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Sample records for berkelium 239

  1. Chemistry of berkelium: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Peterson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Element 97 was first produced in December 1949, by the bombardment of americium-241 with accelerated alpha particles. This new element was named berkelium (Bk) after Berkeley, California, the city of its discovery [Thompson, Ghiorso, and Seaborg, Phys. Rev. 77, 838 (1950); 80, 781 (1950)]. In the 36 years since the discovery of Bk, a substantial amount of knowledge concerning the physicochemical properties of this relatively scarce transplutonium element has been acquired. All of the Bk isotopes of mass numbers 240 and 242 through 251 are presently known, but only berkelium-249 (β - decay, 0.125 MeV, t/sub 1/2/ = 325 days) is available in sufficient quantities for bulk chemical studies. About 0.7 gram of this isotope has been isolated at the HFIR/TRU Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in the last 18 years. Over the same time period, the scale of experimental work using berkelium-249 has increased from the tracer level to bulk studies at the microgram level to solution and solid state investigations with milligram quantities. Extended knowledge of the physicochemical behavior of berkelium is important in its own right, because Bk is the first member of the second half of the actinide series. In addition, such information should enable more accurate extrapolations to the predicted behavior of heavier elements for which experimental studies are severely limited by lack of material and/or by intense radioactivity

  2. Citric complexes of trivalent cerium and berkelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulhassa, S.

    1977-01-01

    The extraction by thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in benzene of trivalent cerium, berkelium and californium, at the indicator scale, hydrolysis and complexation by citric acid of these cations are studied. The radionuclides used were 144 Ce, 249 Bk and 249 Cf respectively γ, β and α emitters. The solvent extraction technique of the elements by TTA in benzene from a perchloric medium at the ionic stength 0.1 was employed. The distribution coefficients D were measured by the γ, β or α radiometry. Cerium and berkelium, which have a comparable redox behavior, show in solution a relatively stable valency IV. Therefore the study by solvent extraction of their trivalent form required the standing up of complete reducing conditions of these elements and their stabilization in solution at the valency III. The thermodynamic data obtained for berkelium and californium contribute to understand the chemistry of these elements and permit to complete the third 'tetrad branch' of 5f elements from Cm 3+ to Es 3+ . This tetrad effect is a manifestation of thermodynamic consequence of the 'nephelauxetic effect'. As for Ce(III), the data confirm the pronounced acid property and may be show no neglected ligand effect for f 1 configuration [fr

  3. Berkelium (4) and cerium (4) extraction with tertiary amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukova, M.S.; Malikov, D.A.; Myasoedov, B.V.

    1978-01-01

    Oxidation of indicator quantities of berkelium and cerium by a mixture of silver nitrate and ammonium persulfate in the solutions of nitric and sulfuric acid has been examined. The stability of the elements in a tetravalent state and their extraction by the solutions of ternary amines have been investigated. It has been established that berkelium and cerium oxidation under these conditions occurs under the effect of ions of divalent silver which is formed owing to oxidation of monovalent silver by peroxide sulfate ions. The following supposition has been put forward: a difference in the behaviour of tetravalent berkelium and cerium during their extraction by ternary amines is explained by their different stability in this state, but not by the formation of complex compounds with nitrate ions

  4. Chelation and stabilization of berkelium in oxidation state +IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblonde, Gauthier J.-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Rupert, Peter B.; An, Dahlia D.; Illy, Marie-Claire; Ralston, Corie Y.; Brabec, Jiri; de Jong, Wibe A.; Strong, Roland K.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2017-09-01

    Berkelium (Bk) has been predicted to be the only transplutonium element able to exhibit both +III and +IV oxidation states in solution, but evidence of a stable oxidized Bk chelate has so far remained elusive. Here we describe the stabilization of the heaviest 4+ ion of the periodic table, under mild aqueous conditions, using a siderophore derivative. The resulting Bk(IV) complex exhibits luminescence via sensitization through an intramolecular antenna effect. This neutral Bk(IV) coordination compound is not sequestered by the protein siderocalin—a mammalian metal transporter—in contrast to the negatively charged species obtained with neighbouring trivalent actinides americium, curium and californium (Cf). The corresponding Cf(III)-ligand-protein ternary adduct was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Combined with theoretical predictions, these data add significant insight to the field of transplutonium chemistry, and may lead to innovative Bk separation and purification processes.

  5. Possible stabilization of the tetravalent oxidation state of berkelium and californium in acetonitrile with triphenylarsine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.F.; Peterson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that we may have prepared Bk(IV) nitrate.nTPAs0 and Bk(IV) perchlorate.nTPAs0 complexes which formed the corresponding Cf(IV) complexes through the beta decay of Bk-249. Definitive proof should come from similar experiments with quantities of Bk-249 large enough to allow spectrophotometric detection of the characteristic f→f transitions in these berkelium and californium species. It is clear, however, that TPAs0 and acetonitrile can play a pivotal role in the stabilization of lanact(IV) species

  6. Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-06-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Plutonium-239

  7. Peaceful berkelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabesinger, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The first new element produced after the Second World War has led a rather peaceful life since entering the period table -- until it became the target of those producing superheavy elements, as Andreas Trabesinger describes.

  8. A new isotope of protactinium: 239Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Yang, W.; Mou, W.; Zhang, X.; Li, Z.; Yu, X.; Gu, J.; Guo, Y.; Gan, Z.; Liu, H.; Guo, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new nuclide 239 Pa was produced by 50MeV/u 18 O bombardment of uranium. A radiochemical separation method was employed for preparing sources of 239 Pa. The protactinium isotope 239 Pa has been identified for the first time by the results observed from the decay of the 239 Pa and its daughter 239 U. The half-life of 239 Pa has been determined to be 106±30min. (orig.)

  9. Status of 239Pu evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick; Chadwick, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarises the current status of nuclear data evaluations for n+ 239 Pu. The nuclear data we address include fission, capture, scattering cross-sections, as well as the prompt fission neutron energy spectrum, which has large sensitivities to the criticality benchmark testing. The evaluated nuclear data files currently available for 239 Pu are compared, and the source of differences in the cross-sections are discussed. Some open questions on the statistical model calculations for deformed systems are also given. (authors)

  10. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.239 Hull. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection, the vessel must be afloat and ready for the following tests and inspections of the hull structure and its...

  11. 49 CFR 239.5 - Preemptive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preemptive effect. 239.5 Section 239.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER TRAIN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS General § 239.5 Preemptive effect. Under...

  12. 7 CFR 1209.239 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 1209.239 Section 1209.239..., AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Rules and Regulations General § 1209.239 Financial statements. (a) As requested by the Secretary, the Council shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Secretary on a...

  13. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  14. 48 CFR 239.7103 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7103 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.239-7000, Protection... requires protection against compromising emanations. (b) Use the clause at 252.239-7001, Information...

  15. 43 CFR 23.9 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance bond. 23.9 Section 23.9 Public... LANDS § 23.9 Performance bond. (a)(1) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000 with satisfactory surety...

  16. 32 CFR 239.10 - Management Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management Controls. 239.10 Section 239.10...) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.10 Management Controls. (a). Management Systems. Headquarters, USACE has an existing information management system that manages all information...

  17. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  18. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  19. 48 CFR 239.7101 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7101 Definition. Information assurance, as used in this subpart, means... incorporating protection, detection, and reaction capabilities. ...

  20. Speciation of 239U and 239Np by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almahamid, Ilham

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to contribute to a better knowledge of chemical effects associated with nuclear transformations of 238 U(n, γ) 239 U(β) and 239 Np in different uranium salts in solid state or aqueous solutions. A method of separation of tetravalent and hexavalent uranium and of tetravalent and pentavalent neptunium has been developed. The best separations have been obtained by using an equimolar aqueous solution of nitric acid and oxalic acid with elution durations between 2 and 9 minutes. Several uranyl and uranium compounds have been irradiated and the distribution of 239 U and 239 Np depending on the oxidation level has been measured with respect to the nature of the irradiated compound, to the irradiation duration, and to the composition of the dissolution medium. The stabilisation of 239 U and 239 Np is discussed in terms of chemical forces, mechanical recoil, and localised radiolysis due to Auger electrons [fr

  1. Plutonium 238/239 Decorporation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    4. Transfer Coefficients for the DTPA Biokinetic Model (Breustedt 2009) ...................... 25 Table 5. Decay Properties of Pu-238 and Pu-239...volume 2), cesium-137 (volume 3), F. tularensis (volume 4), sulfur mustard (volume 5), americium-241 (volume 6), Y. pestis (volume 7), botulinum ... toxin (volume 8), plutonium-238/239 (volume 9) and vesicants (volume 10, an expansion on volume 5). This paper presents an inhalation exposure model for

  2. Dicty_cDB: SLH239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLH239 (Link to dictyBase) - G22492 DDB0190970 Contig-U04169-1 SLH2...39F (Link to Original site) SLH239F 460 - - - - - - Show SLH239 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLH2...riginal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLH2-B/SLH239Q.Seq.d/ ...Representative seq. ID SLH239F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLH239 (SLH239Q) /CSM/SL/SLH2-B/SLH2...uences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLH239 (SLH239Q) /CSM/SL/SLH2-B/SLH239Q.Seq.d/ 640 0.0

  3. Evaluating 239Pu levels using field detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.E.; Smith, W.J. II; Martin, B.

    1996-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, cleanup was planned at three septic tanks where surface soil in the outfall drainage areas was found to be contaminated with 239 Pu. To meet budget and deadline constraints, a technique was developed that used field instruments to verify 239 Pu soil contamination at levels less than 2.8 Bq g -1 , the established cleanup level. The drainage areas were surveyed using a low-energy gamma probe to identify likely areas of 239 Pu contamination. Between 40 and 135 0.1-min gamma radiation measurements were obtained from each drainage area. From these data, locations were identified for subsequent screening for alpha radioactivity. Soil samples from between 11 and 18 locations at each drainage area were placed in petri dishes, dried, and counted for 10 minutes using an alpha probe. Alpha counts were then related to 239 Pu concentrations using a curve developed from local soils containing known concentrations of 239 Pu. Up to six soil samples from each drainage area, representing a range of alpha radioactivity levels, were sent for laboratory analysis of isotopic plutonium to confirm field measurement results. Analytical and field results correlated well at all but one outfall area. At this area, field measurements predicted more 239 Pu than was measured in the laboratory, indicating the presence of another alpha-emitting radionuclide that might have been missed if only laboratory analyses for plutonium had been used. This technique, which combined a large number of gamma radioactivity measurements, a moderate number of alpha radioactivity measurements, and a few isotopic plutonium measurements, allowed quick and inexpensive comparison of 239 Pu with the cleanup level

  4. 48 CFR 239.7102-1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7102-1 General. (a) Agencies shall ensure that information assurance is... Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Policy No. 11; (4) Federal Information Processing Standards; (5...

  5. Reference: 239 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 239 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16015335i Bundock Paul et al. 2005 Jul. Natur...functions. An Arabidopsis hAT-like transposase is essential for plant development. 7048 282-4 16015335 2005 Jul Nature Bundock Paul|Hooykaas Paul

  6. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock living conditions. 205.239 Section 205.239... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock living...

  7. 32 CFR 239.15 - List of HAP field offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of HAP field offices. 239.15 Section 239.15...) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.15 List of HAP field offices. Homeowners Assistance Program field offices that process HAP applications for installations and applicants...

  8. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet the...

  9. 48 CFR 239.7405 - Delegated authority for telecommunications resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... telecommunications resources. 239.7405 Section 239.7405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7405 Delegated authority for telecommunications resources. The contracting officer may enter into a telecommunications service contract on a month-to-month basis or for any...

  10. 40 CFR 86.238-94-86.239-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.238-94-86.239-94 Section 86.238-94-86.239-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures §§ 86.238-94—86.239-94 [Reserved] ...

  11. Low level scintillation counting of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Minarik, F.; Cierna, V.

    1984-01-01

    For measuring the content of 239 Pu in samples taken from the working or living environment, methods should be used which are sufficiently sensitive for determining activities of the order of 10 -3 Bq. It is useful to use liquid scintillators for reasons of their 4π geometry and the exclusion of kinetic energy losses of particles detected in the sample and on the path between the sample and the detector. The method of background discrimination according to pulse shape may be used to suppress gamma background in the area of alpha particle peaks to the level 2.5x10 -4 s -1 . The diagram is given of electronic circuits for shape discrimination. The scintillator used was a SLS-31 with a PBD activator, a POPOP spectrum shifter and a mixture of solvents: toluene, dioxane and methanol. The efficiency of 239 Pu alpha particle detection is estimated at 78% and may further be improved by improving shape discrimination. (M.D.)

  12. Age and carcinogenesis of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Sikov, M.R.; Hess, J.O.; Zwicker, G.M.; Carr, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The late effects of 239 Pu have been studied after its administration to perinatal, juvenile and adult rats. Adults and weanlings were injected intravenously, newborns intracardially and 19-day foetuses by intravenous injection of the dam. Dose levels were selected to deliver radiation doses of approximately 7, 23, or 70 rads to the femur of all ages during the first 10 days post injection; in general these values were achieved as shown by tissue analysis. Dose rates subsequently diverged, resulting in widely varying cumulative radiation doses for the four age groups. Survival times of rats exposed post-natally were progressively decreased by increasing dose. No decrement in survival was found for those exposed prenatally. Bone tumour incidence was increased by exposure to Pu in all age groups. The younger rats were less sensitive on an administered dose basis, but perhaps more sensitive on the basis of cumulative radiation dose. Prenatally exposed animals, which were cross-fostered to control females, showed a higher incidence of bone tumours than did those that remained with their mother. In the adult the predominant fraction of the bone tumours was found in the extremities with a lesser fraction in the vertebrae, pelvis and other sites. In the two younger age groups the majority of the tumours were in the head with few in the extremities or vertebrae. The incidence of mammary tumours was also elevated in the adult, weanling and prenatal groups by the administration of 239 Pu. (author)

  13. Analytical description of transfer of Pu-239 in undisturbed soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianshan, Ren; Linsalata, P; Cohen, N

    1986-04-01

    The paper reports on an analytical model for describing the horizontal and down-ward transfer of /sup 239/Pu in undisturbed soil based on observed data. The model has been developed to predict how the depth distribution of /sup 239/Pu in soil would change with time. This information is essential for estimation of the quantities of /sup 239/Pu that have entered surface water body via erosion and runoff processes and for estimation of the long-term impact of /sup 239/Pu isice the commencement of nuclear fallout deposition.

  14. Photonuclear data evaluation of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskinyte, I.; Dupont, E.; Ridikas, D.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents cross-section calculations up to 130 MeV for Pu 239 using the Talys-0.64 code. The photoabsorption process is described by the giant dipole resonance and quasi-deuteron mechanisms. Preequilibrium particle emission is treated with the classical exciton model. At equilibrium, the compound nucleus decay channels are handled within the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Neutron transmission coefficients are calculated with a double humped parabolic model. A few sensitive nuclear parameters were fine-tuned to better reproduce the experimental data available for (γ,n), (γ,2n) and (γ,f) partial cross-sections. In addition, the nuclear models provide predictions of the emitted neutron energy and angular distributions. (A.C.)

  15. Dosimetry of 239Pu in dogs that inhaled monodisperse aerosols of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Existing data from human exposure cases and experimental animal studies on the fate and dosimetry of inhaled insoluble Pu particles are inadequate to provide a comprehensive description and evaluation of the tissues at risk from the alpha radiations of Pu. To improve our knowledge of the dosimetry of inhaled insoluble 239 PuO 2 , this paper describes the uptake and retention of 239 Pu in the tissues of dogs that received single inhalation exposures to monodisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 . These data include times through 3 years after exposure. Using analytical functions fitted to each tissue data set, 1100-day radiation doses were calculated for lung, liver, skeleton, kidney, spleen, and tracheobronchial, mediastinal, sternal, hepatic, mandibular, and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. The dosimetry results suggest that the lung and lymph nodes associated with lymphatic drainage of the respiratory tract are the principal sites of alpha irradiation. However, the doses for the different respiratory tract lymph nodes vary by a factor of 2000, suggesting that assuming equivalent doses to respiratory tract lymph nodes is not appropriate. Other tissues receive radiation doses also but at levels one to three orders of magnitude less than the lung. Particle size dependence on uptake and retention was noted for the skeleton, mediastinal lymph nodes, hepatic lymph nodes, retropharyngeal lymph nodes, and mandibular lymph nodes

  16. 48 CFR 352.239-71 - Standard for encryption language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... language. 352.239-71 Section 352.239-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Standard for encryption language. As prescribed in 339.101(d)(2), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Standard for Encryption Language (January 2010) (a) The Contractor shall use Federal...

  17. 17 CFR 239.0-1 - Availability of forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. Any persons may inspect the forms at this address and at the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of forms. 239.0-1 Section 239.0-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORMS PRESCRIBED...

  18. 239Pu standards for quantitative neutron-induced autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.; Atherton, D.R.; Wronski, T.J.; Jee, W.S.S.

    1977-01-01

    The present study deals with the preparation of 239 Pu standards for neutron bone tissue autoradiography and the calibration of these standards with respect to uranium reference standards. Known concentrations of 239 Pu were prepared in methyl methacrylate and Bioplastic casting resin bars. Wafers sawed from these bars served as standards. Solid state nuclear tract detectors (Lexan polycarbonate) were used to record fission fragment tracks after the standards were exposed to a thermal neutron flux. The original bars were found to contain a uniform distribution of 239 Pu. To confirm the concentration of 239 Pu in the wafers, the induced track density from the 239 Pu standards was compared with that from uranium reference standards. The average fission fragment detection efficiency for all of the standards was 0.51

  19. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  20. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  1. Analysis of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel; Analisis de plutonio-239 en personal ocupacionalmente expuesto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, H., E-mail: hector.hernandez520@gmail.com [Universidad del Centro de Mexico, Capitan Caldera 75, Col. Tequixquiapan, 78250 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    Apart from radiometric techniques, several mass spectrometry (Ms) techniques can be used to evaluate the incorporation of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, among which we can consider mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-Ms); mass spectrometry with accelerators (AMS); thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (Sims). In this work we evaluated analytical methods to measure isotopes of plutonium-239 in urine samples from occupationally exposed personnel, using alpha spectroscopy (As), magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS) and AMS. The samples were collected during 24 h were acidified with HNO{sub 3} at 5% in v/v. The processes used in the preparation of the samples were: a) co-precipitation, b) acid digestion, c) radiochemical separation and d) electro deposition. The results obtained in terms of minimum detectable activity of plutonium-239 were 0.1 μBq (∼ 0.4 fg per sample), 5.1 μBq (∼ 2 fg per sample), 30.1 μBq (∼ 13 fg per sample) and 0.1 μBq (∼ 51 fg per sample) for AMS, Aridus-Icp-SFMS, Icp, SFMS and As, respectively. On the other hand, samples previously analyzed by As were re-evaluated by Aridus-Icp-SFMS and AMS. The results show that extraction with 60 ml of 5% HNO{sub 3} at 60 degrees Celsius and for 2.5 h is enough to extract 90% of Pu electrodeposited on the planchette. In conclusion, AMS is an ultra-sensitive technique for determining isotope ratios of Pu, especially when is desired to validate a method to measure plutonium-239. Additionally, Icp-SFMS is a rapid analysis technique and can be used as a screening technique in situations of radiological incidents or accidents with Pu in the occupationally exposed personnel. Regarding alpha spectroscopy has been considered as the technique of excellence in the routine analysis to measure plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, due to the low cost. Finally, Icp

  2. Biosorption of 239Pu by immobilized sargassum fusiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Zhirong; Chen Qi; Wu Yusheng

    2009-01-01

    Sargassum fusiforme was immobilized with calcium alginates and its biosorption property to 239 Pu was studied by batch and column methods. Biosorption equilibrium time of immobilized Sargassum fusiforme biosorbent to 239 Pu is 120 min and biosorption efficiency is over 99.2% when the initial concentration of 239 Pu is 21.5 kBq/L and pH is 2.5-5.0. After five times repetition biosorption-desorption cycles biosorption efficiency is still over 98.0% when the velocity of flow is 2 ml/min in column experiment. Immobilized Sargassum fusiforme biosorbent is better to 239 Pu due to its better chemical stability, mechanical strength, lower cost, high biosorption efficiency and repeated biosorption-desorption cycles. (authors)

  3. Biological effect of plutonium 239 on Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gafieva, Z.A.; Chudin, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were exposed in a 239 Pu citrate solution. Cell death and induction of gene mutations were an exponential fucntion of γ-radiation dose. LD 37 was 34.8 Gy; mutation doubling dose, 19 Gy

  4. 48 CFR 239.7100 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7100 Scope of subpart. This subpart includes information assurance and... protection of privacy of individuals (see FAR Subpart 24.1). ...

  5. Transfer of 239Pu to mouse fetoplacental tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sato, Hiroshi; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Takahashi, Sentaro

    1993-01-01

    Cross-placental transfer of 239 Pu from the mother to fetus was studied in C3H mice. The activity of 239 Pu in the conceptus was measured 24 hrs after the intravenous injection of 239 Pu citrate on days 10.5 to 16.5 of gestation. More 239 Pu was transferred to the conceptus when the plutonium was administered in the later stages of gestation; 0.12% of the injected dose per conceptus on day 10.5 and 1.3% on day 16.5. In all the gestational stages examined, the yolk sac and decidua contained more than 89% of the total activity distributed in the conceptus. The concentration of 239 Pu in the yolk sac was about two orders of magnitude greater than that in the fetus. The 239 Pu concentration in the maternal liver decreased with the gestational stage. In the early gestational stages the concentration in the maternal liver was greater than that in the yolk sac; but, this relationship was reversed in the later stages. (author)

  6. Measurements Conducted on an Unknown Object Labeled Pu-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoteling, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements were carried out on 12 November 2013 to determine whether Pu-239 was present on an object discovered in a plastic bag with label ''Pu-239 6 uCi''. Following initial survey measurements to verify that the object was not leaking or contaminated, spectra were collected with a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector with object positioned in two different configurations. Analysis of the spectra did not yield any direct evidence of Pu-239. From the measured spectra, minimum detectable activity (MDA) was determined to be approximately 2 uCi for the gamma ray measurements. Although there was no direct evidence of Pu-239, a peak at 60 keV characteristic of Am-241 decay was observed. Since it is very likely that Am-241 would be present in aged plutonium samples, this was interpreted as indirect evidence for the presence of plutonium on the object. Analysis of this peak led to an estimated Pu-239 activity of 0.02-0.04 uCi, or <1x10 -6 grams.

  7. Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/ Pu-239 atom ratios in the water column off Sanriku, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo

    2013-04-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami occurred in the Pacific Ocean off northern Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 which caused severe damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has resulted in a substantial release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and ocean, and has caused extensive contamination of the environment. However, no information is available on the amounts of radionuclides such as Pu isotopes released into the ocean at this time. Investigating the background baseline concentration and atom ratio of Pu isotopes in seawater is important for assessment of the possible contamination in the marine environment. Pu-239 (half-life: 24,100 years), Pu-240 (half-life: 6,560 years) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 years) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater samples collected in the western North Pacific off Sanriku before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant will provide useful background baseline data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing additional Pu sources. Seawater samples were collected with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the KH-98-3 cruise of the R/V Hakuho-Maru. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations were 2.07 and 1.67 mBq/m3 in the surface water, respectively, and increased with depth; a subsurface maximum was identified at 750 m depth, and the concentrations decreased with depth, then increased at the bottom layer. The total Pu-239+240 inventory in the entire water column (depth interval 0

  8. Critical mass variation of 239Pu with water dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1996-01-01

    The critical mass of an unreflected solid sphere of 239 Pu is ∼ 10 kg. The increase in critical mass observed for small water dilutions of unreflected 239 Pu spheres is paradoxical. Introducing small amounts of water uniformly throughout the sphere increases the spherical volume containing the same amount of 239 Pu as the critical solid sphere. The increase in radius decreases the surface-to-volume ratio of the sphere, which has the effect to first order of decreasing the neutron leakage, which is proportional to the surface, relative to the fissions, which are proportional to the volume. The reduction in neutron leakage is expected to reduce the critical mass, but instead, the critical mass is observed to increase. It is discussed how changes in the fast neutron spectrum with corresponding changes in the nuclear parameters result in an increase in critical mass for small water dilutions

  9. Selection of bone samples for 239Pu analyses in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, W.S.S.; Wronski, T.J.; Smith, J.M.; Kimmel, D.B.; Miller, S.C.; Stover, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on the skeletal macrodistribution, microdistribution, and toxicity of 239 Pu and studies on bone turnover rates show that trabecular bone sites with high turnover rates have the greatest affinity for 239 Pu. In the adult beagle, these high-turnover, trabecular bone sites also show a higher occurrence of osteosarcomas. Correspondingly, high-turnover bone sites in the human would include the ilium (pelvis) and lumbar vertebrae (LVB), sites that are readily obtainable at autopsy. We recommend that the trabecular bone of the ilium and of the LVB be sampled to determine the skeletal radionuclide content of humans

  10. Fetal doses from plutonium-239 and polonium-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.D.; Morgan, A.; Stather, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The transfer of 239 Pu and 210 Po from the maternal circulation to the developing embryo and fetus was studied in rodents. The highest concentrations of both isotopes were measured in the yolk sac. In utero doses to haemopoietic tissue have been calculated taking account of transfer to the blastocyst/egg cylinder, yolk sac, liver and bone marrow. From animal data, the concentration ratios relative to maternal liver for these tissues were taken to be 0.1, 2, 0.01 and o.02, respectively for 239 Pu; and 1, 2, 0.1 and 0.1, respectively, for 210 Po. These concentration ratios were applied to periods of human gestation of 0-2.5 weeks, 2.5-6 weeks, 6-12 weeks and 12-38 weeks, and used to calculate fetal tissue doses for chronic maternal intake by ingestion of 1 kBq 239 Pu or 2 kBq 210 Po in the year of pregnancy (1 ALI for a member of the public). On this basis, the total in utero dose to haemopoietic tissue was about 1 μSv from 239 Pu and 60 μSv from 210 Po compared with red bone marrow doses to the mother in the year of 19 μSv from 239 Pu and 160 μSv from 210 Po. The yolk sac and bone marrow dominated in utero doses from both nuclides. For 239 Pu, because of its long half life, an important consideration was activity present in the offspring at birth and committed dose equivalents to red bone marrow in the child and mother. The total dose to haemopoietic tissue in the offspring to age 70 years, including in utero doses, was calculated as 13 μSv compared with a maternal dose to red bone marrow of 1400 μSv. For both isotopes the risk of leukaemia in the year of pregnancy was estimated to be of the same order for mother and fetus. For 239 Pu, the overall risk to 70 years of age was two orders of magnitude higher for the mother than her offspring. For 239 Pu, an acute intake of 1 kBq by ingestion during the period of yolk sac haemopoiesis would result in the highest in utero dose, estimated at about 20 μSv. However, activity at birth would be lower and the overall

  11. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile 239 Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m 2 ) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate 239 Pu production rate. Produced 239 Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, 239 Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type

  12. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile {sup 239}Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m{sup 2}) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate {sup 239}Pu production rate. Produced {sup 239}Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, {sup 239}Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type.

  13. 48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Information Technology... Provisions and Clauses 2452.239-71 Information Technology Virus Security. As prescribed in 2439.107(b), insert the following clause: Information Technology Virus Security (FEB 2006) (a) The contractor hereby...

  14. Coulomb displacement energies between analog levels for 44 < = A < = 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.; Pape, A.

    1985-08-01

    Experimental Coulomb displacement energie ΔEsub(C) between isobaric analog levels are tabulated for 44 <- A <- 239, extending recent work in which similar data were presented for 3 <- A <- 45. An overall parametrization in anti-Z/A sup(1/3) and uniform radius parameters rsub(o) are given

  15. Protracted chelate therapy after incorporation of plutonium 239 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemenetzis, E.

    1976-01-01

    The author has tested in how far 239 Pu can be mobilized by Ca and Zn, Desfenioxamin B(DFDA) and by combined doses of Ca-DTPA and DFDA. The pre-experiment covered the 239 Pu-metabolism in untreated male and female rats and the distribution in dependence of the way of application. If treatment is started immediately by multiple chelate doses, the first two injections play the main part in the decorporation of 239 Pu. The combination Ca-DTPA30 + DFDA30 μMol x kg -1 is proved to be the best means of decorporation for the whole body. The efficiency of another therapy depends essentially on the treatment used, a daily treatment showing the best effects. If treatment is started later with multiple chelate doses, the total decorporation efficiency is of less value, especially in the skeleton. Aequimolar doses of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA have the same degree of efficiency. This indicates that during protracted chelate treatment starting later, Ca-DTPA could be substituted by the less toxic Zn-DTPA after incorporation of 239 Pu. These results show that intermittant administration of the week's dose is more efficient than a single chelate administration of the whole week's dose at once. Permanent chelate infusion does not seem necessary in any case since it has the same effect as 3 to 5 injections per week and is difficult to carry out in medical practice. Thus, it seems advisable to divide up the weekly dose into 3-5 injections. In case of a wound contamination, the efficiency of immediate intensive treatment depends on the 239 Pu compound used, on the chelate used, and on its dosage. (orig.) [de

  16. Plutonium 239 retention in former workers of the Thule base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul-Jensen, P.; Ulbak, K.

    1988-07-01

    In a memorandum of 1987 on a comprehensive health examination of persons employed at Thule air-base at the time of the crash of a nuclear-armed B-52 bomber in 1968, the National Board of Health suggested performing analyses for plutonium of urinesamples from 50-100 selected persons. This programme was carried out during the winter 1987-88. Collection of samples and evaluation of results were done by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. Department of Health Physics, National Laboratory Risoe, made the analyses. Included in the group were persons, who according to records from 1968 were judged to have had above-average potential for uptake of plutonium, as well as s number of persons, who before the summer 1987 had approached the social services and/or the Department of Dermatology, Marselisborg Hospital, with complaints of health effects attributed to the work at Thule air-base. 62 persons were included and results from the analyses of 53 24-hour-samples of urine, as well as from a number of control- and standard are presented. The technique used for the analysis had a minimum detectable activity for 239 Pu of 200 μBq per sample. Consequently, according to internationally recognized models for uptake, distribution and retention of plutonium in the human organism, it is possible in 1988 to recognize an intake by inhalation in 1968 of 300 Bq 239 Pu . No sample was found to contain 239 Pu . So the results indicate, that any intake of 239 Pu by the persons here involved, as a consequence of their work at Thule airbase in 1968, did not exceed 300 Bq. An intake of 300 Bq 239 Pu can be evaluated to result in a 50-year committed dose equivalent of 20 mSv. The current dose-limit for occupationally exposed persons is 50 mSv/y. (author)

  17. Late effects of 239Pu administered at representative stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, F.D.; Sikov, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    Evaluation of effects on postnatal growth and survival times up to about 21 months following 239 Pu administration support our working hypothesis that prenatal 239 Pu exposures may adversely affect the growth and survival of the offspring

  18. 16 CFR 239.2 - Disclosures in warranty or guarantee advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... warranty coverage. These examples are for both print and broadcast advertising. These examples are... advertising. 239.2 Section 239.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE ADVERTISING OF WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES § 239.2 Disclosures in warranty or guarantee...

  19. Subcellular binding of 239Pu in the liver of selected species of rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R.

    1980-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of 239 Pu in the liver of selected rodent species was investigated as well as the relation between 239 Pu and the iron metabolism. The goal of the investigation was to find out why the liver discharge of 239 Pu from the liver varies so much between species. (orig.) [de

  20. 48 CFR 1252.239-70 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unclassified information technology resources. 1252.239-70 Section 1252.239-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... of Provisions and Clauses 1252.239-70 Security requirements for unclassified information technology... Unclassified Information Technology Resources (APR 2005) (a) The Contractor shall be responsible for...

  1. 239,240Pu distribution in the Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi

    1996-01-01

    Distribution of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the Japanese were reviewed, and compared with those estimated with ICRP metabolic models. Inhalation and ingestion amount of these nuclides were calculated from simple models, and used as input to the ICRP metabolic models. ICRP-30 model or the combination of ICRP-66 lung model and ICRP-67 metabolic model were used for the calculation. The estimated 239,240 Pu concentrations in lung, liver, skeleton, kidney and muscle by using of the combination of ICRP-66 and 67 models agreed well with the measured data in most cases. The contribution of ingestion intake to body burden of 239,240 Pu was estimated to be 12% with 5 x 10 -4 as f 1 value. The combination of ICRP-66 and 67 model could described fairly well the organ burden of 241 Am measured in Akita and Niigata district. The 241 Am grown from 241 Pu in the human body was calculated to contribute 90% of the burden. (author)

  2. Soil components that influence the chemical behavior of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishita, H.; Hamilton, M.

    1978-08-01

    Soil components that influence the extractability of 239 Pu from an artificially contaminated kaolinitic soil in relation to pH have been examined. This was done by using an equilibrium batch technique with CH 3 COOH--NH 4 OH and HNO 3 --NaOH extracting systems. Soil organic matter and free iron oxides had an appreciable effect depending on the pH and the extracting system. The free silica and alumina and amorphous alumino-silicates had lesser influence. With the untreated soil (control), the CH 3 COOH--NH 4 OH system generally extracted more 239 Pu than did the HNO 3 --NaOH system in the acidic pH range, whereas the latter system extracted markedly greater amounts of it in the alkaline pH range. With the soil from which the organic matter was removed, the CH 3 COOH--NH 4 OH system extracted appreciably greater amounts of 239 Pu than the HNO 3 --NaOH system in the acidic pH range, but there was only little, if any, difference between the two extracting systems in the alkaline pH range. The causes and the implications of these results are discussed

  3. Solution species of 239Pu [V] in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, D.; Serne, R.J.; Swanson, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Information regarding the oxidation states of Pu in environmental samples is needed for estimating its migration through the geologic media. Thermodynamic data were used to develop stability fields for different Pu species. The data indicate that in the Eh-pH range of natural aqueous environments, the dominant species of Pu is likely to be Pu[V] in relatively oxidizing environments and Pu[III] in reducing environments. Because of the lack of methods of determining Pu[V] in environmental samples containing trace concentrations of Pu, Pu[V] has not been previously identified in these samples. Plutonium [VI] is generally assumed to be the dominant species in relatively oxidizing environments. However, a combination of solvent extraction and spectrophotometric techniques used in this study show that solutions (> 10 -5 4 M Pu) in equilibrium with 239 Pu[IV] hydroxide contain Pu[V], which is in agreement with the thermodynamic predictions. Although this method could not be used conclusively with the remaining solutions ( -5 4 M Pu) contacting 239 Pu[IV] hydroxide and 239 PuO 2 , the solvent extraction and Eh-pH results are similar for all the samples suggesting the strong possibility that all samples contain Pu[V]. Thus the possibility, ignored in the past, that Pu[V] may be the dominant species in relatively oxidizing environments should be considered

  4. The significance of liver in metabolism of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netchev, Christo.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium 239 has an important toxicological significance and is widely used in the nuclear industry which makes the study of its metabolism in the organism appear of substantial interest. The role of the liver in the distribution of radionuclide and its barrier capabilities, determining to a certain extent the back transport of the isotope from the blood plasma into the gut is studied. The storage of Plutonium 239 in the organ and its reexcretion by way of the gull is quantitatively demonstrated. This question is related to the exact determination of the coefficient of absorption of the radioisotope in the digestive tract. The radionuclide is inserted into organism as PuCl 3 directly into vein jugularis and vein portae. The peculiarities of its distribution in the liver by the two ways of introduction as well as the essential differences in the radioactivity of the products of excretion by portal application are described. The mechanism of the storage of the radioisotope in the organ is explained to a great extent with its physical and chemical condition in the liver tissue. Plutonium 239 is found in the liver completely as a complex compound with the tissue proteins, the combining with globulines predominating. The dynamics of exchange of the radionuclide in the organ is determined mainly by its complex combination with the globulins. The part of nuclide connected with the other protein fractions of liver is not significant and hence they do not much influence kinetics in the organ

  5. Analysis of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, H.

    2017-10-01

    Apart from radiometric techniques, several mass spectrometry (Ms) techniques can be used to evaluate the incorporation of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, among which we can consider mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-Ms); mass spectrometry with accelerators (AMS); thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (Sims). In this work we evaluated analytical methods to measure isotopes of plutonium-239 in urine samples from occupationally exposed personnel, using alpha spectroscopy (As), magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS) and AMS. The samples were collected during 24 h were acidified with HNO 3 at 5% in v/v. The processes used in the preparation of the samples were: a) co-precipitation, b) acid digestion, c) radiochemical separation and d) electro deposition. The results obtained in terms of minimum detectable activity of plutonium-239 were 0.1 μBq (∼ 0.4 fg per sample), 5.1 μBq (∼ 2 fg per sample), 30.1 μBq (∼ 13 fg per sample) and 0.1 μBq (∼ 51 fg per sample) for AMS, Aridus-Icp-SFMS, Icp, SFMS and As, respectively. On the other hand, samples previously analyzed by As were re-evaluated by Aridus-Icp-SFMS and AMS. The results show that extraction with 60 ml of 5% HNO 3 at 60 degrees Celsius and for 2.5 h is enough to extract 90% of Pu electrodeposited on the planchette. In conclusion, AMS is an ultra-sensitive technique for determining isotope ratios of Pu, especially when is desired to validate a method to measure plutonium-239. Additionally, Icp-SFMS is a rapid analysis technique and can be used as a screening technique in situations of radiological incidents or accidents with Pu in the occupationally exposed personnel. Regarding alpha spectroscopy has been considered as the technique of excellence in the routine analysis to measure plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, due to the low cost. Finally, Icp-SFMS and AMS

  6. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Hahn, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The modifying effects of a pre-existing lung disease (emphysema) on the deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in the rat are being investigated. Preliminary observations indicated that the deposition and retention patterns for 239 Pu particles inhaled by rats with emphysema and control rats were similar, but the distribution of inhaled 239 Pu immediately after exposure was different. Respiratory function measured through one year after exposure to 239 Pu was consistent with emphysema and was not altered by the 239 Pu lung burden. Long-term observations are continuing. 4 references, 2 tables

  7. Phytoextraction studies for removal of 239Pu using Vetiveria zizanoides plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D.P.; Kaushik, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Vetiveria zizanoides, a plant used for environmental conservation was tested for remediation of radionuclide plutonium ( 239 Pu). While the plant could remediate high levels of 239 Pu (65%) from solutions, remediation of radionuclides from soil was limited. Addition of chelating agents such as citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) enhanced phytoremediation of 239 Pu from soil. Translocation of 239 Pu to the shoot biomass showed an enhancement in the presence of chelating agents. The present studies have shown that V. zizanoides is a suitable candidate plant for remediation of 239 Pu and addition of DTPA enhanced translocation of radionuclide to shoot which may further lead to phytoextraction. (author)

  8. Disposition of plutonium-239 via production of fission molybdenum-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A., E-mail: muahtaq_a1953@hotmail.co [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-04-15

    A heritage of physical consequences of the U.S.-Soviet arms race has accumulated, the weapons-grade plutonium (WPu), which will become excess as a result of the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons under the arms reduction agreements. Disposition of Pu has been proposed by mixing WPu with high-level radioactive waste with subsequent vitrification into large, highly radioactive glass logs or fabrication into mixed oxide fuel with subsequent irradiation in existing light water reactors. A potential option may be the production of medical isotope molybdenum-99 by using Pu-239 targets.

  9. Water vapor absorption in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Godon, M.; Carlier, J.; Ma, Q.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute absorption rates of pure water vapor and mixtures of water vapor and nitrogen have been measured in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz. The dependence on pressure as well as temperature has been obtained. The experimental data are compared with several theoretical or empirical models, and satisfactory agreement is obtained with the models involving a continuum; in the case of pure water vapor, the continuum contribution based upon recent theoretical developments gives good results. The temperature dependence is stronger than that proposed in a commonly used atmospheric transmission model.

  10. Neutron spectra of /sup 239/Pu-Be neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Nagarajan, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1977-01-01

    Neutron spectra of /sup 239/Pu-Be(..cap alpha..,n) sources have been calculated by using the most recent data on the differential cross sections and angular distributions. The contribution from the multibody break-up reaction /sup 9/Be(..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..n)/sup 8/Be has also been incorporated. Modifications to the primary spectrum due to the secondary interactions in the source such as elastic scattering with beryllium, oxygen and plutonium and the /sup 9/Be(n,2n) and /sup 239/Pu(n,f) reaction have been calculated for different strengths and geometries. The present calculation has shown that the spectrum changes considerably because of these events within the source by way of smearing of peaks and filling up of valleys and raising the low energy part of the spectrum. Increase in H/D value leads to channeling of extra neutrons into the equatorial plane at the cost of the neutrons along the axial direction. The present calculations show that inclusion of secondary interactions to the extent considered in this work does not account completely for the increased intensity in the lower energy end of the measured spectrum.

  11. Low-level 239PuO2 lifespan studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This project will produce data to generate a dose-response curve (and to evaluate other statistical methods that also incorporate survival time) for lung-tumor incidence in Wistar rats following inhalation of 239 PuO 2 at levels producing lifetime radiation doses to the lung of 2000 rad. The lung clearance of 239 Pu is best represented by a two-exponential equation, with 78% of the initial alveolar depositions (IAD) cleared with a half-time of 19 days and 22% cleared with a half-time of 180 days. A total of 593 of 2134 exposed and 242 of 1058 sham-exposed rats have died. Among the dead rats, the percent with primary lung tumors was 71% for the 150-nCi group, 70% for the 82-nCi group, and 23% for the 32-nCi group. No lung tumors have been found in controls, and only three have been found at an IAD of < 7.5 nCi. 1 figure, 3 tables

  12. Characterization of a neutron source of 239PuBe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez V, R.; Chacon R, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Mercado, G. A.; Vega C, H. R.; Ramirez G, J.

    2009-10-01

    The spectrum equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose f a 239 PuBe source have been determined. The appropriate handling of a neutron source depends on the knowledge of its characteristics, such as its energy distribution, total rate of flowing and dosimetric magnitudes. In many facilities have not spectrometer that allows to determine the spectrum and then area monitors are used that give a dosimetric magnitude starting from measuring the flowing rate and the use of conversion factors, however this procedure has many limitations and it is preferable to measure the spectra and starting from this information the interest dosimetric magnitudes are calculated. In this work a Bonner sphere spectrometer has been used with a 6 LiI(Eu) scintillator obtaining the count rates that produce, to a distance of 100 cm, a 239 PuBe source of 1.85E(11) Bq. The spectrum was reconstructed starting from the count rates using BUNKIUT code and response matrix UTA4. With the spectrum information was calculated the source intensity, total flow, energy average, equivalent dose rate, environmental equivalent dose rate, equivalent dose coefficient and environmental equivalent dose coefficient. By means of two area monitors for neutrons, Eberline ASP-1 and LB 6411 of Berthold the equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose were measured. The determinate values were compared with those reported in literature and it found that are coincident inside 17%. (Author)

  13. Simulation of 239Pu location in trabecular bone: a computerized model of adult endosteal bone remodeling and its interaction with injected 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, D.B.; Jee, W.S.S.

    1979-01-01

    A computer simulation of the relationship of bone microanatomic metabolic activity to the microscopic location of 239 Pu in bone has been attempted. The model incorporates the rate of bone turnover, cell location and density, bone resorptive activity (as it removes 239 Pu from bone), bone formation activity (as it buries 239 Pu in bone), recycling of 239 Pu, and liver translocation of 239 Pu to bone, such that the skeletal retention curve for 239 Pu injected in monomeric form into the young adult beagle is matched. The eventual aim of this work is to calculate the radiation dose to bone cells, knowing the relative location of 239 Pu deposited in bone and the cells that reside at bone surfaces as it changes throughout the lifespan of an animal. Early results indicate that osteosarcoma incidence may be proportional to the number of alpha hits which occur to osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts, the dividing cell population found near surfaces where bone turnover is in progress

  14. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239 Pu Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239 Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-ray multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution

  15. Mechanical resuspension of 239Pu from unpaved roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The impacts of resuspended plutonium from two unpaved roads at the Rocky Flats Plant on nearby air samplers were investigated. Because the sources were complex fugitive dust emitters and because of the small source-receptor distances, traditional dispersion modeling techniques could not be employed. Thus two specialized techniques, one for fugitive dust emissions and one for near distance dispersion, were developed and used to calculate atmospheric dust concentrations at the subject air samplers. Atmospheric 239 Pu impacts were then determined from measurements of plutonium concentrations in the resuspendible dust on the road surfaces. As a final step in the process the calculated plutonium impacts were compared to the 1980 annual average 239 Pu concentration at four samplers. The impact calculated for the Gunnery Range Road represented 2.1 percent of the observed annual concentration, with a 95 percent confidence interval of 1.1 to 7.9 percent. The Southeast Perimeter Road produced a more substantial effect with a point estimate of 3.8 percent. The 95 percent confidence interval for this source was 2.0 to 9.1 percent. The combined impact of the two roads on the subject samplers was 5.9 percent of the observed plutonium concentration, with a 95 percent confidence interval of 3.2 to 17.0 percent. Thus it was shown that fugitive plutonium emissions from the Gunnery Range Road and Southeast Perimeter Road are not substantial contributors to the plutonium concentrations observed at the subject samplers. Even an increase in dust control efficiency to 90 percent (as with paving) would result in only a four percent decrease in the overall atmosperic plutonium concentration at the site

  16. R-matrix analyses of the 235U and 239Pu neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; de Saussure, G.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Perez, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The resonance parameter analysis code SAMMY was used to perform consistent resonance analyses of several 235 U and 239 Pu fission and capture cross section and transmission measurements up to 110 eV for 235 U and up to 1 keV for 239 Pu. The method of analysis, the measurement selection and the results are briefly outlined in this paper

  17. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  18. 40 CFR 239.4 - Narrative description of state permit program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narrative description of state permit program. 239.4 Section 239.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... Narrative description of state permit program. The description of a state's program must include: (a) An...

  19. Reversibility of sorption of plutonium-239 onto hematite and goethite colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, N.; Cotter, C.R.; Kitten, H.D.; Bentley, J.; Triay, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate: (1) sorption of plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) on different iron oxide colloids (hematite and geothite), (2) sorption kinetics of colloidal Pu(IV) and soluble Pu(V) onto these two colloids, and (3) desorption of colloidal Pu(IV) and soluble Pu(V) from 239 Pu-loaded colloids as a function of time. Natural groundwater and carbonate-rich synthetic groundwater were used in this study. To examine the possible influence of bicarbonate on 239 Pu sorption, an additional set of experiments was conducted in sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) solutions under carbon dioxide free environments. Our results show that colloidal Pu(IV) as well as soluble Pu(V) was rapidly adsorbed by hematite and goethite colloids in both natural and synthetic groundwater. The amount of 239 Pu adsorbed by both iron oxide colloids in synthetic groundwater was higher than in natural groundwater. The presence of carbonate did not influence the sorption of 239 Pu. While sorption of soluble Pu(V) is a slow process, sorption of colloidal Pu(IV) occurs rapidly. Desorption of Pu from iron oxide colloids is much slower than the sorption processes. Our findings suggest that different sorption and desorption behaviors of 239 Pu by iron oxide colloids in groundwater may facilitate the transport of 239 Pu along potential flowpaths from the areas contaminated by radionuclide and release to the accessible environment. (orig.)

  20. 48 CFR 2452.239-70 - Background investigations for sensitive automated systems/applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for sensitive automated systems/applications. 2452.239-70 Section 2452.239-70 Federal Acquisition... automated systems/applications. As prescribed in 2439.107(a), insert the following clause: Background Investigations for Sensitive Automated Systems/Applications (OCT 1999) (a) General. This contract involves work...

  1. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Hahn, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary emphysema on deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in the rat were investigated. The presence of emphysema in the rats tested was indicated by respiratory function measurements and confirmed microscopically. Initial lung burdens of 239 Pu per kg body weight were less in rats with emphysema than in control rats; however, the retention of 239 Pu was similar in emphysematous and control rats. Survival and lung tumor occurrence were similar in emphysematous and control rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 . We concluded that rats with pre-existing pulmonary emphysema were not more sensitive to the effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 than control rats. (author)

  2. Inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in rats with pulmonary emphysema. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D L; Mauderly, J L; Carlton, W W; Hahn, F F

    1988-12-01

    The modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary emphysema on deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in the rat were investigated. The presence of emphysema in the rats tested was indicated by respiratory function measurements and confirmed microscopically. Initial lung burdens of {sup 239}Pu per kg body weight were less in rats with emphysema than in control rats; however, the retention of {sup 239}Pu was similar in emphysematous and control rats. Survival and lung tumor occurrence were similar in emphysematous and control rats exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. We concluded that rats with pre-existing pulmonary emphysema were not more sensitive to the effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} than control rats. (author)

  3. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure increases the pulmonary retention and radiation dose of 239Pu inhaled as 239PuO2 by F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lundgren, D.L.; Barr, E.B.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Nikula, K.J.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    As a portion of a study to examine how chronic cigarette smoke exposure might alter the risk of lung tumors from inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, the effects of smoke exposure on alpha-particle lung dosimetry over the life-span of exposed rats were determined. Male and female rats were exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 alone or in combination with cigarette smoke. Animals exposed to filtered air along served as controls for the smoke exposure. Whole-body exposure to mainstream smoke diluted to concentrations of either 100 or 250 mg total particulate matter m -3 began at 6 wk of age and continued for 6 h d -1 , 5 d wk -1 , for 30 mo. A single, pernasal, acute exposure to 239 PuO 2 was given to all rats at 12 wk of age. Exposure to cigarette smoke caused decreased body weight gains in a concentration dependent manner. Lung-to-body weight ratios were increased in smoke-exposed rats. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke before the 239 PuO 2 exposure deposited less 239 Pu in the lung than did controls. Except for male rats exposed to LCS, exposure to smoke retarded the clearance of 239 Pu from the lung compared to control rats through study termination at 870 d after 239 PuO 2 exposure. Radiation doses to lungs were calculated by sex and by exposure group for rats on study for at least 360 d using modeled body weight changes, lung-to-body weight ratios, and standard dosimetric calculations. For both sexes, estimated lifetime radiation doses from the time of 239 PuO 2 exposure to death were 3.8 Gy, 4.4 Gy, or 6.7 Gy for the control, LCS, or HCS exposure groups, respectively. Assuming an approximately linear dose-response relationship between radiation dose and lung neoplasm incidence, approximate increases of 20% or 80% in tumor incidence over controls would be expected in rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 and LCS or 239 PuO 2 and HCS, respectively

  4. The concentrations of sup(239.240)Pu in foods of the Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabayashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Mineo; Takizawa, Yukio.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the amounts of sup(239.240)Pu in total daily diet and in marine foods were conducted to estimate the dietary intake of sup(239.240)Pu in the Japanese. The average concentrations of sup(239.240)Pu in total diet of various places in Japan were 96 fCi/day/person in 1968 and 50 fCi/day/person in 1969. It was found that the concentration of sup(239.240)Pu in total diet decreased with the decrease of radioactive fallout. The concentrations of sup(239.240)Pu in viscera and bone of marinefishes and in seaweeds were high. The average amount of dietary intake of sup(239.240)Pu from marine foods by the Japanese at present was about 9 fCi/day/person. It was estimated that the greater part of sup(239.240)Pu in total diet of the Japanese was due to the marine foods. (author)

  5. The removal of inhaled 239Pu from beagle dogs by bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Slauson, D.O.; Miglio, J.J.; Ruoff, L.; Mersch, S.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelatan therapy for removing 239 Pu from beagle dogs after inhalation of 239 Pu aerosols having different solubilities has been investigated. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239 PuCl 4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900 and 1150 0 C. Groups of six beagle dogs were exposed to each of the aerosols. Subsequently, three dogs in each group were treated by lavage and intravenous injections of DTPA. The remaining three dogs in each group served as untreated controls. It was found that bronchopulmonary lavage treatment was effective in removing nearly half of the 239 Pu activity from the lung regardless of the aerosol production temperature. This early removal of 239 Pu activity resulted in a significant reduction in daily dose rate and therefore cumulative α dose to lung. The effectiveness of DTPA treatment depended on aerosol production temperature, and was effective in reducing accumulation of 239 Pu in liver and skeleton of the dogs that inhaled aerosols produced at 325 0 and 600 0 C by enhancing urinary excretion of 239 Pu. (U.K.)

