2]. (author).

  10. Intercomparison study of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and fission track analysis of μBq quantities of 239Pu in synthetic urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even today, some Marshall Islanders are looking forward to permanently resettling their islands after five decades. The U.S. Department of Energy and the resettled residents require reasonable but cost-prudent assurance that the doses to resident from residual 239Pu will not exceed recognized international standards or recommendations, as estimated from the excretion of 239Pu in urine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the bias, uncertainty and sensitivity of analytical techniques that measure 3-56 μBq 239Pu in synthetic urine. The analytical techniques studied in this work included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and fission track analysis. The results of the intercomparison demonstrated that all three techniques were capable of marking the measurements, although not with equal degree of bias and uncertainty. The estimated minimum detectable activity was 1 μBq of 239Pu per synthetic urine sample. This exercise is also the first effort to certify test materials of plutonium in the nBqxg-1 range. (author)

  11. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediment following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of ∼0.18. Measurements of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing, has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240Pu/239Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240Pu/239Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was 0.033±0.004, while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056±0.003. Both ratios are consistent with those reported for soils samples at the Nevada site and Nagasaki, and are clearly indicative of weapons-grade plutonium. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. 42 CFR 23.9 - What must an entity to which National Health Service Corps personnel are assigned (i.e., a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Service Corps personnel are assigned (i.e., a National Health Service Corps site) charge for the provision..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CORPS Assignment of National Health Service Corps Personnel § 23.9 What must an entity to which National Health......

  13. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. PMID:24401459

  14. 17 CFR 239.43 - Form F-N, appointment of agent for service of process by foreign banks and foreign insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for service of process by foreign banks and foreign insurance companies and certain of their holding companies and finance subsidiaries making public offerings of securities in the United States. 239.43... agent for service of process by foreign banks and foreign insurance companies and certain of...

  15. First report on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of Spa type T037, Sequence type 239, SCCmec type III/IIIA in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Neela (Vasanthakumari); H. Ghasemzadeh Moghaddam (Hamed); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); D. Horst-Kreft (Deborah); N.S. Mariana (Nor Shamsudin); E. Ghaznavi Rad (Ehsanollah)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Malaysia were shown to possess staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)-III and IIIA. Spa sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) documented t037 and ST 239 (CC8) for 83.3% of the isolates. This confirms observation

  16. Speciation analysis of 129I, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu in environmental soil and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hansen, Violeta; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2012-01-01

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are related to their physicochemical forms, namely species. We here present a speciation analysis of important radionuclides including 129I (also 127I), 137Cs, 232Th, 238U and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) in soil (IAEA-375...

  17. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation.

  18. Comparison of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and mobile phone GSM 900 radiation in the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnya, Dmitry S; Romanovsky, Anton V

    2013-01-20

    The goal of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and GSM 900 modulated mobile phone (model Sony Ericsson K550i) radiation in the Allium cepa test. Three groups of bulbs were exposed to mobile phone radiation during 0 (sham), 3 and 9h. A positive control group was treated during 20min with plutonium-239 alpha-radiation. Mitotic abnormalities, chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and mitotic index were analyzed. Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

  19. 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am in boreal forest soil and their transfer into wild mushrooms and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profiles of podzolic soil from boreal forests were sampled from eight sites in Finland and the distribution of 137Cs in the soil layers was determined. In addition, 239,240Pu and 241Am were determined from two soil profiles taken at one sampling site. Inventories of 137Cs in the soil profiles varied between 1.7 kBq/m2 and 42 kBq/m2, reflecting known variation in 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The highest proportions of the radionuclides were found in the organic layer at a depth of less than 5 cm, which on average contained 47% of 137Cs, 76% of 239,240Pu and 79% of 241Am. In the litter, clearly higher proportions of 137Cs were found compared to 239,240Pu and 241Am, probably indicating its more effective recycling from the organic layer back to the surface. Only very minor proportions of 137Cs were recorded below 20 cm. The concentration of 137Cs in the soil profiles could be approximated with a declining logarithmic trend. The activity concentrations of 137Cs were determined for six wild mushroom species and three wild berry species at two sites, as well as the aggregated transfer factors and the distribution of 137Cs between their various parts. In addition, 239,240Pu and 241Am were determined in one mushroom and three berry species at one site. Very high concentrations of 137Cs, up to 20 kBq/kg (d.w.), were found in mushrooms, and their transfer factors were between 0.1 m2/kg and 1.0 m2/kg. In berries, the transfer factors were an order of magnitude lower. 137Cs accumulated more in the caps of mushrooms and in the fruits of berries than in other parts. Transfer factors for 239,240Pu and 241Am were two to three orders of magnitude lower than those of 137Cs. - Highlights: ► 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am mainly concentrated in organic layer in podzolic soil. ► Distribution of 137Cs in the upper 20 cm soil follows exponential declining trend. ► 137Cs concentrates into mushrooms but varies considerably between species. ► 137Cs concentrates in mushroom

  20. Using 239+240Pu atmospheric deposition and a simplified mass-balance model to re-estimate the soil erosion rate. A case study of Liaodong Bay in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the mass balance model of 137Cs and introducing 239+240Pu atmospheric deposition, a simplified mass balance model of 239+240Pu was developed and the soil erosion rate was re-estimated. The results indicated that the reference inventory of 239+240Pu was estimated to be 88.4 Bq/m2 in Liaodong Bay. In addition, the atomic ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in all core samples were approximately 0.18, which indicated that the major source of Pu was the global fallout. Statistical analysis of the erosion rates derived from the model demonstrates that the 239+240Pu atmospheric deposition is a feasible way to estimate the soil erosion rate and further improve tracer technique to assess the soil erosion rate. (author)

  1. Studies of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and early atherogenesis in hamsters fed GT16-239, a novel bile acid sequestrant (BAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; Nicolosi, R J; Rogers, E J; Sacchiero, R; Goldberg, D J

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of GT16-239, an alkylated, cross-linked poly(allylamine) bile acid sequestrant with cholestyramine on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and early aortic atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic male F1B Golden Syrian hamsters. In this controlled study, 42 hamsters were divided into six groups and were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with a 10% oil blend (55% coconut/45% corn), 0.1% cholesterol (w/w) (control) and either 0.9 or 1.2% cholestyramine or 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6% GT16-239 for 13 weeks. Laboratory analyses included evaluating plasma lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and 7 alpha-hydroxylase activities, fecal excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols, hepatic cholesterol concentrations, and early atherosclerosis (aortic fatty streak area). Relative to the control diet, the 0.6% GT16-239 versus the 1.2% cholestyramine significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma lipoprotein total cholesterol (TC) (-69% vs -40%), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-49% vs -30%), and non-HDL-C (-81 vs -48%) concentrations; increased the activities of both HMG-CoA reductase (1492% vs 62%) and 7 alpha-hydroxylase (175% vs 86%); lowered the concentration of hepatic cholesteryl ester (-94% vs -59%); increased fecal cholesterol concentration (+28% vs -10%); and decreased aortic fatty streak area (-100% vs -86%). Unexpected findings of this comparison were increased fecal concentrations of cholic acid (533%) and chenodeoxycholic acid (400%) and the reduction in lithocholic acid (-50%) in the 0.6% GT16-239 compared to the 1.2% cholestyramine group. In summary, GT16-239 had a greater impact on cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters than cholestyramine.

  2. Plutonium concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in biota collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska: recent measurements using ICP-SFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V; Dasher, Douglas

    2013-10-01

    Three underground nuclear tests, including the Unites States' largest, were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Monitoring of the radiological environment around the island is challenging because of its remote location. In 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) became responsible for the long term maintenance and surveillance of the Amchitka site. The first DOE LM environmental survey occurred in 2011 and is part of a cycle of activities that will occur every 5 years. The University of Alaska Fairbanks, a participant in the 2011 study, provided the lichen (Cladonia spp.), freshwater moss (Fontinalis neomexicanus), kelp (Eualaria fistulosa) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) samples from Amchitka Island and Adak Island (a control site). These samples were analyzed for (239)Pu and (240)Pu concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Plutonium concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were generally consistent with previous terrestrial and marine studies in the region. The ((239)+)(240)Pu levels (mBq kg(-1), dry weight) ranged from 3.79 to 57.1 for lichen, 167-700 for kelp, 27.9-148 for horse mussel, and 560-573 for moss. Lichen from Adak Island had higher Pu concentrations than Amchitka Island, the difference was likely the result of the higher precipitation at Adak compared to Amchitka. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were significantly higher in marine samples compared to terrestrial and freshwater samples (t-test, p Pu occurred into the North Pacific Ocean, likely from the Marshall Island high yield nuclear tests, but other potential sources, such as the Kamchatka Peninsula Rybachiy Naval Base and Amchitka Island underground nuclear test site cannot be ruled out.

  3. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer.

  4. First simultaneous measurement of fission and gamma probabilities of 237U and 239Np via surrogate reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marini P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission and gamma decay probabilities of 237U and 239Np have been measured, for the first time simultaneously in dedicated experiments, via the surrogate reactions 238U(3He, 4He and 238U(3He,d, respectively. While a good agreement between our data and neutron-induced data is found for fission probabilities, gamma decay probabilities are several times higher than the corresponding neutron-induced data for each studied nucleus. We study the role of the different spin distributions populated in the surrogate and neutron-induced reactions. The compound nucleus spin distribution populated in the surrogate reaction is extracted from the measured gamma-decay probabilities, and used as input parameter in the statistical model to predict fission probabilities to be compared to our data. A strong disagreement between our data and the prediction is obtained. Preliminary results from an additional dedicated experiment confirm the observed discrepancies, indicating the need of a better understanding of the formation and decay processes of the compound nucleus.

  5. A Study of the Resonance Interaction Effect between 238U and 239Pu in Lower Energy Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation has been made of the statistical frequency function for the distances between the 238U and the 239Pu resonances in the region 4-244 eV. It is concluded that the frequency function is probably constant but that the distances diverge appreciably from a constant function in the actual case, and that the divergence is such that the interaction effect on the resonance integral is smaller than would be expected from statistical considerations. This is also confirmed by calculations on the interaction effect. These have been performed using three different methods, namely: a) considering the actual positions and widths of the resonances, b) assuming a constant frequency function for the resonance. spacing and applying a theory developed by Rowlands and E A Fischer. c) applying a simplified, approximate method for calculations based on the statistical theory. The calculations are made for two temperatures and two values of the plutonium enrichment. It is shown that the average cross sections are considerably larger than the statistical calculations indicate

  6. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  7. A comparison of the distribution of 239-Pu and calcein in the ilium of the female CBA mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well recognised that plutonium 239 and certain vital stains such as calcein behave similarly when injected i.v. into experimental animals. Both are rapidly cleared from blood, and concentrate on bone surfaces. Certain differences of behaviour are also known, such as the competitive concentration of plutonium in liver and other soft tissues; and differences in the distribution of site of location of the substances on bone surface. Plutonium tends to concentrate evenly on all bone surfaces in proportion to the blood supply to that region, leading to higher concentrations on endosteal than periosteal surfaces. Calcein deposits at sites of mineralisation, which occur on both endosteum and periosteum in response to the demands of growth and remodelling. Subsequent behaviour of both substances would appear to depend entirely on the growth and remodelling activities of the bone, the deposits remaining fixed in position until the containing bone is resorbed or buried by freshly formed bone. Many studies of the distribution and dosimetry of plutonium in experimental animals, mainly dogs, and mice have been recorded. There is however, a lack of information concerning the behaviour of the radionuclide in man. More information is available on the behaviour in man and experimental animals of the vital stains, some of which are well known anti-biotics. Consequently, there is much to be gained if a knowledge of the behaviour of vital stains such as calcein can be used to predict the distribution of plutonium in the human skeleton. (orig.)

  8. Neutron-induced transmutation reactions in 237Np, 238Pu, and 239Pu at the massive natural uranium spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmutation reactions in the 237Np, 238Pu, and 239Pu samples were investigated in the neutron field generated inside a massive (m = 512 kg) natural uranium spallation target. The uranium target assembly QUINTA was irradiated with the deuteron beams of kinetic energy 2, 4, and 8 GeV provided by the Nuclotron accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. The neutron-induced transmutation of the actinide samples was measured off-line by implementing methods of gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe detectors. Results of measurement are expressed in the form of both the individual reaction rates and average fission transmutation rates. For the purpose of validation of radiation transport programs, the experimental results were compared with simulations of neutron production and distribution performed by the MCNPX 2.7 and MARS15 codes employing the INCL4-ABLA physics models and LAQGSM event generator, respectively. In general, a good agreement between the experimental and calculated reaction rates was found in the whole interval of provided beam energies

  9. Radionuclide distribution dynamics in skeletons of beagles fed 90Sr: Correlation with injected 226Ra and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data for the bone-by-bone redistribution of 90Sr in the beagle skeleton are reported for a period of 4000 d following a midgestation-to-540-d-exposure by ingestion. The partitioned clearance model (PCM) that was originally developed to describe bone-by-bone radionuclide redistribution of 226Ra after eight semimonthly injections at ages 435-535 d has been fitted to the 90Sr data. The parameter estimates for the PCM that describe the distribution and clearance of 226Ra after deposition on surfaces following injection and analogous parameter estimates for 90Sr after uniform deposition in the skeleton as a function of Ca mass are given. Fractional compact bone masses per bone group (mi,COM) are also predicted by the model and compared to measured values; a high degree of correlation (r = 0.84) is found. Bone groups for which the agreement between the model and experimental values of mi,COM was poor had tissue-to-calcium weight ratios about 1.5 times those for bones that agreed well. Metabolically defined surface in PCM is initial activity fraction per Ca fraction in a given skeletal component for intravenously injected alkaline earth (Sae) radionuclides; comparisons are made to similarly defined surface (Sact) values from 239Pu injection studies. The patterns of Sae and Sact distribution throughout the skeleton are similar

  10. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. PMID:26141189

  11. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopic constituents of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by a coincident alpha-conversion electron measurement. This presents a unique signature to allow the unfolding of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy and reduce backgrounds of an unseparated sample. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector and alpha spectroscopy with a passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20-55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information and calibration to aid in the coincident measurement approach. Furthermore, an alpha-conversion electron spectrometer was assembled using the silicon based detectors described and results of a coincident spectrum analysis is reported for 241Am.

  12. Evaluation of the thermal-neutron constants for 233U, 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consistent set of best values of the 2200 meter/second neutron cross sections, Westcott g-factors, and fission neutron yields for 233U, 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu are presented. A least squares fitting program, LSF, is used to obtain the best fit and to estimate the sensitivity of these fissile parameters to the quoted uncertainties in experimental data. The half-lives of the uranium and plutonium nuclides have been evaluated and these have been used to reassess the significant experimental data. The latest revision of the spontaneous fission neutron yield anti nu, of 252Cf and the foil thickness corrections to the fission neutron yield ratios of fissile nuclei to 252Cf are included. These lead to greater consistency in the data used for anti nu (252Cf). Similarly, the 234U half-life as revised leads to improved consistency in the 235U fission cross section. Comparison is made with the values from ENDF/B-V and other evaluations

  13. Studying of distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm according to the organic acids fractions of the alienation zone soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with data of research on the distribution of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm of ''the Chornobyl rains'' by the fractions of the organic matters of derno-podzolic sandy, derno-meadow and peat soils sampled in the alienation zone of the Chornobyl NPP. Functioning of organic matters was carried according to Tyurin's method. It is stressed that, independently on soil type, 137Cs is connected with the mineral contituent by 80-95%. It is found out that, independently on the soil type, 50-70% 137Sr and 15-45% 241Am are associated with fulvic acid fractions. The 241Am and 244Cm distribution according to organic acids taking into account deviations while carrying out determinations is unambiguous. It is found out that in all the soils tested the main quality of 239+24Pu is connected with humic acids

  14. 相关协议和标准的最新发展(H.264/H.239

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KanjiMihara

    2003-01-01

    一、H.264和H.239协议的概况。H.239是一种附加媒体通道:H.264是由ITU最新确立的,也叫做MPEG-4,不同的名字实际上标准是一样的(众所周知ITU与MPEG为不同标准组织)。最近,视频联合组(JVT)正在研究标准问题,JVT的目标非常简单,即要节省50%的资源。与MPEG-4相比,H.264能够节省5%的资源,比如通常使用的标准需要380K,用H.264标准只需要192K。

  15. Assinatura da deposição atmosférica de testes nucleares em sedimentos da costa brasileira (240+239Pu e 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Sanders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to take a look at Cold War era nuclear tests signatures found in Brazilian coastal sediments. Both137Cs and 240+239Pu signatures have been documented in mangrove, coastal mudflats and continental shelf sediments, associated with above ground nuclear tests beginning in the 1950's. The dates associated to the anthropogenic radionuclide signatures 137Cs and 240+239Pu along sediment columns are confirmed by 210Pb geochronology in many of the studies highlighted in this review. The results outlined in this review characterize the extent to which nuclear fallout products reach the Brazilian coast in quantities sufficient for detection, allowing the use of these radioisotopes as geochronometers.

  16. Effect of CD8+ Lymphocyte Depletion on Virus Containment after Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Challenge of Live Attenuated SIVmac239Δ3-Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Jörn E.; Johnson, R. Paul; McClure, Harold M.; Manson, Kelledy H.; Wyand, Michael S.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Khunkhun, Rajinder S.; McEvers, Kimberly J.; Gillis, Jacqueline; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Grosschupff, Gudrun; Racz, Paul; Tenner-Racz, Klara

    2005-01-01

    Although live attenuated vaccines can provide potent protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenges, the specific immune responses that confer this protection have not been determined. To test whether cellular immune responses mediated by CD8+ lymphocytes contribute to this vaccine-induced protection, we depleted rhesus macaques vaccinated with the live attenuated virus SIVmac239Δ3 of CD8+ lymphocytes and then challenged them with SIV...

  17. Long-term effects of inhaled Ca-DTPA in rats previously exposed to 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaled Ca-DTPA given 20 days after 239Pu(NO3)4 inhalation was marginally effective (p = 0.10) in reducing the amount of Pu in rat lung. This reduction in Pu lung burden did not, however, affect the later induction of lung tumors. An increased osteosarcoma incidence was noted in control rats exposed only to nitric acid aerosols. Complete tumor incidence data are not yet available. (U.S.)

  18. The subcellular distribution of 239Pu, 241Am and 59Fe in the liver of rat and Chinese hamster as dependent on time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcellular distribution of monomeric 239Pu, 241Am and iron in rat and Chinese hamster liver has been investigated by sucrose-, metrizamide- and Percoll-density gradients. In rat liver, the transuranium elements become and remain bound to typical lysosomes primary storage organelle in Chinese hamster liver. However, their apparent density in sucrose decreases with time, which possible indicates transition into telolysomes. The transuranium nuclides show a subcellular distribution which is quite different from that of iron. (orig.)

  19. Report on intercomparison IAEA/SOIL-6 of the determination of Cs-137, Pu-239, Ra-226, and Sr-90 in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of a laboratory intercomparison of the determination of the activity level of cesium-137, plutonium-239, radium-226 and strontium-90 in a provided soil sample organized by the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service. Twenty-seven laboratories from 16 countries returned results based on 77 laboratory means (295 individual determinations). The aim of the interlaboratory comparison was to offer to the laboratories engaged in soil investigation an opportunity to control their analytical performance and to establish the concentration level of some radionuclides in a batch of analyzed soil for certification purposes. All radionuclides were determined by typical commonly used methods: cesium-137 by direct gamma spectroscopy, plutonium-239 by alpha spectroscopy after separation and electrodeposition, radium-226 by direct determination without or with separation or by determination of radon, and strontium-90 by measurement of its daughter yttrium-90. In general, the results can be accepted as satisfactory at such low level of activity (pCi/kg). The relative confidence intervals of the medians of 137Cs and 239Pu are below +-10% and of 226Ra and 90Sr below +-20%

  20. Estimates of /sup 239-240/Pu + 241Am inventory, spatial pattern, and soil tonnage for removal at nuclear site-201, NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of /sup 239-240/Pu + 241Am inventory and spatial pattern in surface soil are given for Nuclear Site (NS)-201 in Area 18 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These estimates were obtained using Kriging techniques and the estimated average /sup 239-240/Pu to 241Am ratio of 7.5. (Henceforth, Pu and Am refer to /sup 239-240/Pu and 241Am.) Estimated concentration contours, 68% confidence bands on contours, and estimated average concentrations in 100- x 100-foot blocks are given. The total Pu + Am inventory estimated to be in the top 5 cm of soil over the defined area is approximately 9.4 curies. Lower and upper limits on this inventory estimate are 4 and 30 curies. It is estimated that about 33 acres (approx. = 13 hectares) of land are contaminated at levels greater than 160 pCi/g and about 51 acres (approx. = 21 hectares) to levels greater than 40 pCi/g. Approximately 23,000 tons of soil would need to be removed (to 15-cm depth) to clean up all areas with estimated concentrations greater than or equal to 160 pCi/g. About 36,000 tons would require removal at the 40- pCi/g level. The above estimates will be updated when additional data become available early in Calender Year 1980. 10 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  1. Spatial distributions of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Zaharudin, E-mail: zahar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.m [Radiochemistry and Environmental Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah [Radiochemistry and Environmental Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    The studies of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 242}Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60 {sup o}C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62 keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89 Bq/m{sup 3} and 2.3-7.9 mBq/m{sup 3}, respectively. The {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area.

  2. Spatial distributions of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zaharudin; Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah

    2010-09-01

    The studies of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of (134)Cs and (242)Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60(o)C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89Bq/m(3) and 2.3-7.9mBq/m(3), respectively. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area. PMID:20430636

  3. Pulmonary connective tissue modifications induced by internal α-irradiation. II. Alterations of collagen and non collagen proteins biosynthesis following inhalation of plutonium 239 dioxide aerosol in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies have shown that internal α irradiation following inhalation of plutonium 239 dioxide in rat increased collagen content in the lung. Effect was maximal at 200 days with the highest dose. This increase was found transient and collagen dropped back to control values after 400 days in rats with the same initial lung burden or the same total dose. A new increase was observed later on, largely related to oncoming death. Here, we have studied, simultaneously, content and biosynthesis of collagen and non collagen proteins, 200 d and 400 d after 239PuO2 inhalation (100-150 nCi ILB). The results confirmed a biphasic effect of inhaled 239PuO2 on the pulmonary connective tissue: a/ A significant increase (p < 0.01) of soluble non-collagen proteins correlated to a decrease of the insoluble fraction was observed 200 d after inhalation. Similar parameters were not significantly different in controls on irradiated rats after 400 days. b/ Soluble and non-soluble collagen contents increased by a factor of 3 and 1.5 respectively 200 d after inhalation. No effect after 400 d. c/ Biosynthesis of non-collagen connective tissue components were 2 to 5 lower than in controls at 400d. d/collagen biosynthesis was decreased by a factor between 4 and 6 for the soluble and insoluble fractions at 200 d but normal at 400 d

  4. Examining (239+240)Pu, (210)Pb and historical events to determine carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus burial in mangrove sediments of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Breithaupt, Joshua L; Smoak, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael; Call, Mitchell; Sanders, Luciana; Eyre, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Two sediment cores were collected in a mangrove forest to construct geochronologies for the previous century using natural and anthropogenic radionuclide tracers. Both sediment cores were dated using (239+240)Pu global fallout signatures as well as (210)Pb, applying both the Constant Initial Concentration (CIC) and the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) models. The (239+240)Pu and CIC model are interpreted as having comparable sediment accretion rates (SAR) below an apparent mixed region in the upper ∼5 to 10 cm. In contrast, the CRS dating method shows high sediment accretion rates in the uppermost intervals, which is substantially reduced over the lower intervals of the 100-year record. A local anthropogenic nutrient signal is reflected in the high total phosphorus (TP) concentration in younger sediments. The carbon/nitrogen molar ratios and δ(15)N values further support a local anthropogenic nutrient enrichment signal. The origin of these signals is likely the treated sewage discharge to Moreton Bay which began in the early 1970s. While the (239+240)Pu and CIC models can only produce rates averaged over the intervals of interest within the profile, the (210)Pb CRS model identifies elevated rates of sediment accretion, organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), and TP burial from 2000 to 2013. From 1920 to 2000, the three dating methods provide similar OC, N and TP burial rates, ∼150, 10 and 2 g m(-2) year(-1), respectively, which are comparable to global averages. PMID:26004816

  5. Feasibility study of 235U and 239Pu characterization in radioactive waste drums using neutron-induced fission delayed gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, T.; Pérot, B.; Carasco, C.; Brackx, E.; Mariani, A.; Passard, C.; Mauerhofer, E.; Collot, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of 235U and 239Pu characterization in 225 L bituminized waste drums or 200 L concrete waste drums, by detecting delayed fission gamma rays between the pulses of a deuterium-tritium neutron generator. The delayed gamma yields were first measured with bare samples of 235U and 239Pu in REGAIN, a facility dedicated to the assay of 118 L waste drums by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) at CEA Cadarache, France. Detectability in the waste drums is then assessed using the MCNPX model of MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), another PGNAA cell dedicated to 200 L drums at FZJ, Germany. For the bituminized waste drum, performances are severely hampered by the high gamma background due to 137Cs, which requires the use of collimator and shield to avoid electronics saturation, these elements being very penalizing for the detection of the weak delayed gamma signal. However, for lower activity concrete drums, detection limits range from 10 to 290 g of 235U or 239Pu, depending on the delayed gamma rays of interest. These detection limits have been determined by using MCNPX to calculate the delayed gamma useful signal, and by measuring the experimental gamma background in MEDINA with a 200 L concrete drum mock-up. The performances could be significantly improved by using a higher interrogating neutron emission and an optimized experimental setup, which would allow characterizing nuclear materials in a wide range of low and medium activity waste packages.

  6. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  7. Delayed Fission Gamma-ray Characteristics of Th-232 U-233 U-235 U-238 and Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Taylor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Delayed fission gamma-rays play an important role in determining the time dependent ioniz- ing dose for experiments in the central irradiation cavity of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). Delayed gamma-rays are produced from both fission product decay and from acti- vation of materials in the core, such as cladding and support structures. Knowing both the delayed gamma-ray emission rate and the time-dependent gamma-ray energy spectrum is nec- essary in order to properly determine the dose contributions from delayed fission gamma-rays. This information is especially important when attempting to deconvolute the time-dependent neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray contribution to the response of a diamond photo-conducting diode (PCD) or fission chamber in time frames of milliseconds to seconds following a reactor pulse. This work focused on investigating delayed gamma-ray character- istics produced from fission products from thermal, fast, and high energy fission of Th-232, U-233, U-235, U-238, and Pu-239. This work uses a modified version of CINDER2008, a transmutation code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to model time and energy dependent photon characteristics due to fission. This modified code adds the capability to track photon-induced transmutations, photo-fission, and the subsequent radiation caused by fission products due to photo-fission. The data is compared against previous work done with SNL- modified CINDER2008 [ 1 ] and experimental data [ 2 , 3 ] and other published literature, includ- ing ENDF/B-VII.1 [ 4 ]. The ability to produce a high-fidelity (7,428 group) energy-dependent photon fluence at various times post-fission can improve the delayed photon characterization for radiation effects tests at research reactors, as well as other applications.

