WorldWideScience

Sample records for berkelium 239

  1. New berkelium isotope: 242Bk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new isotope of berkelium, 242Bk, was produced with a cross section of approx. 10 μb in reactions of boron on uranium and nitrogen on thorium. It decays by electron capture with a half-life of 7 +- 1.3 minutes. The branching ratio for this isotope for alpha decay is less than 1% and that for spontaneous fission is less than 0.03%. 2 figures, 2 tables

  2. Characterization of berkelium(III) dipicolinate and borate compounds in solution and the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Mark A; Cary, Samantha K; Johnson, Jason A; Baumbach, Ryan E; Arico, Alexandra A; Luckey, Morgan; Urban, Matthew; Wang, Jamie C; Polinski, Matthew J; Chemey, Alexander; Liu, Guokui; Chen, Kuan-Wen; Van Cleve, Shelley M; Marsh, Matthew L; Eaton, Teresa M; van de Burgt, Lambertus J; Gray, Ashley L; Hobart, David E; Hanson, Kenneth; Maron, Laurent; Gendron, Frédéric; Autschbach, Jochen; Speldrich, Manfred; Kögerler, Paul; Yang, Ping; Braley, Jenifer; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2016-08-26

    Berkelium is positioned at a crucial location in the actinide series between the inherently stable half-filled 5f(7) configuration of curium and the abrupt transition in chemical behavior created by the onset of a metastable divalent state that starts at californium. However, the mere 320-day half-life of berkelium's only available isotope, (249)Bk, has hindered in-depth studies of the element's coordination chemistry. Herein, we report the synthesis and detailed solid-state and solution-phase characterization of a berkelium coordination complex, Bk(III)tris(dipicolinate), as well as a chemically distinct Bk(III) borate material for comparison. We demonstrate that berkelium's complexation is analogous to that of californium. However, from a range of spectroscopic techniques and quantum mechanical calculations, it is clear that spin-orbit coupling contributes significantly to berkelium's multiconfigurational ground state. PMID:27563098

  3. Extraction of tetravalent berkelium and cerium by aliquate-336-S-NO3 quaternary ammonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of tetravalent berkelium and cerium by aliquate-336-S-NO3 quaternary ammonium salt from nitric acid solutions is investigated. The effect of concentrations of nitric acid and extracting agent, nature of an oxidant (potassium bromate, potassium bichromate, mixture of AgNO3 and (NH4)2S2O8) and solvent on the distribution coefficient of berkelium(4) and cerium(4) is studied. It is established that solutions of aliquate-336-S-NO3 in carbon tetrachloride and dichloroethane extract quantitatively tetravalent berkelium from 10-12 M nitric acid solutions and cerium - from 1-10 M nitric acid solutions containing potassium bichromate as an oxidant. It is shown that the value of distribution coefficient for berkelium and cerium depends on the nature of an oxidant and extracting agent concentration. It is established that in the case of extraction by quaternary ammonium salt with one berkelium(4) mole four aliquate-336-SNO3 moles are associated and 1.5-1.6 mole of extracting agent are associated with one cerium(4) mole. It permits to make a conclusion that stoichiometry of extraction reactions by quaternary ammonium salt is not the same for tetravalent berkelium and cerium. It is shown that trivalent transplutonium and rare earth elements are not practically extracted by aliquate-336-S-NO3 from nitric acid solutions

  4. Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Plutonium-239

  5. Status of 239Pu evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the current status of nuclear data evaluations for n+239Pu. The nuclear data we address include fission, capture, scattering cross-sections, as well as the prompt fission neutron energy spectrum, which has large sensitivities to the criticality benchmark testing. The evaluated nuclear data files currently available for 239Pu are compared, and the source of differences in the cross-sections are discussed. Some open questions on the statistical model calculations for deformed systems are also given. (authors)

  6. 32 CFR 239.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 239.3 Section 239.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.3 Policy. (a) It is DoD policy, in implementing section...

  7. 32 CFR 239.12 - Tax Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax Documentation. 239.12 Section 239.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.12 Tax Documentation. For...

  8. 32 CFR 239.7 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 239.7 Section 239.7 National... HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.7 Responsibilities. (a) The DUSD(I&E), under the... Chief of Engineers, has been delegated authority and responsibility for the execution of HAP....

  9. 32 CFR 239.5 - Benefit elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefit elections. 239.5 Section 239.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.5 Benefit elections. Section 3374 of Title...

  10. 43 CFR 23.9 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance bond. 23.9 Section 23.9 Public... LANDS § 23.9 Performance bond. (a)(1) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000 with satisfactory...

  11. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... human ingress and their impact on project functions. (d) Effect of the cover on inspection and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  12. 48 CFR 239.7409 - Special assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special assembly. 239.7409... Services 239.7409 Special assembly. (a) Special assembly is the designing, manufacturing, arranging... general use equipment. (b) Special assembly rates and charges shall be based on estimated costs....

  13. 33 CFR 239.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 239.3 Section 239.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... References. (a) Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management, 24 May 1977. (b) ER 1105-2-200. (c) ER...

  14. Speciation of 239U and 239Np by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research thesis is to contribute to a better knowledge of chemical effects associated with nuclear transformations of 238U(n, γ) 239U(β) and 239Np in different uranium salts in solid state or aqueous solutions. A method of separation of tetravalent and hexavalent uranium and of tetravalent and pentavalent neptunium has been developed. The best separations have been obtained by using an equimolar aqueous solution of nitric acid and oxalic acid with elution durations between 2 and 9 minutes. Several uranyl and uranium compounds have been irradiated and the distribution of 239U and 239Np depending on the oxidation level has been measured with respect to the nature of the irradiated compound, to the irradiation duration, and to the composition of the dissolution medium. The stabilisation of 239U and 239Np is discussed in terms of chemical forces, mechanical recoil, and localised radiolysis due to Auger electrons

  15. 48 CFR 239.7001 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Information Technology 239.7001 Policy. Agencies shall follow the procedures in DoD 4140.1-R, DoD Supply Chain Materiel Management Regulation, Chapter 9, Section C9.5, when considering the exchange or sale...

  16. 48 CFR 252.239-7013 - Obligation of the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government. 252.239-7013 Section 252.239-7013 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7013 Obligation of the Government. As prescribed in 239.7411(c), use the following clause: Obligation of the Government (JUL 2006) (a) This basic agreement is not...

  17. Transmutation of 239Pu with spallation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration studies of plutonium were carried out at the Synchrophasotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, using proton beams with energies of 0.53 GeV and 1.0 GeV. Solid lead targets (8 cm in diameter and 20 cm long) were surrounded with 6 cm thick paraffin as neutron moderator and then irradiated. The transmutation of 239Pu and the associated production of fission products 91Sr, 92Sr, 97Zr, 99Mo, 103Ru, 105Ru, 129Sb, 132Te, 133I, 135I and 143Ce were studied in the present work. The plutonium samples (each 449 mg) were placed on the outer surface of moderator. For 1.0 GeV proton beam, the fission rate of 239Pu is 0.0032 atoms per proton in one gram plutonium samples, for 0.53 GeV proton this value is 0.0022. The experimental uncertainty is about 15%. The experiments are compared to two theoretical model calculations with moderate success, using the Dubna Cascade Model (CEM) and the LAHET code. The practical incineration rate of 239Pu is very high. For example: if one uses 10 mA, 1 GeV proton beams under the same (fictive) experimental conditions, the incineration rate of 239Pu via fission is 3 mg out of the 449 mg sample per day. For 0.53 GeV protons the corresponding rate is 2 mg per day. (author)

  18. 48 CFR 239.7405 - Delegated authority for telecommunications resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... telecommunications resources. 239.7405 Section 239.7405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7405 Delegated authority for telecommunications resources. The contracting officer may enter into a telecommunications service contract on a month-to-month basis or for...

  19. 46 CFR 108.239 - Fuel transfer equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel transfer equipment. 108.239 Section 108.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Helicopter Facilities § 108.239 Fuel transfer equipment....

  20. 46 CFR 153.239 - Use of cast iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of cast iron. 153.239 Section 153.239 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK... Systems § 153.239 Use of cast iron. (a) Cast iron used in a cargo containment system must meet...

  1. 47 CFR 73.239 - Use of common antenna site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of common antenna site. 73.239 Section 73.239 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.239 Use of common antenna site. No FM broadcast...

  2. Gamma-ray intensities of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative intensities of 239Pu γ-rays were precisely measured with a Ge(Li) detector which was accurately calibrated and corrections were made for self-absorption of γ-rays. Accuracies of 1-2% were obtained for strong γrays. Detector efficiences were calibrated with a standard source of 133Ba and γ-ray sources of 152Eu, 154Eu and 182Ta. Intensities per decay were determined by the measured γ-ray intensities, weight and isotopic abundance of plutonium in the source. (author)

  3. Adsorption behavior of 239Pu by Gaomiaozi bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption behavior of 239Pu by Gaomiaozi bentonite as a function of the factors of aqueous phase pH value, 239Pu initial concentration and ionic species is studied by static adsorption experiments in this paper. The following results are obtained. Adsorption equilibrium time of 239Pu by Gaomiaozi bentonite samples is about 24 h, and the adsorption distribution ratio Kd value of 239Pu increases with the pH value, but decreases with increasing initial concentration of 239Pu. And adsorption of 239Pu by bentonite samples with different ionic species show that anions affect the most on adsorption of bentonite is CO32-, followed by HCO3- and SO42-, whereas Cl- and NO3- hardly have any influence on the adsorption of bentonite. (authors)

  4. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  5. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  6. 48 CFR 252.239-7006 - Tariff information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff information. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7006 Tariff information. As prescribed in 239.7411(a), use the following clause: Tariff Information (JUL 1997) (a) The Contractor shall provide to the Contracting Officer—...

  7. 5 CFR 532.239 - Review by the lead agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... refer the problem to OPM for resolution. OPM shall: (1) Authorize the lead agency to continue to survey... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review by the lead agency. 532.239... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.239 Review by the lead agency. (a) The...

  8. 48 CFR 352.239-71 - Standard for encryption language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... language. 352.239-71 Section 352.239-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Standard for encryption language. As prescribed in 339.101(d)(2), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Standard for Encryption Language (January 2010) (a) The Contractor shall use...

  9. Dicty_cDB: VFB239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFB239 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16243-1 VFB239P (Link to Original ... o... 689 0.0 X75329_1( X75329 |pid:none) M.indica (Manila ) THMF5 mRNA for 3-ket... 389 e-107 AM474896_9( AM4 ...

  10. Radiography Facility - Building 239 Independent Validation Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenbach, T J; Beaulieu, R A; Watson, J F; Wong, H J

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of this task was to perform an Independent Validation Review to evaluate the successful implementation and effectiveness of Safety Basis controls, including new and revised controls, to support the implementation of a new DSA/TSR for B239. This task addresses Milestone 2 of FY10 PEP 7.6.6. As the first IVR ever conducted on a LLNL nuclear facility, it was designated a pilot project. The review follows the outline developed for Milestone 1 of the PEP, which is based on the DOE Draft Guide for Performance of Independent Verification Review of Safety Basis Controls. A formal Safety Basis procedure will be developed later, based on the lessons learned with this pilot project. Note, this review is termed a ''Validation'' in order to be consistent with the PEP definition and address issues historically raised about verification mechanisms at LLNL. Validation is intended to confirm that implementing mechanisms realistically establish the ability of TSR LCO, administrative control or safety management program to accomplish its intended safety function and that the controls are being implemented. This effort should not, however, be confused with a compliance assessment against all relevant DOE requirements and national standards. Nor is it used as a vehicle to question the derivation of controls already approved by LSO unless a given TSR statement simply cannot be implemented as stated.