  6. Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of {sup 239}Pu; Etude du nombre de neutrons produits par la fission de {sup 239}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of {sup 239}Pu. The counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by these fissions allows the study of the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by {nu} fission. In the first chapter, it studied the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by {sup 239}Pu fission with the energy of the incident neutron. A description of the experiment is given: a spectrometer with a crystal of sodium chloride or beryllium (mounted on a goniometer) is used, a fission chamber containing 10 mg of {sup 239}Pu and the neutron detection system constituted of BF{sub 3} counters which are enriched in {sup 10}B. In the second part, the counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by the same fission and received by two different groups of counters allow the determination of a relationship between the root mean square and the average of neutron number produced by fission. The variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of {sup 239}Pu is studied when we change from a thermal spectra of neutrons to a fission spectra of incident neutrons. Finally, when separating in two different part the fission chamber, it is possible to measure the mean number of neutrons emitted from fission of two different sources. It compared the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 233}U. (M.P.)

  7. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... management investment companies registered on Form N-8A. 239.14 Section 239.14 Commodity and Securities... Registration Statements § 239.14 Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N...

  8. 17 CFR 239.15A - Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of open-end management investment companies. 239.15A Section 239.15A Commodity and Securities... Registration Statements § 239.15A Form N-1A, registration statement of open-end management investment companies... management investment companies other than separate accounts of insurance companies registered under the...

  9. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 239.7406 Section 239.7406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7406 Cost or pricing data and...

  10. Observation of an isomeric level in 239U by means of the 238U(n,γ)239U reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.W.; Murray, J.; Rae, E.R.

    1970-01-01

    Low-energy-capture gamma-ray spectra ( 238 U up to a neutron energy of 350 eV. The data were obtained using a 25-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector at the Harwell 45 MeV Electron Linac. Capture events were recorded as functions of gamma-ray energy and neutron time-of-flight, and by suitable analysis of the data time-of-flight spectra have been obtained for individual gamma-rays. The strongest low-energy gamma-ray, at 134 keV, depopulates a level in 239 U at the same energy by an E2-transition to the ground state. The time-of-flight spectrum for this transition indicates that the 134-keV level is isomeric with a half-life of approximately 1 microsecond. This is evident from the long tails on the low-energy side of each resonance, which are not present for other regions of the gamma-ray spectrum. The possibility of using low-energy gamma-rays as a measure of the total capture cross-section is investigated by comparing the time-of-flight spectrum for the 134-keV transition with that for a Moxon-Rae detector under the same experimental conditions. (author)

  11. Independent fission yields of Rb and Cs from thermal-neutron-induced fission of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Forman, L.

    1975-01-01

    The relative independent fission yields of Rb and Cs from thermal-neutron-induced fission of 239 Pu have been measured on line using a mass spectrograph and thermalized neutrons from a burst reactor. Independent yields were derived by normalizing the measurements to products of chain yields and fractional independent yields, estimating the latter from measured cumulative yields of Kr and Xe. Comparing the independent yields with those from 238 U fission, the 239 Pu results show shifts in isotopic yield distribution toward lower mass for both Rb and Cs and also toward the production of more Cs and less Rb when 239 Pu is fissioned

  12. Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 metabolism in dairy cows following ingestion of mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Sutton, W.W.; Potter, G.D.; Mosley, R.E.; Efurd, D.W.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    Dairy cows were given oral dosage of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 dioxide particles in a study to determine the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the nuclides. Two cows were given particles in which the two isotopes were homogeneously mixed within the particles. A third cow was given two batches of particles which contained either plutonium-238 or plutonium-239. Results indicate that, when the two isotopes of plutonium are homogeneous within the particles, there is no difference between plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution

  13. Numerical prediction of 239Pu migration in unsaturated porous media under infiltration scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongxu; Si Gaohua; Wang Qinghai; Yu Jing

    2011-01-01

    In terms of the study on site selection of a radioactive waste disposal repository in northwest China, a numerical prediction of 239 Pu migration for potential groundwater pollution in the unsaturated zone was conducted with the HYDRUS-1D model. The results showed that the groundwater will not be contaminated by the migration of soluble 239 Pu. And there is little possibility that 239 Pu migration through groundwater path might have an unacceptable impact on exosphere. Measurements of the distribution coefficient, K d , are critical in the determination of sorption-induced retardation of radionuclide transport. (authors)

  14. Numerical prediction of 239Pu migration for groundwater pollution in the infiltration case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongxu; Si Gaohua; Wang Qinghai; Yu Jing

    2010-01-01

    In terms of the study on site selection of geological disposal of LIL radioactive waste in north-west China, a numerical prediction of 239 Pu migration for potential groundwater pollution in the unsaturated zone was conducted with the HYDRUS-ID model. The results showed that the groundwater will not be contaminated by the migration of soluble 239 Pu. And there is a faint possibility that 239 Pu migration through groundwater path might have an unacceptable impact on ecosphere. Measurements of the distribution coefficient, K d , are critical in the determination of sorption-induced retardation of radionuclide transport. (authors)

  15. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu inventories and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the equatorial Pacific Ocean water column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masatoshi, E-mail: myamada@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Zheng, Jian [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    The {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios were determined by alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for seawater samples from two stations, one at the equator and the other in the equatorial South Pacific. To better understand the fate of Pu isotopes, this study dealt with the contribution of the close-in fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in water columns of the Pacific Ocean. The {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 239+240}Pu inventories over the depth interval 0-3000 m at the equator station were 10.4, 8.9 and 19.3 Bq m{sup -2}, respectively. Further, no noticeable difference was observed in {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 239+240}Pu inventories over the depth interval 0-3000 m between the two stations. The total {sup 239+240}Pu inventories were significantly higher than the expected cumulative deposition density of global fallout. Water column {sup 239+240}Pu inventories measured in this study were lower than those reported for comparable stations in the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study, indicating that these inventories have been decreasing at average rates of 0.89 {+-} 0.07 and 0.16 {+-} 0.07 Bq m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} at the equator and equatorial South Pacific stations, respectively, from 1973 to 1990. The obtained {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios were higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18. These high atom ratios proved the existence of close-in tropospheric fallout Pu from the PPG in the Marshall Islands. The {sup 239+240}Pu inventories originating from the close-in fallout in the entire water column were estimated to be 11.1 Bq m{sup -2} at the equator station and 7.1 Bq m{sup -2} at the equatorial South Pacific Ocean station, and the relative percentages of close-in fallout Pu were 40% at the former and 34% at the latter. A significant amount of close-in fallout Pu originating from the PPG has been transported to deep layers below the 1000 m depth in the equatorial

  16. Early retention of 237Pu + 239Pu in mature beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; McFarland, S.S.; Atherton, D.R.; Bruenger, F.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Five mature beagles, ranging in age from 57 to 84 months, were injected intravenously with about 0.05-0.1 μCi/kg of 239 Pu(IV) citrate to which tracer amounts of the photon-emitter 237 Pu had been added. Plutonium retention in liver and in non-liver tissue (mainly skeleton) was measured periodically in the living dogs for nearly 4 months after injection by a combination of total-body and partial-body counting. All excreta were collected during the first 21 days and analysed for their Pu content. One dog was sacrificed at 14 days and another at 118 days for distribution studies. About 17% (14-20%) of the injected Pu was excreted in the urine and feces in the first 3 weeks, about the same as that excreted in a corresponding time by beagles injected as young adults (14%), but substantially more than beagles injected as juveniles (11%). In contrasts to juvenile beagles injected at 3 months of age, in which early retention was about 12% in liver and 68% in the skeleton, mature beagles retained about 30% in liver and 50% in the skeleton. Retention in young adult beagles injected at 17 months of age was similar to that of mature dogs. Relative distribution of skeletal plutonium among various bones was similar in the mature animals to that seen previously in young adults, but quite different from that of juveniles. A notable exception was the humerus for which there was no significant difference (P>0.2) in the % of retained skeletal Pu represented by the humerus among the juvenile, young adult and mature dogs. (author)

  17. Annual and life-time doses from acute and chronic intakes of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Sharda; Rudran, Kamala

    1994-01-01

    A procedure to estimate annual, committed and life time doses from acute and chronic intakes of a long-lived radionuclide 239 Pu, is described. Annual dose computations, presented for 239 Pu of 5μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD), takes into account contribution from previous years intakes. Annual limits on intakes (ALI) for W and Y class of 239 Pu are computed as per the new internal dose limitation system of ICRP-61. Life time doses, corresponding to chronic intakes of 1 ALI/y for working periods of 40 and 50 years are presented for life span of 70 years of a radiation worker. These results are useful in assigning annual doses for occupational workers handling 239 Pu. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  18. 16 CFR 239.4 - “Lifetime” and similar representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are for both print and broadcast advertising. These examples are illustrative, not exhaustive. Example... FOR THE ADVERTISING OF WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES § 239.4 “Lifetime” and similar representations. If an...

  19. 48 CFR 239.7102-2 - Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7102-2 Compromising emanations—TEMPEST or... requiring activity is responsible for providing to the contracting officer— (a) The required protections, i...

  20. Late effects of 239Pu administered at representative stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, F.D.; Sikov, M.R.; Dagle, G.E.; Carr, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to 239 Pu depressed offspring growth and survival rates in a relatively dose-related fashion. Histopathological evaluations of the tumors and other lesions removed at necropsy are currently underway

  1. Toxicity of 239PuO2 inhaled by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Gillett, N.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of age at exposure on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles is being studied in aged Beagle dogs (8.0-10.5 yr of age at exposure). Forty-eight dogs inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 mm to achieve graded levels of initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) ranging from 0.02-0.66 μCi 239 Pu/kg body weight (0.75-24 kBq/kg). Twelve other dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent only. All forty-eight exposed dogs have died, including two in the past year. The twelve control dogs have also died, including one in the past year. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been the primary causes of death in these aged dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 . (author)

  2. Worldwide data on fluxes of 239,240Pu, 238Pu to the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1987-04-01

    According to measurements (GEOSECS) the world's oceans contain approximately 16 PBq 239,240 Pu, of which one-fourth is in the Atlantic and three-fourths in the Pacific Ocean. The expected inventory (from nuclear weapons testing) in the world's oceans is 12 PBq 239,240 Pu including local fallout at the test sites. In the Irish Sea a local contamination of 0.3 PBq 239,240 Pu from the Sellafield reprocessing plant resides in the sediments. No other sources than fallout and reprocessing add significantly to the 239,240 Pu inventories in the oceans. The discrepancy between measurements and expectations are assumed to be due to an underestimate of the rainfall and dry fallout (seaspray) and thus of the Pu-deposition over the oceans, but may also to some degree be due to inadequate sampling

  3. Chromosome aberration frequency in blood lymphocytes of animals with 239Pu lung burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; LaBauve, R.J.; McClellan, R.O.; Jensen, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Other investigators have suggested a causal relationship between accidental 239 Pu exposures in man and the presence of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. For experimental assessment of this relationship, 16 rhesus monkeys and 171 Chinese hamsters were exposed to 239 PuO 2 aerosols and an additional five hamsters were injected with 239 Pu citrate, and the frequency of aberrations in blood lymphocyte was determined. Hamsters with the highest lung burden had a median survival time of about 80 days. No deaths occurred in any of the other treated hamsters or monkeys by 250 days after 239 Pu inhalation. Hamsters sacrificed at 30 days showed an increase in chromosome aberration frequency with increasing dose to lungs. By 120 days after inhalation, the aberration frequency in the controls was 0.012. The frequency in animals with doses that produced significant life shortening had decreased to 0.018 and to 0.032 aberration/cell in animals with lower doses. At 380 days after injection of 2 nCi of 239 Pu citrate per gram of body weight, hamster lymphocytes had an aberration frequency of 0.048 aberration/cell. The level of chromosome damage in the 239 PuO 2 -exposed monkeys at 30 and 90 days after inhalation was not different from that observed in controls. Possible reasons for differences between the experimental animal observations and findings in man are discussed

  4. Low-level inhaled-239PuO2 life-span studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; McDonald, K.E.; Killand, B.W.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Cannon, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This study determined the dose-response curve for lung tumor incidence in rats after inhalation of high-fired 239 PuO 2 , which gave radiation doses to the lung of from ∼5 to >1000 rads. Exposed rats were given a single, nose-only, inhalation exposure to 169 Yb- 239 PuO 2 aerosol (AMAD, 1.6 +- 0.11 μm). The effective half-time for 169 Yb in the lung was 14 days, whereas ∼76% of 239 Pu was cleared with a half-time of 20 days and 24%, with a half-time of 180 days. Whole-body counting for 169 Yb at 14 days after exposure was an accurate method for determining 239 Pu IAD in individual rats, even at IAD's as low as 0.60 nCi of 239 Pu. The 239 Pu lung-clearance curve and an equation describing changes in lung weight with body weight and age were used to determine lung radiation doses. The IAD's of exposure groups were 0.60 +- 0.15 nCi of 239 Pu (1000 rats), 0.98 +- 0.25 (531 rats), 2.4 +- 0.69 (209 rats), 5.7 +- 1.2 (98 rats), and 7.5 +- 2.0 to 150 +- 37 nCi (300 rats); corresponding radiation doses to the lung estimated at 3 years after exposure were 8.3, 14, 33, 79, and 100 to 2100 rads, respectively. 71 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1958-01-01

    Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of 239 Pu. The counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by these fissions allows the study of the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by ν fission. In the first chapter, it studied the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by 239 Pu fission with the energy of the incident neutron. A description of the experiment is given: a spectrometer with a crystal of sodium chloride or beryllium (mounted on a goniometer) is used, a fission chamber containing 10 mg of 239 Pu and the neutron detection system constituted of BF 3 counters which are enriched in 10 B. In the second part, the counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by the same fission and received by two different groups of counters allow the determination of a relationship between the root mean square and the average of neutron number produced by fission. The variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of 239 Pu is studied when we change from a thermal spectra of neutrons to a fission spectra of incident neutrons. Finally, when separating in two different part the fission chamber, it is possible to measure the mean number of neutrons emitted from fission of two different sources. It compared the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of 239 Pu and 233 U. (M.P.)

  6. The Distribution of 239Pu in the Surface Soils at the Ujung Lemahabang Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarigan, Cerdas

    2000-01-01

    The study distribution of 239 Pu in the surface soil at the Ujung Lemahabang Area has been carried out. The aim of study to get information about 239 Pu activity in the depth of soil at 0 - 5 cm. 5 - 10 cm, 10 - 15 cm, 15 - 20 cm and 20 - 25 cm respectively. Sampling was done at random from 3 stations amount 1 kg respectively. The analytical method used was decomposition and leaching process using acid, chemical purification with anion exchange resin and measurement of activity with a spectrometry Result of the measurement showed that the average 239 Pu activity was 10.16 mBq/kg and this method was very good because its have high recovery of separation about 80 %. The activity of 239 Pu was lower than the result of measurement in another location in the world. The result of the study showed that the possibility of 239 Pu came from natural and fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests in the last period 1950 - 1960. (author)

  7. Extension of 239+240Pu sediment geochronology to coarse-grained marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven A.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Sediment geochronology of coastal sedimentary environments dominated by sand has been extremely limited because concentrations of natural and bomb-fallout radionuclides are often below the limit of measurement using standard techniques. ICP-MS analyses of 239+240Pu from two sites representative of traditionally challenging (i.e., low concentration) environments provide a "proof of concept" and demonstrate a new application for bomb-fallout radiotracers in the study of sandy shelf-seabed dynamics. A kasten core from the New Zealand shelf in the Southern Hemisphere (low fallout), and a vibracore from the sandy nearshore of North Carolina (low particle surface area) both reveal measurable 239+240Pu activities at depth. In the case of the New Zealand site, independently verified steady-state sedimentation results in a 239+240Pu profile that mimics the expected atmospheric fallout. The depth profile of 239+240Pu in the North Carolina core is more uniform, indicating significant sediment resuspension, which would be expected in this energetic nearshore environment. This study, for the first time, demonstrates the utility of 239+240Pu in the study of sandy environments, significantly extending the application of bomb-fallout isotopes to coarse-grained sediments, which compose the majority of nearshore regions.

  8. Determination of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio and its significance in environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of Pu concentrations and its isotopic ratios in environmental samples were developed by using ICP-MS. Detection limit of Pu by ICP-MS was about 0.02 pg ml{sup -1} (0.05 mBq ml{sup -1} for {sup 239}Pu; 0.17 mBq ml{sup -1} for {sup 240}Pu) in the sample solution. Analytical results of {sup 239+240}Pu in IAEA standard reference materials indicated that the accuracy of this method was satisfactory. Data on the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, which are rare in the literature, were also obtained for soil and sediment samples (including IAEA standard reference materials) from different areas such as Irish Sea, Mururoa Atoll, Marshall Islands, Chernobyl, Kyshtym, Nagasaki and some other places in Japan. The range of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios was about 0.04-0.4, and the ratios are depending on the origin of the materials. Analytical results for the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios provide information about the source of the contamination and the transfer of plutonium in the environment. (author)

  9. Comparison and modification of Pu-239 kinetics in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volf, V.; Gamer, A.; Laengle, U.

    1987-01-01

    It is obvious that the biokinetics of bone-seeking radionuclides are influenced by skeletal growth and remodelling, the rate of which in general decreases with increasing age. For plutonium, Mahlum and Sikov (1974) observed that rats injected with Pu-239 as weanlings retained a lower percentage in the liver and more in the bones than the animals injected as adults. However, skeletal Pu-239 was diluted more rapidly in the young rats because of intensive new bone formation and this led to a more pronounced reduction in the accumulation of radiation dose than was the case in adult animals. The aim of the present experiments was to study: a) The age effect on Pu-239 biokinetics in adult rates as influenced by the sex of the animals. b) Early retention and distribution of Pu-239 in the bones of young and adult rats injected with an optimal osteosarcomogenic dose. c) The effectiveness of a delayed prolonged administration of Zn-DTPA in drinking water for the mobilization of injected Pu-239 in rats of various age. 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  10. Improved MOX fuel calculations using new Pu-239, Am-241 and Pu-240 evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguere, G.; Bouland, O.; Bernard, D.; Leconte, P.; Blaise, P.; Peneliau, Y.; Vidal, J.F.; Saint Jean, C. de; Leal, L.; Schilleebeeckx, P.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library show a systematic over-estimation of the critical keff for core configurations of MOX fuel assemblies. The present work investigates possible improvements of the C/E results by using new evaluations for Am-241, Pu-239 and Pu-240. The work reported in this paper demonstrates the performances of the new Am-241 evaluation based on capture and transmission data measured at the IRMM. For Pu-239, the new evaluation, established in the frame of the WPEC/SG-34, is able to explain a systematic discrepancy observed between different EOLE experiments. The combination of the Am-241 and Pu-239 evaluations demonstrates the necessity to improve the radiation width of the first resonance of Pu-240

  11. Biochemical effects of inhaled 239PuO2 on lung lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombropoulos, E.G.; Hadley, J.G.; Thomas, J.M.; Craig, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out to assess the effect of 239 Pu α irradiation on lung lipid biosynthesis and to determine the lungs ability to incorporate palmitate into lavage lecithin and its turnover are reported. The experiments were carried out on rats which had inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles. The study of palmitate incorporation into lipids shows conclusively that for medium (23 to 42 nCi) or high (more than 100 nCi) lung depositions the incorporation by isolated mitochondria is significantly (P 239 PuO 2 were positive, with respect to controls in 8 of 10 instances, when measured following the label of palmitate in lung lavage lecithin. The interpretation of the significant result (P < 0.05) is that: (1) initial and/or final lecithin pool sizes were different, (2) transfer rates were affected between blood and lung, or (3) rates of degradation of lung lavage lecithin were affected. (U.K.)

  12. /sup 239/Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of /sup 239/Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for /sup 239/Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of /sup 239/Pu. (CH)

  13. 239Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of 239 Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for 239 Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of 239 Pu

  14. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redman, H.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Scott, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on the biological effects of inhaled particles of 239 PuO 2 have been initiated in the Fischer 344 rat. To obtain information on the importance of homogeneity or nonhomogeneity of radiation dose to the lung, young adult (84 +- 7 days) animals have been exposed to monodisperse aerosols (sigma/sub g/ 239 PuO 2 of 1.0 and 2.8 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD). To determine the effects of age at exposure, aged rats (600 to 660 days) have been exposed to monodisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 of 1.0 μm aerodynamic diameter. To date, 480 young adult rats have been exposed to 239 PuO 2 : 240 rats to 1.0 μm AD particles and 240 rats to 2.85 μm AD particles. The projected exposure level ranged from 0.012 to 0.115 μCi/kg body weight. One hundred sixty rats were sham-exposed and maintained as controls. Also, 240 aged rats have been exposed to date to 1.0 μm AD particles of 239 PuO 2 . The projected activity level ranged from 0.012 to 0.115 μCi/kg body weight. Eighty rats were sham-exposed and maintained as controls. In addition, a serial sacrifice study to determine radiation-dose pattern in rats resulting from the inhalation of these monodisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 has been initiated in the young adult rat

  15. Risk estimates for lung tumours from inhaled 239PuO2, 238PuO2, and 239Pu(NO3)4 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Gilbert, E.S.; Weller, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Lung cancer risks are being studied in beagle dogs given single exposures to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . A major objective of these studies is to examine the risk of lung cancer relative to the specific activity of the radionuclide, rate of dose accumulation due to differences in solubilities of the radionuclides, and the presence of competing risk from extrapulmonary lesions. Dose-response relationships were studied for the three groups of dogs, with analyses specifically designed to evaluate differences in response. Based on estimated cumulative dose to the lung, risks were found to differ significantly among the radionuclides; they were highest for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 and lowest for 238 PuO 2 . A model in which the risk was assumed to be a pure quadratic function of dose fitted the data much better than a pure linear model. Currently, all three groups of dogs can be compared only to 10 years after exposure. However, it is apparent that the average cumulative dose to the lung may not be an adequate predictor of lung cancer risk for different isotopic and physicochemical forms of plutonium. (author)

  16. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Data Analysis Guide - Berkelium Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This is a data analysis guide to the JINR system developed by Roger Henderson. It is intended as a complete guide to the data format and the calibration parameters utilized for the analysis of the data. This guide will provide the basic structure of the data files, the description of the individual data items, and the basic equations developed for the calculation of the results. Currently (7/17/2009), calculation of the calibration parameters is not a covered topic. It is intended that this will be covered in a future update

  17. Chelation and stabilization of berkelium in oxidation state +IV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deblonde, G. J.-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M.; Rupert, P. B.; An, D. D.; Illy, M.-C.; Ralston, C. Y.; Brabec, Jiří; de Jong, W. A.; Strong, R. K.; Abergel, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2017), s. 843-849 ISSN 1755-4330 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : bioorganic chemistry * chemical bonding * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 25.870, year: 2016

  18. Effect of change in diet on excretion of plutonium-239 from organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    To check supposition on milk effect on plutonium-239 excretion from organism the portable water for rats, contained in individual metabolic cages permitting separate excretion analysis, was replaced by milk. Some days later milk was excluded from diet. 24-hourly rate of radionuclide with feces and urine excretion from organism was determined. On the basis of preliminary data analysis it is supposed that interaction of some milk components with biocomponents of blood and deposition organ tissues violate 239 Pu steady equilibrium distribution in organism, affecting its metabolism through the intermediary of blood system. It results in increased plutonium excretion

  19. 137Cs and 239+240Pu levels in the Asia-Pacific regional seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; Povinec, P.P.; Fowler, S.W.; Airey, P.L.; Hong, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    137 Cs and 239+240 Pu data in seawater, sediment and biota from the regional seas of Asia-Pacific extending from 50 deg. N to 60 deg. S latitude and 60 deg. E to 180 deg. E longitude based on the Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database (ASPAMARD) are presented and discussed. 137 Cs levels in surface seawater have been declining to its present median value of about 3 Bq/m 3 due mainly to radioactive decay, transport processes, and the absence of new significant inputs. 239+240 Pu levels in surface seawater are much lower, with a median of about 6 mBq/m 3 . 239+240 Pu appears to be partly scavenged by particles and is therefore more readily transported down the water column. As with seawater, 239+240 Pu concentrations are lower than 137 Cs in surface sediment. The median 137 Cs concentration in surface sediment is 1.4 Bq/kg dry, while that of 239+240 Pu is only 0.2 Bq/kg dry. The vertical profiles of both 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu in the sediment column of coastal areas are different from deep seas which can be attributed to the higher sedimentation rates and additional contribution of run-offs from terrestrial catchment areas in the coastal zone. Comparable data for biota are far less extensive than those for seawater and sediment. The median 137 Cs concentration in fish (0.2 Bq/kg wet) is higher than in crustaceans (0.1 Bq/kg wet) or mollusks (0.1 Bq/kg wet). Benchmark values (as of 2001) for 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu concentrations in seawater, sediment and biota are established to serve as reference values against which the impact of future anthropogenic inputs can be assessed. ASPAMARD represents one of the most comprehensive compilations of available data on 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu in particular, and other anthropogenic as well as natural radionuclides in seawater, sediment and biota from the Asia-Pacific regional seas

  20. Initial synthesis of area 13 239Pu data and other statistical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1976-02-01

    An initial effort is made here to synthesize the 239-240 Pu data currently available from Area 13 (Project 57). Plutonium concentrations for soil, vegetation, small vertebrates, and various tissues in beef cattle (grazed on the Pu contaminated vegetation) are plotted on a single graph for visual comparison. Hypothetical 239-240 Pu concentrations for lungs, skeletal bone, and kidney of a Standard Man assumed to live in and obtain most of his food from the area are also plotted. These hypothetical values were obtained using results from the plutonium transport and dose estimation model of Martin and Bloom (1975)

  1. Effects of 239Pu administered at 9 days of gestation on hematologic development of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshima, H.; Hackett, P.L.; Kujawa, M.J.; Doctor, P.G.; Sikov, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Injection of pregnant rats with monomeric 239 Pu after 9 days of gestation decreased their leukocyte and reticulocyte counts at 5 and 10 days postexposure. Most of the fetal hematologic enumerative values were unaffected by injection of monomeric 239 Pu. There was, however, a major change in the maturation of the cells of the erythroid series, as indicated by a difference in the distribution between cell types. The weight of the yolk sac and fetal liver, and the cellularity of the fetal spleen were decreased

  2. Effects of pregnancy and lactation on the toxicity of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.; Sikov, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Nulliparous, pregnant, or lactating Wistar rats were injected intravenously with 0, 0.5 or 2.0 μCi of 239 Pu per kilogram of body weight. Half of each group were repeatedly bred while the others were held for observation without further treatment. Treatment with either dose of 239 Pu decreased the median time to appearance of mammary tumors. Repeated breeding tended to increase the mean time to appearance. Longevity was decreased in a dose-related fashion by Pu administration. Repeated breeding did not influence survival in a major way

  3. Behavior and biological action of 239Pu while getting into skin abrasions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhin, A.G.; Lyubchanskij, Eh.R.; Nifatov, A.N.; Sinyakov, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The levels of the radionuclide resorption are given through abrasions in applying 224-906 kBk of 239 Pu on them (0.6=1.5 % for 600 days), the nature of distribution and parameters of its exchange in the test skin area, skeleton and liver. Data of morphological studies are presented. The influence of prolonged complexon therapy on 239 Pu content in organs and tissues, mean life span, the frequency of appearance of morphological changes in test skin areas with the contamination density of 40; 184 and 722 kBk of 239 Pu/cm 2 and the frequency of tumor development including malignancy in case of applying 224 and 906 kBk of 239 Pu to abrasions is evaluated. It has been established that as a result of complexon therapy dosage exposure of the skeleton lessened by 4-5 times, the mean life span of rats with tumors increased, the development of osteosarcomas caused by Pu reduced from 23.6-36.2 to 4.4-6.2 % but the therapy did not influence the frequency of pathological changes in the test skin area

  4. First radiochemical studies on the transmutation of 239Pu with spallation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, J.-S.; Langrock, E.-J.; Westmeier, W.

    2000-01-01

    Incineration studies of plutonium were carried out at the synchrophasotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) using proton beams with energies of 0.53 GeV and 1.0 GeV. Solid lead target (8 cm in diameter and 20 cm long) was surrounded with 6 cm thick paraffin as neutron moderator and then irradiated. The transmutation of 239 Pu and the associated production of fission products 91 Sr, 92 Sr, 97 Zr, 99 Mo, 103 Ru, 105 Ru, 129 Sb, 132 Te, 133 I, 135 I and 143 Ce were studied. The plutonium samples (each 449 mg) were placed on the outer surface of moderator. For 1.0 GeV proton beam, the fission rate of 239 Pu is 0.0032 fissions per proton in one gram plutonium samples, for 0.53 GeV proton this value is 0.0022. The experimental uncertainty is about 15%. The experiments are compared to two theoretical model calculations with moderate success, using the Dubna Cascade Model (CEM) and the LAHET code. The practical incineration rate of 239 Pu is very high. For example: if one uses 10mA, 1 GeV proton beams under the same (fictive) experimental conditions, the incineration rate of 239 Pu via fission is 3 mg out of the 449 mg sample per day. For 0.53 GeV protons the corresponding rate is 2 mg per day

  5. R-matrix analysis of the 239Pu cross sections up to 1 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.; Larson, N.M.; Macklin, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    The results are reported of an R-matrix resonance analysis of the 239 Pu neutron cross sections up to 1 keV. After a description of the method of analysis the nearly 1600 resonance parameters obtained are listed and extensive graphical and numerical comparisons between calculated and measured cross-section and transmission date are presented. 47 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs

  6. 48 CFR 652.239-70 - Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information Technology... Clauses 652.239-70 Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation. As prescribed in 639.107-70(a), insert the following provision: Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation (SEP 2007) All...

  7. 48 CFR 1252.239-71 - Information technology security plan and accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information technology... Provisions and Clauses 1252.239-71 Information technology security plan and accreditation. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1239.70, insert the following provision: Information Technology Security Plan and...

  8. Determination of 239Pu/240Pu isotopic ratio by high resolution alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoudry, F.; Burger, P.

    1983-05-01

    The development of passivated ion-implanted silicon detectors and of very thin alpha-particle sources improves the resolution of alpha-particle spectra and allows to separate energy pics up to now unseparate. The 239 Pu/ 240 Pu isotopic ratio of a mixture has been measured using the alpha spectrometry deconvolution code DEMO [fr

  9. Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Am using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of transmutation studies of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am are presented. Keywords. ... J Adam et al. Table 1. Samples properties for 0.7 and 1 GeV experiments. ..... If we suppose that this conclusion is true also for ratios in ...

  10. 8-group relative delayed neutron yields for monoenergetic neutron induced fission of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Kazakov, L.E.; Isaev, S.G.; Korolev, G.G.; Roshchenko, V.A.; Tertychnyj, R.G

    2002-01-01

    The energy dependence of the relative yield of delayed neutrons in an 8-group model representation was obtained for monoenergetic neutron induced fission of 239 Pu. A comparison of this data with the available experimental data by other authors was made in terms of the mean half-life of the delayed neutron precursors. (author)

  11. 48 CFR 252.239-7016 - Telecommunications security equipment, devices, techniques, and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telecommunications... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7016 Telecommunications... clause: Telecommunications Security Equipment, Devices, Techniques, and Services (DEC 1991) (a...

  12. 48 CFR 239.7102-3 - Information assurance contractor training and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7102-3 Information..., certification maintenance, and continuing education or sustainment training required for the information... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information assurance...

  13. Presence of plutonium isotopes, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, in soils from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M., E-mail: manugar@us.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes sn, 41012 Seville (Spain); Peruchena, J.I., E-mail: jiperuchena@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Cereceda, F., E-mail: francisco.cereceda@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Vidal, V., E-mail: victor.vidal@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Pinilla, E., E-mail: epinilla@unex.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas sn, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Miro, C., E-mail: cmiro@unex.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad sn, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20-40 Degree-Sign Southern latitude range, with {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30-53 Degree-Sign S latitude range (0.185 {+-} 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The {sup 239+240}Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  14. Activity concentrations of 239+240 Pu in sediment at Sabah and Sarawak coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Hidayah Shahar

    2009-01-01

    The coastal sediment sampling was carried out in July 2004 as part of the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. The determination of plutonium, 239+240 Pu activity concentration and their distributions along the coastal areas of Sabah and Sarawak was by the alpha spectrometry counting system. Prior to counting, the radionuclides were isolated from the samples using radiochemical separation technique and mounted on a stainless steel disc by using electro-deposition. The results show that the distribution of 239+240 Pu activity concentration in coastal sediment is consistent, ranging from BDL - 1.83 Bq/kg and 0.11 - 0.84 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Lubok Sabanan, SB 15, in Sabah and Sungai Similajau, SR 13, in Sarawak were sampling stations that gave highest 239+240 Pu activity concentration. Overall, the 239+240 Pu activity concentration of Sabah and Sarawak are slightly higher in comparison the West Coast coastal stations of Peninsular Malaysia, and can be used as database. (Author)

  15. Retention of 241Am and 239Pu in the rat as influenced by Triton WR 1339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, R.; Siedel, A.

    1976-01-01

    A lysosomotropic agent, the non-ionic detergent Triton WR 1339 (a poly-oxyethylene ether of formaldehyde polymers of octylphenol) is known to be stored in rat liver lysosomes. The results of a study made to determine whether Triton WR 1339 exerts an influence on the metabolic fate of monomeric 239 Pu and 241 Am in the rat as well as on the removal of these nuclides by DTPA, since Triton WR 1339 and transuranic elements share the same deposition site, are reported. The influence of Triton WR 1339 on the 241 Am content (per cent of 241 Am dose) of rat organs (skeleton, liver, kidneys) at different times after Triton WR 1339 injection, the influence of the time of Triton WR 1339 injection on the 241 Am content (per cent of 241 Am dose) of the same rat organs, and the influence of Triton WR 1339 Zn-DTPA and the combination of them on the retention of monomeric 239 Pu in the same rat organs (per cent of 239 Pu dose), are shown in tabular form. The mechanism whereby Triton WR 1339 appears to shorten the biological half-life of 239 Pu and 241 Am in rat liver is discussed. (U.K.)

  16. The comparative carcinogenicity of 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Five completed studies compared the effects of 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 244 Cm in August-Marshall F 1 hybrid rats. Osteosarcomas were observed in all the treated groups but not in any control group. More than 70% of the osteosarcomas occurred in the lumber or thoracic vertebrae, the femur, or the tibia with all three radionuclides, but there is an indication that a smaller proportion of the tumors arises in the vertebrae after 239 Pu administration than after either of the other two radionuclides. Risk coefficients are 239 Pu, 487 +- 52; 241 Am, 175 +- 32; 244 Cm, 162 +- 45. These risk coefficients suggest that in the rat 239 Pu is about three times more effective for bone tumor induction than the other two radionuclides. A small number of leukemias, mainly of myelogenous origin, and a small number of other soft-tissue tumors were observed in the radionuclide-injected groups. No leukemias were observed in many hundreds of control animals. 14 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Activities concentration of 239+240Pu in sediment in Sabah and Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Norfaizal Mohamed; Kamarozaman Ishak; Zulkifli Daud

    2008-08-01

    The determination of plutonium, 239+240 Pu activity concentration and their distributions along the coastal area of the Sabah and Sarawak have been performed using alpha spectrometry counting system. The sampling coastal sediment for this study was carried out in July 2004 as part of the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. This results show that the distribution of Plutonium, 239+240 Pu radionuclides in coastal sediment is consistent, their activities are depending on the sampling locations. Generally, the 239+240 Pu activities measured in Sabah and Sarawak coastal sediment are in the range of BDL - 1.83 Bq/kg and 0.11 - 0.841 Bq/kg dry weights, respectively. The sampling stations, Persisiran Lubok Sabanan, SB 15 and Sungai Similajau, SR 13 showed the highest plutonium, 239+240 Pu radionuclides isotopes activity in Sabah and Sarawak. Meanwhile, these two stations shows higher activity compare to West Coast of Peninsular of Malaysia station for the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. (Author)

  18. Measurement of p-odd asymmetry of fragment escape in ternary fission of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.V.; Vodennikov, B.D.; Danilyan, G.V.; Korobkina, E.I.; Pavlov, V.S.; Pevchev, Yu.F.; Sadchikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Values of effects of parity nonconservation in binary and ternary fission of plutonium 239 by polarized thermal neutrons were measured simultaneously. The ratio of asymmetry coefficient (AC) of ternary fission to the AC of binary fission was equal to 0.67+-0.20. The obtained result testifies to insignificant disagreement of AC of fragment escape in studied fission types

  19. Effects of inhaled insoluble 239PuO2 on immune responses following lung immunization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, D.E.; Harris, D.L.; Brooks, A.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    To determine if inhaled 239 PuO 2 suppresses immunity in lung-associated lymph nodes, Chinese hamsters were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 produced at 1150 0 C. The mean lung burden of these animals was estimated to be 10 nCi at 8 days after exposure. At 128, 256 and 400 days after exposure, sham exposed controls and experimental animals were immunized by intratracheal instillation of 1 x 10 8 sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Six days later, they were sacrificed and the number of antibody forming cells (AFC) in lung-associated lymph nodes, spleen and cervical lymph nodes was evaluated. Results of these studies indicated that the number of AFC in lung-associated lymph modes was significantly lower in animals exposed to 239 PuO 2 . Only a few AFC were found in spleen and cervical lymph nodes after intratracheal immunization and the number in exposed animals was not significantly different than in the controls. These data indicate that even though the 239 PuO 2 exposure had suppressed immune responses in lung-associated lymph nodes, their filtering capacity was unaffected and antigen did not translocate to the spleen. We conclude that, at the sacrifice intervals evaluated, the immune function of lung-associated lymph nodes was suppressed and that distant lymphoid tissue (e.g., spleen and cervical lymph nodes) did not replace the immune function of the lung-associated lymph nodes

  20. Presence of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, in soils from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo, E.; García-León, M.; Peruchena, J.I.; Cereceda, F.; Vidal, V.; Pinilla, E.; Miró, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global 239 Pu and 240 Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of 239 Pu and 240 Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20–40° Southern latitude range, with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30–53°S latitude range (0.185 ± 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The 239+240 Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  1. DTPA treatment schedules for decorporation of /sup 239/Pu from simulated wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemenetzis, E; Volf, V [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie

    1977-06-01

    Rats were injected intramuscularly with /sup 239/Pu in the form of citrate or nitrate and the effect of daily subcutaneous injections of 30 ..mu..mole kg/sup -1/ Ca-DTPA was compared with that of higher Zn-DTPA doses administered in single daily injections or in a continuous infusion. Treatment reduced uptake by the organs of /sup 239/Pu, but did not influence its translocation. When /sup 239/Pu was injected as citrate, it was not only more readily translocated, but also more easily chelated than after injection as /sup 239/Pu-nitrate. The higher decorporation effectiveness of Ca-DTPA could be compensated only by increasing the Zn-DTPA dosage by a factor of 33. Maintenance of a sustained Zn-DTPA blood level proved to be of little significance. Thus, from the decorporation point of view, there is at present no reason to replace single daily injections of Ca-DTPA by Zn-DTPA during early treatment of incorporated plutonium.

  2. Late effects of 239Pu administered at representative stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, F.D.; Sikov, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    The protocol for a systematic comprehensive study of the influence of prenatal exposure on the tumorigenic and other adverse effects of 239 Pu is described. The study has been initiated, all animals have been weaned, and postnatal function is being evaluated, although results are not yet available

  3. Isotope ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in soil samples from different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Shinnosuke

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soil samples from Japan and other areas in the world (including IAEA standard reference materials) were determined by ICP-MS. The range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios observed in 21 Japanese soil samples was 0.155 - 0.194 and the average was 0.180 ± 0.011, which is comparable to the global fallout value. A low ratio of about 0.05, which is derived from Pu-bomb, was found in samples from Nishiyama (Nagasaki) and Mururoa Atoll (IAEA-368), while a high ratio of about 0.31 was found in a sample from Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands). The ratio for Irish Sea sediment (IAEA-135) was 0.21, which was higher than the global fallout value, suggesting the influence by the contamination from the Sellafield facility. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soils from the Chernobyl area were determined, and the ratio was found to be very high (about 0.4), indicating the high burn-up grade of the reactor fuel. These results show that the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio can be used as a finger print to identify the source of the contamination. (author)

  4. 17 CFR 239.65 - Form TH-Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TH-Notification of... Statements § 239.65 Form TH—Notification of reliance on temporary hardship exemption. Form TH shall be filed... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form TH, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which...

  5. Pulmonary distribution of inhaled 239PuO2 in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McShane, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Catt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 by inhalation were killed from 1 to 69 mo postexposure. The distribution of plutonium in the lungs, which was studied by analyzing autoradiographs, changed relative to time postexposure. This study investigates methods of measuring these changes

  6. 17 CFR 239.17a - Form N-3, registration statement for separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as management investment companies. 239.17a Section 239.17a... accounts organized as management investment companies. Form N-3 shall be used for registration under the... register under the Investment Company Act of 1940 as management investment companies, and certain other...

  7. Behavior and distribution of 239+240Pu and 241Am in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Hidayah Shahar; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    The present distributions of 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and activity ratio of 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu in surface seawater of the Peninsular Malaysia east coast were studied. The surface seawater samples were collected at 30 identified stations during the expedition conducted in 2008. 239+240 Pu activity concentrations in surface seawater of the studied area were in the range of 2.33 ± 0.20-7.95 ± 0.68 mBq/m 3 , meanwhile 241 Am activity concentrations ranged from MDA to 1.90 ± 0.23 mBq/m 3 . The calculated activity ratios of 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu were varied and disperse distributed with the ranged of 0.12-0.53. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclide and oceanographic parameters such as turbidity and salinity were examined. The linearly relationships between 239+240 Pu and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of its transport processes and behavior in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia marine environment. Thus, the differ of distribution of 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu in the studied area mainly due to high affinity of 239+240 Pu to associate with sinking particles, mobility nature of 241 Am, degree of particle reactive of both anthropogenic radionuclides, scavenging and removal process; and others. (author)

  8. 17 CFR 239.25 - Form S-4, for the registration of securities issued in business combination transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form S-4, for the registration of securities issued in business combination transactions. 239.25 Section 239.25 Commodity and... business combination transactions. This form may be used for registration under the Securities Act of 1933...

  9. 17 CFR 239.34 - Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form F-4, for registration of securities of foreign private issuers issued in certain business combination transactions. 239.34 Section 239.34 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE...

  10. Distribution of skeletal malignancies in beagles injected with 239Pu citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of skeletal malignancies among our beagles injected with 239 Pu as young adults roughly seems to follow the distribution of skeletal mass and skeletal 239 Pu. These findings are similar to those we reported previously for a group of dogs given 226 Ra. Although there were differences in tumor distribution between the animals given 239 Ra and those given 239 Pu, most of them were not statistically significant; however, the radium dogs seemed to show a greater sensitivity to bone tumor origin in the tibia, while there may have been a tendency among the plutonium dogs toward increased relative sensitivity in the scapula, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and ribs. In contrast, the most common site for the formation of naturally-occurring bone malignancy in the dog is the distal radius. Perhaps there were too few tumors and too few dogs to establish statistical significance. A correlation between tumor location and at least two anatomical-physiological factors in the skeleton indicated that these two factors (site-specific bone turnover rate and percent of red marrow at the site, which is correlated with vascularity) may influence the appearance of malignancies both individually and in combination. Except for the femur, there appeared to be no difference between the relative distribution of skeletal malignancies of low-level (30 Bq-2 Bq kg -1 injected) and high-level (3-122 kBq kg -1 ) dogs. Distribution of bone tumors between the axial and appendicular skeleton was 50% vs. 50% for 239 Pu (42 and 42), but it was 39% axial vs. 61% appendicular (22 and 35, respectively) for dogs given 226 Ra. This difference was not significant (p > 0.2). 15 refs., 4 tabs

  11. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout 236U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, M.B.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.; Fifield, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic 236 U and 239 Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954–1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA ® . The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the 236 U and 239 Pu concentrations, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of the order of 10 −6 were observed. These measured ratios, where the 236 U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the 236 U/ 238 U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. - Highlights: • Roe deer antlers were studied as an environmental archive for the retrospective study of fallout isotopes 236 U and 239 Pu. • The rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of about 10 −6 suggest 236 U as a fingerprint tool for nuclear material releases. • The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio underpins global fallout as the main anthropogenic contributor in antlers.

  12. Peculiarities of 239,240Pu behaviour in flood-plain soils of the Techa river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskaya, L.N.; Molchanova, I.V.; Karavaeva, E.N.

    2004-01-01

    The Techa river was contaminated with the liquid nuclear waste discharged from the nuclear plant 'Mayak' within 1949-1956 years. In 1999-2002 flood-plain soils of the Techa river were investigated and the levels of content, a migration and a vertical distribution of 239,240 Pu in the flood-plain soils were studied. Reference plots were located in the pre-bed and in central flood plain at different distances from the source of contamination (78-240 km). It was shown that in the soils of the pre-bed the content of Pu isotopes was decreasing from 10.5 to 2.8 kBq/m 2 with the distance from the plant 'Mayak'. Besides, a non-uniform spatial distribution of 239,240 Pu was found in those plots, which were at the same distance from the source of the contamination. As a rule, the central flood plain (25-100 m from the river-bed) was contaminated with 239,240 Pu less than the area in the pre-bed (5-20 m from the the river-bed). Thus, in the area of the middle length of the river the density of the soil contamination with 239,240 Pu of the central flood plain is 0.3 to 0.8 kBq/m 2 and that of the pre-bed is 1.0 to 4.7 kBq/m 2 at a maximum migration depth being 25 to 30 cm and 40 to 50 cm, respectively. The determined value of the 239,240 Pu/ 137 Cs ratio proves that rates of the vertical migration of the Pu isotopes in the flood plain soils of the Techa river are comparable and higher (in some cases) than those of 137 Cs. (author)

  13. C239S mutation in the β-tubulin of Phytophthora sojae confers resistance to zoxamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eCai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zoxamide is the sole β-tubulin inhibitor registered for the control of oomycete pathogens. The current study investigated the activity of zoxamide against Phytophthora sojae and a baseline sensitivity was established with a mean EC50 of 0.048 μg/ml. Three stable resistant mutants with a high resistance level were obtained by selection on zoxamide amended media. Although the development of resistance occurred at a low frequency, there were no apparent fitness penalty in the acquired mutants in terms of growth rate, sporulation, germination and pathogenicity. Based on the biological profiles and mutagenesis rate, the resistance risk of P. sojae to zoxamide can be estimated as low to medium. Further investigation revealed all the zoxamide-resistant mutants had a point mutation of C239S in their β-tubulin. Zoxamide also exhibited high activity against most species from the genus Pythium in which only Py. aphanidermatum was found resistant to zoxamide and harboring the natural point mutation S239 in the beta-tubulin. Back-transformation in P. sojae with the mutated allele (S239 confirmed the C239S mutation induced resistance to zoxamide, and the resistance level was positively related to the expression level of the mutated gene. In contrast, the overexpression of the wild type gene was unable to cause zoxamide resistance. It is the first report on the resistance molecular mechanism of zoxamide in oomycetes. Based on our study, C239 is supposed to be a key target site of zoxamide, which distinguishes zoxamide from benzimidazoles and accounts for its low resistance risk. The result can provide advice on the design of new β-tubulin inhibitors in future.