  8. Analytical Method for Pu-239, Pu-240, Np-237 and Tc-99 using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient analytical method for Pu isotopes (Pu-239 and Pu-240), Np-237 and Tc-99 in environmental samples has been developed using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) detection. The chemical separation of Pu in terrestrial samples, soil, and sediment was carried out on two extraction resins, Sr-Spec and TEVA, which were sequentially combined in PrepLab, an integrated liquid handing device. By reducing the final eluent volume to 2.4 mL, directly injecting it to SF-ICPMS, and employing MCN-6000, a membrane desolvating sample introduction system, the analysis of Pu isotopes was found to be feasible in 1 g of soil. The detection limits of Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-242 were approximately 4 fg mL-1 (9.2 Bq mL-1), 3 fg mL-1 (25 Bq mL-1), and 6 fg mL-1 (0.87 Bq mL-1), which represent total amounts of 9.6, 7.2, and 14 fg, respectively, in the final eluent. Chemical separation and measurement were fully automated by a sequential injection (SI) program in an on-line system, and the analysis could thereby be completed within roughly 5 hours. The reliability of this method was confirmed by a validity test with several certified standard reference materials (NIST-4350b, IAEA-6, IAEA-300, IAEA-367, IAEA-368, IAEA-375). The analytical method for Pu in environmental seawater is different from that of terrestrial samples owing to the strong interference effect of U as well as ultra-low level Pu. Although the principle of chemical separation is nearly the same as in soil, seawater was co-precipitated with Fe(OH)2 in the pre-treatment step and a micro TEVA column (50 L) was used in the on-line system to improve precision and the lower detection limit. With this method, it was possible to analyze ultra-trace level Pu isotopes in only 5 L of surface seawater within 1 day, and the precision for Pu-239 and Pu-240 was less than 3.4% (n=7) and 5% (n=7), respectively. The accuracy of this method was verified by analysis of reference seawater (IAEA-381) as

  9. Analytical Method for Pu-239, Pu-240, Np-237 and Tc-99 using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Su

    2007-02-15

    An efficient analytical method for Pu isotopes (Pu-239 and Pu-240), Np-237 and Tc-99 in environmental samples has been developed using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) detection. The chemical separation of Pu in terrestrial samples, soil, and sediment was carried out on two extraction resins, Sr-Spec and TEVA, which were sequentially combined in PrepLab, an integrated liquid handing device. By reducing the final eluent volume to 2.4 mL, directly injecting it to SF-ICPMS, and employing MCN-6000, a membrane desolvating sample introduction system, the analysis of Pu isotopes was found to be feasible in 1 g of soil. The detection limits of Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-242 were approximately 4 fg mL-1 (9.2 Bq mL-1), 3 fg mL-1 (25 Bq mL-1), and 6 fg mL-1 (0.87 Bq mL-1), which represent total amounts of 9.6, 7.2, and 14 fg, respectively, in the final eluent. Chemical separation and measurement were fully automated by a sequential injection (SI) program in an on-line system, and the analysis could thereby be completed within roughly 5 hours. The reliability of this method was confirmed by a validity test with several certified standard reference materials (NIST-4350b, IAEA-6, IAEA-300, IAEA-367, IAEA-368, IAEA-375). The analytical method for Pu in environmental seawater is different from that of terrestrial samples owing to the strong interference effect of U as well as ultra-low level Pu. Although the principle of chemical separation is nearly the same as in soil, seawater was co-precipitated with Fe(OH)2 in the pre-treatment step and a micro TEVA column (50 L) was used in the on-line system to improve precision and the lower detection limit. With this method, it was possible to analyze ultra-trace level Pu isotopes in only 5 L of surface seawater within 1 day, and the precision for Pu-239 and Pu-240 was less than 3.4% (n=7) and 5% (n=7), respectively. The accuracy of this method was verified by analysis of reference seawater (IAEA-381) as

  10. A study on artificial radionuclides ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu) distribution in the sediment form lake euiam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sang Han; Oh, Jung Suk; Choi, Jong Ki [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Gu [National Institute of Environmental Research, Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The objective of this study is to identify the radionuclide distribution in public water by carrying out the analysis of artificial radionuclides(({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu), natural radionuclide({sup 210}Pb) and TOC in the lake Euiam sediment in Chuncheon, South Korea. The {sup 134}Cs concentration in all lake sediments showed below MDA values, and the {sup 137}Cs concentration in lake sediment were ranged from MDA to 8.79 Bq · kg{sup -1}-dry. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in surface sediment were reported to be 2.4 to 4.2 Bq · kg{sup -1}-dry. The lowest concentration of {sup 137}Cs was reported at St. 4 and the highest concentration was reported at St. 3, respectively. The {sup 239+240}Pu concentration in lake sediment were ranged from 0.049 to 0.47 Bq · kg{sup -1}-dry. The lowest concentration of was reported at St. 2 and the highest concentration was reported at St. 3. The correlation(r) between the {sup 239+240}Pu concentration and {sup 137}Cs concentration in lake sediment presented higher values (0.54 to 0.97) and this suggests the behavior and origin of {sup 137}Cs is identical to the {sup 239+240}Pu in the sediment. The {sup 134}Cs concentration below MDA value and the {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 134}Cs ratio(mean value of 0.041) indicated that the artificial radionuclides in the sediment were originated from global fallout by the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons conducted by former USSR and U.S.A, but not from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The sedimentation rate derived from {sup 2}'1{sup 0}Pb age-dating method at St. 2 is calculated to be 0.31±0.06 cm · y{sup -1}. This value is similar to the value (0.41±0.05 cm · y{sup -1}) estimated from the {sup 137}Cs maximum peak produced from early 1960's. The content of TOC in lake Euiam sediments varied from 0.20 to 13.01%. While the highest correlation between TOC and {sup 137}Cs concentration in the sediment were found at St. 1, the others presented the low correlation.

  11. Physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN239 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 2009-08-22 to 2009-09-20 (NODC Accession 0104355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104355 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN239 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North...

  12. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  13. Exploratory study of fission product yields of neutron-induced fission of 235U , 238U , and 239Pu at 8.9 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B. F.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Rusev, G. Y.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    Using dual-fission chambers each loaded with a thick (200 -400 -mg /c m2) actinide target of 235 ,238U or 239Pu and two thin (˜10 -100 -μ g /c m2) reference foils of the same actinide, the cumulative yields of fission products ranging from 92Sr to 147Nd have been measured at En= 8.9 MeV . The 2H(d ,n ) 3He reaction provided the quasimonoenergetic neutron beam. The experimental setup and methods used to determine the fission product yield (FPY) are described, and results for typically eight high-yield fission products are presented. Our FPYs for 235U(n ,f ) , 238U(n ,f ) , and 239Pu(n ,f ) at 8.9 MeV are compared with the existing data below 8 MeV from Glendenin et al. [Phys. Rev. C 24, 2600 (1981), 10.1103/PhysRevC.24.2600], Nagy et al. [Phys. Rev. C 17, 163 (1978), 10.1103/PhysRevC.17.163], Gindler et al. [Phys. Rev. C 27, 2058 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevC.27.2058], and those of Mac Innes et al. [Nucl. Data Sheets 112, 3135 (2011), 10.1016/j.nds.2011.11.009] and Laurec et al. [Nucl. Data Sheets 111, 2965 (2010), 10.1016/j.nds.2010.11.004] at 14.5 and 14.7 MeV, respectively. This comparison indicates a negative slope for the energy dependence of most fission product yields obtained from 235U and 239Pu , whereas for 238U the slope issue remains unsettled.

  14. Quantifying type-specific reproduction numbers for nosocomial pathogens: evidence for heightened transmission of an Asian sequence type 239 MRSA clone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben S Cooper

    Full Text Available An important determinant of a pathogen's success is the rate at which it is transmitted from infected to susceptible hosts. Although there are anecdotal reports that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA clones vary in their transmissibility in hospital settings, attempts to quantify such variation are lacking for common subtypes, as are methods for addressing this question using routinely-collected MRSA screening data in endemic settings. Here we present a method to quantify the time-varying transmissibility of different subtypes of common bacterial nosocomial pathogens using routine surveillance data. The method adapts approaches for estimating reproduction numbers based on the probabilistic reconstruction of epidemic trees, but uses relative hazards rather than serial intervals to assign probabilities to different sources for observed transmission events. The method is applied to data collected as part of a retrospective observational study of a concurrent MRSA outbreak in the United Kingdom with dominant endemic MRSA clones (ST22 and ST36 and an Asian ST239 MRSA strain (ST239-TW in two linked adult intensive care units, and compared with an approach based on a fully parametric transmission model. The results provide support for the hypothesis that the clones responded differently to an infection control measure based on the use of topical antiseptics, which was more effective at reducing transmission of endemic clones. They also suggest that in one of the two ICUs patients colonized or infected with the ST239-TW MRSA clone had consistently higher risks of transmitting MRSA to patients free of MRSA. These findings represent some of the first quantitative evidence of enhanced transmissibility of a pandemic MRSA lineage, and highlight the potential value of tailoring hospital infection control measures to specific pathogen subtypes.

  15. The Relationship between Coping-style and Self-acceptance among 239 Female Addicts%239例女性戒毒人员应对方式与自我接纳的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹婧; 王凤兰; 闫晓丽; 姜峰

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between coping-style and self-acceptance among female addicts. Methods 239 female addicts were randomly selected and tested with the self-acceptance questionnaire (SAQ)and the cop-ing-style questionnaire (TCSQ).Results The positive coping-style (35.24 ±7.02)and negative coping-style (32.56 ± 7.12)were significantly higher than the norm (30.26 ±8.74,21.25 ± 7.41).The level of self-acceptance (18.94 ± 4.13)and total score of self-acceptance (39.66±6.09)were significantly lower than the norm (21.76±4.43,42.06 ±6.63 ).The level of self-acceptance was negatively correlated with the negative coping-style (r =-0.346,P <0.01),and the level of self-evaluation was positively correlated with positive coping-style (r =0.203,P <0.01 ). Positive coping-style (r=0.241,P <0.01)and negative coping-style (r=-0.261,P <0.01)had a significantly positive corre-lation and a significantly negative correlation with the total score of self-acceptance respectively.Coping-style could be predicted by self-acceptance to some extent.Conclusions There is a certain psychological problem in female addicts,and they are more likely to use negative coping-style and have lower self-acceptance.%目的:了解女性吸毒者自我接纳与应对方式的特点及其之间的关系。方法运用特质应对方式问卷(TCSQ)和自我接纳问卷(SAQ)对山西省某强制戒毒所女性吸毒人员调查分析。结果女性戒毒人员的积极应对方式(t=10.972,P <0.01)和消极应对方式(t=24.562,P <0.01)得分高于常模;自我接纳因子(t =-10.576,P <0.01)与自我接纳总分(t=-6.091,P <0.01)得分低于常模;自我接纳因子与消极应对方式呈显著负相关(r=-0.346,P <0.01);自我评价因子与积极应对方式呈显著正相关(r =0.203,P <0.01);自我接纳总分与消极应对显著负相关(r=-0.261,P <0.01),与积极应对呈正相关(r=0.241,P <0.01)。自我接纳对应对方式有一定的预测作用(P <0.01)。

  16. Cross-section measurements for {sup 239}Pu(n,f) and {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}) with a lead slowing-down spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochman, D. [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)]. E-mail: drochman@bnl.gov; Haight, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: haight@lanl.gov; O' Donnell, J.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: odonnell@lanl.gov; Wender, S.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: wender@lanl.gov; Vieira, D.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: vieira@lanl.gov; Bond, E.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: bond@lanl.gov; Bredeweg, T.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: toddb@lanl.gov; Wilhelmy, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: j_wilhelmy@lanl.gov; Granier, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)]. E-mail: granier@cea.fr; Ethvignot, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)]. E-mail: ethvignot@cea.fr; Petit, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)]. E-mail: petit@cea.fr; Danon, Y. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: danony@rpi.edu; Romano, C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: romanc2@rpi.edu

    2006-08-01

    We present fission cross-section measurements with {approx}10ng of {sup 239}Pu performed using the LANSCE Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer. Results of Li6(n,{alpha}) measurements with a sample size of 760ng of {sup 6}Li are also reported. This technical achievement demonstrates the feasibility of measuring neutron-induced fission cross-section on samples with 10ng of fissile actinides that are available on ultra-small quantities. Furthermore, results on neutron-induced alpha emission show that measurements for astrophysics purposes are feasible with the LSDS.

  17. Cross-section measurements for 239Pu(n,f) and 6Li(n, α) with a lead slowing-down spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, D.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Wender, S. A.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Granier, T.; Ethvignot, T.; Petit, M.; Danon, Y.; Romano, C.

    2006-08-01

    We present fission cross-section measurements with ˜10 ng of 239Pu performed using the LANSCE Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer. Results of Li6(n,α) measurements with a sample size of 760 ng of 6Li are also reported. This technical achievement demonstrates the feasibility of measuring neutron-induced fission cross-section on samples with 10 ng of fissile actinides that are available on ultra-small quantities. Furthermore, results on neutron-induced alpha emission show that measurements for astrophysics purposes are feasible with the LSDS.

  18. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the long terminal repeats of simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 in T-cell lines and macrophage cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, M G; Clements, J E

    1991-01-01

    The U3 regions of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 were analyzed for basal transcriptional activity and for interaction with cellular factors in the T-cell line HUT-78 and the monocyte/macrophage cell line U937. A number of 5' deletions and mutations were made in the U3 regions of the two LTRs, and these constructs were placed upstream of a plasmid containing the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. The nucleotid...

  19. Energy dependence of the neutron multiplicity P/sub nu/ in fast neutron induced fission of /sup 235,238/U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain applications require knowledge of the higher moments of the neutron multiplicity probability. It can be shown that the second factorial moment is proportional to the fission rate in the sample, and that the third factorial moment can be of use in disentangling spontaneous fission from induced fission. Using a source of unpublished work in which neutron multiplicities were derived for the fast neutron induced fission of U-235, U-238, and Pu-239, the multiplicity probability has been calculated as a function of neutron energy for the energy range 0 to 10 MeV

  20. Role of natural organic matter on iodine and (239)(,240)Pu distribution and mobility in environmental samples from the northwestern Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Sugiyama, Yuko; Ohte, Nobuhito; Ho, Yi-Fang; Fujitake, Nobuhide; Kaplan, Daniel I; Yeager, Chris M; Schwehr, Kathleen; Santschi, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    In order to assess how environmental factors are affecting the distribution and migration of radioiodine and plutonium that were emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, we quantified iodine and (239,240)Pu concentration changes in soil samples with different land uses (urban, paddy, deciduous forest and coniferous forest), as well as iodine speciation in surface water and rainwater. Sampling locations were 53-63 km northwest of the FDNPP within a 75-km radius, in close proximity of each other. A ranking of the land uses by their surface soil (forest > deciduous forest > urban > paddy, and (239,240)Pu concentrations ranked as deciduous forest > coniferous forest > paddy ≥ urban. Both were quite distinct from that of (134)Cs and (137)Cs: urban > coniferous forest > deciduous forest > paddy, indicating differences in their sources, deposition phases, and biogeochemical behavior in these soil systems. Although stable (127)I might not have fully equilibrated with Fukushima-derived (129)I, it likely still works as a proxy for the long-term fate of (129)I. Surficial soil (127)I content was well correlated to soil organic matter (SOM) content, regardless of land use type, suggesting that SOM might be an important factor affecting iodine biogeochemistry. Other soil chemical properties, such as Eh and pH, had strong correlations to soil (127)I content, but only within a given land use (e.g., within urban soils). Organic carbon (OC) concentrations and Eh were positively, and pH was negatively correlated to (127)I concentrations in surface water and rain samples. It is also noticeable that (127)I in the wet deposition was concentrated in both the deciduous and coniferous forest throughfall and stemfall water, respectively, comparing to the bulk rainwater. Further, both forest throughfall and stemflow water consisted exclusively of organo-iodine, suggesting all inorganic iodine in the original bulk deposition (∼ 28.6% of total iodine) have

  1. Plants as bio-monitors for Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239,240 and K-40 at the Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Eric Frank; Duff, Martine C; Ferguson, Caitlin E; Coughlin, Daniel P

    2011-05-01

    The Savannah River Site was constructed in South Carolina to produce plutonium (Pu) in the 1950s. Discharges associated with these now-ceased operations have contaminated large areas within the site, particularly streams associated with reactor cooling basins. Evaluating the exposure risk of contamination to an ecosystem requires methodologies that can assess the bioavailability of contaminants. Plants, as primary producers, represent an important mode of transfer of contaminants from soils and sediments into the food chain. The objective of this study was to identify local area plants for their ability to act as bio-monitors of radionuclides. The concentrations of cesium-137 ((137)Cs), potassium-40 ((40)K), (238)Pu and (239,240)Pu in plants and their associated soils were determined using γ and α spectrometry. The ratio of contamination concentration found in the plant relative to the soil was calculated to assess a concentration ratio (CR). The highest CR for (137)Cs was found in Pinus palustris needles (CR of 2.18). The correlation of soil and plant (137)Cs concentration was strong (0.76) and the R(2) (0.58) from the regression was significant (p = 0.006). This suggests the ability to predict the degree of (137)Cs contamination of a soil through analysis of the pine needles. The (238)Pu and (239,240)Pu concentrations were most elevated within the plant roots. Extremely high CR values were found in Sparganium americanum (bur-reed) roots with a value of 5.86 for (238)Pu and 5.66 for (239,240)Pu. The concentration of (40)K was measured as a known congener of (137)C. Comparing (40)K and (137)C concentrations in each plant revealed an inverse relationship for these radioisotopes. Correlating (40)K and (137)Cs was most effective in identifying plants that have a high affinity for (137)Cs uptake. The P. palustris and S. americanum proved to be particularly strong accumulators of all K congeners from the soil. Some species that were measured, warrant further

  2. Evaluation of fission cross sections and covariances for {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Matsunobu, Hiroyuki [Data Engineering, Inc. (Japan); Murata, Toru [AITEL Corporation, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    2000-02-01

    A simultaneous evaluation code SOK (Simultaneous evaluation on KALMAN) has been developed, which is a least-squares fitting program to absolute and relative measurements. The SOK code was employed to evaluate the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu for the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.3. Procedures of the simultaneous evaluation and the experimental database of the fission cross sections are described. The fission cross sections obtained were compared with evaluated values given in JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  3. The subcellular distribution of 239Pu, 241Am and 59Fe in the liver of rat and Chinese hamster as dependent on time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcellular distribution of monomeric 239Pu, 241Am and iron in rat and Chinese hamster liver has been investigated by sucrose-, metrizamide- and Percoll-density gradients. In rat liver, the transuranium elements become and remain bound to typical lysosomes up to several months after incorporation. Lysosomes are also the primary storage organelle in Chinese hamster liver. However, their apparent density in sucrose decreases with time, which possibly indicates transition into telolysomes. The transuranium nuclides show a subcellular distribution which is quite different from that of iron. (orig.)

  4. American Chemical Society-239th national meeting--Investigating new therapeutic candidates: part 1. 21-25 March 2010, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Donald

    2010-05-01

    The American Chemical Society 239th National Meeting, held in San Francisco, included topics covering developments related to the chemical optimization of therapeutics. This conference report highlights selected presentations on agents under investigation for the treatment of neurological disorders, malaria, HBV and diabetes. Investigational drugs discussed include PF-4888086, PF-4778574 and SAM-531 (all Pfizer Inc), a series of spirotetrahydro-beta-carbolines from Novartis AG, a series of biaryl ether analogs from Merck & Co Inc, and PF-04620110 (Pfizer Inc/Bristol-Myers Squibb Co).

  5. {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am levels in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Loire and Garonne rivers basins (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Pagano, V. [SUBATECH/IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France)

    2014-07-01

    Plutonium and americium long-lived alpha emitter isotopes can be found in the environment because of atmospheric global fallout due to thermonuclear tests performed between 1945 and 1980, to the American SNAP 9A satellite explosion in 1964, to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident,... In France, the nuclear safety authority does not allow the release of artificial alpha emitters from nuclear power plants. Thus, monitoring is performed to verify the absence of these alpha emitters in liquid discharges to respect the limits set by the regulations. These thresholds ensure a very low dosimetric impact to the population compared to other radionuclides. With the objective of environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities, activity measurements of long-lived alpha emitters are carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides. Analysis of low activity by alpha spectrometry after chemical steps were performed and used to determine the {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am activities on a large set of environmental solid samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. The samples collected in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Loire and Garonne rivers basins (France) was investigated for the 2009-2014 period. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 238}Pu: from <0.00031 to 0.0061 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from <0.00086 to 0.011 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples; for the radionuclide {sup 239+240}Pu: from 0.00041 to 0.150 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from 0.0023 to 0.240 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples and for the radionuclide {sup 241}Am: from <0.00086 to 0.087 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from 0.0022 to 0.120 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples. {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am/{sup 239+240}Pu ratios determined are in accordance with an environmental contamination due to

  6. Criticality Evaluation of Plutonium-239 Moderated by High-Density Polyethylene in Stainless Steel and Aluminum Containers Suitable for Non-Exclusive Use Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T T

    2007-08-10

    Research is conducted at the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Facility (JASPER) on the effects of high pressure and temperature environments on plutonium-239, in support of the stockpile stewardship program. Once an experiment has been completed, it is necessary to transport the end products for interim storage or final disposition. Federal shipping regulations for nonexclusive use transportation require that no more than 180 grams of fissile material are present in at least 360 kilograms of contiguous non-fissile material. To evaluate the conservatism of these regulatory requirements, a worst-case scenario of 180g {sup 239}Pu and a more realistic scenario of 100g {sup 239}Pu were modeled using one of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Monte Carlo transport codes known as COG 10. The geometry consisted of {sup 239}Pu spheres homogeneously mixed with high-density polyethylene surrounded by a cube of either stainless steel 304 or aluminum. An optimized geometry for both cube materials and hydrogen-to-fissile isotope (H/X) ratio were determined for a single unit. Infinite and finite 3D arrays of these optimized units were then simulated to determine if the systems would exceed criticality. Completion of these simulations showed that the optimal H/X ratio for the most reactive units ranged from 800 to 1600. A single unit of either cube type for either scenario would not reach criticality. An infinite array was determined to reach criticality only for the 180g case. The offsetting of spheres in their respective cubes was also considered and showed a considerable decrease in the number of close-packed units needed to reach criticality. These results call into question the current regulations for fissile material transport, which under certain circumstances may not be sufficient in preventing the development of a critical system. However, a conservative, theoretical approach was taken in all assumptions and such idealized configurations may not be

  7. Simultaneous multi-level analysis of the total and fission cross-sections of 239Pu up to 160 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to describe cross-sections a multi-level scheme based on S-matrix theory was used taking the Doppler effect and the resolution into account. A multi-level analysis of the total cross-section and fission cross-section of 239Pu was made by the least-squares method in the energy region up to 160 eV. The experimental cross-section data used have a good resolution. The multi-level parameters can be used to represent all the features of the detailed energy structure of experimental cross-sections where the regions of interference minima are of the greatest interest. (author)

  8. Model testing of radioactive contamination by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ecomod@obninsk.com; Boyer, P.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Dzyuba, N.N.; Krylov, A.L.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nosov, A.V.; Sanina, K.D.; Zheleznyak, M.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for {sup 90}Sr in water for all considered models, {sup 137}Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and {sup 239,240}Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ({sup 239,240}Pu) and CASSANDRA ({sup 137}Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of {sup 239,240}Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  9. Role of 239Pu-induced chromosome alterations and mutated Ki-v-ras oncogene during liver-cancer induction in Chinese hamsters and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberrations and mutated oncogenes can cause important changes during carcinogenesis. Model systems are being studied in which defined cellular and molecular changes can be quantitated and altered, and tumor frequency, type, and time of appearance can be evaluated. Dose-response relationships for Pu Citrate-induced chromosome aberrations and liver cancer were measured in Chinese hamsters. Chromosome aberrations increased linearly according to dose, with a slope of 4.8 x 10-1 aberrations/cell/Gy; liver-tumor incidence was 1.1 x 10-1 tumors/animal/Gy. The dose was calculated at the 50% survival time. The interaction between Pu and Ki-v-ras, an altered, dominant-acting oncogene, on the induction of liver cancer was measured in B6C3F1 mice. The neo oncogene was used as a negative control in these studies. The Ki-v-ras oncogene was inserted into a viral vector and incorporated into the livers of mice either 30 days before or after the incorporation of 239Pu. Compared with both the controls and the mice injected with a single insult, mortality increased in groups of animals that received combined exposure to oncogenes, CCl4, and 239Pu. The relationships between molecular and cellular damage and the induction of cancer is being defined in both mice and Chinese hamsters

  10. The Association of Inbreeding With Lung Fibrosis Incidence in Beagle Dogs That Inhaled 238PuO2 or 239PuO2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brigantic, Andrea M.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-09-12

    Studies of health effects in animals after exposure to internally deposited radionuclides were intended to supplement observational studies in humans. Both nuclear workers and Beagle dogs have exhibited plutonium associated lung fibrosis; however, the dogs smaller gene pool may limit the applicability of findings to humans. Data on Beagles that inhaled either plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2) or plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) were analyzed. Wright's Coefficient of Inbreeding was used to measure genetic or familial susceptibility and was assessed as an explanatory variable when modeling the association between lung fibrosis incidence and plutonium exposure. Lung fibrosis was diagnosed in approximately 80% of the exposed dogs compared with 23.7% of the control dogs. The maximum degree of inbreeding was 9.4%. Regardless of isotope, the addition of inbreeding significantly improved the model in female dogs but not in males. In female dogs an increased inbreeding coefficient predicted decreased hazard of a lung fibrosis diagnosis. Lung fibrosis was common in these dogs with inbreeding affecting models of lung fibrosis incidence in females but not in males. The apparent protective effect in females predicted by these models of lung fibrosis incidence is likely to be minimal given the small degree of inbreeding in these groups.

  11. Development of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry (SINRD) to measure U-235 and Pu-239 content in a PWR spent fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, Adrienne M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The use of Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) to measure the {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu content in a PWR spent fuel assembly was investigated via Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. The sensitivity of SINRD is based on using the same fissile materials in the fission chambers as are present in the fuel because the effect of resonance absorption lines in the transmitted flux is amplified by the corresponding (n, f) reaction peaks in fission chamber. These simulations utilize the {sup 244}Cm spontaneous fission neutrons to self-interrogate the fuel pins. The amount of resonance absorption of these neutrons in the fuel can be measured using {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu fission chambers placed adjacent to the assembly. We used ratios of different fission chambers to reduce the sensitivity of the measurements to extraneous material present in fuel. The development of SINRD to measure the fissile content in spent fuel is of great importance to the improvement of nuclear safeguards and material accountability. Future work includes the use of this technique to measure the fissile content in FBR spent fuel and heavy metal product from reprocessing methods.