  11. Fission of 239Pu with resonance neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of fission fragment energy and mass distributions in the 239Pu(n,f) resolved resonance region has been performed applying the twin Frisch-gridded ionization chamber technique. An improved pile-up rejection system has been developed to cope with the strong α background. The results for the mass and mean total kinetic energy (TKE-bar) distributions for resolved resonances do not show any strong 'pattern' of fluctuations, unlike it was the case for 235U(n,f) in the same neutron energy region. This can be explained in the frame of existing theoretical models, according to which the only possible low-energy spin states available (Jπ=0+, 1+) belong to two well separated (∼1.25 MeV) transition state bands with given fission fragment properties. An anti-correlation between TKE-bar and ν-barp was found to be not significant. The obtained small spin dependence of TKE-bar of about 70 keV is in agreement with literature values. A slight correlation was found between TKE-bar versus 1/Γf. But also this was considered not to be significant. (author)

  12. Biosorption of 239Pu by immobilized sargassum fusiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargassum fusiforme was immobilized with calcium alginates and its biosorption property to 239Pu was studied by batch and column methods. Biosorption equilibrium time of immobilized Sargassum fusiforme biosorbent to 239Pu is 120 min and biosorption efficiency is over 99.2% when the initial concentration of 239Pu is 21.5 kBq/L and pH is 2.5-5.0. After five times repetition biosorption-desorption cycles biosorption efficiency is still over 98.0% when the velocity of flow is 2 ml/min in column experiment. Immobilized Sargassum fusiforme biosorbent is better to 239Pu due to its better chemical stability, mechanical strength, lower cost, high biosorption efficiency and repeated biosorption-desorption cycles. (authors)

  13. Effects of monomeric 239Pu on the pregnant rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 239Pu treatment (0, 10 or 40 μCi/kg) on hematological measurements in pregnant rabbits were studied at 29 days of gestation. Mean clotting times were significantly increased in all plutonium-treated rabbits. There was also a significant increase in clotting time with increasing time between plutonium dosing and sample collection in rabbits injected with 10 μCi/kg. Platelet counts were significantly decreased in all rabbits exposed to 239Pu for 14 days or greater. Hematocrits were significantly depressed in rabbits exposed to 239Pu for 20 days. It is speculated that monomeric 239Pu accumulates at a hematopoietic site close to that affected in X-irradiated animals. (U.K.)

  14. Biological effect of plutonium 239 on Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were exposed in a 239Pu citrate solution. Cell death and induction of gene mutations were an exponential fucntion of γ-radiation dose. LD37 was 34.8 Gy; mutation doubling dose, 19 Gy

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHQ239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHQ239 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 CHQ239P (Link to Original ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1482/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ...

  16. Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/ Pu-239 atom ratios in the water column off Sanriku, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo

    2013-04-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami occurred in the Pacific Ocean off northern Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 which caused severe damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has resulted in a substantial release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and ocean, and has caused extensive contamination of the environment. However, no information is available on the amounts of radionuclides such as Pu isotopes released into the ocean at this time. Investigating the background baseline concentration and atom ratio of Pu isotopes in seawater is important for assessment of the possible contamination in the marine environment. Pu-239 (half-life: 24,100 years), Pu-240 (half-life: 6,560 years) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 years) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 inventories and Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater samples collected in the western North Pacific off Sanriku before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant will provide useful background baseline data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing additional Pu sources. Seawater samples were collected with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the KH-98-3 cruise of the R/V Hakuho-Maru. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. The Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations were 2.07 and 1.67 mBq/m3 in the surface water, respectively, and increased with depth; a subsurface maximum was identified at 750 m depth, and the concentrations decreased with depth, then increased at the bottom layer. The total Pu-239+240 inventory in the entire water column (depth interval 0

  17. Low temperature nuclear orientation of 239Np in gadolinium host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of γ-radiation from the decay of 239Np oriented at low temperatures in gadolinium matrix was investigated. The orientation parameters B2 and B4 were determined. The attenuation factors for two long-living states in 239Pu at 391.5 keV and 285.4 keV were calculated. From the anisotropies measured the multipole mixing ratios for 11 γ-transitions in 239Pu were deduced. The results obtained support the assignment of spins of the levels at 492.2 keV and 391.6 keV as 3/2- and 7/2-, respectively. 18 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Dicty_cDB: AFL239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFL239 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15823-1 AFL239Z (Link to Original ... 5689040. 44 1.3 1 AA183991 |AA183991.1 ms53e03.r1 Life ... Tech mouse embryo 13 5dpc 10666014 Mus musculus cD ... sequence. 32 1.5 2 AI448955 |AI448955.1 ms53e03.x1 Life ... Tech mouse embryo 13 5dpc 10666014 Mus musculus cD ...

  19. Fetal doses from plutonium-239 and polonium-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 239Pu and 210Po from the maternal circulation to the developing embryo and fetus was studied in rodents. The highest concentrations of both isotopes were measured in the yolk sac. In utero doses to haemopoietic tissue have been calculated taking account of transfer to the blastocyst/egg cylinder, yolk sac, liver and bone marrow. From animal data, the concentration ratios relative to maternal liver for these tissues were taken to be 0.1, 2, 0.01 and o.02, respectively for 239Pu; and 1, 2, 0.1 and 0.1, respectively, for 210Po. These concentration ratios were applied to periods of human gestation of 0-2.5 weeks, 2.5-6 weeks, 6-12 weeks and 12-38 weeks, and used to calculate fetal tissue doses for chronic maternal intake by ingestion of 1 kBq 239Pu or 2 kBq 210Po in the year of pregnancy (1 ALI for a member of the public). On this basis, the total in utero dose to haemopoietic tissue was about 1 μSv from 239Pu and 60 μSv from 210Po compared with red bone marrow doses to the mother in the year of 19 μSv from 239Pu and 160 μSv from210Po. The yolk sac and bone marrow dominated in utero doses from both nuclides. For 239Pu, because of its long half life, an important consideration was activity present in the offspring at birth and committed dose equivalents to red bone marrow in the child and mother. The total dose to haemopoietic tissue in the offspring to age 70 years, including in utero doses, was calculated as 13 μSv compared with a maternal dose to red bone marrow of 1400 μSv. For both isotopes the risk of leukaemia in the year of pregnancy was estimated to be of the same order for mother and fetus. For 239Pu, the overall risk to 70 years of age was two orders of magnitude higher for the mother than her offspring. For 239Pu, an acute intake of 1 kBq by ingestion during the period of yolk sac haemopoiesis would result in the highest in utero dose, estimated at about 20 μSv. However, activity at birth would be lower and the overall risk would be

  20. Biological effects in intramuscular 239Pu administration during chelatotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durable (up to 64 days) application of complexones (Ca and Zn DTPA) in the case of intramuscular administration of 239Pu large amounts in rats is studied. The results of studying the biological effect proving considerable decrease of the average lifespan of rats are given

  1. Strain differences in the embryotoxicity of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of the embryolethality of monomeric 239Pu injected at 9 days of gestation demonstrated that the sensitivity of Charles River CD strain was greater than that of Hilltop Wistar rats. Subsequent comparisons showed that rats derived from the Hilltop Fischer strain were more sensitive than the Wistar and, although not directly compared, more sensitive than the CD

  2. Coulomb displacement energies between analog levels for 44 < = A < = 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental Coulomb displacement energie ΔEsub(C) between isobaric analog levels are tabulated for 44 <- A <- 239, extending recent work in which similar data were presented for 3 <- A <- 45. An overall parametrization in anti-Z/A sup(1/3) and uniform radius parameters rsub(o) are given

  3. Distribution of intratracheally administered plutonium-239 within the skeleton bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data are presented on distribution of the intratracheally administered plutonium-239 within the skeleton bones. Plutonium was found to be distributed non-uniformly within the skeleton: it was concentrated mainly in the bones where the trabecular fraction of the bone tissue was most manifest. The results obtained were supported by the correlation analysis

  4. 48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Information Technology... Provisions and Clauses 2452.239-71 Information Technology Virus Security. As prescribed in 2439.107(b), insert the following clause: Information Technology Virus Security (FEB 2006) (a) The contractor...

  5. Preparation of tracer 239Np from 243Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the preparation of tracer 239Np from 243Am by extraction chromatography as a separation method that can be used as a tracer to determine the radiochemical yield of 237Np in the analysis of environmental samples. (authors)

  6. 40 CFR 180.239 - Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.239 Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances (expressed as phosphamidon)...

  7. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YLR072W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly... Bait ORF YDL239C Bait gene name ADY3 Bait description Protein required for spore wall formation, thought

  8. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YHR184W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly...C Bait ORF YDL239C Bait gene name ADY3 Bait description Protein required for spore wall formation, thought

  9. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YAL028W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly...39C Bait ORF YDL239C Bait gene name ADY3 Bait description Protein required for spore wall formation, thought

  10. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YDR148C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly...239C Bait gene name ADY3 Bait description Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate asse

  11. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YPL255W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly...ait ORF YDL239C Bait gene name ADY3 Bait description Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to m

  12. Preliminary Study on the Determination of ~(235)U and ~(239)Pu Using Delayed Neutron Counting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary study on the fast measurements of 235U and 239Pu in samples containing 235U, 239Pu and 235U-239Pu mixture using delayed neutron counting method is introduced. All samples were irradiated for 30 s using the 30 kW Miniature Neutron

  13. Subcellular binding of 239Pu in the liver of selected species of rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcellular distribution of 239Pu in the liver of selected rodent species was investigated as well as the relation between 239Pu and the iron metabolism. The goal of the investigation was to find out why the liver discharge of 239Pu from the liver varies so much between species. (orig.)

  14. 48 CFR 1352.239-72 - Security requirements for information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.239-72 Security requirements for information technology resources. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1339.270(b), insert the following clause: Security Requirements for Information Technology Resources... information technology resources. 1352.239-72 Section 1352.239-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  15. 48 CFR 652.239-71 - Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Unclassified Information Technology Resources. 652.239-71 Section 652.239-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Provisions and Clauses 652.239-71 Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources. As... Technology Resources (SEP 2007) (a) General. The Contractor shall be responsible for information...

  16. 48 CFR 1252.239-70 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unclassified information technology resources. 1252.239-70 Section 1252.239-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... of Provisions and Clauses 1252.239-70 Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1239.70, insert the following clause: Security Requirements...

  17. 48 CFR 352.239-72 - Security requirements for Federal information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal information technology resources. 352.239-72 Section 352.239-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Provisions and Clauses 352.239-72 Security requirements for Federal information technology resources. As... Federal Information Technology Resources (January 2010) (a) Applicability. This clause applies whether...

  18. 48 CFR 252.239-7016 - Telecommunications security equipment, devices, techniques, and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) Securing means the application of Government-approved... security equipment, devices, techniques, and services. 252.239-7016 Section 252.239-7016 Federal... security equipment, devices, techniques, and services. As prescribed in 239.7411(d), use the...