  14. Modifying effects of pre-existing fibrosis in rats exposed to aerosols of 239PuO2. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    We have initiated a study using rats to determine the modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis on the retention and biological effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 . Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of 8.5 IU/kg body weight of bleomycin at 45 to 49 days before inhalation exposure to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 . The clearance of 239 Pu from the lungs of rats was decreased significantly (p 239 Pu, apparently by entrapping the particles in fibrotic areas of the lung. The life span of the rats with pulmonary fibrosis was decreased by up to 25% compared with control rats having similar initial lung burdens of 239 Pu. (author)

  15. Variation of 137Cs and 239,240Pu concentrations in shellfishes on the coast of Ibaraki prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Nakano, Masanao

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in shellfishes collected from the coast around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) from 1975 to 2005 were analyzed for environmental radiological monitoring. The measured concentrations of 238 Pu were under the detection limits and these concentrations of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu showed no significant short-term increase tendency. It was confirmed that 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in shellfishes around the TRP were derived from the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Also the probability plot of 239,240 Pu concentration was dependent on the shellfish species (bivalve and abalone). It was presumed that the different of feeding behavior of bivalve and abalone caused the difference of the probability plot of 239,240 Pu concentration. (author)

  16. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael; Park, Ji-Hyung; Sandor, Tarjan; Porto, Paolo; Alewell, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes 239 Pu and 240 Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex . As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (> 25 t ha −1 yr −1 ). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratios and 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of 239+240 Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of 137 Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of 137 Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of 239+240 Pu through less preferential transport compared to 137 Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, 239+240 Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the soil and lateral transport during water erosion was shown to differ from that of 137 Cs, there is a clear need for a

  17. Characterization of a neutron source of {sup 239}PuBe; Caracterizacion de una fuente de neutrones de {sup 239}PuBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez V, R.; Chacon R, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Mercado, G. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Direccion General de Innovacion y Tecnologia de Informacion, Av. Heroes de Nacozari Sur 2301, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, 20276 Aguascalientes (Mexico)], e-mail: ruben_zac@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    The spectrum equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose f a {sup 239}PuBe source have been determined. The appropriate handling of a neutron source depends on the knowledge of its characteristics, such as its energy distribution, total rate of flowing and dosimetric magnitudes. In many facilities have not spectrometer that allows to determine the spectrum and then area monitors are used that give a dosimetric magnitude starting from measuring the flowing rate and the use of conversion factors, however this procedure has many limitations and it is preferable to measure the spectra and starting from this information the interest dosimetric magnitudes are calculated. In this work a Bonner sphere spectrometer has been used with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator obtaining the count rates that produce, to a distance of 100 cm, a {sup 239}PuBe source of 1.85E(11) Bq. The spectrum was reconstructed starting from the count rates using BUNKIUT code and response matrix UTA4. With the spectrum information was calculated the source intensity, total flow, energy average, equivalent dose rate, environmental equivalent dose rate, equivalent dose coefficient and environmental equivalent dose coefficient. By means of two area monitors for neutrons, Eberline ASP-1 and LB 6411 of Berthold the equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose were measured. The determinate values were compared with those reported in literature and it found that are coincident inside 17%. (Author)

  18. Sup(239,240)Pu in estuarine and shelf waters of the north-eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholkovitz, E.R.; Mann, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of sup(239,240)Pu between dissolved and particulate forms has been measured in four estuaries on the north-east coast of the United States (Connecticut River, Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and Mullica River). The data cover the whole salinity range from freshwater input to shelf waters at 3.5% and includes one profile from a nearly anoxic basin in the Chesapeake Bay. In the organic-rich Mullica River estuary, large-scale removal of riverine dissolved sup(239,240)Pu occurs at low salinities due to salt-induced coagulation, a mechanism analogous to that for iron and humic acids. Within the 0 to 2.5-3.5% zone in the other three estuaries, the activity of dissolved sup(239,240)Pu increases almost conservatively. The activities of particulate sup(239,240)Pu are highest in the more turbid waters of low salinity regime (0-1.5%), but become increasingly insignificant with respect to dissolved sup(239,240)Pu as salinities increase. At higher salinities corresponding to shelf water, there is a sharp increase in dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activity. The dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activity within each estuary appears to be inversely related to the flushing time of water. The sharp decrease in dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activities between shelf and estuarine waters appears to be driven by removal within the estuaries themselves rather than on the shelf. Dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activities are lower in the nearly-anoxic bottom waters of Chesapeake Bay indicating enhanced removal by redox transformation of Pu [i.e., Pu(V) to Pu(IV)]. (author)

  19. 17 CFR 239.15 - Form N-1 for open-end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... management investment companies registered on Form N-8A. 239.15 Section 239.15 Commodity and Securities... Registration Statements § 239.15 Form N-1 for open-end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A...-end management investment companies that are separate accounts of insurance companies as defined by...

  20. 239 240Pu and 238Pu in sediments of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.; Singh, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    Plutonium-239,240 and plutonium-238 were determined in 59 Hudson River sediment dredge samples collected during 1973-77 in the vicinity of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station. Acid leaching followed by solvent extraction, electrodeposition, and alpha-spectrometry were used to extract, purify, and quantitate plutonium isotopes present in these samples. Annual median plutonium-238/plutonium-239,240 isotopic activity ratios in surficial sediments were 0.032 (1973-74), 0.035 (1975), 0.042 (1976), and 0.040 (1977). The source of these nuclides in the estuary was identified by analysis of the sample isotopic activity ratios. On the basis of the sampling regimen and the methods used, it is concluded that no input, other than that of fallout, has contributed significantly to the plutonium burden in Hudson sediments

  1. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of 239PuBe and 241AmBe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Becerra-Ferreiro, A.M.; Carrillo-Nunez, Aureliano

    2002-01-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of 239 PuBe and 241 AmBe were measured and their dosimetric features were calculated. Neutron spectra were measured using a multisphere neutron spectrometer with a 6 LiI(Eu) scintillator. The 239 PuBe neutron spectrum was measured in an open environment, while the 241 AmBe neutron spectrum was measured in a closed environment. Gamma-ray spectra were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillator using the same experimental conditions for both sources. The effect of measuring conditions for the 241 AmBe neutron spectrum indicates the presence of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The low-resolution neutron spectra obtained with the multisphere spectrometer allows one to calculate the dosimetric features of neutron sources. At 100 cm both sources produce approximately the same count rate as that of the 4.4 MeV gamma-ray per unit of alpha emitter activity

  2. Electrofission of 239Pu in the energy range 7 endash 12 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda-Neto, J.D.; Yoneama, M.; Dias, J.F.; Garcia, F.; Reigota, M.A.; Likhachev, V.P.; Guzman, F.; Rodriguez, O.; Mesa, J.

    1997-01-01

    The electrofission cross section of 239 Pu(e,f) is measured between 7 and 12 MeV. The data are analyzed by means of the virtual photon formalism, assuming that E1, E2 (T=0), and M1 transitions are involved. Using known estimates for the E1 and E2 (T=0) fission strengths, it is deduced an M1 fission strength of 19±4μ N 2 concentrated near the fission barrier (between 5.4 and 5.8 MeV). The levels of the 239 Pu transition nucleus are theoretically obtained; a bunch of positive-parity levels shows up between 5.5 and 5.9 MeV, which might well be associated with the deduced M1 strength, since the E2 strength is negligible in this energy interval. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Alecto - results obtained with homogeneous critical experiments on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, J.G.; Brunet, J.P.; Caizegues, R.; Clouet d'Orval, Ch.; Kremser, J.; Tellier, H.; Verriere, Ph.

    1965-01-01

    In this report are given the results of the homogeneous critical experiments ALECTO, made on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233. After a brief description of the equipment, the critical masses for cylinders of diameters varying from 25 to 42 cm, are given and compared with other values (foreign results, criticality guide). With respect to the specific conditions of neutron reflection in the ALECTO experiments the minimal values of critical masses are: Pu239 M c = 910 ± 10 g, U235 M c = 1180 ± 12 g and U233 M c = 960 ± 10 g. Experiments relating to cross sections and constants to be used on these materials are presented. Lastly, kinetic experiments allow to compare pulsed neutron methods to fluctuation methods [fr

  4. The uptake, retention and distribution of plutonium-239 in rat gonads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    The 239 Pu contents of 30 rat testes and 30 rat ovaries have been studied over periods of 575 and 146 days respectively after intravenous injection of plutonium nitrate at a mean dose of 2.4 microCi/kg body weight. The results presented show that in the rat testis about one third of the α tracks lie in the region of the spermatogonia, with a slightly greater fraction of the tracks lying above the intertubular spaces. The inhomogeneity factor for the spermatogonial stem cells of the rat testes was calculated to average 1.6, with a range of 1.1 to 2.8, as compared to 2.5 for the mouse. It is shown that the retention of 239 Pu in the testis and ovary is prolonged and in the studies reported here no significant loss of the nuclide from the gonads was observed during the period of observation. (U.K.)

  5. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in aged beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Studies to determine the effects of age at exposure on metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled particles of 239 PuO 2 have been initiated in aged beagle dogs (8.0 to 10.5 years of age at exposure). Beagle dogs have been exposed to 1.5 μm AD particles of 239 PuO 2 resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.03 to 0.76 μCi/kg body weight. Dogs exposed to the aerosol diluent serve as controls. There were four blocks exposed in the past year, one of males and three of female dogs. Nine dogs died during the year. Seven of these had radiation pneumonitis and two died of nonradiation induced diseases. The surviving dogs are as long as 538 days after exposure. There are three blocks of male dogs planned for exposure in the next 12 months

  6. Intertidal mangrove mudflat 240+239Pu signatures, confirming a 210Pb geochronology on the southeastern coast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.J.; Patchineelam, S.R.; Ketterer, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    A sediment core was taken to determine if sediment accumulation rates could be conducted using 240+239 Pu signatures in the coastal mangrove mudflats of southeastern Brazil. The results from this study show that 240+239 Pu fallout activities are sufficient and well preserved in the coastal sediments of this region. Sediment accumulation rates determined from the 240+239 Pu signatures were 4.4 mm/year and 4.1 from 210 Pb (CIC) method. A sediment mixing coefficient rate was calculated using chlorophyll-a profile (9.5 cm 2 ). (author)

  7. Evaluation both level and 239+240Pu spatial contamination of the Lira object and the neighbouring areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silachev, I.Yu.; Podenezhko, V.V.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    In the work the generalization of considerable data collection for revealing of 239+240 Pu content range discriminative for Lira object and neighbouring areas is carried out. 239+240 Pu mean specific activity in the soil cover surface and in the Berezovka River bottom sedimentations are determined. The correlation dependence between 239+240 Pu artificial radionuclides and 137 Cs is revealed. The general source of artificial radionuclide origination for examined isotopes is shown up, and it is related with global radioactive fallout

  8. Analysis of the 239Pu neutron cross sections from 300 to 2000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; de Saussure, G.

    1990-01-01

    A recent high-resolution measurement of the neutron fission cross section of 239 Pu has allowed the extension from 1 to 2 keV of a previously reported resonance analysis of the neutron cross sections, and an improvement of the previous analysis in the range 0.3 to 1 keV. This report analyzes this region. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Mass determination of U-233 and Pu-239 by gamma spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Pugliesi, R.

    1988-09-01

    The gamma spectrometry technique has been used for masses determinations of uranium-233 and plutonium-239, granted by AERE-HARWELL. A high purity Ge semicondutor detector was used and the total efficiency curve was obtained for the counting system in the energy range 13 KeV to 135 KeV. The calculated values for the masses compared with that obtained by means of gravimetry technique. (author) [pt

  10. Early effects of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Watson, C.R.; Stevens, D.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Madison, R.M.; Wierman, E.L.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (4 of 5) at the highest dosage level, 14 to 25 mo postexposure. There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported

  11. Calibration of the polycarbonate dosimeter for the microdosimetry of 239Pu alpha particles in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwagon, G.B.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1977-01-01

    There has been some criticisms of the maximum permissible organ burden (MPOB) in bone for 239 Pu in recent years. These criticisms allude to the relative dearth of experimental data available concerning the actual dose delivered to the endosteal face of osseous tissue by the 239 Pu alpha particle. A dosimeter recently developed has been recommended for application to this microdosimetry problem. The tissue equivalence of polycarbonate dosimeters would allow dose equivalent to be read directly from the foil rather than determining activity from emulsions, in which the alpha particle range is different than in tissue, then relating this activity measurement to absorbed dose by some calculations. Although this dosimeter has been calibrated to read dose equivalent for fast neutron dosimetry, the need exists to determine the factor to multiply by the number of 239 Pu alpha-induced tracks to obtain dose equivalent. This problem is being approached in the following manner. A device called the vacuum-sealed alpha-calibrator has been designed and constructed which will allow the handling of a standard 239 Pu solution obtained for this purpose. The calibrator will first be connected to surface barrier detectors which feed data into a multi-channel analyzer. The counts obtained under the alpha peaks at various heights above the source and the accumulated time are input into a computer program recently written to convert this data into dose rate in rems/unit time. Next the measurements are duplicated, this time using the polycarbonate dosimeter. The results will produce a factor relating the number of alpha-induced tracks to dose

  12. Distribution and retention of 239Pu administered to rats at representative stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Andrew, F.D.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of 239 Pu in tissues of mothers and their offspring, as well as in other fetoplacental unit components, was measured following intravenous injection at 9, 15, or 19 days of gestation. Deposition levels and retention were markedly different at the earliest time of gestation, but less difference was seen between the two later times. Radiation dose to the fetus was similar for all ages, but dose to specific organs and tissues varied with stage of gestation

  13. Long-term effects of 239Pu injection in adult, weanling, newborn and fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.; Carr, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    We have completed biological evaluations comparing long-term effects in rats exposed to 239 Pu citrate as adults, weanlings, newborns, or late fetuses, and statistical analyses have been initiated. In rats exposed postnatally, statistically significant alterations in terminal body weight and in weights of several organs were found at higher doses. Survivorship decreased with increasing dose in the postnatal groups, but not in rats exposed prenatally

  14. Sediment budget for Murder Creek, Georgia, USA, from Pu239+240 - determined soil erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, A. P.; Matissoff, G.; Ketterer, M. E.; Whiting, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Soil inventories of the radionuclides Cs137 and Pb210 have been used in a variety of environments as indicators for erosion and depositional processes. Development of sediment budgets for entire watersheds from radionuclide data has been somewhat constrained because limited sample numbers may not adequately characterize the wide range of geomorphic conditions and land uses found in heterogeneous environments. The measurement of Pu239+240 shows great potential for developing quantitative watershed sediment budgets. With inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, hundreds of samples may be processed in dramatically shorter times than the gamma spectrometry method used for Cs137 or alpha spectrometry method used for Pb210. We collected surface soil samples from Murder Creek in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA, to compare Pu239+240 inventories with Cs137 and Pb210 inventories for a range of land uses in a predominantly forested watershed. Excellent correlations were found for radionuclide inventories (r2 =0.88, n = 38) and high resolution (4 mm) depth profiles. The second objective was to generate a sediment budget using the full Pu239+240 dataset (n = 309). Average Pu239+240 inventories were 70.0 Bq/m2 for hardwood forest, 60.0 Bq/m2 for pine plantation, 65.1 Bq/m2 for pine forest, 66.7 Bq/m2 for row crop agriculture and 67.9 Bq/m2 for pasture. The sediment budget will be constructed by converting inventories into site-specific erosion rates. Erosion rates will be scaled up to the watershed scale using GIS coverages of land use, soil, slope, and slope position. Results will be compared with Murder Creek sediment budgets in the scientific literature generated from RUSLE erosion modeling, USGS monitoring networks and reservoir sedimentation.

  15. Baseline Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 inventory assessment for Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Borelli, Pasquale; Evrard, Olivier; Ketterer, Michael; Mabit, Lionel; van Oost, Kristof; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Artificial fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 released as products of the thermonuclear weapons testing that took place from the mid-1950s to the early 1980s and from nuclear power plant accidents (e.g. Chernobyl) are useful tools to quantify soil redistribution. In combination with geostatistics, FRNs may have the potential to bridge the gap between small scale process oriented studies and modelling that simplifies processes and effects over large spatial scales. An essential requirement for the application of FRNs as soil erosion tracers is the establishment of the baseline fallout at undisturbed sites before its comparison to those inventories found at sites undergoing erosion/accumulation. For this purpose, undisturbed topsoil (0-20cm) samples collected in 2009 within the framework of the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) have been measured by gamma-spectrometry and ICP-MS to determine 137Cs (n=145) and 239+240Pu (n=108) activities. To restrict the analysis to undisturbed reference sites a geospatial database query selecting only sites having a slope angle <2 degree, outside riparian zones (to avoid depositional sites) and under permanent grassland cover (according to CORINE Land Cover and Landsat) was applied. This study reports preliminary results on the feasibility of establishing a 137Cs and 239+240Pu baseline inventory map for Central Europe. The 137Cs/239+240Pu activity ratios will further allow assessing the rate and the spatial variability of 137Cs Chernobyl fallout. The establishment of such baseline inventory map will provide a unique opportunity to assess soil redistribution for a comparable time-frame (1953-2009) following a harmonised methodological protocol across national boundaries.

  16. Quantitative Assay of Pu-239 and Pu-240 by Neutron Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E

    1971-04-15

    A method for quantitative assay of 239Pu and 240Pu has been tested at the reactor R1 in Stockholm. The method makes use of a fast chopper to measure the neutron transmission through a sample around the main resonances of these two isotopes - at 0.296 eV in 239Pu and at 1.056 eV in 240Pu. The transmission data measured are then combined with the known resonance cross sections to give the content of the isotopes. The method is nondestructive, i.e., one can use fuel pins as samples, even highly irradiated ones. A time-of-flight spectrometer of moderate capacity, like our fast chopper, is sufficient as the resonances are located at low energy. Altogether five samples have been used in the tests of the method. The results have been compared with mass spectrometer values. This comparison came out quite well for 239Pu whereas the chopper results for 240Pu were more than 10 per cent higher than the mass spectrometer results. This large deviation might be due to errors in the resonance cross section for 240Pu used in the analysis of the transmission data from the chopper. The best possible accuracy for a 15-hour run with our equipment is +- 1 per cent for 239Pu and +- 2 per cent for 240Pu, obtained for thick samples - about 3 x 1020 atoms per cm2 for each isotope. The accuracy corresponds to 68 per cent confidence level and does not include any contribution from the uncertainty in the resonance cross section

  17. The use of neptunium-239 to assess neptunium distribution throughout a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.; Savage, D.J.; Prentice, P.C.

    1989-08-01

    A radiometric technique has been devised to use the gamma emission from the neptunium-239 daughter of americium-243 to estimate neptunium distribution in a plant reprocessing irradiated plutonium based fuels. Three trials were undertaken with samples from the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay. The trials have confirmed the previous chemical measurements and the usefulness of this technique to highlight the effect of altered flowsheet conditions. (author)

  18. Background distributions of 239+240Pu and 137Cs of upland soil in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    The background distributions of Pu and 137 Cs in soil were investigated in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, where the first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is now being constructed. Soil core samples to 1 m depth were collected at 13 upland fields in Rokkasho and control sites in Hachinohe and Hirosaki. Since fields under yam (Dioscorea babatus) cultivation, which is a common crop in Rokkasho, were dug to approximately 1 m depth at harvesting, depth profiles of fallout radionuclides are heavily disturbed for most fields in Rokkasho. The mean inventories of 239+240 Pu and 137 Cs in three fields with no yam cultivation history were 116 Bq m -2 and 3.4 kBq m -2 , respectively and similar to values in Hachinohe. However, the inventories were approximately a half of those in Hirosaki. The mean ratio of 239P u/ 240 Pu for all studied fields was 0.18±0.04, and similar to that of global fallout. The Pu concentrations correlate very well with 137 Cs (r=0.97) in spite of heavy disturbance of soil, and the ratio of 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs was 0.037±0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. (author)

  19. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemistry of 239Pu, 129I, 99Tc and 36Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabryka-Martin, J.T.; Curtis, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    One objective of this research programme has been to evaluate the applicability of uranium orebodies as natural analogues for testing radionuclide release-rate models used in performance assessment activities. The investigated nuclides included three of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors: plutonium-239, iodine-129, and technetium-99. The feasibility of uranium minerals as analogues for the behavior of these nuclear reaction products (NRP) in spent fuel relies upon a capability to characterise NRP concentrations in the source minerals. Measured abundances of natural 239 Pu, 99 Tc and 129 I in uranium ores are compared to calculated abundances in order to evaluate the degree to retention of these radionuclides by the ore. This modelling study also shows the extent to which various NRP are correlated, such that one provides a constraint on the production rates of others. Under most conditions, 36 Cl, another long-lived neutron-capture product found in uranium ores, is shown to be an ideal in-situ monitor of the 235 U fission rate, which is the dominant source term for 129 I and possibly a significant one for 99 Tc. Similarly, 239 Pu/U ratios can be used to establish limits on the 238 U neutron-induced fission rate; the ratios measured in this study suggest that 238 U induced fission comprises 129 I and 99 Tc. 79 refs., 21 tabs., 18 figs

  20. Environmental levels of 239+240Pu and 90Sr for internal radiation exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.; Khandekar, R.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements have been carried out on the concentration of low levels of long-lived isotopes of 239+240 Pu and 90 Sr in the environmental materials such as atmospheric particulates, drinking water and food. The estimation of daily intake of these isotopes through inhalation and ingestion is a pre-requisite for the assessment of internal exposure. This paper presents temporal distribution of 239+240 Pu and 90 Sr in rain water, drinking water and total diet samples collected at Trombay site. The annual committed effective dose due to 90 Sr through inhalation and diet to the population of Bombay has been estimated to be 0.06 nSv/y and 0.48 μSv/y, respectively, and the same for 239+240 Pu is 1.3 nSv/y and 0.9 nSv/y, respectively. The data is discussed in relation to previous years' values to assess for any significant increase. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Dosimetry of inhaled plutonium-239 dioxide in rodent lung: a morphometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, K.

    1979-06-01

    Morphometric analysis of rat and hamster lung did not demonstrate any extensive changes in lung composition or structure following inhalation exposure to 239 Pu0 2 at levels near that for maximum tumor yield in rats. The problem of dosimetry for this compound thus appears to be relatively uncomplicated by any major radiation-induced pathological alterations in the lung. Rat and hamster lung were found to be similar in structure and composition, with few significant differences which could be directly related to the different tumor responses. The distribution of 239 Pu0 2 particles was not uniform in all regions of the lung; thus estimation of the dose to specific tissues or regions within the lung requires a correction for this effect. Species differences were found for particle distribution in the subpleural region and major airways, and in the spatial association of particles, both of which may affect the tumor development process. These regions contain the principal target cells for tumor production and serve as foci for the origin of tumors. Different dose distributions within these regions may therefore explain, at least in part, the difference in tumor response to inhaled 239 Pu0 2 for rats and hamsters

  2. Importance of resonance parameters of fertile nuclei and of 239Pu isotope for fast power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, J.Y.; Khairallah, A.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of resonance parameters of fertile nuclei and of 239 Pu isotope for fast power reactors will be restricted, in this presentation, to mixed oxide-uranium-plutonium fuelled sodium-cooled and uranium-oxide-sodium reflected fast reactors. The power range lies between 200 and 2000 MWe. Among the topics of this specialist meeting, the isotopes to be considered are, primarly 239 Pu then 238 U and 240 Pu. Resonance parameters are mainly used in fast power reactor calculations through the well-known concept of self shielding factors. After a short description of the determination and the use of these self-shielding factors, their sensitivities to resonance parameters are characterized from some specific examples: those sensitivities are small. Then, the main design parameters sensitive to the amplitude of self-shielding factors are considered: critical enrichment, global breeding gain. The relative importance of isotope, reaction rate and energy range are mentionned. In a third part, the Doppler effect, sensitive to the temperature variation of self-shielding factors, is considered in the same way. Finally, it is concluded that the present knowledge of resonance parameters for 238 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu is sufficient for fast power reactors from a designer point of view [fr

  3. Transplantation of hamster lung lesions induced by 239PuO2 or benz(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    None(0%) of 1000 recipients of lung lesions for 239 PuO 2 -exposed hamsters that were transplanted into other hamsters' cheek pouches, developed tumors, whereas 90% of transplants from benz(a)pyrene-induced lung lesions were malignant

  4. Neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    Differential-neutron-emission cross sections of 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu are measured between approx. = 1.0 and 3.5 MeV with the angle and magnitude detail needed to provide angle-integrated emission cross sections to approx. 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U and 238 U inelastic-scattering values, poor agreement is observed for 240 Pu, and a serious discrepancy exists in the case of 239 Pu

  5. Global Fall Out of 239,240Pu and 241Am in The Environment of Serpong Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Yatim Sofyan

    2000-01-01

    Determination of 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am in the Cisadane river sediment and surface soil samples collected in 1996 from the environment of Atomic Energy Research Establishment (PPT A) of Serpong has been carried out. The objective of research was to evaluate the existence of 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am in the environment as impact of nuclear activities in the PPT A Serpong. Surface soils were collected from 3 locations and each of location consists of 4 sampling sites. Cisadane river sediment consists of 3 sampling sites. The results showed that the average concentration were founded to be 17.03 ± 2.49 mBq/kg for 239 , 240 Pu and 9.20 ± 2.93 mBq/kg for 241 Am. The observed 239 , 240 Pu 241 Am concentration are low compared to the reported values for some other areas of the world. The Activity ratios of 241 Am/ 239 , 24O Pu and 239 , 240 PU/ 137 Cs in surface soils were found to be in the narrow range 0.32 to 0.53 with a mean value of 0.43 ± 0.09 and 0.017 to 0.029 with a mean value of 0.024 ± 0.005 respectively. This ratio is in excellent agreement with the value of global fallout

  6. Modifying effects of preexisting pulmonary fibrosis on biological responses of rats to inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Rebar, A.H.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the modifying effects of preexisting, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis on the deposition, retention, and biological effects of inhaled 239PuO2 in the rat. Among rats exposed to similar airborne concentrations of 239PuO2, initial lung burdens of 239Pu per kilogram body mass were similar whether or not pulmonary fibrosis was present. However, clearance of 239Pu from the lungs was significantly decreased in the rats with preexisting pulmonary fibrosis. The incidence of lung lesions (epithelial hyperplasia, diffuse macrophage increases and aggregation, and loose and dense connective tissue) was significantly greater among rats with preexisting pulmonary fibrosis than among the exposed controls. Rats with preexisting fibrosis had shorter life spans than 239PuO2-exposed control rats. When groups of rats with similar alpha doses to the lungs were compared, the incidences of neoplastic lesions in the lung, the times to death of rats with lung neoplasms, and the risk of lung tumors per unit of alpha dose to the lungs in rats with or without pulmonary fibrosis were similar. The results of this study suggest that humans with uncomplicated pulmonary fibrosis may not be more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of inhaled 239PuO2 than are individuals with normal lungs, assuming that the total alpha doses to the lungs are similar

  7. Determination of 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya sediments using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Skipperud, L.; Salbu, B.; Fifield, L.K.; Cresswell, R.C.; Day, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been used to determine Pu activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios in sediments from the Kara Sea and radioactive waste dumping sites at Novaya Zemlya. Measured 239,240 Pu activities ranged from 0.06 - 9.8 Bq/kg dry weight, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.13 to 0.28, and 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios from 0.02 to 0.6. Perturbations from global fallout isotope ratios were evident at three sites: the Yenisey Estuary and Abrosimov Fjords where 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios were lower (0.13-0.14); and Stepovogo Fjord sediments where ratios were higher (up to 0.28) than fallout ratios. Based on procedural blanks, detection limits for AMS were below 1 fg Pu and the method showed good precision for isotope ratio measurements, minimal matrix, interference and memory effects. For high level samples, comparison between alpha spectrometry and AMS gave good agreement for measurement of 239,240 Pu activity concentrations. (author)

  8. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of (239+240)Pu as soil erosion tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael; Park, Ji-Hyung; Sandor, Tarjan; Porto, Paolo; Alewell, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as (137)Cs and (210)Pbex. As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (>25tha(-1)yr(-1)). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of (239+240)Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of (137)Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of (137)Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of (239+240)Pu through less preferential transport compared to (137)Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, (239+240)Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the soil and lateral transport during water erosion was shown to differ from that of (137)Cs, there is a clear

  9. Toxicity of 239Pu and 226Ra in young adult beagles: risk estimate in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research program is to predict the risk to humans following exposure to 239 Pu. The beagle was originally selected for this program because it is relatively long-lived and has skeletal functions and structure analogous to young adults humans, simulating that of a young adult radium dial painter or occupationally exposed person. Young adult (17 month-old) beagles from the moderately inbred colony at the University of Utah were administered one intravenous injection of 239 Pu (0.0007-2.88 μCi/kg in 238 dogs) or 226 Ra (0.007-10.4 μCi/kg in 119 dogs), and compared to appropriate age-matched control beagles. All beagles have been and are being observed clinically throughout their expected 12 to 15 year post-injection lifespan. A thorough clinical and post-mortem survey is conducted to determine causes of death or lesions at death. The clinical findings are being encoded using SNOMED terminology and entered into a computerized database. All beagles in the 226 Ra study are dead and the data are being analyzed and published. The shape of the curve for dose vs. bone tumor incidence is highly linear up to average skeletal doses of 2200 rads. In higher dose groups, the time to tumor appearance is decreased and skeletal tumors occur in almost all animals. The 226 Ra response is being compared with the 239 Pu response in beagles. This toxicity ratio will allow use of the bone tumor response in the radium dial painters to predict the toxicity of plutonium for bone tumor induction in man

  10. Comments on a paper entitled: Toxicity and carcinogenicity of plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocum, W.E.; Pigg, C.J.

    1978-06-01

    Studies on carcinogenic effects of Pu-239 on animals have been reviewed often in the literature. A summary of these studies, which were done primarily with dogs or rats, shows that the inhalation of Pu-239 results in plutonium being retained in highest concentrations in bone, liver, lung, and lymph nodes. This may result in the induction of specific kinds of cancer, primarily lung and bone carcinomas, and to a lesser extent, bile duct tumors. These animal studies have been extremely useful in the analysis of the limited number of studies available on humans exposed to plutonium and in the prediction of plutonium cancer risk to man. One of the most significant and relevant studies on human exposures to Pu-239 is that of the 1944-45 exposure at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Twenty-five men associated with the Manhattan Project were identified as having had significant plutonium exposures; total initial lung burden across the group was approximately 10 μCi. These individuals have been monitored clinically and in laboratory studies for the past 30 years. None of the individuals has shown cancer incidence and none shows medical findings attributable to internally deposited plutonium. There has been no recorded instance of cancer in man resulting from the internal deposition of any plutonium isotope in the more than three decades in which plutonium has been used. This excellent record illustrates the effectiveness of control measures and safety standards imposed on the handling of radioactive materials. These facts lead to a high level of confidence that the transportation of radioactive materials to and around the WIPP would not have a markedly different record

  11. Transuranic and tracer simulant resuspension. [/sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G. A.

    1977-07-01

    Plutonium resuspension results are summarized for experiments conducted at Rocky Flats, onsite on the Hanford reservation, and for winds blowing from offsite onto the Hanford reservation near the Prosser barricade boundary. In each case, plutonium resuspension was shown by increased airborne plutonium concentrations as a function of either wind speed or as compared to fallout levels. All measured airborne concentrations were below maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Both plutonium and cesium concentrations on airborne soil were normalized by the quantity of airborne soil sampled. Airborne radionuclide concentrations in ..mu..Ci/g were related to published values for radionuclide concentrations on surface soils. For this ratio of radionuclide concentration per gram on airborne soil divided by that for ground surface soil, there are eight orders of magnitude uncertainty from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 4/. Horizontal plutonium fluxes on airborne nonrespirable soils at all three sites were bracketed within the same three to four orders of magnitude from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -3/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for plutonium-239 and 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for plutonium-238. These are the entire experimental base for nonrespirable airborne plutonium transport. Airborne respirable plutonium-239 concentrations increased with wind speed for a southeast wind direction coming from offsite near the Hanford reservation Prosser barricade. Airborne plutonium fluxes on nonrespirable particles had isotopic ratios, /sup 240/Pu//sup 239 +240/Pu, similar to weapons grade plutonium rather than fallout plutonium. Resuspension rates were summarized for controlled inert particle tracer simulant experiments. Wind resuspension rates for tracers increased with wind speed to about the fifth power.

  12. Beta decay heat following U-235, U-238 and Pu-239 neutron fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie

    1997-09-01

    This is an experimental study of beta-particle decay heat from 235U, 239Pu and 238U aggregate fission products over delay times 0.4-40,000 seconds. The experimental results below 2s for 235U and 239Pu, and below 20s for 238U, are the first such results reported. The experiments were conducted at the UMASS Lowell 5.5-MV Van de Graaff accelerator and 1-MW swimming-pool research reactor. Thermalized neutrons from the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction induced fission in 238U and 239Pu, and fast neutrons produced in the reactor initiated fission in 238U. A helium-jet/tape-transport system rapidly transferred fission fragments from a fission chamber to a low background counting area. Delay times after fission were selected by varying the tape speed or the position of the spray point relative to the beta spectrometer that employed a thin-scintillator-disk gating technique to separate beta-particles from accompanying gamma-rays. Beta and gamma sources were both used in energy calibration. Based on low-energy(energies 0-10 MeV. Measured beta spectra were unfolded for their energy distributions by the program FERD, and then compared to other measurements and summation calculations based on ENDF/B-VI fission-product data performed on the LANL Cray computer. Measurements of the beta activity as a function of decay time furnished a relative normalization. Results for the beta decay heat are presented and compared with other experimental data and the summation calculations.

  13. Dosimetry and response in rat pulmonary epithelium following inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, K.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Sanders, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and pathologic changes have been studied in the lung of rats. The clearance of inhaled 237 239 PuO 2 from the lung is a function of the amount of deposited Pu with a decrease in early alveolar clearance with increasing lung burden. With increasing time post-exposure there is a greater concentration of PuO 2 and an increased aggregation of PuO 2 particles in subpleural regions of the lung. Fibrotic and metaplastic lesions in the lung were usually focal, being found in subpleural regions associated with aggregates of PuO 2 . An average of 12 +- 6 percent of the lung volume was fibrotic at 530 days after an initial alveolar deposition of 180 nCi 239 Pu. Lung tumors occupied 4 +- 6 percent and epithelial metaplasias less than 1 percent of the lung volume at this time. Cell proliferation as assayed by tritiated thymidine autoradiography was greater in fibrotic, metaplastic and neoplastic regions than in areas of normal alveolar-bronchiolar epithelium. Turnover times ranged from about 6 days for fibrotic lesions to 1 to 3 days for metaplastic and neoplastic lesions. The lung tumor doubling times were 57 to 116 days due to tumor cell necrosis and other factors that limit tumor cell survival. Cell proliferation rates for adenomatous metaplasia were similar to those for adenocarcinoma while those for squamous cell metaplasia were similar to those for squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous lesions exhibited a more rapid growth than did adenomatous lesions

  14. Functional state of the bronchopulmonary system in Mayak nuclear workers inhaled plutonium-239 aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, Z.; Grigoryeva, E.; Khokhryakov, V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The current system of the individual and collective protection facilities for nuclear personnel permits decreasing the radiation dose from internal emitters at the most. At the same time, specific production conditions do not exclude possible inhalation of plutonium-239 aerosols. As the lung is the critical organ for this isotope, the study of respiratory function is aimed at detecting of pre-clinical lung pathology. Early detection of internal exposure effects on functional state of respiratory apparatus is difficult due to a number of confounding actors of non-radiation nature, one of which is smoking. Functional state of bronchopulmonary system was studied in 386 males, workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. 1198 examinations were carried out during medical inspection as well as hospitalization for routine preventive inspection. Most of males (39.4%) started working at the age of 21-26 years and 27.2% at the age of 20 years. The main factors of occupational exposure were exposure to plutonium-239 aerosols and the external gamma -rays. The absorbed dose to lungs from incorporated plutonium-239 was 0-435.8 c Gy. Whole-body external gamma dose varied from 0 to 382 c Gy at the examination. Individual dosimetry data were provided by the Mayak Radiation Safety Department and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute. While studying respiratory function, the most informative indices characterizing the state of lung tissue and tracheobronchial system such as vital capacity inspiration, forced expiratory volume, forced inspiratory volume, test Tiffno, diffusion capacity, characteristics of the flow vs. volume of the forced vital capacity inspiration curve, and resistance were used. Analysis was done separately for smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking index, i.e. product of number of smoked cigarettes per day and number of years of smoking was considered an integral value. The study did not reveal the

  15. {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents Sea Regions. Sources and radioecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The radioecological assessment for {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents sea regions was made using the compartment modelling approach. The following sources of radioactive contamination were under consideration: global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, transport of {sup 239+240}Pu from the Sellafield and La Hauge nuclear plants and underwater testing of nuclear weapons in Chernaya Bay, Novaya Zemlya. The box model developed at NRPA uses a modified approach for compartmental modeling, which takes into account the dispersion of radionuclides over time. The box structures for surface, mid-depth and deep water layers have been developed based on the description of polar, Atlantic and deep waters in the Arctic Ocean and the Northern Seas, as well as site-specific information for the boxes. The volume of the three water layers in each box has been calculated using detailed bathymetry together with Geographical Information Systems. The box model includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing and a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers. Radioactive decay is calculated for all compartments. The contamination of biota is further calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumptions, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota are determined on the basis of calculated radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. Results of the calculations show that atmospheric deposition is the dominant source for the Barents Sea, except for the Chernaya Bay region. It is also demonstrated that the impact of the Sellafield nuclear facilities has

  16. Functional state of the bronchopulmonary system in Mayak nuclear workers inhaled plutonium-239 aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, Z.; Grigoryeva, E.; Khokhryakov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The current system of the individual and collective protection facilities for nuclear personnel permits decreasing the radiation dose from internal emitters at the most. At the same time, specific production conditions do not exclude possible inhalation of plutonium-239 aerosols. As the lung is the critical organ for this isotope, the study of respiratory function is aimed at detecting of pre-clinical lung pathology. Early detection of internal exposure effects on functional state of respiratory apparatus is difficult due to a number of confounding actors of non-radiation nature, one of which is smoking. Functional state of bronchopulmonary system was studied in 386 males, workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. 1198 examinations were carried out during medical inspection as well as hospitalization for routine preventive inspection. Most of males (39.4%) started working at the age of 21-26 years and 27.2% at the age of 20 years. The main factors of occupational exposure were exposure to plutonium-239 aerosols and the external gamma -rays. The absorbed dose to lungs from incorporated plutonium-239 was 0-435.8 c Gy. Whole-body external gamma dose varied from 0 to 382 c Gy at the examination. Individual dosimetry data were provided by the Mayak Radiation Safety Department and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute. While studying respiratory function, the most informative indices characterizing the state of lung tissue and tracheobronchial system such as vital capacity inspiration, forced expiratory volume, forced inspiratory volume, test Tiffno, diffusion capacity, characteristics of the flow vs. volume of the forced vital capacity inspiration curve, and resistance were used. Analysis was done separately for smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking index, i.e. product of number of smoked cigarettes per day and number of years of smoking was considered an integral value. The study did not reveal the

  17. R-matrix analysis of the /sup 239/Pu neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saussure, G. de; Perez, R.B.; Macklin, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    /sup 239/Pu neutron cross-section data in the resolved resonance region were analyzed with the R-Matrix Bayesian Program SAMMY. Below 30 eV the cross sections computed with the multilevel parameters are consistent with recent fission and transmission measurements as well as with older capture and alpha measurements. Above 30 eV no suitable transmission data were available and only fission cross-section measurements were analyzed. However, since the analysis conserves the complete covariance matrix, the analysis can be updated by the Bayes method as transmission measurements become available. To date, the analysis of the fission measurements has been completed up to 300 eV.

  18. Direct reduction of 238PuO2 and 239PuO2 to metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, L.J.; Foxx, C.L.

    1982-02-01

    The process for reducing 700 g 239 PuO 2 to metal is a standard procedure at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This process is based on research for reducing 200 g 238 PuO 2 to metal. This report describes in detail the experiments and development of the 200-g process. The procedure uses calcium metal as the reducing agent in a molten CaCl 2 solvent system. The process to convert impure plutonia to high-purity metal by oxide reduction followed by electrorefining is also described

  19. Toxicity of 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 (1.5 μm AD) to compare the biological effects with those seen in young adult and aged dogs exposed to a similar aerosol. To date 45 dogs have been exposed to the aerosol, resulting in graded lung burdens from 0.0031 to 0.64 μCi/kg body weight. Six dogs exposed to the dilute ammonium hydroxide aerosol only serve as controls. One experimental dog has died of parvovirus enteritis. Exposures will continue during the coming year to complete the experimental design

  20. 239PU sorption by suspended matter from Hueznar reservoir (Southern Spain): experimental and modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mrabet, R.; Abril, J.M.; Barros, H.; Manjon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic transfer coefficients are important parameters to understand and reliably model the behaviour of non-conservative radionuclides in aquatic environments. This report pertains to a series of radiotracer experiments on 239 Pu uptake in natural unfiltered waters from the Hueznar reservoir (southern Spain). The experimental procedure ensures the preservation of environmental conditions and the dissolved Pu activity was measured by liquid scintillation technique. The data suggest that the main pathways for Pu uptake consist of two parallel and reversible reactions followed by a consecutive reversible reaction. We studied the effects of suspended matter concentrations and the specific surface area on the kinetic transfer coefficients. (author)

  1. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of 239PuO2 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Pappin, J.L.; Stevens, D.L.; Irby, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Groups of rats were exposed or sham exposed to cigarette smoke for 7 mo, at which time they were exposed to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 . Rats were then subjected to whole-body counting (17-keV X-rays) periodically, beginning at day 4 after plutonium exposure, and smoke exposures or sham exposures were resumed on day 7. Clearance of plutonium from the lungs of cigarette-smoke-exposed rats was significantly slower than that from the sham-exposed rats' lungs. The difference between the two groups became significant 7 days after the resumption of cigarette-smoke exposures

  2. 'In-vivo' and bioassay results from two contrasting cases of plutonium-239 inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.; Bains, M.E.D.; Fraser, D.C.

    1969-06-01

    'In-vivo' and bioassay measurements following two incidents involving plutonium-239 inhalation are described and contrasted. Incident 1, involving the inhalation of insoluble plutonium oxide, resulted in a lung content of about 20 nCi after the initial clearance. Urine excretion was negligible and the estimation of exposure was based on 'in-vivo' data and faecal excretion. Incident,2, involving the inhalation of soluble plutonium, proved negligible and the estimation of exposure, based on urinary excretion, was 0.6 nCi. (author)

  3. Simulation of neutron rich nuclei production through 239U fission at intermediates energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirea, M.; Clapier, F.; Pauwels, N.; Proust, J.

    1997-01-01

    The theoretical part and some results obtained from a model realised for fission processes in wide range of mass-asymmetries are presented. The fission barriers are computed in a tridimensional configuration space using the Yukawa - plus - exponential macroscopic energies corrected within the Strutinsky procedure. It is assumed that channel probabilities are proportional with Gamow penetrabilities. The model is applied for the disintegration of the 239 U in order to determine the relative yields for the production of neutron rich nuclei at diverse intermediate energies. (author)

  4. Dominant lethal tests of male mice given 239Pu salt injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luening, K.G.; Froelen, H.; Nilsson, A.

    1976-01-01

    To study the possible genetic effects of 239 Pu manifesting in dominant lethals, five test series (E1-E5) were performed. Males from an inbred CBA strain were given 239 Pu salt injections intravenously and mated weekly to 3 CBA females each for 12 to 24 weeks. Some interruptions in the mating scheme were made. For the first two test series (E1, E2) 239 Pu nitrate solution and 239 Pu citrate, used in E3-E5, were prepared. The solution was millipore filtered just prior to injection. Among a total of 10255 implants sired by males given Pu-nitrate in E1 and E2 no significant excess of intra-uterine death relative to 7216 control implants occurred. Test series E3-E5 with 60 males each, used three groups of 20, with one control group. In E3, 0.5 μCi and 0.1 μCi were given per male/group, respectively; in E4 and E5, 0.25 μCi and 0.05 μCi, respectively. The males given 0.5 μCi in E3 became successively sterile from the 7th week. The results in E3-E5 point in the same direction with significant excess of intra-uterine death in E3 and E5. In E4 the females from matings from the 9th, 14th and 16th week, and in E5 females from the 9th week, were allowed to litter to give F 1 offspring. Dominant lethal tests of F 1 males gave concordant results in all four samples, showing significantly excessive death in offspring to F 1 males whose fathers had received Pu. The excessive death was evenly distributed and did not indicate the presence of semisterile F 1 males. In tests of Pu-injected males and of F 1 males a remarkable excess of death in late stages of foetal development was observed. Such effects had never before been observed in this CBA strain in tests of extrinsic and intrinsic exposure to ionizing irradiation

  5. Repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to aerosols of 239PuO2. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, J.H.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed once or semi-annually for 10 yr by inhalation to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 to study the relative doses and effects of these two types of exposures. All exposures have been completed. Dogs exposed at high levels died predominantly of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Dogs exposed at lower levels, either once or repeatedly, are dying of a variety of causes including lung cancer. Dogs have survived up to 11 yr after their first exposure. Preliminary results suggest that single and repeated exposures cause similar health effects for equal accumulated radiation doses. (author)

  6. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Ph.

    1963-01-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [fr

  7. Alpha-particle emission probabilities in the decay of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torano, E.; Acena, M.L.; Bortels, G.; Mouchel, D.

    1993-01-01

    The alpha-particle emission probabilities (P α ) of 239 Pu have been measured using material of highest enrichment and radiochemical purity, thin sources produced by vacuum sublimation, and high-resolution α spectroscopy with ion-implanted Si detectors (PIPS). The results for the major emissions are P α0.07 =0.7077±0.0014, P α13 =0.1711±0.0014 and P α51 =0.1194±0.0007, which for the P α0.07 is about 3.6% lower than the recent evaluated value in the literature. (orig.)

  8. Osteosarcomogenic effect of plutonium-239 dependent on the age and sex of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyakov, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (2.5μ curie-kg) was administered to male and female rats at the age of 1,6 and 12 months. Besides, one-month-old rats were momentarily given 5μ curie-kg. It has been found that the highest sensitivity to osteosarcomogenic effect of plutonium is exhibited by six-month-old animals; a lesser one - by one-month-old, and the least one - by 12-month-old rats. Males of all age groups are almost twice more sensitive than females

  9. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood among mayak facility workers who inhaled insoluble forms of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, N. D.; Scott, B. R.; Tokarskaya, Z. B.; Zhuntova, G. V.; Khokhryakov, V. F.; Syrchikov, V. A.; Grigoryeva, E. S.

    2005-01-01

    A cytogenetic study was performed on 79 plutonium (Pu) workers chronically exposed to alpha radiation from inhaled, low-transportable (insoluble) compounds of airborne 239 Pu and to external gamma rays. Body burden estimates for 239 Pu ranged from 0 to 15.5 kBq. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) (stable and unstable among peripheral blood lymphocytes and cumulative alpha radiation doses were evaluated ∼25 y after first contact with 239 Pu. For the cytogenetic analyses, a standard two-day peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique was applied. While alpha radiation doses continually increase up to the time of cytogenetic measurements, significant gamma ray exposures essentially ceased long before the time of measurement, so that alpha and gamma doses were not correlated. For the exposed workers, the mean 239 Pu body burden (estimate), evaluated at the time of the cytogenetic measurement, was 1.23 ± 0.26 kBq and the corresponding mean absorbed external gamma ray dose (estimate) to the total body was 0.076 ± 0.009 Gy. Single and multivariate regression analyses were performed on the CA data. Stable, unstable and total aberrations increased as the 239 Pu body burden increased over the range 0-4.5 kBq. However, above this range little additional increase was observed. CAs were weakly correlated with time since the first intake of 239 Pu. No relationship between chromatid aberrations and 239 Pu incorporation was found. Unstable (but not stable) aberrations were correlated with gamma radiation dose. No significant relationship of CA and smoking was found. (authors)

  10. Global Distributions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and the Ratio of {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs in an Ocean General Circulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Misumi, K.; Yoshida, Y. [Environmental Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Hirose, K. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The spatial distributions and the temporal variations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu concentrations were simulated by using an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). These radionuclides are introduced into the ocean by global fallout originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. {sup 137}Cs derived from global fallout is transported into the ocean interior by advection and diffusion, and the {sup 137}Cs concentration is reduced by radioactive decay. In contrast to {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu, which is a particle reactive radionuclide, is a biogeochemical tracer. The global distribution of the {sup 239,240}Pu{sup /137}Cs ratio was investigated in an OGCM with a biogeochemical process model. A half regeneration depth (HRD) of {sup 239,240}Pu was estimated from curve fitting of the vertical profile of the {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratio. Simulated distribution of the HRD is in good agreement with observation, except in the subarctic gyre. The HRD is a good tool to improve the parameters in the biogeochemical process. (author)

  11. A Study of the 384 KeV Complex Gamma Emission from Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, R.S.; Ronqvist, N.

    1965-11-01

    Plutonium-239 has been reported to emit a gamma of energy 384 KeV. Subsequent workers, using radiation of this energy as a nondestructive measure of the plutonium content of various materials, found that the peak obtained by sodium iodide scintillation spectrometry showed a pronounced shoulder at about 330 KeV. This shoulder has been attributed to protactinium-233 and to uranium-237. From the width of the peak, however, it is obvious that at least three contributors are present. The present paper describes gamma spectrometric studies of plutonium samples of several isotopic compositions using a sodium iodide detector and a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The 384 KeV peak has been shown to be a complex peak containing 12 gamma components due to plutonium-239 between 300 - 450 KeV, and their relative intensities have been estimated. Anion exchange and solvent extraction experiments have also demonstrated that two further contributions due to uranium-237 are present in plutonium containing significant amounts of plutonium-241

  12. Plutonium-239 and americium-241 uptake by plants from soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.

    1979-03-01

    Alfalfa was grown in soil contaminated with plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) at a concentration of 29.7 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). In addition to alfalfa, radishes, wheat, rye, and tomatoes were grown in soils contaminated with americium-241 nitrate (241Am(NO3)3) at a concentration of 189 nCi/g. The length of exposure varied from 52 days for the radishes to 237 days for the alfalfa. The magnitude of plutonium incorporation by the alfalfa as indicated by the concentration ratio, 0.0000025, was similar to previously reported data using other chemical forms of plutonium. The results did indicate, however, that differences in the biological availability of plutonium isotopes do exist. All of the species exposed to americium-241 assimilated and translocated this radioisotope to the stem, leaf, and fruiting structures. The magnitude of incorporation as signified by the concentration ratios varied from 0.00001 for the wheat grass to 0.0152 for the radishes. An increase in the uptake of americium also occurred as a function of time for four of the five plant species. Evidence indicates that the predominant factor in plutonium and americium uptake by plants may involve the chelation of these elements in soils by the action of compounds such as citric acid and/or other similar chelating agents released from plant roots

  13. Fission track analysis method of urine plutonium and estimation of plutonium-239 internal dose to Marshallese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shixuan

    1995-01-01

    Bravo detonated at Bikini Atoll on the morning of March 1, 1954, unexpectedly released a large amount of radioactive fallout on the areas. Impact studies on the radiological health and safety of the residents living in the contaminated environments are still undergoing. For plutonium dose assessment, researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory established a fission track analysis (FTA) method for low-level 239 Pu measurement. Furthermore, a new shipboard protocol was developed for collecting 24-h radiologically clean urine samples. The purposes of this paper are to update information on the FTA processes and to present a set of results on the 239 Pu measurements in the Marshallese populations (Rongelap and Utirik) between 1981-1991. The detection sensitivity of FTA method (99% confidence level) in these samples was 2-3 μBq which is equivalent to 0.2-0.3 mSv effective dose equivalent (EDE) to age 70 for the Marshallese. The latest 1991 FTA data indicate average EDE of 0.62 mSv and 1.6 mSv for the people of Rongelap and Utirik, respectively, which both are the highest values since 1988

  14. Photon-induced Fission Product Yield Measurements on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishichayan, Fnu; Bhike, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.