  12. Measurement of the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio using a transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter for total decay energy spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Andrew S; Bond, Evelyn M; Croce, Mark P; Holesinger, Terry G; Kunde, Gerd J; Rabin, Michael W; Wolfsberg, Laura E; Bennett, Douglas A; Hays-Wehle, James P; Schmidt, Dan R; Swetz, Daniel; Ullom, Joel N

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a new category of sensor for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu mass ratio from aqueous solution samples with advantages over existing methods. Aqueous solution plutonium samples were evaporated and encapsulated inside of a gold foil absorber, and a superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter detector was used to measure the total reaction energy (Q-value) of nuclear decays via heat generated when the energy is thermalized. Since all of the decay energy is contained in the absorber, we measure a single spectral peak for each isotope, resulting in a simple spectral analysis problem with minimal peak overlap. We found that mechanical kneading of the absorber dramatically improves spectral quality by reducing the size of radioactive inclusions within the absorber to scales below 50 nm such that decay products primarily interact with atoms of the host material. Due to the low noise performance of the microcalorimeter detector, energy resolution values of 1 keV fwhm (full width at half-maximum) at 5.5 MeV have been achieved, an order of magnitude improvement over α-spectroscopy with conventional silicon detectors. We measured the (240)Pu/(239)Pu mass ratio of two samples and confirmed the results by comparison to mass spectrometry values. These results have implications for future measurements of trace samples of nuclear material. PMID:25723106

  13. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry For The Determination Of 237Np In Spent Nuclear Fuel Samples By Isotope Dilution Method Using 239Np As A Spike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A determination method for 237Np in spent nuclear fuel samples was developed using an isotope dilution method with 239Np as a spike. In this method, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was taken for the 237Np instead of the previously used alpha spectrometry. 237Np and 239Np were measured by ICP-MS and gamma spectrometry, respectively. The recovery yield of 237Np in synthetic samples was 95.9±9.7% (1S, n=4). The 237Np contents in the spent fuel samples were 0.15, 0.25, and 1.06 μg/mgU and these values were compared with those from ORIGEN-2 code. A fairly good agreement between the measurements (m) and calculations (c) was obtained, giving ratios (m/c) of 0.93, 1.12 and 1.25 for the three PWR spent fuel samples with burnups of 16.7, 19.0, and 55.9 GWd/MtU, respectively

  14. Detection and antibiotic susceptibility of mycoplasma isolates from 239 cervicitis patients%宫颈炎239例分泌物支原体检测及抗生素敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑛; 李静宜; 辛德莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the antibiotic susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealytium(Uu)and Macoplasma hominis(Mh)isolates isolated from patients with cervicitis in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods Cervical secretions of 239 cervicitis patients were obtained. The culture,identification,susceptibility testing were carried out with complex mycoplasma kits. Results The isolation rates of Uu,Uu/ Mh, and Mh were 33.1%,13.0%,and 1.3%,respectively(the total isolation rate was 47. 3%). Susceptibility testing showed that 79 Uu positive isolates were highly sensitive to tetracycline:doxycycline 97.5%,minocycline 97.4%;they showed different sensitivities to macrolides antibiotics:clarithromycin 94. 9%,azithromycin 75.9%,josamycin 96.2%,erythromycin 44.3%,roxithromycin 32.9%;for quinolone antibiotics,they were sensitive(89.9%)to gatifloxacin,but not to levofloxacin and sparfloxacin. The 31 Uu/ Mh positive isolates were susceptible to minocycline 83.9%,doxycyline 87.1%,josa-mycin 83.9%,gatifloxacin 35.5%,respectively. But,they were not susceptible to sparfloxacin,levofloxacin,azithromycin,erythromycin,clarithromy-cin,roxithromycin,and clindamycin. The 3 Mh isolates were not calculated,because the number was too small. Conclusion Mycoplasma isolation rate of cervical secretions collected from the patients with cervicitis was high. Uu isolation rate was higher than Uu/ Mh,and it was susceptible to most of tet-racyclines and macrolides antibiotics. Because sensible antibiotics were less,tetracyclines antibiotics should be prioritized in the treatment of patients from whom Uu and Mh were isolated.%目的:对门诊宫颈炎患者解脲脲原体(解脲支原体)和人型支原体(人型支原体)进行分析,了解抗生素敏感情况,为临床诊疗提供实验依据。方法无菌采集宫颈炎患者的宫颈分泌物,支原体相关试剂盒进行支原体的培养、鉴定和药物敏感试验。结果支原体总检出率为47.3

  15. Alveolar macrophage kinetics after inhalation of 239PuO2 by CBA/Ca mice: Changes in synthesis of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For workers in the nuclear industry, the primary route for the entry of radioactive materials into the body is by inhalation, and the rate of clearance of particles from the pulmonary region of the lung is an important factor in determining radiation dose. It is the function of alveolar macrophages (AM) to maintain the sterility of the lung and to remove insoluble particles from the respiratory surfaces and airways. The AM population is not static, and under normal conditions the loss of macrophages from the alvoli via the conducting airways is balanced by renewal. In this investigation the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 (plutonium dioxide) particles on the synthesis of DNA by AM were studied at times up to 77 days after exposure. We also measured the number of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage and the incidence of AM with nuclear aberrations. The latter provides a sensitive indicator of the effects of radiation. One of the earliest effects observed after exposure to 239PuO2 is a reduction in the number of AM recovered by lavage. This reduction is associated with a 3-fold reduction in the proportion of AM undergoing DNA synthesis at early times after exposure. The overall mean pulse labeling index of AM recovered from sham-exposed mice is 1.68%, and no trends is observed with time. At later times after exposure there is a concurrent increase both in the number of AM recovered by lavage and the proportion of AM in the S-phase of the cell cycle. This repopulation of the AM pool is associated with an increase in the incidence of AM with nuclear aberrations. The results of this study are consistent with the theory of an intrapulmonary pool of proliferating macrophages. The depletion of the AM pool and the latency in the induction of nuclear aberrations after exposure to 239PuO2 can be attributed to a radiation-induced inhibition of cell division in addition to interphase death of AM. 57 refs., 4 figs

  16. Oxidation-reduction properties of americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium, and thermodynamic consequences for the 5f series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amalgamation of 5f elements from Am to Fm has been studied by using 241Am, 244Cm, 249Bk, 249Cf, 252Cf, 253Es, 254Es, 252Fm and 255Fm with two electrochemical methods, radiocoulometry and radiopolarography, perfectly adapted to investigate extremely diluted solutions when the concentration of electroactive species is as low as 10-16M. The theory of radiocoulometry has been developed in the general cases of reversible and irreversible electrode process. It has been used to interpret the experimental data on the kinetic curves of amalgamation, and to estimate the standard rate constant of the electrode process in complexing medium (citric). On the other hand the radiopolarographic method has been applied to study the mechanism of reduction at the dropping mercury electrode of cations M3+ in aqueous medium to the metal M with formation of amalgam. The results are exploited into two directions: 1- Acquisition of some data concerning the oxidation-reduction properties of elements from Am to Fm. Therefore the standard electrode E0 [M(III-0)] potentials for Bk, Cf and Es, and the standard electrode E0 [M(II-0)] potential for Fm are estimated and the relative stability of each oxidation state (from II to VII) of 5f elements is discussed; 2- Acquisition of unknown thermodynamic data on transcalifornium elements. Correlations between 4f and 5f elements are precised and some divergences appear for the second half of 4f and 5f series (i.e. for 65<=Z<=71 and 97<=Z<=103)

  17. Simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  18. Spatial distribution of (241)Am, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,240)Pu and (241)Pu over 17 year periods in the Ravenglass saltmarsh, Cumbria, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J-S; Warwick, P E; Croudace, I W

    2009-01-01

    Ninety five surface scrape samples were collected at the Ravenglass saltmarsh and analysed for radionuclides by alpha spectrometry ((238)Pu and (239,240)Pu), gamma spectrometry ((241)Am and (137)Cs) and liquid scintillation counting ((241)Pu). Both (241)Am and (137)Cs activities are compared with those reported by Horrill [1983. Concentrations and spatial distribution of radioactivity in an ungrazed saltmarsh. In: Coughtrey, P.J. (Ed.), Ecological Aspects of Radionuclide Release. British Ecological Society Special Publication No. 3. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 119-215.] Significant decreases in activities for both radionuclides were observed which is caused by the declining levels of discharges from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant since the 1980s. It has been concluded that the spatial distribution of these radionuclides are controlled by the tidal currents and the clay contents in the sediments. There is evidence of surface erosion of the saltmarsh and redistribution of radionuclides in the saltmarsh using isotopic ratios of measured Pu.

  19. Neutron induced fission cross section ratios for 232Th, /sup 235,238/U, 237Np, and 239Pu from 1 to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-of-flight measurements of neutron induced fission cross section ratios for 232Th, /sup 235,238/U, 237Np, and 239Pu, were performed using the WNR high intensity spallation neutron source located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A multiple-plate gas ionization chamber located at a 20-m flight path was used to simultaneously measure the fission rate for all samples over the energy range from 1 to 400 MeV. Because the measurements were made with nearly identical neutron fluxes, we were able to cancel many systematic uncertainties present in previous measurements. This allows us to resolve discrepancies among different data sets. In addition, these are the first neutron-induced fission cross section values for most of the nuclei at energies above 30 MeV. 8 refs., 3 figs

  20. Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Am using neutrons produced in target-blanket system `Energy plus Transmutation' by relativistic protons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Adam; K Katovsky; A Balabekyan; V G Kalinnikov; M I Krivopustov; H Kumawat; A A Solnyshkin; V I Stegailov; S G Stetsenko; V M Tsoupko-Sitnikov; W Westmeier

    2007-02-01

    Target-blanket facility `Energy + Transmutation' was irradiated by proton beam extracted from the Nuclotron Accelerator in Laboratory of High Energies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Neutrons generated by the spallation reactions of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 GeV protons and lead target interact with subcritical uranium blanket. In the neutron field outside the blanket, radioactive iodine, neptunium, plutonium and americium samples were irradiated and transmutation reaction yields (residual nuclei production yields) have been determined using -spectroscopy. Neutron field's energy distribution has also been studied using a set of threshold detectors. Results of transmutation studies of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am are presented.

  1. Aerosol sampling and characterization for hazard evaluation. Progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978. [/sup 239/Pu aerosol monitor performance in work area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Tillery, M.I.; Stafford, R.G.; Romero, P.O.

    1979-11-01

    Measurements of the dilution of air contaminants between worker breathing zone and area air samplers were made by releasing a test fluorescent aerosol in workrooms equipped with aerosol surveillance systems. These data were used to evaluate performance and suggest improvements in design of alarming air monitor systems. In one workroom studied, average half-hour breathing zone air concentration needed to trigger alarm was found to be 960 times the maximum permissible air concentration for occupational exposure to soluble /sup 239/Pu (MPC/sub a/). It was shown that alternative monitor placement in this room could result in decreasing average triggering concentration to 354 times the MPC/sub a/. Analysis of data from impaction-autoradiographic sizing comparison studies showed average disintegration to track ratio called track efficiency factor, to be 2.7 +- 0.4.

  2. American Chemical Society-239th national meeting--Investigating new therapeutic candidates: part 2. 21-25 March 2010, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Konrad

    2010-05-01

    The American Chemical Society 239th National Meeting, held in San Francisco, included topics covering developments related to the chemical optimization of therapeutics. This conference report highlights selected presentations on second-generation cholesterol absorption inhibitors (CAIs), CCK2 receptor antagonists to prevent acid rebound, HIF-PH inhibitors for anemia, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) as a target for autoimmune disease, and GPR119 agonists and GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of diabetes. Investigational drugs discussed include LPD-608 (Lipideon Biotechnology AG), a second-generation CAI series from Merck & Co Inc, JNJ-26070109 and JNJ-42041935 (both Johnson & Johnson), SYN-1436 (Syntonix Pharmaceuticals Inc), a series of GPR119 agonists from Roche Holding AG and Schering-Plough Research Institute, and a series of GLP-1 receptor agonists from Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.

  3. An experimental study of the integral properties of U235 and Pu239 in an intermediate energy spectrum, and comparison with theoretical prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present-day methods of calculation for thermal and fast reactors involve the use of multigroup cross-section sets derived from basic nuclear data files. Since the accuracy of the calculations depends ultimately on the accuracy of these data, it is important to test them against results of 'integral experiments' in critical or sub-critical assemblies. The present report describes integral experiments designed to provide a sensitive test of the U235 and Pu239 cross-sections spectrum-averaged over the 'intermediate' energy range from about 10 eV to 10 keV. This is an area where the fissile nuclide cross-section data, particularly that for radiative capture, are still inadequately defined, as evidenced by the considerable discrepancies between various determinations. The difficulties stem from the problems of resolving and analysing the properties of closely spaced resonances and particularly in separating the fission and capture contributions. From the parameters of the resolved resonances, the distributions of the partial widths must be derived in order to provide a sound basis for the calculation of the averaged properties in the unresolved region, which constitute a significant part of the region of interest. The correct assignment of the fission and capture widths and their distributions is also necessary for the calculation of the spectrum-average capture to fission ratio (a), which has an important bearing on conversion and breeding ratios. Unlike the situation for the thermal and fast neutron regions (i.e. those below and above that considered here), where many critical and sub-critical assemblies have been made, very few integral experiments suitable for adequately testing the U235 and Pu239 data in the intermediate energy range have been reported. Hence the decision, in 1965, to undertake the work described here

  4. Effect of plasma viremia on apoptosis and immunophenotype of dendritic cells subsets in acute SIVmac239 infection of Chinese rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Jun Xia

    Full Text Available Non-human primates such as Chinese rhesus macaques (Ch Rhs provide good animal models for research on human infectious diseases. Similar to humans, there are two principal subsets of dendritic cells (DCs in the peripheral blood of Ch Rhs: myeloid DCs (mDCs and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs. In this study, two-color fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analyses were used to identify the main DC subsets, namely CD1c(+ mDCs and pDCs from Ch Rhs. Then, the apoptosis and immunophenotype changes of DCs subsets were first described during the acute phase of SIVmac239 infection. Both the DCs subsets showed decreased CD4 expression and enhanced CCR5 expression; in particular, those of pDCs significantly changed at most time points. Interestingly, the plasma viral loads were negatively correlated with CD4 expression, but were positively correlated with CCR5 expression of pDCs. During this period, both CD1c(+ mDCs and pDCs were activated by enhancing expressions of co-stimulatory molecules, accompanied with increase in CCR7. Either CD80 or CD86 expressed on CD1c(+ mDCs and pDCs was positively correlated with the plasma viral loads. Our analysis demonstrates that the pDCs were more prone to apoptosis after infection during the acute phase of SIVmac239 infection, which may be due to their high expressions of CD4 and CCR5. Both DCs subsets activated through elevating the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, which was beneficial in controlling the replication of SIV. However, a mere broad immune activation initiated by activated DCs may lead to tragic AIDS progression.

  5. Os quilombos perante o STF: a emergência de uma jurisprudência dos direitos étnicos (ADIN 3.239-9) The quilombos before Supreme Court: the emergence of an ethnic rights jurisprudency (ADIN 3.239-9)

    OpenAIRE

    João Carlos Bemerguy Camerini

    2012-01-01

    O STF apreciará este ano a ADIN nº 3.239-9, na qual se discute a interpretação do direito das comunidades remanescentes de quilombos à titulação de suas terras (art. 68 do ADCT). Para além de prenunciar impactos sociais sobremodo relevantes, notadamente no mercado de terras, essa ação recoloca a Corte Suprema brasileira face aos dilemas da jurisdição constitucional, tais como a sua legitimidade democrática, o seu compromisso com a concretização dos direitos fundamentais, além da necessidade d...

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1998 growing season (with a cumulative summary of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu over time)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; R. J. Wechsler; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    1999-11-01

    Soils and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at eight locations within and around Area G, a disposal facility for low-level, radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup tot}U. Most of the radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation were within the upper 95% level of background concentrations except for {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu. Tritium concentrations in vegetation from most sites were greater than background concentrations of about 2 pCi mL{sup {minus}1}. The concentrations of {sup 239}Pu in soils and understory vegetation were largest in samples collected several meters north of the transuranic waste pad area and were consistent with previous results. Based on {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu data through 1998, it was shown that concentrations were (1) significantly greater than background concentrations (p < 0.05) in soils and vegetation collected from most locations at Area G, and (2) there was no systematic increase or decrease in concentrations with time apparent in the data.

  7. Radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am and 239+240Pu in vegetation cover of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) is one of the largest testing grounds for nuclear weapons. Diverse nuclear explosions were carried out on its territory: 340 underground tests (sites 'Degelen', 'Balapan' and 'Sary-Uzen'), 30 surface and 86 nuclear air explosions (site for radioactive warfare agent (RWA) and 'Experimental Field'). Since the STS was shutdown a large amount of information about current radiological situation in its territory has been collected. In recent years, one of the main problems is gradual transfer of its lands for national economy. Under these conditions, an essential element for prediction of radioactive contamination levels of food products is radionuclides redistribution parameters in soil-plant system used in calculation of doses to the population living within STS territory. Until recently, matter of radionuclides migration from soil to plants has been poorly studied. Individual researches, more or less devoted to this issue occurred in the past, but have virtually no information about accumulation of transuranic radionuclides in plants. More regular studies in this direction have been initiated recently. Between 2007 and 2013 features of artificial radionuclides accumulation in certain plant species under radioactive tunnel watercourses at 'Degelen' site were studied. We've obtained statistically reliable data characterizing accumulation of radionuclides, including 239+240Pu and 241Am, in steppe plants at 'Experimental field' site. The content of radionuclides in plants was researched at the RWA site. Comprehensive ecological survey in order to release the lands to the national economic turnover investigated parameters of radionuclides accumulation in steppe grasses at conditionally 'background' areas of STS and some parts of radioactive trace plume caused by the explosion in 1953. To date, all the findings have been generalized. We present an integrated picture about accumulation of artificial radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and

  8. Transcriptional activation of OsDERF1 in OsERF3 and OsAP2-39 negatively modulates ethylene synthesis and drought tolerance in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Wan

    Full Text Available The phytohormone ethylene is a key signaling molecule that regulates a variety of developmental processes and stress responses in plants. Transcriptional modulation is a pivotal process controlling ethylene synthesis, which further triggers the expression of stress-related genes and plant adaptation to stresses; however, it is unclear how this process is transcriptionally modulated in rice. In the present research, we report the transcriptional regulation of a novel rice ethylene response factor (ERF in ethylene synthesis and drought tolerance. Through analysis of transcriptional data, one of the drought-responsive ERF genes, OsDERF1, was identified for its activation in response to drought, ethylene and abscisic acid. Transgenic plants overexpressing OsDERF1 (OE led to reduced tolerance to drought stress in rice at seedling stage, while knockdown of OsDERF1 (RI expression conferred enhanced tolerance at seedling and tillering stages. This regulation was supported by negative modulation in osmotic adjustment response. To elucidate the molecular basis of drought tolerance, we identified the target genes of OsDERF1 using the Affymetrix GeneChip, including the activation of cluster stress-related negative regulators such as ERF repressors. Biochemical and molecular approaches showed that OsDERF1 at least directly interacted with the GCC box in the promoters of ERF repressors OsERF3 and OsAP2-39. Further investigations showed that OE seedlings had reduced expression (while RI lines showed enhanced expression of ethylene synthesis genes, thereby resulting in changes in ethylene production. Moreover, overexpression of OsERF3/OsAP2-39 suppressed ethylene synthesis. In addition, application of ACC recovered the drought-sensitive phenotype in the lines overexpressing OsERF3, showing that ethylene production contributed to drought response in rice. Thus our data reveal that a novel ERF transcriptional cascade modulates drought response through controlling

  9. Mixed tau, TDP-43 and p62 pathology in FTLD associated with a C9ORF72 repeat expansion and p.Ala239Thr MAPT (tau) variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Troakes, Claire; Smith, Bradley N; Maekawa, Satomi; Iovino, Mariangela; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Shaw, Christopher E

    2013-02-01

    A massive intronic GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 has recently been identified as the most common cause of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We have previously demonstrated that C9ORF72 mutant cases have a specific pathological profile with abundant p62-positive, TDP-43-negative cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions within cerebellar granular cells of the cerebellum and pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in addition to classical TDP-43 pathology. Here, we report mixed tau and TDP-43 pathology in a woman with behavioural variant FTLD who had the C9ORF72 mutation, and the p.Ala239Thr variant in MAPT (microtubule associated protein tau) gene not previously associated with tau pathology. Two of her brothers, who carried the C9ORF72 mutation, but not the MAPT variant, developed classical ALS without symptomatic cognitive changes. The dominant neuropathology in this woman with FTLD was a tauopathy with Pick's disease-like features. TDP-43 labelling was mainly confined to Pick bodies, but p62-positive, TDP-43-negative inclusions, characteristic of C9ORF72 mutations, were present in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Mixed pathology to this degree is unusual. One might speculate that the presence of the C9ORF72 mutation might influence tau deposition in what was previously thought to be a "benign" variant in MAPT in addition to the aggregation of TDP-43 and other as yet unidentified proteins decorated with ubiquitin and p62.

  10. Statistical activities during 1976 and the design and initial analysis of nuclear site studies. [/sup 241/Am, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R O; Essington, E H; Brady, D N; Doctor, P G; Eberhardt, L L

    1977-05-01

    Statistical design and analysis activities for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) during 1976 are briefly outlined. This is followed by a description of soil data collected thus far at nuclear study sites. Radionuclide concentrations in surface soil collected along a transect from ground zero (GZ) along the main fallout pattern are given for Nuclear Site (NS) 201. Concentrations in soil collected at 315 locations on a grid system at 200 foot spacings are also given for this site. The /sup 241/Am to /sup 137/Cs ratios change over NS 201 depending on location relative to GZ. They range from less than one where /sup 241/Am is at low levels, to more than fifty where /sup 241/Am levels are high (near GZ). The estimated median /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu to /sup 241/Am ratio is 11 and appears to be relatively constant over the area (the 95 percent lower and upper limits on the true median ratio are about 8 and 14).

  11. Determination of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu and {sup 241}Am in radioactive waste from IPEN reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Cheberle, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Marcelo T., E-mail: bgeraldo@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: scsantos@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ferreira@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. of Pocos de Caldas; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Ion exchange resin is a common type of radioactive waste arising from treatment of coolant water of the main circuit of research and nuclear power reactors. This waste contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization in order to determine and quantify specific radionuclides including those known as difficult-to-measure radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of RDMs generally involves expensive and time-consuming complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides. The objective of this work is to show an easy methodology for quantifying plutonium and americium isotopes in spent ion exchange resin, used for purification of the cooling water of the IEA-R1 reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. The resins were destroyed by acid digestion, followed by purification and separation of the Pu and Am isotopes with anionic and chromatographic resins. {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}+{sup 24}'0Pu, and {sup 24}'1Am isotopes were analyzed in an alpha spectrometer equipped with surface barrier detectors. {sup 241}Pu isotope was analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Chemical recovery yield ranged from 73 to 98% for Pu and 77 to 98% for Am, demonstrating that the methodology is suitable for identification and quantification of the isotopes studied in spent resins. (author)

  12. Inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats and dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Decker, J.R.; Lai, Y.L.; Lauhala, K.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Hiastala, M.P.; McGee, D.R.; Park, J.F.; Kuffel, E.G.; Ragan, H.A.; Cannon, W.C.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1988-08-01

    Rats and beagle dogs were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or body burdens of /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses of both species within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell concentrations and by long-term loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in animals of both species that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled plutonium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in both species, but its only effect on blood cell concentrations was lymphocytopenia in dogs. Combined gamma irradiation and plutonium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Plutonium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the long-term effect of plutonium lung burdens in both species. Rats were less sensitive to both kinds of radiation, whether administered alone or in combination. 71 refs., 105 figs., 48 tabs.

  13. Sequential leaching extraction of 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 241Pu and 241Am from a mud sample: An intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The determination of the association percentages of transuranics to different sediment phases could define their fate once they have been deposited onto the marine floor and their possible reactivity at the sediment/sea water interphase. Nowadays, there is a wide variety of leaching methods to extract transuranics from the different geochemical compounds conforming the sediments. Nevertheless, a general controversy is extended in the scientific world due to the extreme difficulty in testing their reliability, since the standards of transuranics linked to a certain sedimentary phase are not commercially available. Two mud subsamples taken from a storage container were analysed employing the same sequential extraction method, but with small handling differences.The following fractions were isolated: (1) Readily available (2) Carbonate bound and specifically adsorbed (3) Organically bound (4) Oxide and hydroxides bound and (5) residual. The 239,240Pu, 238Pu and 241Am extracted in each phase were analysed using standard radiochemical procedures. 241Pu was determined by both direct scintillation counting and through the 241Am in-growth up on the old disks containing Plutonium. The procedure for uncertainty calculations has been also included. (author)

  14. Sequential leaching extraction of 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 241Pu, 237Np and 241Am from a mud sample: An intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transuranics content of a mud sample taken from a nuclear waste storage container was analysed employing two different sequential extraction methods. The following fractions were isolated: (1)Water soluble (2) Readily available (3) Carbonate bound and specifically adsorbed (4) Organically bound (5) Oxide and hydroxides bound and (6) residual. Both methods differ in the reagents employed, the extraction sequence applied as well as the temperature and means of extraction. The 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 237Np and 241Am extracted in each phase were determined using standard radiochemical procedures. 241Pu was analysed through the 241Am in-growth on just one old disk of the residual fraction containing plutonium. Plutonium was mainly associated to organic-oxides fractions (89-92 %). The percentage extracted in each fraction depended on the method and the extraction sequence used. The soluble fraction of plutonium was less than 13%. Neptunium seemed to be the more soluble than the other transuranics (27%) and the americium showed a tendency to be associated to carbonates (30%). (author)

  15. Determination of Fission Product Yields of 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Neutron Energies from 0.5 to 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Matthew; Arnold, Charles; Becker, John; Bhatia, Chitra; Bhike, Megha; Fowler, Malcolm; Howell, Calvin; Kelley, John; Stoyer, Mark; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner; Vieira, Dave; Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2014-03-01

    A joint TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has been formed to study the issue of possible energy dependences for certain fission product isotopes. Work has been carried out at the TUNL 10 MV Tandem accelerator which produces nearly mono-energetic neutrons via either 2H(d,n)3He,3H(d,n)4He,or3H(p,n)3He reactions. Three dual fission ionization chambers dedicated to 235U, 238U and 239Pu thick target foils and thin monitor foils respectively, were exposed to the neutron beams. After irradiation, thick target foils were gamma counted over a period of 1-2 months and characteristic gamma rays from fission products were recorded using HPGe detectors at TUNL's low background counting area. Using the dual fission chambers, relative fission product yield were determined at a high precision of 2-3 % as well as absolute fission product yields at a lower precision of 5-6 %. Preliminary results will be presented for a number of fission product isotopes over the incident neutron energy range of 0.5 to 14.8 MeV.

  16. Energy Dependence of Neutron-Induced Fission Product Yields of 235U, 238U and 239Pu Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Matthew; Tornow, Werner; Tonchev, Anton; Vieira, Dave; Wilhelmy, Jerry; Arnold, Charles; Fowler, Malcolm; Stoyer, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements have been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission products between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of activation utilizing specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. The dual-fission chambers are back-to-back ionization chambers encasing a target with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the fission rate in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting was performed on well-shield HPGe detectors over a period of 2 months per activation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 4.6 and 14.8 MeV.

  17. Updated estimates of /sup 239-240/Pu + 241Am inventory, spatial pattern, and soil tonnage for removal at nuclear site-201, NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These new estimates are based on 712 241Am soil concentrations including 185 data values not previously available. Estimates were obtained using essentially the same kriging techniques and the estimated average /sup 239-240/Pu to 241Am ratio of 7.5 used to obtain previous results. The total Pu + Am inventory estimated to be in the top 5 cm of soil over the 109 hectare study is approximately 16.3 curies. Lower and upper limits on this inventory estimate are about 6.7 and 45.6 curies, respectively. It is estimated that about 58 acres (approx. = 23 hectares) of land in the study are contaminated at levels greater than 40 pCi/g which includes about 40 acres (approx. = 16 hectares) at levels greater than 160 pCi/g. Approximately 28,000 tons of soil would need to be removed (to 15-cm depth) to clean up all areas with estimated concentrates greater than or equal to 160 pCi/g. About 41,000 tons would require removal at the 40 pCi/g level. 5 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  18. Capture and Fission rate of 232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu from spallation neutrons in a huge block of lead.

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2000-01-01

    The study is centered on the research of the incineration possibility of nuclear waste, by the association of a particle accelerator with a multiplying medium of neutrons, in the project "Energy Amplifier" of C. Rubbia. It consists of the experimental determination of the rates of capture and fission of certain elements (232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu) subjected to a fluence of fast spallation neutrons. These neutrons are produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy protons (several GeV) provided by the CERN-PS accelerator, on a large lead solid volume. The measurement techniques used in this work, are based on the activation of elements in the lead volume and the subsequent gamma spectroscopy of the activated elements, and also by the detection of fission fragment traces. The development, of a Monte Carlo code makes it possible, on one hand, to better understand the relevant processes, and on the other hand, to validate the code, by comparison with measurements, for the design and the construction of...