  19. Role of protracted exposure on the toxicology of inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were initiated to examine in rats the effects of a protracted exposure to inhaled 239PuO2. Graphs are presented to show effect of multiple exposures to 239PuO2 on the deposition and clearance of 239Pu in the alveoli

  20. Metabolic pathways of 239Pu immediately after administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    239Pu chloride was given to male rats intravenously or by the oral route. The early stages of the Pu metabolism are characterized by a fast distribution in liver and skeleton and a high concentration in the intestine and the muscle tissue. The rate of elimination from the liver and muscles was the same for both types of application. With injection into different parts of the vascular system, the binding to protein and other tissue components was identical. 239Pu is practically not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract if given perorally. The absorbed fraction had an osteotropic character, i.e. the plutonium was bound to the organic as well as to the mineral fraction. When Pu chloride is injected intravenously, there is a slow redistribution from the characteristic hepatotropic to the osteotropic type. The function of the liver as a barrier against the plutonium is not very prominent and seems to depend on the type of compound given. (MG/AK)

  1. Fission yields in the thermal neutron fission of plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission yields for 27 mass numbers were determined in the thermal neutron fission of 239Pu using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry and radiochemical method. The results obtained using gamma ray spectrometry and from the investigations on the fission yield of 99Mo using radiochemical method were reported earlier. These data along with fission yields for 19 mass numbers determined using radiochemical method formed a part of Ph.D. thesis. The data given here are a compilation of all the results and are presented considering the neutron temperature correction to 239Pu fission cross-section which is used for calculating the total number of fissions in these studies. A comparison is made of the resulting fission yield values with the latest experimentally determined values and those given in two recent compilations. (author)

  2. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifying effects of a pre-existing lung disease (emphysema) on the deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239PuO2 in the rat are being investigated. Preliminary observations indicated that the deposition and retention patterns for 239Pu particles inhaled by rats with emphysema and control rats were similar, but the distribution of inhaled 239Pu immediately after exposure was different. Respiratory function measured through one year after exposure to 239Pu was consistent with emphysema and was not altered by the 239Pu lung burden. Long-term observations are continuing. 4 references, 2 tables

  3. The risk of bone sarcoma from plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is postulated that the risk of bone sarcoma induction by 239Pu in humans can be quantitated from a consideration of the well-documented induction of bone sarcomas by sup(226,228)Ra. The basic assumption is that the risk of this malignancy is a function of the energy deposited by alpha particles in the layer of cells adjacent to bone surfaces. From calculations of the energy delivered to this cellular layer by bone-deposited 239Pu and 226Ra the ratio of the systemic intakes required to produce equal bone-cell doses is obtained. A dose-response relationship of the form I = βD2esup(-γD) was found to provide the best fit to the observed bone-sarcoma incidence for female radium dial workers, where I was the number of bone sarcomas per person x year of risk and D was the quantity of radium that entered the systemic circulation. It is proposed that such an expression, modified for the energy effectiveness of plutonium compared with radium, provides the best estimate of the risk of induction of bone sarcomas by 239Pu. The derived risk estimate is tested by comparing its predictions of bone sarcomas in two groups of people carrying known body burdens of plutonium. The predictions are not contradicted by the lack of any observed bone sarcomas in either the 27 workers exposed at Los Alamos during World War II, or in the 18 seriously ill cases injected with plutonium in 1945-47. Its form permits an immediate evaluation of the risk at any level of intake. (author)

  4. Neutron Resonance Parameters and Covariance Matrix of 239Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, Herve [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL; Larson, Nancy M [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    In order to obtain the resonance parameters in a single energy range and the corresponding covariance matrix, a reevaluation of 239Pu was performed with the code SAMMY. The most recent experimental data were analyzed or reanalyzed in the energy range thermal to 2.5 keV. The normalization of the fission cross section data was reconsidered by taking into account the most recent measurements of Weston et al. and Wagemans et al. A full resonance parameter covariance matrix was generated. The method used to obtain realistic uncertainties on the average cross section calculated by SAMMY or other processing codes was examined.

  5. Low level 239PuO2 life-span studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this projet is to determine the dose-response curve for lung-tumor incidence in rats following inhalation of 239PuO2 at levels producing a lifespan radiation dose of 2 to 100 rad. In preliminary studies, rats were intratracheally instilled with, or inhaled 169Yb-239PuO2 or 169Yb-Yb2O3 particles. Whole-body, excreta and tissue levels of 169Yb were determined by external gamma counting; 239Pu levels were determined radiochemically by scintillation counting. It was found that 169Yb dissociated from 239PuO2 and was cleared more rapidly from the lung and the whole body. Despite this fact, however, whole-body counts performed at 7 days after exposure to 169Yb-239PuO2 gave a reproducible measure of the 239Pu lung burden

  6. Characterization of a neutron source of 239PuBe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose f a 239PuBe source have been determined. The appropriate handling of a neutron source depends on the knowledge of its characteristics, such as its energy distribution, total rate of flowing and dosimetric magnitudes. In many facilities have not spectrometer that allows to determine the spectrum and then area monitors are used that give a dosimetric magnitude starting from measuring the flowing rate and the use of conversion factors, however this procedure has many limitations and it is preferable to measure the spectra and starting from this information the interest dosimetric magnitudes are calculated. In this work a Bonner sphere spectrometer has been used with a 6LiI(Eu) scintillator obtaining the count rates that produce, to a distance of 100 cm, a 239PuBe source of 1.85E(11) Bq. The spectrum was reconstructed starting from the count rates using BUNKIUT code and response matrix UTA4. With the spectrum information was calculated the source intensity, total flow, energy average, equivalent dose rate, environmental equivalent dose rate, equivalent dose coefficient and environmental equivalent dose coefficient. By means of two area monitors for neutrons, Eberline ASP-1 and LB 6411 of Berthold the equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose were measured. The determinate values were compared with those reported in literature and it found that are coincident inside 17%. (Author)

  7. Decommissioning of a 239Pu contaminated incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1978, a plutonium contaminated incinerator facility at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned. The project involved dismantling the facility and disposal by burial or by retrievable storage of the debri at an on-site waste disposal area. Contaminated soil from the 0.5 hectare area was buried. The facility was constructed in 1951 to incinerate plutonium contaminated wastes. It was later used as a decontamination facility. The major features included a 185 m2 control building, incinerator, cyclone dust collector, spray cooler, venturi scrubber, air filter bank, ash separator, and two 140,000 litres ash storage tanks. Preliminary soil contamination surveys were performed by a LASL developed portable phoswich detector system. Final soil contamination levels were measured with a zinc sulphide gross alpha scintillation system. Six hundred cubic metres of debris and 1200 m3 of soil contaminated with less than 10 nCi 239 Pu/g were buried at the LASL disposal area. Five cubic metres of 239 Pu contaminated ash residues were packed and stored to meet the Department of Energy's 20 year retrievable storage criteria. (author)

  8. Method of preparation of tracer radionuclide 239Np using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This poster describes the preparation of tracers 239Np from 243Am. Used method involves stabilization of Np(IV) by ascorbic acid and ferric nitrate, separation of 239Np from 243Am using extraction chromatography and determination of activity of the solution obtained with 239Np using HPGe detector. In the experiment we used the commercially available sorbent TEVA Resin from the company Eichrom Technologies.

  9. Multilevel analysis of the low energy 239Pu cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the ENDF/B-V representation of the 239Pu resonance region is not satisfactory: below 1 eV the cross sections are given by smooth files (file 3) rather than by resonance parameters. Above 1 eV the single-level formalism used in ENDF/B-V necessitates a structured file 3 contribution. The present paper presents the results of an R-matrix multilevel analysis of several recent data sets as well as of the older data. The analysis is concerned with the region up to 30 eV, an energy region that is important for thermal reactors and for which no recent multilevel analyses had previously been available

  10. Random Probability Analysis of 48Ca +239Pu Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Abdullin, A. F. Sh.; Brewer, N. T.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeyko, M. V.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Voinov, A. A.; Vostokin, G. K.

    2014-09-01

    Element 114 (Fl), was discovered at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) using the 48Ca +244Pu reaction and the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS). The structural properties of the super heavy elements are still largely unknown. The extent of the region of enhanced stability near Z = 114 and N = 184 is not completely known. To examine these properties, a new experimental data set has been taken using the 48Ca +239Pu reaction at the DGFRS, in an effort to look for lighter isotopes of Fl. Progress on the production of lighter isotopes of Fl, cross-section measurements, and any nuclear decay properties will be discussed. Comparisons with reactions using heavier 242,244Pu targets and Monte Carlo random probability analysis will be highlighted. Element 114 (Fl), was discovered at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) using the 48Ca +244Pu reaction and the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS). The structural properties of the super heavy elements are still largely unknown. The extent of the region of enhanced stability near Z = 114 and N = 184 is not completely known. To examine these properties, a new experimental data set has been taken using the 48Ca +239Pu reaction at the DGFRS, in an effort to look for lighter isotopes of Fl. Progress on the production of lighter isotopes of Fl, cross-section measurements, and any nuclear decay properties will be discussed. Comparisons with reactions using heavier 242,244Pu targets and Monte Carlo random probability analysis will be highlighted. This work was performed under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and Grant DE-NA0002135.

  11. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YPL124W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly...39C Bait ORF YDL239C Bait gene name ADY3 Bait description Protein required for spore wall formation, thoug...ht to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing structure at the leading edge of the p

  12. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  13. R-matrix analyses of the 235U and 239Pu neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonance parameter analysis code SAMMY was used to perform consistent resonance analyses of several 235U and 239Pu fission and capture cross section and transmission measurements up to 110 eV for 235U and up to 1 keV for 239Pu. The method of analysis, the measurement selection and the results are briefly outlined in this paper

  14. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary emphysema on deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239PuO2 in the rat were investigated. The presence of emphysema in the rats tested was indicated by respiratory function measurements and confirmed microscopically. Initial lung burdens of 239Pu per kg body weight were less in rats with emphysema than in control rats; however, the retention of 239Pu was similar in emphysematous and control rats. Survival and lung tumor occurrence were similar in emphysematous and control rats exposed to 239PuO2. We concluded that rats with pre-existing pulmonary emphysema were not more sensitive to the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 than control rats. (author)

  15. The removal of inhaled 239Pu from beagle dogs by bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelatan therapy for removing 239Pu from beagle dogs after inhalation of 239Pu aerosols having different solubilities has been investigated. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239PuCl4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900 and 11500C. Groups of six beagle dogs were exposed to each of the aerosols. Subsequently, three dogs in each group were treated by lavage and intravenous injections of DTPA. The remaining three dogs in each group served as untreated controls. It was found that bronchopulmonary lavage treatment was effective in removing nearly half of the 239Pu activity from the lung regardless of the aerosol production temperature. This early removal of 239Pu activity resulted in a significant reduction in daily dose rate and therefore cumulative α dose to lung. The effectiveness of DTPA treatment depended on aerosol production temperature, and was effective in reducing accumulation of 239Pu in liver and skeleton of the dogs that inhaled aerosols produced at 3250 and 6000C by enhancing urinary excretion of 239Pu. (U.K.)

  16. Concentrations of sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am in drinking water and organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an investigation of the chemistry and aquatic distribution of fallout-derived sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am in the aquatic environment a study has been made of the concentration of these nuclides in the drinking water and organic fertilizer, distributed to the populace of the Chicago area. The results clearly indicate that the concentration of sup(239,240)Pu is always lower in the water which has been treated at the Chicago Central Water Filtration Plant than in the raw water before treatment. Raw water levels are consistent with normal levels of sup(239,240)PU found in Lake Michigan waters which are approx 6 orders of magnitude below the maximum permissible concentration standard for drinking water. An additional possible source of sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am to humans can be through the distribution of the organic fertilizer, 'Nu Earth', by the Metropolitan Sanitary District, free of charge, for the use in home gardens. 'Nu Earth' consists primarily of sediment from an Imhoff Process which has been air-dried and aged in large, open-air piles. Samples of this organic fertilizer were analysed for sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am. The results indicate that there is little evidence to indicate that sup(239,240)Pu in drinking water or sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am from organic sludge will be health hazards in the Chicago area under current conditions. (U.K.)

  17. Prompt Fission Neutron Emission in Resonance Fission of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Varapai, Natallia; Zeinalov, Shakir; Oberstedt, Stephan; Serot, Olivier

    2005-05-01

    The prompt neutron emission probability from neutron-induced fission in the resonance region is being investigated at the time-of-flight facility GELINA of the IRMM. A double Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is used as a fission-fragment detector. For the data acquisition of both the fission-fragment signals as well as the neutron detector signals the fast digitization technique has been applied. For the neutron detection, large-volume liquid scintillation detectors from the DEMON collaboration are used. A specialized data analysis program taking advantage of the digital filtering technique has been developed to treat the acquired data. Neutron multiplicity investigations for actinides, especially in resonance neutron-induced fission, are rather scarce. They are, however, important for reactor control and safety issues as well as for understanding the basic physics of the fission process. Fission yield measurements on both 235U and 239Pu without prompt neutron emission coincidence have shown that fluctuation of the fission-fragment mass distribution exists from resonance to resonance, larger in the case of 235U. To possibly explain these observations, the question now is whether the prompt neutron multiplicity shows similar fluctuations with resonance energy.