    2015-10-01

    During the past three years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the fission product yields (FPYs) from quasi-monoenergetic neutron-induced fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu at TUNL in the 0.5 to 15 MeV energy range. Recently, we have extended these experiments to photo-fission. We measured the yields of fission fragments ranging from 85Kr to 147Nd from the photo-fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu using 13-MeV mono-energetic photon beams at the HIGS facility at TUNL. First of its kind, this measurement will provide a unique platform to explore the effect of the incoming probe on the FPYs, i.e., photons vs. neutrons. A dual-fission ionization chamber was used to determine the number of fissions in the targets and these samples (along with Au monitor foils) were gamma-ray counted in the low-background counting facility at TUNL. Details of the experimental set-up and results will be presented and compared to the FPYs obtained from neutron-induced fission at the same excitation energy of the compound nucleus. Work supported in part by the NNSA-SSAA Grant No. DE-NA0001838.

  15. New data on the toxicity and translocation of inhaled 239PuO2 in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Rateau, G.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J.

    1989-01-01

    In 1973-1974, baboons were exposed to a polydispersed aerosol of 239 PuO 2 , prepared at 1000 0 C, at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France. The data published in 1978 for these baboons were used by Bair et al (1980), for comparison with those obtained in beagles exposed to 239 PuO 2 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, USA. Since our 1978 publication, 8 baboons have died or were killed by euthanasia when moribund, and 11 were still alive when the present report was drafted. Two of the eight baboons died of lung squamous cell carcinoma at 2171 and 2528 days respectively. The remaining 6 died of fibrosis, interstitial pneumonia or diseases unrelated to Pu toxicity. The relationship observed in the eight baboons between initial lung burden and survival time shows that their lifespan was longer than expected from the data curve based on the findings for the first 1000 days. However, this increased survival time was not observed if the lifespan was expressed as a function of the average lung burden. (author)

  16. Calculation on maximum accumulation of Pu-239 and Pu-241 from aqueous homogeneous reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikhlas H Siregar; Frida Agung R; Suharyana; Azizul Khakim; Dahman Siregar

    2016-01-01

    Calculations on maximum accumulation of Pu-239 and Pu-241 using MCNPX computer code with UO_2(NO_3)_2 fuel solution enriched by 19.75% operating at temperature 80°C have been conducted. AHR design was simulated with cylindrical core having diameter of 63.4 cm and 122 cm high. From this geometry we found the reactor was critical with density 108 gr U/L of UO_2(NO_3)_2 solution. The result showed that multiplication factor (k_e_f_f) of AHR was 1.05284. Then the burn up calculations were done for various time intervals from 5 days until 285 years to analyze the result. From calculation, it was found out that the saturated concentration of Pu-239 was reached after 40-50 years of operation, producing 1.23 x 102 gr and the activity 7.645 Ci. While for operate time of AHR to produce Pu-241 should under 80 years with mass 21.7 gr and the activity 2.247 x 103 Ci. The accumulations of both isotopes are considered to be small, having low potential for misusing them for producing nuclear weapon. (author)

  17. Comparison of acute mortality in baboons and dogs after inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.; Park, J.F.; Stevens, D.L.; Watson, C.R.; Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J.

    1979-01-01

    Results from experiments with baboons were compared with those from experiments with dogs to determine the relative sensitivity of the two species to acute mortality from inhaled 239 PuO 2 . To assure a valid comparison of data developed at two laboratories, methodology differences were minimized by establishing a common pool of raw data, using the same computer programs to analyze the data, and standardizing assumptions regarding the calculation of radiation doses to lungs. Several comparison methods were used involving variations in estimating different parameters such as the concentration of plutonium in the lungs. Although nearly all comparisons suggested baboons were slightly more sensitive, none of the methods for comparing the relationship between dose and survival time showed consistently significant differences between baboons and dogs. Although the baboons were physiologically and morphologically immature when exposed to plutonium, whereas the dogs were mature, it was concluded that adult baboons and dogs are similarly sensitive to the acute effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 . Since only acute mortality was considered in this comparison, the results do not apply to possible late effects caused by much lower levels of plutonium than were used in these experiments

  18. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1985-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 (1.5 μm AMAD) to compare the biological effects with those observed in dogs exposed to a similar aerosol as young or aged adults. The study includes 96 dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 and 12 controls. The lung burdens of the plutonium-exposed dogs ranged from 0.00030 to 0.80 μCi/kg body weight (0.011-30 kBq/kg). No dogs died during this year. Seven dogs were diagnosed as having developing lung disease, mainly fibrosis, and one had a developing lung tumor. With 20 dogs having estimated cumulative radiation doses in excess of 1000 rad (10 Gy), the biological response of the dogs exposed as juveniles appears to be less than that seen in mature dogs. However, major uncertainties still exist in the current estimations of radiation dose, particularly regarding the local distribution of alpha radiation dose. 1 reference, 4 figures, 1 table

  19. Lymphocytopenia induced in beagle dogs by inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Park, J.F.; Olson, R.J.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium, we gave 124 beagle dogs a single exposure of 239 PuO 2 2 to 3 years ago at six different levels, i.e., 4, 20, 80, 300, 1100, or 5800 nCi mean initial alveolar depositions. Another group (20 dogs) served as controls. All dogs were about 18 months old. At the four highest exposure levels, a chronic lymphocytopenia developed which correlated with the initial alveolar plutonium burden in regard to magnitude of depression and time of development after exposure. The nadir occurred near 10 months after exposure in dogs receiving 5800, 1100, and 300 nCi, with corresponding lymphocyte levels 40, 55, and 75 percent, respectively, of those observed in control dogs. In the 80-nCi level the nadir occurred about 2 years after exposure at approximately 80 percent of control values. At the two lowest doses, i.e., 4 and 20 nCi, no effect on lymphocyte concentrations was noted 3 years after exposure. The persistent lymphocytopenia related to plutonium inhalation may be of significance in the subsequent development of pulmonary neoplasms previously observed in beagles at this laboratory 8 to 11 years after initial lung depositions of 200 to 1000 nCi of 239 Pu

  20. Preliminary evaluation of lung doses for dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Hadley, R.T.; Park, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A group of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 is being followed for life-span effects. This paper reports preliminary lung dose estimates and dose-response relationships for incidence of lung tumors and radiation pneumonitis which have been observed to date. Doses were estimated by using both conventional dose-averaging and microdosimetric techniques. Cascade impactor sampling data were used to reconstruct the original plutonium aerosol size distributions unique to each of about 120 individual dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 . Data providing the initial plutonium lung burden and lifetime lung retention-clearance functions of plutonium for each dog were used for calculating average dose rates, cumulative absorbed doses, and specific energy distributions. A linear dose-response relationship for lung tumor induction was estimated on the basis of cumulative lung dose. Average time to death was estimated as a function of average dose rate. Conclusions regarding the potential value of microdosimetry in the interpretation of such dose-response relationships are discussed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Influence of 239Pu aerosol production temperature on biological responses in Chinese hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A. L.; Peters, R.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the retention, distribution and effects of inhaled 239 Pu particles produced at different temperatures are continuing in an effort to assess the consequences of accidental inhalation exposures under various conditions. Three groups of Chinese hamsters, 381 animals per group, were exposed to aerosols of 239 Pu which had been treated in a heating column at either 50, 600 or 1150 0 C. Retention and distribution of the plutonium through 600 days after exposure reflected the relative insolubility of the aerosols heated at 1150 and 600 0 C, and the relative solubility of the aerosol heated at 50 0 C. Animals exposed to either of the insoluble aerosols had 80 to 90 percent of the sacrifice body burden in the lung at 400 days after exposure whereas animals exposed to the aerosol heated at 50 0 C had only 10 percent of the sacrifice body burden in the lung at 400 days. Translocation was mainly to the liver. To date, survival of the animals seemed to depend primarily on activity level, with production temperature exerting an influence only at the highest activities

  2. mec-associated dru typing in the epidemiological analysis of ST239 MRSA in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaznavi-Rad, E; Goering, R V; Nor Shamsudin, M; Weng, P L; Sekawi, Z; Tavakol, M; van Belkum, A; Neela, V

    2011-11-01

    The usefulness of mec-associated dru typing in the epidemiological analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in Malaysia was investigated and compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and spa and SCCmec typing. The isolates studied included all MRSA types in Malaysia. Multilocus sequence type ST188 and ST1 isolates were highly clonal by all typing methods. However, the dru typing of ST239 isolates produced the clearest discrimination between SCCmec IIIa and III isolates, yielding more subtypes than any other method. Evaluation of the discriminatory power for each method identified dru typing and PFGE as the most discriminatory, with Simpson's index of diversity (SID) values over 89%, including an isolate which was non-typeable by spa, but dru-typed as dt13j. The discriminatory ability of dru typing, especially with closely related MRSA ST239 strains (e.g., Brazilian and Hungarian), underscores its utility as a tool for the epidemiological investigation of MRSA.

  3. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.

  4. Consistent Data Assimilation of Actinide Isotopes: 235U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiottti, G.; Hiruta, H.; Salvatores, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this annual report we illustrate the methodology of the consistent data assimilation that allows to use the information coming from integral experiments for improving the basic nuclear parameters used in cross section evaluation. A series of integral experiments were analyzed using the EMPIRE evaluated files for 235 U, 238 U, and 239 Pu. Inmost cases the results have shown quite large worse results with respect to the corresponding existing evaluations available for ENDF/B-VII. The observed discrepancies between calculated and experimental results were used in conjunction with the computed sensitivity coefficients and covariance matrix for nuclear parameters in a consistent data assimilation. Only the GODIVA and JEZEBEL experimental results were used, in order to exploit information relative to the isotope of interest that are, in this particular case: 235 U and 239 Pu. The results obtained by the consistent data assimilation indicate that with reasonable modifications (mostly within the initial standard deviation) it is possible to eliminate the original large discrepancies on the K eff of the two critical configurations. However, some residual discrepancy remains for a few fission spectral indices that are, most likely, to be attributed to the detector cross sections.

  5. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary 239Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford Site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for 239 Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000 year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/y to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for 239 Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 2 figures, 5 tables

  6. A Study of the 384 KeV Complex Gamma Emission from Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Ronqvist, N

    1965-11-15

    Plutonium-239 has been reported to emit a gamma of energy 384 KeV. Subsequent workers, using radiation of this energy as a nondestructive measure of the plutonium content of various materials, found that the peak obtained by sodium iodide scintillation spectrometry showed a pronounced shoulder at about 330 KeV. This shoulder has been attributed to protactinium-233 and to uranium-237. From the width of the peak, however, it is obvious that at least three contributors are present. The present paper describes gamma spectrometric studies of plutonium samples of several isotopic compositions using a sodium iodide detector and a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The 384 KeV peak has been shown to be a complex peak containing 12 gamma components due to plutonium-239 between 300 - 450 KeV, and their relative intensities have been estimated. Anion exchange and solvent extraction experiments have also demonstrated that two further contributions due to uranium-237 are present in plutonium containing significant amounts of plutonium-241.

  7. Occurrence of bone cancer among young adult Beagles given 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Bruenger, F.W.; Angus, W.; Miller, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred thirty-five young adult Beagles of both sexes were each given a single intravenous injection of 239 Pu-citrate at graded dose-levels averaging about 0.026 to 106 kBq/kg when they were about 1 1/2 years of age and were maintained for lifespan observation. An additional 133 young adult Beagles of both sexes were entered into the experiment as control animals. All of these animals have now died or have been removed from the colony, and the occurrence of skeletal malignancies has been determined from histological examination. There were a total of 85 radiographically apparent malignant bone tumors in 77 dogs given 239 Pu, and there was one control animal that developed a skeletal malignancy. Most of these were osteosarcomas, but there were seven chondrosarcomas of bone, one liposarcoma of bone, and in addition, there was one plasma cell myeloma and one ameloblastoma (admantinoma). Only those dogs that survived to at least the minimum latent period for death with radiation-induced bone sarcoma are included in the tabulation. There appeared to be a linear relationship between the percent of dogs with bone tumor and the average skeletal dose up to a dose of about 1 Gy. All dose-levels with skeletal doses of about 2 Gy and greater exhibited close to 100% occurrence

  8. Subcellular distribution of Pu-239 in the liver of rat, mouse, Syrian and Chinese hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R.; Seidel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of our studies was to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the differences in the biological half life of actinides in the liver of different mammalian species. Rats and mice were chosen as models for rapid elimination, and Syrian and Chinese hamsters as models for slow elimination. To distinguish between fixation in lysosomes and mitochondria, the lysosomes were isolated following injection of Triton WR1339 6 days after 239 Pu administration. The animals were sacrificed 4 days later. In order to study the possible association with ferritin, 59 Fe was also injected. Liver homogenates were subjected to differential and isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. The typical shift in the density of the lysosomal marker acid phosphatase from rho approximately 1.2 to rho approximately 1.1 following Triton WR1339 injection was observed in all species. It was possible therefore to separate lysosomes from other cell organelles, especially mitochondria. It was concluded that: 1) Mitochondria can virtually be excluded as binding sites in all four species; 2) Lysosomes are one important storage site in rats, mice and Syrian hamsters; 3) If 239 Pu is bound to another cell constituent in addition to lysosomes in the hamster species (which is not yet proven) its density should be approximately 1.17. (H.K.)

  9. Toxicity of 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 (1.5 μm AMAD) to compare the biological effects with those observed in dogs exposed to a similar aerosol as young or aged adults. The study includes 96 dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 and 12 controls. The lung burdens of the plutonium-exposed dogs ranged from 0.00030 to 0.80 μCi/kg body weight (0.011-30 kBq/kg). A total of 82 experimental and 11 control dogs are still alive. Seven dogs died this year. Of these, six died of radiation-induced lung disease; the other of a nonradiation cause. As is the case for dogs exposed as young adult animals, the primary causes of death have been lung carcinomas and radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. However, it is premature to compare the dose-response relationships for the two age groups. 4 figures

  10. 237Np analytical method using 239Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mathew S; Morrison, Samuel S; Clark, Sue B; Olson, John E; Watrous, Matthew G

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237 Np analyses are challenged by low 237 Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237 Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239 Np (t 1/2  = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237 Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239 Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243 Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 W "Walmart" microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 10 6 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237 Np contamination within 600 m of this site, with maximum 237 Np concentrations on the order of 10 3 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of {sup 239+240}Pu as soil erosion tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusburger, Katrin, E-mail: Katrin.Meusburger@unibas.ch [Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Bernoullistrasse 30, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Mabit, Lionel, E-mail: L.Mabit@iaea.org [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf (Austria); Ketterer, Michael, E-mail: mkettere@msudenver.edu [Chemistry Department, Metropolitan State University of Denver, CO (United States); Park, Ji-Hyung, E-mail: jhp@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Sandor, Tarjan [Radioanalytical Reference Laboratory, Central Agricultural Office Food and Feed Safety Directorate (Hungary); Porto, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.porto@unirc.it [Dipartimento di AGRARIA, Università degli Studi “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria (Italy); Alewell, Christine, E-mail: Christine.Alewell@unibas.ch [Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Bernoullistrasse 30, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb{sub ex}. As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (> 25 t ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios and {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of {sup 239+240}Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of {sup 137}Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of {sup 137}Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of {sup 239+240}Pu through less preferential transport compared to {sup 137}Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, {sup 239+240}Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the

  12. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

  13. Report on the effectiveness of flocculation for removal of 239Pu at concentrations of 1 pCi/L and 0.1 pCi/L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Bayhurst, G.K.; Mitchell, A.J.; Cisneros, M.R.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.; Rokop, D.J.; Aguilar, R.D.; Attrep, M.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the effectiveness of flocculation for the removal of Pu from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) pond waters spiked with 239 Pu at the 1.0 and 0.1 pCi/L level. The flocculation treatment procedure is described in detail. Results are presented for treatment studies for the removal of Pu from C-2 pond water spiked with 239 Pu and from distilled water spiked with 239 Pu

  14. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu Thule, North-West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strodl Andersen, J.

    2011-10-01

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241 Am and 239,240 Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241 Am is 2.8x10 5 Bq m -2 . Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241 Am is 1.9Oe10 4 Bq m -2 . Prediction of the overall amount of 241 Am and 239,240 Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241 Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240 Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  15. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu, Thule, North-West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strodl Andersen, J. (JSA EnviroStat (Denmark))

    2011-10-15

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241Am and 239,240Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241Am is 2.8x105 Bq m-2. Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241Am is 1.9-104 Bq m-2. Prediction of the overall amount of 241Am and 239,240Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  16. Bronchopulmonary lavage and DTPA treatment for the removal of inhaled 239Pu of varied solubility in beagle dogs. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Miglio, J.J.; Slauson, D.O.; McClellan, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy was determined for removing 239 Pu from Beagle dogs after inhalation of 239 Pu aerosols of differing in vivo solubility. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239 PuCl 4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900, and 1150 0 C, respectively. Six dogs were exposed to each of the four aerosols and three dogs in each group were treated subsequently by lavage and intravenous diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); three dogs served as untreated controls. Tissue accumulation of 239 Pu in the untreated control dogs at sacrifice 56 days post-exposure, expressed as a percentage of the initial lung burden (ILB), was 6 percent in liver and 9 percent in skeleton for the 325 0 C aerosol group, 1 percent in liver and 2 percent in the skeleton for the 600 0 C group, and less than 0.6 percent in these tissues for the 900 0 and 1150 0 C aerosol groups. Tissue accumulation was 1.0 percent or less of the ILB for all organs in the treated groups of dogs. The urinary excretion of 239 Pu was increased in the treated dogs compared to the control dogs that inhaled the 325 0 C and 600 0 C aerosols and was low in all dogs exposed to the 900 0 and 1150 0 C treated aerosol particles. Ten bronchopulmonary lavage procedures removed a mean of 44 percent of the ILB of 239 Pu from the lungs. The aerosol temperature and resulting differences in solubility of the particles did not influence the efficacy of the lavage procedure. An in vitro solubility test predicted the relative in vivo solubility of the four aerosols. These results are discussed in relation to the choice of therapy and its timing. (U.S.)

  17. Exposure of F344 rats to aerosols of 239PuO2 and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.; Bechtold, W.E.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear workers may be accidently exposed to radioactive materials such as 239 PuO 2 by inhalation, and thus have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radionuclides and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. This study is being conducted to better determine the combined effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and cigarette smoke on the induction of lung cancer in rats

  18. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, E.A.

    1998-02-01

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  19. In vitro dose-response of macrophages to 239PuO2 and 241AmO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.P.; Robinson, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a study designed to examine various means of solubilizing actinide particles within macrophages, we have measured the in vitro effects of 241 AmO 2 and 239 PuO 2 on these cells. Dose distribution within the cell population was estimated by autoradiography and compared to cell detachment as a function of time. The 241 AmO 2 and 239 PuO 2 were toxic in proportion to their radioactivity rather than their mass. Approximately 385 intracellular disintegrations are required from either radionuclide to cause cells to detach from the flask surface

  20. Minidosimetry of alpha-radiation from 239-Pu in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polig, E.

    1980-01-01

    A novel technique for evaluating alpha-autoradiograms of the skeleton was developed and applied. The method involves scanning the alpha-track distribution on cellulose-nitrate detector foils and determination of tissue structure from Alizarin-stained bone sections (150 μm) by means of a computer controlled microscope photometer. Geometrical alignment between the two samples is preserved during the measuring process. After combining the files containing the track density distribution with the corresponding digitized bone images on a random access storage medium, detailed information concerning the radionuclide distribution on a microscopic scale, dose rates, hit frequencies etc. are extracted by a sequence of FORTRAN-programs. The potential of the method is demonstrated in a study dealing with the distribution of 239-Pu in the lumbar vertebra of adult rats. The measured dose rate distribution is discussed in terms of hit probabilities for cell nuclei and consequences for quantitative tumour models are indicated. (H.K.)

  1. Investigation of slot discharge on a 239 MVA hydro generator stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Hong, W. [BC Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a slot discharge investigation conducted on a 239 MVA generator stator winding. The generator in which the winding was located had experienced core split distortion, stator winding phase-to-phase failures, winding failures during Hipot testing, and high partial discharge (PD) activity. The results of on-line PD testing data were evaluated. The stator winding was subjected to visual inspections, bar dissections, and failure mechanism analyses. Eleven winding bars were removed from the stator slots in order to assess groundwall insulation conditions and identify the cause of the slot discharge activity. It was determined that the root cause of the slot discharge was a loose, non-uniform bar in the slot. The vibrating bar caused the semi-conductive coating to wear out and degraded the armour tape. Results of the study demonstrated the importance of on-line PD monitoring for detecting slot PD activity. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  2. 239Np application as tracer of 237Np in liquid effluents and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diodati, Jorge M; Sartori, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a technique to separate and measure 237 Np using 239 Np as a tracer, is presented. After the radiochemical separation, a liquid scintillation measurement with pulse decay discrimination and a γ measurement on the same vial is performed. The method also allows an electrodeposition for an α and γ measurement. The chemical recoveries obtained by LSC and γ spectrometry in vial are similar to those obtained by α and γ spectrometry on electroplated disc. The MDA is 0.08 Bq/l by α spectrometry and 0.22 Bq/l by LSC, with 2 σconfidence interval, and 93.7 % measurement efficiency and 98.0% chemical recovery. (author)

  3. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and plutonium-239 dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. The purpose of this ongoing study is to investigate potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, Be metal, or these agents in combination. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high-linear-energy transfer, alpha-particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be. As a result, Be is classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United STates and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This study is in progress.

  4. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography. [Pu-238, Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martin, F.M.; Fore, C.S. (comps.)

    1977-03-01

    This eighth published bibliography of 427 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium in the critical organs of man and animals. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keyword(s), taxon, title, and publication description.

  5. The evaluation of the mass distribution data for 238U, 239Pu and 242Pu fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    2002-01-01

    The mass distribution data for 238 U at E n =1.5, 5.5, 8.3, 11.3, 14.9, 22.0, 27.5, 50.0, 99.5, 160.0 MeV, E p =20.0, 60.0 MeV 239 Pu at E n =0.17, 7.9, 14.5 MeV and 242 Pu at E n =15.1 MeV were evaluated and recommended based on the main available experimental data up to now. The experimental data were make necessary corrections and their errors were also made necessary adjustments. The problems concerned were discussed

  6. Plutonium-239, 240Pu and 210Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 239 Pu and 240 Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the 210 Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of 210 Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers

  7. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Immature beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a 1.5 μm aerodynamic diameter monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 to compare the biological effects with those seen in young adult and aged dogs exposed to a similar aerosol. To date, 18 dogs have been exposed to the aerosol, resulting in graded initial lung burdens ranging from 0.003 to 0.38 μCi/kg body weight. Two dogs have been exposed to the aerosol diluent and serve as controls. Two of the 18 exposed animals were sacrificed 8 days after exposure to provide information on initial deposition and distribution. All other exposed animals are alive 400 days after exposure. No dogs were exposed during the past year because of an outbreak of canine parvovirus enteritis which caused death in 8 to 10 week-old dogs

  8. Comparative measurements of independent yields of 239Pu fission fragments induced by thermal and resonance neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundorin, N.A.; Kopach, Y.N.; Telezhnikov, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The independent yields of 239 Pu fission fragments by means of gamma-spectroscopy method were measured for light and heavy groups on the IBR-30 reactor in Dubna. Comparative analysis of experimental data for fission induced by thermal and resonance neutrons was performed. The possibilities to increase the measurement's precision consist of the employment of a HPGe detector with high efficiency and its open-quotes activeclose quotes shielding in the gamma spectrometer, as well as a high speed electronics system. In this way the number of identified fragments will be increased and independent yields will be measured to a precision of 1-3%. Measurements at the source with shorter neutron pulse duration to increase neutron energy resolution will be possible after the reconstruction of a modern neutron source in Dubna in accordance with the IREN project

  9. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and 239PuO2 aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H.; Hahn, F.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Griffith, W.C.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high linear energy transfer alpha particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be; Be is currently classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United States and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of plutonium dioxide ( 239 PuO 2 ), Be metal, or these agents in combination

  10. Comparison of rats and dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Sanders, C.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Rats and dogs inhaled aerosols of 239 PuO 2 at comparable ages relative to their lifespan. Both received a single exposure. The estimated lung doses at death in dogs were between 1100 and 11,000 rad. From two inhalation experiments, rats receiving doses in this range were chosen from the high-level exposed animals for comparison. Based on this data base, several comparisons were investigated. Metabolism of the material was compared for all animals and for animals which developed lung tumors. The differences in histopathology and tumor incidence in the lung were also reviewed. Although there were several differences between species, there were also many similarities. On-going research in dogs should produce data which will allow clarification of these relationships

  11. /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ aerosol inhalation with emphasis on pulmonary connective tissue modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metivier, H; Masse, R; Nobil' e, D; Lafuma, J

    1975-09-01

    Inhalation studies were undertaken in which plutonium dioxide (/sup 239/PuO/sub 2/) was administered to either unanesthetized Wistar rats or anaesthetized baboons. In both groups of animals some deaths occurred from acute lung damage resulting from cell necrosis particularly to vascular tissue followed by alveolar oedema. At later stages, marked interstitial pneumonitis and interstitial fibrosis occurred and deaths resulted from respiratory insufficiency preceded by high arterial blood pCO/sub 2/ and low pO/sub 2/. In rats as many as 50% of the animals finally developed lung neoplasms but only two such tumors were found in baboons. Attempts were made to correlate biochemical parameters with observed tissue damage and animal mortality.

  12. The self-absorption effect of gamma rays in 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiaohua Hsu

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear materials assay with gamma-ray spectrum measurement is a well-established method for safeguards. However, for a thick source, the self-absorption of characteristic low-energy gamma rays has been a handicap to accurate assay. The author has carried out Monte Carlo simulations to study this effect using the 239 Pu α-decay gamma-ray spectrum as an example. The thickness of a plutonium metal source can be considered a function of gamma-ray intensity ratios. In a practical application, gamma-ray intensity ratios can be obtained from a measured spectrum. With the help of calculated curves, scientists can find the source thickness and make corrections to gamma-ray intensities, which then lead to an accurate quantitative determination of radioactive isotopes in the material

  13. Aerosols generated by 239PU and 233U droplets burning in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.S.; Raabe, O.G.

    1978-01-01

    The inhalation hazards of radioactive aerosols produced by the explosive disruption and subsequent combustion of metallic plutonium in air are not adequately understood. Results of a study to determine whether uranium can be substituted for plutonium in such a situation in which experiments were performed under identical conditions with laser-ignited, single, freely falling droplets of 239 Pu and 233 U are reported. The total amounts of aerosol produced were studied quantitatively as a function of time during the combustion. Also, particle size distributions of selected aerosols were studied with aerodynamic particle separation techniques. Results showed that the ultimate quantity of aerosols, their final particle size distributions, and depositions as a function of time are not identical mainly because of the different vapor pressures of the metals, and the unlike degrees of violence of the explosions of the droplets

  14. Comparison of potential radiological impacts of 233U and 239Pu fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.R.; Little, C.A.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Till, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles utilizing 233 U are currently the subject of considerable interest in the United States. This paper focuses on the identification of significant differences between the off-site radiological hazards posed by 232 Th/ 233 U (Th/U) and 238 U/ 239 Pu (U/Pu) fuel cycles, and represents a portion of our involvement in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), to be used in support of the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). The major contributors to radiological dose are likely to be uranium mining and milling (58.5% of total fuel cycle dose), reprocessing (33.9%), and light-water reactor power generation (7.3%). The remainder of the cycle, including enrichment processes, fuel fabrication, transportation, and waste management, contributes only 0.3% to total estimated fuel cycle dose

  15. Thermal-Neutron-Induced Fission of U235, U233 and Pu239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.D.; Gibson, W.M.; Safford, G.J.

    1965-01-01

    We have used solid-state detectors to measure the kinetic energies of the coincident fission fragments in the thermal-neutron-induced fission of U 235 , U 233 and Pu 239 . Special care has been taken to eliminate spurious-events near symmetry to give an accurate measure of such quantities as the average total kinetic energy at symmetry. For each fissioning system over 10 6 events were recorded. As a result the statistics are good enough to see definite evidence for fine structure over a wide range of masses and energies. The data have been analysed to give mass yield curves, average kinetic energies as a function of mass, and other quantities of interest. For each fissioning system the average total kinetic energy goes through a maximum for a heavy fragment mass of about 132 and for the corresponding light fragment mass. There is a pronounced minimum at symmetry, although not as deep as that found in time-of-flight experiments. The difference between the maximum average kinetic energy and that at symmetry is about 32 MeV for U 235 , 18 MeV for U 233 and 20 MeV for Pu 239 . The dispersion of kinetic energies at symmetry is also smaller than that found in time-of-flight experiments. Fine structure is apparent in two different representations of the data. The energy spectrum of heavy fragments in coincidence with light fragment energies is greater than the most probable value. This structure becomes more pronounced as the light fragment energy increases. The mass yield curves for a given total kinetic energy show a structure suggesting a preference for fission fragments with masses ∼134, ∼140 and ∼145 (and their light fragment partners). Much of the structure observed can be understood by considering a semi-empirical mass surface and a simple model for the nuclear configuration at the saddle point. (author) [fr

  16. Evaluation of cross-section uncertainties using physical constraints for 238U, 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Saint Jean, Cyrille; Privas, Edwin; Archier, Pascal; Noguere, Gilles; Litaize, Olivier; Leconte, Pierre; Bernard, David

    2014-01-01

    Neutron-induced reactions between 0 eV and 20 MeV are based on various physical properties such as nuclear reaction models, microscopic and integral measurements. Most of the time, the evaluation work is done independently between the resolved resonance range and the continuum, giving rise to mismatches for the cross-sections, larger uncertainties on boundary and no cross-correlation between high-energy domain and resonance range. In addition the use of integral experiment is sometimes only related to central values (evaluation is 'working fine' on a dedicated set of benchmarks) and reductions of uncertainties are not straightforward on cross-sections themselves: working fine could be mathematically reflected by a reduced uncertainty. As the CIELO initiative is to bring experts in each field to propose/discuss these matters, after having presented the status of 238 U and 239 Pu cross-sections covariances evaluation (for JEFF-3.2 as well as the WPEC SG34 subgroup), this paper will present several methodologies that may be used to avoid such effects on covariances. A first idea based on the use of experiments overlapping two energy domains appeared in the near past. It was reviewed and extended to the use of systematic uncertainties (normalisation for example) and for integral experiments as well. In addition, we propose a methodology taking into account physical constraints on an overlapping energy domain where both nuclear reaction models are used (continuity of both cross-sections and derivatives for example). The use of Lagrange multiplier (related to these constraints) in a classical generalised least square procedure will be exposed. Some academic examples will then be presented for both point-wise and multi-group cross-sections to present the methodologies. In addition, new results for 239 Pu will be presented on resonance range and higher energies to reduce capture and fission cross-section uncertainties by using integral experiments (JEZEBEL experiment as

  17. A comparative study of the carcinogenetic effects of 241Am, 239Pu and 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yumin; Wei Zhikang; Chen Xueyi; Yao Yongheng; Liu Peibin; Xu Lin; Lun Mingyao

    1984-01-01

    In this experiment, 420 wistar rats were used to study the comparative carcinogenetic effects of 241 Am, 239 Pu and 237 Np. These nuclides were injected to animals intravenously, subcutaneously or directly into the lung (Stansen's lung puncture method) in doses of 1.0, 5.0 and 8.5 μCi/kg, respectively. As soluble nitrate, the nuclides were rapidly transfered from the site of injection into the bone and the liver. Osteosarcomas were found in some animals 8 months to one year after intoxication. Diagnosis of osteosarcoma is based on the histopatological examination and X-ray photography. In the Am-poisoned rats the incidence of osteosarcoma is about 31-74%, varied with different doses and different routes of intoxication; in Pu-poisoned rats, the incidence of osteosarcoma is about 55-66%. while in Np-poisoned rats, it is about 36-53%. Primary lung cancers were also found in those animals poisoned by means of Stansen's lung puncture method with the above three nuclides. The incidence of primary lung cancers is about 6% in Am-and Pu-poisoned rats and 13% in Np-poisoned rats. The incidence of metastasis of osteosarcoma in lung is about 25-65% for Am-poisoned rats, 45-55% for Pu-poisoned rats and 41-80% for Np-poisoned rats. The life-span of above poisoned rats was significantly shorter than that of the normal control animals. The chemical weight for 241 Am, 239 Pu and 237 Np in same unit of radioactivity (1.0 μCi) equals to 0.308 μg, 15.9 μg and 1418.7 μg, respectively. For this reason, we have to pay more attention to the chemical mass effect in carcinogenesis of the above three nuclides

  18. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia); Wisnubroto, Djarot S. [The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup −1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup −1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup −3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup −3}.

  19. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations and the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in a sediment core from the sub-aqueous delta of Yangtze River estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, S.M., E-mail: span@nju.edu.cn [Key Lab of Ministry of Education of Coast and Island Development, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tims, S.G. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu, X.Y. [Key Lab of Ministry of Education of Coast and Island Development, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    A sediment core collected from the sub-aqueous delta of the Yangtze River estuary was subjected to analyses of {sup 137}Cs and plutonium (Pu) isotopes. The {sup 137}Cs was measured using {gamma}-spectrometry at the laboratories at the Nanjing University and Pu isotopes were determined with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), measurements made at the Australian National University. The results show considerable structure in the depth concentration profiles of the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu. The shape of the vertical {sup 137}Cs distribution in the sediment core was similar to that of the Pu. The maximum {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations were 16.21 {+-} 0.95 mBq/g and 0.716 {+-} 0.030 mBq/g, respectively, and appear at same depth. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio was 0.238 {+-} 0.007 in the sediment core, slightly higher than the average global fallout value. The changes in the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the sediment core indicate the presence of at least two different Pu sources, i.e., global fallout and another source, most likely close-in fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands, and suggest the possibility that Pu isotopes are useful as a geochronological tool for coastal sediment studies. The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu inventories were estimated to be 7100 {+-} 1200 Bq/m{sup 2} and 407 {+-} 27 Bq/m{sup 2}, respectively. Approximately 40% of the {sup 239+240}Pu inventory originated from the PPG close-in fallout and about 50% has derived from land-origin global fallout transported to the estuary by the river. This study confirms that AMS is a useful tool to measure {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio and can provide valuable information on sedimentary processes in the coastal environment.

  20. Deconvolution of 238,239,240Pu conversion electron spectra measured with a silicon drift detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommé, S.; Marouli, M.; Paepen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Internal conversion electron (ICE) spectra of thin 238,239,240Pu sources, measured with a windowless Peltier-cooled silicon drift detector (SDD), were deconvoluted and relative ICE intensities were derived from the fitted peak areas. Corrections were made for energy dependence of the full...

  1. 49 CFR 23.9 - What are the nondiscrimination and assurance requirements of this part for recipients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., national origin, or sex in connection with the award or performance of any concession agreement, management... Transportation PARTICIPATION OF DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN AIRPORT CONCESSIONS General § 23.9 What are... performance of any concession agreement, management contract or subcontract, purchase or lease agreement, or...

  2. 8-group relative delayed neutron yields for epithermal neutron induced fission of 235U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Kazakov, L.E.; Isaev, S.G.; Korolev, G.G.; Roshchenko, V.A.; Tertychnyj, R.G

    2002-01-01

    An 8-group representation of relative delayed neutron yields was obtained for epithermal neutron induced fission of 235 U and 239 Pu. These data were compared with ENDF/B-VI data in terms of the average half- life of the delayed neutron precursors and on the basis of the dependence of reactivity on the asymptotic period. (author)

  3. 16 CFR 239.3 - “Satisfaction Guarantees” and similar representations in advertising; disclosure in advertising...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âSatisfaction Guaranteesâ and similar... GUIDES FOR THE ADVERTISING OF WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES § 239.3 “Satisfaction Guarantees” and similar representations in advertising; disclosure in advertising that mentions “satisfaction guarantees” or similar...

  4. Studies of the Fission Integrals of U-{sup 235} and Pu-{sup 239} with Cadmium and Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, E

    1965-04-15

    The resonance fissions in U{sup 235} and Pu{sup 239} have been studied using cadmium and boron filters. Fission chambers were used as detectors and the experiments were performed in beam geometry. The neutron energy distribution in the beams transmitted through the different filters was determined with a fast chopper. From the cadmium filter, measurements the fission resonance integrals were determined. The values obtained were 278{+-}9 b for U{sup 235} and 301{+-}10 b for Pu{sup 239}; 0.5 eV < E < 1 MeV. Complementary Pu{sup 239} measurements were made in which the fission events were detected from the fission product activity in irradiated foils. Contrary to what has been reported elsewhere the value of the Pu{sup 239} resonance integral, found in this way, agreed well with that obtained from the fission chamber measurement. The experiments with the boron filters yielded results which, for the thin filter, agreed well with those calculated from the cross section data given in the Karlsruhe compilation. The discrepancy was larger for the thick filter but the values did not disagree outside the common limits of error.

  5. Comparison of metabolism and late effects in dogs and rats exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Sanders, C.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Lung tumors were observed proportionally earlier in relation to expected life span in dogs than in rats after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 . Dogs appear to translocate a higher percentage of initial lung burden to liver, skeleton and thoracic lymph nodes than rats

  6. Quantitative study of pulmonary lesions and epithelial proliferation following inhalation of 239PuO2 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, K.; Adee, R.R.; Sanders, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Morphometric analyses of lung parenchyma exposed to 239 PuO 2 indicated a volumetric increase in pulmonary fibrosis, epithelial metaplasia, and neoplasia with increasing time after exposure. Metaplastic and neoplastic lesions usually occupied less than 1% of the total lung volume

  7. Measurements of Pu239:U235 fission ratio using foils at temperatures up to 400 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, D H; Puckett, B J; Richards, A E [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-05-15

    The paper describes the use of activation foils for the measurement of Pu239:U235 fission ratios in subcritical lattices at temperatures up to 390 deg C. Counting techniques and the method of analysis of the results are described in detail and the results are compared with fission chamber measurements. (author) 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. A preliminary assessment of sup(239,240)Pu concentrations in a stream near Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Marshall, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The plutonium levels in Sawmill Creek, a stream which flows through the site of the Argonne National Laboratory have been determined and are compared here with the environmental levels reported in related studies. The major source of artificial radioactivity in the creek is Argonne's nuclear facilities which produce low-level wastes following clean-up and dilution in the ANL sewage plant. Samples were collected within 1 mile upstream and 1 mile downstream of ANL's waste discharge into the creek. Samples consisted of filtered water, filterable solids, whole water, Cladophora sp., sunfish (gill and G.I. tracts), isopods, and sediments. Results showed that: (1) The filterable solids from the effluent water contained 99% of 239 Pu in contrast to 37% from the upstream water sample. (2) The downstream 239 Pu levels in the whole water of Sawmill Creek were much higher than those reported in related studies. (3) 239 Pu appears to be scavenged primarily by Cladophora sp. in the downstream water of the creek. (4) Fish G.I. tract and its content contained seven times more 239 Pu activity than fish gills. (U.K.)

  9. 17 CFR 239.40 - Form F-10, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...

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    ...) This Form may not be used for registration of derivative securities except: (1) Warrants, options and... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form F-10, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian issuers. 239.40 Section 239.40...

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    ... under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate companies. 239.18 Section 239.18... Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate companies. This form shall be used for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of (a) securities issued by real estate investment trusts, as...

  11. 17 CFR 239.41 - Form F-80, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...

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    ... completed fiscal years immediately prior to the business combination, when combined with the listing history... offers or a business combination. 239.41 Section 239.41 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... issuers to be issued in exchange offers or a business combination. (a) Form F-80 may be used for...

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    ... completed fiscal years immediately prior to the business combination, when combined with the listing history... offers or a business combination. 239.38 Section 239.38 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... issuers to be issued in exchange offers or a business combination. (a) Form F-8 may be used for...

  13. 17 CFR 239.42 - Form F-X, for appointment of agent for service of process and undertaking for issuers registering...

    Science.gov (United States)

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    ..., rights offering or business combination. 239.42 Section 239.42 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... tender offer, rights offering or business combination. Form F-X shall be filed with the Commission: (a... in connection with a tender offer, rights offering or business combination. [73 FR 972, Jan. 4, 2008] ...

  14. Effects of the histamine H₃ receptor antagonist ABT-239 on cognition and nicotine-induced memory enhancement in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Marta; Miszkiel, Joanna; McCreary, Andrew C; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Małgorzata; Biała, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    The strong correlation between central histaminergic and cholinergic pathways on cognitive processes has been reported extensively. However, the role of histamine H(3) receptor mechanisms interacting with nicotinic mechanisms has not previously been extensively investigated. The current study was conducted to determine the interactions of nicotinic and histamine H(3) receptor systems with regard to learning and memory function using a modified elevated plus-maze test in mice. In this test, the latency for mice to move from the open arm to the enclosed arm (i.e., transfer latency) was used as an index of memory. We tested whether ABT-239 (4-(2-{2-[(2R)-2-methylpyrrolidinyl]ethyl}-benzofuran-5-yl), an H(3) receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, had influence on two different stages of memory, i.e., memory acquisition and consolidation (administered prior to or immediately after the first trial, respectively) and whether ABT-239 influenced nicotine-induced memory enhancement. Our results revealed that the acute administration of nicotine (0.035 and 0.175 mg/kg), but not of ABT-239 (0.1-3 mg/kg) reduced transfer latency in the acquisition and consolidation phases. In combination studies, concomitant administration of either ABT-239 (1 and 3 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.035 mg/kg), or ABT-239 (0.1 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.0175 mg/kg) further increased nicotine-induced improvement in both memory acquisition and consolidation. The present data confirm an important role for H(3) receptors in regulating nicotine-induced mnemonic effects since inhibition of H(3) receptors augmented nicotine-induced memory enhancement in mice.

  15. Suitability of 239+240Pu and 137Cs as tracers for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides have been distributed globally due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. While the negative consequences of this radioactive contamination are self-evident, the ubiquitous fallout radionuclides (FRNs) distribution form the basis for the use as tracers in ecological studies, namely for soil erosion assessment. Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. We compare the suitability of the anthropogenic FRNs, 137Cs and 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracers in two alpine valleys of Switzerland (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri, Central Swiss Alps and Val Piora, Ticino, Southern Alps). We sampled reference and potentially erosive sites in transects along both valleys. 137Cs measurements of soil samples were performed with a Li-drifted Germanium detector and 239+240Pu with ICP-MS. Our data indicates a heterogeneous deposition of the 137Cs, since most of the fallout origins from the Chernobyl April/May 1986 accident, when large parts of the European Alps were still snow-covered. In contrast, 239+240Pu fallout originated mainly from 1950s to 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, resulting in a more homogenous distribution and thus seems to be a more suitable tracer in mountainous grasslands. Soil erosion assessment using 239+240Pu as a tracer pointed to a huge dynamic and high heterogeneity of erosive processes (between sedimentation of 1.9 and 7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.2-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the Urseren Valley and sedimentation of 0.4-20.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.1-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) at Val Piora). Our study represents a novel and successful application of 239+240Pu as a tracer of soil erosion in a mountain environment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. 239Pu prompt fission neutron spectra impact on a set of criticality and experimental reactor benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peneliau, Y.; Litaize, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.

    2014-01-01

    A large set of nuclear data are investigated to improve the calculation predictions of the new neutron transport simulation codes. With the next generation of nuclear power plants (GEN IV projects), one expects to reduce the calculated uncertainties which are mainly coming from nuclear data and are still very important, before taking into account integral information in the adjustment process. In France, future nuclear power plant concepts will probably use MOX fuel, either in Sodium Fast Reactors or in Gas Cooled Fast Reactors. Consequently, the knowledge of 239 Pu cross sections and other nuclear data is crucial issue in order to reduce these sources of uncertainty. The Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra (PFNS) for 239 Pu are part of these relevant data (an IAEA working group is even dedicated to PFNS) and the work presented here deals with this particular topic. The main international data files (i.e. JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0, BRC-2009) have been considered and compared with two different spectra, coming from the works of Maslov and Kornilov respectively. The spectra are first compared by calculating their mathematical moments in order to characterize them. Then, a reference calculation using the whole JEFF-3.1.1 evaluation file is performed and compared with another calculation performed with a new evaluation file, in which the data block containing the fission spectra (MF=5, MT=18) is replaced by the investigated spectra (one for each evaluation). A set of benchmarks is used to analyze the effects of PFNS, covering criticality cases and mock-up cases in various neutron flux spectra (thermal, intermediate, and fast flux spectra). Data coming from many ICSBEP experiments are used (PU-SOL-THERM, PU-MET-FAST, PU-MET-INTER and PU-MET-MIXED) and French mock-up experiments are also investigated (EOLE for thermal neutron flux spectrum and MASURCA for fast neutron flux spectrum). This study shows that many experiments and neutron parameters are very sensitive to

  17. Triggered massive star formation associated with the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duronea, N. U.; Cappa, C. E.; Bronfman, L.; Borissova, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Kuhn, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We perform a multiwavelength analysis of the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5) and its environs with the aim of studying the physical properties of Galactic IR bubbles and exploring their impact in triggering massive star formation. Methods: To analyze the molecular gas, we used CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3) line data obtained with the on-the-fly technique from the ASTE telescope. To study the distribution and physical characteristics of the dust, we made use of archival data from ATLASGAL, Herschel, and MSX, while the ionized gas was studied making use of an NVSS image. We used public WISE, Spitzer, and MSX point source catalogs to search for infrared candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. To investigate the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6 we used IR spectroscopic data obtained with the ARCoIRIS spectrograph, mounted on Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, and new available IR Ks band observations from the VVVeXtended ESO Public Survey (VVVX). Results: The new ASTE observations allowed the molecular gas component in the velocity range from 30 km s-1 to 46 km s-1, associated with Sh2-39, to be studied in detail. The morphology of the molecular gas suggests that the ionized gas is expanding against its parental cloud. We identified four molecular clumps, which were likely formed by the expansion of the ionization front, and determined some of their physical and dynamical properties. Clumps with HCO+ and 870 μm counterparts show evidence of gravitational collapse. We identified several candidate YSOs across the molecular component. Their spatial distribution and the fragmentation time derived for the collected layers of the molecular gas suggest that massive star formation might have been triggered by the expansion of the nebula via the collect and collapse mechanism. The spectroscopical distance obtained for the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6, placed over one of the collapsing clumps in the border of the Hii region, reveals that this cluster is physically associated with

  18. SALT reveals the barium central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2-39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, B.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jones, D.; Karakas, A. I.; Köppen, J.; Tyndall, A. A.; Mohamed, S. S.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Santander-García, M.

    2013-12-01

    Classical barium stars are binary systems which consist of a late-type giant enriched in carbon and slow neutron capture (s-process) elements and an evolved white dwarf (WD) that is invisible at optical wavelengths. The youngest observed barium stars are surrounded by planetary nebulae (PNe), ejected soon after the wind accretion of polluted material when the WD was in its preceding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Such systems are rare but powerful laboratories for studying AGB nucleosynthesis as we can measure the chemical abundances of both the polluted star and the nebula ejected by the polluter. Here, we present evidence for a barium star in the PN Hen 2-39 (PN G283.8-04.2) as one of only a few known systems. The polluted giant is very similar to that found in WeBo 1 (PN G135.6+01.0). It is a cool (Teff = 4250 ± 150 K) giant enhanced in carbon ([C/H] = 0.42 ± 0.02 dex) and barium ([Ba/Fe] = 1.50 ± 0.25 dex). A spectral type of C-R3 C24 nominally places Hen 2-39 amongst the peculiar early R-type carbon stars; however, the barium enhancement and likely binary status mean that it is more likely to be a barium star with similar properties, rather than a true member of this class. An AGB star model of initial mass 1.8 M⊙ and a relatively large carbon pocket size can reproduce the observed abundances well, provided mass is transferred in a highly conservative way from the AGB star to the polluted star (e.g. wind Roche lobe overflow). It also shows signs of chromospheric activity and photometric variability with a possible rotation period of ˜5.5 d likely induced by wind accretion. The nebula exhibits an apparent ring morphology in keeping with the other PNe around barium stars (WeBo 1 and A 70) and shows a high degree of ionization implying the presence of an invisible hot pre-WD companion that will require confirmation with UV observations. In contrast to A 70, the nebular chemical abundance pattern is consistent with non-Type I PNe, in keeping with the

  19. Late aftereffect of inhailed 239Pu labelled with Ca or ZnDTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levdik, T.I.; Lyubchanskij, Eh.R.; Nifatov, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments made on rats showed that early (in 30 min and 3 h) aerosol therapy with Ca- or ZnDTPA and subsequent (during 2 months) intraperitoneal administration of respective DTPA salts after inhalation of 0.08-0.06 μCi of 239 Pu nitrate (pH 1.0) give ground to reduce the dose in the lungs from 915-690 down to 440-348 rad, in the skeleton from 74-64 down to 7.0-5.4 rad and also to provide the prolongation of the life span of rats from 522-602 up to 667-658 days. The incidence of inflammatory processes and malignant new growths undergoes no changes under the effect of complexonotherapy but the time of their development draws back, and the spectrum of tumours varies. In the treated rats the incidence of hemangiosarcomas of the lungs and osteosarcomas decreases and that of reticulosarcomas of the lungs increases. The life span of these animals is reduced by 100-150 days against the average in animals (16.6-26.2%) with severe inflammatory processes. The expediency of using antiinflammatory agents and the drugs raising the resistance of the body is discussed

  20. Osteosarcomas among beagles exposed to 239Plutonium. Technical report No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1980-03-01

    A Weibull distribution was fit to the osteosarcoma death times of beagles given single intravenous injections of 239 Pu. For injected doses in the range 0 to 1 μCi/kg the osteosarcoma incidence rate h(t) at t days after injection can be fit by a quadratic function of the injected dose. The best fitting linear function was rejected by the data (p < 0.001). A different formula for h(t), derived from amultistage theory for osteosarcoma induction, was also fit to these data. For this purpose microdosimetry calculations were used to estimate the dose to the cells at risk in the endosteal layer (endosteal dose). According to the best fit, h(t) is a quadratic function of endosteal dose at low doses. A linear dose-response relationship was agan rejected. The absence of a linear component at low doses might be explained by the fact that 108 of the 185 animals injected at the lowest doses (< 0.02 μCi/kg) were still alive at the time these data were collected

  1. Isotopic yield measurement in the heavy mass region for 239Pu thermal neutron induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bail, A.; Serot, O.; Mathieu, L.; Litaize, O.; Materna, T.; Koester, U.; Faust, H.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of fission yield data available in the different evaluated nuclear data libraries, such as JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, and JENDL-4.0, more accurate data are still needed both for nuclear energy applications and for our understanding of the fission process itself. It is within the framework of this that measurements on the recoil mass spectrometer Lohengrin (at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France) was undertaken, to determine isotopic yields for the heavy fission products from the 239 Pu(n th ,f) reaction. In order to do this, a new experimental method based on γ-ray spectrometry was developed and validated by comparing our results with those performed in the light mass region with completely different setups. Hence, about 65 fission product yields were measured with an uncertainty that has been reduced on average by a factor of 2 compared to that previously available in the nuclear data libraries. In addition, for some fission products, a strongly deformed ionic charge distribution compared to a normal Gaussian shape was found, which was interpreted as being caused by the presence of a nanosecond isomeric state. Finally, a nuclear charge polarization has been observed in agreement, with the one described on other close fissioning systems.