  19. A canine orthologue of the human GFAP c.716G>A (p.Arg239His) variant causes Alexander disease in a Labrador retriever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, Mario; Martlé, Valentine; Van Brantegem, Leen; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Ham, Luc; Bhatti, Sofie; Peelman, Luc J

    2016-06-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of astrocyte dysfunction in man, for which already a number of causal variants are described, mostly de novo dominant missense variants in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). A similar disorder was already phenotypically described in animals but without the identification of causal variants. We diagnosed a Labrador retriever with a juvenile form of AxD based on clinical (tetraparesis with spastic front limbs mimicking 'swimming puppy syndrome') and pathological (the detection of GFAP containing Rosenthal fibers in astrocytes) features. In order to identify a causal variant, the coding sequences of the four detected GFAP transcript variants (orthologues from human transcript variants α, γ, δ/ɛ and κ) were sequenced. From the five detected variants, a heterozygous c.719G>A nucleotide substitution resulting in a p.Arg240His substitution was considered to be causal, because it is orthologous to the heterozygous de novo dominant c.716G>A (p.Arg239His) hotspot variant in man, proven to cause a severe phenotype. In addition, the variant was not found in 50 unrelated healthy Labrador retrievers. Because the condition in dogs is morphologically similar to man, it could be a promising animal model for further elucidating the genotype/phenotype correlation in order to treat or prevent this disease. PMID:26486469

  20. Comparative effects of protracted exposures to 60Co γ-radiation and 239Pu α-radiation on breeding performance in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding performances are compared of hybrid female mice given 239Pu(5 or 10μCikg-1 body mass in 1 per cent trisodium citrate via the tail-vein), or kept in a 10rad/day or 20rad/day 60Co γ-irradiation field (but mated in the control area), or unirradiated. Ovarian dose-rates from the injected plutonium were initially 0.8 and 1.7 rad/day, changing little thereafter; actual γ-ray dose-rates to breeding females averaged around 8 and 16 rad/day respectively. Both γ-ray treatments affected reproductive performance more than the plutonium injections, with respect to duration of fertility and to offspring per litter in successive 4-weekly periods, though overall mean litter-sizes were not significantly less than controls. The r.b.e. for these effects on reproduction, attributed to germ-cell killing, is about 2.5 for the α particles vs. γ-rays, lower than for testis mass reduction in males. This low r.b.e. may be connected with inhomogeneity of α-particle dose within the ovary, but it is known that fission neutron versus gamma r.b.e.'s for impairment of female fertility are also lower than those for impairment of male fertility. (Author)

  1. Inhaled 239PuO2 and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats and beagle dogs were given doses of 60Co gamma radiation and/or body burdens of 239PuO2 within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses of both species within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell concentrations and by long-term loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in animals of both species that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled plutonium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in both species, but its only effect on blood cell concentrations was lymphocytopenia in dogs. Combined gamma irradiation and plutonium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Plutonium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the long-term effect of plutonium lung burdens in both species. Rats were less sensitive to both kinds of radiation, whether administered alone or in combination. 71 refs., 105 figs., 48 tabs

  2. Depletion of CD8+ cells does not affect the lifespan of productively infected cells during pathogenic sivmac239 infection of rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shudo, Emi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    While CD8+ T cell responses are clearly important in anti-viral immunity during HIV/SIV infection, the mechanisms by which CD8+ T cells induce this effect remain poorly understood, as emphasized by the failure of the Merck adenovirus-based, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-inducing AIDS vaccine in a large phase IIb clinical trial. In this study, we measured the in vivo effect of CD8+ lymphocytes on the lifespan of productively infected cells during chronic SIVmac239 infection of rhesus macaques by treating two groups of animals (i.e., CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted or controls) with antiretroviral therapy (PMPA and FTC). The lifespan of productively infected cells was calculated based on the slope of the decline of SIV plasma viremia using a well-accepted mathematical model. We found that, in both early (i.e., day 57 post-inoculation) and late (i.e., day 177 post-inoculation) chronic SIV infection, depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes did not result in an increased lifespan of productively infected cells in vivo. This result indicates that direct killing of cells producing virus is unlikely to be a major mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of CD8+ T cells during SIV infection. These results have profound implications for the development of AIDS vaccines.

  3. Microdistribution and long-term retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the respiratory tracts of an acutely exposed plutonium worker and experimental beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Christopher E; Wilson, Dulaney A; Brooks, Antone L; McCord, Stacey L; Dagle, Gerald E; James, Anthony C; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Thrall, Brian D; Morgan, William F

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [(239)Pu (NO(3))(4)] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histologic lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a nonuniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the subpleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential to increase cancer risk.

  4. Transmutation of $^{239}$Pu and Other Nuclides Using Spallation Neutrons Produced by Relativistic Protons Reacting with Massive U- and Pb-Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Bamblevski, V P; Barabanov, M Yu; Bradnova, V; Chaloun, P; Hella, K M; Kalinnikov, V G; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Perelygin, V P; Pronskikh, V S; Pavliouk, A V; Solnyshkin, A A; Sosnin, A N; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Zaverioukha, O S; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Brandt, R; Langrock, E J; Vater, P; Van, J S; Westmeier, W; Dwivedi, K K; Guo Shi Lun; Li Li Qiang; Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Kievets, M K; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V; Modolo, G; Odoj, R; Zamani-Valassiadou, M

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies on the transmutation of some long-lived radioactive waste nuclei, such as ^{129}I, ^{237}Np, and ^{239}Pu, as well as on natural uranium and lanthanum (all of them used as sensors) were carried out at the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory for High Energies (JINR, Dubna). Spallation neutrons were produced by relativistic protons with energies in the range of 0.5 GeV\\le E(p)\\le 1.5 GeV interacting with 20 cm long uranium or lead target stacks. The targets were surrounded by 6 cm paraffin moderators. The radioactive sensors mentioned above were positioned on the outside surface of the moderator and contained typically approximately 0.5 up to 1 gram of long-lived isotopes. The highly radioactive targets were produced perfectly well-sealed in aluminum containers by the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia. From the experimentally observed transmutation rates one can easily extrapolate, that in a subcritical nuclear power assembly (or "energy amplifier") using a 10 mA pr...

  5. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  6. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4{pi}-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples; Spectrometrie alpha 4{pi} de sources d'actinides realisees par electronebulisation. Developpement et optimisation d'un protocole applique au mesurage des isotopes 238 et 239+240 du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement (DPRE), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4{pi}-{alpha} spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4{pi} -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  7. Statistical evaluation of lung, bone, and liver tumors in rats exposed to aerosols of 238PuO2, 239PuO2, and 244CmO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mantel--Haenszel procedure was applied to the evaluation of tumor data from exposures to aerosols of 238PuO2, 239PuO2, and 244CmO2. Significance was evident for lung tumors for all three transuranics, for osteosarcomas in animals exposed to 244CmO2, and was suggested for liver tumors in animals exposed to 244CmO2

  8. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  9. Adoptive Transfer of Lymphocytes Isolated from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239Δnef-Vaccinated Macaques Does Not Affect Acute-Phase Viral Loads but May Reduce Chronic-Phase Viral Loads in Major Histocompatibility Complex-Matched Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Justin M; Lhost, Jennifer J; Hines, Paul J.; Scarlotta, Matthew; Harris, Max; Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Budde, Melisa L; Dudley, Dawn M.; Pham, Ngoc; Cain, Brian; Mac Nair, Caitlin E.; Weiker, Madelyn K.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O'Connor, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVmac239Δnef is the most effective SIV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine in preclinical testing. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for protection may provide important insights for the development of HIV vaccines. Leveraging the uniquely restricted genetic diversity of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, we performed adoptive transfers between major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched animals to assess the role of ...

  10. Ultra-sensitive Mass Spectrometric and Other Advanced Methods Applied to Biological Samples. Second interlaboratory comparison study for the analysis of 239Pu in synthetic urine at the μBq (∼100 aCi) level by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a follow up to the initial 1998 intercomparison study, a second study was initiated in 2001 as part of the ongoing evaluation of the capabilities of various ultra-sensitive methods to analyze 239Pu in urine samples. The initial study was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of International Health Programs to evaluate and validate new technologies that may supersede the existing fission tract analysis (FTA) method for the analysis of 239Pu in urine at the μBq/l level. The ultra-sensitive techniques evaluated in the second study included accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) by LLNL, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) by LANL and FTA by the University of Utah. Only the results for the mass spectrometric methods will be presented. For the second study, the testing levels were approximately 4, 9, 29 and 56 μBq of 239Pu per liter of synthetic urine. Each test sample also contained 240Pu at a 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of ∼0.15 and natural uranium at a concentration of 50 μBq/ml. From the results of the two studies, it can be inferred that the best performance at the μBq level is more laboratory specific than method specific. The second study demonstrated that LANL-TIMS and LLNL-AMS had essentially the same quantification level for both isotopes. Study results for bias and precision and acceptable performance compared to ANSI N13.30 and ANSI N42.22 have been compiled. (author)

  11. Retrospective determination of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr activities in the outer bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) collected at various sites in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr were determined in 25 archived spruce outer bark samples collected in coniferous forests across the Czech Republic in 1995. At three sampling sites the radionuclide activity concentrations were determined in forest soil. Data was provided on the cumulative deposition and vertical distribution of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr in forest soil. The median activity concentration of 238Pu in the spruce bark samples was 0.009 Bq kg-1. The median activity concentration of 239,240Pu was 0.212 Bq kg-1, and the median activity concentration of 90Sr was 10.6 Bq kg-1. The radionuclide activity concentration distribution was not significantly explained by the local long-term (1961-2000) mean annual precipitation totals, by site elevation, by bark acidity, by soil moisture and soil texture. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides in bark were found to be higher than or comparable with the published and measured figures for radionuclide activity concentrations in cultivated and uncultivated soils (0-20 cm layer) in the Czech Republic and abroad. The activity concentration ratio of 90Sr/239,240Pu in the investigated spruce bark samples was higher than in the relevant soil samples. We assume that the crucial radioactive contamination loads in bark occurred in the first half of the 1960s, when the concentration of the investigated radionuclides in the air was highest. Spruce trunk bark has preserved relatively high activity concentrations of these radionuclides. The mechanism governing the long-term radionuclide activity concentrations in outer bark proportional to the local radioactive fallout rates is not correctly known. Our results indicate the suitability of spruce bark for use as an effective monitor of radioactive plume fallout loads even several decades after the contamination episode. (author)

  12. Ultra-trace determination of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu by triple quadruple collision/reaction cell-ICP-MS/MS: Establishing a baseline for global fallout in Qatar soil and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mohamed A; Helal, Abdul-Fattah I; Al-Kinani, Athab T; Balakrishnan, Perumal

    2016-03-01

    The development of practical, fast, and reliable methods for the ultra-trace determination of anthropogenic radionuclides (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu by triple quadruple collision/reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS/MS) were investigated in term of its accuracy and precision for producing reliable results. The radionuclides were extracted from 1 kg of the environmental soil samples by concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids. The leachate solutions were measured directly by triple quadrupole CRC-ICP-MS/MS. For quality assurance, a chemical separation of the concerned radionuclides was conducted and then measured by single quadrupole-ICP-MS. The developed methods were next applied to measure the anthropogenic radionuclides (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu in soil samples collected throughout the State of Qatar. The average concentrations of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu were 0.606 fg/g (3.364 Bq/kg), 0.619 fg/g (2.038 Bq/kg), 0.034 fg/g (0.0195 Bq/kg), 65.59 fg/g (0.150 Bq/kg), and 12.06 fg/g (0.103 Bq/kg), respectively.

  13. High workload and job stress are associated with lower practice performance in general practice: an observational study in 239 general practices in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grol Richard

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of high physician workload and job stress on quality and outcomes of healthcare delivery is not clear. Our study explored whether high workload and job stress were associated with lower performance in general practices in the Netherlands. Methods Secondary analysis of data from 239 general practices, collected in practice visits between 2003 to 2006 in the Netherlands using a comprehensive set of measures of practice management. Data were collected by a practice visitor, a trained non-physician observer using patients questionnaires, doctors and staff. For this study we selected five measures of practice performance as outcomes and six measures of GP workload and job stress as predictors. A total of 79 indicators were used out of the 303 available indicators. Random coefficient regression models were applied to examine associations. Results and discussion Workload and job stress are associated with practice performance. Workload: Working more hours as a GP was associated with more positive patient experiences of accessibility and availability (b = 0.16. After list size adjustment, practices with more GP-time per patient scored higher on GP care (b = 0.45. When GPs provided more than 20 hours per week per 1000 patients, patients scored over 80% on the Europep questionnaire for quality of GP care. Job stress: High GP job stress was associated with lower accessibility and availability (b = 0.21 and insufficient practice management (b = 0.25. Higher GP commitment and more satisfaction with the job was associated with more prevention and disease management (b = 0.35. Conclusion Providing more time in the practice, and more time per patient and experiencing less job stress are all associated with perceptions by patients of better care and better practice performance. Workload and job stress should be assessed by using list size adjusted data in order to realise better quality of care. Organisational development using

  14. Simultaneous determination of radiocesium ((135)Cs, (137)Cs) and plutonium ((239)Pu, (240)Pu) isotopes in river suspended particles by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liguo; Zheng, Jian; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    Due to radioisotope releases in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, long-term monitoring of radiocesium ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in river suspended particles is necessary to study the transport and fate of these long-lived radioisotopes in the land-ocean system. However, it is expensive and technically difficult to collect samples of suspended particles from river and ocean. Thus, simultaneous determination of multi-radionuclides remains as a challenging topic. In this study, for the first time, we report an analytical method for simultaneous determination of radiocesium and Pu isotopes in suspended particles with small sample size (1-2g). Radiocesium and Pu were sequentially pre-concentrated using ammonium molybdophosphate and ferric hydroxide co-precipitation, respectively. After the two-stage ion-exchange chromatography separation from the matrix elements, radiocesium and Pu isotopes were finally determined by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS, respectively. The interfering elements of U ((238)U(1)H(+) and (238)U(2)H(+) for (239)Pu and (240)Pu, respectively) and Ba ((135)Ba(+) and (137)Ba(+) for (135)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively) were sufficiently removed with the decontamination factors of 1-8×10(6) and 1×10(4), respectively, with the developed method. Soil reference materials were utilized for method validation, and the obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu activities showed a good agreement with the certified/information values. In addition, the developed method was applied to analyze radiocesium and Pu in the suspended particles of land water samples collected from Fukushima Prefecture after the FDNPP accident. The (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios (0.329-0.391) and (137)Cs activities (23.4-152Bq/g) suggested radiocesium contamination of the suspended particles mainly originated from the accident-released radioactive contaminates, while similar Pu contamination of suspended

  15. Simultaneous determination of radiocesium ((135)Cs, (137)Cs) and plutonium ((239)Pu, (240)Pu) isotopes in river suspended particles by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liguo; Zheng, Jian; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    Due to radioisotope releases in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, long-term monitoring of radiocesium ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in river suspended particles is necessary to study the transport and fate of these long-lived radioisotopes in the land-ocean system. However, it is expensive and technically difficult to collect samples of suspended particles from river and ocean. Thus, simultaneous determination of multi-radionuclides remains as a challenging topic. In this study, for the first time, we report an analytical method for simultaneous determination of radiocesium and Pu isotopes in suspended particles with small sample size (1-2g). Radiocesium and Pu were sequentially pre-concentrated using ammonium molybdophosphate and ferric hydroxide co-precipitation, respectively. After the two-stage ion-exchange chromatography separation from the matrix elements, radiocesium and Pu isotopes were finally determined by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS, respectively. The interfering elements of U ((238)U(1)H(+) and (238)U(2)H(+) for (239)Pu and (240)Pu, respectively) and Ba ((135)Ba(+) and (137)Ba(+) for (135)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively) were sufficiently removed with the decontamination factors of 1-8×10(6) and 1×10(4), respectively, with the developed method. Soil reference materials were utilized for method validation, and the obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu activities showed a good agreement with the certified/information values. In addition, the developed method was applied to analyze radiocesium and Pu in the suspended particles of land water samples collected from Fukushima Prefecture after the FDNPP accident. The (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios (0.329-0.391) and (137)Cs activities (23.4-152Bq/g) suggested radiocesium contamination of the suspended particles mainly originated from the accident-released radioactive contaminates, while similar Pu contamination of suspended

  16. Involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) versus elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for 239 esophageal cancers: a single institutional retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study on early and locally advanced esophageal cancer was conducted to evaluate locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy. We assessed all patients with esophageal cancer of stages I-IV treated with definitive radiotherapy from June 2000 to March 2014. Between 2000 and 2011, ENI was used for all cases excluding high age cases. After Feb 2011, a prospective study about IFRT was started, and therefore IFRT was used since then for all cases. Concurrent chemotherapy regimen was nedaplatin (80 mg/m2 at D1 and D29) and 5-fluorouracil (800 mg/m2 at D1-4 and D29-32). Of the 239 consecutive patients assessed (120 ENI vs. 119 IFRT), 59 patients (24.7 %) had stage IV disease and all patients received at least one cycle of chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 34.0 months. There were differences in 3-year local control (44.8 % vs. 55.5 %, p = 0.039), distant control (53.8 % vs. 69.9 %, p = 0.021) and overall survival (34.8 % vs. 51.6 %, p = 0.087) rates between ENI vs. IFRT, respectively. Patients treated with IFRT (8 %) demonstrated a significantly lower risk (p = 0.047) of high grade late toxicities than with ENI (16 %). IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures (27.5 % in ENI and 13.4 % in IFRT). Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients. Both tendencies of improved loco-regional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate favored the IFRT arm over the ENI arm in this study

  17. Transfer and translocation of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr after partial foliar contamination of bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P.; Colle, C.; Morello, M. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    Bean plants at the flowering development stage were contaminated by soaking their two first leaves for 3 hours in a solution containing one of the actinides {sup 241}Am or {sup 239}Pu, or both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr. The aim of the study was to assess the adequacy of using the values of Cs/Sr for the foliar transfer parameters of transuranic actinides, as used for example in the ASTRAL code to calculate the contamination of agricultural products after a nuclear accident. Secondly, these experiments were launched to tentatively determine specific values for the foliar transfer parameters for Am and Pu, despite technical limitations due to high radiotoxicity of these isotopes which prevented the contamination of the whole foliage of bean plants. Cs and Sr were used to compare the results with those obtained with other modes of contamination, by dry deposition of aerosols for example. Results showed that the soaking protocol was adequate to compare the foliar transfer of various radionuclides, although it should be difficult to provide specific values because of partial contamination of the foliage. Foliar transfer factors, expressed as Bq.kg{sup -1}{sub dw} {sub pods}/Bq.L{sup -1}{sub solution} (2.5x10{sup -2}) and translocation factors, dimensionless, (2.3x10{sup -3}) for Am and for Pu (1.5x10{sup -3} and 7.5x10{sup -5} respectively), compared to those for Sr (respectively 3.6x10{sup -3} and 5.9x10{sup -4}) and for Cs (respectively 2.9x10{sup -1} and 1.3x10{sup -1}), were studied using this procedure. Transfer and translocation factors for Am were significantly higher than those for Sr, but were smaller than those for Cs. Therefore, Am can be classified as a medium mobile radionuclide in plant. Transfer and translocation of Pu were significantly lower than these for Sr and for Am. Besides, the transfer and translocation factors of Am and Pu only differed from one order of magnitude or less from the one of Sr, which could be in the usual range of variation

  18. Seasonal and spatial variability of {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 239+240}Pu levels in the river catchment area assessed by application of neural-network based classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarzec, Bogdan [University of Gdansk, Faculty of Chemistry, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, 18/19 Sobieskiego Street, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)], E-mail: bosk@chem.univ.gda.pl; Kabat, Krzysztof [University of Gdansk, Faculty of Chemistry, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, 18/19 Sobieskiego Street, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Astel, Aleksander [Pomeranian Academy, Biology and Environmental Protection Institute, Environmental Chemistry Research Unit, 22a Arciszewskiego Street, 76-200 Slupsk (Poland)

    2009-02-15

    The present study deals with the application of self-organizing maps (SOM) in order to model, classify and interpret seasonal and spatial variability of {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 239+240}Pu levels in the Vistula river basin. The data set represents concentration values for 3 alpha emitters ({sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U and {sup 239+240}Pu) measured in surface water samples collected at 19 different sampling locations (8 in major Vistula stream while 11 in right or left Vistula tributaries) during four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) in the framework of a one-year quality monitoring study. The advantages of an SOM algorithm, its classification and visualization ability for environmental data sets, are stressed. The neural-network based classification made it possible to reveal specific patterns related to both seasonal and spatial variability. In the middle and upper part of Vistula catchment as well as in the right-shore tributaries, concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 238}U during summer and winter are the lowest. Concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 238}U increase significantly during spring and autumn in the Vistula river catchment, especially in the delta of Vistula river. High concentration of anthropogenic originated {sup 239+240}Pu indicates 'site-specific' character of pollution in two large left-shore tributaries located in the middle part of the Vistula drainage area. Efficient classification of sampling locations could lead to an optimization of river radiochemical sampling networks and to a better tracing of natural and anthropogenic changes along Vistula river stream.

  19. Influences of parameter uncertainties within the ICRP-66 respiratory tract model: regional tissue doses for 239PuO2 and 238UO2/238U3O8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Huston, Thomas E; Bolch, W Emmett; Vernetson, William G; Bolch, Wesley E

    2003-04-01

    This paper extends an examination of the influence of parameter uncertainties on regional doses to respiratory tract tissues for short-ranged alpha particles using the ICRP-66 respiratory tract model. Previous papers examined uncertainties in the deposition and clearance aspects of the model. The critical parameters examined in this study included target tissue depths, thicknesses, and masses, particularly within the thoracic or lung regions of the respiratory tract. Probability density functions were assigned for the parameters based on published data. The probabilistic computer code LUDUC (Lung Dose Uncertainty Code) was used to assess regional and total lung doses from inhaled aerosols of 239PuO2 and 238UO2/238U3O8. Dose uncertainty was noted to depend on the particle aerodynamic diameter. Additionally, dose distributions were found to follow a lognormal distribution pattern. For 239PuO2 and 238UO2/238U3O8, this study showed that the uncertainty in lung dose increases by factors of approximately 50 and approximately 70 for plutonium and uranium oxides, respectively, over the particle size range from 0.1 to 20 microm. For typical exposure scenarios involving both radionuclides, the ratio of the 95% dose fractile to the 5% dose fractile ranged from approximately 8-10 (corresponding to a geometric standard deviation, or GSD, of about 1.7-2) for particle diameters of 0.1 to 1 microm. This ratio increased to about 370 for plutonium oxide (GSD approximately 4.5) and to about 600 for uranium oxide (GSD approximately 5) as the particle diameter approached 20 microm. However, thoracic tissue doses were quite low at larger particle sizes because most of the deposition occurred in the extrathoracic airways. For 239PuO2, median doses from LUDUC were found be in general agreement with those for Reference Man (via deterministic LUDEP 2.0 calculations) in the particle range of 0.1 to 5 microm. However, median doses to the basal cell nuclei of the bronchial airways (BB

  20. Os quilombos perante o STF: a emergência de uma jurisprudência dos direitos étnicos (ADIN 3.239-9 The quilombos before Supreme Court: the emergence of an ethnic rights jurisprudency (ADIN 3.239-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Bemerguy Camerini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O STF apreciará este ano a ADIN nº 3.239-9, na qual se discute a interpretação do direito das comunidades remanescentes de quilombos à titulação de suas terras (art. 68 do ADCT. Para além de prenunciar impactos sociais sobremodo relevantes, notadamente no mercado de terras, essa ação recoloca a Corte Suprema brasileira face aos dilemas da jurisdição constitucional, tais como a sua legitimidade democrática, o seu compromisso com a concretização dos direitos fundamentais, além da necessidade de forçá-la a perscrutar as consequências materiais de suas decisões. A partir da demonstração da tese da fundamentabilidade do direito às terras quilombolas e da crítica às teorias liberal-positivistas da jurisdição e da interpretação, este artigo visa demarcar as questões principais desse processo judicial, cujo enfrentamento se impõe, segundo métodos hermenêuticos adequados, se o tribunal quiser chegar a um provimento final efetivo, isto é, ser capaz de promover a pacificação social e promover a eficácia dos direitos fundamentais, que consubstanciam a razão última da função jurisdicional no contexto do Estado Constitucional.This year, the Brazilian Supreme Court will judge the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 3239-9, which discusses the correct interpretation of the right of quilombo communities to their territories (article 68 of the Transitory Constitutional Provisions ACT. The decision of this process will bring social impacts, especially in the land market, and will compel the Court to face the dilemmas of constitutional jurisdiction, such as its democratic legitimacy, its commitment to the realization of fundamental rights and the problem of material consequences of hard cases decisions. Based on the thesis that the quilombo territories are fundamental rights, this text seeks to demarcate the key issues of this lawsuit, whose analysis is imposed, according to appropriate hermeneutical methods, if the Court

  1. New measurements of (n,γ) and (n,fission) cross sections and capture-to-fission ratios for ^233,235U and ^239Pu using the DANCE 4π BaF2 array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, T. A.; Jandel, M.; Fowler, M. M.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Becker, J. A.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Baker, J. D.; McGrath, C. A.

    2009-10-01

    Accurate neutron nuclear data are important to many issues in stockpile stewardship, nuclear reactor design and re-certification, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear forensics. Of particular interest are the production and destruction reactions for all of the major and most of the minor actinides. The competition between capture and fission in many of the actinides presents both an obstacle and an opportunity for large γ detector arrays such as DANCE. Additional instrumentation is required to deconvolve the two contributions to the total observed γ-ray spectrum. However, conducting a simultaneous measurement can simplify background treatment and other sources of systematic uncertainty. An outline of the current experimental program will be presented along with results from neutron capture measurements on ^233,235U and ^239Pu.

  2. Synchronous Changes of the Shape of Histograms Constructed from the Results of Measurements of 90-Sr Beta-Decay and 239-Pu Alpha-Decay Observed in More than 3000 km Distant Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filin E. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It was discovered many years ago that histograms constructed from the results of mea- surements of various natural processes are not random. The histogram shape was demonstrated to be determined by the diurnal rotation and circumsolar movement of the Earth and to be independent of the nature of the process considered [1-17]. The results of those works change our basic views about stochasticity of natural processes. When the time series of physical measurements, which are traditionally considered stochastic, are transformed into the series of histograms constructed for an optimally small num- ber of the results (i.e., optimally short segment of the time series, one can see regular changes in the histogram shape. The paper illustrates the main manifestations of this phenomenon by comparing the results of 90 Sr -radioactivity and 239 Pu -decay mea- surements, with the distance between the laboratories in which the data were collected being about 3000 km.