  18. Calculation of 239Pu neutron inelastic cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on 239Pu between 0.001 and 5 MeV, with particular emphasis on inelastic scattering. Coupled-channel and Hauser-Feshbach statistical models were used. Within the coupled-channel calculations we employed neutron optical parameters derived from simultaneous fits to total, elastic, inelastic, and resonance data. The resulting transmission coefficients were used in Hauser-Feshbach statistical calculations having a fission channel based on a double-humped barrier representation. Barrier parameters and transition state enhancements needed to reproduce well the (n,f) cross sections between 0.001 and 5 MeV were in general agreement with those from other published analyses. Calculated compound-nucleus and direct-reaction components for inelastic scattering were combined incoherently, and the resultant cross sections agreed well with the Bruyeres-le-Chatel measurements for scattering from levels occupying the ground state rotational band. Our results are in substantial disagreement with ENDF/B-V values for these levels. We are presently performing DWBA calculations to determine direct-reaction components for states occupying higher-lying vibrational bands

  19. 239+240Pu and 90Sr deposition densities in undisturbed surface soil in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study's goal is determination of 239+240Pu and 90Sr deposition densities from known distribution of 137Cs deposition density. The tasks done include: simultaneous determination of 239+240Pu, 90Sr and 137Cs deposition densities in undisturbed surface soil layer having depth to 20 cm and use it as basis for determining the ratios of deposition densities 239+240Pu/137Cs and 90Sr/137Cs; studying the impact of soil parameters such as soil texture, content of organic matter, Humic, Fulvic as well as of geography parameters such as latitude, longitude, annual rainfall to the variation of these ratios. (NHA)

  20. Numerical prediction of 239Pu migration in unsaturated porous media under infiltration scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of the study on site selection of a radioactive waste disposal repository in northwest China, a numerical prediction of 239Pu migration for potential groundwater pollution in the unsaturated zone was conducted with the HYDRUS-1D model. The results showed that the groundwater will not be contaminated by the migration of soluble 239Pu. And there is little possibility that 239Pu migration through groundwater path might have an unacceptable impact on exosphere. Measurements of the distribution coefficient, Kd, are critical in the determination of sorption-induced retardation of radionuclide transport. (authors)

  1. Observation of an isomeric level in 239U by means of the 238U(n,γ)239U reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy-capture gamma-ray spectra (238U up to a neutron energy of 350 eV. The data were obtained using a 25-cm3 Ge(Li) detector at the Harwell 45 MeV Electron Linac. Capture events were recorded as functions of gamma-ray energy and neutron time-of-flight, and by suitable analysis of the data time-of-flight spectra have been obtained for individual gamma-rays. The strongest low-energy gamma-ray, at 134 keV, depopulates a level in 239U at the same energy by an E2-transition to the ground state. The time-of-flight spectrum for this transition indicates that the 134-keV level is isomeric with a half-life of approximately 1 microsecond. This is evident from the long tails on the low-energy side of each resonance, which are not present for other regions of the gamma-ray spectrum. The possibility of using low-energy gamma-rays as a measure of the total capture cross-section is investigated by comparing the time-of-flight spectrum for the 134-keV transition with that for a Moxon-Rae detector under the same experimental conditions. (author)

  2. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YPL070W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly...cription Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing struct

  3. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YML042W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly...iption Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing structur

  4. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YDR273W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly...ption Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing structure

  5. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YOR324C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly...it gene name ADY3 Bait description Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of

  6. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL239C, YLR423C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YDL239C ADY3 Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly...cription Protein required for spore wall formation, thought to mediate assembly of a Don1p-containing struct

  7. Worldwide data on fluxes of 239,240Pu, 238Pu to the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to measurements (GEOSECS) the world's oceans contain approximately 16 PBq 239,240Pu, of which one-fourth is in the Atlantic and three-fourths in the Pacific Ocean. The expected inventory (from nuclear weapons testing) in the world's oceans is 12 PBq 239,240Pu including local fallout at the test sites. In the Irish Sea a local contamination of 0.3 PBq 239,240Pu from the Sellafield reprocessing plant resides in the sediments. No other sources than fallout and reprocessing add significantly to the 239,240Pu inventories in the oceans. The discrepancy between measurements and expectations are assumed to be due to an underestimate of the rainfall and dry fallout (seaspray) and thus of the Pu-deposition over the oceans, but may also to some degree be due to inadequate sampling

  8. Toxicity of 239PuO2 inhaled by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of age at exposure on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 239PuO2 particles is being studied in aged Beagle dogs (8.0-10.5 yr of age at exposure). Forty-eight dogs inhaled 239PuO2 particles with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 mm to achieve graded levels of initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) ranging from 0.02-0.66 μCi 239Pu/kg body weight (0.75-24 kBq/kg). Twelve other dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent only. All forty-eight exposed dogs have died, including two in the past year. The twelve control dogs have also died, including one in the past year. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been the primary causes of death in these aged dogs exposed to 239PuO2. (author)

  9. Malignancy of transplanted hamster lung lesions induced by inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected sites from the lungs of hamsters that had inhaled 239PuO2 aerosol were serially transplanted into the cheek pouches of recipient hamsters. Up to 13 mo postexposure, no evidence of malignancy has appeared

  10. Determination of uranium in minerals by instrumental neutron activation analysis via U-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium in partially thorium containing minerals has been determined by measuring U-239 activity without any chemical treatment of the samples after irradiation of the latters with epithermal neutrons at the FR-2 reactor as well as at the cyclotron for only few minutes. Influences of neutron self- shielding and self-absorption effects of energetically poor U-239 gamma radiation were examined. Conditions for simple uranium determinations with results of satisfactory precision are given. (orig.)

  11. Search for the ''missing'' α-decay branch in 239Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for the α-decay of 239Cm was carried out via the fusion reaction 232Th(12C, 5n)239Cm at GSI, applying nuclear chemistry techniques. The 239Cm α-decay would provide a link between known nuclear masses and α-decay energies measured in the region of the superheavy elements. Three different 12C beam energies were chosen in the present experiments. The α peaks of 238,240Cm were observed clearly at a 12C energy of 74 MeV, while 238Cm disappeared at 70 MeV to provide an undisturbed α-spectrum for a sensitive search of 239Cm decay. No α-events between 6.34 and 6.50 MeV, which could be assigned to 239Cm with confidence, were observed in this experiment. The upper limit of the α-branch of 239Cm was less than 1.0 x 10-5. (orig.)

  12. Plutonium isotopes 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios in the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara I. Strumińska-Parulska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the results of plutonium findings in atmospheric fallout samples and marine samples from the southern Baltic Sea during our research in 1986-2007. The activities of 238Pu and 239+240Pu isotopes were measured with an alpha spectrometer. The activities of 241Pu were calculated indirectly by 241Am activity measurements 16-18 years after the Chernobyl accident. The 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. The 241Pu activities indicate that the main impact of the Chernobyl accident was on the plutonium concentration in the components of the Baltic Sea ecosystem examined in this work. The highest 241Pu/239+240Pu activity ratio was found in sea water (140 ± 33. The AMS measurements of atmospheric fallout samples collected during 1986 showed a significant increase in the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio from 0.29 ± 0.04 in March 1986 to 0.47 ± 0.02 in April 1986.

  13. Low-level inhaled-239PuO2 life-span studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study determined the dose-response curve for lung tumor incidence in rats after inhalation of high-fired 239PuO2, which gave radiation doses to the lung of from ∼5 to >1000 rads. Exposed rats were given a single, nose-only, inhalation exposure to 169Yb-239PuO2 aerosol (AMAD, 1.6 +- 0.11 μm). The effective half-time for 169Yb in the lung was 14 days, whereas ∼76% of 239Pu was cleared with a half-time of 20 days and 24%, with a half-time of 180 days. Whole-body counting for 169Yb at 14 days after exposure was an accurate method for determining 239Pu IAD in individual rats, even at IAD's as low as 0.60 nCi of 239Pu. The 239Pu lung-clearance curve and an equation describing changes in lung weight with body weight and age were used to determine lung radiation doses. The IAD's of exposure groups were 0.60 +- 0.15 nCi of 239Pu (1000 rats), 0.98 +- 0.25 (531 rats), 2.4 +- 0.69 (209 rats), 5.7 +- 1.2 (98 rats), and 7.5 +- 2.0 to 150 +- 37 nCi (300 rats); corresponding radiation doses to the lung estimated at 3 years after exposure were 8.3, 14, 33, 79, and 100 to 2100 rads, respectively. 71 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Migration Simulation of 239 Pu in Groundwater From Melt Glass%熔岩玻璃体239Pu在地下水中的迁移模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包敏; 王群书

    2014-01-01

    针对内华达核试验场CHESHIRE地下核试验状况和近场水文地质参数,建立了熔岩玻璃体239 Pu的溶解释放和迁移模型。估算了熔岩玻璃体释放产生239 Pu的速率,将释放出的239 Pu分为溶解态和胶体态,以软件FEFLOW作为建模工具,数值模拟了10万年内溶解态239 Pu和胶体态239 Pu在地下水中的污染羽分布。模拟结果表明,溶解态239 Pu不能发生远距离迁移,影响迁移的关键参数是分配系数,当分配系数大于10 mL/g后,可忽略溶解态239 Pu的远距离迁移;胶体态239 Pu在爆心下游形成较固定的污染晕,距爆心1.3 km处的胶体态239 Pu的模拟活度浓度长期处于10-2 Bq/L ;影响胶体态239 Pu迁移的主要因素包括熔岩玻璃体的溶解速度、熔岩玻璃体释放239 Pu形成胶体态239 Pu的比例、岩层渗透系数。由模拟结果可见,只有当239 Pu形成胶体粒子后才可能发生远距离迁移。%According to the circumstances of an underground nuclear test CHESHIRE at the Nevada Test Site ,a model was developed to simulate the dissolution and migration of 239 Pu from melt glass in groundwater .The release rate of 239 Pu was calculated and the released 239 Pu was divided into dissolved fraction and colloid fraction . The pollution plumes for dissolved 239 Pu and colloid 239 Pu were simulated in 100 000 years by software FEFLOW .The results show that the dissolved 239 Pu can’t migration far away from the melt glass and sorption coefficient is the key parameter .If sorption coefficient is more than 10 mL/g ,the long distance migration of dissolved 239 Pu can be ignored .The colloid 239 Pu plume will be long-standing in the downstream of the melt glass .The 239 Pu con-centration at 1.3 km away from the melt glass would be 10-2 Bq/L for a long time .The parameters effecting colloid 239 Pu migration are the melt glass release rate ,the colloid fraction ratio and aquifer conductivity .It can be concluded

  15. Repeated inhalation exposure of rats to aerosols of 239PuO2. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological responses following protracted alpha irradiation of rat lungs are being studied. Groups of rats have been exposed once, or repeatedly, to aerosols of 239PuO2 to achieve, or to re-establish, lung burdens of 239Pu that will result in projected lifetime alpha-radiation doses to the lungs of 20, 60, 200, or 600 rad. There were dose related increases in the incidence of primary lung tumors In the rats exposed once or repeatedly to 239PuO2. Repeated inhalation exposure of rats to 239PuO2 did not increase the incidence of lung tumors, their time of occurrence nor the risk of death with a lung tumor per unit of absorbed alpha dose to the lung compared to doses received following single exposures. These findings are consistent with those in Beagle dogs repeatedly exposed to 239PuO2 in other studies, but are not consistent with previous observations In mice. The findings in mice indicated protraction of the alpha dose to the lung by repeated inhalation exposure was more carcinogenic than similar doses after a single inhalation exposure. (author)

  16. Migration of 239Pu in soluble and insoluble forms in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment study was performed at the rural site of South-East Lithuania. The main tasks of the study included an evaluation of the peculiarities of partition of 239Pu in soluble (239Pu(NO3)4, 239PuCl3) and insoluble (239PuO2) forms in soddy and forest soil horizons. The results of durable experiments (418 and 326 days) have shown that from 44.1% to 92.2% of 239Pu of investigated chemical forms were accumulated in the top (0-5 cm) soil layer. Some share (5.7-39.2%) of plutonium from studied chemical forms was found in the 5-20 cm layers of studied soil samples (columns). Obtained distribution of plutonium in soil layers may be attributed to the consideration that the migration rate to the soil depth for plutonium is 0.1-1.0 cm x y-1 but for some part of plutonium 10 times higher migration rate is characteristic as well. Plutonium transfer factor (TF) to the grassland plants was calculated, the values ranged from 10-2 to 10-1. (author)