  2. Isotopic yield measurement in the heavy mass region for 239Pu thermal neutron induced fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, A.; Serot, O.; Mathieu, L.; Litaize, O.; Materna, T.; Köster, U.; Faust, H.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.

    2011-09-01

    Despite the huge number of fission yield data available in the different evaluated nuclear data libraries, such as JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, and JENDL-4.0, more accurate data are still needed both for nuclear energy applications and for our understanding of the fission process itself. It is within the framework of this that measurements on the recoil mass spectrometer Lohengrin (at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France) was undertaken, to determine isotopic yields for the heavy fission products from the 239Pu(nth,f) reaction. In order to do this, a new experimental method based on γ-ray spectrometry was developed and validated by comparing our results with those performed in the light mass region with completely different setups. Hence, about 65 fission product yields were measured with an uncertainty that has been reduced on average by a factor of 2 compared to that previously available in the nuclear data libraries. In addition, for some fission products, a strongly deformed ionic charge distribution compared to a normal Gaussian shape was found, which was interpreted as being caused by the presence of a nanosecond isomeric state. Finally, a nuclear charge polarization has been observed in agreement, with the one described on other close fissioning systems.

  3. Relative effectiveness of 239Pu and some other internal emitters for bone cancer induction in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Bruenger, F.W.; Jee, W.S.S.; Angus, W.

    1994-01-01

    The toxicity ratio (relative effectiveness per gray of average skeletal dose) has been estimated for bone cancer induction in beagles injected as young adults with a number of bone-seeking internal emitters. These experiments yielded calculated toxicity ratios (± SD) relative to 226 Ra = 1.0 of 239 Pu = 16 ± 5 (single exposure to monomeric Pu) and 32 ± 10 (continuous exposure from an extraskeletal deposit in the body), 224 Ra = 16 ± 5 (chronic exposure) and approximately 6 ± 2 (single exposure), 228 Th = 8.5 ± 2.3, 241 Am = 6 ± 0.8, 228 Ra = 2.0 ± 0.5, 249 Cf = 6 ± 3, 252 Cf = 4 ±2, 90 Sr = 1.0 ± 0.5 (for high doses) and 0.05 ± 0.03 (for low doses) and 0.01 ± 0.01 (for extremely low doses). Because no skeletal malignancies were observed among beagles given only 253 Es, the toxicity ratio is undefined. 43 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Effects of the herbicide glyphosate on the uptake of 239Pu and 241Am to vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Shaw, S.

    1990-01-01

    Glyphosate (n-phosphonomethyl glycine) is a broad spectrum herbicide widely used in lowland agriculture, forestry and improved upland pastures. Although its metal chelating properties are well established, its interaction with radionuclides remains unknown. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of soil applications of glyphosate on the uptake of 239 Pu and 241 Am to peas and carrots grown in loam, peat and sand soils. Soil-to-plant transfer factors were calculated for treated and untreated soils at harvest. The most marked effect was an increase in 241 Am uptake to crops grown in loam soil. Supplementary laboratory batch experiments were conducted by shaking radiolabelled soil and its associated soil solution with glyphosate. The activity concentration of 241 Am increased ten fold in the liquid phase of loam soils treated with glyphosate. It is postulated that this 241 Am desorption could have been mediated by the formation of a stable Am-glyphosate complex which was subsequently more available for crop uptake than Am alone. (author)

  5. Effects of combined inhalation exposure of rats to 239PuO2 and beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Hoover, M.D.; Haley, P.J.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    We exposed rats acutely to achieve one of two initial lung burdens (ILBs) of 239 PuO 2 alone or in combination with one of three ILBs of beryllium metal. Additional control groups of rats were sham exposed to air. Currently, approximately 58% of all rats planned for inclusion have been exposed. This report describes procedures used for the exposure, maintenance, and evaluation of rats in this study. Most of the animals are to be held for their life span in order to quantitate cancer incidence, with other animals assigned to serial sacrifice groups for quantitation of Pu and Be retention and determination of translocation patterns. Exposure to beryllium at any of the three doses tested retarded clearance of plutonium from the lung by a factor of approximately six. Acute inflammatory responses were studied in a separate group of rats exposed to Be. Except for rats receiving the highest ILB of beryllium metal, no differences between exposed and sham-exposed control groups have yet been noted in terms of mortality, weight changes, and clinical signs. (author)

  6. Distribution of 239Pu and 241Am in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Swint, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The 241 Am and 239 Pu distribution in the skeletons of two former nuclear workers has been measured. The skeletons of both individuals appear to be within normal limits for Caucasian men about 50 y old. Both had lower limb bones that were heavier than the age controls and Case I had upper-body bones that were lighter than the age control group. The distribution of americium in the skeleton of Case I, 25 years post exposure, indicated that a more rapid turnover of initially deposited americium on the bone surfaces of cancellous bone, as compared to that deposited on the bone surfaces of compact bone, had occurred. This resulted in a larger proportion of americium located in the compact bone of the extremities and a lesser quantity in the more cancellous bones of the vertebral column, pelvis and rib cage. A similar shift in the distribution of plutonium occurred in Case II in the 35 y since initial deposition, but at a slower rate than that for americium. The ratio of each actinide in the liver to that in the systemic system (liver content/systemic system content) was 0.065 and 0.436, for americium and plutonium, respectively, suggesting that a much more rapid turnover of americium in the liver, compared to plutonium, provided a much larger fraction of that nuclide for circulatory feedback to the remodeling skeletal system. 8 references, 3 tables

  7. Using 239Pu as a tracer for fine sediment sources in the Daly River, Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Daly River drains a large (52500 km2 and mainly undisturbed catchment in the Australian wet–dry tropics. Clearing and cropping since 2002 have raised concerns about possible increased sediment input into the river and motivated this study of its fine sediment sources. Using 239Pu as a tracer it is shown that the fine sediments originate mainly from erosion by gullying and channel change. Although the results also indicate that the surface soil contribution to the river channel sediments from sheet erosion has increased to 5-22% for the Daly River and 7-28% for the Douglas River (a tributary of the Daly River in 2009 vs. 3-6% for the Daly River and 4-9% for the Douglas River in 2005. This excess top soil likely originates from thecleared land adjacent to the Daly River since 2005. However, channel widening largely as a result of hydrologic change is still the dominant sediment source in this catchment.

  8. Dominant lethal and ovarian effects of plutonium-239 in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, A.G.; Beechey, C.V.; Green, D.; Howells, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    (C3H x 101)F 1 female mice were injected intravenously with 239 Pu in trisodium citrate, then mated in pairs to strain CBA males, to test for dominant lethality. In the first experiment 10μCi kg -1 and in the second 20μCi kg -1 body mass was injected. Matings were after 6 days in the first experiment (estimated ovarian absorbed dose of 0.1 Gy) and after 3,6 or 12 weeks in the second (estimated ovarian doses of 1.11, 2.45 and 5.91 Gy respectively). No evidence of dominant lethal induction was found in the first experiment, but in the second there was a significant increase over controls in pre-implantation loss in all three series. Post-implantation lethality increased significantly (by 12%) only after 12 weeks' exposure. With the 6- and 12-week exposures (especially the latter) luteal counts fell, fewer females becoming pregnant than in controls. This is attributed to oocyte killing by the α-particles. Histological and autoradiographic investigations showed a marked reduction in ovarian size and follicular numbers with fission-tracks clustered mainly over the medullary stroma. The preimplantation loss may stem from lowered fertilization of oocytes because of their damage, so that the best measure of dominant lethality is that based on post-implantation death. (author)

  9. Pu239 Cross-Section Variations Based on Experimental Uncertainties and Covariances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigeti, David Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, D. Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-18

    Algorithms and software have been developed for producing variations in plutonium-239 neutron cross sections based on experimental uncertainties and covariances. The varied cross-section sets may be produced as random samples from the multi-variate normal distribution defined by an experimental mean vector and covariance matrix, or they may be produced as Latin-Hypercube/Orthogonal-Array samples (based on the same means and covariances) for use in parametrized studies. The variations obey two classes of constraints that are obligatory for cross-section sets and which put related constraints on the mean vector and covariance matrix that detemine the sampling. Because the experimental means and covariances do not obey some of these constraints to sufficient precision, imposing the constraints requires modifying the experimental mean vector and covariance matrix. Modification is done with an algorithm based on linear algebra that minimizes changes to the means and covariances while insuring that the operations that impose the different constraints do not conflict with each other.

  10. Incidence of liver tumors in beagles with body burdens of 239Pu or 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.; Wrenn, M.E.; Shabestari, L.; Lloyd, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Tetravalent 239 Pu or trivalent 241 Am in a citrate buffer, given via a single intravenous injection to beagles, induced very pronounced liver changes, usually at relatively long postinjection times. The lesions consisted of cell injury or cell necrosis which was followed by nodular hyperplasia and a significant incidence of primary liver tumors. The most frequent neoplasm was the bile duct adenoma, followed by the bile duct carcinoma. A lesser number of sarcomas were also induced, especially fibrosarcomas. The number of hepatic cell tumors was low. An abnormally high incidence of both hyperplastic nodules and primary liver tumors occurred at long postinjection times and at average doses extending down to ∼10 rads. The various nodular lesions and liver tumors frequently occurred as incidental findings in dogs dying from other causes, especially bone cancer. In comparison to bone neoplasia, the liver was a much less important target organ in the high-dose level groups, but in some of the low-dose groups, especially in the 241 Am groups, the risk of radiation-induced liver cancer was approximately equal to or exceeded the risk of skeletal tumors. However, in any projection of the risks observed in this animal model to man, one should be mindful that the beagle skeleton is approximately 25 times more sensitive to radiation-induced bone neoplasia than is the human skeleton (Mays et al., 1976) and that the radiosensitivity difference for the beagle and human liver is unknown. 41 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Is 239+240Pu the new tracer for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. However, there has been limited scientific interest in this significant environmental problem. Minimal attention has been given towards its mitigation by policy makers. Limited information in this area is partly due to the difficulty of quantifying soil erosion in mountain environments having un-ploughed soils, steep, complex topography, and harsh climates. In many environments, fallout radionuclides (FRNs) have been widely used to quantify soil particle movement and net erosion rates. A wide variety of artificial radionuclides have been deposited globally via nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. Large-scale atmospheric tests of thermonuclear weapons resulted in the injection of debris into the stratosphere; following which isotopes such as 137 Cs, 239 Pu and 240 Pu deposited relatively uniformly on a local scale. While it is unfortunate that these isotopes were released into the environment, it is at the same time fortuitous that these FRNs can serve as valuable tracers of recent earth surface processes, including assessing soil erosion

  12. Performance of cladding on MOX fuel with low 240Pu/239Pu ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, K.; Blanpain, P.; Morris, R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world's first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding. (authors)

  13. Incidence of brain tumours in rats exposed to an aerosol of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of brain tumours was investigated in 3390 female and male Wistar rats exposed to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 , or as sham-exposed controls. Lung doses ranged from 0.05 to 22 Gy. In females, six brain tumours were found in 1058 control rats (incidence, 0.6%) and 24 brain tumours in 2134 rats exposed to Pu (incidence, 1.1%); the survival-adjusted level of significance was p = 0.29 for comparing control with exposed females. In males, two brain tumours were found in 60 control rats (incidence, 3.3%) and seven brain tumours in 138 rats exposed to Pu (incidence, 5.1%); the survival-adjusted level of significance was p = 0.33. Brain tumour incidence was about five times greater in male than in female rats (p = 0.0001), a highly significant sex difference in brain tumour incidence. Tumour types were distributed similarly among control and Pu-exposed groups of both sexes; most were astrocytomas. Mean lifespans for rats with brain tumours were not significantly different between control and Pu-exposed rats. (author)

  14. Short Lived Fission Product Yield Measurements in 235U, 238U and 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Jack; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner; Krishichayan, Fnu; Finch, Sean; Gooden, Matthew; Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    Yields of short lived fission products (FPYs) with half lives of a few minutes to an hour contain a wealth of information about the fission process. Knowledge of short lived FPYs would contribute to existing data on longer lived FPY mass and charge distributions. Of particular interest are the relative yields between the ground states and isomeric states of FPYs since these isomeric ratios can be used to determine the angular momentum of the fragments. Over the past five years, a LLNL-TUNL-LANL collaboration has made precision measurements of FPYs from quasi-monoenergetic neutron induced fission of 235U, 238U and 239Pu. These efforts focused on longer lived FPYs, using a well characterized dual fission chamber and several days of neutron beam exposure. For the first time, this established technique will be applied to measuring short lived FPYs, with half lives of minutes to less than an hour. A feasibility study will be performed using irradiation times of < 1 hour, improving the sensitivity to short lived FPYs by limiting the buildup of long lived isotopes. Results from this exploratory study will be presented, and the implications for isomeric ratio measurements will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Measurement of the fission cross-section of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu for thermal neutrons; Mesures des sections de fission de {sup 235}U et de {sup 239}Pu en neutrons thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraysse, G; Prosdocimi, A; Netter, F; Samour, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Improved techniques of fast detection have been applied for determining the fission cross-sections of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu with reference to the absorption cross-section of Boron. Monochromatic neutron beams of 0.0322 eV, 0.0626 eV and 0.275 eV have been employed. Use has been made of a Xe-filled gaseous scintillator and of a low-geometry solid state ion chamber. Both measured alpha and fission rates. The results at the reference energy of 0.0253 eV are: ({sigma}{sub F}){sub 0} {sup 235}U = 588 {+-} 10 barns ({sigma}{sub F}){sub 0} {sup 239}Pu = 738 {+-} 7 barns. (authors) [French] Des techniques avancees de comptage rapide ont ete mise en oeuvre pour determiner la section efficace de fission de {sup 235}U et de {sup 239}Pu par rapport a celle d'absorption du bore. Des faisceaux de neutrons monochromatiques de 0,0322 eV, 0,0626 eV et 0,275 eV ont ete employes. Les detecteurs utilises sont un scintillateur gazeux rempli de xenon et une chambre d'ionisation a etat solide a basse geometrie. Les deux ont mesure les taux des desintegrations alpha et des fissions. Les resultats a l'energie de reference de 0,0253 eV sont: ({sigma}{sub F}){sub 0} {sup 235}U = 588 {+-} 10 barns ({sigma}{sub F}){sub 0} {sup 239}Pu = 738 {+-} 7 barns. (auteurs)

  16. Alecto - results obtained with homogeneous critical experiments on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233; Alecto - resultats des experiences critiques homogenes realisees sur le plutonium 239, l'uranium 235 et l'uranium 233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruna, J G; Brunet, J P; Caizegues, R; Clouet d' Orval, Ch; Kremser, J; Tellier, H; Verriere, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In this report are given the results of the homogeneous critical experiments ALECTO, made on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233. After a brief description of the equipment, the critical masses for cylinders of diameters varying from 25 to 42 cm, are given and compared with other values (foreign results, criticality guide). With respect to the specific conditions of neutron reflection in the ALECTO experiments the minimal values of critical masses are: Pu239 M{sub c} = 910 {+-} 10 g, U235 M{sub c} = 1180 {+-} 12 g and U233 M{sub c} = 960 {+-} 10 g. Experiments relating to cross sections and constants to be used on these materials are presented. Lastly, kinetic experiments allow to compare pulsed neutron methods to fluctuation methods. [French] On presente dans ce rapport les resultats des experiences critiques homogenes ALECTO, effectuees sur le plutonium 239, l'uranium 235 et l'uranium 233. Apres avoir rappele la description des installations, on donne les masses critiques pour des cylindres de diametres variant entre 25 et 42 cm, qui sont comparees avec d'autres chiffres (resultats etrangers, guide de criticite). Dans les gammes des diametres etudies pour des cuves a fond plat reflechies lateralement, la valeur minimale des masses critiques est la suivante: Pu239 M{sub c} = 910 {+-} 10 g, U235 M{sub c} = 1180 {+-} 12 g et U233 M{sub c} 960 {+-} 10 g. Des experiences portant sur les sections efficaces et les constantes a utiliser sur ces milieux sont ensuite presentees. Enfin des experiences de cinetique permettent une comparaison entre la methode des neutrons pulses et la methode des fluctuations. (auteur)

  17. Risk estimates for lung tumors from inhaled 239PuO2, 238PuO2, and /sup 239Pu/(NO3)4 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Gilbert, E.S.; Weller, R.E.

    1988-06-01

    Lung-cancer risks are being studied in beagle dogs given single exposures to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . A major objective of these studies is to examine the risk of lung cancer relative to the specific activity of the radionuclide, rate of dose accumulation due to differences in solubilities of the radionuclides, and the presence of competing risk from extrapulmonary lesions. Dose-response relationships were studied for the three groups of dogs, with analyses specifically designed to evaluate differences in response. Based on estimated cumulative dose to the lung, risks were found to differ significantly among the radionuclides; they were highest for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 and lowest for 238 PuO 2 . A model in which the risk was assumed to be a pure quadratic function of dose fit the data much better than a pure linear model. Currently, all three groups of dogs can be compared only to 10 years after exposure. However, it is apparent that the average cumulative dose to the lung may not be an adequate predictor of lung-cancer risk for different isotopic and physicochemical forms of plutonium. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Proposal for Analysis of the Safeguarded Nuclear Materials 235U and 239Pu by Delayed Neutrons Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mongy, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces, describes and initiates a very sensitive and rapid non-destructive technique to be used for analysis of the safeguarded nuclear materials 235 U and 239 Pu. The technique is based on fission of the nuclear material by neutrons and then measuring the delayed neutrons produced from the neutron rich fission products. By this technique, fissile isotope content ( 235 U) can be determined in the presence of the other fissile (e.g. 239 Pu) or fertile isotopes (e.g. 238 U) in fresh and spent fuel. The time consumed for analysis of bulk materials by this technique is only 4 minutes. The method is also used for analysis of uranium in rock, sediment, soil, meteorites, lunar, biological, urine, archaeological, zircon sand and seawater samples. The method enables uranium in a sample to be measured without respect to its oxidation state, organic and inorganic elements

  19. Pulmonary retention and tissue distribution of 239Pu nitrate in F344 rats and syrian hamsters inhaling carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.; Nikula, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is possible that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to CCl 4 and plutonium compounds. Potential for future exposure exists during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapon production sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. The current Threshold Limit Value for CCl 4 is 5 ppm; however, concentrations of CCl 4 occurring in the nuclear weapons facilities over the past 40-50 y are unknown and may have exceeded this value. The pilot study described in this report is designed to determine whether subchronic inhalation of CCl 4 by CDF register (F-344)/CrlBR rats and Syrian golden hamsters, at concentrations expected to produce some histologic changes in liver, alters the hepatic retention and toxic effects of inhaled 239 Pu nitrate 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4

  20. Derivation of decay heat benchmarks for U235 and Pu239 by a least squares fit to measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, A.

    1989-05-01

    A least squares technique used by previous authors has been applied to an extended set of available decay heat measurements for both U235 and Pu239 to yield simultaneous fits to the corresponding beta, gamma and total decay heat. The analysis takes account of both systematic and statistical uncertainties, including correlations, via calculations which use covariance matrices constructed for the measured data. The results of the analysis are given in the form of beta, gamma and total decay heat estimates following fission pulses and a range of irradiation times in both U235 and Pu239. These decay heat estimates are considered to form a consistent set of benchmarks for use in the assessment of summation calculations. (author)

  1. Revisiting the U-238 thermal capture cross section and gamma-raymission probabilities from Np-239 decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkov, A.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Firestone,R.B.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Nichols, A.L.; Moxon, M.C.

    2005-03-03

    The precise value of the thermal capture cross section of238U is uncertain, and evaluated cross sections from various sourcesdiffer by more than their assigned uncertainties. A number of theoriginal publications have been reviewed to assess the discrepant data,corrections were made for more recent standard cross sections andotherconstants, and one new measurement was analyzed. Due to the strongcorrelations in activation measurements, the gamma-ray emissionprobabilities from the beta decay of 239Np were also analyzed. As aresult of the analysis, a value of 2.683 +- 0.012 barns was derived forthe thermal capture cross section of 238U. A new evaluation of thegamma-ray emission probabilities from 239Np decay was alsoundertaken.

  2. Exploratory study of fission product yield determination from photofission of 239Pu at 11 MeV with monoenergetic photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Tornow, W.; Krishichayan, Tonchev, A. P.

    2017-02-01

    Measurements of fission product yields play an important role for the understanding of fundamental aspects of the fission process. Recently, neutron-induced fission product-yield data of 239Pu at energies below 4 MeV revealed an unexpected energy dependence of certain fission fragments. In order to investigate whether this observation is prerogative to neutron-induced fission, a program has been initiated to measure fission product yields in photoinduced fission. Here we report on the first ever photofission product yield measurement with monoenergetic photons produced by Compton back-scattering of FEL photons. The experiment was performed at the High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory on 239Pu at Eγ=11 MeV. In this exploratory study the yield of eight fission products ranging from 91Sr to 143Ce has been obtained.

  3. USNRC-OECD Halden Project fuel behavior test program: experiment data report for test assemblies IFA-226 and IFA 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.; MacDonald, P.E.; Quapp, W.J.

    1975-12-01

    The experimental data which were obtained from the IFA-226 and IFA-239 test assemblies during operation in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor are reported. Included are cladding elongation, fuel centerline temperature, internal gas pressure, and power history data from IFA-226 which were obtained from November 1971 through April 1974, and cladding elongation, diametral profile, and power history data from IFA-239 covering the period from March 1973 through April 1974. The data, presented in the form of composite graphs, have been analyzed only to the extent necessary to assure that they are reasonable and correct. A description of these mixed oxide fuel test assemblies and their instrumentation is presented. Test pin fabrication history, instrument calibration data, assembly power calibration methods, and the neutron detector data reduction technique are included as appendices

  4. Assessment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu, in marine sediments of the oceans Atlantic and Pacific of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Ochaita, L.

    2000-01-01

    In this investigation samples of marine sediments were taken from 14 places representatives of the oceans coast of Guatemala. For the assesment of 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu in sediments a radiochemical method was used to mineralize sediments and by ionic interchange it was separated from other elements, after that an electrodeposition of plutonium was made in metallic discs. The radioactivity of plutonium was measured by alpha spectrometry system and the alpha spectrums were obtained. The levels of plutonium are not higher than other countries that shown contamination. The contamination of isotope of 239+240 Pu is higher than 238 Pu and the contamination by two isotopes of plutonium is higher in the Atlantic than the Pacific ocean

  5. Estimation of uncertainties in resonance parameters of {sup 56}Fe, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-05-01

    Uncertainties have been estimated for the resonance parameters of {sup 56}Fe, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 238}U contained in JENDL-3.2. Errors of the parameters were determined from the measurements which the evaluation was based on. The estimated errors have been compiled in the MF32 of the ENDF format. The numerical results are given in tables. (author)

  6. Modification of analytical method for measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in sediment and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Tarigan, C.; Rustam, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Modification of analytical method for measurement of 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in sediment and sea water have been conducted. This study is to develop a method for separation of 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am from 100-300 g of sediment and 100-200 l of sea water samples. Most of the methods described in the literature are to separation of '2 39 Pu, '2 40 Pu and 241 Am from 20-50 g of sediment and 30-100 l of sea water samples. By this method, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am were concentrated using the coprecipitation of CaC 2 O 4 and Fe (OH) 3 . Plutonium-242 and Curium-244 were used as tracer to determine chemical recovery. The result of analysis of some sediment samples showed that the chemical recoveries were respectively obtained in the range of 59.7 to 72.6% with average of 66.2 % for 242 Pu and 72.0 % to 85.5 % with average 78.8 % for 244 Cm. Analysis of some sea water samples were obtained in the range of 67 % to 78 % with average 73.9 % for 242 Pu and 74.0 % to 90.0 % with average 84.2 % for '2 42 Cm. This method was tested by the IAEA marine sediment, the result was excellent agreement with the IAEA certified sediment. It could be suggested that the developed analytical method is suitable to analyze the low level 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in sediment and sea water samples (author)

  7. Cross sections and neutron yields for U233, U235 and Pu239 at 2200 m/sec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.; Story, J.S.

    1960-04-01

    The experimental information on the 2200 m/sec values for σ abs , σ f , α, ν and η for 233 U , 235 U and 23 been collected and discussed. The values will later be used in an evaluation of a 'best' set of data. In appendix the isotopic abundances of the uranium isotopes are discussed and also the alpha activities of the uranium isotopes and Pu-239

  8. Cross sections and neutron yields for U-233, U-235 and Pu-239 at 2200 m/sec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoestrand, N G; Story, J S

    1960-04-15

    The experimental information on the 2200 m/sec values for {sigma}{sub abs}, {sigma}{sub f}, {alpha}, {nu} and {eta} for {sup 233}U , {sup 235}U and {sup 23} been collected and discussed. The values will later be used in an evaluation of a 'best' set of data. In appendix the isotopic abundances of the uranium isotopes are discussed and also the alpha activities of the uranium isotopes and Pu-239.

  9. Method for calculation of upper limit internal alpha dose rates to aquatic organisms with application of plutonium-239 in plankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Baptista, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the calculation of upper limit internal alpha dose rates to aquatic organisms is presented. The mean alpha energies per disintegration of radionuclides of interest are listed to be used in standard methodologies to calculate dose to aquatic biota. As an application, the upper limits for the alpha dose rates from 239 Pu to the total body of plankton are estimated based on data available in open literature [pt

  10. The effect of ν-bar(E) energy dependence at E 239Pu in the lower energy groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusejnov, A.G.; Gusejnov, M.A.; Rabotnov, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the energy dependence of the average number of prompt neutrons on the 239 Pu fission BNAB-26 group cross-sections has been estimated. It was also found that the values of ν-bar(E) are lowered by approximately 1% when the temperature increases from 300 deg. K to 2000 deg. K. Taking this dependence into account may improve the predictability of the plutonium-fueled reactor characteristics. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Differences in the behavior of 233Pa, 237Np and 239 Pu in bentonite contaminated by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, A.; Fujikawa, Y.; Takigami, H.; Zheng, J.; Asano, H.; Arai, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ito, M.

    1998-01-01

    The behaviors of 233 Pa, 237 Np and 239 Pu in high level radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing were investigated by a laboratory experiment. Radioactive wastes are glassified and disposed of in geological repositories encased in bentonite as an additional artificial barrier to protect the environment. There is, however, the possibility that some anaerobic bacteria, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria, may flourish within the bentonite during the long disposal period (more than a century). The effects of sulfate-reducing bacteria on the behavior of the radionuclides within bentonite were investigated using the distribution coefficient (Kd) of 233 Pa, 237 Np and 239 Pu. The Kd was obtained with a 0.22 m membrane filter separating radionuclide contents in solid and liquid phases. The anaerobic bacteria, including sulfate-reducing bacteria, used for this investigation originated from the anaerobic treatment of pulp and paper waste and operated for more than one year at Eh around -85 mV. The bentonite used for this study was produced in Japan. The active anaerobic bacteria clearly accumulates considerable amounts of 233 Pa and 239 Pu by producing high Kd values of nearly 100,000, while Kds of 233 Pa and 239 Pu for the sterilized anaerobic bacteria were less than 10,000. In other words, live anaerobic bacteria can hold considerably higher amounts of the radionuclides compared to dead bacteria. Furthermore, high Kd values were obtained for anaerobic bacteria at pH 5-9. In contrast, Kd values for the radionuclide 237 Np were not influenced by the anaerobic bacteria but were controlled by chemical environmental conditions such as like pH. Another comparison was conducted for the radionuclides for mixtures of non-sterilized bacteria with bentonite. (author)

  12. Deposition of 239Pu in the skeleton and soft tissues of beagles: effect of age at time of injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Bates, D.; Bruenger, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    Previous reports from the laboratory have clearly defined the whole body deposition of 239 Pu in beagles injected as young adults (18 mo.). However, deposition has not been evaluated as a function of skeletal maturity at the time of injection. Juvenile beagles 3 months of age were injected with 0.1 μCi 239 Pu/kg in 0.08 M citrate buffer, pH 3.5. Six of these beagles have been sacrificed at short times after injection for distribution data. Another group receiving 3.0 μCi 239 Pu/kg was allowed to live until osteosarcoma developed and they were autopsied (1228 days average). Finally an aged beagle (81 mo.) was injected with 0.1 μCi/kg plutonium (P 2.0) and sacrificed 2 weeks later. Selected soft tissues, 1/2 of the symmetrical skeleton, and a known fraction of the asymmetrical skeleton were collected and analyzed for Pu content. Independent of the age at injection, a total of approximately 80 percent of the Pu was initially deposited in liver plus skeleton, however the age of the animal at time of injection altered the relative proportion in liver and skeleton in a reciprocal manner. The percent of the injected Pu found in the liver at 14 days P.I. increased with the increase in age at time of injection (13.2 percent at 3 months, 30.9 percent at 18 months and 36.9 percent at 81 months). The lower the age at injection, the larger was the fraction of 239 Pu deposited in the skeleton. The amounts ranged from an average of 69 percent in animals injected at 3 months to 49 percent in dogs injected at 18 months and 40 percent in the dog injected at 81 months of age. The difference in skeletal deposition reflects the different rates of bone growth and remodeling in juveniles, young adults and aged beagles

  13. Fission Product Yields for 14 MeV Neutrons on 235U, 238U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Innes, M.; Chadwick, M.B.; Kawano, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report cumulative fission product yields (FPY) measured at Los Alamos for 14 MeV neutrons on 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu. The results are from historical measurements made in the 1950s–1970s, not previously available in the peer reviewed literature, although an early version of the data was reported in the Ford and Norris review. The results are compared with other measurements and with the ENDF/B-VI England and Rider evaluation. Compared to the Laurec (CEA) data and to ENDF/B-VI evaluation, good agreement is seen for 235 U and 238 U, but our FPYs are generally higher for 239 Pu. The reason for the higher plutonium FPYs compared to earlier Los Alamos assessments reported by Ford and Norris is that we update the measured values to use modern nuclear data, and in particular the 14 MeV 239 Pu fission cross section is now known to be 15–20% lower than the value assumed in the 1950s, and therefore our assessed number of fissions in the plutonium sample is correspondingly lower. Our results are in excellent agreement with absolute FPY measurements by Nethaway (1971), although Nethaway later renormalized his data down by 9% having hypothesized that he had a normalization error. The new ENDF/B-VII.1 14 MeV FPY evaluation is in good agreement with our data.

  14. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  15. 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in some marine biota, mostly from the seas around Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yutaka; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    1987-01-01

    Recent 239,240 Pu and 137 Cs concentrations in some marine biota collected mostly from the seas around Japan were determined. Ash samples were digested with hot nitric acid, and the radionuclides were purified by ion exchange processes, then their alpha and beta radioactivities were measured. 239,240 Pu concentrations were in levels of 1/10 to 1/100 of 137 Cs concentrations, and showed values of some pCi/100 kg-raw in muscles. No clear difference was observed in the contents of the radionuclides of muscles between shallow waters and deep bottom inhabitants. Considerable variation in 239,240 Pu concentrations were shown among organs and tissues, but 137 Cs showed no such discrepancy. Apparent high concentration factors (CF) for 137 Cs of the deep water inhabitants were supposed to be caused by the contribution of the food chain in the deep sea. Concentrations of the radionuclides in krill and fur seal were also discussed. (author)

  16. 239,249Pu and 137Cs in the air in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.; Salminen, S.; Jaakkola, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site is heavily contaminated from the 465 nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1948 and 1989. Approximately 120 of these tests were surface and air explosions that resulted in the most serious contamination of the soil. Most of these surface and air explosions were carried out on the Experimental Field, on the northern part of the site, about 70 southwest of town Kurchatov. In this area the Pu fallout is even higher than 100.000 Bq/m 2 whereas in the Kurchatov area it is round 1000 Bq/m 2 . In Finland, affected only by the global fallout, a typical value is 30-40 Bq/m 2 . A Finnish team carried out air sampler testing in Kurchatov in 2000-2001. Weekly air samples of 25.000 m 3 volume were taken in a one-year period in Kurchatov. After removal from the samplers the filters were brought to Finland and the gamma nuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry in the laboratories of the Finnish Authority for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Then in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry they were leached with concentrated nitric acid and plutonium and uranium isotopes were separated by extraction chromatography using UTEVA and TRU. Plutonium isotopes were measured by alpha spectrometry and the uranium fraction was sent to the Technical Research Centre of Finland for uranium analysis with ICP-MS. Plutonium concentrations in the air in Kurchatov varied in a 100-fold range. The median value for 239,240 Pu was 100 nBq/m 3 and the range was from 14 to 2500 nBq/m 3 . There was no clear seasonal variation seen although somewhat elevated levels were found in February to April. The air concentrations of plutonium were clearly elevated compared to the values found in countries that were affected only by the global fallout. For example, in Munich, Germany, values between 2 and 6 nBq/m 3 have been reported in 1987-1991. However, considerably higher values than those observed in this study have been reported for village Dolon, 30 kilometers east of

  17. Drug-associated cutaneous vasculitis: study of 239 patients from a single referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Sanjuán, Francisco; Blanco, Ricardo; Hernández, José L; Pina, Trinitario; González-Vela, María C; Fernández-Llaca, Héctor; Calvo-Río, Vanesa; Loricera, Javier; Armesto, Susana; González-López, Marcos A; Rueda-Gotor, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2014-11-01

    The 2012 International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference on the Nomenclature of Vasculitides defined drug-associated immune complex vasculitis as a distinct entity included within the category of vasculitis associated with probable etiology. In the present study we assessed the clinical spectrum of patients with drug-associated cutaneous vasculitis (DACV). Case records were reviewed of patients with DACV treated at a tertiary referral hospital over a 36-year period. A diagnosis of DACV was considered if the drug was taken within a week before the onset of the disease. From a series of 773 unselected cutaneous vasculitis cases, 239 patients (30.9%; 133 men and 106 women; mean age 36 yrs) were diagnosed with DACV. Antibiotics (n=149; 62.3%), mainly β-lactams and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID; n=24; 10%) were the most common drugs. Besides skin lesions (100%), the most common clinical features were joint (51%) and gastrointestinal (38.1%) manifestations, nephropathy (34.7%), and fever (23.8%). The most remarkable laboratory data were increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (40.2%), presence of serum cryoglobulins (26%), leukocytosis (24.7%), positive antinuclear antibodies (21.1%), anemia (18.8%), and positive rheumatoid factor (17.5%). Despite drug discontinuation and bed rest, 108 patients (45.2%) required medical treatment, mainly corticosteroids (n=71) or immunosuppressive drugs (n=7). After a median followup of 5 months, relapses occurred in 18.4% of patients, and persistent microhematuria or renal insufficiency in 3.3% and 5%, respectively. DACV is generally associated with antibiotics and NSAID. In most cases it has a favorable prognosis, although a small percentage of patients may develop residual renal damage.

  18. Spa therapy for elderly: a retrospective study of 239 older patients with osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Dişçi, Rian; Gürdal, Hatice; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2016-10-01

    Very few studies tested the effectiveness of spa therapy in older patients with osteoarthritis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of spa therapy in patients aged 65 years and older with generalized, knee, hip, and cervical and lumbar spine osteoarthritis. In an observational retrospective study design at the Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology Department of Istanbul Medical Faculty, we analyzed the records of 239 patients aged over 65 years with the diagnosis of all types of osteoarthritis who were prescribed a spa therapy course in some spa resorts in Turkey between 7 March 2002 and 31 December 2012. They travelled to a spa resort where they stayed at a thermal spa hotel and followed the usual therapy packages for 2 weeks. Patients were assessed by an experienced physician within a week before the spa journey and within a week after the completion of the spa therapy. Compared with baseline in whole sample, statistically significant improvements were observed in pain (visual analog scale, VAS), patient and physician global assessments (VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), Lequesne algofunctional index (LAFI) for knee, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC), Waddell disability index (WDI), and Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD). According to Outcome Measures in Rheumatology—Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) Set of Responder Criteria, responder rate were 63.8 % (51/80) in generalized, 52 % (13/25) in knee, 50 % (2/4) in hip, 66.7 % (8/12) in lumbar, and 100 % (6/6) in cervical osteoarthritis subgroups. Spa therapy improved pain and physical functional status in older patients with osteoarthritis, especially generalized osteoarthritis and multiple joint osteoarthritis with involvement of knee. This improvement was clinically important in majority of the patients. To confirm the results of this preliminary study, there is a need of a randomized controlled clinical study

  19. Pb-210 and Pu-239,240 in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Pb-210, Ra-226, and Pu-239,240 activities were measured in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments. Sediment cores were collected from the Mississippi delta, and the western Gulf of Mexico shelf. Mississippi delta cores which exhibit significantly higher sedimentation rates show larger inventories of Pb-210. The measured Pu levels from the western shelf are lower than from the delta at comparable depths. In three of the western shelf cores, the observed Pu inventory is considerably less than predicted from atmospheric flux. Therefore, Pu is not being removed to the sediment, or is being released following deposition. A key difference between these isotopes is that Pu exists in a less particle-reactive state. The ratio of excess Pb-210 to Pu levels increases with water depth in the delta and the western shelf. Water depth acts as an integrator of depth-sensitive processes. Pu scavenging is more sensitive to these processes. A sub-surface Pu maximum has been observed. Excess Pb-210 and Pu levels correlate well with sedimentation rates. This suggests that particle flux is important in removal of Pb-210 and Pu to the sediment. The flux of Mn out of the sediment is correlated with inventory data, suggesting that redox cycling of Mn may play a role in increasing Pb-210 and Pu sediment inventories. It is unclear whether the effects of increased sedimentation rates and increased Mn fluxes can be evaluated independently. Mixing of surface sediment correlates with inventory data. Increased sediment mixing allows for additional scavenging of Pb-210 and Pu from overlying waters. Mixing of sediment at depths below the mixed surface layer may play a role in increasing sediment inventories of Pb-210 and Pu

  20. Comparative genomics and drug resistance of a geographic variant of ST239 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Two distinct classes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are spreading in hospitals (as hospital-acquired MRSA, HA-MRSA and in the community (as community-acquired MRSA, CA-MRSA. Multilocus sequence type (ST 239 MRSA, one of the most worldwide-disseminated lineages, has been noted as a representative HA-MRSA. Here, we isolated ST239 MRSA (spa type 3 [t037] and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec [SCCmec] type III.1.1.1 and its novel variant with ST239/spa351 (t030/SCCmecIII.1.1.4 (SCCmecIII(R not only from hospitals but also from patients with urethritis in the community in Russia. The Russian variant (strain 16K possessed a hybrid genome consisting of CC8 and CC30, similar to the ST239/spa3/SCCmecIII.1.1.1 HA-MRSA (TW20 genome, but with marked diversity. The 16K' CC30 section had SCCmecIII(R carrying the dcs-carrying unit (which corresponded to the SCCmecIVc J3 joining region of ST30 CA-MRSA, lacked SCCmercury, and possessed a novel mobile element structure (MES16K carrying the ccrC-carrying unit (with the recombinase gene ccrC1 allele 3 and drug resistance tranposons. The Russian variant included strains with a high ability to transfer its multiple drug resistance by conjugation; e.g., for strain 16K, the transfer frequency of a chloramphenicol resistance plasmid (p16K-1 with 2.9 kb in size reached 1.4×10(-2, followed by Tn554 conjugative transfer at 3.6×l0(-4. The Russian variant, which has been increasing recently, included divergent strains with different plasmid patterns and pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles. The data demonstrate the alternative nature of ST239 MRSA as CA-MRSA and also as a drug resistance disseminator, and its micro but dynamic evolution in Russia.

  1. Preclinical and Clinical Resistance Profile of EDP-239, a Novel Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christopher M; Brasher, Bradley B; Polemeropoulos, Alex; Rhodin, Michael H J; McAllister, Nicole; Wong, Kelly A; Jones, Christopher T; Jiang, Lijuan; Lin, Kai; Or, Yat Sun

    2016-10-01

    EDP-239, a potent and selective hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor developed for the treatment of HCV infection, has been investigated in vitro and in vivo This study sought to characterize genotypic changes in the HCV NS5A sequence of genotype 1 (GT1) replicons and to compare those changes to GT1 viral RNA mutations isolated from clinical trial patients. Resistance selection experiments in vitro using a subgenomic replicon identified resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) at GT1a NS5A amino acid positions 24, 28, 30, 31, and 93 that confer various degrees of resistance to EDP-239. Key RAMs were similarly identified in GT1b NS5A at amino acid positions 31 and 93. Mutations F36L in GT1a and A92V in GT1b do not confer resistance to EDP-239 individually but were found to enhance the resistance of GT1a K24R and GT1b Y93H. RAMs were identified in GT1 patients at baseline or after dosing with EDP-239 that were similar to those detected in vitro Baseline RAMs identified at NS5A position 93 in GT1, or positions 28 or 30 in GT1a only, correlated with a reduced treatment response. RAMs at additional positions were also detected and may have contributed to reduced EDP-239 efficacy. The most common GT1a and GT1b RAMs found to persist up to weeks 12, 24, or 48 were those at NS5A positions 28, 30, 31, 58 (GT1a only), and 93. Those RAMs persisting at the highest frequencies up to weeks 24 or 48 were L31M and Q30H/R for GT1a and L31M and Y93H for GT1b. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01856426.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Excess Lead-210 and Plutonium-239+240: Two suitable radiogenic soil erosion tracers for mountain grassland sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, K; Porto, P; Mabit, L; La Spada, C; Arata, L; Alewell, C

    2018-01-01

    The expected growing population and challenges associated with globalisation will increase local food and feed demands and enhance the pressure on local and regional upland soil resources. In light of these potential future developments it is necessary to define sustainable land use and tolerable soil loss rates with methods applicable and adapted to mountainous areas. Fallout-radionuclides (FRNs) are proven techniques to increase our knowledge about the status and resilience of agro-ecosystems. However, the use of the Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) method is complicated in the European Alps due to its heterogeneous input and the timing of the Chernobyl fallout, which occurred during a few single rain events on partly snow covered ground. Other radioisotopic techniques have been proposed to overcome these limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of excess Lead-210 ( 210 Pb ex ) and Plutonium-239+240 ( 239+240 Pu) as soil erosion tracers for three different grassland management types at the steep slopes (slope angles between 35 and 38°) located in the Central Swiss Alps. All three FRNs identified pastures as having the highest mean (± standard deviation) net soil loss of -6.7 ± 1.1, -9.8 ± 6.8 and -7.0 ± 5.2 Mg ha -1 yr -1 for 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex and 239+240 Pu, respectively. A mean soil loss of -5.7 ± 1.5, -5.2 ± 1.5 and-5.6 ± 2.1 was assessed for hayfields and the lowest rates were established for pastures with dwarf-shrubs (-5.2 ± 2.5, -4.5 ± 2.5 and -3.3 ± 2.4 Mg ha -1 yr -1 for 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex and 239+240 Pu, respectively). These rates, evaluated at sites with an elevated soil erosion risk exceed the respective soil production rates. Among the three FRN methods used, 239+240 Pu appears as the most promising tracer in terms of measurement uncertainty and reduced small scale variability (CV of 13%). Despite a higher level of uncertainty, 210 Pb ex produced comparable results, with a wide range of erosion rates sensitive to changes

  3. Photonuclear reactions of U-233 and Pu-239 near threshold induced by thermal neutron capture gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P. de.

    1990-01-01

    The photonuclear cross sections of U-293 and Pu-239 have been studied by using monochromatic and discrete photons, in the energy interval from 5.49 to 9.72 MeV, produced by thermal neutron capture. The gamma fluxes incident on the samples were measured using a ( 3 x 3 )'' NaI (TI) crystal. The photofission fragments were detected in Makrofol-Kg (SSNTD). A possible structure was observed in the U-233 cross sections, near 7.23 MeV. The relative fissionability of the nuclides was determined at each excitation energy and shown to be energy independent: ( 2.12 ± 0.25) for U-233 and ( 3.32 ± 0.41 ) for Pu-239. The angular distribution of photofission fragments of Pu-239 were measured at two mean excitation energies of 5.43 and 7.35 MeV. An anisotropic distribution of ( 12.2 ± 3.6 ) % was observed at 5.43 MeV. The total neutron cross sections were measured by using a long counter detector. The photoneutron cross sections were calculated by using energy dependent neutron multiplicities values, γ(E), obtained in the literature. The competition Γn/γf was also determined at each excitation energy, and shown to be energy independent: ( 0.54 ± 0.05 ) for U-233 and ( 0.44 ± 0.05 ) for Pu-239, and were correlated to the parameters Z sup(2)/A, ( Ef'-Bn'), A. According to the FUJIMOTO-YAMAGUCHI and CONSTANT NUCLEAR TEMPERATURE models, the nuclear temperatures were calculated. The total photoabsorption cross sections were also calculated as a sum of the photofission and photoneutron cross sections at each energy excitation. From these results the competition Γf/ΓA, called fission probability Pf, were obtained: ( 0.66 ± 0.02) for U-233 and ( 0.70 ± 0.02 ) for Pu-239. (author)

  4. On uncertainties and fluctuations of averaged neutron cross sections in unresolved resonance energy region for 235U, 238U, 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van'kov, A.A.; Blokhin, A.I.; Manokhin, V.N.; Kravchenko, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    This paper analyses the reasons for the differences which exist between group-averaged evaluated cross-section data from different evaluated data files for U235, U238 and Pu239 in the unresolved resonance energy region. (author)

  5. Historical changes in 239Pu and 240Pu sources in sedimentary records in the East China Sea: Implications for provenance and transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinlong; Baskaran, Mark; Hou, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    from 0.158 to 0.297 and were mostly higher than the mean global fallout value of 0.18. The 239,240Pu inventories in the ECS varied widely, from 2 to 807 Bqm−2, with the highest values commonly found in the coastal areas. In the Yangtze Estuary, the mean 239+240Pu activity concentration is close...... to the estimated value of the suspended material from the Yangtze River catchment (0.18 Bqkg−1), and the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was found to be ∼0.18, which indicates that the Yangtze River input is the dominant source of Pu for this area. The total annual Yangtze River input of 239+240Pu was estimated to be 2...

  6. Use of fission track analysis technique for the determination of MicroBequerel level of {sup 239}Pu in urine samples from radiation workers handling MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, J.R., E-mail: yadav_jogendra@rediffmail.co [Health Physics Laboratory, Health Physics Division, BARC, Tarapur 401502 (India); Rao, D.D.; Kumar, Ranjeet [Health Physics Laboratory, Health Physics Division, BARC, Tarapur 401502 (India); Aggarwal, S.K. [Fuel chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Fission track analysis (FTA) technique for the determination of {sup 239}Pu excreted through urine has been standardized using blank samples, tracer and {sup 239}Pu spikes. Double stage anion exchange separation protocol has been applied and an average radiochemical recovery of {sup 239}Pu of 18% was obtained. An average track registration efficiency of 11 tracks per {mu}Bq of {sup 239}Pu, irradiated to 0.35x10{sup 17} neutron fluence was established. Reagent blank urine samples from 11 controlled subjects were analyzed by FTA and an average of 149{+-}14 tracks was obtained. Minimum detectable activity of 34 {mu}Bq L{sup -1} of urine sample was obtained and will be useful for monitoring chronic exposure cases handling MOX fuel.

  7. 239, 240, 241Pu fingerprinting of plutonium in western US soils using ICPMS: solution and laser ablation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizdziel, James V.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Farmer, Dennis; Faller, Scott H.; Hodge, Vernon F.