  3. Seasonal variations in activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ac, 99Tc, 90Sr, and 239/240Pu in Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum from the South-Eastern coast of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown algae have been proven to be useful indicator organisms for heavy metals and radionuclides in the marine environments due to their ability to concentrate elements from the ambient water. There is quite a lot of data available on 137Cs in brown algae, especially for Fucus Vesiculosus. Fucus Vesiculosus is also commonly used to monitor the impact of the releases of 99Tc from the reprocessing plant in Sellafield. There is however a lack of data for other long-lived anthropogenic nuclides as 90Sr and Pu, and for natural occurring radionuclides. There is also a need for more knowledge about the mechanisms for uptake and accumulation of the different elements, and about different factors influencing the uptake. In this study activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ac, 99Tc, 90Sr and 239/240Pu are measured in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum collected over a period of one year from the south-eastern coast of Norway. Significant differences between the two species have been found. For 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ra and 239/240Pu, the activity concentrations were significantly higher in Fucus vesiculosus than in Ascophyllum nodosum, whereas for 99Tc the activity concentrations were higher in Ascophyllum nodosum than in Fucus vesiculosus. There were great seasonal variations in the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. For 99Tc there was also a difference in the temporal pattern for the two species. Possible uptake mechanisms will be discussed based on the results and on the known physiological differences between the two species. (author)

  4. Study of High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Plutonium. Part I. Contribution to the Classification of the Arc Spectrum. Part II. Determination of the Magnetic Moment of {sup 239}Pu; Etude du plutonium par spectroscopie a haute resolution: contribution a la classification du spectre d'arc et determination du moment magnetique de {sup 239}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenkorn, S

    1962-07-01

    The study of the hyperfine structure and isotope shift enabled the positions of the first five levels of the multiplet {sup 7}F{sub 0-6} belonging to the fundamental configuration 5f{sup 6}7s{sup 2} to be determined. The classification of the arc spectrum begun in this way led to 25 odd levels, the number of classified lines (70) representing about 30 p. 100 of the light emitted by this hollow cathode in the visible. In addition, the isotope shifts of many lines and the data given by the King furnace show that the first levels of the configuration 5f{sup 5}6d7s{sup 2} are also low less than 8000 cm{sup -1} above the fundamental level {sup 7}F{sub 0}. The proximity of the configuration f{sup 6}s{sup 2} and f{sup 5}ds{sup 2} shows that the bonding energies of the 5f and 6d electrons are of the same order of magnitude and this fact must be responsible for the multiple valences belonging to plutonium. From the hyperfine structure of spark lines (Pu II) the interval factor a{sub 7} for the electron was deduced giving for the calculated nuclear moment of {sup 239}Pu a value of +0.21 {+-}0.06 {mu}{sub N}. The position of the hyperfine components show that the nuclear moment is positive, although the theoretical value given by B. R. Mottelson and S. Nillson is negative and equal to -0.1 {mu}{sub N}. (author) [French] Partie 1 - L'etude des structures hyperfines et du deplacement isotopique des raies du spectre d'arc du plutonium a permis de determiner la position des cinq premiers niveaux du multiplet {sup 7}F{sub 0-6} correspondant a la configuration fondamentale 5f{sup 6}7s{sup 2}. Des lors, la classification du spectre d'arc du plutonium pouvait etre amorcee: 25 niveaux impairs ont ete mis en evidence et le nombre de raies classees (70) represente environ 30 p. 100 de l'intensite totale du spectre d'arc emis par une cathode creuse dans le visible. D'autre part, le deplacement isotopique de certaines raies, joint aux renseignements donnes

  5. Decay Heat Analyses after Thermal-Neutron Fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu by SCALE-6.1.3 with Recently Available Fission Product Yield Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heon; Gil, Choong-Sup; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The heat reaches about 1.5% after one hour and falls to 0.4% after a day. After a week it will be about 0.2%. The reactor, however, still requires further cooling for several years to keep the fuel rods safe. In general, the decay heat in the reactors can be calculated using a summation calculation method, which is simply the sum of the activities of the fission products produced during the fission process and after the reactor shutdown weighted by the mean decay energies. Consequently, the method is strongly dependent on the available nuclear structure data. Nowadays, the method has been implemented in various burnup and depletion programs such as ORIGEN and CINDER. In this study, the decay heat measurements after thermal-neutron fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu have been evaluated by the ORIGEN-S with the decay data and fission product yield libraries included in the SCALE-6.1.3 software package. The new libraries were applied to the decay heat calculations, and the results were compared with those by the ORIGEN reference calculation. The decay heat measurements for very short cooling times after thermal-neutron fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu have been evaluated by the ORIGEN-S summation calculation. The reference calculation results by the latest ORIGEN data libraries of the SCALE-6.1.3 have been validated with the measurements by ORNL and Studsvik. In addition, the generation of the new ORIGEN yield libraries has been completed based on the ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.1, JENDL/FPY-2011, and JENDL-4.0. The new libraries have been successfully applied to the decay heat calculations and comparative analyses have been devoted to verifying the importance of the fission product yield data when estimating the decay heat values for each isotope in a very short time. The decay data library occupies an important position in the ORIGEN summation calculation along with the fission product yield library.

  6. Spatial distribution of {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Pu over 17 year periods in the Ravenglass saltmarsh, Cumbria, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J.-S. [GAU-Radioanalytical, School of Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jsoh@noc.soton.ac.uk; Warwick, P.E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, School of Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: pew@noc.soton.ac.uk; Croudace, I.W. [GAU-Radioanalytical, School of Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: iwc@noc.soton.ac.uk

    2009-07-15

    Ninety five surface scrape samples were collected at the Ravenglass saltmarsh and analysed for radionuclides by alpha spectrometry ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu), gamma spectrometry ({sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs) and liquid scintillation counting ({sup 241}Pu). Both {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs activities are compared with those reported by Horrill [1983. Concentrations and spatial distribution of radioactivity in an ungrazed saltmarsh. In: Coughtrey, P.J. (Ed.), Ecological Aspects of Radionuclide Release. British Ecological Society Special Publication No. 3. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 119-215.] Significant decreases in activities for both radionuclides were observed which is caused by the declining levels of discharges from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant since the 1980s. It has been concluded that the spatial distribution of these radionuclides are controlled by the tidal currents and the clay contents in the sediments. There is evidence of surface erosion of the saltmarsh and redistribution of radionuclides in the saltmarsh using isotopic ratios of measured Pu.

  7. Estimation of covariances of {sup 16}O, {sup 23}Na, Fe, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu neutron nuclear data in JENDL-3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakajima, Yutaka; Kawano, Toshihiko; Oh, Soo-Youl; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Murata, Toru

    1997-10-01

    Covariances of nuclear data have been estimated for 6 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2. The nuclides considered are {sup 16}O, {sup 23}Na, Fe, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu, which are regarded as important for the nuclear design study of fast reactors. The physical quantities for which covariances are deduced are cross sections, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters, and the first order Legendre-polynomial coefficient for the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons. As for {sup 235}U, covariances were obtained also for the average number of neutrons emitted in fission. The covariances were estimated by using the same methodology that had been used in the JENDL-3.2 evaluation in order to keep a consistency between mean values and their covariances. The least-squares fitting code GMA was used in estimating covariances for reactions of which JENDL-3.2 cross sections had been evaluated by taking account of measurements. In nuclear model calculations, the covariances were calculated by the KALMAN system. The covariance data obtained were compiled in the ENDF-6 format, and will be put into the JENDL-3.2 Covariance File which is one of JENDL special purpose files. (author). 193 refs.

  8. A method of measurement of (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu in high U content marine sediments by sector field ICP-MS and its application to Fukushima sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    An accurate and precise analytical method is highly needed for the determination of Pu isotopes in marine sediments for the long-term marine environment monitoring that is being done since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The elimination of uranium from the sediment samples needs to be carefully checked. We established an analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS in this work. A uranium decontamination factor of 2 × 10(6) was achieved, and the U concentrations in the final sample solutions were typically below 4 pg mL(-1), thus no extra correction of (238)U interferences from the Pu spectra was needed. The method was suitable for the analysis of (241)Pu in marine sediments using large sample amounts (>10 g). We validated the method by measuring marine sediment reference materials and our results agreed well with the certified and the literature values. Surface sediments and one sediment core sample collected after the nuclear accident were analyzed. The characterization of (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the surface sediments and the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes showed that there was no detectable Pu contamination from the nuclear accident in the marine sediments collected 30 km off the plant site.

  9. Accumulation of polonium 210Po, uranium (234U and 238U and plutonium (238Pu and 239+240Pu in tissues and organs of deer Carvidae from northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Livers, kidneys and muscles of large herbivorous animals: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, collected in northern Poland, were the subject of the investigation. Polonium, uranium and plutonium activities were measured using alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. The average concentrations of 210Po ranged between 0.02±0.01 Bq kg−1 ww in muscles and 7.15±0.12 Bq kg−1 ww in kidneys. The concentration of 238U ranged widely between 2.49±0.18 and 69.37±5.45 mBq kg−1 ww. The average concentrations of 239+240Pu ranged between 0.18±0.04 mBq kg−1 ww in muscle and 2.77±0.60 mBq kg−1 ww in kidneys. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling location, sex, age and species did not influence on the radioisotope activities in the analyzed samples.

  10. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in Beagle dogs: A. Monodisperse 0.75-μm AMAD particles. B. Monodisperse 1.5-μm AMAD particles. C. Monodisperse 3.0--μm AMAD particles. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed to monodisperse aerosols of 239PuO2 of 0.75, 1.5, or 30 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) to obtain information on the relative importance of homogeneity of alpha irradiation doses to the lung in producing biological effects. The dogs' initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) ranged from 0.0002-2.0 μCi (0.0074 to 74 kBq) 239Pu/kg of body mass. Thirty-six dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent as controls. Forty-two of 48 dogs exposed to 0.75 μm AMAD particles have died; 67 of 96 have died in the study involving 1.5 μm AMAD particles; and 62 of 72 have died in the study involving the 3.0 μm AMAD particles. Seven of 36 control dogs have died. Most dogs exposed to 239Pu that have failed to survive have died with radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis and/or lung cancer. Surviving dogs have lived up to 4300 days after exposure. The data obtained to date indicate that the degree of uniformity of dose to the lung does not significantly modify the risk of lung cancer. (author)

  11. Frameshift Deletion by Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA Polymerase Dpo4 T239W Is Selective for Purines and Involves Normal Conformational Change Followed by Slow Phosphodiester Bond Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huidong; Beckman, Jeff W.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2009-01-01

    The human DNA polymerase κ homolog Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) produces “−1” frameshift deletions while copying unmodified DNA and, more frequently, when bypassing DNA adducts. As judged by steady-state kinetics and mass spectrometry, bypass of purine template bases to produce these deletions occurred rarely but with 10-fold higher frequency than with pyrimidines. The DNA adduct 1,N2-etheno-2′-deoxyguanosine, with a larger stacking surface than canonical purines, showed the highest frequency of formation of −1 frameshift deletions. Dpo4 T239W, a mutant we had previously shown to produce fluorescence changes attributed to conformational change following dNTP binding opposite cognate bases (Beckman, J. W., Wang, Q., and Guengerich, F. P. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 36711–36723), reported similar conformational changes when the incoming dNTP complemented the base following a templating purine base or bulky adduct (i.e. the “+1” base). However, in all mispairing cases, phosphodiester bond formation was inefficient. The frequency of −1 frameshift events and the associated conformational changes were not dependent on the context of the remainder of the sequence. Collectively, our results support a mechanism for −1 frameshift deletions by Dpo4 that involves formation of active complexes via a favorable conformational change that skips the templating base, without causing slippage or flipping out of the base, to incorporate a complementary residue opposite the +1 base, in a mechanism previously termed “dNTP-stabilized incorporation.” The driving force is attributed to be the stacking potential between the templating base and the incoming dNTP base. PMID:19837980

  12. Frameshift deletion by Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase Dpo4 T239W is selective for purines and involves normal conformational change followed by slow phosphodiester bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huidong; Beckman, Jeff W; Guengerich, F Peter

    2009-12-11

    The human DNA polymerase kappa homolog Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) produces "-1" frameshift deletions while copying unmodified DNA and, more frequently, when bypassing DNA adducts. As judged by steady-state kinetics and mass spectrometry, bypass of purine template bases to produce these deletions occurred rarely but with 10-fold higher frequency than with pyrimidines. The DNA adduct 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine, with a larger stacking surface than canonical purines, showed the highest frequency of formation of -1 frameshift deletions. Dpo4 T239W, a mutant we had previously shown to produce fluorescence changes attributed to conformational change following dNTP binding opposite cognate bases (Beckman, J. W., Wang, Q., and Guengerich, F. P. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 36711-36723), reported similar conformational changes when the incoming dNTP complemented the base following a templating purine base or bulky adduct (i.e. the "+1" base). However, in all mispairing cases, phosphodiester bond formation was inefficient. The frequency of -1 frameshift events and the associated conformational changes were not dependent on the context of the remainder of the sequence. Collectively, our results support a mechanism for -1 frameshift deletions by Dpo4 that involves formation of active complexes via a favorable conformational change that skips the templating base, without causing slippage or flipping out of the base, to incorporate a complementary residue opposite the +1 base, in a mechanism previously termed "dNTP-stabilized incorporation." The driving force is attributed to be the stacking potential between the templating base and the incoming dNTP base. PMID:19837980

  13. 32 CFR 239.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impacted homeowners relocating during the mortgage crisis, and Service member homeowners undergoing Permanent Change of Station (PCS) moves during the mortgage crisis. This authority is referred to...

  14. 32 CFR 239.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... full outstanding mortgage balance. (c) Deployment. Performing service in a training exercise or...-not-later-than date. (e) Forward deployment. Performing service in an area where the Secretary of... liability under applicable State law against a Service member whose property was foreclosed on or...

  15. 32 CFR 239.6 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation, or due to retirement in connection with such disability, and (C) Who needs to market the primary... a family member caregiver or the need to find work more accommodating to the disability.) (ii... Force. (B) Who relocate from their primary residence in furtherance of medical treatment,...

  16. 49 CFR 239.107 - Emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a desk-top computer (i.e., monitor, central processing unit, and keyboard) and either a facsimile... service, except for self-propelled cars designed to carry baggage, mail, or express: (1) That all...

  17. 48 CFR 239.7408-1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....” (c) Special construction costs may be— (1) A contingent liability for using telecommunications... costs. These costs are usually expressed in terms of a termination liability, as provided in...

  18. 48 CFR 239.7401 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... any other electronic, electric, electromagnetic, or acoustically coupled means. (g) Telecommunications services means the services acquired, whether by lease or contract, to meet the Government's... OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY...

  19. QTL Information Table: 239 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ve effects and additive-by-additive epistatic effects of QTLs for yield traits in a... 97B Milyang 46 A RG561 RM228 pha Zhuang, J.Y., Fan, Y.Y., Rao, Z.M., Wu, J.L., Xia, Y.W., and Zheng, K.L. (2002). Analysis on additi

  20. 49 CFR 239.7 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sleeping car or coach assigned to intercity service, other than food, beverage, or security service. Division headquarters means the location designated by the railroad where a high-level operating manager (e... the Administrator's delegate. Control center means a central location on a railroad...

  1. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, M. E.; Arnold, C. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fallin, B.; Fowler, M. M.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Krishichayan; Macri, R.; Rusev, G.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber and gamma

  2. 大便失禁患者的电话生物反馈与面对面生物反馈:两项技术在239例患者中的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byrne; C.; M.; Solomon; M.; J.; Rex; J.

    2006-01-01

    目的:生物反馈是大便失禁患者的一种有效治疗方法,但关于其治疗机制或具有临床效应的最小需要程度尚不得而知。该研究将对农村和远郊的大便失禁患者分别进行电话辅助生物反馈与标准的面对面治疗的有效性进行比较。方法:这种新型治疗计划包括最初的面对面评估、经肛门测压法和超声生物反馈治疗,及随后的3次电话指导治疗和最后一次的面对面评估。标准治疗包括5次面对面治疗及治疗期间的压力测定和超声治疗。来自农村的患者被提供电话辅助治疗。预期的资料采集包括大便失禁评分、生活质量指数、肛门压力测定及外括约肌等容和等张疲劳时间。缩粜:2001年7月至2004年7月间,共239例接受治疗的连续患者纳入该研究。两组患者在人口统计学、既往病史及预治疗方面无显著差异。46/55例(84%)接受电话治疗的患者和129/184例(70%)接受标准治疗的患者完成治疗。治疗后患者有实质性显著改善,包括两组患者大便失禁的自我控制率平均提高54%;St.Mark失禁评分在电话治疗组和标准治疗组患者分别降低了3.1和3.2(由7.9降至4.7和由7.4降至4.2),而其生活质量指数分别相对改善了128%和130%的(由0.29升至0.65和0.3升至0.69)。重要的是,两组各个指标间均无照著差异。在所有完成治疗的患者中,78%患者有不同程度改善。

  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory thermal ionization mass spectrometry results from intercomparison study of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and fission track analysis of μBq quantities of 239Pu in synthetic urine (LA-UR-001698)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the Department of Energy, Office of International Health Programs (EH-63) contracted the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to perform an intercomparison to evaluate state-of-the-art analysis techniques for 239Pu in synthetic urine in μBq quantities. Sample preparation was performed by Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory. Five replicate samples at spike amounts of 3.7, 9.26, 29.6, and 55.6 μBq and a black amount were distributed to the participating laboratories in 200 g synthetic urine. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) participated in the intercomparison using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). LANL results, system improvements, and future intercomparisons are discussed. (author)

  4. Simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments; Mesure des isotopes du plutonium des sediments marins par spectrometrie de masse a plasma couple inductivement haute resolution (HR ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, F

    1999-07-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  5. Seasonal variations in activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 239/240}Pu in Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum from the South-Eastern coast of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaum, A.; Christensen, G.C. [Institute for Energy Technology, Health and Safety Dept., Kjeller (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Brown algae have been proven to be useful indicator organisms for heavy metals and radionuclides in the marine environments due to their ability to concentrate elements from the ambient water. There is quite a lot of data available on {sup 137}Cs in brown algae, especially for Fucus Vesiculosus. Fucus Vesiculosus is also commonly used to monitor the impact of the releases of {sup 99}Tc from the reprocessing plant in Sellafield. There is however a lack of data for other long-lived anthropogenic nuclides as {sup 90}Sr and Pu, and for natural occurring radionuclides. There is also a need for more knowledge about the mechanisms for uptake and accumulation of the different elements, and about different factors influencing the uptake. In this study activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239/240}Pu are measured in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum collected over a period of one year from the south-eastern coast of Norway. Significant differences between the two species have been found. For {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 239/240}Pu, the activity concentrations were significantly higher in Fucus vesiculosus than in Ascophyllum nodosum, whereas for {sup 99}Tc the activity concentrations were higher in Ascophyllum nodosum than in Fucus vesiculosus. There were great seasonal variations in the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. For {sup 99}Tc there was also a difference in the temporal pattern for the two species. Possible uptake mechanisms will be discussed based on the results and on the known physiological differences between the two species. (author)

  6. Modification of a loop sequence between α-helices 6 and 7 of virus capsid (CA protein in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 derivative that has simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239 vif and CA α-helices 4 and 5 loop improves replication in cynomolgus monkey cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adachi Akio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 productively infects only humans and chimpanzees but not cynomolgus or rhesus monkeys while simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac readily establishes infection in those monkeys. Several HIV-1 and SIVmac chimeric viruses have been constructed in order to develop an animal model for HIV-1 infection. Construction of an HIV-1 derivative which contains sequences of a SIVmac239 loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5 of capsid protein (CA and the entire SIVmac239 vif gene was previously reported. Although this chimeric virus could grow in cynomolgus monkey cells, it did so much more slowly than did SIVmac. It was also reported that intrinsic TRIM5α restricts the post-entry step of HIV-1 replication in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cells, and we previously demonstrated that a single amino acid in a loop between α-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7 of HIV type 2 (HIV-2 CA determines the susceptibility of HIV-2 to cynomolgus monkey TRIM5α. Results In the study presented here, we replaced L6/7 of HIV-1 CA in addition to L4/5 and vif with the corresponding segments of SIVmac. The resultant HIV-1 derivatives showed enhanced replication capability in established T cell lines as well as in CD8+ cell-depleted primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cynomolgus monkey. Compared with the wild type HIV-1 particles, the viral particles produced from a chimeric HIV-1 genome with those two SIVmac loops were less able to saturate the intrinsic restriction in rhesus monkey cells. Conclusion We have succeeded in making the replication of simian-tropic HIV-1 in cynomolgus monkey cells more efficient by introducing into HIV-1 the L6/7 CA loop from SIVmac. It would be of interest to determine whether HIV-1 derivatives with SIVmac CA L4/5 and L6/7 can establish infection of cynomolgus monkeys in vivo.

  7. Use of trioctylphosphine oxide for transplutonium element extraction and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigated was extraction of tri-valent curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium as well as cerium and europium with trioctylphosphin oxide from lactic acid solutions, containing DTPA and aluminium nitrate depending on the aluminium nitrate and TOPO concentrations and nitric acid solutions of variable concentration as well. Under optimum conditions of extraction chromatography of berkelium studied was the distribution of cobalt, nickel, chromium, iron, aluminium, titanium, zirconium and niobium ions, and the coefficients of berkelium purification from cations investigated were determined. The effect of weight quantities of cation impurities on extraction chromatographic yield of berkelium has been investigated. Examples of practice application of the extraction chromatography with the use of TOPO are given

  8. 40 CFR 180.239 - Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... residues of the insecticide phosphamidon (2-chloro-2-diethylcarbamoyl-1-methylvinyl dimethyl...

  9. MD 239 on Collide and Squeeze (part 2)

    CERN Document Server

    Gorzawski, Arkadiusz; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Colliding the beams during the squeeze to profit from Landau damping due to head--on beam-beam and beta--star leveling are two operational modes that may have to be used in a not so distant future at the LHC. This MD aimed at improving the orbit control during the squeeze with much improved handling of orbit feedback references and at evaluating instruments and techniques to maintain the beam in collisions with active feedback on luminosity or beam position. This MD also integrated for the first time synchronized collimator measurements. Comparison of the settings with the previous MD allowed a validation of the long term stability of collide and squeeze.

  10. Dicty_cDB: VSC239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( FB334560 |pid:none) Sequence 2086 from Patent WO200711... 100 3e-20 AM774337_2( AM774337 |pid:none) Repo...rter vector pCH2B. 100 3e-20 FM992690_367( FM992690 |pid:none) Candida dubliniensis

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHQ239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BAC clone RP11-487E13 from 4, complete sequence. 48 0.41 1 AJ410884 |AJ410884.1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1...0.68 2 AJ410883 |AJ410883.1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1482/99 (H1N1)) partial N1NA gene for Neu

  12. [239Pu and chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikova, N D; Osovets, S V; Kudriavtseva, T I

    2009-01-01

    The genome status in somatic cells was assessed using the chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 194 plutonium workers exposed to occupational radiation mainly from low-transportable compounds of airborne 230Pu. Pu body burden at the time of cytogenetic study varied from values close to the method sensitivity to values multiply exceeding the permissible level. Standard (routine) methods of peripheral blood lymphocytes cultivation were applied. Chromatid- and chromosomal-type structural changes were estimated. Aberrations were estimated per 100 examined metaphase cells. The quantitative relationship between the CA frequency and Pu body burden and the absorbed dose to the lung was found. Mathematical processing of results was carried out based on the phenomenological model. The results were shown as theoretical and experimental curves. The threshold of the CA yield was 0.43 +/- 0.03 kBq (Pu body burden) and 6.12 +/- 1.20 cGy (absorbed dose to the lung).

  13. 239 240Pu in Lake Michigan: 1971 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plutonium concentration data presented previously have consisted primarily of results from studies of short-term variations, i.e., the annual plutonium cycle conducted at Lake Michigan station ANL-5, 12 km SW of Grand Haven, Michigan. In this report, mean annual concentrations of total plutonium in unfiltered water from far off-shore (> 30 km) stations for the period 1971 through 1977, and from station ANL-5 (1975 through 1978) are summarized to establish the long-term trend in plutonium concentration in Lake Michigan. The results presented show that the mean annual concentration in the water column is similar at ANL-5 and at offshore stations and has decreased at the rate of only 6% per year during the period 1972 through 1978. The nearly constant concentration indicates that steady-state equilibria exist between plutonium inputs to the lake and the loss of plutonium from the water column. Observations suggest the existence of an active redox cycle for Pu in Lake Michigan. In this cycle, Pu IV atoms in solution are continually taken up by particulate materials but may be oxidized within microzones of the particles such as freshly deposited manganese coatings and also in solution by agents such as dissolved oxygen. In turn, the concentration of Pu VI in solution may be limited by reaction with reducing constituents of the coloidal-sized fraction (or decomposer organisms such as bacteria or fungi, which might have been present after filtration) and with planktonic organisms in the environment to produce Pu IV and thus maintain the cycle

  14. Dicty_cDB: AFI239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ' end,single read. 599 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis ....1 Tor7258 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA, mRNA sequence. 70 4e-08 1 CK030146 |CK03014...7908 O17908 H06O01.1 PROTEIN. [1] ;, mRNA sequence. 70 4e-08 1 CN206834 |CN206834

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHS239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available end partial sequence. 42 9.9 1 CR029411 |CR029411.1 Forward strand read from insert in 5'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engi...neering clone MHPN192d01. 42 9.9 1 AZ781723 |AZ781723.1 2M0021H18F Mouse 10kb plasm

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSI239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Frame A: kink*yknkikr*inkfkqliiiiikk**ylkimkfdsiqf*nqyyyyyyclsmviivkq hnnf*mkilimhylenin...ikr*xnkfkqliiiiikk**ylkimkfdsiqf*nqyyyyyyclsmvii vkqhnnf*mkilimhyleninlkksikpnn**kmtqicipigqrfqqqqqtnqtnqikd

  17. 48 CFR 352.239-70 - Standard for security configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... systems using Windows XPTM and Windows VistaTM, including desktops and laptops—regardless of function—but not including servers. (b) The Contractor shall apply approved security configurations to information... (HSPD-12) card readers with the purchase of servers, desktops, and laptops; and (2) comply with...

  18. Dicty_cDB: CFH239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ffifiiynlixlif*wqn*k*lfil**ffvvvsnflldtkrrllhfihlqvicipl liifghvivsltktvdsvhlnaimpvsmqfsrppmrsstvmntcfhyfile...vkxxdckxtxkxxsxxxl Frame C: *iiiffifiiynlixlif*wqn*k*lfil**ffvvvsnflldtkrrllhfihlqvicipl liifghvivsltktvdsvhlnaim

  19. 48 CFR 1352.239-71 - Electronic and information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electronic and information technology. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1339.270(a), insert the following provision: Electronic and Information Technology (APR 2010) (a) To be considered eligible for award, offerors must propose electronic and information technology (EIT) that meet the applicable Access Board...