  17. Assessment of internal dose from incorporated plutonium-239 by means of biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra- and inter-chromosomal aberration frequency in Mayak P.A. nuclear workers was studied by mFISH and mBAND techniques. Intra-chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes from the peripheral blood were found to be a bio marker of densely-ionizing radiation (alpha-particles) in workers exposed to radiation many years ago. A dependence of the frequency of intra-chromosomal aberrations in plutonium workers on absorbed dose to the red bone marrow from internal exposure to incorporated plutonium-239 was found. A preliminary 'bio dosimetry system' was developed. Its capability to estimate internal doses from incorporated plutonium-239 in plutonium production workers based on the frequency of intra-chromosomal aberrations detected in these workers was tested. Estimates of internal doses from incorporated plutonium - 239 obtained using the preliminary 'bio dosimetry system' were compared with doses calculated by a model based on measurements of plutonium excretion in urine ('Mayak Doses-2000'). Estimates of internal doses from incorporated plutonium-239 obtained using both independent techniques demonstrated a highly significant correlation (correlation coefficient, R2 = 74%). At the current research phase, the developed 'bio dosimetry system' is to be adjusted, which will allow to estimate plutonium-239 body burden with an uncertainty less than 30%. (authors)

  18. Comparison and modification of Pu-239 kinetics in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is obvious that the biokinetics of bone-seeking radionuclides are influenced by skeletal growth and remodelling, the rate of which in general decreases with increasing age. For plutonium, Mahlum and Sikov (1974) observed that rats injected with Pu-239 as weanlings retained a lower percentage in the liver and more in the bones than the animals injected as adults. However, skeletal Pu-239 was diluted more rapidly in the young rats because of intensive new bone formation and this led to a more pronounced reduction in the accumulation of radiation dose than was the case in adult animals. The aim of the present experiments was to study: a) The age effect on Pu-239 biokinetics in adult rates as influenced by the sex of the animals. b) Early retention and distribution of Pu-239 in the bones of young and adult rats injected with an optimal osteosarcomogenic dose. c) The effectiveness of a delayed prolonged administration of Zn-DTPA in drinking water for the mobilization of injected Pu-239 in rats of various age. 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  19. 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in seawater from the western North Pacific and its marginal sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The atom ratio of 240Pu/239Pu is known to be a useful tracer to identify the sources of plutonium in the ocean. The objectives of this study are to measure the 239+240Pu activities and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in seawater from the western North Pacific and its marginal sea and to discuss the transport processes of plutonium. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were measured with sector-field ICPMS. The atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio. These high atom ratios proved the existence of close-in fallout plutonium originating from the Pacific proving grounds. (author)

  20. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  1. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne sup 239 Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  2. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne 239Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of 239Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne 239Pu are described

  3. Biochemical effects of inhaled 239PuO2 on lung lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experiments carried out to assess the effect of 239Pu α irradiation on lung lipid biosynthesis and to determine the lungs ability to incorporate palmitate into lavage lecithin and its turnover are reported. The experiments were carried out on rats which had inhaled 239PuO2 particles. The study of palmitate incorporation into lipids shows conclusively that for medium (23 to 42 nCi) or high (more than 100 nCi) lung depositions the incorporation by isolated mitochondria is significantly (P 239PuO2 were positive, with respect to controls in 8 of 10 instances, when measured following the label of palmitate in lung lavage lecithin. The interpretation of the significant result (P < 0.05) is that: (1) initial and/or final lecithin pool sizes were different, (2) transfer rates were affected between blood and lung, or (3) rates of degradation of lung lavage lecithin were affected. (U.K.)

  4. Covariances for 239Pu induced cross section in the resonance range using the CONRAD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will present the evaluation of neutron induced cross sections covariances for the 239Pu in the resonance range. The methodology used is based on marginalization and retroactive technique to allow the treatment of experimental systematic uncertainties such as normalization. In addition, as sensitivity studies performed on iso-thermal temperature moderator analysis have demonstrated the need for improving the description of the 239Pu neutron cross sections in the sub-thermal energy range and knowing the poor accuracy of the EXFOR data below the thermal energy range, integral trends have to be taken into account in this evaluation work. The focus of the presentation is to show results obtained on the 239Pu capture and fission neutron cross sections in the resonance range with an exhaustive integral validation. (authors)

  5. Medical Care for Accidental Deposition of Plutonium (239Pu) Within the Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With expanding uses of plutonium chances for accidental deposition within the body are increasing. Metabolism of plutonium within the body is variable, depending on chemical composition, particle size and shape, monomeric or polymeric physical state, route of entry (inhalation,or through wounds) and many other factors. A notable exception is the negligible absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. It is difficult to determine lung deposition of poorly soluble plutonium by either bioassay or in vivo counting. The intravenous administration of the chelating agent tri-sodium calcium salt of diethylenetriamine- pentaacetic acid (DTPA), soon after an accident, is quite effective in removing soluble plutonium which has been inhaled or deposited in wounds. Conditions requiring prolonged therapy are described. Effectiveness of treatment of 239Pu body depositions is greatly influenced by the solubility of the plutonium at the site of deposition. Size, frequency and duration of dose of DTPA is recommended. Mice developed fibrosarcomas following subcutaneous injections of 0.064 μCi of 239Pu, while an employee apparently developed a pre-cancerous condition after subcutaneous deposition of only 0.005 μCi. It is our policy to recommend excision of any measurable quantity of 239Pu in a superficial wound when this may be accomplished with little hazard. The maximum permissible deposition in skin or subcutaneous tissue may be much lower than that for depositions in bone liver, lung or tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes. No limiting value has been set for depositions in wounds by any official body; The surgeon must balance the benefits to be secured against the risk of the operation. A wound bearing 239Pu should be immediately washed with DTPA, normal saline, or water, in that order of preference. Methods of removal of 239Pu from the intact skin are briefly discussed. A U.S. Plutonium Registry will assist in evaluating depositions of 239Pu and effectiveness of therapy by reconciling

  6. Pulmonary immune response of dogs after exposure to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the cell-mediated (CMI) and humoral immune responses in four Beagle dogs five to six years after single inhalation exposures to different monodisperse 239PuO2 aerosols (0.72-1.4μm activity median aerodynamic diameter). These exposures resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 19 to 35kBq. The immune responses induced by lung immunization of dogs that had inhaled 239PuO2 were not suppressed by large doses of chronic alpha irradiation of the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, indicating that local pulmonary immune responses are preserved despite severe radiation-induced alteration of these tissues. (author)

  7. Effects of inhalation of 239PuO2 on immune responses following lung immunization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of this study indicated that the number of antibody-forming cells in lung-associated lymph nodes after intratracheal immunization was significantly lower in animals exposed to 239PuO2. Only a few antibody-forming cells were found in spleen and cervical lymph nodes. Thus, 239PuO2 exposure suppressed immune responses in lung-associated lymph nodes, although their filtering capacity was unaffected and antigen did not translocate to the spleen. Changes in immunologic responses were observed as the animals aged and the number of antibody-forming cells gradually decreased in the lung-associated lymph nodes and increased in the spleen

  8. Effects of 239Pu administered at 9 days of gestation on hematologic development of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection of pregnant rats with monomeric 239Pu after 9 days of gestation decreased their leukocyte and reticulocyte counts at 5 and 10 days postexposure. Most of the fetal hematologic enumerative values were unaffected by injection of monomeric 239Pu. There was, however, a major change in the maturation of the cells of the erythroid series, as indicated by a difference in the distribution between cell types. The weight of the yolk sac and fetal liver, and the cellularity of the fetal spleen were decreased

  9. Effect of inhaled 239PuO2 on alveolar Type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological changes of rat alveolar type II (AT-II) cells were studied at 8 and 10 months following inhalation of 239PuO2 to elucidate the biological role of AT-II cells in the induction of lung tumours. TEM micrographs of random sections of lung were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using an automatic image analyser. Eighteen morphometric parameters were obtained according to stereological principles. The results showed that, following the inhalation of 239PuO2, AT-II cells became less differentiated and the metabolism of the pulmonary surfactant in AT-II cells was disturbed. (author)

  10. Effect of inhaled 239PuO2 on alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological changes of rat alveolar type II (AT-II) cells were studied at 8 and 10 months following inhalation of 239PuO2 to elucidate the biological role of At-II cells in the induction of lung tumours. TEM micrographs of random sections of lung were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using an automatic image analyser. Eighteen morphometric parameters were obtained according to stereo logical principles. The results showed that, following the inhalation of 239PuO2, AT-II cells became less differentiated and the metabolism of the pulmonary surfactant in AT-II cells was disturbed

  11. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YGR239C, YMR267W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YGR239C PEX21 Peroxin required for targeting of peroxisomal matrix proteins contain...Bait ORF YGR239C Bait gene name PEX21 Bait description Peroxin required for targeting of peroxisomal matrix ...d by bait and prey 2 Literature sharing score 4 CuraGen (0 or 1) 0 S. Fields (0 or 1) 0 Association (0 or 1,...is bait as prey (0) YMR267W PPA2 Mitochondrial inorganic pyrophosphatase, required for mitochondrial functio...s prey (0) Prey ORF YMR267W Prey gene name PPA2 Prey description Mitochondrial inorganic pyrophosphatase, required for mitochondri

  12. Response of CR-39 plastic track detector to 239Pu and 252Cf sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CR-39 plastic track detectors have been irradiated with 239Pu and 252Cf sources separately at nuclear physics laboratory B.H.U., Varanasi to investigate track recording properties of detector material. All detectors etched in 6.25N NaOH solution at different temperatures for different hours. The bulk and track etch rates are calculated for both detectors (irradiated by 239Pu and 252Cf sources separately). The diameter and sensitivity along the trajectory of the track have been determined at different temperatures. (author)

  13. Effects of pregnancy and lactation on the toxicity of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nulliparous, pregnant, or lactating Wistar rats were injected intravenously with 0, 0.5 or 2.0 μCi of 239Pu per kilogram of body weight. Half of each group were repeatedly bred while the others were held for observation without further treatment. Treatment with either dose of 239Pu decreased the median time to appearance of mammary tumors. Repeated breeding tended to increase the mean time to appearance. Longevity was decreased in a dose-related fashion by Pu administration. Repeated breeding did not influence survival in a major way

  14. Potential of Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash for phytoremediation of plutonium ((239)Pu): Chelate assisted uptake and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D P; Kaushik, C P

    2016-10-01

    Plants have demonstrated a great potential to remove toxic elements from soils and solutions and been successfully used for phytoremediation of important radionuclides. Uptake potential of vetiver plants (V. zizanoides) for the remediation of (239)Pu in hydroponic and soil conditions was studied in the present work. High efficiency of V. zizanoides for the removal of (239)Pu was recorded with 66.2% being removed from the hydroponic solution after 30 days. However, remediation of (239)Pu from soil was limited. Remediation of (239)Pu from soil was increased with the addition of chelating agents citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Accumulation of (239)Pu was recorded higher in roots than shoots, however its translocation from roots to shoots increased in the presence of chelators in hydroponic as well as soil conditions. DTPA was found more effective than CA showing higher translocation index (TI). Increase in TI was observed 8 and 6 times in the solution and soil respectively when plants were exposed to (239)Pu-DTPA in comparison to only (239)Pu. The present study demonstrates that V. zizanoides plant is a potential plant for phytoremediation of (239)Pu. PMID:27318195

  15. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer...