    2008-01-01

    Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) has been used with analysis of solution samples and laser ablation (LA) of electrodeposited alpha sources to characterize plutonium activities and atom ratios prevalent in the western USA. A large set of surface soils and attic dusts were previously collected from many locations in the states of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Colorado; specific samples were analyzed herein to characterize the relative contributions of stratospheric fallout vs. Nevada Test Site (NTS) plutonium. This study illustrates two different ICPMS-based analytical strategies that are successful in fingerprinting Pu in environmental soils and dusts. Two specific datasets have been generated: (1) soils are leached with HNO 3 -HCl, converted into electrodeposited alpha sources, counted by alpha spectrometry, then re-analyzed using laser ablation SF-ICPMS; (2) samples are completely dissolved by treatment with HNO 3 -HF-H 3 BO 3 , Pu fractions are prepared by extraction chromatography, and analyzed by SF-ICPMS. Optimal laser ablation and ICPMS conditions were determined for the re-analysis of archived alpha spectrometry ''planchette'' sources. The best ablation results were obtained using a large spot size (200 μm), a defocused beam, full repetition rate (20 Hz) and scan rate (200 μm s -1 ); LA-ICPMS data were collected with a rapid electrostatic sector scanning experiment. Less than 10% of the electroplated surface area is consumed in the LA-ICPMS analysis, which would allow for multiple re-analyses. Excellent agreement was found between 239+240 Pu activities determined by LA-ICPMS vs. activity results obtained by alpha spectrometry for the same samples ten years earlier. LA-ICPMS atom ratios for 240 Pu/ 239 Pu and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu range from 0.038-0.132 and 0.00034-0.00168, respectively, and plot along a two-component mixing line ( 241 Pu/ 239 Pu = 0.013 [ 240 Pu/ 239 Pu] - 0.0001; r 2 = 0.971) with NTS and global fallout end

  8. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl 4 and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl 4 by hamsters reduces uptake of 239 Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the 239 Pu to the skeleton

  9. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) and plutonium-240 ( 240 Pu) activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 ± 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 ± 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high 240 Pu/ 239 Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004)

  10. The biochemical mechanisms responsible for differences in the half-life of monomeric 239Pu in rat and Syrian hamster liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, A.; Winter, R.; Jentzsch, C.; Gruner, R.; Heumann, H.G.; Hanke, S.

    1979-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of 239 Pu citrate in rat and Syrian hamster liver was studied with the help of the non-ionic detergent Triton WR1339, used as method for separating lysosomes from other cell organelles. Triton WR1339 was injected six days after 239 Pu and the animals were sacrificed after Day 10. Liver homogenates were subjected to differential and isopycnic centrifugation in sucrose gradients. In both animal species 90% of 239 Pu of the post-nuclear supernatant was found in the fraction containing mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmatic reticulum and ferritin. Triton WR1339 injection caused a concomitant shift of the lysosomal marker acid phosphatase and of 239 Pu from high densities to rho approximately 1.10 in both animal species. According to our results, binding of 239 Pu to mitochondria and peroxisomes can be excluded, and association to endoplasmatic reticulum and plasma membranes is not very probable. We must consider the possibility that a part of the radioactivity occurring at rho approximately 1.10 can also be bound to ferritin. According to these findings, lysosomes could be one of the main storage sites for 239 Pu in both species. From studies on the pharmacokinetics of 3 H-labelled Triton WR1339 and on the behaviour of Triton-filled rat liver lysosomes, which are also presented in the paper, it is tentatively concluded that the rapid excretion of 239 Pu from rat liver is due to the normally rapid elimination of lysosomal material from hepatocytes into the bile in this species. In Syrian hamsters the fate of lysosomal material in liver may be different or redistribution of 239 Pu occurs at a later time. (author)

  11. 29 CFR 779.239 - Meaning of “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of âengaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.â 779.239 Section 779.239 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.” The term “engaged in commerce or in the production of...

  12. Experimental root mean square charge radii, isotope shifts, ground state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of 1≤A≤ 239 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of experimental root-mean square radii, isotope shifts, ground-state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of nuclei 1≤A≤239 is presented. Shell, sub-subshell closures and changes in nuclear deformations discernible from data are displayed graphically. The nuclear charge distribution, for 1≤A≤ 239 nuclei deduced from Coulomb displacement energies is shown for comparison

  13. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including 238Pu/239Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as 238 U with 238 Pu and 241 Am with 241 Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the 238 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transient Expression of Lumbrokinase (PI239 in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Using a Geminivirus-Based Single Replicon System Dissolves Fibrin and Blood Clots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Dickey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbrokinases, a group of fibrinolytic enzymes extracted from earthworm, have been widely used to prevent and treat various cardiovascular diseases. They specifically target fibrin to effectively degrade thrombi without major side effects. Plant expression systems are becoming potential alternative expression platforms for producing pharmaceutical proteins. In this work, a lumbrokinase (PI239 was produced from a plant system. Both wild-type (WT and plant codon-optimized (OP PI239 gene sequences were synthesized and cloned into a geminivirus-based single-vector DNA replicon system. Both vectors were independently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum leaves transiently by agroinfiltration. Overexpressed PI239 resulted in sudden tissue necrosis 3 days after infiltration. Remaining proteins were purified through His-tag affinity chromatography and analyzed with SDS-PAGE and Western blot methods. Purified PI239 successfully degraded artificial fibrin with relative activity of 13,400 U/mg when compared with commercial lumbrokinase product. In vitro tests demonstrated that plant-derived PI239 dissolved human blood clots and that the plant expression system is capable of producing functional PI239.

  15. Total and fission cross-sections of 239Pu - statistical study of resonance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; Blons, J.; Eggermann, C.; Michaudon, A.; Paya, D.; Ribon, P.

    1967-01-01

    The authors measured the total and fission cross-sections of 239 Pu with the linear accelerator at Saclay as a pulsed source of neutrons. The total cross-section was measured in the range from 4 to 700 eV and the best resolution used was 1.5 ns/m; the fission cross-section was measured between 4 eV and 6 keV, the best resolution having been 6 ns/m. The transmission measurements on five samples were made at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, and comparisons made with supplementary experiments at ambient temperature made it possible to determine the Doppler broadening factor (Δ = η√E). The resonances were identified from 4 to 500 eV in the total cross-section; the average level spacing was of the order of 2.4 eV. It would appear that, in this energy range, nearly all the levels were identified. The resonance parameters were determined by analysis of shape in conjunction with a least-squares programme on an IBM-7094 computer. The existence of a large number of broad resonances corresponding to very large fission widths has been shown to exist. Statistical study of the fission widths actually shows the existence of two families of resonances, one corresponding to a mean Γ f of the order of 45 meV and the other to a mean Γ/f of about 750 meV. The authors were therefore able to postulate a classification of resonances in terms of two spin states, the level population ratio in each family being: (2J 1 +1)/(2J 2 +1) = 1/3; J 1 = 0 corresponds to the broad resonances and J 2 = 1 to the narrow ones. The partial widths for radiative capture fluctuate slightly around a mean value of 40 meV. By using a multilevel programme, the authors were able to investigate the extent to which the existence of large fission widths might give rise to fictitious resonances (quasi-resonances) and perturbations and also to make a statistical study of the resonance parameters. (author) [fr

  16. 137Cs, 239+24Pu and 24Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng Jian; Wang Zhongliang

    2006-01-01

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The 137 Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The 137 Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m -3 in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m -3 in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of 137 Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of 137 Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of 137 Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr -1 in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr -1 in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr -1 in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. 239+24 Pu activities and 24 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The 24 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199 ± 0.026 to 0.248 ± 0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher 24 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratios

  17. 236U and 239,240Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tims, S.G.; Froehlich, M.B.; Fifield, L.K.; Wallner, A.; De Cesare, M.

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes 236 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that 236 U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of 236 U as a new fallout tracer. - Highlights: • Measured 236 U inventories around the Maralinga Test Nuclear weapons test site. • Comparison of 236 U and 239 Pu soil depth profiles at Maralinga. • Differences in 236 U and 239 Pu inventories indicate most Pu fallout is from the safety trials, rather than the weapons tests.

  18. The removal of inhaled 239Pu and 238Pu from beagle dogs by lung lavage and chelation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Miglio, J.J.; Slauson, D.O.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were conducted in beagle dogs to determine the efficiency of treatment by lung lavage and injections of chelating agents in removing inhaled plutonium of varied chemical forms and particle sizes. Polydisperse aerosols of 239 Pu were produced at different temperatures from 325 0 C to 1150 0 C to evaluate the effect of the chemical form of the particles. Aerosols of 238 Pu were produced at 1150 0 C only but were of different particle size or size distributions. Three dogs that inhaled each different plutonium aerosol were treated by lung lavages starting two days after the exposure. Subsequent lavages were performed on days 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 after exposure. Intravenous injections of 100 mg of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as the calcium salt were given on days 1, 2, 3 and 4 after exposure and twice weekly thereafter to the time of sacrifice, 56 days after exposure. The 10 lung lavages removed from 18 to 49% of the initial lung burden of plutonium. The recovery of plutonium by lavage was similar irrespective of the temperature at which the aerosol was produced, however, lavage recovery decreased somewhat with increasing particle size. The efficacy of DTPA treatment increased with decreasing production temperature of the 239 Pu. Treatment with DTPA was not affected by particle size of the 0.8- and 1.9-μm monodisperse 239 Pu aerosol. The effectiveness of lung lavage decreased as the solubility of the aerosol particles increased whereas the effectiveness of the DTPA treatment increased as the solubility of the inhaled aerosol increased as shown by the lowest temperature aerosol and the aerosol-containing soluble fraction. These findings correlated qualitatively with a 2-hour in-vitro solubility test on the exposure aerosols. (author)

  19. Rapid determination of 239Pu in urine samples using molecular recognition technology product AnaLigRPu-02 gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia Dulanska; Boris Remenec; Jan Bilohuscin; Miroslav Labaska; Bianka Horvathova; Andrej Matel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of IBC's AnaLig R Pu-02 molecular recognition technology product to effectively and selectively pre-concentrate, separate and recover plutonium from urine samples. This method uses two-stage column separations consisting of two different commercial products, Eichrom's Pre-filter Material and AnaLig R Pu-02 resin from IBC Advanced Technologies. By eliminating the co-precipitation techniques and the ashing steps to remove residual organics, the analysis time was reduced significantly. The method was successfully tested by adding known activities of reference solutions of 242 Pu and 239 Pu to urine samples. (author)

  20. R matrix analysis of 239Pu neutron cross sections in the energy range up to 1000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an R matrix analysis of the 239 Pu neutron cross sections up to 1000-eV neutron energy. The analysis was performed with the multilevel multichannel Reich-Moore code SAMMY. The method of analysis is describe, and the selection of experimental data is discussed. Some tabular and graphical comparisons between calculated and measured cross sections and transmissions are presented. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are examined. The resonance parameters are proposed for the new evaluated data files ENDF/B-VI and JEF2

  1. Surrogate 239Pu(n, fxn) and 241Pu(n, fxn) average fission-neutron-multiplicity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alan, B. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Akindele, O. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Casperson, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, R. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fisher, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-26

    We have constructed a new neutron-charged-particle detector array called NeutronSTARS. It has been described extensively in LLNL-TR-703909 [1] and Akindele et al [2]. We have used this new neutron-charged-particle array to measure the 241Pu and 239Pu fissionneutron multiplicity as a function of equivalent incident-neutron energy from 100 keV to 20 MeV. The experimental approach, detector array, data analysis, and results are summarized in the following sections.

  2. Commentary on inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in dogs - a prophylaxis against lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M., E-mail: jerrycuttler@rogers.com [Cuttler and Associates, Vaughan, ON (Canada); Feinendegen, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratories, Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer. (author)

  3. Commentary on inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in dogs - a prophylaxis against lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler and Assoc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Feinendegen, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratories, Upton, New York (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from {sup 239}PuO {sub 2} inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer. (author)

  4. Evaluation of covariances for resolved resonance parameters of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu in JENDL-3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Shibata, Keiichi

    2003-02-01

    Evaluation of covariances for resolved resonance parameters of 235 U, 238 U, and 239 Pu was carried out. Although a large number of resolved resonances are observed for major actinides, uncertainties in averaged cross sections are more important than those in resonance parameters in reactor calculations. We developed a simple method which derives a covariance matrix for the resolved resonance parameters from uncertainties in the averaged cross sections. The method was adopted to evaluate the covariance data for some important actinides, and the results were compiled in the JENDL-3.2 covariance file. (author)

  5. Determination of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, Edwin Ariel

    1999-01-01

    This study allowed to determine the concentration of radioactivity alpha, due to contamination for plutonium in cultivated soils of different regions of Guatemala. They were carried out samplings for convenience in cultivated soils of 15 departments of the republic, determined in each soils sample, the activity concentration for plutonium 2 38 Plutonium and 239+240 Plutonium expressed in mili-becquerel by kilogram (mBq/Kg), which has been caused from all over the world by the different provoked liberations or accidents of radioactive particles to the atmosphere

  6. Applicability of 239Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, R.; Tims, S. G.; Fifield, L. K.; Wasson, R. J.; Howe, D.

    2013-01-01

    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of 239Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  7. Effects of agrochemical measures on plutonium 239,240 and americium 24 accumulation in some legume plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budkevich, T.A.; Zabolotnyj, A.I.; Kudryashov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-2000 in field experiments at territories contaminated with transuranic elements (TUE) the mineral fertilizers were studied as means of decreasing the TUE accumulation in legume plants ( Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus angustifolius L., Trifolium pratense L., Medicago sativa L.). Under the action of lime Pu 239, 240 and Am 241 accumulation in green parts and seeds of Lupinus decreased in 1,5-5 times, and in overground mass of legume grasses in 1,5-2,5 times. The combined action of PK-fertilizes and lime didn't decrease TUE transfer into legume plants

  8. Skeletal retention of 239Pu and 226Ra in beagles injected at ages ranging from 2 days to 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Jee, W.S.S.; Smith, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The age at exposure significantly affects the retention and distribution of 226 Ra and 239 Pu, both of which deposit in the skeleton, although in different patterns. Beagles aged 2 days (neonates), 90 days (juveniles), 18 months (young adults) or 5 years (old), received a single injection of one of these nuclides at a dosage level at which no significant acute effects have been observed. Nuclide concentrations in plasma and the skeleton were determined and retention equations were calculated. Initial deposition and retention of the two nuclides were age-dependent, but differences between the growing and young adult beagles were much greater than between the young adult and old beagles

  9. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963); Metabolisme et toxicologie du plutonium 239 - evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [French] Apres avoir passe en revue les principales proprietes metaboliques et toxicologiques du plutonium 239, ainsi que les normes professionnelles actuellement en vigueur, le rapport aborde le probleme difficile de l'evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees. Cette evaluation est fonction de l'organisation pratique de la surveillance: - surveillance systematique par des analyses periodiques de Pu urinaire et surveillance speciale en cas d'incidents par des examens appropries a chaque cas. Une interpretation simple des analyses systematiques, ainsi que des methodes d'evaluation utilisables dans les principaux cas de contamination accidentelle sont exposees. (auteur)

  10. Vertical distribution of 239+240Pu-concentration and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in sediment cores. Implications for the sources of plutonium in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Jian, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The main sources in the environmental plutonium is due to nuclear explosions held during 1945 - 1980. The global fallout of plutonium is estimated to amount to 10.9 PBq, of which 6.6 PBq entering into the ocean. The Japan Sea is reported to be concentrated in plutonium in excess according to previous measurements. The present report aims to clarify the origin and transport path of plutonium in Japan Sea by measuring 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio in sedimenta cores with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) which depends on the types of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuels, reacting time, or the types of nuclear weapons concerned. As an example the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio from the nuclear explosions in early 1960's is known to be 0.18, while that of 0.34-0.36 Bikini experiments in the Marshall Islands in early 1950's. After a detailed examination, the present authors propose that the plutonium from the explosion sites around the Marshall Islands was carried with an oceanic current to be deposited in the bed of the East-China Sea, from which a part of the plutonium was transported with the Black Stream to enter Japan Sea. (S. Ohno)

  11. Determination of 90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu in waters with use of preliminary concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, V.M.; Kazachevskij, I.V.; Knatova, M.K.; Knyazev, B.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Solodukhin, V. P.; Khazhekber, S.; Gabdulin, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs and (239+240) Pu) in water samples is described. The following preconcentration steps are used: co-precipitation of cesium on copper ferrocyanide; co-precipitation of plutonium on iron hydroxide; and precipitation of strontium in the carbonate form. The chemical yield is determined by using the tracers: 88 Y, 85 Sr, 134 Cs and 236 Pu or 242 Pu. The method was applied to the determination of artificial radionuclides in water sources at nuclear test sites - the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and the 'Azgir' and 'Lira' test sites. The volume of water samples was 0.5 - 30.0 l, and the mineralization ranged from 0.1g/l to 100 g/l. The determination limits were: < 1 mBq/l for cesium-137; 0.02 mBq/l for plutonium-(239+240); and 1.5 mBq/l for strontium-90. The chemical yield was 60 - 90%

  12. Study on behavior of Cs-137 and Pu-239, 240 in lake and marine environments on basis of sediment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Seiya

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was made on the sediment mechanisms of artificial radioactive isotopes in relation to environmental factors through utilizing the differences in deposition behaviors of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu. Cumulus deposit samples were collected from 4 lake and 7 ocean areas of different environmental and deposit conditions; oligotrophic, mesotrophic, acidtrophic and dystrophic lakes, and coastal and hemipelagic ocean areas. After purification of these deposit samples using ionchromatography, β-ray from 137 Cs and α-ray from Pu were spectroscopically determined to plat the respective concentration as a function of the depth in core. Based on the data of mean ratio of 239,240 Pu/ 137 Cs as to the organic sulfides and residual fractions and the total deposits, it was thought that when the ratio of Pu/Cs of lake deposits was higher than the fallout value, organic materials in the lake might be involved. Pu was mostly abundant in organic fractions compared with Cs, whereas Cs was present in all the four fractions of carbonates, oxides, organic materials and aluminosilicates. (M.N.)

  13. 242Pu as tracer for simultaneous determination of 237Np and 239,240Pu in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure has been developed using Pu-242 as tracer for simultaneous determination of Np-237 and Pu-239,Pu-240 in environmental samples. The validity of the method has been demonstrated by ICPMS and alpha-spectroscopy for up to 10 gram soil and sediment, seawater up to 200 litres. The paper...... from Np and Pu) R-before/R-after = 1.004 +/- 3.3% (S.D n = 20) and 1 litre seawater R-before/R-after = 1.019+/-1.9% (S.D., n = 12). Results from the intercomparison samples LAEA-135, LAEA-381 and from environmental samples are presented....... describes a suitable chemical procedure for Np and Pu including a quantitative pre-concentration of neptunium and plutonium, preparation of Np4+ and Pu4+, NP(NO3)(6)(2-) and Pu(NO3)(6)(2-), The ratio of Np-237/Pu-242 (or Np-237/Pu-239) before and after the procedure has been determined using 10 g soil (free...

  14. Determination of Pu-239, 240 tissue concentrations in non-occupationally exposed residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.

    1977-01-01

    The study reports on the Pu-239, 240 concentrations in various tissues obtained from individuals residing in New York City. Twenty-six tissue samples have been analyzed for their Pu-239, 240 content, which include sections from the right lung, the liver, bone (4th and 5th vertebrae) and the kidney. The tissues were obtained at autopsy from a selected population not occupationally exposed to plutonium and whose deaths were the result of causes other than metabolic disorders. A detailed description is presented of the radiochemical procedures employed to separate Pu and electrochemically deposit plutonium isotopes prior to alpha spectrometry with Si surface-barrier detectors. Results of these measurements are given as activity per gram wet weight and activity per gram of calcium in the individual tissue. All results have been compared to similar measurements made at other laboratories and with estimates of concentration based on metabolic models. To date, the magnitudes and the distribution of the measured values are consistent with the values inferred from the ICRP lung model and measured concentrations of air

  15. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of {sup 239}PuBe and {sup 241}AmBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R. E-mail: rvega@cantera.reduaz.mx; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Becerra-Ferreiro, A.M.; Carrillo-Nunez, Aureliano

    2002-08-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of {sup 239}PuBe and {sup 241}AmBe were measured and their dosimetric features were calculated. Neutron spectra were measured using a multisphere neutron spectrometer with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator. The {sup 239}PuBe neutron spectrum was measured in an open environment, while the {sup 241}AmBe neutron spectrum was measured in a closed environment. Gamma-ray spectra were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillator using the same experimental conditions for both sources. The effect of measuring conditions for the {sup 241}AmBe neutron spectrum indicates the presence of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The low-resolution neutron spectra obtained with the multisphere spectrometer allows one to calculate the dosimetric features of neutron sources. At 100 cm both sources produce approximately the same count rate as that of the 4.4 MeV gamma-ray per unit of alpha emitter activity.

  16. Neutron induced fission cross sections for 232Th, 235,238U, 237Np, and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Hill, N.W.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross section ratios for samples of 232 Th, 235,238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu have been measured from 1 to 400 MeV. The fission reaction rate was determined for all samples simultaneously using a fast parallel plate ionization chamber at a 20-m flight path. A well characterized annular proton recoil telescope was used to measure the neutron fluence from 3 to 30 MeV. Those data provided the shape of the 235 U(n,f) cross section relative to the hydrogen scattering cross section. That shape was then normalized to the very accurately known value for 235 U(n,f) at 14.178 MeV. From 30 to 400 MeV cross section values were determined using the neutron fluence measured with a plastic scintillator. Cross section values of 232 Th, 235,238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu were computed from the ratio data using the authors' values for 235 U(n,f). In addition to providing new results at high neutron energies, these data highlight several areas of deficiency in the evaluated nuclear data files and provide new information for the 235 U(n,f) standard

  17. Migration of longlived transuranium isotopes (i.e. Pu-239, Am-241) in the soil and in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubick, A.; Dippel, T.

    1977-01-01

    From an undisturbed site, soil samples were taken for Pu-239,240 analysis. Each sample represented a 2 cm thick layer. The Pu-239 distribution pattern was analysed by checking to a computer model. The mean residence time tau was used as a transport parameter in the model. The validity of tau was proved by comparing the calculated contamination values with the measured amount of contamination in the field. The migration velocity of the 50% of PuO 2 contamination at the investigated loess loamy site was calculated to be vsub(PuO2) = 0.59 cm/a. In the vicinity of the Pu-sampling site HTO-tracer experiments indicated an average water percolation velocity of vsub(HTO) = 100 cm/a. From these values a dimensionless relative PuO 2 migration velocity. vsub(r(PuO2)) = vsub((PuO2))/vsub(HTO) = 5.9 x 10 -3 followed. (orig./RW) [de

  18. New data on the toxicity and translocation of inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Rateau, G.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France))

    1989-01-01

    In 1973-1974, baboons were exposed to a polydispersed aerosol of /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/, prepared at 1000/sup 0/C, at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France. The data published in 1978 for these baboons were used by Bair et al (1980), for comparison with those obtained in beagles exposed to /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, USA. Since our 1978 publication, 8 baboons have died or were killed by euthanasia when moribund, and 11 were still alive when the present report was drafted. Two of the eight baboons died of lung squamous cell carcinoma at 2171 and 2528 days respectively. The remaining 6 died of fibrosis, interstitial pneumonia or diseases unrelated to Pu toxicity. The relationship observed in the eight baboons between initial lung burden and survival time shows that their lifespan was longer than expected from the data curve based on the findings for the first 1000 days. However, this increased survival time was not observed if the lifespan was expressed as a function of the average lung burden. (author).

  19. Long-term consequences of 239PuO2 exposure in dogs: persistent T lymphocyte dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila, D.R.; Guilmette, R.A.; Bice, D.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Swafford, D.S.; Haley, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Young Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 and observed for their lifespans. The purpose was to compare certain immune responses of the 239 PuO 2 -exposed dogs at middle age (7-10 years old) and old age (12-14 years old), with those of unexposed, age-matched or young (3-4 years old) animals. Some of the aged, exposed dogs had developed lung tumours. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were lower in aged control dogs than in either young or middle-aged control dogs. Both aged and middle-aged, radiation-exposed dogs had decreased responses to PHA when compared to age-matched controls. Responses to concanavalin A (Con A) were not affected by age in control dogs, but tended to decrease in the oldest group of radiation-exposed dogs. Responses to both PHA and Con A were severely depressed in tumour-bearing dogs. The cytolytic activity of natural killer cells was not affected by age, radiation exposure, or tumour presence. (author)

  20. Activity ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P. [European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)], E-mail: peter.bossew@jrc.it; Lettner, H. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: herbert.lettner@sbg.ac.at; Hubmer, A.; Erlinger, C.; Gastberger, M. [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2007-09-15

    Both global and Chernobyl fallout have resulted in environmental contamination with radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu. In environmental samples, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu can be divided into the contributions of either source, if also the isotopes {sup 134}Cs and {sup 238}Pu are measurable, based on the known isotopic ratios in global and Chernobyl fallout. No analogous method is available for {sup 90}Sr. The activity ratios of Sr to Cs and Pu, respectively, are known for the actual fallout mainly from air filter measurements; but due to the high mobility of Sr in the environment, compared to Cs and Pu, these ratios generally do not hold for the inventory many years after deposition. In this paper we suggest a method to identify the mean contributions of global and Chernobyl fallout to total Sr in soil, sediment and cryoconite samples from Alpine and pre-Alpine regions of Austria, based on a statistical evaluation of Sr/Cs/Pu radionuclide activity ratios. Results are given for Sr:Cs, Sr:Pu and Cs:Pu ratios. Comparison with fallout data shows a strong depletion of Sr against Cs and Pu.

  1. Measurement of 239Pu in urine samples at ultra-trace levels using a 1 MV compact AMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Mendoza, H.; Chamizo, E.; Yllera, A.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    Routine bioassay monitoring of Pu intake in exposed workers of research and nuclear industry is usually performed by alpha spectrometry. This technique involves large sample volumes of urine and time-consuming preparative and counting protocols. Compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facilities make feasible the determination of ultra low-level Pu activity concentrations and Pu isotopic ratios in biological samples (blood, urine and feces), being a rapid and cost-effective measurement technique. The plutonium results in urine samples presented here have been obtained on the 1 MV compact AMS system sited at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), in Seville, Spain. In this work, a different methodological approach has been developed alternative to the 'classical' preparation of urine samples for alpha spectrometry. The procedure avoids the Pu precipitation step, and involves acid sample evaporation and acid digestion in a microwave oven. Finally, purification of plutonium was achieved by using chromatography columns filled up with BioRad AG1X2 anion exchange resin (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc.). The total time needed for analysis is about 10 h, unlike the 'classical' methods based on alpha spectrometry which need about 1 week. At present, it has been demonstrated that this method allows quantifying 239 Pu activity concentrations in urine of, at least, 30 μBq (13 fg 239 Pu). We can conclude that the procedure would be suitable to perform in vitro routine bioassay measurements. Moreover, the innovative application of AMS opens new and interesting analytical alternatives in this field.

  2. Nuclear data evaluation for 239Pu in the energy region 100 075. ev - 15 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsipov, G.V.; Bakhanovich, L.A.; Zharkov, V.F.

    1981-06-01

    The present work incorporates the results of the new nuclear data evaluation for 239 Pu. The complete file compiled by the authors in 1974 was practically completely re-examined. The most substantial changes were made above 0.5 keV. In the region of unresolved resonances (0.3-100 keV), the channel contribution to the process widths for a given state and some other aspects were taken into account. The fission cross section and the α-value were evaluated with regard for the correlation of experimental errors. The non-spherical potential with optimized parameters was used to make calculations by the optical and statistical models. The contribution of pre-equilibrium emission was taken into account in calculations of secondary neutron spectra. The new standard anti nusub(sp)( 252 Csub(f)) was used to calculate anti nusub(p). The 26-group constants and g-Westcott factors were obtained from the evaluated data. The complete file of the evaluated data for 239 Pu is presented in the ENDF/B format and conveyed to the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA. (author)

  3. Plutonium activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in sediment cores from the east China sea and Okinawa Trough: Sources and inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-liang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2005-05-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation using ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed that 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, ranging from 0.21 to 0.33, were much higher than the reported value of global fallout (0.18). The highest 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios (0.32-0.33) were observed in the deepest Okinawa Trough sediment samples. These ratios suggested the US nuclear weapons tests in the early 1950s at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands were a major source of plutonium in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, in addition to the global fallout source. It was proposed that close-in fallout plutonium was delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds test sites via early direct tropospheric fallout and transportation by the North Pacific Equatorial Circulation system and Kuroshio Current into the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea. The total 239 + 240 Pu inventories in the cores were about 150-200% of that expected from direct global fallout; about 46-67% of the total inventories were delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds. Much higher 239 + 240 Pu inventories were observed in the East China Sea sediments than in sediments of the Okinawa Trough, because in the open oceans, part of the 239 + 240 Pu was still retained in the water column, and continued Pu scavenging was higher over the margin than the trough. According to the vertical distributions of 239 + 240 Pu activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in these cores, it was concluded that sediment mixing was the dominant process in controlling profiles of plutonium in this area. Faster mixing in the coastal samples has homogenized the entire 240Pu/ 239Pu ratio record today; slightly slower mixing and less scavenging in the Okinawa Trough have left the surface sediment ratios closer

  4. First measurements of (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratios in a Southern Hemisphere soil far from nuclear test or reactor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srncik, M; Tims, S G; De Cesare, M; Fifield, L K

    2014-06-01

    The variation of the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations as a function of depth has been studied in a soil profile at a site in the Southern Hemisphere well removed from nuclear weapon test sites. Total inventories of (236)U and (239)Pu as well as the (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio were derived. For this investigation a soil core from an undisturbed forest area in the Herbert River catchment (17°30' - 19°S) which is located in north-eastern Queensland (Australia) was chosen. The chemical separation of U and Pu was carried out with a double column which has the advantage of the extraction of both elements from a relatively large soil sample (∼20 g) within a day. The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using the 14UD pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. The highest atom concentrations of both (236)U and (239)Pu were found at a depth of 2-3 cm. The (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio in fallout at this site, as deduced from the ratio of the (236)U and (239)Pu inventories, is 0.085 ± 0.003 which is clearly lower than the Northern Hemisphere value of ∼0.2. The (236)U inventory of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10(11) at/m(2) was more than an order of magnitude lower than values reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The (239)Pu activity concentrations are in excellent agreement with a previous study and the (239+240)Pu inventory was (13.85 ± 0.29) Bq/m(2). The weighted mean (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio of 0.142 ± 0.005 is slightly lower than the value for global fallout, but our results are consistent with the average ratio of 0.173 ± 0.027 for the southern equatorial region (0-30°S). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inventories of 239+240Pu, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb in sediment cores from brackish Lake Obuchi, Rokkasho Village, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, S.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Kondo, K.

    2004-01-01

    Distribution and inventories of 239+240 Pu, 137 Cs, and excess 210 Pb ( 210 Pb excess ) in sediment core samples from brackish Lake Obuchi, which is in the vicinity of nuclear fuel facilities in Rokkasho Village, Japan. The inventory of the 239+240 Pu activity in the sediment samples from the estuary of a freshwater river, the central point of the lake, and the deepest point in the lake were 0.18, 0.29, and 0.24 kBq x m -2 , respectively. The inventories of 137 Cs and 210 Pb excess in sediments were 0.83-1.2 kBq x m -2 and 25-30 kBq x m -2 , respectively. The mean 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs and 210 Pb excess / 137 Cs activity ratios were 0.23 and 28, respectively. The 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratios were approximately 13-24 times the ratio expected from global fallout. The inventories of 239+240 Pu and 210 Pb in sediments were higher than the inventory expected from atmospheric fallout, but the 137 Cs inventory was significantly lower than expected. (author)

  6. Modifying effects of pre-existing fibrosis in rats exposed to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D L; Mauderly, J L; Gillett, N A; Hahn, F F

    1988-12-01

    We have initiated a study using rats to determine the modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis on the retention and biological effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of 8.5 IU/kg body weight of bleomycin at 45 to 49 days before inhalation exposure to an aerosol of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. The clearance of {sup 239}Pu from the lungs of rats was decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in rats with pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis compared with controls. Respiratory function, lung morphometric measurements and histological evaluations were all consistent with the presence of mild pulmonary fibrosis in the rats treated with bleomycin. Pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis resulted in an increased retention of the initial lung burdens of {sup 239}Pu, apparently by entrapping the particles in fibrotic areas of the lung. The life span of the rats with pulmonary fibrosis was decreased by up to 25% compared with control rats having similar initial lung burdens of {sup 239}Pu. (author)

  7. An intercomparison experiment on isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using plutonium-239 spike for the determination of plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Shah, P.M.; Saxena, M.K.; Jain, H.C.; Gurba, P.B.; Babbar, R.K.; Udagatti, S.V.; Moorthy, A.D.; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of plutonium concentration in the dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is one of the key measurements in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of an intercomparison experiment performed between Fuel Chemistry Division (FCD) at BARC and PREFRE, Tarapur for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel using 239 Pu spike in isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). The 239 Pu spike method was previously established at FCD as viable alternative to the imported enriched 242 Pu or 244 Pu; the spike used internationally for plutonium concentration determination by IDMS in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel. Precision and accuracy achievable for determining plutonium concentration are compared under the laboratory and the plant conditions using 239 Pu spike in IDMS. For this purpose, two different dissolver solutions with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of about 0.3 and 0.07 corresponding, respectively, to high and low burn-up fuels, were used. The results of the intercomparison experiment demonstrate that there is no difference in the precision values obtained under the laboratory and the plant conditions; with mean precision values of better than 0.2%. Further, the plutonium concentration values determined by the two laboratories agreed within 0.3%. This exercise, therefore, demonstrates that ID-TIMS method using 239 Pu spike can be used for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel, under the plant conditions. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  8. Association of 239Pu with lysosomes in rat, Syrian hamster, and Chinese hamster liver as studied by carrier-free electrophoresis and electron microscopic autoradiography with 241Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, A.; Krueger, E.W.; Wiener, M.; Hotz, G.; Balani, M.; Thies, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of injected monomeric plutonium in the liver of rats, Syrian hamsters, and Chinese hamsters (species which show profound differences in their ability to eliminate 239 Pu from the liver) was investigated by carrier-free electrophoresis using 239 Pu and electron microscopic autoradiography with 241 Pu. These studies are part of a program designed to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of the clearance of transuranium elements from liver of different mammals and man. Between 4 and 9 days after nuclide injection, a clear correlation between the majority of the 239 Pu and lysosomal enzymes was observed when the mitochondrial-lysosomal (ML) fraction of the livers was analyzed by carrier-free electrophoresis. In the two hamster species, a second 239 Pu peak exists from the beginning and increases with time to comprise 50% of the total radioactivity at later times. During electron microscopic examination 4 days after 241 Pu injection, beta tracks were frequently observed over globular structures resembling dense bodies in Chinese hamster liver. They were also observed frequently over chromatin-rich portions of the cell nuclei. These results, together with those from previous density gradient studies, show that lysosomes are the primary deposition site for 239 Pu in the liver cytoplasm of these three rodent species. The hypothesis of a morphologic transformation of these lysosomes with time in hamster liver and of rapid bulk exocytosis of the lysosomes in rats are still possible explanations for the extreme differences in the elimination among the three species

  9. Comparison of the subcellular distribution of monomeric 239Pu and 59Fe in the liver of rat, mouse, and Syrian and Chinese hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R.; Seidel, A.

    1982-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of 239 Pu and 59 Fe 10 days after intravenous injection as a citrate complex was investigated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation in the liver of rat, mouse, and Syrian and Chinese hamsters. Lysosomes were separated from other cell constituents by injection of the nonionic detergent Triton WR 1339 4 days before sacrifice. The Triton-induced decrease in the density of the lysosomes was very similar in all four animal species and was followed closely by a corresponding decrease of the median density of the 239 Pu profiles in rat, mouse, and, to a smaller extent, Syrian hamster. However, in Chinese hamster a clear correspondence between lysosomes and 239 Pu was not found 10 days after nuclide injection. It was concluded that lysosomes are the main storage organelles fo 239 Pu in the liver of rat and mouse and that in all four animal species mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum do not play any significant role in binding the radionuclide. The relevance of pericellular membranes has to be checked. The distribution patterns of 59 Fe and 239 Pu were quite different

  10. Use of combined alpha-spectrometry and fission track analysis for the determination of 240Pu/239Pu ratios in human tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, S.F.; Filby, R.H.; Glover, S.E.; Stuit, D.B.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Plutonium and other actinides were determined in human autopsy tissues of occupationally exposed workers who were registrants of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). In this study, Pu was purified and isolated from Am, U and Th, after drying and wet-ashing of the tissues, and the addition of 238 Pu as a radiotracer. After electrodeposition onto vanadium planchets, the 239+240 Pu activity was determined by alpha-spectrometry. A fission track method was developed to determine 239 Pu in the presence of 238 Pu and 240 Pu, using Lexan TM polycarbonate detectors. Combining the two techniques allowed the determination of the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu activity and atom ratios. Data from selected USTUR cases are presented. (author)

  11. Study on distribution of 239+240Pu in sediment of Mumbai Harbour Bay over a quinquennial period (2010-2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, S.; Joshi, V.M.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclide, Plutonium was introduced into the environment mainly from the fallout of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, particularly in late 1950's and early 1960's, from which the total fallout of 330TBq( 238 Pu), 7.4PBq ( 239 Pu), 5.2PBq ( 240 Pu), 170PBq( 241 Pu), 16TBq ( 242 Pu) were estimated. Pu and its status in environment is less investigated than other fallout radionuclides in environment. Fallout 239 Pu(t ½ : 24410 years), 240 Pu (t ½ :6563 years) is regarded highly hazardous pollutants in the environment due to its long half life, which lead to its persistence in the environment. The current investigation aimed at the study on distribution of 239+240 Pu in sediment of Mumbai Harbour Bay(MHB) over a quinquennial period (2010-2014) to assess the impact in coastal marine environment which will serve as a benchmark

  12. Fission Product Yields of 233U, 235U, 238U and 239Pu in Fields of Thermal Neutrons, Fission Neutrons and 14.7-MeV Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurec, J.; Adam, A.; de Bruyne, T.; Bauge, E.; Granier, T.; Aupiais, J.; Bersillon, O.; Le Petit, G.; Authier, N.; Casoli, P.

    2010-12-01

    The yields of more than fifteen fission products have been carefully measured using radiochemical techniques, for 235U(n,f), 239Pu(n,f) in a thermal spectrum, for 233U(n,f), 235U(n,f), and 239Pu(n,f) reactions in a fission neutron spectrum, and for 233U(n,f), 235U(n,f), 238U(n,f), and 239Pu(n,f) for 14.7 MeV monoenergetic neutrons. Irradiations were performed at the EL3 reactor, at the Caliban and Prospero critical assemblies, and at the Lancelot electrostatic accelerator in CEA-Valduc. Fissions were counted in thin deposits using fission ionization chambers. The number of fission products of each species were measured by gamma spectrometry of co-located thick deposits.

  13. The APETALA-2-like transcription factor OsAP2-39 controls key interactions between abscisic acid and gibberellin in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Zhu, Tong; Beatty, Perrin H; Good, Allen G; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2010-09-09

    The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2) domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI) protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16α, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs) in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production.

  14. The APETALA-2-like transcription factor OsAP2-39 controls key interactions between abscisic acid and gibberellin in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud W Yaish

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2 domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key abscisic acid (ABA biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16α, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production.

  15. Time-resolved record of 236U and 239,240Pu isotopes from a coral growing during the nuclear testing program at Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Chan, W Y; Tims, S G; Fallon, S J; Fifield, L K

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive series of nuclear tests were carried out by the United States at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, especially between 1952 and 1958. A Porites Lutea coral that was growing in the Enewetak lagoon within a few km of all of the high-yield tests contains a continuous record of isotopes, which are of interest (e.g. 14 C, 236 U, 239,240 Pu) through the testing period. Prior to the present work, 14 C measurements at ∼2-month resolution had shown pronounced peaks in the Δ 14 C data that coincided with the times at which tests were conducted. Here we report measurements of 236 U and 239,240 Pu on the same coral using accelerator mass spectrometry, and again find prominent peaks in the concentrations of these isotopes that closely follow those in 14 C. Consistent with the 14 C data, the magnitudes of these peaks do not, however, correlate well with the explosive yields of the corresponding tests, indicating that smaller tests probably contributed disproportionately to the debris that fell in the lagoon. Additional information about the different tests can also be obtained from the 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios, which are found to vary dramatically over the testing period. In particular, the first thermonuclear test, Ivy-Mike, has characteristic 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu signatures which are diagnostic of the first arrival of nuclear test material in various archives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  17. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, P.

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [fr

  18. Calculated critical parameters in simple geometries for oxide and nitrate water mixtures of U-233, U-235 and Pu-239 with thorium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, W.E.; Bierman, S.R.

    1979-11-01

    Calculations have been performed on water mixtures of oxides and nitrates of 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu with chemically similar thorium compounds to determine critical dimensions for simple geometries (sphere, cylinder, and slab). Uranium enrichments calculated were 100%, 20%, 10%, and 5%; plutonium calculations assumed 100% 239 Pu. Thorium to uranium or plutonium weight ratios (Th: U or Pu) calculated were 0, 1, 4, and 8. Both bare and full water reflection conditions were calculated. The results of the calculations are plotted showing a critical dimension versus the uranium or plutonium concentration. Plots of K-infinity and material buckling for each material type are also shown

  19. The deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled 239PuO2 in the lungs of rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Damon, E.G.; Diel, J.H.; Hahn, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    Individuals with chronic obstructive lung disease, such as emphysema, may be more susceptible to injury from other inhaled pollutants. However, dose-response studies of inhaled radionuclides conducted to aid in estimating the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in man have typically used healthy laboratory animals. Changes in radionuclide deposition, distribution and retention in the lungs as the result of pre-existing lung diseases could alter the radiation dose or the resulting biological effects. An experimental animal model for human emphysema, in which emphysema is induced by the intratracheal instillation of either elastase or papain, has been reviewed. This model was used to study the effects of pulmonary emphysema on the deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats. (author)

  20. Evaluating the 239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Induced by Thermal to 30 MeV Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neudecker D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new evaluation of the 239Pu prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS induced by thermal to 30 MeV neutrons. Compared to the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, this one includes recently published experimental data as well as an improved and extended model description to predict PFNS. For instance, the pre-equilibrium neutron emission component to the PFNS is considered and the incident energy dependence of model parameters is parametrized more realistically. Experimental and model parameter uncertainties and covariances are estimated in detail. Also, evaluated covariances are provided between all PFNS at different incident neutron energies. Selected evaluation results and first benchmark calculations using this evaluation are briefly discussed.

  1. Applicability of 239Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, R.; Tims, S.G.; Fifield, L.K.; Wasson, R.J.; Howe, D.

    2013-01-01

    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of 239 Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently ( −1 a −1 . The measured rates are up to 5 times higher compared to agricultural and uncultivated areas within soil conservation banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  2. Applicability of {sup 239}Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, R., E-mail: rajeev.lal@anu.edu.au [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Tims, S.G.; Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wasson, R.J.; Howe, D. [Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of {sup 239}Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (<25a) and which had a history of grazing and cultivation the measured soil loss rates over the past {approx}50 years were 7.5-19.5 t ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}. The measured rates are up to 5 times higher compared to agricultural and uncultivated areas within soil conservation banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  3. Development of a rapid radiochemical procedure for the separation of /sup 235m/U from 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attrep, M. Jr.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a rapid radiochemical procedure for the isolation and purification of /sup 235m/U (t/sub 1/2/ = 26 minutes) from 239 Pu samples up to 250 mg. Purpose of developing the procedure was to measure the thermal neutron fission cross section of the isomeric meta state of 235 U. We used rapid small-scale anion exchange columns that absorbed uranium in concentrated HBr but did not absorb plutonium. Uranium was easily eluted with very dilute HF. The separation time required 25 to 35 minutes. We were able to attain a separation factor of uranium from plutonium of approximately 1 x 10 10 with samples ranging from 1 x 10 10 to 3 x 10 11 . The ratio of the fission cross sections for the meta to ground state was measured to be 1.42. 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. sup(239/240)Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 40K in different types of honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the concentration of radionuclides in honey is of interest because this foodstuff consumed worldwide could be a source of radionuclides to man. Besides that, honey is used as a bioindicator for several radionuclides because the bees forage for nectar, pollen or honeydew over a large area of landscape. In this connection, it is of special interest to know when, and, if so, to what extent the concentrations of radionuclides in the honey depend on the type of honey sampled by the bees. For this reason, we determined sup(239/240)Pu, 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K in three important types of honey produced in the F.R.G., namely in honey from flowers, from honeydew and from heather. The data obtained in this way was used also to investigate whether significant correlations exist between these radionuclides in the various honey samples. (author)

  5. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopics of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by measuring the coincidence of the alpha particle during radioactive decay with the conversion electron (or Auger) emitted during the relaxation of the daughter isotope. This presents a unique signature to allow the deconvolution of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector. A passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector provided measurements of alpha spectroscopy. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20–55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information to aid in the coincident measurement approach.

  6. Distribution, retention and early cytogenetic damage in Cynomolgus monkeys following inhalation of 239Pu(NO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Redman, H.C.; Guilmette, R.A.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen Cynomolgus monkeys were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol of 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 which resulted in calculated initial lung burdens of 1.0, 0.3 and 0.1 μCi. Four animals were exposed to the carrier aerosol and served as controls. Animals were sacrificed at 4 days and 45 days after exposure to determine the distribution and retention of the aerosol. The amount of plutonium in the liver, skeleton and testes increased as a function of time after exposure. Two monkeys died 155 and 188 days after inhalation exposure from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. There was a doubling of the total chromosome aberration frequency in the blood lymphocytes and a significant increase in dicentric chromosomes in the animals exposed for 6 months to initial lung burdens of 1.0 μCi

  7. 239Pu and 241Am contamination of small vertebrates in NAEG study areas of NTS and TTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, K.S.; Naele, S.R.; Bradley, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    Ecological studies of small vertebrates in three plutonium (Pu) contaminated study areas of Nevada Test Site began in Spring, 1972, and were expanded to include four areas of Tonopah Test Range in Fall, 1973. This report consists primarily of presentation and analysis of radioanalytical data on rodents and lizards from Area 11-C, Nevada Test Site. In addition, methodology and preliminary results of initial hematologic studies are presented. Dipodomys microps is a dominant rodent species in all study areas. Concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am in pelt, GI tract, and carcass of 74 resident D. microps from five study areas were determined. The only consistent trend evident was that carcass burdens were lower than pelt or GI tract burdens by a factor of 10 2 . Mean ratios of Pu/Am in tissue aliquots were variable, and many were significantly different than ratios in soil or vegetation samples

  8. Handling of a glove box accident. Surgical treatment of a wound contaminated by a mixture of plutonium-239 and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalu, P.

    1977-01-01

    An employee of the Valduc Centre (France) suffered an injury to his right thumb when working in a glove-box on a pipeline which had contained a solution of 239 Pu and Am. The lesion was slight but attempts at decontamination were fruitless. The contamination was deep-seated (activity of not less than 18nCi). DTPA was injected intravenously, and it was decided to excise the lesion surgically. Thanks to the quality of its physical facilities and the professional quality of its radiation medicine and surgery team, the Valduc Centre was able to carry out the operation successfully. The result was excellent, and the contamination was eliminated to the satisfaction of both the patient and the physician. (author)

  9. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Y; Hamilton, T; Uchida, S; Tagami, K; Yoshida, S; Robison, W

    2001-10-20

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes.

  10. Critical mass analysis for 235U and 239Pu systems moderated and reflected by D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza, D.; Stratton, W.

    1998-01-01

    Criticality dimensions for highly enriched 235 U (93.5) and 239 Pu (95.5) systems mixed with D 2 O were studied. The objective of this work is to investigate the minimum critical mass and concentration of uranium and plutonium systems in a reflector-moderated arrangement. The present work demonstrates the critical instability of some of these systems that are reflected by D 2 O and expands from previously published and unpublished work. These calculations were performed in a spherical geometry with the DANTSYS codes using the Hansen-Roach cross-section library. Densities examined ranged from normal to very small and are assumed to be uniform throughout the core. These spherical systems are reflected by 100 cm of D 2 O

  11. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Yoshida, S. [Environmental and Toxicological Researches Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, 263-8555 Chiba (Japan); Hamilton, T.; Robison, W. [Health and Ecological Assessment Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-453, 94551-0808 Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-10-20

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes.

  12. Measurement of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in soils from the Marshall Islands using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands produced significant quantities of regional or tropospheric fallout contamination. Here we report on some preliminary inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements of plutonium isolated from seven composite soil samples collected from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. These data show that 240Pu/239Pu isotopic signatures in surface soils from the Marshall Island vary significantly and could potentially be used to help quantify the range and extent of fallout deposition (and associated impacts) from specific weapons tests. 137Cs and 60Co were also determined on the same set of soil samples for comparative purposes

  13. Study on transfer coefficients of 90Sr, 137Cs, natural U, 226Ra and 239Pu in terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Suyun; Qi Yong; Li Shuqin; Zhou Caiyun; Zhang Jingjuan; Li Jikai; Li Xuequn

    1995-01-01

    The aim of study was to provide values of transfer parameter of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, Natural U, 226 Ra and 239 Pu in terrestrial food chains, more applicable for Chinese socio-natural conditions. Data of radionuclides contents in agricultural crops and in associated soils, in sheep tissues and in associated grasses were collected in couples. The transfer coefficients in terrestrial food chains (soil-crops, grasses-sheep tissues) were calculated. On basis of statistical analysis, the representative values and 95% ranges of transfer coefficient for 5 radionuclides in 7 kind of agricultural products for southern moist areas and north dry areas were given. Regression analysis showed that relation between the transfer coefficients and the radionuclide contents in their associated soils present a negative correlation, it could be described with a equation: Y = aX -b

  14. Evaluating and adjusting 239Pu, 56Fe, 28Si and 95Mo nuclear data with a Monte Carlo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochman, D.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, Monte Carlo optimization and nuclear data evaluation are combined to produce optimal adjusted nuclear data files. The methodology is based on the so-called 'Total Monte Carlo' and the TALYS system. Not only a single nuclear data file is produced for a given isotope, but virtually an infinite number, defining probability distributions for each nuclear quantity. Then each of these random nuclear data libraries is used in a series of benchmark calculations. With a goodness-of-fit estimator, best 239 Pu, 56 Fe, 28 Si and 95 Mo evaluations for that benchmark set can be selected. A few thousands of random files are used and each of them is tested with a large number of fast, thermal and intermediate energy criticality benchmarks. From this, the best performing random file is chosen and proposed as the optimum choice among the studied random set. (authors)

  15. Fission Product Yield Study of 235U, 238U and 239Pu Using Dual-Fission Ionization Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B.; Howell, C.; Tornow, W.; Gooden, M.; Kelley, J.; Arnold, C.; Bond, E.; Bredeweg, T.; Fowler, M.; Moody, W.; Rundberg, R.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D.; Wilhelmy, J.; Becker, J.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.; Stoyer, M.; Tonchev, A.