  20. Some comments on the toxicity of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no simple method of expressing a concept such as toxicity. The toxicity of a material depends upon its form (solid, liquid, or gas), the method of entry into the body (ingestion, inhalation, or abrasion), and the individual it enters (young, old, sick, well, heavy cigarette smoker, or consumer of alcohol). Thus, statements such as ''plutonium is the most toxic material known to man'' are not only incorrect; they are meaningless. By taking the one aspect of plutonium which can be quantitated in a meaningful manner, the induction of malignant bone sarcomas in humans, the incremental risk presented to those who have been exposed to this radioelement has been shown to be quite small. By means of a hypothetical exposure of radium dial workers to plutonium instead of radium, an industry-wide exposure to plutonium would have been less harmful than the actual exposure to radium, in spite of the fact that plutonium appears to be far more toxic than radium. Further, the observation that, after radium was recognized as a toxic material, it no longer was a hazard in the dial industry, clearly demonstrates that hazardous radioactive materials can be handled safely. This has been demonstrated again with plutonium, for even though much larger quantities have been handled by many more individuals, there are no demonstrable cases of malignancies induced by this hazardous material. The absence of clearly demonstrable excesses of lung cancer in the large group of long-term thorium workers is reassuring, for it may imply that low doses to the lung have a very low probability of inducing lung cancers. It is concluded that plutonium, a highly toxic material, can be handled safely, as are many other hazardous materials that play important roles in our daily lives

  1. USERDA computer program summaries. Numbers 177--239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960 the Argonne Code Center has served as a U. S. Atomic Energy Commission information center for computer programs developed and used primarily for the solution of problems in nuclear physics, reactor design, reactor engineering and operation. The Center, through a network of registered installations, collects, validates, maintains, and distributes a library of these computer programs and publishes a compilation of abstracts describing them. In 1972 the scope of the Center's activities was officially expanded to include computer programs developed in all of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission program areas and the compilation and publication of this report. The Computer Program Summary report contains summaries of computer programs at the specification stage, under development, being checked out, in use, or available at ERDA offices, laboratories, and contractor installations. Programs are divided into the following categories: cross section and resonance integral calculations; spectrum calculations, generation of group constants, lattice and cell problems; static design studies; depletion, fuel management, cost analysis, and reactor economics; space-independent kinetics; space--time kinetics, coupled neutronics--hydrodynamics--thermodynamics and excursion simulations; radiological safety, hazard and accident analysis; heat transfer and fluid flow; deformation and stress distribution computations, structural analysis and engineering design studies; gamma heating and shield design programs; reactor systems analysis; data preparation; data management; subsidiary calculations; experimental data processing; general mathematical and computing system routines; materials; environmental and earth sciences; space sciences; electronics and engineering equipment; chemistry; particle accelerators and high-voltage machines; physics; controlled thermonuclear research; biology and medicine; and data

  2. Dicty_cDB: SHE239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lib_D Pinus taeda cDNA clone PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.27 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mR...NA sequence. 48 0.27 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adul...ts, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.27 1 DT309...975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas

  3. Some comments on the toxicity of /sup 239/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    There is no simple method of expressing a concept such as toxicity. The toxicity of a material depends upon its form (solid, liquid, or gas), the method of entry into the body (ingestion, inhalation, or abrasion), and the individual it enters (young, old, sick, well, heavy cigarette smoker, or consumer of alcohol). Thus, statements such as ''plutonium is the most toxic material known to man'' are not only incorrect; they are meaningless. By taking the one aspect of plutonium which can be quantitated in a meaningful manner, the induction of malignant bone sarcomas in humans, the incremental risk presented to those who have been exposed to this radioelement has been shown to be quite small. By means of a hypothetical exposure of radium dial workers to plutonium instead of radium, an industry-wide exposure to plutonium would have been less harmful than the actual exposure to radium, in spite of the fact that plutonium appears to be far more toxic than radium. Further, the observation that, after radium was recognized as a toxic material, it no longer was a hazard in the dial industry, clearly demonstrates that hazardous radioactive materials can be handled safely. This has been demonstrated again with plutonium, for even though much larger quantities have been handled by many more individuals, there are no demonstrable cases of malignancies induced by this hazardous material. The absence of clearly demonstrable excesses of lung cancer in the large group of long-term thorium workers is reassuring, for it may imply that low doses to the lung have a very low probability of inducing lung cancers. It is concluded that plutonium, a highly toxic material, can be handled safely, as are many other hazardous materials that play important roles in our daily lives.

  4. 32 CFR 239.9 - Application Processing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Assignment of Application Numbers. (1) Assignment of Application Numbers. When a district receives an application, it will assign the application number and develop and maintain an individual file for each... withdrawn application does not require a new application or application number. (2) Method of Assignment....

  5. Lessons learned in the accident of contamination with Pu-239; Lecciones aprendidas en el accidente de contaminacion con Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, G.; Ruiz C, M.; Angeles C, A.; Benitez S, J.A. [ININ, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: gm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    This work describes the lessons learned during the accident by transuranic contamination in the National Institute of Nuclear Research happened between 1998 and 2003. The origin of the same one is the not authorized transfer of 0.51 g of plutonium metallic used as pattern source in the Department of Metrology to a laboratory which lacked of physical infrastructure, training and team to manipulate this source. (Author)

  6. 16 CFR 239.1 - Purpose and scope of the guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Advertising of Warranties and Guarantees are intended to help advertisers avoid unfair or deceptive practices... purport to anticipate all possible unfair or deceptive acts or practices in the advertising of warranties..., 16 CFR part 702. The other sections of the Guides apply to the advertising of any warranty...

  7. Role of self-irradiation defects on the ageing of 239PuCoGa5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-temperature accumulation and annealing experiments, in conjunction with electrical resistivity and critical current density measurements, were used to study the ageing of the actinide superconductor PuCoGa5. These measurements reveal that 2-nm-sized non-superconducting point-like regions are the main damages formed during room temperature ageing; smaller point-like defects are irrelevant to transport properties. Defect sizes and densities deduced from experiment agree with Transmission Electron Microscopy observations. (authors)

  8. Investigation of plutonium-239 conditioning in monazite and brabantite matrices: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glorieux, B.; Jorion, F.; Montel, J.M.; Matecki, M.; Deschanels, X.; Coutures, JP

    2004-07-01

    In response to the 1991 French radioactive waste management act, a research program was set up between the CNRS, the CEA and French universities to propose effective minor actinide disposal matrices capable of loading 10 wt% of actinide oxides and ensuring a hundred-fold better leaching performance than 'R7T7' glass. The lanthanide ortho-phosphates LaPO{sub 4} could constitute an excellent matrix for this purpose. In this type of structure, the (PO{sub 4}){sup 3-} negative entity is compensated by trivalent cations such as La, Ce, Gd, Pu, Am (monazite) or equal fractions of divalent and tetravalent cations such as Ca{sup 2+}Th{sup 4+}, Ca{sup 2+}U{sup 4+}, Ca{sup 2+}Np{sup 4+} (brabantite). Previous leach tests and geological discoveries have shown that these materials are highly resistant to leaching and conserve their crystalline state even in aqueous media. These points led us to investigate the incorporation of 10 wt% PuO{sub 2} in monazite and brabantite materials and to study the effects of self-irradiation on their structural states. Prior to plutonium conditioning tests, experiments were performed in the laboratory using cerium and thorium oxides according to the following reactions: (1-3x)LaPO{sub 4} + 2xCe{sup 4+}O{sub 2} + xLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} {yields} La{sub 1-2x}Ce{sub 2x}{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} + x/2O{sub 2}; (1-3x)LaPO{sub 4} + xTh{sup 4+}O{sub 2} + xCaO + xLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} {yields} La{sub 1-2x}Ca{sub x}Th{sub x}{sup 4+}PO{sub 4}. Cerium oxide was used to study the reduction of a tetravalent cation to a trivalent state in a phosphate structure and to prepare for Pu{sup 3+} conditioning. Thorium was used to study the conditioning of tetravalent cations such as Pu{sup 4+}. The parameters and sintering reaction of the final product were optimized. In a radioactive laboratory, PuO{sub 2} was then substituted for CeO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2} in the first and second reactions mentioned above, respectively. The synthesis and sintering procedures were unchanged. X-ray diffraction analysis of the powder before and after sintering showed promising results that are discussed. (authors)

  9. Late effects of 239Pu injection in adult, weanling, newborn, and fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to Pu decreased the latency of mammary tumor induction in all age groups; incidence varied with the age at injection, and with the dose. There were age-related differences in the effect of plutonium exposure on pituitary tumor incidence, as well as an association between the presence of both mammary and pituitary tumors. Prenatal exposure also increased the incidence of adrenal and pancreatic neoplasms in males

  10. 48 CFR 252.239-7007 - Cancellation or termination of orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., under generally accepted accounting procedures applicable to the provision of telecommunication services... foreseeable reuse. (b) The amount of the Government's liability upon cancellation or termination of any of the... liability upon cancellation or termination of any of the services ordered under this...

  11. 16 CFR 23.9 - Additional guidance for the use of quality marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and are in different sizes, when the net impression of any such marking would be misleading as to the... on an industry product, or is printed on a tag or label attached to the product, the quality...

  12. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YBR072W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available it as prey (1) YBR072W HSP26 Small heat shock protein (sHSP) with chaperone activity; forms hollow...as prey (1) Prey ORF YBR072W Prey gene name HSP26 Prey description Small heat shock protein (sHSP) with chaperone activity; forms hol...low, sphere-shaped oligomers that suppress unfolded proteins aggregation; oligomer

  13. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YHR184W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available it as prey (1) YHR184W SSP1 Protein involved in the control of meiotic nuclear division and coordination... the control of meiotic nuclear division and coordination of meiosis with spore formation; transcription is

  14. 48 CFR 652.239-71 - Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... State information security sections of the Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM) and Foreign Affairs Handbook... FAH 11, Information Assurance Handbook. (c) Submittal of IT Security Plan. Within 30 days after... for access! DOS information systems and related equipment are intended for communication,...

  15. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YGR268C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ith sequence similarity to that of Type I J-proteins; computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein ...equence similarity to that of Type I J-proteins; computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein inter

  16. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YPL070W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Vps9 domain; computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein interaction data suggests a possible role...ey description Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function containing a Vps9 domain; computational analysis of large-sc

  17. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YBR239C, YPL133C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cytoplasm and nucleus; null mutation affects periodicity of transcriptional and metabolic oscillation; play...ion; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; null mutation affects

  18. 48 CFR 1252.239-70 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... emphasis on rules of behavior. (j) The Contractor shall afford the Government access to the Contractor's and subcontractors' facilities, installations, operations, documentation, databases and personnel used... resources. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1239.70, insert the following clause: Security Requirements...

  19. Matrix effects corrections in DDT assay of {sup 239}Pu with the CTEN instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollas, C.L.; Arnone, G.; Brunson, G.; Coop, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The accuracy of transuranic (TRU) waste assay using the differential die-away technique depends upon significant corrections to compensate for the effects of the matrix material in which the TRU waste is located. We have used a new instrument, the combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) instrument for the assay of TRU waste, to develop methods to improve the accuracy of these corrections. Neutrons from a pulsed 14-MeV neutron generator are moderated in the walls of the CTEN cavity and induce fission in the TRU material. The prompt neutrons from these fission events are detected in cadmium-wrapped {sup 3}He neutron detectors. We have developed methods of data acquisition and analysis to extract correlation in the neutron signals resulting from fission during active interrogation. This correlation information, in conjunction with the total number of neutrons detected, is used to determine the fraction of fission neutrons transmitted through the matrix material into the {sup 3}He detectors. This determination allows us to cleanly separate the matrix effects into two processes: matrix modification upon the neutron interrogating flux and matrix modification upon the fraction of fission neutrons transmitted to the neutron detectors. Recent results indicate that for some matrix systems, corrections for position dependent effects within the matrix are possible. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The uptake of plutonium-239, 240, americium-241, strontium-90 into plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of measurements on the uptake of plutonium, americium, strontium-90 and caesium-137 into peas, beet, oats, sweet corn, tomatoes and vegetable marrow grown in tubs containing radioactively-contaminated silts. The silts had been taken from an area of West Cumbria commonly referred to as the Ravenglass estuary. The experiments are categorised as being carried out under non-standard conditions because of the manner in which the radioactivity came to be incorporated into the growth medium. The growth medium was representative of conditions which could arise when the estuarine silt moves inland under the influence of wind and tide and mixes with the adjacent farm land. The silt had been contaminated by radioactive effluents from the nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield and this contamination had been brought about by natural means. (Auth.)

  1. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YLR423C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle p...cription Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading

  2. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YDR148C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle p...mbly of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spind

  3. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YPL124W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle p...ore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the p

  4. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDR176W, YDL239C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle pole...ining structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle pole body componen...DY3 Prey description Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of a Don1p-conta

  5. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YPL255W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle p...ediate assembly of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction

  6. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YAL028W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle p... to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via intera

  7. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YOR324C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle p... a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle pole

  8. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YDR273W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle p...it as prey (1) YDR273W DON1 Meiosis-specific component of the spindle pole body, part of the leading... edge protein (LEP) coat, forms a ring-like structure at the leading edge of the prospore...ption Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading...description Meiosis-specific component of the spindle pole body, part of the leading edge protein (LEP) coat

  9. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YLR072W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the prospore membrane via interaction with spindle p... wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the pros

  10. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YKL103C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available that belongs to the peptidase family M18; often used as a marker protein in studies of autophagy and cytosol...ily M18; often used as a marker protein in studies of autophagy and cytosol to vacuole targeting (CVT) pathw

  11. MRSA genotypes in Turkey: persistence over 10 years of a single clone of ST239.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, E.; Klaassen, C.H.; Doganay, M.; Altoparlak, U.; Aydin, K.; Engin, A.; Kuzucu, C.; Ozakin, C.; Ozinel, M.A.; Turhan, O.; Voss, A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of life-threatening human infections. The clinical impact of MRSA is mounting, not only due to the ever-increasing prevalence but also due to the occurrence of new, community-acquired MRSA strains. The aim of this

  12. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YML042W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th this prey as bait (1) Literature on bait (YPD) 4 Literature on prey (YPD) 18 Literature shared by bait and prey 2 Literature shari...ng score 2 CuraGen (0 or 1) 0 S. Fields (0 or 1) 0 Association (0 or 1,YPD) 0 Compl

  13. Quantative autoradiography of inhaled 239PuO2 in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PuO2 particles behaved similarly in the lungs of rat and hamster. The relative concentrations of PuO2 up to 1-yr postexposure were 1.0 for lung parenchyma, 1.3 for subpleural areas, 0.5 for peribronchiolar regions and 0.2 for perivascular regions in the lungs

  14. A multiwire proportional counter for the detection of plutonium-239 in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work is in progress on developing counters to detect plutonium in the human lungs. The need for a low background counter for such work is discussed and the design and construction of a multiwire gas proportional counter described. The performance of the counter with different gas fillings is considered and results obtained on background, resolution, field of view and efficiency are given. Future work will consist of using the counter in conjunction with a realistic chest phantom. An estimate of the limit of detection is derived. (author)

  15. 48 CFR 352.239-72 - Security requirements for Federal information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... surveillance), peripheral equipment designed to be controlled by the central processing unit of a computer... requirements of Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 200, Recommended Security Controls for...

  16. Event-by-event study of prompt neutrons from 239Pu(n,f)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J; Pruet, J; Younes, W

    2009-07-23

    Employing a recently developed Monte-Carlo model, we study the fission of {sup 240}Pu induced by neutrons with energies from thermal to just below the threshold for second chance fission. Current measurements of the mean number of prompt neutrons emitted in fission, together with less accurate measurements of the neutron energy spectra, place remarkably fine constraints on predictions of microscopic calculations. In particular, the total excitation energy of the nascent fragments must be specified to within 1MeV to avoid disagreement with measurements of the mean neutron multiplicity. The combination of the Monte-Carlo fission model with a statistical likelihood analysis also presents a powerful tool for the evaluation of fission neutron data. Of particular importance is the fission spectrum, which plays a key role in determining reactor criticality. We show that our approach can be used to develop an estimate of the fission spectrum with uncertainties several times smaller than current experimental uncertainties for outgoing neutron energies of less than 2 MeV.

  17. Event-by-Event Study of Prompt Neutrons from 239Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J; Pruet, J; Younes, W

    2010-01-15

    Employing a recently developed Monte Carlo model, we study the fission of {sup 240}Pu induced by neutrons with energies from thermal to just below the threshold for second chance fission. Current measurements of the mean number of prompt neutrons emitted in fission, together with less accurate measurements of the neutron energy spectra, place remarkably fine constraints on predictions of microscopic calculations. In particular, the total excitation energy of the nascent fragments must be specified to within 1 MeV to avoid disagreement with measurements of the mean neutron multiplicity. The combination of the Monte Carlo fission model with a statistical likelihood analysis also presents a powerful tool for the evaluation of fission neutron data. Of particular importance is the fission spectrum, which plays a key role in determining reactor criticality. We show that our approach can be used to develop an estimate of the fission spectrum with uncertainties several times smaller than current experimental uncertainties for outgoing neutron energies of less than 2 MeV.

  18. 14 CFR 25.239 - Spray characteristics, control, and stability on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., propeller blades, or other parts not designed to withstand the resulting water loads. (b) Compliance with... to the most adverse condition established in accordance with § 25.231; (2) In wind and cross-wind... requested. (c) In the water conditions of paragraph (b) of this section, and in the corresponding...

  19. Application of a polycarboxylate ether admixture in RCC dam construction[ACI SP-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmus, S.M.F.; Christensen, B.J.; Varley, N.J. [BASF Construction Chemicals Asia Pacific, Shanghai (China)

    2006-07-01

    Chemical admixtures are used in dam construction to improve plasticity of the dry materials mixture over time. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) has been used on many dam projects in China. However, the use of RCC has frequently resulted in water reduction problems. This paper provided details of an admixture based on polycarboxylate ether (PCE) which was developed to improve the quality of RCC constructions at the JinHong dam in China. Use of the polymer at the JinHong dam resulted in a vibration sensitive concrete that was sustained over time. Under identical mix-design and compaction conditions in the laboratory, specific gravity of the RCC was increased from 2417 kg/m{sup 3} to 2463 kg/m{sup 3}. The high specific gravity of the material resulted in satisfactory strength data from the dam project. The key-ratio of the splitting tensile strength versus compressive strength was higher than 8 per cent in all cases. A key advantage of the tailored PCE-RCC was the short Vebe times sustained over elapsed time in the RCC. Without additional compaction or vibration efforts, the specific density of RCC was better than conventional admixture technologies. The reduced viscosity provided cement paste films which formed on the surface of each layer of the RCC, which resulted in better bonding between the layers. It was concluded that the new PCE polymer is compatible with alternative retarder systems, which contributes to more extensive setting times under strict hydration regimes. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Tailor-made superplasticizers for modern concrete[ACI SP-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradi, M; Khurana, R.; Magarotto, R. [Degussa Construction Chemicals, Treviso (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The cement industry is now using increasing amounts of secondary fuels to improve energy efficiency. New technology and equipment, coupled with the increased use of alternative fuels and raw materials has reduced energy consumption by one-third in the cement industry since 1975. Recent trends in admixtures science have indicated that the ready-mixed concrete industry requires stronger water reduction for improved durability, faster hydration rates for rapid strength development, and rheology control of concrete for easy form filling. Recent developments in nanotechnology have allowed new chemicals and polymers to be introduced into mixtures to improve concretes and cements. This paper evaluated the use of polycarboxylate ether (PCE) superplasticizers in cement production. The study showed that the PCEs performed differently with different cements and materials in concrete. The incompatibilities that interfered with the performance were attributed to the alternative fuels used in cement production; secondary components in cement and concrete production; mineralogical and chemical composition of aggregates; and the chemical nature of the PCE superplasticizers. The adsorption rates of a PCE polymer on 8 different limestone and quartz sands, 2 types of fly ashes, and 5 types of limestone fillers were evaluated. Results of the study suggested that preventive characterization of supplementary cementitious materials represents a fast and easy way to highlight potential incompatibilities. The new engineered polymer superplasticizers had better water reduction and workability retention. It was concluded that cement systems using PCEs can meet the individual needs of the cement producers and consumers. 6 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of hexamethylene tetramine (E 239 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexamethylene tetramine (HMT is a food additive, currently only permitted in EU for use in Provolone cheese. The maximum permitted level is 25 mg/kg residual amount, expressed as formaldehyde, the break down product of HMT under acidic conditions. HMT has been previously evaluated by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, 1974 who established an ADI of 0.15 mg/kg bw/day based on a reproductive study with a NOEL of 15 mg/kg bw/day. Due to the limitations in the database the Panel could not identify a critical study and therefore to derive an ADI. However, the Panel noted that the exposure to formaldehyde from HMT of high level consumers of Provolone cheese equalled 18 µg formaldehyde/kg bw/day in adults and could be as high as 87 µg formaldehyde/kg bw/day in children according to a theoretical conservative assumption that all ripened cheese consumed was Provolone cheese. Considering the estimated exposure from the very limited permitted use, the toxicological database on HMT, the data from use of HMT therapeutically, the available oral toxicity and toxicokinetic data of formaldehyde and the magnitude of the potential effect on intracellular formaldehyde levels arising from this use of HMT, the Panel concluded that the use of HMT in Provolone cheese at the MPL of 25 mg/kg residual amount, expressed as formaldehyde, would not be of safety concern. However the Panel considered that any increase in the permitted uses of HMT or increases in the MPL of 25 mg /kg residual amount, expressed as formaldehyde would need detailed assessment which might require new toxicity data as well as use levels and/or an evaluation of its impact on formaldehyde levels in vivo.

  2. Geological Survey research 1962; Short papers in geology, hydrology, and topography; Articles 180-239

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1963-01-01

    An investigation of the source of salt contributing to mineralization of the Arkansas and Red Rivers indicated that shallow deposits of halite in the Flowerpot Shale of Permian age were associated with salt springs (Ward, 1960, 1961). This paper summarizes the result of the Red River in Beckham and Harmon Counties, Okla. (Available as Photostat Copy Only)

  3. 48 CFR 239.7102-3 - Information assurance contractor training and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... responsibilities for DoD information systems by category (e.g., technical or management) and level (e.g., computing..., certification maintenance, and continuing education or sustainment training required for the information... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information...

  4. Oncogene expression in primary lung tumors in dogs that inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten radiation-induced and three spontaneous lung tumors were analyzed for aberrant expression of known oncogenes. In 12 of 13 tumors tested, sequences hybridizing to the c-myc oncogene were expressed at levels 1.5 times higher than sequences hybridizing to β-actin. This level of oncogene expression was also observed in 9 of 13 tumors for 1 or more members of the ras family of oncogenes. Seven of thirteen tumors examined express sequences that hybridize with clones of v-ros or c-met. The ros and met clones both code for oncogenes whose normal homologues are transmembrane proteins related to the insulin receptor. (author)

  5. Mucosal Humoral Immune Response to SIVmac239∆nef Vaccination and Vaginal Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Smith, Anthony J; Shang, Liang; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Voss, James E; Carlis, John V; Li, Qingsheng; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Johnson, R Paul; Haase, Ashley T

    2016-03-15

    Live attenuated vaccines such as SIV with a deleted nef gene have provided the most robust protection against subsequent vaginal challenge with wild-type (WT) SIV in the SIV-rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 transmission to women. Hence, identifying correlates of this protection could enable design of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. One such prechallenge correlate of protection from vaginal challenge has recently been identified as a system with three components: 1) IgG Abs reacting with the viral envelope glycoprotein trimeric gp41; 2) produced by plasma cells in the submucosa and ectopic tertiary lymphoid follicles in the ectocervix and vagina; and 3) concentrated on the path of virus entry by the neonatal FcR in the overlying epithelium. We now examine the mucosal production of the Ab component of this system after vaginal challenge. We show that vaginal challenge immediately elicits striking increases in plasma cells not only in the female reproductive tract but also at other mucosal sites, and that these increases correlate with low but persistent replication at mucosal sites. We describe vaginal ectopic follicles that are structurally and functionally organized similar to follicles in secondary lymphoid organs, and we provide inferential evidence for a key role of the female reproductive tract epithelium in facilitating Ab production, affinity maturation, and class switch recombination. Vaccination thus accesses an epithelial-immune system axis in the female reproductive tract to respond to exposure to mucosal pathogens. Designing strategies to mimic this system could advance development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:26864031

  6. Simple calculation of the critical mass for highly enriched uranium and plutonium-239

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher F.; Milne, Caroline R.

    2014-10-01

    The correct calculation of and values for the critical mass of uranium or plutonium necessary for a nuclear fission weapon have long been understood and publicly available. The calculation requires solving the radial component in spherical coordinates of a diffusion equation with a source term, so is beyond the reach of most public policy and many first-year college physics students. Yet it is important for the basic physical ideas behind the calculation to be understood by those without calculus who are nonetheless interested in international security, arms control, or nuclear non-proliferation. This article estimates the critical mass in an intuitive way that requires only algebra.

  7. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ ТЕМПЕРАТУРНОГО ПОЛЯ ПОВЕРХНОСТИ ИСПАРИТЕЛЯ ХОЛОДИЛЬНОЙ И МОРОЗИЛЬНОЙ КАМЕР БЫТОВОГО ХОЛОДИЛЬНИКА НОРД ДХ-239.

    OpenAIRE

    А. Н. Горин; Дёмин, М. В.; Красновский, И. Н.; Кудрин, А. Б.

    2015-01-01

    Показано на примере работы бытового холодильника ДХ-239 и обосновано влияние дозы заправки и температуры окружающей среды на распределение температуры на поверхно-сти испарителя холодильной и морозильной камер.

  8. The distribution of plutonium-239 and americium-241 in the Syrian hamster following its intravenous administration as citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actinide distribution in various tissues and the skeleton of hamsters by liquid scintillation counting or isotope dilution. For plutonium 57% of activity was concentrated in the skeleton and more than 90% in the liver and skeleton after seven days. For americium the liver retained more than 50% of total activity and 25% was excreted in urine within seven days. (U.K.)

  9. Role of self-irradiation defects on the ageing of {sup 239}PuCoGa{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jutier, F.; Griveau, J.C.; Colineau, E.; Wastin, F.; Rebizant, J.; Boulet, P.; Wiss, T.; Thiele, H. [European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Inst Transuranium Elements, D-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Van der Beek, C.J. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/LSI, CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7642, Lab Solides Irradies, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Simoni, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay Cedex, (France)

    2007-06-15

    Low-temperature accumulation and annealing experiments, in conjunction with electrical resistivity and critical current density measurements, were used to study the ageing of the actinide superconductor PuCoGa{sub 5}. These measurements reveal that 2-nm-sized non-superconducting point-like regions are the main damages formed during room temperature ageing; smaller point-like defects are irrelevant to transport properties. Defect sizes and densities deduced from experiment agree with Transmission Electron Microscopy observations. (authors)

  10. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha in plutonium-239-induced lung neoplasms in dogs: investigations of autocrine mechanisms of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously shown that 47% of radiation-induced lung neoplasms in dogs exhibit increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study, we investigated the expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), a ligand for EGFR, to determine if an autocrine mechanism for growth stimulation was present in these tumors. As determined by immunohistochemistry, 59% (26/44) of the lung neoplasms examined had increased expression of TGF-alpha. Expression of TGF-alpha was not related to the etiology of the tumor, e.g., spontaneous or plutonium-induced; however, it was related to the phenotype of the tumor. Statistical analysis of the correlation of EGFR and TGF-alpha expression within the same tumor did not show a positive association; however, specific phenotypes did have statistically significant expression of EGFR or TGF-alpha, suggesting that overexpression of either the ligand or its receptor conferred a growth advantage to the neoplasm. Twenty-seven percent (32/117) of radiation-induced proliferative epithelial foci expressed TGF-alpha, and a portion of those foci (8/32) expressed both EGFR and TGF-alpha. This supports the hypothesis that these foci represent preneoplastic lesions, and suggests that those foci exhibiting increased expression of the growth factor or its receptor are at greater risk for progressing to neoplasia

  11. Variations in the concentrations of Pu-239, 240 in children's teeth removed for orthodontic purposes throughout the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mean plutonium concentration measured in children's teeth samples from the U.K. was found to be 4.8 mBq.kg-1, ash, with a median of 3.6 mBq.kg-1, ash, and a range of 0.2 -21 mBq.kg-1, ash. These values are consistent with the results of other studies on plutonium in humans worldwide. Approximately 75% of the samples analysed to date had a concentration of less than 5.0 mBq.kg-1, ash. No correlation with mean annual rainfall was found, nor did there appear to be any correlation with linear distance from Sellafield. The origin of the detected plutonium could not be established directly because of the ultra-low levels involved. (author)

  12. Corrigendum to 'Pluto's atmospheric structure from the July 2007 stellar occultation' [Icarus 239 (2014) 15-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkin, Catherine B.; Young, Leslie A.; French, Richard G.; Young, Eliot F.; Buie, Marc W.; Howell, Robert R.; Regester, Jeffrey; Ruhland, Catherine R.; Natusch, Tim; Ramm, David J.; Giles, A. Barry; Greenhill, John G.