  16. Biological effects of 239PuO2 inhalation in the Rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhesus monkeys were exposed to polydisperse, high-fired 239PuO2 aerosols and have been studied for 3 yr to determine the biological effects associated with this inhalation exposure. Initial lung burdens in 16 monkeys exposed to aerosols of 239PuO2 ranged from 7 to 1800 nCi. Two monkeys are serving as controls. The inhaled 239 PuO2 was retained with a long effective half-life in the lung with some translocation from the lung to the pulmonary lymph nodes. In animals exposed to high levels of 239PuO2, there was a depression in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. However, blood lymphocytes cultured at time periods up to 30 mo after inhalation showed no increase in chromosome aberration frequency. An animal with an estimated initial lung burden of 1000 nCi showed marked alterations in respiratory function. Only slight respiratory changes were detected in the other animals evaluated. To date, three monkeys have died, two of radiation pneumonitis and the third of gastric torsion. Comparing these data from Rhesus monkeys with those obtained from baboons and Beagle dogs indicate that Rhesus monkeys are similar to dogs in their early radiation response

  17. Determination of ultratrace amounts of plutonium-239 in bioassay samples for alpha dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential alpha contamination in PHWRs is of concern when working with materials which may contain fuel debris, such as around fueling machines and feeders which are cut open. Traditional screening methods use alpha spectrometry of fecal samples. It is highly desirable to use less invasive methods. Screening of urine samples is well accepted in the industry for a variety of purposes. However, various solubility models and known biological throughputs indicate that it is only practical to measure 239Pu/240Pu in urine and that these must be measured at very low concentrations in order to be a practical screening tool. It is necessary to achieve a detection limit of about 5 uBq in a daily urine output to correspond to a dose of 0.1 mSv/annum. This corresponds to about 2 femtograms (10-15 g) of 239Pu and 0.5 fg 240Pu in daily urine output. If the daily urine output is concentrated to 1 g, then the desired detection limit is 2 fg/g or 2 pg/kg for 239Pu, for example. Although alpha spectrometry would provide information on multiple isotopes of interest, its practical detection limit is about 100 to 300 uBq. The currently available methods for measuring uBq amounts of 239Pu/240Pu (the only alpha emitters in urine suitable for screening measurements) are all mass spectrometry based and vary in the means by which the analyte is presented to the mass spectrometer

  18. Presence of plutonium isotopes, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, in soils from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M., E-mail: manugar@us.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes sn, 41012 Seville (Spain); Peruchena, J.I., E-mail: jiperuchena@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Cereceda, F., E-mail: francisco.cereceda@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Vidal, V., E-mail: victor.vidal@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Pinilla, E., E-mail: epinilla@unex.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas sn, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Miro, C., E-mail: cmiro@unex.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad sn, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20-40 Degree-Sign Southern latitude range, with {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30-53 Degree-Sign S latitude range (0.185 {+-} 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The {sup 239+240}Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  19. Pulmonary distribution of inhaled 239PuO2 in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogs exposed to 239PuO2 by inhalation were killed from 1 to 69 mo postexposure. The distribution of plutonium in the lungs, which was studied by analyzing autoradiographs, changed relative to time postexposure. This study investigates methods of measuring these changes

  20. Influence of thermal and resonance neutron on fast neutron flux measurement by Pu-239 fission chamber

    CERN Document Server

    zeng, Lina; Song, Lingli; Zheng, Chun

    2014-01-01

    The Pu-239 fission chambers are widely used to measure fission spectrum neutron flux due to a flat response to fast neutrons. However, in the mean time the resonance and thermal neutrons can cause a significant influence on the measurement if they are moderated, which could be eliminated by using B and Cd covers. At a column enriched uranium fast neutron critical assembly, the fission reaction rates of Pu-239 are measured as 1.791*10-16,2.350*10-16 and 1.385*10-15 per second for 15mm thick B cover, 0.5mm thick Cd cover, and no cover respectively. While the fission reaction rate of Pu-239 is rapidly increased to 2.569*10-14 for a 20mm thick polythene covering fission chamber. The average Pu-239 fission cross-section of thermal and resonance neutrons is calculated to be 500b and 24.95b with the assumption of 1/v and 1/E spectra respectively, then thermal, resonance and fast neutron flux are achieved to be 2.30*106,2.24*106 and 1.04*108cm-2s-1.

  1. 40 CFR 725.239 - Use of specific microorganisms in activities conducted outside a structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of specific microorganisms in... MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.239 Use of specific microorganisms in...: (1) Characteristics of recipient microorganism. The recipient microorganism is limited to strains...

  2. 48 CFR 1252.239-71 - Information technology security plan and accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.239-71 Information technology security plan and accreditation. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1239.70, insert the following provision: Information Technology Security Plan and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information...

  3. 48 CFR 652.239-70 - Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information Technology... Clauses 652.239-70 Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation. As prescribed in 639.107-70(a), insert the following provision: Information Technology Security Plan and Accreditation (SEP 2007)...

  4. Isotope ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in soil samples from different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in soil samples from Japan and other areas in the world (including IAEA standard reference materials) were determined by ICP-MS. The range of 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios observed in 21 Japanese soil samples was 0.155 - 0.194 and the average was 0.180 ± 0.011, which is comparable to the global fallout value. A low ratio of about 0.05, which is derived from Pu-bomb, was found in samples from Nishiyama (Nagasaki) and Mururoa Atoll (IAEA-368), while a high ratio of about 0.31 was found in a sample from Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands). The ratio for Irish Sea sediment (IAEA-135) was 0.21, which was higher than the global fallout value, suggesting the influence by the contamination from the Sellafield facility. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in soils from the Chernobyl area were determined, and the ratio was found to be very high (about 0.4), indicating the high burn-up grade of the reactor fuel. These results show that the 240Pu/239Pu ratio can be used as a finger print to identify the source of the contamination. (author)

  5. Yield-Energy Evaluation of 85Kr of 239Pu+n Fission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The yields of 85Kr, the important production of the 239Pu fission, were re-evaluated over the incident neutron energy 1-15 MeV, based upon all the experimental data. The yields as function of energ

  6. Effects of inhaled 239PuO2 on the primary immune response of beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of inhaled 239PuO2 on the humoral component of the immune system were measured by intravenous immunizations of beagle dogs with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). With this T-cell-dependent antigen, a significant decrease in primary antibody response was observed in exposed versus unexposed dogs

  7. Studies of the Fission Integrals of U-235 and Pu-239 with Cadmium and Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonance fissions in U235 and Pu239 have been studied using cadmium and boron filters. Fission chambers were used as detectors and the experiments were performed in beam geometry. The neutron energy distribution in the beams transmitted through the different filters was determined with a fast chopper. From the cadmium filter, measurements the fission resonance integrals were determined. The values obtained were 278±9 b for U235 and 301±10 b for Pu239; 0.5 eV 239 measurements were made in which the fission events were detected from the fission product activity in irradiated foils. Contrary to what has been reported elsewhere the value of the Pu239 resonance integral, found in this way, agreed well with that obtained from the fission chamber measurement. The experiments with the boron filters yielded results which, for the thin filter, agreed well with those calculated from the cross section data given in the Karlsruhe compilation. The discrepancy was larger for the thick filter but the values did not disagree outside the common limits of error

  8. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  9. Presence of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, in soils from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global 239Pu and 240Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of 239Pu and 240Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20–40° Southern latitude range, with 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30–53°S latitude range (0.185 ± 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The 239+240Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  10. R-matrix analysis of the 239Pu cross sections up to 1 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are reported of an R-matrix resonance analysis of the 239Pu neutron cross sections up to 1 keV. After a description of the method of analysis the nearly 1600 resonance parameters obtained are listed and extensive graphical and numerical comparisons between calculated and measured cross-section and transmission date are presented. 47 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Chromosome aberration frequency in blood lymphocytes of animals with 239Pu lung burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Other investigators have suggested a causal relationship between accidental 239Pu exposures in man and the presence of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. To assess this relationship experimimentally, 16 Rhesus monkeys and 171 Chinese hamsters were exposed by inhalation to 239PuO2 aerosols and an additional five hamsters were injected with 239Pu citrate and the frequency of aberrations in blood lymphocytes determined. After an initial rapid clearance phase, the 239Pu was retained in the monkey lung with a long effective half-life (greater than 500 days). At 30 days after inhalation, 99 percent of the sacrifice body burden was in the lungs of both species. The ranges of cumulative radiation dose to the hamster lungs 30 days after inhalation were calculated to be 80 to 170, 220 to 540, and 830 to 2120 rads for initial lung burden levels of 10 to 30, 30 to 70, and 180 to 260 nCi/g, respectively. By 120 days, these doses were calculated to be 40 to 350, 500 to 710, and 1440 to 2170 rads. Hamsters with the highest lung burdens had a median survival time of about 80 days. No deaths occurred in any of the other treated hamsters or monkeys by 250 days after 239Pu inhalation. Hamsters sacrificed at 30 days showed an increase in chromosome aberration frequency with increasing dose to lung. By 120 days after inhalation, the aberration frequency in the controls was 0.012. The frequency in animals with doses that produced significant life shortening (1440 to 2170 rads) had decreased to 0.018 and to 0.032 aberrations/cell in animals with lung doses of 500 to 710 rads. At 380 days after injection of 60 nCi 239Pu citrate/gm, hamster lymphocytes had an aberration frequency of 0.048 aberrations/cell. The level of chromosome damage in the 239PuO2 exposed monkeys at 30 and 90 days after inhalation was not different than observed in controls. (U.S.)

  12. Modifying effects of pre-existing fibrosis in rats exposed to aerosols of 239PuO2. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have initiated a study using rats to determine the modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis on the retention and biological effects of inhaled 239PuO2. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of 8.5 IU/kg body weight of bleomycin at 45 to 49 days before inhalation exposure to an aerosol of 239PuO2. The clearance of 239Pu from the lungs of rats was decreased significantly (p 239Pu, apparently by entrapping the particles in fibrotic areas of the lung. The life span of the rats with pulmonary fibrosis was decreased by up to 25% compared with control rats having similar initial lung burdens of 239Pu. (author)

  13. 239+240pn as a dating marker in lake sediments: An example from Lake Chenghai, China%239+240Pu作为湖泊沉积物计年时标:以云南程海为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万国江; 吴丰昌; J Zheng; 万恩源; 廖海清; Y Masatoshi; 王长生

    2011-01-01

    137 CS time mark combined with210Pb dating has been widely applied to recent sedimentation. The 137Cs specific activity is, however, hard to detect after decay for two half-lifes. Due to its comparatively long - term half - life, plutonium from global fallout is expected to provide a dating mark for sedimentation. In the present work, we discuss the vertical distribution of 239 + 240Pu and 137 Cs specific activities, and the 240 pu/239 Pu atom ratio in a sediment core of Lake Chenghai. The distribution pattern of 239 +240pu was similar to those of 137Cs specific activities( decay corrected to deposition time)in the sediment core, and also corresponded well with the annual deposition of 137Cs in the northern hemisphere. These results demonstrate that the 239 +240pu specific activity is available to construct recent chronology for lacustrine sediment. In the examined sediment core, the values of 0. 016 for average 239 +24Opu/137Cs activity ratio and 0.012 for ∑239+240Pu/∑ 137Cs, are close to that of global fallout. The vertical variation of 239+240Pu/137Cs activity ratio indicated that the postdepositional transport of plutonium is much less than radiocesium. The average 240Pu/239 Pu atom ratio is 0. 195 ±0. 021, which means plutonium in Lake Chenghai originated from global fallout. The abnormal distribution of 239+240Pu and 137Cs at 8 cm in the sediment core may be explained by the influence of Chernobyl-source radionuclides.%在近代沉积作用领域137Cs时标与210Pb计年结合,获得了广泛而有效的应用.然而,137Cs经过两个半衰期的衰变已难于辩识.环境中的Pu核素具有相对较长的半衰期,也随全球大气扩散而散落于地球表面,可望作为沉积计年的时间标志.通过程海沉积物柱芯中239+240Pu比活度、240Pu/239Pu原子比率及校正到沉积年代的137Cs比活度的对比研究表明:二者比活度的垂直剖面基本相似、239+240pu比活度与北半球137Cs逐年沉降量之间也具有很

  14. C239S Mutation in the β-Tubulin of Phytophthora sojae Confers Resistance to Zoxamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Meng; Miao, Jianqiang; Song, Xi; Lin, Dong; Bi, Yang; Chen, Lei; Liu, Xili; Tyler, Brett M.

    2016-01-01

    Zoxamide is the sole β-tubulin inhibitor registered for the control of oomycete pathogens. The current study investigated the activity of zoxamide against Phytophthora sojae and baseline sensitivity was established with a mean EC50 of 0.048 μg/ml. The data is critical for monitoring changes in zoxamide-sensitivity in the field. Three stable resistant mutants with a high resistance level were obtained by selection on zoxamide amended media. Although the development of resistance occurred at a low frequency, there were no apparent fitness penalty in the acquired mutants in terms of growth rate, sporulation, germination and pathogenicity. Based on the biological profiles and low mutagenesis rate, the resistance risk of P. sojae to zoxamide can be estimated as low to medium. Further investigation revealed all the zoxamide-resistant mutants had a point mutation of C239S in their β-tubulin. Zoxamide also exhibited high activity against most species from the genus Pythium in which only Pythium aphanidermatum was found naturally resistant to zoxamide and harboring the natural point mutation S239 in the β-tubulin. Back-transformation in P. sojae with the mutated allele (S239) confirmed the C239S mutation can induce resistance to zoxamide, and the resistance level was positively related to the expression level of the mutated gene. In contrast, the overexpression of the wild type gene was unable to cause zoxamide resistance. It is the first report on the resistance molecular mechanism of zoxamide in oomycetes. Based on our study, C239 is supposed to be a key target site of zoxamide, which distinguishes zoxamide from benzimidazoles and accounts for its low resistance risk. The result can provide advice on the design of new β-tubulin inhibitors in future.