    2014-05-01

    To resolve long-standing differences between LANL and LLNL regarding the correct fission basis for analysis of nuclear test data [M.B. Chadwick et al., Nucl. Data Sheets 111, 2891 (2010); H. Selby et al., Nucl. Data Sheets 111, 2891 (2010)], a collaboration between TUNL/LANL/LLNL has been established to perform high-precision measurements of neutron induced fission product yields. The main goal is to make a definitive statement about the energy dependence of the fission yields to an accuracy better than 2-3% between 1 and 15 MeV, where experimental data are very scarce. At TUNL, we have completed the design, fabrication and testing of three dual-fission chambers dedicated to 235U, 238U, and 239Pu. The dual-fission chambers were used to make measurements of the fission product activity relative to the total fission rate, as well as for high-precision absolute fission yield measurements. The activation method was employed, utilizing the mono-energetic neutron beams available at TUNL. Neutrons of 4.6, 9.0, and 14.5 MeV were produced via the 2H(d,n)3He reaction, and for neutrons at 14.8 MeV, the 3H(d,n)4He reaction was used. After activation, the induced γ-ray activity of the fission products was measured for two months using high-resolution HPGe detectors in a low-background environment. Results for the yield of seven fission fragments of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and a comparison to available data at other energies are reported. For the first time results are available for neutron energies between 2 and 14 MeV.

  16. A comparative study of 239,240Pu in soil near the former Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility, Golden, CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulies, Todd D.; Schonbeck, Niels D.; Morin-Voilleque, Normie C.; James, Katherine A.; LaVelle, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant near Golden, CO released plutonium into the environment during almost 40 years of operation. Continuing concern over possible health impacts of these releases has been heightened by lack of public disclosure of the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. A dose reconstruction study for the Rocky Flats facilities, begun in 1990, provided a unique opportunity for concerned citizens to design and implement field studies without participation of the DOE, its contractors, or other government agencies. The Citizens Environmental Sampling Committee was formed in late 1992 and conducted a field sampling program in 1994. Over 60 soil samples, including both surface and core samples, were collected from 28 locations where past human activities would have minimal influence on contaminant distributions in soil. Cesium-137 activity was used as a means to assess whether samples were collected in undisturbed locations. The distribution of plutonium (as 239,240 Pu) in soil was consistent with past sampling conducted by DOE, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and others. Elevated levels of 239,240 Pu were found immediately east of the Rocky Flats Plant, with concentrations falling rapidly with distance from the plant to levels consistent with background from fallout. Samples collected in areas south, west, and north of the plant were generally consistent with background from fallout. No biases in past sampling due to choice of sampling locations or sampling methodology were evident. The study shows that local citizens, when provided sufficient resources, can design and implement technical studies that directly address community concerns where trust in the regulated community and/or regulators is low

  17. Remarkably High Stability of Late Actinide Dioxide Cations: Extending Chemistry to Pentavalent Berkelium and Californium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Phuong D; Vasiliu, Monica; Peterson, Kirk A; Dixon, David A; Gibson, John K

    2017-12-06

    Actinyl chemistry is extended beyond Cm to BkO 2 + and CfO 2 + through transfer of an O atom from NO 2 to BkO + or CfO + , establishing a surprisingly high lower limit of 73 kcal mol -1 for the dissociation energies, D[O-(BkO + )] and D[O-(CfO + )]. CCSD(T) computations are in accord with the observed reactions, and characterize the newly observed dioxide ions as linear pentavalent actinyls; these being the first Bk and Cf species with oxidation states above IV. Computations of actinide dioxide cations AnO 2 + for An=Pa to Lr reveal an unexpected minimum for D[O-(CmO + )]. For CmO 2 + , and AnO 2 + beyond EsO 2 + , the most stable structure has side-on bonded η 2 -(O 2 ), as An III peroxides for An=Cm and Lr, and as An II superoxides for An=Fm, Md, and No. It is predicted that the most stable structure of EsO 2 + is linear [O=Es V =O] + , einsteinyl, and that FmO 2 + and MdO 2 + , like CmO 2 + , also have actinyl(V) structures as local energy minima. The results expand actinide oxidation state chemistry, the realm of the distinctive actinyl moiety, and the non-periodic character towards the end of the periodic table. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Total neutron cross sections of berkelium-249 and californium-249 below 100 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Pandey, M.S.; Carlton, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The neutron total cross sections of 249 Bk and 249 Cf have been measured from 0.03 to 100 eV using the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) as a source of pulsed neutrons. The 1.6 mm dia. cylindrical transmission samples contained initially up to 5.3 mg of 98% 249 Bk and 2% 249 Cf: 4.5 years later, when the final measurements were made, the composition of the samples had become 2.5% 249 Bk, 96.9% 249 Cf, and 0.6% 245 Cm. Samples were cooled with liquid nitrogen to reduce Doppler broadening. Thirty-nine resonances were identified in 249 Bk and analyzed using a single-level Breit-Wigner formalism. Fifty-five resonances were identified in 249 Cf and analyzed using an R-matrix multilevel formalism. Fifty-five resonances were identified in 249 Cf and analyzed using an R-matrix multilevel formalism. The resonance parameters obtained have been used to determine the average level spacings and the s-wave neutron and fission strength functions. Where possible, bound-level parameters were derived to fit the thermal neutron total cross section data

  19. The Transport of Close-In Fallout Plutonium in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Tracing the Water Mass Movement Using {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu Atom Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Han [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Gi-Hoon; Suk, Moon-Sik [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gastaud, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory (Monaco); La Rosa, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ionizing Radiation Division, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Kim, Chul-Soo [Environmental Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Wyse, E. [New Brunswick Laboratory Argonne, IL (United States); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater and surface sediment collected from the northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean from 1992 to 1997 were determined using ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In whole water columns, the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu were higher than the global fallout ratio (0.18). It is noted that the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/2{sup 39}Pu in the seawater increase with depth. Such elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios indicate that the close-in fallout plutonium isotopes originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPGs) due to the U.S. tests are prevailing in the seawater in the NW Pacific Ocean. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the surface sediment from the NW Pacific Ocean varied with the sampling locations. As a consequence, this study will provide the information that the water mass along with the current plays a key role in driving the distribution of Pu and in transporting Pu from the PPGs to the far eastern marginal sea in the NW Pacific Ocean. (author)

  20. Intercomparison study of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and fission track analysis of μBq quantities of 239Pu in synthetic urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inn, K.G.W.; McCurdy, D.; Kuruvilla, L.; Barss, N.M.; Bell III, R.T.; Pietrzak, R.; Kaplan, E.; Inkret, W.; Efurd, W.; Rokop, D.; Lewis, D.; Gautier, P.

    2001-01-01

    Even today, some Marshall Islanders are looking forward to permanently resettling their islands after five decades. The U.S. Department of Energy and the resettled residents require reasonable but cost-prudent assurance that the doses to resident from residual 239 Pu will not exceed recognized international standards or recommendations, as estimated from the excretion of 239 Pu in urine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the bias, uncertainty and sensitivity of analytical techniques that measure 3-56 μBq 239 Pu in synthetic urine. The analytical techniques studied in this work included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and fission track analysis. The results of the intercomparison demonstrated that all three techniques were capable of marking the measurements, although not with equal degree of bias and uncertainty. The estimated minimum detectable activity was 1 μBq of 239 Pu per synthetic urine sample. This exercise is also the first effort to certify test materials of plutonium in the nBqxg -1 range. (author)

  1. Strontium-90 and plutonium-239/240 accumulation and distribution in soil-vegetative cover of some Semipalatinsk test site areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Artem'ev, O.I.; Luk'yanova, Yu.A.; Sidorovich, T.V.; Silkina, G.P.; Kurmanbaeva, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results of field and laboratory studies of soil-vegetative cover contamination by 90 Sr and 239/240 Pu. Certain parameters of radionuclide migration in the environment of some former Semipalatinsk Test Site areas were determined. (author)

  2. Distribution and flux of 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs and 210Pb to high arctic lakes in the Thule district (Greenland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, M; Holm, E; Roos, P; Dahlgaard, H

    2004-01-01

    Environmental samples (soil, sediment and lake water) in the Thule area (NW Greenland) have been studied to assess the contamination of radionuclides originating from a nuclear weapons accident (the Thule accident in 1968). Four lakes were chosen at different distances from the point of impact with the Thule air base community situated in between. The sedimentation rates in the lakes varied from 0.4 mm a(-1) (5 mg cm(-2) a(-1)) to 1.6 mm a(-1) (82 mg cm(-2) a(-1)). With these sedimentation rates, it is not possible to resolve the (239,240)Pu global fallout peak from a possible (239,240)Pu "accident" peak in the sediment depth profiles. However, the (239,240)Pu/(137)Cs and the (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu ratios agreed well with global fallout ratios, indicating that plutonium originating from the accident had not reached these lakes. This also indicates that the Thule air base community has probably only been exposed to radionuclides from the accident to a very limited extent. A limited study showed that (210)Pb could not be used as a normalizing nuclide to explain the transport of transuranic elements from the catchment area to the lake, i.e. (210)Pb has a different transport mechanism from that of the transuranic elements studied in this investigation.

  3. Experiments to determine the rate of beta energy release following fission of Pu239 andU235 in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.F.; Taylor, W.H.; Sweet, D.W.; March, M.R.

    1979-02-01

    Measurements have been made of the rate of beta energy release from Pu239 and U235 fission fragments over a period of 107 seconds following a 105 second irradiation in the zero-power fast reactor Zebra. Results are compared with predictions using the UKFPDD-1 decay data file and two different sets of fission product yield data. (author)

  4. 239Pu(n, 2n) and 241Pu(n, 2n) surrogate cross section measurements using NeutronSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alan, B. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Akindele, O. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Casperson, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, R. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Koglin, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tamashiro, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Kolos, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Norman, E. B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Saastamoinen, A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Padilla, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Fisher, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-08

    The goal of this project was to develop a new approach to measuring (n,2n) reactions for isotopes of interest. We set out to measure the 239Pu(n,2n) and 241Pu(n,2n) cross sections by directly detecting the 2n neutrons that are emitted. With the goal of improving the 239Pu(n,2n) cross section and to measure the 241Pu(n,2n) cross section for the first time. To that end, we have constructed a new neutron-charged-particle detector array called NeutronSTARS. It has been described extensively in Casperson et al. [1] and in Akindele et al. [2]. We have used this new neutron-charged-particle array to measure the 241Pu and 239Pu fission neutron multiplicity as a function of equivalent incident-neutron energy from 100 keV to 20 MeV. We have made a preliminary determination of the 239Pu(n,2n) and 241Pu(n,2n) cross sections from the surrogate 240Pu(α,α’2n) and 242Pu(α,α’2n) reactions respectively. The experimental approach, detector array, data analysis, and results to date are summarized in the following sections.

  5. 17 CFR 239.500 - Form D, notice of sales of securities under Regulation D and section 4(6) of the Securities Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount since the previously filed notice of sales on Form D, does not result in an increase of more than... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form D, notice of sales of... ACT OF 1933 Forms Pertaining to Exemptions § 239.500 Form D, notice of sales of securities under...

  6. Methodology and levels of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu in marine sediments from the Brazilian Southern Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, R.C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul - CETEC/UNICSUL - Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Tessler, M.G.; Mahiques, M.M. de [Instituto Oceanografico da Univesidade de Sao Paulo - IOUSP - Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Cunha, I.I.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP -Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)]. e-mail: figueira@curiango.ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Methodologies for analysis of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu were developed and applied to sediment samples collected along the Brazilian coast. This paper presents the instrumental steps for {sup 137} Cs analysis and the radiochemical steps necessary to analyse {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu. The analytical quality control for radionuclide analysis was verified by participation in international intercomparison exercise running by IAEA as well as in reference material analysis. Further, methodologies were applied in sediments collected from 1976 to 1986 at the Brazilian southern coastal region. {sup 137}Cs levels ranged from 0.37 to 2.03 Bq kg{sup -1}, for {sup 90} Sr from MDC to 8.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and for {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu from MDC to 227 m Bq kg{sup -1}. The minimum detectable concentration values (MDC) for {sup 90} Sr and {sup 239} {sup +} {sup 240} Pu were of 0.3 Bq kg{sup -1} and 4.2 mBq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The artificial radioactivity levels in Brazilian sediments are typical values due to fallout deposition and represent reference values for our country. (Author)

  7. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediment following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Vintro, L.L.; Gasco, C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of ∼0.18. Measurements of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing, has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio was 0.033±0.004, while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056±0.003. Both ratios are consistent with those reported for soils samples at the Nevada site and Nagasaki, and are clearly indicative of weapons-grade plutonium. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Energy measurement of prompt fission neutrons in 239Pu(n,f) for incident neutron energies from 1 to 200 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatillon, A; Granier, Th; Laurent, B; Taïeb, J; Noda, S; Haight, R C; Devlin, M; Nelson, R O; O’Donnell, J M

    2010-01-01

    Prompt fission neutron spectra in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu have been measured for incident neutron energies from 1 to 200 MeV at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Preliminary results are discussed and compared to theoretical model calculation.

  10. Energy dependence of the asymmetry-violated space parity of fragment emission from the 239PU fission by slow polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val'skij, G.V.; Zvezdkina, T.K.; Nikolaev, D.V.; Petrova, V.I.; Petrov, G.A.; Petukhov, A.K.; Pleva, Yu.S.; Tyukavin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Asymmetry violating parity in the fragment emission from fission of 239 Pu induced by polarized neutrons at six energy points in the interval 0.01 <= E <0.3 eV was measured. The results providing with an evidence in favour of the hypothesis that the asymmetry is independent on energy are discussed in view of the existing theoretical picture

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of plutonium isotopes (238Pu and 239,240Pu) in sediments off the Rhone River mouth (NW Mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansard, B.; Charmasson, S.; Gasco, C.; Anton, M.P.; Grenz, C.; Arnaud, M.

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion and fate of the Rhone River inputs to the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) have been studied through the spatial and temporal distributions of plutonium isotopes in continental shelf sediments. Plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu) are appropriate tracers to follow the dispersion of particulate matter due both to their high affinity for particles and their long half-lives. In the Rhone River valley, plutonium isotopes originate from both the weathering of the catchment basin contaminated by global atmospheric fallout, and the liquid effluents released from the Marcoule reprocessing plant since 1961. This work presents a first detailed study on 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu distributions in sediments from the Rhone prodelta to the adjacent continental shelf, since the decommissioning of Marcoule in 1997. The vertical distribution of Pu isotopes has been analysed in a 4.75 m long core sampled in 2001 at the Rhone mouth. Despite this length, plutonium is found at the last 10 cm, manifesting the high sedimentation rate of the prodeltaic area and its ability for trapping fine-grained sediments and associated contaminants. The highest 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu concentrations reached 1.26 and 5.97 Bq kg -1 respectively and were found within the layer 280-290 cm. The 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios (AR) demonstrated an efficient and huge trapping of the Pu isotopes derived from Marcoule. The fresh sediments, located on the top of the core, show lower plutonium activity concentrations and lower 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu ratios. This decrease is in close relation with the shut down of the Marcoule reprocessing plant in 1997. In 2001, plutonium isotopes were also analysed in 21 surface sediments located offshore and concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.17 Bq kg -1 for 238 Pu and from 0.33 to 1.72 Bq kg -1 for 239,240 Pu. The 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu AR ranged from 0.24 close to the river mouth to 0.06 southwards, indicating the decreasing influence of the

  12. The influence of age at time of exposure to 226Ra or 239Pu on distribution, retention, postinjection survival, and tumor induction in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of age at injection of 226Ra or 239Pu on skeletal deposition and local distribution, the pattern of bone tumor formation, and postinjection survival was assessed in parallel short-term studies of mechanisms and lifetime toxicity. Beagles received a single intravenous injection of 226Ra or 239Pu at 3 months (juveniles), 17-19 months (young adults) or 60 months (mature). Data from short-term studies of mechanisms and dosimetry and from one dosage level of each of the toxicity experiments were compared. Skeletal growth and turnover produced differential initial deposition and distribution patterns typical for each age group. At 1 week after injection, skeletal retention of 226Ra or 239Pu was 68 and 68%, respectively, in the juveniles, 32 and 46% in the young adults, and 31 and 43% in the mature dogs. Comparing individual bones in the juveniles, gradients in the concentration of 239Pu were small since all bones were actively growing, but substantial gradients, corresponding to centers of ossification, were present within individual bones. In other age groups, local concentration gradients were less pronounced, but much larger differences were present among the various bones. In the toxicity study all animals injected with either 41 kBq 226Ra/kg or 11 kBq 239Pu/kg have died. The cumulative average skeletal doses to the presumed time of start of tumor growth (1 year before death) were 25 and 4 Gy, respectively, for the juveniles, 22 and 5 Gy for the young adults, and 15 and 4 Gy for the mature dogs. The highest bone tumor incidence was seen in the young adult groups. Differences were observed in location of bone tumors between dogs in the same age group given radium or plutonium and among age groups injected with either radionuclide, some of which could be explained by differences in local dose distributions

  13. An Assessment of Cs-137, R-226 and Pa-239, 240 doses for aquatic and terrestrial reference organisms in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, P.; Suplinska, M.; Rosiak, I.

    2004-01-01

    The doses assessment for aquatic and terrestrial reference organisms was performed, based on the methodology elaborated by U.S. Department of Energy. Four organism types and their corresponding dose limits were used, and the principal exposure pathways were considered for aquatic animal, riparian animal, terrestrial plant, and terrestrial animal organism types respectively. Terrestrial rodent (apodemus flavicollis), Baltic Sea fish (cod, sprat, herring, plaice) and crustaceans (Sanduria entomon and Mytilus edulis) were taken in to special consideration. In the first screening approach the annual doses from 137Cs and 239Pu (bomb-tests-fallout and Czarnobyl origin) and 226Ra (natural radionuclide) to biota were calculated at average, minimum and maximum concentrations of these radionuclides observed in soil, water, and sediment using the default bioaccumulation factors as well as lumped parameters values recommended by DOE Standard. The concentrations of 137Cs measured in the most contaminated region in Poland (Stare Olesno 380 Bqxkg-1 d.w.) and the concentrations of 226Ra for Southern regions of Poland with elevated levels of 226Ra in soil (100 B kg-1 d.w.) were taken in the dose assessment for terrestrial animals. The concentrations of 137Cs and 239Pu and 226Ra determined in see water and bottom sediments from two sub-areas (Gdansk Basin and Bornholm Basin) were used in the dose assessment for aquatic biota. In the second ''site specific'' approach the average empirically measured concentrations of radionuclides in animal tissues were used. At the first approach the total maximal annual doses for terrestrial plants were less then one percent of the recommended dose limits ( 3600 mGyxy-1 ) and items for seawater organisms did not exceed a 40% of this limit whereas the total maximal annual doses for terrestrial animal were close to the recommended dose limit (360 mGyxy-1). It prompted to start supplementary site-specific biota dose assessment through site

  14. Plutonium-239 fission cross-section between 1 and 100 keV - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, E.; Salvatores, M.; Derrien, H.; Lagrange, Ch.; Kawai, M.; Nakajima, J.; Takano, H.; Weston, L.W.; Young, P.G.; Wagemans, C.

    1994-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation, and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The Working Party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The Parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank Member countries), and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries are organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The following report was issued by a Subgroup investigating the fission cross-section of Plutonium-239 in the energy range 1 to 100 keV. This cross section is of particular importance for fast reactor applications, such as k eff , sodium void reactivity coefficient and control rod worth. An analysis of recent experimental data by L. Weston et al. give significantly lower cross-section values that the simultaneous evaluation performed by W. Poenitz for the ENDF/B-VI library. The objective of the subgroup was to resolve this discrepancy. One experimental program and one evaluation one have been agreed upon: The experimental program which essentially aims at normalisation checking has been performed in Geel and Oak Ridge. It supports an upward re-normalisation by ∼3.1%. The evaluation program has not been completed and even, as a consequence of the experimental results, loses a part of its justification. But some acquired results are important and can be used for future 239 Pu evaluations. The JEFF-2

  15. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled 239 PuO 2 were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-α protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-α. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-α also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-α were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Integral data evaluation of stainless steel, 239Pu, 240Pu, and H2O for homogeneous plutonium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenquin, U.P.; Thompson, J.K.; Trapp, T.J.; Kottwitz, D.A.

    1979-08-01

    Theory-experiment correlations of plutonium-fueled systems using ENDF/B cross-section data have discrepancies which could be due to cross-section data, theoretical methods, and/or interpretation of the experiment. Analyses of homogeneous plutonium critical experiments were performed to determine where cross section deficiencies may exist. New thermal cross-section data (0.3 eV) were generated for 239 Pu and 240 Pu capture, fission, and neutrons per fission. Two scattering kernels for hydrogen bound in water were also generated. Calculated values of k/sub eff/ using these new data were compared with corresponding values using ENDF/B-IV data. The results indicate that the 240 Pu resonance data are sufficiently well known for hydrogen-moderated plutonium systems. In systems using stainless steel as structural and/or neutron control, a large fraction of the neutron absorptions occur in the stainless steel. Analyses of several systems containing stainless steel indicate that the uncertainty in calculated values of k/sub eff/ is small using current estimates of the uncertainties in the cross sections. 20 figures, 30 tables

  17. Migration of plutonium from freshwater ecosystem at Hanford. [/sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R. M.; Klopfer, D. C.; McShane, M. C.

    1977-09-01

    A reprocessing waste pond at Hanford has been inventoried to determine quantities of plutonium (Pu) that have been accumulated since its formation in 1944. Expressions of export were developed from these inventory data and from informed assumptions about the vectors which act to mobilize material containing Pu. This 14-acre pond provides a realistic illustration of the mobility of Pu in a lentic ecosystem. The ecological behavior of Pu in this pond is similar to that in other contaminated aquatic systems having widely differing limnological characteristics. Since its creation, this pond has received about one Ci of /sup 239/,/sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu, most of which has been retained by its sediments. Submerged plants, mainly diatoms and Potamogeton, accumulate >95% of the Pu contained in biota. Emergent insects are the only direct biological route of export, mobilizing about 5 x 10/sup 3/ nCi of Pu annually, which is also the estimated maximum quantity of the Pu exported by waterfowl, birds and mammals collectively. There is no apparent significant export by wind, and it is not likely that Pu has migrated to the ground water below U-Pond via percolation. Although this pond has a rapid flushing rate, a eutrophic nutrient supply with a diverse biotic profile, and interacts with an active terrestrial environment, it appears to effectively bind Pu and prevent it from entering pathways to man and other life.

  18. Annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239, 240 from the 1961 - 1980 nuclear explosions: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Katsuragi, Y.; Sugimura, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239, 240, and Pu-238 were observed from 1959 to 1984 at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). In order to interpret the serial trends of the annual radioactive deposition at the MRI, a semi-empirical box model of atmospheric transport was developed. The model divides the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere into four compartments: the atmosphere above 21 km, stratosphere below 21 km, active mixing and exchange (AME) layer near the tropopause, and the troposphere. The transfer between the compartments follows the first-order kinetics. The half residence times for transfer between upper and lower stratospheric compartments, between the lower and AME layer compartments, and between the AME layer and troposphere are 0.5, 0.7 and 0.3 yrs, respectively. It is revealed that as a long-term monitoring of the annual deposition of radioactive debris in the mid-latitude area, the model quantitatively permits the calculation of stratospheric inventories and trends of annual deposition of debris injected into the stratosphere which are characterized by apparent residence times of 0.5 to 1.7 yrs. This simple model is useful to predict the annual deposition amount of radioactive debris from the thermonuclear explosion for practical purposes. (author)

  19. Decorporation effects of ethylenediamine-N, N-bis-(2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) dihydrochloride (EDDHA) in 239Pu-contaminated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szot, Z.; Rochalska, M; Wojewodzka, M.; Chimiak, A.; Milewska, M.

    1986-01-01

    Male SAS/4 mice contaminated intravenously with 239 Pu 4 citrate were injected with EDDHA. The ligand was given as a single or repeated injection. The single injection in a dose ranging from 30 to 290 μmol.kg -1 was administered 1 h after Pu contamination. The Pu activity in liver, kidneys and femur was determined by the liquid scintillation method after 4 days. Repeated injections of EDDHA in the dose of 145 μmol.kg -1 each, were started 4 or 24 h after Pu contamination. After 3 or 4 daily injections the Pu content in liver, kidneys and femur was examined 7 or 11 days after Pu contamination. The decontaminating effects of EDDHA and Na 3 CaDTPA were compared at the level of a single dose of 30 μmol.kg -1 . EDDHA was less effective than Na 3 CaDTPA and 290 μmol.kg -1 of EDDHA. In kidneys the decontaminating effect of EDDHA is not proportional to the dose increment. 6 refs. (author)

  20. Comparison of Pu metabolism and pulmonary tumors in dogs and rats exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Sanders, C.L.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.

    The dose-effect relationships of dogs and rats exposed by inhalation to 239 PuO 2 were compared to evaluate parameters that may provide a better understanding for extrapolating these laboratory animal results to humans. Comparisons were made on animals with lifetime lung doses between 1400 and 11,000 rad. Parameters compared included survival; Pu clearance and translocation; and time of occurrence, incidence and histopathology of pulmonary tumors. The group means for lifetime dose to lung were not significantly different between dogs and rats, but when survival time was expressed as the percentage of maximum life expectancy (MLE), the mean survival time of dogs was 40% of MLE and of rats was 56% of MLE. Lung tumors were the causes of death in 84% of the dogs and 54% of the rats; the mean survival time to lung tumor was 44% of MLE for dogs, compared to 57% of MLE for rats. Whole-body clearance of plutonium was slower in dogs. More Pu translocated to the thoracic lymph nodes, liver, and skeleton in the dogs than in rats. Estimates of species differences in lung clearance were dependent on the methods of estimating initial lung burden. There were parameters with qualitative and quantitative similarities in dogs and rats. Quantitative differences between species, generally within a factor of two, suggested that more reliable dosimetry estimates are needed to make quantitative extrapolation between species

  1. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  2. Photo-fission Product Yield Measurements at Eγ=13 MeV on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, W.; Bhike, M.; Finch, S. W.; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tonchev, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    We have measured Fission Product Yields (FPYs) in photo-fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu at TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS) using mono-energetic photons of Eγ = 13 MeV. Details of the experimental setup and analysis procedures will be discussed. Yields for approximately 20 fission products were determined. They are compared to neutron-induced FPYs of the same actinides at the equivalent excitation energies of the compound nuclear systems. In the future photo-fission data will be taken at Eγ = 8 . 0 and 10.5 MeV to find out whether photo-fission exhibits the same so far unexplained dependence of certain FPYs on the energy of the incident probe, as recently observed in neutron-induced fission, for example, for the important fission product 147Nd. Work supported by the U. S. Dept. of Energy, under Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033, and by the NNSA, Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program, Grant No. DE-NA0001838 and the Lawrence Livermore, National Security, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. A comparison of the distribution of 239-Pu and calcein in the ilium of the female CBA mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, G.R.; Green, D.; Sontag, W.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H.

    1984-01-01

    It is well recognised that plutonium 239 and certain vital stains such as calcein behave similarly when injected i.v. into experimental animals. Both are rapidly cleared from blood, and concentrate on bone surfaces. Certain differences of behaviour are also known, such as the competitive concentration of plutonium in liver and other soft tissues; and differences in the distribution of site of location of the substances on bone surface. Plutonium tends to concentrate evenly on all bone surfaces in proportion to the blood supply to that region, leading to higher concentrations on endosteal than periosteal surfaces. Calcein deposits at sites of mineralisation, which occur on both endosteum and periosteum in response to the demands of growth and remodelling. Subsequent behaviour of both substances would appear to depend entirely on the growth and remodelling activities of the bone, the deposits remaining fixed in position until the containing bone is resorbed or buried by freshly formed bone. Many studies of the distribution and dosimetry of plutonium in experimental animals, mainly dogs, and mice have been recorded. There is however, a lack of information concerning the behaviour of the radionuclide in man. More information is available on the behaviour in man and experimental animals of the vital stains, some of which are well known anti-biotics. Consequently, there is much to be gained if a knowledge of the behaviour of vital stains such as calcein can be used to predict the distribution of plutonium in the human skeleton. (orig.)

  4. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal and perinatal outcomes during expectant management of 239 severe preeclamptic women between 24 and 33 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Bassam; Deis, Stéphanie; Goffinet, François; Paniel, Bernard J; Cabrol, Dominique; Siba, Baha M

    2004-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes after expectant management of severe preeclampsia between 24 and 33 weeks' gestation. A prospective observational study of 239 women with severe preeclamptic and undelivered after antenatal steroid prophylaxis was performed. Pregnancy prolongation and maternal and perinatal morbidities were analyzed according to the gestational age at time of expectant management: 24 to 28, 29 to 31, and 32 to 33 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test and chi(2) test. The days of pregnancy prolongation were significantly higher among those managed at less than 29 weeks (6) compared with the other groups (4). There were 13 perinatal deaths: 12 in those managed at less than 29 weeks and 1 in those managed at 29 to 31 weeks. Neonatal morbidities were significantly higher among those managed at less than 29 weeks compared with the other groups. There were no instances of maternal death or eclampsia. Maternal morbidities were similar among the groups. Expectant management of severe preeclampsia at 24 to 33 weeks in a tertiary care center is associated with good perinatal outcome with a minimal risk for the mother.

  6. Photofission product yields of {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu with 22-MeV bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xianfei; Yang, Haori, E-mail: haori.yang@oregonstate.edu

    2016-06-11

    In homeland security and nuclear safeguards applications, non-destructive techniques to identify and quantify special nuclear materials are in great demand. Although nuclear materials naturally emit characteristic radiation (e.g. neutrons, γ-rays), their intensity and energy are normally low. Furthermore, such radiation could be intentionally shielded with ease or buried in high-level background. Active interrogation techniques based on photofission have been identified as effective assay approaches to address this issue. In designing such assay systems, nuclear data, like photofission product yields, plays a crucial role. Although fission yields for neutron-induced reactions have been well studied and readily available in various nuclear databases, data on photofission product yields is rather scarce. This poses a great challenge to the application of photofission techniques. In this work, short-lived high-energy delayed γ-rays from photofission of {sup 238}U were measured in between linac pulses. In addition, a list-mode system was developed to measure relatively long-lived delayed γ-rays from photofission of {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu after the irradiation. Time and energy information of each γ-ray event were simultaneously recorded by this system. Cumulative photofission product yields were then determined using the measured delayed γ-ray spectra.

  7. Vertical profiles of 239(240)Pu, 238Pu and 241Am in some peculiar Italian mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.; Jia, G.; Degetto, S.

    2000-01-01

    During the last two years the Urbino University and the Padua ICTIMA CNR were working on a special radioecological program having the aim to study the Pu and Am retention behaviour in different species of mosses growing in two Italian regions (Urbino, Central Italy, 450 m a.s.l. and Alps region, Northern Italy, 1500 m a.s.l.). 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am were separated and determined by extraction chromatography, electroplating and alpha spectrometry; 242 Pu and 243 Am were used as the yield tracers. The paper summarizes the results dealing with the vertical profiles of the radionuclides in three different species of mosses. Several 1-2 cm high sections were obtained and dated by 210 Pb determination. Typical concentration peaks for Pu and Am were found for very old moss species ('Sphagnum Compactum' and 'Sphagnum Nemoreum') at a depth corresponding to the early 1960's which is the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. In more recent moss species ('Neckeria Crispa') no peak was observed and the regression curves showed that Am is more mobile than Pu. (author)

  8. A Study of the Resonance Interaction Effect between 238U and 239Pu in Lower Energy Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeggblom, H.

    1968-12-01

    An investigation has been made of the statistical frequency function for the distances between the 238 U and the 239 Pu resonances in the region 4-244 eV. It is concluded that the frequency function is probably constant but that the distances diverge appreciably from a constant function in the actual case, and that the divergence is such that the interaction effect on the resonance integral is smaller than would be expected from statistical considerations. This is also confirmed by calculations on the interaction effect. These have been performed using three different methods, namely: a) considering the actual positions and widths of the resonances, b) assuming a constant frequency function for the resonance. spacing and applying a theory developed by Rowlands and E A Fischer. c) applying a simplified, approximate method for calculations based on the statistical theory. The calculations are made for two temperatures and two values of the plutonium enrichment. It is shown that the average cross sections are considerably larger than the statistical calculations indicate

  9. On the possibility of improving the amplitude-time characteristics of the BDEhG2-39 scintillator block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berestov, A.V.; Zyazyulya, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the energy resolution, voltage amplitUde output anode pulse rise time and duration of the BDEhG2-39 serial scintillator on the base of a 150x100 mm NaI(Tl) crystal and photomultiplier FEhU-49B (PM) with the use of different voltage dividers and techniques of high-voltage power supply to the PM are investigated. Three methods of high-voltage power supply to the scintillator block are investigated: 1) the photocathode and the body are grounded, positive polarity high-voltage is supplied to the anode (through anode loading resistance); 2) the anode and the body are grounded, negative polarity high-voltage power is supplied to the photocathode; 3) the anode is grounded, negative polarity high-voltage power is sUpplied to the photocathode and body of the scintillator block. It is shown that connection of the focusing electrode to the first dinode decreases the output pulse front rise time 2-2.5 times and its duration by 30%. It is concluded that the best performance is assured by grounding the PM photocathode and body

  10. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.M.; Mason, C.F.V.; Boak, J.M.; Longmire, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site

  11. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.M.; Mason, C.F.V.; Boak, J.M.; Longmire, P.A.

    1996-04-01

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site.

  12. A Study of the Resonance Interaction Effect between {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu in Lower Energy Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggblom, H

    1968-12-15

    An investigation has been made of the statistical frequency function for the distances between the {sup 238}U and the {sup 239}Pu resonances in the region 4-244 eV. It is concluded that the frequency function is probably constant but that the distances diverge appreciably from a constant function in the actual case, and that the divergence is such that the interaction effect on the resonance integral is smaller than would be expected from statistical considerations. This is also confirmed by calculations on the interaction effect. These have been performed using three different methods, namely: a) considering the actual positions and widths of the resonances, b) assuming a constant frequency function for the resonance. spacing and applying a theory developed by Rowlands and E A Fischer. c) applying a simplified, approximate method for calculations based on the statistical theory. The calculations are made for two temperatures and two values of the plutonium enrichment. It is shown that the average cross sections are considerably larger than the statistical calculations indicate.

  13. Distribution of 239Pu in the skeleton of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) between 15 and 50 months after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, W.; Seidel, A.

    1987-01-01

    The macroscopic and microscopic distribution of intramuscularly injected, essentially monomeric, 239 Pu was studied in the skeleton of the adult tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). Data for between 15 and 50 months after injection are presented and compared with data from earlier time points. Between 83 and 500 days after injection nuclide content and wet weight of the skeleton decreased to a constant level at about 55% of maximum. The microscopic distribution was analysed in distal femora, proximal humerus, proximal tibia and lumbar vertebra over the whole time; additionally at some selected time points proximal femur, femur shaft, distal humerus and distal tibia were analysed. The initial endosteal surface activity ranged from 3.8 to 5.3 Bq/cm 2 , decreased to a minimum at about 1000 days after injection and increased thereafter. Similar behaviour was found for dose rate near bone surfaces (initially about 0.075 Gy/day on endosteal surfaces). In deep bone and deep marrow the dose rate was negligible, about 0.008 Gy/day and 0.001 Gy/day, respectively. The average cumulative dose 1500 days after injection was about 67 Gy on the endosteum; six times greater than the cumulative dose calculated from the mean concentration of plutonium in the whole skeleton. Tupaia data are compared to monkeys, dogs and rats. (author)

  14. Determination of 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Pu and 241Am in radioactive waste from IPEN reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Cheberle, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Marcelo T.

    2011-01-01

    Ion exchange resin is a common type of radioactive waste arising from treatment of coolant water of the main circuit of research and nuclear power reactors. This waste contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization in order to determine and quantify specific radionuclides including those known as difficult-to-measure radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of RDMs generally involves expensive and time-consuming complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides. The objective of this work is to show an easy methodology for quantifying plutonium and americium isotopes in spent ion exchange resin, used for purification of the cooling water of the IEA-R1 reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. The resins were destroyed by acid digestion, followed by purification and separation of the Pu and Am isotopes with anionic and chromatographic resins. 238 Pu, 239 + 24 '0Pu, and 24 '1Am isotopes were analyzed in an alpha spectrometer equipped with surface barrier detectors. 241 Pu isotope was analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Chemical recovery yield ranged from 73 to 98% for Pu and 77 to 98% for Am, demonstrating that the methodology is suitable for identification and quantification of the isotopes studied in spent resins. (author)

  15. Neutron emission effects on fragment mass and kinetic energy distribution from fission of 239Pu induced by thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Lobato, I.

    2010-01-01

    The average of fragment kinetic energy (E-bar sign*) and the multiplicity of prompt neutrons (ν(bar sign)) as a function of fragment mass (m*), as well as the fragment mass yield (Y(m*)) from thermal neutron-induced fission of 239 Pu have been measured by Tsuchiya et al.. In that work the mass and kinetic energy are calculated from the measured kinetic energy of one fragment and the difference of time of flight of the two complementary fragments. However they do not present their results about the standard deviation σ E *(m*). In this work we have made a numerical simulation of that experiment which reproduces its results, assuming an initial distribution of the primary fragment kinetic energy (E(A)) with a constant value of the standard deviation as function of fragment mass (σ E (A)). As a result of the simulation we obtain the dependence σ E *(m*) which presents an enhancement between m* = 92 and m* = 110, and a peak at m* = 121.

  16. First simultaneous measurement of fission and gamma probabilities of 237U and 239Np via surrogate reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marini P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission and gamma decay probabilities of 237U and 239Np have been measured, for the first time simultaneously in dedicated experiments, via the surrogate reactions 238U(3He, 4He and 238U(3He,d, respectively. While a good agreement between our data and neutron-induced data is found for fission probabilities, gamma decay probabilities are several times higher than the corresponding neutron-induced data for each studied nucleus. We study the role of the different spin distributions populated in the surrogate and neutron-induced reactions. The compound nucleus spin distribution populated in the surrogate reaction is extracted from the measured gamma-decay probabilities, and used as input parameter in the statistical model to predict fission probabilities to be compared to our data. A strong disagreement between our data and the prediction is obtained. Preliminary results from an additional dedicated experiment confirm the observed discrepancies, indicating the need of a better understanding of the formation and decay processes of the compound nucleus.

  17. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature, young adult, and aged Syrian hamsters. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, C.H.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Slauson, D.A.; McClellan, R.O.; Miglio, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Syrian hamsters have been exposed at either 28 (immature), 84 (young adult), or 340 (aged) days of age to polydisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 to better define dose-response relationships for this radionuclide in a population with a wide range of ages such as would be the case with a human population following a catastrophic nuclear accident. Animals were exposed to obtain initial lung burdens of 240, 60, 15, 3.8, 0.95, 0.25, and 0.029 nCi for the immature and young adult animals and 240, 60, 15, and 3.8 nCi for the aged animals. Animals are being maintained both for serial sacrifice to determine the radiation dose pattern for lung and other tissues and for lifespan observation to determine dose-response relationships. At the present time, only animals with ILB of about 200 nCi or higher exposed as either immature, young adult, or aged animals have shown increased mortality as compared to controls. At this time, the young adult, immature, and aged animals are 68, 73, and 27 weeks post-inhalation exposure, respectively. The animals that died in the higher ILB groups had radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis along with atypical pulmonary epithelial hyperplasia. Histopathological examination is not complete on all animals that have died, but no pulmonary neoplasms have been observed to date. (U.S.)

  18. Genetic diversity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from burn patients in Iran: ST239-SCCmec III/t037 emerges as the major clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Bahramian, Mahnaz; Satarzadeh Tabrizi, Mahboobeh; Udo, Edet E; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Fazeli, Maryam; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major cause of infection in health care, hospital and community settings is a global health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of circulating molecular types of MRSA in a burn hospital in Tehran, the capital of Iran. During a 10-month study period, 106 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were assessed. Isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detection of mecA, fem and nuc genes. The presence of PVL and tst encoding genes were determined by PCR method. All the MRSA isolates were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, SCCmec typing and agr typing. The presence of mecA gene was confirmed in all the Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high resistance rate (90.6%) to ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The rates of resistance to remaining antibiotics tested varied between 18.9% and 84.9%. The high- level of resistance to mupirocin was confirmed in 19.8% of MRSA strains isolated from burn patients. Multi-drug resistance was observed in 90.6% of isolates. Sixteen of the 106 MRSA isolates (15.1%) harbored PVL-encoding genes. The majority of our MRSA strains carried SCCmec III (71.7%). ST239-SCCmec III/t037 (34%) was the most common genotype followed by ST239-SCCmec III/t030 (24.5%), ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (15.1%), ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 (13.2%), and ST239-SCCmec III/t631 (13.2%). Mupirocin resistant MRSA isolates belonged to ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (40%), ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 (23.3%), ST239-SCCmec III/t631 (20%), and ST239-SCCmec III/t030 (16.7%) clones. The results showed that genetically diverse strains of MRSA are circulating in our burn hospitals with relatively high prevalence of ST239-SCCmec III/t037 clone. The findings support the need for regular surveillance of MRSA to determine the distribution of

  19. Determination of radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240} Pu, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am in soil using methods of extraction chromatography and coprecipitation; Stanovenie radionuklidov {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu, : 2{sup 38}Pu a {sup 241}Am v pode vyuzivajuce metody extrakcnej chromatografie a spoluzrazania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardonova, V.; Dulanska, S.; Bilohuscin, J. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    Ecosystems, which include soil and sediments, contain not only natural radionuclides but also radionuclides from deposits, mainly {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {alpha}-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am, that originate from global fallout and nuclear facilities leaks worldwide. The goal of the work was optimization of separation and determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in soil from Slovak Republic. The newest methods were applied for separation of selected radionuclides based on coprecipitation with oxalic salts and extraction chromatography using selective commercial sorbents. (authors)

  20. Assinatura da deposição atmosférica de testes nucleares em sedimentos da costa brasileira (240+239Pu e 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Sanders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to take a look at Cold War era nuclear tests signatures found in Brazilian coastal sediments. Both137Cs and 240+239Pu signatures have been documented in mangrove, coastal mudflats and continental shelf sediments, associated with above ground nuclear tests beginning in the 1950's. The dates associated to the anthropogenic radionuclide signatures 137Cs and 240+239Pu along sediment columns are confirmed by 210Pb geochronology in many of the studies highlighted in this review. The results outlined in this review characterize the extent to which nuclear fallout products reach the Brazilian coast in quantities sufficient for detection, allowing the use of these radioisotopes as geochronometers.

  1. Coulomb effects in isobaric cold fission from reactions 233U(nth,f), 235U(nth,f),239Pu(nth,f) and 252Cf(sf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Modesto

    2013-01-01

    The Coulomb effect hypothesis, formerly used to interpret fluctuations in the curve of maximal total kinetic energy as a function of light fragment mass in reactions 233 U(n th ,f), 235 U(n th ,f) and 239 Pu(n th ,f), is confirmed in high kinetic energy as well as in low excitation energy windows, respectively. Data from reactions 233 U(n th ,f), 235 U(n th ,f), 239 Pu(n th ,f) and 252 Cf(sf) show that, between two isobaric fragmentations with similar Q-values, the more asymmetric charge split reaches the higher value of total kinetic energy. Moreover, in isobaric charge splits with different Q-values, similar preference for asymmetrical fragmentations is observed in low excitation energy windows. (author).

  2. Comparison of the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 and β- emitting radionuclides on the incidence of lung carcinomas in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The health effects of inhaling radioactive particles when the lung is the primary organ irradiated were studied in rats and Beagle dogs. The animals were exposed to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 or fission-product radionuclides in insoluble forms and observed for their life span. Lung carcinomas were the primary late-occuring effect. The incidence rate for lung carcinomas was modeled using a proportional hazard rate model. Linear functions predominated below 5 Gy to the lung. The life-time risk for lung carcinomas per 10 4 Gy for beta emitters was 60 for rats and 65 for dogs, and for 239 PuO 2 it was 1500 for rats and 2300 for dogs

  3. Studying of distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm according to the organic acids fractions of the alienation zone soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, A.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with data of research on the distribution of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm of ''the Chornobyl rains'' by the fractions of the organic matters of derno-podzolic sandy, derno-meadow and peat soils sampled in the alienation zone of the Chornobyl NPP. Functioning of organic matters was carried according to Tyurin's method. It is stressed that, independently on soil type, 137Cs is connected with the mineral contituent by 80-95%. It is found out that, independently on the soil type, 50-70% 137Sr and 15-45% 241Am are associated with fulvic acid fractions. The 241Am and 244Cm distribution according to organic acids taking into account deviations while carrying out determinations is unambiguous. It is found out that in all the soils tested the main quality of 239+24Pu is connected with humic acids

  4. Comparison of the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 and β-emitting radionuclides of the incidence of lung carcinomas in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The health effects of inhaling radioactive particles when the lung is the primary organ irradiated were studied in rats and dogs. The animals were exposed to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 or fission-product radionuclides in insoluble forms and observed for their life span. Lung carcinomas were the primary late-occurring effect. The incidence rate for lung carcinomas was modeled using a proportional hazard rate model. Linear functions predominated below 5 Gy to the lung. The life-time risk for lung carcinomas per 10 4 Gy for beta emitters was 60 for rats and 65 for dogs, and for 239 PuO 2 it was 1500 for rats and 2300 for dogs. (author)

  5. Resonance Region Covariance Analysis Method and New Covariance Data for Th-232, U-233, U-235, U-238, and Pu-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Luiz C.; Arbanas, Goran; Derrien, Herve; Wiarda, Dorothea

    2008-01-01

    Resonance-parameter covariance matrix (RPCM) evaluations in the resolved resonance region were done for 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu using the computer code SAMMY. The retroactive approach of the code SAMMY was used to generate the RPCMs for 233U, 235U. RPCMs for 232Th, 238U and 239Pu were generated together with the resonance parameter evaluations. The RPCMs were then converted in the ENDF format using the FILE32 representation. Alternatively, for computer storage reasons, the FILE32 was converted in the FILE33 cross section covariance matrix (CSCM). Both representations were processed using the computer code PUFF-IV. This paper describes the procedures used to generate the RPCM with SAMMY.

  6. The application of data derived from autoradiographic studies with 241Pu in the formulation of a bone dosimetric model for 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Recently a dosimetric model for 239 Pu in bone has been published which in conjunction with the general ICRP dosimetric model for actinides is used to calculate annual limits of intake for 239 Pu. This model allows for the burial of plutonium in bone, for the recycling of plutonium within the skeleton and for the retention of plutonium in the bone marrow. The model was based upon published descriptions of the distribution and redistribution patterns of plutonium in bone and on evidence obtained from autoradiographic studies of bone from animals injected with 241 Pu. The experiments with 241 Pu demonstrated the initial uptake of plutonium by bone surfaces. As a result of the growth and drift processes much of this plutonium became either buried in the bone or was retained within macrophages in the bone marrow. (author)

  7. Proportional counters for measuring plutonium-239 'in vivo' - The choice of counting gas and the use of pulse shape discrimination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, R.A.; Ramsden, D.

    1969-08-01

    The system for determining insoluble plutonium 'in vivo', now in routine use at A.E.E-. Winfrith, has a limit of detection of the order of 4 nCi plutonium - 239. The method of reducing background by using pulse shape discrimination techniques whilst retaining a high detection efficiency is described. The choice of a counting gas mixture to obtain optimum performance is discussed as are the techniques of gas handling. (author)

  8. Fission cross sections of plutonium-239 and plutonium-242 relative to uranium-285 from 0. 1 to 10 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, J.W.

    1978-12-01

    Measurement of the ratio of the fission cross sections of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 242/Pu to that of /sup 235/U is reported. The sources of neutrons were the /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be and D(d,n)/sup 3/He reactions. The ratio of the masses of the samples was determined by low geometry alpha counting and from relative thermal fission rates. The results are compared with other measurements. 19 references.

  9. Effect of chemical pollution on forms of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in arctic soil studied by sequential extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakainen, M; Riekkinen, I; Heikkinen, T; Jaakkola, T; Steinnes, E; Rissanen, K; Suomela, M; Thørring, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the forms of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu occurring in different soil horizons using sequential extraction of samples taken from four sites located along a pollution gradient from the copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, and from a reference site in Finnish Lapland in 1997. A selective sequential-leaching procedure was employed using a modification of the method of Tessier, Cambell and Bisson ((1979). Analytical Chemistry, 51, 844-851). For 137Cs the organic (O) and uppermost mineral (E1) layer were studied, for 90Sr and 239,240Pu only the uppermost organic layer (Of). The fraction of 137Cs occurring in readily exchangeable form in the organic layer was about 50% at the reference site and decreased as a function of pollution, being 15% at the most polluted site in the Kola Peninsula. There was a clear positive correlation in the O layer between the distance from the smelter and the percentage of 137Cs extracted in the readily exchangeable fraction (Spearman correlation rsp = 0.7805, p = 0.0001), whereas in the E1 layer no correlation was evident. The distribution of 90Sr in the Of layer was similar at all sites, with the highest amounts occurring in exchangeable form and bound to organic matter, whereas stable Sr showed a somewhat different distribution with the highest amount in the oxide fraction. Most of the 239,240Pu was bound to organic matter. Chemical pollution affected the exchangeable fraction of 239,240Pu, which was about 1% at the most polluted site and 4-6% at the other sites.

  10. Study on the P-odd asymmetry of longitudinally polarized neutron transmission in 117Sn, 233Th, 239Pu isotopes and natural mixture of Cl and Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Ermakov, O.N.; Karpikhin, I.L.; Krupchitskij, P.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.Eh.; Perepelitsa, V.F.; Petrushin, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    The results of measurements of P-odd helicity dependence of the total cross-section a=(σsub(tot)sup(+)-σsub(tot)sup(-))/(σsub(tot)sup(+)+σsub(tot)sup(-)) for thermal neutrons on several targets are presented. The result for 117 Sn is a=(11.2+-2.6)x10 -6 . The upper limits for a in the region of several units of 10 -6 are obtained for 232 Th, 239 Pu, Cl (natural) and Pb (natural)

  11. Migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am in the chain soil-soil solution-plant. The soil-soil solution link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Kil'chitskaya, S.L.; Ehjsmont, E.A.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.; Duksina, V.V.; Rubinchik, S.Ya.