    2016-05-01

    The authors regret that two coauthors were inadvertently not included in the author list. They are A. Barry. Giles and John. G. Greenhill at School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia

  13. Radiolytic oxidation of UO{sub 2} pellets doped with alpha-emitters ({sup 238/239}Pu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzeau, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Rhone Valley Research Center DTCD/SECM/LMPA, BP 17 171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Jegou, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Rhone Valley Research Center DTCD/SECM/LMPA, BP 17 171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)], E-mail: christophe.jegou@cea.fr; Delaunay, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Valduc Research Center, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Broudic, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Rhone Valley Research Center DTCD/SECM/LMPA, BP 17 171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Brevet, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Valduc Research Center, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Catalette, H. [Electricite de France, Les Renardieres Research Center, Route de Sens Ecuelles, 77250 Moret-sur-Loing (France); Simoni, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Bat. 100, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Corbel, C. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642-CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2009-01-07

    To assess the impact of alpha radiolysis of water on the oxidative dissolution of UO{sub 2} under anoxic conditions, two series of plutonium-doped samples (specific alpha activity 385 and 18 MBqg{sub UO{sub 2}}{sup -1}) were fabricated, characterized and leached in water of varying complexity (pure water, carbonated water, dissolved hydrogen). Given the very high reactivity of these samples in the presence of air and in order to minimize any prior surface oxidation, a strict experimental protocol was developed based on high-temperature annealing in Ar + 4% H{sub 2} with preleaching cycles. Failure to follow this protocol prevents absolute quantification of oxidation of the UO{sub 2} surface by water radiolysis in solutions. Preoxidation of the pellet surface can lead to uranium release in solution that is dependent on the alpha particle flux, revealing initial oxidation by radiolysis in air including potential traces of water. This makes difficult the accurate quantification of the radiolytic oxidation in water solutions. Controlling the initial surface condition of the samples finally allowed us to demonstrate that radiolytic oxidation in water-saturated media is governed by several threshold effects for which the main parameters are the sample alpha activity and the hydrogen concentration.

  14. Insights into the dual activity of SIVmac239 Vif against human and African green monkey APOBEC3G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gaur

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Vif is essential for viral evasion of the host antiviral protein APOBEC3G (APO3G. The Vif protein from a distantly related African green monkey (Agm simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm is unable to suppress the antiviral activity of human APO3G but is active against Agm APO3G. SIVmac Vif on the other hand, possesses antiviral activity against both human and Agm APO3G. In this study, we were interested in mapping domains in SIVmac Vif that are responsible for its dual activity against human and Agm APO3G. We constructed a series of Vif chimeras by swapping domains in SIVmac Vif with equivalent regions from SIVagm Vif and determined their activity against human and Agm APO3G. We found that replacing any region in SIVmac Vif by corresponding fragments from SIVagm Vif only moderately reduced the activity of the chimeras against Agm APO3G but in all cases resulted in a severe loss of activity against human APO3G. These results suggest that the domains in SIVmac Vif required for targeting human and Agm APO3G are distinct and cannot be defined as linear amino acid motifs but rather appear to depend on the overall structure of full-length SIVmac Vif.

  15. Successful DTPA therapy in the case of 239Pu penetration via injured skin exposed to nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of the radiological study and DTPA therapy for a worker exposed to a plutonium nitrate solution. Plutonium levels were measured in excreta, blood, plasma and wound for several weeks. Plutonium renal clearance ranged from 110-190 ml min-1 to 3-4 ml min-1 at different stages of chelation therapy. Plutonium absorption into blood from the injured skin amounted to 4.3%. As a result of intensive therapy, 96% of absorbed plutonium was successfully excreted. (author)

  16. 16 CFR 239.3 - “Satisfaction Guarantees” and similar representations in advertising; disclosure in advertising...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... case may be, refunds the full purchase price of the advertised product at the purchaser's request. (b... advertisement mentioning a money back guarantee that is conditioned upon return of the product in its...

  17. Neutron multiplicity for neutron induced fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu as a function of neutron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development in the theory and practice of neutron correlation (''coincidence'') counting require knowledge of the higher factorial moments of the P/sub ν/ distribution (the probability that (ν) neutrons are emitted in a fission) for the case where the fission is induced by bombarding neutrons of more than thermal energies. In contrast to the situation with spontaneous and thermal neutron induced fission, where with a few exceptions the P/sub ν/ is reasonably well known, in the fast neutron energy region, almost no information is available concerning the multiplicity beyond the average value, [ν], even for the most important nuclides. The reason for this is the difficulty of such experiments, with consequent statistically poor and physically inconsistent results

  18. Bioreduction amenability testing of actinide contaminated soils. The systems: Am241-Pu238, Am241-Pu239/40, U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioreductive processing of actinide contaminated soils can achieve extraction levels in excess of 97% for both plutonium and uranium contaminants. Reasonable reaction rates of 4 to 6 day resident times for Pu-Am have been demonstrated on 4 gram sample charges. Longer reaction times of 17 days required for uranium extraction can be improved by soil sample preconditioning and/or an increase in process reagent concentrations. The environmentally benign treatment process operates at pH 6--7, preserves the original soil matrix, and utilizes standard processing equipment. The process reagent component (inoculum SD-1 and biological growth medium PX100 trademark) are available for utilization in an integrated system. Process techniques developed by MBX, involving graduated volume bioreactors have been proven to alleviate biological toxicity problems in treatment leachates. Bioreduction processing of actinide contaminated soils, preconditioning of soil charges, and recycling or vegetation of unacceptable tailings can be combined to provide an effective and environmentally attractive method of remediation. The soil test program was designed to determine the applicability of the MBX bioreductive technology to solubilize Pu and Am from RFP, Mound and LANL soils and uranium from Hanford and Fernald soils

  19. Procedures for determination of 239,240Pu, 241Am, 237Np, 234,238U, 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Aarkrog, Asker; Nielsen, Sven Poul;

    2001-01-01

    Since 1987, the Department of Nuclear Safety Research, Risø National Laboratory has developed procedures for analysis of low-level amounts of radioactivity in large samples of 200 liters seawater, 10 gram sediment, soil and other environmental materials.These analytical procedures provide high ch...

  20. Generation of Neutralizing Antibodies and Divergence of SIVmac239 in Cynomolgus Macaques Following Short-Term Early Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gülşen Ozkaya Sahin; Bowles, Emma J.; Joe Parker; Hannes Uchtenhagen; Enas Sheik-Khalil; Stephen Taylor; Oliver G. Pybus; Barbro Mäkitalo; Lilian Walther-Jallow; Mats Spångberg; Rigmor Thorstensson; Adnane Achour; Eva Maria Fenyö; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B. E.; Anna-Lena Spetz

    2010-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) able to react to heterologous viruses are generated during natural HIV-1 infection in some individuals. Further knowledge is required in order to understand the factors contributing to induction of cross-reactive NAb responses. Here a well-established model of experimental pathogenic infection in cynomolgus macaques, which reproduces long-lasting HIV-1 infection, was used to study the NAb response as well as the viral evolution of the highly neutralization-resist...

  1. Sediment chronology in San Francisco Bay, California, defined by 210Pb, 234Th, 137Cs, and 239,340Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C.C.; van Geen, Alexander; Baskaran, M.; Anima, R.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment chronologies based on radioisotope depth profiles were developed at two sites in the San Francisco Bay estuary to provide a framework for interpreting historical trends in organic compound and metal contaminant inputs. At Richardson Bay near the estuary mouth, sediments are highly mixed by biological and/or physical processes. Excess  penetration ranged from 2 to more than 10 cm at eight coring sites, yielding surface sediment mixing coefficients ranging from 12 to 170 cm2/year. At the site chosen for contaminant analyses, excess  activity was essentially constant over the upper 25 cm of the core with an exponential decrease below to the supported activity between 70 and 90 cm. Both  and  penetrated to 57-cm depth and have broad subsurface maxima between 33 and 41 cm. The best fit of the excess  profile to a steady state sediment accumulation and mixing model yielded an accumulation rate of 0.825 g/cm2/year (0.89 cm/year at sediment surface), surface mixing coefficient of 71 cm2/year, and 33-cm mixed zone with a half-Gaussian depth dependence parameter of 9 cm. Simulations of  and  profiles using these parameters successfully predicted the maximum depth of penetration and the depth of maximum  and  activity. Profiles of successive 1-year hypothetical contaminant pulses were generated using this parameter set to determine the age distribution of sediments at any depth horizon. Because of mixing, sediment particles with a wide range of deposition dates occur at each depth. A sediment chronology was derived from this age distribution to assign the minimum age of deposition and a date of maximum deposition to a depth horizon. The minimum age of sediments in a given horizon is used to estimate the date of first appearance of a contaminant from its maximum depth of penetration. The date of maximum deposition is used to estimate the peak year of input for a contaminant from the depth interval with the highest concentration of that contaminant. Because of the extensive mixing, sediment-bound constituents are rapidly diluted with older material after deposition. In addition, contaminants persist in the mixed zone for many years after deposition. More than 75 years are required to bury 90% of a deposited contaminant below the mixed zone. Reconstructing contaminant inputs is limited to changes occurring on a 20-year time scale. In contrast, mixing is much lower relative to accumulation at a site in San Pablo Bay. Instead, periods of rapid deposition and/or erosion occurred as indicated by frequent sand-silt laminae in the X-radiograph. , , and excess  activity all penetrated to about 120 cm. The distinct maxima in the fallout radionuclides at 105–110 cm yielded overall linear sedimentation rates of 3.9 to 4.1 cm/year, which are comparable to a rate of 4.5±1.5 cm/year derived from the excess  profile.

  2. Discovery of Isotopes of the Transuranium Elements with 93 <= Z <= 98

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and five isotopes of the transuranium elements neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium and californium have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Innovative AE and NDT techniques for on-site measurement of concrete and masonry structures state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 239-MCM

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume, in which on-site measurements of concrete and masonry structures by NDT techniques are comprehensively summarized, focuses on the visualization procedure of the results measured. The research and its outcomes presented in this book treat applications of NDT techniques to on-site measurements. These on-site measurements have been marginally successful as each technique requires a particular analysis. In this regard, visualization and imaging of results are in great demand for practitioners and engineers for inspection. The book will therefore be of great value to the field. .

  4. Corrigendum to "Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data" [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 449 (2016) 228-239

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, L.; Wang, H.; Steffen, H.; Wu, P.; Jia, L.; Jiang, L.; Shen, Q.

    2016-10-01

    The authors regret that the Acknowledgement was published with the funding support for Hansheng Wang declared in the incorrect order. The corrected Acknowledgement is as follows (please note the revised section appears in italics):

  5. Determination of 234Pa(n,f), 239Np(n,f) and 240Np(n,f) reaction cross sections by hybrid surrogate ratio method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron induced fission (n,f) cross section data are important for their applications in nuclear energy, national security and nuclear astrophysics. Unfortunately for large number of nuclear species from actinide region, the relevant data cannot be measured directly in laboratory or reliably predicted by calculations. The (n,f) cross section data on many actinide nuclei which are produced in the nuclear fuel cycles such as Pa in Th-U fuel cycle or Np, Cm, Pu, Am in U-Pu fuel cycle, are not readily available. The direct measurement of (n,f) cross section on these unstable isotopes is particularly affected since the relevant nuclei are difficult to produce by present day experimental techniques or too short lived to serve as target. Calculations are highly nontrivial since they typically require a thorough understanding of both direct and statistical mechanism and detailed knowledge of the nuclear structure involved

  6. Changes in the Shape of Histograms Constructed from the Results of 239-Pu Alpha-Activity Measurements Correlate with the Deviations of the Moon from the Keplerian Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalov S. N.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We have found that the shape of the histograms, constructed on the basis of the results of radioactivity measurements, changes in correlation with the distortions of the lunar Keplerian orbit (due to the gravitational influence of the Sun. Taking into account that the phenomenon of “macroscopic fluctuations” (regular changes in the fine structure of histograms constructed from the results of measurements of natural processes does not depend on the nature of the process under study, one can consider the correlation of the histogram shape with the Moon’s deviations from the Keplerian orbit to be independent from the nature of the process the histograms were obtained on.

  7. Comparative Plutonium-239 Dose Assessment for Three Desert Sites: Maralinga, Australia; Palomares, Spain; and the Nevada Test Site, USA - Before and After Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, B W; Shinn, J; Williams, G A; Martin, L J; O' Brien, R S; Adams, S R

    2000-07-14

    As a result of nuclear weapons testing and accidents, plutonium has been distributed into the environment. The areas close to the sites of these tests and accidental dispersions contain plutonium deposition of such a magnitude that health authorities and responsible officials have mandated that the contaminated areas be protected, generally through isolation or removal of the contaminated areas. In recent years remedial actions have taken place at all these sites. For reasons not entirely clear, the public perceives radiation exposure risk to be much greater than the evidence would suggest [1]. This perception seems to be particularly true for plutonium, which has often been ''demonized'' in various publications as the ''most hazardous substance known to man'' [2]. As the position statement adapted by the Health Physics Society explains, ''Plutonium's demonization is an example of how the public has been misled about radiation's environmental and health threats generally, and in cases like plutonium, how it has developed a warped ''risk perception'' that does not reflect reality'' [3]. As a result of this risk perception and ongoing debate surrounding environmental plutonium contamination, remedial action criteria are difficult to establish. By examining the data available before and after remedial actions taken at the three sites discussed in our report, we hope to present data that will illustrate that plutonium measured as aged deposition (older than several months) does not present as high a dose or risk as many had expected. The authors show that even though dose to the lung from inhalation (the primary pathway for the high-fired plutonium oxide particles present at these sites) is reduced, such a reduction is achieved at significant cost. The cost comes from damage to the environment, large expenditures per hectare rehabilitated, and the risk to occupational workers. This paper specifically examines sites that are similar in many ways. These sites were chosen for their similarities to make comparisons. The sites are all desert in nature i.e., have low rainfall (all receive about 20 cm per year), have minimal vegetative ground cover, and have high summer temperatures. These sites are Palomares, Spain; the Nevada Test Site (NTS); and the Maralinga site in Australia. One significant difference, however, is that the Palomares site has been used continuously for residential and agriculture purposes since the plutonium remediation was completed. Maralinga is being remediated with the objective of returning the land to its former owners, but it will have some use restrictions for the remaining contaminated areas. Any decision to return the land being remediated by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) at its Nevada sites, for public use, is in the distant future.

  8. Distribution of sup 137 Cs, sup 90 Sr, sup 238 Pu, sup 239 Pu, sup 241 Am and sup 244 Cm in Pond B, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, F.W. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Pinder, J.E. III; Bowling, J.W. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA)); Alberts, J.J. (Georgia Univ., Sapelo Island, GA (USA). Marine Inst.); Brisbin, I.L. Jr. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-05-01

    The gradual senescence of present-day operating nuclear facilities, and resultant contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, emphasize the importance of understanding the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. Observations and deductions concerning mechanisms of radionuclide transport can contribute significantly to knowledge of fundamental ecological processes. This study emphasized the ecosystem-level distribution of several long-lived radionuclides in an abandoned reactor cooling impoundment after a twenty year period of chemical and biological equilibration. 90 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. SU-E-J-239: Influence of RF Coil Materials On Surface and Buildup Dose From a 6MV Photon Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In order to perform real time tumour tracking using an integrated Linac-MR, images have to be acquired during irradiation. MRI uses RF coils in close proximity to the imaged volume. Given current RF coil designs this means that the high energy photons will be passing through the coil before reaching the patient. This study experimentally investigates the dose modifications that occur due to the presence of various RF coil materials in the treatment beam. Methods: Polycarbonate, copper or aluminum tape, and Teflon were used to emulate the base, conductor and cover respectively of a surface RF coil. These materials were placed at various distances from the surface of polystyrene or solid water phantoms which were irradiated in the presence of no magnetic field, a transverse 0.2T magnetic field, and a parallel 0.2T magnetic field. Percent depth doses were measured using ion chambers. Results: A significant increase in surface and buildup dose is observed. The surface dose is seen to decrease with an increasing separation between the emulated coil and the phantom surface, when no magnetic field is present. When a transverse magnetic field is applied the surface dose decreases faster with increasing separation, as some of the electrons created in the coil are curved away from the phantom’s surface. When a parallel field is present the surface dose stays approximately constant for small separations, only slightly decreasing for separations greater than 5cm, since the magnetic field focuses the electrons produced in the coil materials not allowing them to scatter. Conclusion: Irradiating a patient through an RF coil leads to an increase in the surface and buildup doses. Mitigating this increase is important for the successful clinical use of either a transverse or a parallel configuration Linac-MR unit. This project is partially supported by an operating grant from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR MOP 93752)

  10. Histomorphological and histomorphometrical investigations of early bone damage following incorporation of optimal carcinogenic doses of 239-plutonium in male rats of different age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is early damage to bone at small carcinogenic amounts of the nuclide, including heavy defects of bone structure and bone marrow osteoporotic features of trabecular bone and only histomorphometrically detectable changes in bone metabolism. The dependence of radiation dose to skeleton and the spacial distribution of the nuclide on age and growth of the experimental animals is demonstrated and correlated to the histological findings. It is also shown that growth and metabolism parameters of bone influence the decorporation performance of the chelating agent Zn-DTPA. (orig.)

  11. SU-E-J-239: Influence of RF Coil Materials On Surface and Buildup Dose From a 6MV Photon Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghila, A; Fallone, B; Rathee, S [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In order to perform real time tumour tracking using an integrated Linac-MR, images have to be acquired during irradiation. MRI uses RF coils in close proximity to the imaged volume. Given current RF coil designs this means that the high energy photons will be passing through the coil before reaching the patient. This study experimentally investigates the dose modifications that occur due to the presence of various RF coil materials in the treatment beam. Methods: Polycarbonate, copper or aluminum tape, and Teflon were used to emulate the base, conductor and cover respectively of a surface RF coil. These materials were placed at various distances from the surface of polystyrene or solid water phantoms which were irradiated in the presence of no magnetic field, a transverse 0.2T magnetic field, and a parallel 0.2T magnetic field. Percent depth doses were measured using ion chambers. Results: A significant increase in surface and buildup dose is observed. The surface dose is seen to decrease with an increasing separation between the emulated coil and the phantom surface, when no magnetic field is present. When a transverse magnetic field is applied the surface dose decreases faster with increasing separation, as some of the electrons created in the coil are curved away from the phantom’s surface. When a parallel field is present the surface dose stays approximately constant for small separations, only slightly decreasing for separations greater than 5cm, since the magnetic field focuses the electrons produced in the coil materials not allowing them to scatter. Conclusion: Irradiating a patient through an RF coil leads to an increase in the surface and buildup doses. Mitigating this increase is important for the successful clinical use of either a transverse or a parallel configuration Linac-MR unit. This project is partially supported by an operating grant from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR MOP 93752)

  12. Evidence for Hydroxamate Siderophores and Other N-Containing Organic Compounds Controlling (239,240)Pu Immobilization and Remobilization in a Wetland Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Kaplan, Daniel I; Ho, Yi-Fang; Schwehr, Kathleen A; Roberts, Kimberly A; Chen, Hongmei; DiDonato, Nicole; Athon, Matthew; Hatcher, Patrick G; Santschi, Peter H

    2015-10-01

    Pu concentrations in wetland surface sediments collected downstream of a former nuclear processing facility in F-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), USA, were ∼2.5 times greater than those measured in the associated upland aquifer sediments; similarly, the Pu concentration solid/water ratios were orders of magnitude greater in the wetland than in the low-organic matter content aquifer soils. Sediment Pu concentrations were correlated to total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents and even more strongly to hydroxamate siderophore (HS) concentrations. The HS were detected in the particulate or colloidal phases of the sediments but not in the low molecular weight fractions (water extract") via an isoelectric focusing experiment (IEF). An electrospray ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (ESI FTICR-MS) spectral comparison of the IEF extract and a siderophore standard (desferrioxamine; DFO) suggested the presence of HS functionalities in the IEF extract. This study suggests that while HS are a very minor component in the sediment particulate/colloidal fractions, their concentrations greatly exceed those of ambient Pu, and HS may play an especially important role in Pu immobilization/remobilization in wetland sediments. PMID:26313339

  13. 17 CFR 239.40 - Form F-10, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... class of the subject securities. (g) In the case of a business combination, the securities to be... reorganization requiring the vote of shareholders of the participating companies (a “business combination”). (b... obligations, provided, however, that in the case of a business combination, each participating company...

  14. On the similarity of 239Pu α-activity histograms when the angular velocities of the Earth diurnal rotation, orbital movement and rotation of collimators are equalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnoll, S. E.; Rubinstein, I. A.; Shapovalov, S. N.; Tolokonnikova, A. A.; Shlektaryov, V. A.; Kolombet, V. A.; Kondrashova, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    It was shown earlier that the persistent "scatter" of results of measurements of any nature is determined by the diurnal and orbital movement of the Earth. The movement is accompanied by "macroscopic fluctuations" (MF)—regular, periodic changes in the shape of histograms, spectra of fluctuation amplitudes of the measured parameters. There are two near-daily periods ("sidereal", 1436 min; and "solar", 1440 min) and three yearly ones ("calendar", 365 average solar days; "tropical", 365 days 5 h and 48 min; and "sidereal", 365 days 6 h and 9 min). This periodicity was explained by the objects whose parameters are measured passing through the same spatial-temporal heterogeneities as the Earth rotates and shifts along its orbit.

  15. 17 CFR 239.13 - Form S-3, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain issuers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stock, as of a date within 60 days prior to the date of filing. See the definition of affiliate in... are quoted on the automated quotation system of a national securities association. In addition, Form S... statements were included in the registrant's latest filing on Form 20-F (17 CFR 249.220f). In complying...

  16. Middlesex Sampling Plant environmental report for calendar year 1992, 239 Mountain Avenue, Middlesex, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and provides the results for 1992. The site, in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey, is a fenced area and includes four buildings and two storage piles that contain 50,800 m{sup 3} of radioactive and mixed hazardous waste. More than 70 percent of the MSP site is paved with asphalt. The MSP facility was established in 1943 by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) to sample, store, and/or ship uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores. In 1955 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), successor to MED, terminated the operation and later used the site for storage and limited sampling of thorium residues. In 1967 AEC activities ceased, onsite structures were decontaminated, and the site was certified for unrestricted use under criteria applicable at that time. In 1980 the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a multiphase remedial action project to clean up several vicinity properties onto which contamination from the plant had migrated. Material from these properties was consolidated into the storage piles onsite. Environmental surveillance of MSP began in 1980 when Congress added the site to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The environmental surveillance program at MSP includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analyses are performed to detect metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling th DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses.

  17. Combination of admixtures to improve the robustness of high-volume fly ash concrete in hot weather[ACI SP-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkinamubanzi, P.C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET International Centre for Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete]|[American Concrete Inst. Farmington Hills, MI (United States); Bhattacharya, A.; Sharma, A. [Hindustan Construction Co., Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    A precise admixtures system is needed when using high-volume fly ash concrete as fresh concrete occasionally undergoes rapid slump loss after mixing, which can cause problems with casting, pumping and finishing of the concrete in hot weather. This paper provided details of a study conducted to implement high-volume fly ash concrete technology in India. Different families of admixtures were investigated to determine their water reduction capacities. A set-retarding admixture was used in some of the concrete mixtures in order to determine its efficacy. An Indian Portland cement was used to create a total of 22 different concrete mixtures. Four different fly ashes were used to replace portions of the concrete. The slump of the fresh concrete mixture was monitored for 2 to 3 hours. Unit weight and temperature of the concrete was measured. Specimens were cast in steel moulds in order to determine the compressive strength and unit weight of the hardened concrete. The concretes were demoulded after 24 hours and cured in a water tank. Results of the study showed that 4 concrete mixtures showed good slump retention after 2 hours. The concretes were made using a combination of polycarboxylate-based admixtures from the naphthalene family. Concrete mixtures using admixtures made from sulfonated polymers also showed good slump resistance. Results showed that the selection of good combinations of admixtures can lead to excellent high volume fly ash concrete mixtures that are resistant to hot weather conditions. Exceptional results were achieved with concrete mixtures using a combination of polycarboxylates-based superplasticizers and sulfonated mid-range water-reducing admixtures. 7 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. A multi-component modifier for shrinkage-compensated or self-stressed high-strength concrete[ACI SP-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaprielov, S.; Sheynfeld, A.; Kardumian, H.; Dondukov, V. [Research Inst. for Concrete, Moscow (Russian Federation). Lab. for Chemical Admixtures and Modified Concrete

    2006-07-01

    New modifiers for cements used in Russia have initiated the development of a new modifier in which silica fume (SF) and fly ash (FA) are partially or completely replaced by metakaolin (MK) and calcium sulfate. The mixture acts as a sulfoaluminate type expansive compound (EC) due to the generation of ettringite. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the amount of EC in a modifier and the parameters of cement paste structure and concrete properties. The phase composition and porosity of cement paste was investigated, as well as the concrete strength, the modulus of elasticity, expansion-shrinkage, and creep. The influence of different dosages of the modifiers with maximum EC content on cement paste characteristics was also examined. Portland cement, quartz sands, and granite coarse aggregates were used. Results of the study showed that ettringite is present mostly in the form of gel-like and microcrystalline new growths, which contribute to the stability of cement systems. The porosity of cement paste was characterized by a decrease in macropore volume, and an increase in gel pore and micropore volume. Variations in the amount of EC in the mineral part of the modifier provided control of expansion-shrinkage deformations. An increased modulus of elasticity and decreased creep factor was observed. It was concluded that using complex organic mineral modifiers containing EC on a base of metakaolin can lead to fine-grained concrete with deformation parameters comparable with heavy-weight granite coarse aggregate-based concrete. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. Artificial radioactivity and marine environment. Study of 238Pu, 239Pu+240Pu, 241Pu and 241Am in the Mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is in two parts. Part one is about the methods for analyzing transuranium elements particularly the development of an analytical process for plutonium and for perfecting an Americium analyzing method, capable of treating samples of 200 litres of sea water, 100 grams of sediment and 100 grams of biological matter. Part two concerns the in situ determinations carried out within the scope of the study on the distribution and behaviour of transuranium elements in the Mediterranean sea. The high sea studies concerned the effects of atmospheric fall out and the vertical distribution of Pu and Am. Studies along the coasts enabled a quantitative study to be made of the contribution of rivers to the Mediterranean and to study the distribution of Pu along the French Mediterranean coast line

  20. Leaching of UO2 pellets doped with alpha-emitters (238/239Pu) in synthetic deep Callovian-Oxfordian groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribet, M.; Jégou, C.; Broudic, V.; Marques, C.; Rigaux, P.; Gavazzi, A.

    2010-03-01

    The reactivity of a polycrystalline UO2 surface under alpha irradiation in contact with groundwater is investigated, in the hypothesis of direct disposal of spent fuel in a deep geological repository. Two series of plutonium-doped UO2 samples (specific alpha activity of 18 and 385 MBq·g-1UO2) were leached in a synthetic Callovian-Oxfordian deep groundwater under anoxic conditions (Ar/CO2 3000 ppm, 3.5 bar relative pressure) to assess both the impact of alpha radiolysis of water and the complexing capacity of the groundwater ions on the dissolution of UO2. This study follows a prior one performed in pure and carbonated waters. Firstly, technical developments were necessary for the analyses in the groundwater solution because of its high salt concentrations: quantification limits were determined for the measurement of uranium and radiolytic H2O2 traces in this medium. Secondly, given the very high reactivity of these samples in the presence of air and in order to minimize any prior surface oxidation, a strict experimental protocol was followed, based on high-temperature annealing in Ar + 4% H2 with preleaching cycles. Each type of UO2 pellet was then leached under static conditions for 30 days (anoxic conditions, deep groundwater solutions). Results on the evolution of uranium releases are presented. For the lowest alpha activity (18 MBq·g-1UO2), uranium releases in groundwater were below the quantification limit of 2 × 10-8 mol·L-1 with a kinetic phosphorescence analyzer, even after 30 days. However, for higher alpha activity (385 MBq·g-1UO2) the uranium releases begin to exceed the quantification limit after 14 days of leaching and then increase exponentially. This increase is comparable to results previously obtained in carbonated solutions.