  15. Radiation effect of 239PuO2 on human cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the in vitro short and long term effects of 239PuO2 on human embryo lung fibroblast are reported. The short term effect observed is the changes in proliferation and survival of the cell line which were exposed to 239PuO2 with concentration of 0.0006 μCi/mL for a week. On 7th day, the proliferation was only 4.88 PDN (population doubling number), while the control was 10.5 PDN. On the 6th day the surviving fraction of the treated cells was 56.3% and that of the control was 96%. For the long term effect studies, the follow-up observation for 12 groups of cell culture exposed to 239PuO2 of 0.0015 and 0.003 μCi/mL was made. In the cultures exposed to 239PuO2 of 0.003 μCi/mL, the shape of the cells became shorter and their life-span shortened with a higher mortality and death appears early. In 7 cultures exposed to 239PuO2 of 0.0015 μCi/mL, the change in cell morphology was the same as above and their life span was shortened by 58.7% averagely in comparison with control. On other two cultures of them not only was no life-span shortening found, but it was longer than that in the control and their inherent characteristics of regionol arrangment disappeared. At last epithelium-like shape of transformed cells were appeared. In the electron microscope siking of the nuclear membranes into nucleus and hypertrophy of the nucleolus with netted structure can be observed. The nuclear volume increased largely and the ratio between nucleus and cytoplasm increased

  16. Characterization of a neutron source of {sup 239}PuBe; Caracterizacion de una fuente de neutrones de {sup 239}PuBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez V, R.; Chacon R, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Mercado, G. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Direccion General de Innovacion y Tecnologia de Informacion, Av. Heroes de Nacozari Sur 2301, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, 20276 Aguascalientes (Mexico)], e-mail: ruben_zac@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    The spectrum equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose f a {sup 239}PuBe source have been determined. The appropriate handling of a neutron source depends on the knowledge of its characteristics, such as its energy distribution, total rate of flowing and dosimetric magnitudes. In many facilities have not spectrometer that allows to determine the spectrum and then area monitors are used that give a dosimetric magnitude starting from measuring the flowing rate and the use of conversion factors, however this procedure has many limitations and it is preferable to measure the spectra and starting from this information the interest dosimetric magnitudes are calculated. In this work a Bonner sphere spectrometer has been used with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator obtaining the count rates that produce, to a distance of 100 cm, a {sup 239}PuBe source of 1.85E(11) Bq. The spectrum was reconstructed starting from the count rates using BUNKIUT code and response matrix UTA4. With the spectrum information was calculated the source intensity, total flow, energy average, equivalent dose rate, environmental equivalent dose rate, equivalent dose coefficient and environmental equivalent dose coefficient. By means of two area monitors for neutrons, Eberline ASP-1 and LB 6411 of Berthold the equivalent dose and environmental equivalent dose were measured. The determinate values were compared with those reported in literature and it found that are coincident inside 17%. (Author)

  17. Evaluation both level and 239+240Pu spatial contamination of the Lira object and the neighbouring areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work the generalization of considerable data collection for revealing of 239+240Pu content range discriminative for Lira object and neighbouring areas is carried out. 239+240Pu mean specific activity in the soil cover surface and in the Berezovka River bottom sedimentations are determined. The correlation dependence between 239+240Pu artificial radionuclides and 137Cs is revealed. The general source of artificial radionuclide origination for examined isotopes is shown up, and it is related with global radioactive fallout

  18. Effects of combined exposure of rats to 239PuO2 and whole-body X irradiation. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using F344/N rats, we are studying the biological effects of inhalation exposure to 239PuO2 aerosols combined with whole-body exposure to X rays. Data from this study will provide an improved estimate of the cancer risk from combined exposures in people. A total of 2136 (66%) of the 3232 rats to be entered into this study have been exposed. We have achieved lung burdens of 239Pu and X-ray exposures within the ranges desired. Life shortening has occurred among rats receiving whole-body exposure to X rays, but not among those exposed only to 239PuO2. (author)

  19. Studies of Neutron-Induced Fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Dana; TKE Team

    2014-09-01

    A Frisch-gridded ionization chamber and the double energy (2E) analysis method were used to study mass yield distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) release from neutron-induced fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu. Despite decades of fission research, little or no TKE data exist for high incident neutron energies. Additional average TKE information at incident neutron energies relevant to defense- and energy-related applications will provide a valuable observable for benchmarking simulations. The data can also be used as inputs in theoretical fission models. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center-Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE - WNR) provides a neutron beam from thermal to hundreds of MeV, well-suited for filling in the gaps in existing data and exploring fission behavior in the fast neutron region. The results of the studies on 238U, 235U, and 239Pu will be presented. LA-UR-14-24921.

  20. Investigation of the resonance self-shielding effect in the α-value of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-spectra from 1 to 15 multiplicities were measured on 122 m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron booster using a 16-section liquid scintillation detector of a total volume of 80 l for two thin metallic radiator-samples of 239Pu in the presence of a filter-samples with four thickness: 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 2.3 mm in the neutron beam and without them. The multiplicity distribution spectra, the average multiplicities and the alpha value α = σγ/σf for 27 resonances in the energy region 7-170 eV and for the energy group in the region 4.65-2150 eV with and without filter-samples of 239Pu in the beam were obtained. The self-shielding effect in the alpha value and the average multiplicity in limits 5-40% of experimental value is observed

  1. Toxicity of 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature beagles have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239PuO2 (1.5 μm AMAD) to compare the biological effects with those being observed in dogs exposed to a similar aerosol when they were young or aged adults. The study includes 96 dogs exposed to 239PuO2 and 12 controls. A total of 66 experimental and 11 control dogs are still alive. Six dogs died during the past year, all of radiation-related causes. Five dogs died from lung carcinomas and the sixth dog died of pneumonia/fibrosis, but with a lung tumor. With the large number of dogs still alive in this study, it is still premature to compare the cancer dose-response relationships for the immature and adult dogs. (author)

  2. R matrix analysis of the 239Pu cross sections up to 600 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ENDF/B-V representation of the 239Pu neutron cross sections in the resonance region is unsatisfactory: the single-level formalism is used, necessitating a structured file 3 contribution. Furthermore, Salvatores et al. have stressed the need to extend the resolved resonance region above the present ENDF/B limit of 300 eV for the calculation of Doppler effect and self-shielded group cross sections. The purpose of our work is to improve the representation of the 239Pu cross sections by using a multilevel formalism (which avoids the need for the file 3 contributions) and by extending the resolved resonance range from 300 up to 600 eV. The present resonance analysis is based on the Reich-Moore multilevel formalism and was performed with the Bayesian code SAMMY. The resonance parameters published in 1974 by Derrien were used as prior information. More than 200 levels and 1000 resonance parameters are included in the analysis

  3. Measurement and analysis of anti ν energy dependence for 233U, 238U, 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependence of the average yield of prompt neutrons per fission (anti ν) for U233, U238 and Pu239 in the incident neutron energy range (Esub(n)) up to 5 MeV has been studied using an electrostatic accelerator. The recommended curves for anti ν (Esub(n)) has been obtained with the help of the polynomial least square method fitting. The resons of deviations from the linear dependence have been analysed

  4. Early effects of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (4 of 5) at the highest dosage level, 14 to 25 mo postexposure. There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported

  5. Regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph Nocardia sp. 239

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, L; Vrijbloed, J W; Grobben, G.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Nocardia sp. 239 was studied. In cell-free extracts 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase activity was inhibited in a cumulative manner by tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Chorismate mutase was inhibited by both phenylalanine and tyrosine, whereas prephenate dehydratase was very sensitive to inhibition by phenylalanine. Tyrosine was a strong activator of the latter enzyme, whereas anthranilate synthase was inhib...

  6. Analysis of the 239Pu neutron cross sections from 300 to 2000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent high-resolution measurement of the neutron fission cross section of 239Pu has allowed the extension from 1 to 2 keV of a previously reported resonance analysis of the neutron cross sections, and an improvement of the previous analysis in the range 0.3 to 1 keV. This report analyzes this region. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Dosimetry of inhaled plutonium-239 dioxide in rodent lung: a morphometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphometric analysis of rat and hamster lung did not demonstrate any extensive changes in lung composition or structure following inhalation exposure to 239Pu02 at levels near that for maximum tumor yield in rats. The problem of dosimetry for this compound thus appears to be relatively uncomplicated by any major radiation-induced pathological alterations in the lung. Rat and hamster lung were found to be similar in structure and composition, with few significant differences which could be directly related to the different tumor responses. The distribution of 239Pu02 particles was not uniform in all regions of the lung; thus estimation of the dose to specific tissues or regions within the lung requires a correction for this effect. Species differences were found for particle distribution in the subpleural region and major airways, and in the spatial association of particles, both of which may affect the tumor development process. These regions contain the principal target cells for tumor production and serve as foci for the origin of tumors. Different dose distributions within these regions may therefore explain, at least in part, the difference in tumor response to inhaled 239Pu02 for rats and hamsters

  8. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemistry of 239Pu, 129I, 99Tc and 36Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One objective of this research programme has been to evaluate the applicability of uranium orebodies as natural analogues for testing radionuclide release-rate models used in performance assessment activities. The investigated nuclides included three of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors: plutonium-239, iodine-129, and technetium-99. The feasibility of uranium minerals as analogues for the behavior of these nuclear reaction products (NRP) in spent fuel relies upon a capability to characterise NRP concentrations in the source minerals. Measured abundances of natural 239Pu, 99Tc and 129I in uranium ores are compared to calculated abundances in order to evaluate the degree to retention of these radionuclides by the ore. This modelling study also shows the extent to which various NRP are correlated, such that one provides a constraint on the production rates of others. Under most conditions, 36Cl, another long-lived neutron-capture product found in uranium ores, is shown to be an ideal in-situ monitor of the 235U fission rate, which is the dominant source term for 129I and possibly a significant one for 99Tc. Similarly, 239Pu/U ratios can be used to establish limits on the 238U neutron-induced fission rate; the ratios measured in this study suggest that 238U induced fission comprises 129I and 99Tc. 79 refs., 21 tabs., 18 figs

  9. Background distributions of 239+240Pu and 137Cs of upland soil in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background distributions of Pu and 137Cs in soil were investigated in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, where the first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is now being constructed. Soil core samples to 1 m depth were collected at 13 upland fields in Rokkasho and control sites in Hachinohe and Hirosaki. Since fields under yam (Dioscorea babatus) cultivation, which is a common crop in Rokkasho, were dug to approximately 1 m depth at harvesting, depth profiles of fallout radionuclides are heavily disturbed for most fields in Rokkasho. The mean inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs in three fields with no yam cultivation history were 116 Bq m-2 and 3.4 kBq m-2, respectively and similar to values in Hachinohe. However, the inventories were approximately a half of those in Hirosaki. The mean ratio of 239Pu/240Pu for all studied fields was 0.18±0.04, and similar to that of global fallout. The Pu concentrations correlate very well with 137Cs (r=0.97) in spite of heavy disturbance of soil, and the ratio of 239+240Pu/137Cs was 0.037±0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. (author)

  10. Subcellular distribution of 239Pu in the liver of rat, mouse, Syrian and Chinese hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the species differences in the biological half life of plutonium-239 in the liver of rats, mice, Syrian hamsters and Chinese hamsters. Six days after intravenously administered Pu-239, the animals were given Triton i.p. which causes a shift of the density of the lysosomes and thus any lysosomally-associated material can be recognised by a parallel shift. On the tenth day, an MLP fraction was obtained by differential centrifugation of the liver homogenates; the distribution of radioactivity and marker enzymes was then examined after centrifugation of the MLP fraction in a sucrose density gradient. If the parallelism between the shift of Pu-239 and acid phosphatase is taken as a measure for the extent of lysosomal binding, there is clear evidence for association with these organelles for rats and mice, the species with rapid Pu elimination; however these organelles appear to become less important in the species with longer Pu retention, Syrian and especially Chinese hamster. (U.K.)