    1999-01-01

    The mobility of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the link soil-soil solution is analysed for different soil types on the basis of radionuclide distribution coefficients between solid and liquid soil phases. The distribution coefficients allow to differentiate soils in correlation with radionuclide migration rate from the solid phase to the soil solution. The reasons of different radionuclide mobility are considered

  12. Comparison of the ENDF/B-V and SOKRATOR evaluations of 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Pu at low neutron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Wright, R.Q.

    1981-01-01

    The US and USSR's most recent evaluationsof 235 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Pu are compared over the thermal region and over the first few resonances. The two evaluations rest on essentially the same experimental data base and the differences reflect different approaches to the representation of the cross sections or different weightings of the experimental results. It is found that over the thermal and resolved ranges the two evaluations are very similar. Some differences in approaches are briefly discussed

  13. Soil sorption complex influence on dynamics of 239,240Pu and 241Am mobile and fixed forms in different landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinova, S.L.; Sokolik, G.A.; Kilchitskaya, S.L.; Ivanova, T.G.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    The physico-chemical forms of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in soil and radionuclide distribution between the main components of soil sorption complex were analyzed. The content of 'hot' particles in soils in Belarus is about 10-1.10 4 particles/m 2 . During the post accident period the 'hot' particles quantity decreased 40-200 times and 50-20000 times in mineral and organogenic soils, respectively. Their activity decreased 1.2-1.4 times per year in mineral soils and 1.3-1.5 times in organic soils. Their destruction velocity is determined by the soil media properties and the particle composition: the particles of 'condensed' nature are destroyed more quickly than those of fuel nature. The velocity of release of transuranium elements from the 'hot' particles increases with increasing soil acidity and humus content in soils. The radionuclides exhibiting different bond strength with soil sorption complex were determined by sequential selective extraction. The share of the most mobile exchange forms of 239,240 Pu is less than 10%. The quantity of potential mobile acid soluble forms of 239,240 Pu increases with time and changes in the sequence: peat soils 241 Am (85%) in comparison with 2 39,240 Pu (40%) was found. The content of 241 Am mobile forms increases with soil depth. It can be expected that in soils with high content of organic substances the accumulation of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in surface soil layers will take place in future, but in mineral soils significant amounts of radionuclides will enter illuvial horizons as a result of vertical migration

  14. The influence of age at time of exposure to 239Pu or 226Ra on retention, distribution, survival and tumor induction in Beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Miller, S.C.; Lloyd, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of age at injection of 226 Ra or 239 Pu on skeletal deposition and local distribution, the pattern of bone tumor formation and post-injection survival were studied in parallel short-term mechanistic and lifetime toxicity experiments. Beagles received a single intravenous injection of 226 Ra or 239 Pu at age 3 months (juveniles), 17-19 months (young adults) or 60 months (mature). Data from short-term mechanistic-dosimetric studies and from one dosage level (41 kBq 226 Ra/kg or 11 kBq 239 Pu/kg body mass) of each of the toxicity experiments were compared. Skeletal growth and turnover produced differential initial deposition and distribution patterns typical for each age group. The highest bone tumor incidence was seen in the young adult groups. Differences were observed in bone tumor location between dogs in the same age group given radium or plutonium and among age groups injected with either radionuclide, and some of these could be explained by differences in local dose distributions (e.g., trabecular vs. cortical bone). Cox regression indicated no significant differences in post-injection survivals (uncorrected for the different pre-injection periods) of Ra-injected groups, but there was a statistically significant difference among the Pu-injected groups. Neutron-induced autoradiography showed that differences in the effects of Pu in the three age groups were due primarily to the age- and time-dependent local distribution of the nuclide

  15. Species comparison of liver cancers induced by internally deposited /sup 144/Ce or /sup 239/Pu in dogs and Chinese hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Brooks, A.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    The risk of liver cancer from alpha-emitting radionuclides has been estimated for people from studies of patients injected with Thorotrast, which contains an alpha-emitting radionuclide. There is no corresponding estimation of the risk of liver cancers in people from internally-deposited beta-emitting radionuclides because of the lack of human data. Life-span studies in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to /sup 144/CeCl/sub 3/, a beta-emitting radionuclide, or by injection to /sup 239/Pu citrate, an alpha-emitting radionuclide, and in Chinese hamsters exposed by intravenous injections to /sup 144/Ce-/sup 144/Pr citrate or /sup 239/Pu citrate have provided information on liver cancers in these species. These radionuclides accumulated in the liver resulting in significant radiation exposure of the liver. Liver cancer occurred long after exposure. When the lifetime risks of liver cancer were calculated, /sup 239/Pu was found to be more effective than /sup 144/Ce in inducing liver cancers by factor of 10 to 12. The risk of liver cancer from internally-deposited beta emitters for people are estimated by assuming this relationship for people

  16. Report on intercomparison IAEA/SOIL-6 of the determination of Cs-137, Pu-239, Ra-226, and Sr-90 in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.; Suschny, O.

    1984-04-01

    The report presents results of a laboratory intercomparison of the determination of the activity level of cesium-137, plutonium-239, radium-226 and strontium-90 in a provided soil sample organized by the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service. Twenty-seven laboratories from 16 countries returned results based on 77 laboratory means (295 individual determinations). The aim of the interlaboratory comparison was to offer to the laboratories engaged in soil investigation an opportunity to control their analytical performance and to establish the concentration level of some radionuclides in a batch of analyzed soil for certification purposes. All radionuclides were determined by typical commonly used methods: cesium-137 by direct gamma spectroscopy, plutonium-239 by alpha spectroscopy after separation and electrodeposition, radium-226 by direct determination without or with separation or by determination of radon, and strontium-90 by measurement of its daughter yttrium-90. In general, the results can be accepted as satisfactory at such low level of activity (pCi/kg). The relative confidence intervals of the medians of 137 Cs and 239 Pu are below +-10% and of 226 Ra and 90 Sr below +-20%

  17. Multi-isotopic determination of plutonium (239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu) in marine sediments using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donard, O F X; Bruneau, F; Moldovan, M; Garraud, H; Epov, V N; Boust, D

    2007-03-28

    Among the transuranic elements present in the environment, plutonium isotopes are mainly attached to particles, and therefore they present a great interest for the study and modelling of particle transport in the marine environment. Except in the close vicinity of industrial sources, plutonium concentration in marine sediments is very low (from 10(-4) ng kg(-1) for (241)Pu to 10 ng kg(-1) for (239)Pu), and therefore the measurement of (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu in sediments at such concentration level requires the use of very sensitive techniques. Moreover, sediment matrix contains huge amounts of mineral species, uranium and organic substances that must be removed before the determination of plutonium isotopes. Hence, an efficient sample preparation step is necessary prior to analysis. Within this work, a chemical procedure for the extraction, purification and pre-concentration of plutonium from marine sediments prior to sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) analysis has been optimized. The analytical method developed yields a pre-concentrated solution of plutonium from which (238)U and (241)Am have been removed, and which is suitable for the direct and simultaneous measurement of (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu by SF-ICP-MS.

  18. Routine radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, V.A.; Sajeniouk, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Routine analytical procedures have been developed for the reliable simultaneous determination of 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 242-244 Cm, Chernobyl derived radioisotopes and fallout after nuclear weapon tests in a wide range of environmental samples: soil (100-200 g), sediments, aerosols, water and vegetation. This procedure has been applied to thousands of soil and sediment samples and hundreds of biological and water samples taken in the exclusive zone of Chernobyl NPP and different regions of Ukraine from 1989 to the present. After the sample has been properly prepared and isotopic tracers added, plutonium, americium and curium are precipitated with calcium oxalate and then lanthanum fluoride. Plutonium is separated from americium and curium by anion-exchange. Americium and curium are separated from rare earths by cation-exchange with gradient elute α-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid. During projects by AQCS IAEA 'Evaluation of Methods for 90 Sr in a Mineral Matrix' and 'Proficiency Test for 239 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am Measurement in a Mineral Matrix' accuracy and precision for 90 Sr, 239 Pu and 241 Am by present procedure was evaluated. Advantages, difficulties and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  19. Spatial distributions of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zaharudin; Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah

    2010-09-01

    The studies of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of (134)Cs and (242)Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60(o)C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89Bq/m(3) and 2.3-7.9mBq/m(3), respectively. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area.

  20. Reassessment of 239Pu on planchets from human urine samples at ultra-trace levels using Aridus-ICP-SFMS and AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Mendoza, H.; Chamizo, E.; Delgado, A.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Yllera, A.

    2012-01-01

    New analytical methods developed at the facilities here, based on two ultra-sensitive mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometer with a desolvator system (Aridus-ICP-SFMS) and accelerator MS (AMS), have been applied in this work for the reassessment of 239 Pu in alpha spectrometry (AS) planchets corresponding to spiked human urine samples. The obtained 239 Pu minimum detectable activities (MDAs) values by Aridus-ICP-SFMS and AMS were 3 fg (∼6.92 μBq) and 0.4 fg (∼0.92 μBq), respectively, per sample, which are much better than those attainable by AS [50 fg (∼115.3 μBq) of 239 Pu per sample, approximately]. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the MS techniques employed in this work are very powerful tools for internal dosimetry studies in human urine samples, giving excellent results when the reassessment of AS planchets is needed (samples with a Pu concentration below or at the MDA levels measurable by AS). This work is the continuation of an article published in J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 25 (1410-1415) 2010. (authors)

  1. Vaccination with Gag, Vif, and Nef gene fragments affords partial control of viral replication after mucosal challenge with SIVmac239.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mauricio A; Wilson, Nancy A; Piaskowski, Shari M; Weisgrau, Kim L; Furlott, Jessica R; Bonaldo, Myrna C; Veloso de Santana, Marlon G; Rudersdorf, Richard A; Rakasz, Eva G; Keating, Karen D; Chiuchiolo, Maria J; Piatak, Michael; Allison, David B; Parks, Christopher L; Galler, Ricardo; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Watkins, David I

    2014-07-01

    Broadly targeted cellular immune responses are thought to be important for controlling replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV). However, eliciting such responses by vaccination is complicated by immunodominance, the preferential targeting of only a few of the many possible epitopes of a given antigen. This phenomenon may be due to the coexpression of dominant and subdominant epitopes by the same antigen-presenting cell and may be overcome by distributing these sequences among several different vaccine constructs. Accordingly, we tested whether vaccinating rhesus macaques with "minigenes" encoding fragments of Gag, Vif, and Nef resulted in broadened cellular responses capable of controlling SIV replication. We delivered these minigenes through combinations of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG (rBCG), electroporated recombinant DNA (rDNA) along with an interleukin-12 (IL-12)-expressing plasmid (EP rDNA plus pIL-12), yellow fever vaccine virus 17D (rYF17D), and recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5). Although priming with EP rDNA plus pIL-12 increased the breadth of vaccine-induced T-cell responses, this effect was likely due to the improved antigen delivery afforded by electroporation rather than modulation of immunodominance. Indeed, Mamu-A*01(+) vaccinees mounted CD8(+) T cells directed against only one subdominant epitope, regardless of the vaccination regimen. After challenge with SIVmac239, vaccine efficacy was limited to a modest reduction in set point in some of the groups and did not correlate with standard T-cell measurements. These findings suggest that broad T-cell responses elicited by conventional vectors may not be sufficient to substantially contain AIDS virus replication. Immunodominance poses a major obstacle to the generation of broadly targeted, HIV-specific cellular responses by vaccination. Here we attempted to circumvent this phenomenon and thereby broaden the repertoire of SIV-specific cellular responses by

  2. Delayed Fission Gamma-ray Characteristics of Th-232 U-233 U-235 U-238 and Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Taylor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Delayed fission gamma-rays play an important role in determining the time dependent ioniz- ing dose for experiments in the central irradiation cavity of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). Delayed gamma-rays are produced from both fission product decay and from acti- vation of materials in the core, such as cladding and support structures. Knowing both the delayed gamma-ray emission rate and the time-dependent gamma-ray energy spectrum is nec- essary in order to properly determine the dose contributions from delayed fission gamma-rays. This information is especially important when attempting to deconvolute the time-dependent neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray contribution to the response of a diamond photo-conducting diode (PCD) or fission chamber in time frames of milliseconds to seconds following a reactor pulse. This work focused on investigating delayed gamma-ray character- istics produced from fission products from thermal, fast, and high energy fission of Th-232, U-233, U-235, U-238, and Pu-239. This work uses a modified version of CINDER2008, a transmutation code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to model time and energy dependent photon characteristics due to fission. This modified code adds the capability to track photon-induced transmutations, photo-fission, and the subsequent radiation caused by fission products due to photo-fission. The data is compared against previous work done with SNL- modified CINDER2008 [ 1 ] and experimental data [ 2 , 3 ] and other published literature, includ- ing ENDF/B-VII.1 [ 4 ]. The ability to produce a high-fidelity (7,428 group) energy-dependent photon fluence at various times post-fission can improve the delayed photon characterization for radiation effects tests at research reactors, as well as other applications.

  3. 239pu alpha spectrum analysis based on PIPS detector response function and variations with vacuum and distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Shi; Xian-Guo Tuo; Huai-Liang Li; Jian-Bo Yang; Yi Cheng; Hong-Long Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Effect factors of the absorption of the source,air,entrance window,and dead layer of a detector must be considered in the measurement of monoenergetic alpha particles,along with statsfical noise and other factors that collectively cause the alpha spectrum to exhibit a well-known low-energy tail.Therefore,the establishment of an alpha spectrum detector response function from the perspective of a signaling system must consider the various factors mentioned above.The detector response function is the convolution of an alphaparticle pulse function,two exponential functions,and a Gaussian function,followed by calculation of the parameters of the detector response function using the weighted leastsquares fitting method as proposed in this paper.In our experiment,239pu alpha spectra were measured by a highresolution,passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS)detector at 10 levels of vacuum and 10 source-detector distances.The spectrum-fitting results were excellent as evaluated by reduced Chi-square (x2) and correlation coefficients.Finally,the variation of parameters with vacuum level and source-detector distance was studied.Results demonstrate that ο,τ1,and τ2 exhibit no obvious trend of variation with vacuum in the range 2000-20,000 mTorr,and at a confidence level of 95%,the values of τ1 and τ2 decline in a similar fashion with source-detector distance by the power exponential function,while the value of ο declines linearly.

  4. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  5. Fate of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in soil profiles at a water recharge site in Basel, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Johannes; Meusburger, Katrin; Waldis, Judith Kobler; Ketterer, Michael E; Zehringer, Markus

    2018-02-01

    An important process in the production of drinking water is the recharge of the withdrawn ground water with river water at protected recharge fields. While it is well known that undisturbed soils are efficiently filtering and adsorbing radionuclides, the goal of this study was to investigate their behaviour in an artificial recharge site that may receive rapid and additional input of radionuclides by river water (particularly when draining a catchment including nuclear power plants (NPP)). Soil profiles of recharge sites were drilled and analysed for radionuclides, specifically radiocesium ( 137 Cs), radiostrontium ( 90 Sr) and plutonium ( 239+240 Pu). The distribution of the analysed radionuclides were compared with an uncultivated reference soil outside the recharge site. The main activity of 137 Cs was located in the top soil (4.5-7.5 cm) and reached down to a depth of 84 cm and 48 cm for the recharge and the reference site, respectively. The found activities of 239+240 Pu originate from the global fallout after 1950. 239+240 Pu appeared to be strongly adsorbed onto soil particles. The shape of the depth profile was similar to 137 Cs, but also similar between the recharge and the reference site. In contrast, 90 Sr showed a uniform distribution over the entire depth of the recharge and reference profiles indicating that 90 Sr already entered the gravel zone and the ground water. Elevated inventories of the radionuclides were observed for the recharge site. The soil of the recharge field exhibited a threefold higher activity of 137 Cs compared to the reference soil. Also for 239+240 Pu higher inventories where observed for the recharge sites (40%). 90 Sr behaved differently, showing similar inventories between reference and recharge site. We estimate that 75-89% of the total inventory of 137 Cs in the soil at the recharge site (7.000 Bq/m 2 ) originated from the fallout of the Chernobyl accident and from emissions of Swiss NPPs. This estimate is based on the

  6. Study of radial distribution of 239,240Pu and 90Sr in annual tree rings and trunk bark of a 103 years old Norway spruce at four different heights above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgye, Z.; Schlesingerova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Radial distribution of 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr originating from atmospheric nuclear tests in tree rings and trunk bark at heights of 1.3, 10, 18 and 22 m above ground was studied. 239,240 Pu activity concentrations in air dried tree ring samples (each containing 10 annual rings) at all heights were under detection limit of the used method. 90 Sr activity concentrations in tree ring samples ranged from 0.54 to 2.81 Bq kg -1 . 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr were present in the trunk bark. The paper presents data for 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr aggregated transfer factors to tree trunk. (author)

  7. Fission Product Data Measured at Los Alamos for Fission Spectrum and Thermal Neutrons on 239Pu, 235U, 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, H.D.; Mac Innes, M.R.; Barr, D.W.; Keksis, A.L.; Meade, R.A.; Burns, C.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; Wallstrom, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    for 99 Mo where the present results are about 4%-relative higher for neutrons incident on 239 Pu and 235 U. Additionally, our results illustrate the importance of representing the incident energy dependence of fission product yields over the fast neutron energy range for high-accuracy work, for example the 147 Nd from neutron reactions on plutonium. An upgrade to the ENDF library, for ENDF/B-VII.1, based on these and other data, is described in a companion paper to this work.

  8. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  9. Prompt fissionγ-ray characteristics from neutron-induced fission on 239Pu and the time-dependence of prompt-γray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatera, Angélique; Göök, Alf; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Moens, André; Oberstedt, Andreas; Oberstedt, Stephan; Sibbens, Goedele; Vanleeuw, David; Vidali, Marzio

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increased interest in prompt fission γ-ray (PFG) measurements motivated by a high priority request of the OECD/NEA for high precision data, mainly for the nuclear fuel isotopes 235U and 239Pu. Our group has conducted a PFG measurement campaign using state-of-the-art lanthanum halide detectors for all the main actinides to a precision better than 3%. The experiments were performed in a coincidence setup between a fission trigger and γ-ray detectors. The time-of-flight technique was used to discriminate photons, traveling at the speed of light, and prompt fission neutrons. For a full rejection of all neutrons below 20 MeV, the PFG time window should not be wider than a few nanoseconds. This window includes most PFG, provided that no isomeric states were populated during the de-excitation process. When isomeric states are populated, PFGs can still be emitted up to 1 yus after the instant of fission or later. To study these γ-rays, the detector response to neutrons had to be determined and a correction had to be applied to the γ-ray spectra. The latest results for PFG characteristics from the reaction 239Pu(nth,f) will be presented, together with an analysis of PFGs emitted up to 200 ns after fission in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf as well as for thermal-neutron induced fission on 235U and 239Pu. The results are compared with calculations in the framework of the Hauser-Feshbach Monte Carlo code CGMF and FIFRELIN.

  10. Alterative Expression and Localization of Profilin 1/VASPpS157 and Cofilin 1/VASPpS239 Regulates Metastatic Growth and is Modified by DHA Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehboob; Heyob, Kathryn; Jacob, Naduparambil K.; Rogers, Lynette K.

    2016-01-01

    Profilin 1, cofilin 1, and vasodialator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) are actin binding proteins (ABP) which regulate actin remodelling and facilitate cancer cell metastases. MiR~17–92 is highly expressed in metastatic tumors and profilin1 and cofilin1 are predicted targets. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and adhesion. These studies tested the hypothesis that the metastatic phenotype is driven by changes in ABPs including alternative phosphorylation and/or changes in subcellular localization. Additionally, we tested the efficacy of DHA supplementation to attenuate or inhibit these changes. Human lung cancer tissue sections were analyzed for F-actin content and expression and cellular localization of profilin1, cofilin1 and VASP (S157 or S239 phosphorylation). The metastatic phenotype was investigated in A549 and MLE12 cells lines using 8 Br-cAMP as a metastasis inducer and DHA as a therapeutic agent. Migration was assessed by wound assay and expression measured by western blot and confocal analysis. MiR~17–92 expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Results indicated increased expression and altered cellular distribution of profilin1/VASPpS157 but no changes in cofilin1/VASPpS239 in the human malignant tissues compared to normal tissues. In A549 and MLE12 cells, the expression patterns of profilin1/VASPpS157 or cofilin1/VASPpS239 suggested an interaction in regulation of actin dynamics. Furthermore, DHA inhibited cancer cell migration and viability, ABP expression and cellular localization, and modulated expression of miR~17–92 in A549 cells with minimal effects in MLE12 cells. Further investigations are warranted to understand ABP interactions, changes in cellular localization, regulation by miR~17–92, and DHA as a novel therapeutic. PMID:27496138

  11. Solubility of reactor fuels in the mouse lung with respect to their U/Pu and 238Pu/239Pu ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, R.J.; Baker, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    The studies reported were designed to assess the comparative in vivo solubilities of a range of plutonium containing reactor fuels. To simulate these fuels, mixed U/Pu oxides were prepared and calcined at 1600 0 C. A plutonium content of 3% w/w was chosen as typical of water-cooled reactor fuel. Higher concentrations of plutonium (10, 20 and 30%) were included to simulate fast reactor fuel. As it is known that 238 PuO 2 , with high specific activity, is translocated more rapidly from lung than 239 PuO 2 , the effect of isotopic composition of plutonium in simulated reactor fuels was also investigated. For this purpose, both the water-cooled and fast-reactor fuels were prepared with plutonium containing 2% of 238 Pu by weight. The resulting oxides had about 6 times the specific activity of those prepared with 239 Pu. Groups of mice were killed at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after inhaling aerosols of the simulated reactor fuels. After 3 months, measurements of Pu retention in the lung showed no marked differences between materials. After 6 months, measurements of plutonium deposited in the liver and skeleton showed that mixed U/Pu oxides were more soluble in vivo than 239 PuO 2 . Their solubility was inversely related to their plutonium content. The addition of 238 Pu to the plutonium resulted in enhanced translocation of plutonium from the lung, in the cases of water-cooled reactor fuel by a factor of two. (author)

  12. Exploratory study of fission product yields of neutron-induced fission of 235U , 238U , and 239Pu at 8.9 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B. F.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Rusev, G. Y.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    Using dual-fission chambers each loaded with a thick (200 -400 -mg /c m2) actinide target of 235 ,238U or 239Pu and two thin (˜10 -100 -μ g /c m2) reference foils of the same actinide, the cumulative yields of fission products ranging from 92Sr to 147Nd have been measured at En= 8.9 MeV . The 2H(d ,n ) 3He reaction provided the quasimonoenergetic neutron beam. The experimental setup and methods used to determine the fission product yield (FPY) are described, and results for typically eight high-yield fission products are presented. Our FPYs for 235U(n ,f ) , 238U(n ,f ) , and 239Pu(n ,f ) at 8.9 MeV are compared with the existing data below 8 MeV from Glendenin et al. [Phys. Rev. C 24, 2600 (1981), 10.1103/PhysRevC.24.2600], Nagy et al. [Phys. Rev. C 17, 163 (1978), 10.1103/PhysRevC.17.163], Gindler et al. [Phys. Rev. C 27, 2058 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevC.27.2058], and those of Mac Innes et al. [Nucl. Data Sheets 112, 3135 (2011), 10.1016/j.nds.2011.11.009] and Laurec et al. [Nucl. Data Sheets 111, 2965 (2010), 10.1016/j.nds.2010.11.004] at 14.5 and 14.7 MeV, respectively. This comparison indicates a negative slope for the energy dependence of most fission product yields obtained from 235U and 239Pu , whereas for 238U the slope issue remains unsettled.

  13. Feasibility study of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu characterization in radioactive waste drums using neutron-induced fission delayed gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, T. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); FZJ, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, d-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pérot, B., E-mail: bertrand.perot@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carasco, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Brackx, E. [CEA, DEN, Marcoule, Metallography and Chemical Analysis Laboratory, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Mariani, A.; Passard, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mauerhofer, E. [FZJ, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, d-52425 Jülich (Germany); Collot, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3 Grenoble (France)

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu characterization in 225 L bituminized waste drums or 200 L concrete waste drums, by detecting delayed fission gamma rays between the pulses of a deuterium-tritium neutron generator. The delayed gamma yields were first measured with bare samples of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu in REGAIN, a facility dedicated to the assay of 118 L waste drums by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) at CEA Cadarache, France. Detectability in the waste drums is then assessed using the MCNPX model of MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), another PGNAA cell dedicated to 200 L drums at FZJ, Germany. For the bituminized waste drum, performances are severely hampered by the high gamma background due to {sup 137}Cs, which requires the use of collimator and shield to avoid electronics saturation, these elements being very penalizing for the detection of the weak delayed gamma signal. However, for lower activity concrete drums, detection limits range from 10 to 290 g of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu, depending on the delayed gamma rays of interest. These detection limits have been determined by using MCNPX to calculate the delayed gamma useful signal, and by measuring the experimental gamma background in MEDINA with a 200 L concrete drum mock-up. The performances could be significantly improved by using a higher interrogating neutron emission and an optimized experimental setup, which would allow characterizing nuclear materials in a wide range of low and medium activity waste packages.

  14. Quantifying type-specific reproduction numbers for nosocomial pathogens: evidence for heightened transmission of an Asian sequence type 239 MRSA clone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben S Cooper

    Full Text Available An important determinant of a pathogen's success is the rate at which it is transmitted from infected to susceptible hosts. Although there are anecdotal reports that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA clones vary in their transmissibility in hospital settings, attempts to quantify such variation are lacking for common subtypes, as are methods for addressing this question using routinely-collected MRSA screening data in endemic settings. Here we present a method to quantify the time-varying transmissibility of different subtypes of common bacterial nosocomial pathogens using routine surveillance data. The method adapts approaches for estimating reproduction numbers based on the probabilistic reconstruction of epidemic trees, but uses relative hazards rather than serial intervals to assign probabilities to different sources for observed transmission events. The method is applied to data collected as part of a retrospective observational study of a concurrent MRSA outbreak in the United Kingdom with dominant endemic MRSA clones (ST22 and ST36 and an Asian ST239 MRSA strain (ST239-TW in two linked adult intensive care units, and compared with an approach based on a fully parametric transmission model. The results provide support for the hypothesis that the clones responded differently to an infection control measure based on the use of topical antiseptics, which was more effective at reducing transmission of endemic clones. They also suggest that in one of the two ICUs patients colonized or infected with the ST239-TW MRSA clone had consistently higher risks of transmitting MRSA to patients free of MRSA. These findings represent some of the first quantitative evidence of enhanced transmissibility of a pandemic MRSA lineage, and highlight the potential value of tailoring hospital infection control measures to specific pathogen subtypes.

  15. The role of pore soil solutions in redistribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am within soil-vegetative cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsiannikova, S.V.; Sokolik, G.A.; Kilchitskaya, S.L.; Eismont, E.A.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    The role of pore soil solutions in the migration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am within soil-vegetative cover of natural ecosystems was examined. The soil solutions were found to play an important role in the redistribution of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the soil-plant systems. Obvious relationships between the distribution coefficients of radionuclides between solid and liquid phases (K d ) and the intensity of vertical migration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am along the soil profiles and with intensity of their accumulation by grass vegetation of natural meadows have been obtained. It means that the distribution coefficient may be used as a criterion of the radionuclide mobility in the soil-plant system whatever its level of radioactive contamination is. The influence of the degree of soil moistening, the content of mobile radionuclide forms in the soils and some characteristics of pore soil solutions (pH, content of K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , water soluble organic substances) on the concentration of radionuclide in the soil solutions and on the value of radionuclide distribution coefficient have been analysed. The results of investigation are of great importance in the evaluation of radioecological situation and in solution of problems of radioecological rehabilitation of the contaminated territories. The received data constitute a part of scientific basis for the development of a system of countermeasures to decrease the mobility and biological availability of radionuclides of high and very high radiotoxicity

  16. Fission fragment yields and total kinetic energy release in neutron-induced fission of235,238U,and239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovesson, F.; Duke, D.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Manning, B.; Mayorov, D.; Mosby, S.; Schmitt, K.

    2018-03-01

    Different aspects of the nuclear fission process have been studied at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) using various instruments and experimental techniques. Properties of the fragments emitted in fission have been investigated using Frisch-grid ionization chambers, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the SPIDER instrument which employs the 2v-2E method. These instruments and experimental techniques have been used to determine fission product mass yields, the energy dependent total kinetic energy (TKE) release, and anisotropy in neutron-induced fission of U-235, U-238 and Pu-239.

  17. Evaluation of fission cross sections and covariances for {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Matsunobu, Hiroyuki [Data Engineering, Inc. (Japan); Murata, Toru [AITEL Corporation, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    2000-02-01

    A simultaneous evaluation code SOK (Simultaneous evaluation on KALMAN) has been developed, which is a least-squares fitting program to absolute and relative measurements. The SOK code was employed to evaluate the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu for the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.3. Procedures of the simultaneous evaluation and the experimental database of the fission cross sections are described. The fission cross sections obtained were compared with evaluated values given in JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  18. Evaluation of fission cross sections and covariances for 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Murata, Toru

    2000-02-01

    A simultaneous evaluation code SOK (Simultaneous evaluation on KALMAN) has been developed, which is a least-squares fitting program to absolute and relative measurements. The SOK code was employed to evaluate the fission cross sections of 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Pu for the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.3. Procedures of the simultaneous evaluation and the experimental database of the fission cross sections are described. The fission cross sections obtained were compared with evaluated values given in JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  19. Determination of /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/Pu ratio in the environmental samples based on the measurement of Lx/. cap alpha. -ray activity ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K.; Sakanoue, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1984-06-01

    The determination of the /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/Pu isotopic ratio in environmental samples has been attempted by the measurement of the Lx/..cap alpha..-ray activity ratio using a Ge-LEPS (low-energy photon spectrometer) and a surface-barrier Si detector. By this method, interesting data were obtained for various samples collected from Thule, Greenland, Bikini Atoll and Nagasaki, as well as for some soils collected from near and off-site locations of atomic power stations.

  20. Speciation analysis of 129I, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu in environmental soil and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hansen, Violeta; Hou, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are related to their physicochemical forms, namely species. We here present a speciation analysis of important radionuclides including 129I (also 127I), 137Cs, 232Th, 238U and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) in soil (IAEA-375......) and sediment (NIST-4354) standard reference materials and two fresh sediment samples from Øvre Heimdalsvatnet Lake, Norway. A modified sequential extraction protocol was used for the speciation analysis of these samples to obtain fractionation information of target radionuclides. Analytical results reveal...

  1. Energy dependence of the neutron multiplicity P/sub nu/ in fast neutron induced fission of /sup 235,238/U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Holden, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    Certain applications require knowledge of the higher moments of the neutron multiplicity probability. It can be shown that the second factorial moment is proportional to the fission rate in the sample, and that the third factorial moment can be of use in disentangling spontaneous fission from induced fission. Using a source of unpublished work in which neutron multiplicities were derived for the fast neutron induced fission of U-235, U-238, and Pu-239, the multiplicity probability has been calculated as a function of neutron energy for the energy range 0 to 10 MeV

  2. Radiotoxicological analyses of 239+240Pu and 241Am in biological samples by anion-exchange and extraction chromatography: a preliminary study for internal contamination evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridone, S.; Arginelli, D.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Canuto, G.; Montalto, M.; Nocente, M.; Vegro, M.

    2006-01-01

    Many biological samples (urines and faeces) have been analysed by means of chromatographic extraction columns, utilising two different resins (AG 1-X2 resin chloride and T.R.U.), in order to detect the possible internal contamination of 239 + 240 Pu and 241 Am, for some workers of a reprocessing nuclear plant in the decommissioning phase. The results obtained show on one hand the great suitability of the first resin for the determination of plutonium, and on the other the great selectivity of the second one for the determination of americium

  3. {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am levels in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Loire and Garonne rivers basins (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Pagano, V. [SUBATECH/IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France)

    2014-07-01

    Plutonium and americium long-lived alpha emitter isotopes can be found in the environment because of atmospheric global fallout due to thermonuclear tests performed between 1945 and 1980, to the American SNAP 9A satellite explosion in 1964, to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident,... In France, the nuclear safety authority does not allow the release of artificial alpha emitters from nuclear power plants. Thus, monitoring is performed to verify the absence of these alpha emitters in liquid discharges to respect the limits set by the regulations. These thresholds ensure a very low dosimetric impact to the population compared to other radionuclides. With the objective of environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities, activity measurements of long-lived alpha emitters are carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides. Analysis of low activity by alpha spectrometry after chemical steps were performed and used to determine the {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am activities on a large set of environmental solid samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. The samples collected in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Loire and Garonne rivers basins (France) was investigated for the 2009-2014 period. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 238}Pu: from <0.00031 to 0.0061 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from <0.00086 to 0.011 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples; for the radionuclide {sup 239+240}Pu: from 0.00041 to 0.150 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from 0.0023 to 0.240 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples and for the radionuclide {sup 241}Am: from <0.00086 to 0.087 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from 0.0022 to 0.120 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples. {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am/{sup 239+240}Pu ratios determined are in accordance with an environmental contamination due to

  4. Determination of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in human tissues collected from areas around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site by sector-field high resolution ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Oikawa, S; Sakaguchi, A; Tomita, J; Hoshi, M; Apsalikov, K N

    2008-09-01

    Information on the 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in human tissues for people living around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was deduced from 9 sets of soft tissues and bones, and 23 other bone samples obtained by autopsy. Plutonium was radiochemically separated and purified, and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) were determined by sector-field high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. For most of the tissue samples from the former nine subjects, low 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios were determined: bone, 0.125 +/- 0.018 (0.113-0.145, n = 4); lungs, 0.063 +/- 0.010 (0.051-0.078, n = 5); and liver, 0.148 +/- 0.026 (0.104-0.189, n = 9). Only 239Pu was detected in the kidney samples; the amount of 240Pu was too small to be measured, probably due to the small size of samples analyzed. The mean 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio for bone samples from the latter 23 subjects was 0.152 +/- 0.034, ranging from 0.088 to 0.207. A significant difference (a two-tailed Student's t test; 95% significant level, alpha = 0.05) between mean 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios for the tissue samples and for the global fallout value (0.178 +/- 0.014) indicated that weapons-grade plutonium from the atomic bombs has been incorporated into the human tissues, especially lungs, in the residents living around the SNTS. The present 239,240Pu concentrations in bone, lung, and liver samples were, however, not much different from ranges found for human tissues from other countries that were due solely to global fallout during the 1970's-1980's.

  5. Model testing of radioactive contamination by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ecomod@obninsk.com; Boyer, P.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Dzyuba, N.N.; Krylov, A.L.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nosov, A.V.; Sanina, K.D.; Zheleznyak, M.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for {sup 90}Sr in water for all considered models, {sup 137}Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and {sup 239,240}Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ({sup 239,240}Pu) and CASSANDRA ({sup 137}Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of {sup 239,240}Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule Mamu-B*17 complexed with an immunodominant SIVmac239 Env epitope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Bao, Jinku

    2013-01-01

    A primitive monoclinic crystal of the rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule Mamu-B*17 complexed with an SIVmac239 Env peptide was obtained and belonged to space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 45.0, c = 81.5 Å, β = 96.5°. The crystal diffracted to 2.55 Å resolution. Long-term nonprogression during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been strongly associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele Mamu-B*17. Here, a complex of rhesus macaque Mamu-B*17 with rhesus macaque β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 m) and an immunodominant peptide (SIVmac239 Env241–251; LRCNDTNYSGF; Env LF11) derived from the SIV Env protein was crystallized by the hanging-drop method using PEG 3350 as a precipitating agent. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 45.0, c = 81.5 Å, β = 96.5°. Assuming the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 2.96 Å 3 Da −1 and 58.5%, respectively

  7. Transmutation of 239Pu and other nuclides using spallation neutrons produced by relativistic protons reacting with massive U- and Pb- targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Balabekyan, A.; Bamblevskij, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies on the transmutation of some long-lived radioactive waste nuclei, such as 129 I, 237 Np, and 239 Pu, as well as on natural uranium and lanthanum (all of them used as sensors) were carried out at the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (JINR, Dubna). Spallation neutrons were produced by relativistic protons with energies in the range of 0.5 GeV ≤ E(p) ≤ 1.5 GeV interacting with 20 cm long uranium or lead target stacks. The targets were surrounded by 6 cm paraffin moderators. The radioactive sensors mentioned above were positioned on the outside surface of the moderator and contained typically approximately 0.5 up to 1 gram of long-lived isotopes. The highly radioactive targets were produced perfectly well-sealed in aluminium containers by the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia. From the experimentally observed transmutation rates one can easily extrapolate, that in a subcritical nuclear power assembly (or 'energy amplifier') using a 10 mA proton beam of 1 GeV onto a Pb-target as used here, one can transmute in one gram samples of the isotope within one month about 3 mg 129 I, 21 mg 237 Np, 3.3 mg 238 U, and 200 mg 239 Pu under the same geometrical conditions. Our observations show, that the transmutation ability of our system increases linearly with the proton energy within the energy interval studied

  8. Criticality Data for Spherical 235U, 239Pu, and 237Np Systems Reflector-Moderated by Low Capturing-Moderator Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza, David J.; Stratton, William

    2004-01-01

    The critical dimensions of spherical systems moderated and reflected by low-capturing materials such as D 2 O, BeO, Be, and C were investigated. A parametric study of the critical mass of enriched uranium, plutonium, and neptunium is examined and tabulated. The results obtained expand on the understanding of reflector-moderated critical systems, and they show regions of unstable criticality for 235 U and 239 Pu reflected cores at intermediate densities. This instability is illustrated by calculations of the positive reactivity coefficient of volume expansion. The coefficient is positive, not negative, in the intermediate density region for 235 U and 239 Pu systems. For 237 Np cores reflected by the same moderator, the effect is negligible. The critical dimensions were calculated with the DANTSYS codes using the Hansen-Roach cross-section libraries. This study is both a summary of mostly unpublished calculations and new calculations. Experimental data for these configurations are extremely limited. These are examined in the text when applicable

  9. The production of {sup 238-242}Pu(n,γ){sup 239-243}Pu fissionable fluids in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenay, Mehtap [Inoenue Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2014-03-15

    In this study, the effect of spent fuel grade plutonium content on {sup 239-243}Pu was investigated in a designed hybrid reactor system. In this system, the fluids were composed of a molten salt, heavy metal mixture with increased mole fractions 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-Pu, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-PuF{sub 4}, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-PuO{sub 2}. Beryllium (Be) is a neutron multiplier by (n,2n) reactions. Thence, a Be zone of 3 cm thickness was used in order to contribute to fissile fuel breeding between the liquid first wall and a 9Cr2WVTa ferritic steel blanket which is used as structural material. The production of {sup 238-242}Pu(n,γ){sup 239-243}Pu was calculated in liquid first wall, blanket and shielding zones. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed by using the most recent version MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo code and nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0. (orig.)

  10. Neutron induced fission cross sections for /sup 232/Th, /sup 235,238/U, /sup 237/Np and /sup 239/Pu from 1 to 400 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross section ratios for samples of /sup 232/Th, /sup 235,238/U, /sup 237/Np and /sup 239/Pu have been measured from 1 to 400 MeV. The fission reaction rate was determined for all samples simultaneously using a fast parallel plate ionization chamber at a 20-m flight path. A well characterized annular proton recoil telescope was used to measure the neutron fluence up to 30 MeV. These data provided the shape of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section relative to the hydrogen scattering cross section. That shape was then normalized to the very accurately known values were determined using the neutron fluence measured with a second proton recoil telescope. Cross section values for /sup 232/Th, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, and /sup 239/Pu were computed from the ratio data using our values for /sup 235/U(n,f). In addition to providing new results at high neutron energies, these data resolve long standing discrepancies among different data sets. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  11. New prompt fission gamma-ray spectral data from 239Pu(nth, f in response to a high priority request from OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatera Angélique

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benchmark reactor calculations have revealed an underestimation of γ-heat following fission of up to 28%. To improve the modelling of new nuclear reactors, the OECD/NEA initiated a nuclear data High Priority Request List (HPRL entry for the major isotopes (235U, 239Pu. In response to that HPRL entry, we executed a dedicated measurement program on prompt fission γ-rays employing state-of-the-art lanthanum bromide (LaBr3 detectors with superior timing and good energy resolution. Our new results from 252Cf(sf, 235U(nth,f and 241Pu(nth,f provide prompt fission γ-ray spectra characteristics : average number of photons per fission, average total energy per fission and mean photon energy; all within 2% of uncertainty. We present preliminary results on 239Pu(nth,f, recently measured at the Budapest Neutron Centre and supported by the CHANDA Trans-national Access Activity, as well as discussing our different published results in comparison to the historical data and what it says about the discrepancy observed in the benchmark calculations.

  12. Nuclear data and measurements series: Ratio of the prompt-fission-neutron spectrum of plutonium 239 to that of uranium 235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, M.; Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1986-09-01

    The prompt-fission-neutron spectrum resulting from 239 Pu fission induced by 0.55 MeV incident neutrons is measured from 1.0 to 10.0 MeV relative to that of 235 U fission induced by the same incident-energy neutrons. The measurements employ the time-of-flight technique. Energy-dependent ratios of the two spectra are deduced from the measured values over the energy range 1.0 to 10.0 MeV. The experimentally-derived ratio results are compared with those calculated from ENDF/B-V, revision-2, and with results of recent microscopic measurements. Using the ENDF/B-V 235 U Watt parameters for the 235 U spectrum, the experimental measurements imply a ratio of average fission-spectrum energies of 239 Pu/ 235 U = 1.045 +- 0.003, compared to the value 1.046 calculated from ENDF/B-V, revision 2. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. The Changing Pattern of Population Structure of Staphylococcus aureus from Bacteremia in China from 2013 to 2016: ST239-030-MRSA Replaced by ST59-t437.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuguang; Sun, Shijun; Yang, Chentao; Chen, Hongbin; Yin, Yuyao; Li, Henan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology and genetic structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in China, a total of 416 isolates from 22 teaching hospitals in 12 cities from 2013 and 2016 were characterized by antibiogram analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing. The predominant meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) genotypes in 2013 were ST188 (19.1%), ST7 (8.7%), and ST398 (7.8%), respectively, and they continued to be the main genotypes in 2016. The prevalence of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 36.5% (66/181) and 36.6% (86/235) in 2013 and 2016, respectively. Interestingly, the susceptibility rates of MRSA to rifampicin and fluoroquinolones increased significantly from 2013 to 2016 ( P competition and fitness measurements were performed. Importantly, ST239-t030-MRSA displayed lower growth rate and lower competitive advantage compared to ST59-t437-MRSA. Together, our findings reveal that fitness advantage of ST59-t437-MRSA over ST239-t030-MRSA may lead to changes in genetic structure and increased susceptibility of MRSA to rifampicin and fluoroquinolones in Chinese patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Our study supports temporal dynamics in MRSA clone diversities, further providing critical insights into the importance of continued monitoring of MRSA.

  14. Reexamining the role of the (n ,γ f ) process in the low-energy fission of 235U and 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, J. E.; Talou, P.; Bouland, O.

    2018-06-01

    The (n ,γ f ) process is reviewed in light of modern nuclear reaction calculations in both slow and fast neutron-induced fission reactions on 235U and 239Pu. Observed fluctuations of the average prompt fission neutron multiplicity and average total γ -ray energy below 100-eV incident neutron energy are interpreted in this framework. The surprisingly large contribution of the M 1 transitions to the prefission γ -ray spectrum of 239Pu is explained by the dominant fission probabilities of 0+ and 2+ transition states, which can only be accessed from compound nucleus states formed by the interaction of s -wave neutrons with the target nucleus in its ground state, and decaying through M 1 transitions. The impact of an additional low-lying M 1 scissors mode in the photon strength function is analyzed. We review experimental evidence for fission fragment mass and kinetic-energy fluctuations in the resonance region and their importance in the interpretation of experimental data on prompt neutron data in this region. Finally, calculations are extended to the fast energy range where (n ,γ f ) corrections can account for up to 3% of the total fission cross section and about 20% of the capture cross section.

  15. Relative radiosensitivity of bone tumor induction among beagles as a function of age at injection of 239Pu or 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Miller, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison was made of the response to induction of skeletal malignancy from exposure of beagles to monomeric 239 Pu or to 226 Ra as juveniles (3 mo of age), young adults (1.5 y of age), or mature adults (5 y of age). This indicated that of these age groups, animals injected as young adults are most sensitive per Gy of average skeletal dose evaluated at 1 y before death. Dogs exposed either as juveniles or as mature adults appeared to be less sensitive. Relative radiosensitivities (RRS) of juvenile and mature beagles ranged between about 0.3 and 0.7 that of dogs injected as young adults. Mean values of RRS for both radionuclides were about 0.5, but RRS values derived from dogs given monomeric 239 Pu appeared to be most reliable and were 0.27 ± 0.09 for dogs injected as juveniles and 0.41 ± 0.13 for animals exposed as mature adults

  16. The calculation of annual limits of intake for plutonium-239 in man using a bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Values of the annual limit intake (ALI) for plutonium-239 in man have been calculated using committed dose equivalent limits as recommended by ICRP in Publication 26. The calculations were made using a multicompartment bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling in the skeleton. In one skeletal compartment, the growing surfaces of cortical bone, it is assumed that plutonium deposits are retained and are not subject to resorption or recycling. In the trabecular bone compartment plutonium is taken to be resorbed with either subsequent redeposition onto bone surfaces or retention in the bone marrow. ALIs for plutonium-239 have been calculated assuming a range of rates of bone accretion (0 to 32 μm yr -1 ), different amounts of plutonium retained in the marrow (0 to 60%) and a 20%, 45% or 70% deposition of plutonium in the skeleton from the blood. The calculations made using this bone model suggest that 750 Bq (20 nCi) is an appropriate ALI for the inhalation of class W and class Y plutonium compounds and that 830 kBq and 5 MBq (23 μCi and 136 μCi) are the appropriate ALIs for the ingestion of soluble and insoluble forms of plutonium respectively. (author)

  17. The calculation of annual limits of intake for plutonium-239 in man using a bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, N D; Hunt, B W

    1979-05-01

    Values of the annual limit of intake (ALI) for plutonium-239 in man have been calculated using committed dose equivalent limits as recommended by ICRP in Publication 26. The calculations were made using a multicompartment bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling in the skeleton. In one skeletal compartment, the growing surfaces of cortical bone, it is assumed that plutonium deposits are retained and are not subject to resorption or recycling. In the trabecular bone compartment plutonium is taken to be resorbed with either subsequent redeposition onto bone surfaces or retention in the bone marrow. ALIs for plutonium-239 have been calculated assuming a range of rates of bone accretion (0-32 micron yr-1), different amounts of plutonium retained in the marrow (0-60%) and a 20%, 45% or 70% deposition of plutonium in the skeleton from the blood. The calculations made using this bone model suggest that 750 Bq (20 nCi) is an appropriate ALI for the inhalation of class W and class Y plutonium compounds and that 830 kBq and 5 MBq (23 muCi and 136 muCi) are the appropriate ALIs for the ingestion of soluble and insoluble forms of plutonium respectively.

  18. Determination of 239Pu and 240Pu isotope ratio for a nuclear bomb particle using X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with γ-ray spectrometry and non-destructive α-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, R.; Ruotsalainen, K.; Toivonen, H.

    2009-01-01

    A nuclear bomb particle from Thule containing Pu and U was analyzed using X-ray spectrometry in combination with γ-ray spectrometry and non-destructive α-spectrometry. The main objective was to investigate the possibility to determine the 239 Pu and 240 Pu isotope ratios. Previously, X-ray spectrometry together with the above-mentioned methods has been successfully applied for radiochemically processed samples, but not for individual particles. In the present paper we demonstrate the power of non-destructive analysis. The 239 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) atom ratio for the Thule particle was determined, using two different approaches, to be 0.93±0.07 and 0.91±0.05. These results are consistent with weapons-grade material and the results obtained by other investigators.

  19. Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 230,232Th on the fractions of natural organic species soils of ChNPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, A.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    The experimental data determination of distribution 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am 'Chernobyl' releases and 230 , 232 Th on the fraction of humic and fulvic acids sandy- podsolic, meadow and peaty soils taken in the exclusive zone ChNPP are presents. Soils organic matter was isolated by conventional alkali extraction (Turin's method). It was shown that, with depending of soils types 15-45 % 241 Am associate with fulvic acids. In all investigated types of soils 30 - 40 % 239+240 Pu connects with humic acids, as strong complexes. The distribution of environmental 230 , 232 Th and artificial 239+240 Pu on the fraction natural organic species is the same

  20. Effect of microdose distribution on chromosome aberration frequency in liver cells of the Chinese hamster following exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Peters, R.F.; Retherford, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    Chinese hamsters were injected intravenously with 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 particles of known size or with 238 Pu citrate to determine the effect of particle size and specific activity on the frequency and distribution of chromosome damage in the liver. Three particle sizes were used in the 239 PuO 2 experiment: 0.15, 0.44, and 0.89 μm, and all animals were injected with a constant activity, 5 x 10 -4 muCi 239 Pu/gm body weight. The 238 PuO 2 was injected in three particle sizes, 0.17, 0.41, and 1.1 μm and at three activity levels. The 238 Pu citrate was injected at 5 x 10 -3 muCi 238 Pu/gm body weight. Hamsters injected with 239 PuO 2 were sacrificed at 15, 42, and 122 days after injection and those injected with either 238 PuO 2 or 238 Pu citrate were sacrificed 12 days after injection. The number of alpha tracks/star increased as a function of the particle size injected. A change in particle size with time was noted as smaller particles were aggregated into larger ones by the phagocytic action of Kupffer cells. Injection of 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 produced a distribution of chromosome damage which was non-poison in nature. 239 PuO 2 produced increased damage with increasing average dose with some cells containing a large number of aberrations, but there was relatively little particle size effect. Conversely, aberration frequencies after 238 PuO 2 injection were inversely related to particle size and no cells were seen with large amounts of damage. The 238 Pu citrate produced 6 x 10 -3 aberrations/cell/rad which was a higher rate than observed for 238 Pu particles. Risk for the production of cellular damage in the liver was greater per μCi following injection of either 238 Pu or 239 Pu citrate than it was following deposition of the same amount of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 particles. (U.S.)