  1. Beta and gamma decay heat measurements between 0.1s--50,000s for neutron fission of 235U, 238U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A helium-jet/tape-transport system is employed in the study of beta-particle and gamma-ray energy spectra of aggregate fission products as a function of time after fission. During the initial nine months of this project we have investigated the following areas: Design, assembly and characterization of a beta-particle spectrometer; Measurement of 235U(nthff) beta spectra for delay times 0.2 s to 12,000 s; Assembly and characterization of a 5 x 5 Nal(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer; Measurement of 235U(nthff) gamma-ray spectra for delay times 0.2s to 1 5,500s; Assembly and characterization of HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer with a Nal(Tl) Compton-and-background-suppression annulus; Measurement of 235U(n th,ff) high-resolution gamma-ray spectra for delay times 0.6 s to over 100,000 s; Comparison of individual gamma-line intensities with ENDF/B-VI; Adaptation to our computer of unfolding program FERDO for beta and gamma aggregate fission-product energy spectra and development of a spectrum-stripping program for analysis of HPGe gamma-ray spectra; Study of the helium-jet fission-fragment elemental transfer efficiency. This work has resulted in the publication of twelve BAPS abstracts of presentations at scientific meetings. There are currently four Ph.D. and two M.S. candidates working on dissertations associated with the project

  2. PLANTS AS BIO-MONITORS FOR 137CS, 238PU, 239, 240PU AND 40K AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Ferguson, C.

    2010-12-16

    The nuclear fuel cycle generates a considerable amount of radioactive waste, which often includes nuclear fission products, such as strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), and actinides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). When released into the environment, large quantities of these radionuclides can present considerable problems to man and biota due to their radioactive nature and, in some cases as with the actinides, their chemical toxicity. Radionuclides are expected to decay at a known rate. Yet, research has shown the rate of elimination from an ecosystem to differ from the decay rate due to physical, chemical and biological processes that remove the contaminant or reduce its biological availability. Knowledge regarding the rate by which a contaminant is eliminated from an ecosystem (ecological half-life) is important for evaluating the duration and potential severity of risk. To better understand a contaminants impact on an environment, consideration should be given to plants. As primary producers, they represent an important mode of contamination transfer from sediments and soils into the food chain. Contaminants that are chemically and/or physically sequestered in a media are less likely to be bio-available to plants and therefore an ecosystem.

  3. Radiochemical method for the simultaneous determination of 233U, 236U, 237Np, 236Pu, 238Pu, and 239Pu in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical method has been developed for the determination of multiple isotopes of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium in biological materials. The elements are separated from the other sample constituents and from each other by anion exchange in halide media. Their recoveries are monitored by isotopic diluents. The amounts of the analyte and diluent isotopes of each element are measured alpha spectrometrically. The interelemental separation factors are generally greater than 102, and the recovery of each element ranges from 60% to 90%. 4 references, 1 table

  4. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  5. The effect of permafrost on soil erosion using meteoric 10Be, 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the Eastern Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Barbara; Brandovà, Dagmar; Alewell, Christine; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kubik, Peter W.; Kneisel, Christof; Meusburger, Katrin; Ketterer, Michael; Egli, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost ecosystems are highly sensitive to climate warming. The expected changes in the thermal and hydrological soil regime might have crucial consequences on soil erosion processes. Therefore, the determination of erosional activities on the long- (since the beginning of soil formation) and mid-term (last 50-60 yr) using cosmogenic and anthropogenic radionuclides can provide important information on past and ongoing processes. Permafrost soils in the Alps and their behaviour with climate change are only rarely studied. The expected new insights will lead to a better understanding of the processes of high mountain soils and are a further step towards improving climate-related modelling of fast warming scenarios and increasing system disequilibria. Our aim is to quantify soil erosion processes in permafrost soils and nearby unfrozen soils in the Alpine (sites at 2700 m asl) and the sub-Alpine (sites 1800 m asl) range of the Swiss Alps (Upper Engadine). We hypothesise that permafrost soils differ distinctly in their long- and mid-term soil erosion rates due to different water retention capacities. Long-term soil erosion was assessed using meteoric 10Be. Meteoric 10Be in a soil profile was estimated assuming that it is has been deposited as a function of precipitation and adsorbed in the fine earth fraction (

  6. Neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper continues, with respect to the transplutonium nuclides, earlier efforts to collate and evaluate data from the scientific literature on the prompt neutron multiplicity distribution from fission and its first moment = ΣnuPnu. The isotopes considered here for which P/sub nu/ and or data (or both) were found in the literature are of americium (Am), curium (Cm), berkelium (Bk), californium (Cf), einsteinium (Es), fermium (Fm), and nobelium (No)

  7. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustig, D.

    1996-04-18

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author).

  8. TOWARD AN IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF STRUCTURE AND MAGNETISM IN NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM PHOSPHONATES AND SULFONATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This grant supported the exploratory synthesis of new actinide materials with all of the actinides from thorium to californium with the exceptions of protactinium and berkelium. We developed detailed structure-property relationships that allowed for the identification of novel materials with selective ion-exchange, selective oxidation, and long-range magnetic ordering. We found novel bonding motifs and identified periodic trends across the actinide series. We identified structural building units that would lead to desired structural features and novel topologies. We also characterized many different spectroscopic trends across the actinide series. The grant support the preparation of approximately 1200 new compounds all of which were structurally characterized.

  9. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  10. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author)

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM COMMEMORATING THE 25th ANNIVERSARY OF ELEMENTS 97 and 98 HELD ON JAN. 20, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.; Street Jr., Kenneth; Thompson, Stanley G.; Ghiorso, Albert

    1976-07-01

    This volume includes the talks given on January 20, 1975, at a symposium in Berkeley on the occasion of the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the discovery of berkelium and californium. Talks were given at this symposium by the four people involved in the discovery of these elements and by a number of people who have made significant contributions in the intervening years to the investigation of their nuclear and chemical properties. The papers are being published here, without editing, in the form in which they were submitted by the authors in the months following the anniversary symposium, and they reflect rather faithfully the remarks made on that occasion.

  12. Beta and gamma decay heat measurements between 0.1s-50,000s for neutron fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. Progress report, March 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schier, W.A.; Couchell, G.P.

    1994-06-01

    Decay heat measurements following the fast fission of {sup 238}U are well underway. The He-jet system and spectrometers were moved to the 1 MW research reactor to gain sufficient fast neutron flux for these measurements. On the Van de Graaff accelerator, the He-jet capillary has been shortened so that beta and gamma measurements following the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U could be made down to delay times near 0.1 s. Gamma-ray response functions are now well characterized for gamma energies up to 1.5 MeV for our large Nal spectrometer. Such response functions out to high energies are needed to extract energy distributions of our measured gamma spectra. The response function unfolding program, FERD-PC, has been operated successfully with trial spectra. Comparisons of individual fission products for {sup 235}U(n{sub th}f) with ENDF/B-VI at short delay times suggest several improvements to the data base particularly in production probabilities. The new data acquisition and data analysis systems have arrived and will soon be brought on line extending considerably the capabilities of our research group.

  13. Frameshift Deletion by Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA Polymerase Dpo4 T239W Is Selective for Purines and Involves Normal Conformational Change Followed by Slow Phosphodiester Bond Formation*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huidong; Beckman, Jeff W.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2009-01-01

    The human DNA polymerase κ homolog Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) produces “−1” frameshift deletions while copying unmodified DNA and, more frequently, when bypassing DNA adducts. As judged by steady-state kinetics and mass spectrometry, bypass of purine template bases to produce these deletions occurred rarely but with 10-fold higher frequency than with pyrimidines. The DNA adduct 1,N2-etheno-2′-deoxyguanosine, with a larger stacking surface than canonical purines, showed t...

  14. {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K and {sup 239/240}Pu in Emmental type cheese produced in different regions of Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froidevaux, P. E-mail: pascal.froidevaux@inst.hospvd.ch; Geering, J.-J.; Pillonel, L.; Bosset, J.-O.; Valley, J.-F

    2004-07-01

    A method is presented for the determination of {sup 90}Sr and uranium in Emmental type cheese collected in dairy plants from different European countries. Results display a significant correlation (r=0.708, Student t-test=6.02) between the {sup 90}Sr content of the cheese and the altitude of grazing. The highest {sup 90}Sr activity is 1.13 Bq kg{sup -1} of cheese and the lowest is 0.29 Bq kg{sup -1}. Uranium activity is very low with a highest {sup 238}U value of 27 mBq kg{sup -1}. In addition, {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio shows a large enrichment in {sup 234}U for every location. Without any significant indication of the geographic origin of the cheese, this enrichment is believed to be due to the geological features of the pasture, soil and underground water. These results tend to prove that the contamination of milk by uranium originates principally from the water that the cows drink instead of the forage. This finding may have a great importance in models dealing with dairy food contamination by radionuclides following a nuclear accident. Also, the {sup 90}Sr content and to a lesser extent the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio could be used to trace the authenticity of the origin of the cheese. {sup 137}Cs activity is lower than the detection limit of 0.1 Bq kg{sup -1} in all the samples collected (n=20). Based on natural {sup 40}K activity in cheese (15-21 Bq kg{sup -1}), the decontamination factor for the alkaline cations from milk to cheese is about 20. Plutonium activity stays below the detection limit of 0.3 mBq kg{sup -1}.

  15. Rita De Grandis, Reciclaje cultural y memoria revolucionaria. La práctica polémica de José Pablo Feinmann : Buenos Aires, Biblos, 2006, 239 páginas

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Este estudio sobre la escritura de José Pablo Feinmann —la cual se desarrolla desde la década del setenta hasta el presente— es mucho más que el desentrañamiento de las formas que esa escritura fue adoptando con los años. Lo que se propone y logra Rita De Grandis es establecer las condiciones de producción de los textos, marcados por las tensiones del campo cultural y político de los años setenta, época que se constituye en el punto axial en torno del que giran las polémicas y preocupaciones ...

  16. CTD data of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program in the North Pacific 100 miles north of Oahu, Hawaii for cruises HOT239-248 during 2012 (NODC Accession 0119895)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HOT program makes repeated observations of the physics, biology and chemistry at a site approximately 100 km north of Oahu, Hawaii. Two stations are visited...

  17. Procedures for determination of 239,240Pu, 241Am, 237Np, 234,238U, 228,230,232Th, 99Tc and 210Pb-210Po in environmental material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987, the Department of Nuclear Safety Research, Risoe National Laboratory has developed procedures for analysis of low-level amounts of radioactivity in large samples of 200 liters seawater, 10 gram sediment, soil and other environmental materials. These analytical procedures provide high chemical yields, good resolution and excellent decontamination factors for large environmental samples analysed by alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedures have been checked through practical analysis work and are used in Norway, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, France and Denmark. (au)

  18. Dicty_cDB: [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFC239 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16455-1 VFC239P (Link... to Original site) VFC239F 347 VFC239Z 463 VFC239P 810 - - Show VFC239 Library VF (Link to library) Clone ID VFC239 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16455-1 Original site URL http://dict....0 3 AF016242 |AF016242.1 Dictyostelium discoideum protein synthesis elongation factor 1-alpha (tef2) gene, ...ondrial 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for VFC239 is nuc 5' end seq. ID VFC239F 5' end seq. >VFC239F.Seq A

  19. An atomic beam source for actinide elements: concept and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For ultratrace analysis of actinide elements and studies of their atomic properties with resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS), efficient and stable sources of actinide atomic beams are required. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the evaporation of actinide elements and oxides from a variety of metals were considered, including diffusion, desorption, and associative desorption. On this basis various sandwich-type filaments were studied. The most promising system was found to consist of tantalum as the backing material, an electrolytically deposited actinide hydroxide as the source of the element, and a titanium covering layer for its reduction to the metal. Such sandwich sources were experimentally proven to be well suited for the production of atomic beams of plutonium, curium, berkelium and californium at relatively low operating temperatures and with high and reproducible yields. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear fission and the transuranium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-02-01

    Many of the transuranium elements are produced and isolated in large quantities through the use of neutrons furnished by nuclear fission reactions: plutonium (atomic number 94) in ton quantities; neptunium (93), americium (95), and curium (96) in kilogram quantities; berkelium (97) in 100 milligram quantities; californium (98) in gram quantities; and einsteinium (99) in milligram quantities. Transuranium isotopes have found many practical applications---as nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity, as compact, long-lived power sources for use in space exploration, as means for diagnosis and treatment in the medical area, and as tools in numerous industrial processes. Of particular interest is the unusual chemistry and impact of these heaviest elements on the periodic table. This account will feature these aspects. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Production of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) has the programmatic responsibility for the Department of Energy's Transuranium Element Program. Principle elements from the program are einsteinium, berkelium, and fermium. Targets containing curium oxide mixed with aluminum powder are fabricated by the REDC and irradiated in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor. Following an irradiation period of 6-12 months, targets are returned to the REDC for chemical processing. Processing operations consists of aluminum dejacketing in a caustic-nitrate solution, filtration, acid dissolution, solvent extraction, anion exchange, and finally a cation exchange to recover the actinides. The processing operations take place in heavily shielded hot cell facilities and all operations are carried out remotely. The chemistry for the separations has been well established over the 26-yr. operating life of the facility

  2. Identification of the contamination source of plutonium in environmental samples with isotopic ratios determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and alpha-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 239+249Pu in environmental samples were determined by ICP-MS and α spectrometry, showing consistent results, which suggests an applicability of ICP-MS to 239Pu and 240Pu measurement. The activity ratios of 238Pu/239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu were significantly different in samples from the general environment and near Sellafield reprocessing plants, indicating the usefulness of these ratios for identification of the Pu contamination source. (author)

  3. 17 CFR 243.103 - No effect on Exchange Act reporting status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... filings in a timely manner; or (b) There is adequate current public information about the issuer for... a public disclosure required solely by § 243.100 shall not affect whether: (a) For purposes of Forms S-2 (17 CFR 239.12), S-3 (17 CFR 239.13) and S-8 (17 CFR 239.16b) under the Securities Act,...

  4. Choosing the Right Book: Factors that Affect Children’s Reading. A Review of: Maynard, S., Mackay, S., & Smyth, F. (2008). A survey of young people’s reading in England: Borrowing and choosing books. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 40(4), 239-253.

    OpenAIRE

    Gayle Bogel

    2011-01-01

    Objective – To analyze factors affecting book choice: reading recommendations, reasons for choosing series books, book reviews, and school libraries.Design – This secondary analysis of data is based on a selection of findings from a larger 2005 survey that monitored trends in youth reading habits. The large scale 2005 study was designed as a follow up to a 1996 survey. The 2005 survey used online questionnaires and formal statistical analysis to compare gender and age groups. The data on fact...

  5. Determination of {sup 2}30Th (Ionium) in uranium ores and wastes from uranium reprocessing. IV. Calculation of ionium separation yield; Determinacion de {sup 2}39Th (Ionio) en minerales y residuos del procesado de Uranio. IV: Determinacion del rendimiento en la separacion del {sup 2}30 Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiano Sedano, J. A.; Acena Barrenechea, M. L.

    1974-07-01

    For determining ionium ({sup 2}30Th) in minerals and uranium processing wastes by precipitation with fluorhidric acid, using lanthanum as carrier, and selective extraction with tenoytrifluoroacetone (TTA) followed by radiometric determination of the isolated nuclide, it is necessary the use of a tracer since the chemical yield of the separation ranges between wide limits. In this paper, the use of the beta-emitter {sup 2}34Th as the most convenient tracer is discussed. Equations are derived for correcting for counting errors introduced by other thorium isotopes which are present either in the sample or in the tracer, as well as for calculating the chemical yield of the separation. These equations have been experimentally checked by ionium determinations carried out with different types of samples. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. Choosing the Right Book: Factors that Affect Children’s Reading. A Review of: Maynard, S., Mackay, S., & Smyth, F. (2008. A survey of young people’s reading in England: Borrowing and choosing books. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 40(4, 239-253.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Bogel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To analyze factors affecting book choice: reading recommendations, reasons for choosing series books, book reviews, and school libraries.Design – This secondary analysis of data is based on a selection of findings from a larger 2005 survey that monitored trends in youth reading habits. The large scale 2005 study was designed as a follow up to a 1996 survey. The 2005 survey used online questionnaires and formal statistical analysis to compare gender and age groups. The data on factors affecting book choice were derived from the original questions, responses, and analyses.Setting – Questionnaires were administered in22 primary and 24 secondary schools in the UK with access to computers and internet.Subjects – Almost 4,200 students from 4 to 16 years of age.Methods – Study authors invited approximately 150 schools to participate in the survey. Forty-six schools (31% responded. A total of 22 primary and 24 secondary schools participated in the original study between April and June 2005.This study used comparative analysis to examine factors affecting book choice between gender and age groups. Statistical significance was defined as one percent. Other demographic information was collected, such as ethnicity, language spoken at home, and religion, but was deemed insufficient for any meaningful analysis.There were 4,182 responses to the survey, separated into three age groups: ages 4 to 7 (KS1, ages 7 to 11 (KS2, and ages 11 to 16 (KS3&4.Students were asked to describe themselves as readers by responding to multiple choice questions, and then to provide specific information on the places or people most frequently used as book borrowing sources. Participants were considered “enthusiastic” readers if they “read a lot with pleasure” and “average” readers if they “read an ordinary amount”. Participants responded to additional multiple choice questions on specific factors related to borrowing books and book choices, the process of choosing series, fiction, and nonfiction books.Main Results – Readers: The number of children who described themselves as “enthusiastic” readers decreased with age, and approximately half of the children between 7 and 16 years of age described themselves as “average” readers, average rating increasing slightly through this age group. Investigators found a marked difference in gender within the 4 to 7 year olds: 49.7% percent of girls in this age group considered themselves “enthusiastic,” compared to 37.3% of boys. Only 18.5% of girls considered themselves “reluctant” readers, compared to 28.1% of boys.The longitudinal comparison to the earlier 1996 study found that although the percentage of boys from ages 7 to 16 who described themselves as reluctant readers stayed about the same, the percentage of girls who described themselves as reluctant increased. There was also a dramatic drop in the number of girls who described themselves as enthusiastic; from 51% in 1996 to 17% in 2005.Borrowing Books: Libraries of all types (school, classroom and public were the prime sources for borrowing books. Girls borrowed more books from schools than boys, and girls also borrowed more books from non-library sources (family members and friends than boys. Both boys and girls increasingly reported borrowing more books from friends than from libraries as they grew older.Over half of each age group rated the school library or classroom book corner as having “enough” books. The perception of “too many books” decreased with age. The perception of quality of the classroom or school library also decreased with age. The number of students in the younger age groups who rated the quality of books in the classroom or school library as “very good” was significantly higher than students in the older age groups. The number of student who rated the quality as “okay” doubled from the lower to the higher age group.Choosing Books: Children were asked six questions related to whether the physical book itself provided motivation to read, and six questions related to other factors for book recommendation. Younger readers were more likely to choose a book for its visual appeal, although this factor (interesting cover or illustrations inside was more consistent for boys of all age groups than girls. The author’s name and book blurb were stronger factors for girls in the 7 to 16 age group than for boys.The study authors sought to explore the idea of “shared reading” and asked children in the 7 to 11 and 11 to 16 age groups how often they chose a book based on a recommendation from a friend or family member, a public or school librarian, or other adults. Friends were the strongest recommendation source (43.2% for 7 to 11 year olds and 38.4% for 11to 16 year olds. Recommendations from school or public librarians rated only three to six percent for both age groups.All age groups were asked about choosing series books, and the questions were simplified for the younger age group. All students reported that appealing factors were the consistency of characters, familiar storylines, and familiar writing styles. Some students also noted that the availability of series books positively affected their choices.Print or online book reviews were used “hardly ever or never” by over 40% of the 7 to16 year old age groups, while television or magazine reviews or recommendations were highly rated by over 50% of respondents in the same age groups. Participants chose informational or non-fiction books because of personal interests, hobbies, or recommendations from friends, while they selected fiction or poetry for the blurb, title, or appearance and design of the cover. Celebrity recommendations and books about celebrities were popular reasons for choosing books.When asked who helped them choose books, 53.2% in the 7 to11 age group and 66.1% in the 11to 16 age group stated that no one ever helps them. Of the students who had help choosing books, “family members” was the most common response. Local librarians were not used as a source for recommendations.

  7. DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.8011 Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences Maringá, v. 33, n. 3, p. 239-246, 2011 Acute inflammatory response in Nile tilapia fed probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in the diet = Resposta inflamatória aguda em tilápia do Nilo alimentada com probiótico, Lactobacillus plantarum na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dotta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced bycarrageenin (500 £gg injected in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia, after fed or not probiotic supplemented diet. Fifty four fish were distributed in six treatments and three replicates: Group A: Fish fed unsupplemented diet: 0.5 mL saline-injected fish; fish injected with 500 £gg carrageenin diluted in 0.5 mL saline; Non-injected. Group B: Fish fed probiotic supplemented diet: saline-injected fish; carrageenin-injected fish; Non-injected. Fifteen days after feeding the fish were injected with carrageenin or saline. After six hours, inflammatory exudate was collected, as well as the blood for hematocrit, red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC counts, differential count of leucocytes and phagocytic activity in the blood. Supplementation with probiotic did not influence the RBC, hematocrit and the numbers of lymphocytes and basophils in the blood. The number of neutrophils was significantly higher in supplemented fish injected with carrageenin. Glucose concentration in supplemented and non-injected fish was higher than that observed in the saline injected ones. Probiotic potentialized the migration of cells to the inflammatory focus in the animals injected with the carrageenin irritant. In fish injected with saline and carrageenin occurred the greatest phagocytic activity in the blood in relation to those treatments.Este trabalho avaliou a resposta inflamatoria aguda induzida por injecao de carragenina (500 ƒÝg na bexiga natatoria de tilapia do Nilo suplementada ou nao com probiotico na racao. Cinquenta e quatro animais foram distribuidos em seis tratamentos com tres repeticoes: Grupo A: peixes alimentados com racao naosuplementada: Controle (injecao de 0,5 mL de solucao salina esteril; Carragenina (injecao de500 £gg de carragenina; Nao-injetada. Grupo B: peixes alimentados com racao suplementada com probiotico: Controle; Carragenina; Nao-injetada. Apos 15 dias de alimentacao foi injetado carragenina ou salina. Apos 6h, realizou-se a coleta de exsudato e sangue para determinacao do hematocrito, contagens totais de eritrocitos, leucocitos, contagem diferencial de leucocitos e atividade fagocitaria no sangue. A suplementacao com probiotico na racao nao influenciou o numero total de eritrocitos, o hematocrito e os numeros de linfocitos e basofilos no sangue dos animais. O numero de neutrofilos foi maior nos peixes suplementados com probiotico einjetados com carragenina. A glicose nos peixes suplementados com probiotico nao-injetados foi maior do que nos injetados com salina. A suplementacao com probiotico potencializou a migracao de celulas para o foco inflamatorio nos injetados com o flogogeno carragenina. Empeixes injetados com salina e carragenina, ocorreu maior atividade fagocitaria no sangue em relacao aos demais tratamentos.

  8. Speciation of plutonium and americium in the soils affected by Kraton-3 accidental underground nuclear explosion in Yakutia (Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In calcareous soils from Yakutia only 0.1 % or less 239Pu and 241Am exist in water-soluble form, i.e., the mobility of these radionuclides is relatively low. In the top humus-containing layer (0-4 cm) 239Pu and 241Am are distributed uniformly between organic and inorganic soil components. In the bottom soil layer (20-30 cm) the radionuclides are present mainly in inorganic soil components. The estimation of the radionuclide mobility demonstrates that 241Am is potentially a more mobile element than 239Pu. In the considered calcareous soils collected from the top layer 239Pu and 241Am exist both in humic and fulvic acids (FA). 241Am is much stronger bound to the group of mobile FA than 239Pu. In the bottom soil layer 239Pu and 241Am have been found mainly in FA. (author)

  9. 48 CFR 1339.270 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Electronic and Information... to 1352.239-71, Electronic and Information Technology, in solicitations for Electronic...

  10. Statistical model evaluation of (n,xn) and (n,xnf) cross sections for heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for a statistical model evaluation of fission, (n,2n) and (n,3n) cross sections from 2MeV to 20MeV neutrons on 237U, 238U, 239U and 239Pu is presented. It consists of the determination of fission width parameters by a fit to known fission cross-sections. This method makes use of neutron transmission coefficients from an adapted coupled channel model. The neutron, fission and radiative widths are calculated by the statistical model including Fermi gas model level densities. Results are given for 237U, 238U, 239U and 239Pu nuclei

  11. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy is a safe procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Hvarness, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    We present our departmental experience with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and describe complications and early results for the first 239 consecutive patients.......We present our departmental experience with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and describe complications and early results for the first 239 consecutive patients....

  12. Non-destructive assay of EBR-II blanket elements using resonance transmission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance transmission analysis utilizing a faltered reactor beam was examined as a means of determining the 239Pu content in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II depleted uranium blanket elements. The technique uses cadmium and gadolinium falters along with a 239Pu fission chamber to isolate the 0.3 eV resonance in 239Pu. In the energy range of this resonance (0.1 eV to 0.5 ev), the total microscopic cross-section of 239Pu is significantly greater than the cross-sections of 238U and 235U. This large difference allows small changes in the 239Pu content of a sample to result in large changes in the mass signal response. Tests with small stacks of depleted uranium and 239Pu foils indicate a significant change in response based on the 239Pu content of the foil stack. In addition, the tests indicate good agreement between the measured and predicted values of 239Pu up to approximately two weight percent

  13. AcEST: BP913095 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein L33 (Fragment) OS=A... 66 8e-10 tr|B5AH23|B5AH23_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L33 OS=Gonystylus banca......K 66 >tr|B5AH23|B5AH23_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L33 OS=Gonystylus bancanus GN=rpl3

  14. AcEST: DK950720 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Fragment) OS=A... 87 6e-16 tr|B5AH23|B5AH23_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L33 OS=Gonystylus banca... 87 6e-16 tr|...B5AH23|B5AH23_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L33 OS=Gonystylus bancanus GN=rpl33 PE=4 SV

  15. AcEST: BP912488 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3|B5AH23_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L33 OS=Gonystylus banca... 79 2e-13 tr|B3IWG9|B3IWG9_TAKLE Ribosomal protei...23_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L33 OS=Gonystylus bancanus GN=rpl33 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 66 Score = 79.3 bits (194)

  16. AcEST: DK949420 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |B5AH23_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L33 OS=Gonystylus banca... 87 3e-16 tr|Q4FG87|Q4F...H23_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L33 OS=Gonystylus bancanus GN=rpl33 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 66 Score = 87.4 bits (215

  17. AcEST: DK945939 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 tr|B5AH23|B5AH23_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L33 OS=Gonystylus banca... 84 3e-15 tr...YCYKHTI 60 Query: 482 HKE 490 H E Sbjct: 61 HGE 63 >tr|B5AH23|B5AH23_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L33 OS=Gonystylus banca

  18. Long-term effects of intratracheally instilled 253EsCl3 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ts administered 253EsCl3 by intratracheal instillation developed more bone tumors and fewer lung tumors than similar rats administered 239Pu(NO3)4. In explanation, it is suggested that 253Es may irradiatete bone surface cells more effectively while 239Pu may irradiate a greater total number of cells in the lung. (U.S.)

  19. Design and Simulation of High Radioactivity Fission Ionization Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Qi

    2012-01-01

    <正>It is great effect that the fission neutron release in 239Pu(n, 2n) cross section measurement by using multi-unit gadolinium loaded liquid scintillation detector system, for the 239Pu fission cross section is larger than (n, 2n) cross section one order of magnitude. In order to deduct the effect of fission neutrons,

  20. 78 FR 51213 - In the Matter of Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Pm-147 400 11,000 Pm-147 Pu-238 0.6 16 Pu-238 Pu-239/Be 0.6 16 Pu-239/Be Ra-226 0.4 11 ] Se-75 2 54... investigation as an employee of a manufacturing and distribution licensee'' (70 FR 72130). Starting in December...- required background investigation'' (72 FR 70901). However, the NRC did not require...