  11. 235 U consumption and 239 Pu formation on IPR-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the present world conjuncture it is necessary a rigorous storage and utilization control of nuclear materials under safeguard, specially those considered as strategic and those that could be used on the nuclear armaments fabrications as 235U and 239Pu. Brazil have signed and ratified many international pacts related to the peaceful utilization of the nuclear materials, making the compromise to attend nuclear safeguard procedures accorded with international regulatory organizations. The main goal of this work is the development of a simplified method for the estimation of the 239Pu productivity during the operation of the IPR-R1, TRIGA Mark-1 type, nuclear research reactor, that can achieve the maximum power of 100 KWt. A computational algorithm have been made to calculate the consumption of 235U on the fuel elements used on the reactor and the subsequent 239Pu formation (by the neutronic capture process), using the power generated by the reactor since the first criticality. The particular geometry of this kind of reactor allowed the calculation of the burn factors of the fuel elements discriminated by nuclear concentric rings, based on the thermal neutrons field distribution observed on experiments accomplished during a time period in similar reactors and on the IPR-R1. The simplified block diagram of the process, based on the calculation described above, is presented

  12. Dosimetry of inhaled plutonium-239 dioxide in rodent lung: a morphometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, K.

    1979-06-01

    Morphometric analysis of rat and hamster lung did not demonstrate any extensive changes in lung composition or structure following inhalation exposure to /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ at levels near that for maximum tumor yield in rats. The problem of dosimetry for this compound thus appears to be relatively uncomplicated by any major radiation-induced pathological alterations in the lung. Rat and hamster lung were found to be similar in structure and composition, with few significant differences which could be directly related to the different tumor responses. The distribution of /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ particles was not uniform in all regions of the lung; thus estimation of the dose to specific tissues or regions within the lung requires a correction for this effect. Species differences were found for particle distribution in the subpleural region and major airways, and in the spatial association of particles, both of which may affect the tumor development process. These regions contain the principal target cells for tumor production and serve as foci for the origin of tumors. Different dose distributions within these regions may therefore explain, at least in part, the difference in tumor response to inhaled /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ for rats and hamsters.

  13. Clinical features of 239 cases of pituitary adenomas%垂体肿瘤239例临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 卓雅芬; 姚瑾; 梁继兴; 黄惠彬; 李连涛; 林丽香

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study clinical feature and therapeutic choice of pituitary adenomas. Methods The clinical data of 239 cases of pituitary adenomas were analyzed. Results Total 93 male and 146 female cases were recruited. The average age was (43.8 ± 14.9 ) years old (3.9-77 years). Prolactinomas were the most common pituitary adenomas (26.8%) , 179 patients (74.9%) underwent surgery, of which 108 (60.3%) with transsphenoidal approach and 71 (39.7%) transcranial approach. The other 60 cases were treated nonsurgically. Conclusions Pituitary adenomas may present hormonal abnormalities or neurological symptoms.Some adenomas were accidently detected by MRI. Prolactinomas were the most common pituitary adenomas.%目的 探讨垂体瘤的临床特征及治疗方案.方法 回顾性分析福建省立医院自1994年1月至2007年6月间收住的239例垂体瘤患者的临床资料.结果 239例垂体腺瘤中,男性93例(38.9%),女性146例(61.1%).诊断时的平均年龄为(43.8±14.9)岁(范围为3.9~77岁).依据临床表现、影像学及内分泌检查、免疫组织化学染色所示,催乳素瘤为最常见的肿瘤(26.8%).手术治疗179例(74.9%),其中经蝶入路108例(60.3%),经额入路71例(39.7%),非手术治疗及随访者60例(25.1%).结论 垂体瘤可表现为内分泌异常、神经系统症状或其他原因行MRI意外发现;催乳素瘤为最常见的肿瘤.

  14. SKIN DOSIMETRY IN CONDITIONS OF ITS CONSTANT SURFACE CONTAMINATION WITH SOLUTIONS OF PLUTONIUM-239 AND AMERICIUM-241

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Ershov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, on the basis of experimental data, the issue of assessing dose burdens to the skin basal layer in conditions of its permanent contamination with solutions of plutonium-239 and americium-241 and subsequent decontamination.

  15. Investigations of the chemical forms of 239Pu and 241Am in estuarine sediments and a salt marsh soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estuarine sediments and a salt marsh soil have been fractionated by non-destructive procedures. The distribution of 239Pu and 241Am in these fractions has been determined by gel permeation chromatography and extraction with complexing agents. (author)

  16. Studies of the Pu-239/240 content in tissues from non-occupationally exposed individuals. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental levels of alpha-emitting actinides, specifically plutonium 239, 240 have been determined in tissues from non-occupationally exposed individuals of different ages, sexes and geographical areas and the results compared with those from other laboratories

  17. Cytogenetic and other biological effects of 239PuO2 inhaled by the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen immature rhesus monkeys were exposed via inhalation to an insoluble, polydisperse 239PuO2 aerosol labeled with 169Yb which had an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.6 μm and a sigma/sub g/ of 1.6. Four groups with three monkeys per group were exposed to achieve initial 239Pu lung burdens of 1000 to 2000, 200 to 300, 20 to 65, and 2 to 10 nCi, respectively. To determine early retention and distribution of the aerosol, four additional monkeys were exposed with initial lung burdens of 200 to 600 nCi and were sacrificed 4 hr and 30 days after inhalation exposure. Two monkeys were sham exposed and served as controls. Using data derived from external whole-body counting of the 169Yb label, it was estimated that the inhaled 239PuO2 was retained in the body with an average effective half-life of 1000 days with some translocation from the lung to the pulmonary lymph nodes. Chromosome aberrations were scored in blood lymphocytes cultured 1, 3, 7, 19, 31, and 43 months after inhalation. Only in animals with cumulative lung doses greater than 1000 rad was there a significant increase in the frequency of rings and dicentrics when compared to the controls. An animal with an estimated initial lung burden of 1000 nCi showed marked alterations in respiratory function 30 days prior to his death from pulmonary fibrosis 990 days after inhalation exposure. Only slight respiratory changes were detected in the other animals evaluated. To date, three monkeys have died, two with initial lung burdens of 1800 and 1000 nCi 239Pu which died from radiation pneumonitis and the third with an initial lung burden of 20 nCi which died of gastric torsion presumably not related to Pu exposure. Comparison of survival data from rhesus monkeys with those obtained from baboons and beagles indicates that rhesus monkeys, baboons, and dogs are similar in their early response to inhaled 239PuO2

  18. Neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential-neutron-emission cross sections of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu are measured between approx. = 1.0 and 3.5 MeV with the angle and magnitude detail needed to provide angle-integrated emission cross sections to approx. 232Th, 233U, 235U and 238U inelastic-scattering values, poor agreement is observed for 240Pu, and a serious discrepancy exists in the case of 239Pu

  19. Modification of 239Pu metabolism in the blood in various modes of iron preparation administration in the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral routes of iron administration. It was shown that the oral route of the entry of appropriate amounts of iron in the body made it possible to saturate the transferrin spare capacity and hence to influence 239Pu metabolism in the blood. The results obtained can be employed for improving sensitivity of indirect dosimetry methods of 239Pu in the body using chelates

  20. Group cross-sections and resonance self-shielding factors for 239Pu in the unresolved resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyse experimental data on the transmission and fission self-indication functions for 239Pu in the unresolved resonance region. Use is made of the method of generating a cross-section structure based on the multi-level R-matrix formalism (stochastic K-matrix method). Evaluations of the average resonance parameters and group constants for 239Pu are made. (author)

  1. Determination of 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya sediments using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been used to determine Pu activity concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in sediments from the Kara Sea and radioactive waste dumping sites at Novaya Zemlya. Measured 239,240Pu activities ranged from 0.06 - 9.8 Bq/kg dry weight, 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.13 to 0.28, and 238Pu/239,240Pu activity ratios from 0.02 to 0.6. Perturbations from global fallout isotope ratios were evident at three sites: the Yenisey Estuary and Abrosimov Fjords where 240Pu/239Pu ratios were lower (0.13-0.14); and Stepovogo Fjord sediments where ratios were higher (up to 0.28) than fallout ratios. Based on procedural blanks, detection limits for AMS were below 1 fg Pu and the method showed good precision for isotope ratio measurements, minimal matrix, interference and memory effects. For high level samples, comparison between alpha spectrometry and AMS gave good agreement for measurement of 239,240Pu activity concentrations. (author)

  2. Association of fallout-derived 137Cs,90Sr and 239,240Pu with natural organic substances in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations and associations of fallout-derived Cs, Sr and Pu in soils were investigated. The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in volcanic ash soil were much higher than those in granite soil. They decreased with increasing depth in the soil. The activity ratios of 239,240Pu/137Cs and 90Sr/137Cs tended to increase slightly with increasing soil depth. Alkali extraction experiments with 0.1 M NaOH solution showed that the percentage activities of the fallout radionuclides found in the organic acid fractions were in the order 239,240Pu>90Sr>137Cs. The concentrations of 137Cs and 239,240Pu reacted with humic fractions were higher than those with fulvic fractions. In contrast to 137Cs and 239,240Pu,90Sr reacted more with fulvic fractions than with humic fractions. These results provide information about the effects of organic substances on the retention and migration of 137Cs,90Sr and 239,240Pu in soils under natural conditions

  3. 血流感染MRSA中的ST239克隆株快速检测与分析%Application of rapid detection of MRSA ST239 clones in bloodstream infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚杰; 杨凯; 刘周; 陈礼文; 周强; 管世鹤

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价多重PCR法对耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA) ST239克隆株的快速检测及合肥地区血流感染MRSA的分子流行现状.方法 收集2008年至2013年安徽医科大学第一附属医院及第二附属医院临床分离的血流感染金黄色葡萄球菌的106株MRSA进行相关耐药性分析,并采用多重PCR技术对ST239型克隆株进行快速检测,同时运用多位点序列分型(MLST)加以确认及葡萄球菌染色体mec基因盒(SCCmec)分型分析.结果 106株血流感染金黄色葡萄球菌中MRSA有51株,占48.1%,MRSA均为多耐药菌,对红霉素、氨基糖苷类和喹诺酮类耐药率明显高于甲氧西林敏感金黄色葡萄球菌(MSSA),MRSA和MSSA对磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶的敏感率分别为86.3%和 94.5%;51株MRSA中有47株为ST239快速检测阳性,阳性率高达92.2%;随机选取20株ST239初筛阳性的MRSA经MLST验证和SCCmec分型后确认为MRSA-ST239-SCCmecⅢ型.结论 合肥地区血流感染MRSA近半数为多重耐药克隆MRSA-ST239-SCCmecⅢ型,运用多重PCR技术能够快速检测ST239克隆株.%Objective To evaluation the method of rapid detection of Methicillin-resistant Stphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST239 clones with multiplex PCR assay and investigation of the epidemic status of MRSA blood stream infections in Hefei area.Methods Antibiotic susceptibility testing were applied to MRSA isolates from bloodstream infection,rapid screening and confirmation of MRSA ST239 clones by using multiplex PCR,Multilocus Sequence typing (MLST) and Staphyloccoccal Cassette Chromosome mec(SCCmec) typing.Results 51 of 106 clinic isolates Staphylococcus aureus were identified as MRSA,accounting for 48.1%.The resistance rate of MRSA to erythromycin,aminoglycosides and quinolone were significantly higher than Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).Both MRSA and MSSA had a high sensitivity to cotrimoxazole,the sensivity rates were 86.3% and 94.5%,respectively; 47 of 51

  4. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of (239+240)Pu as soil erosion tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael; Park, Ji-Hyung; Sandor, Tarjan; Porto, Paolo; Alewell, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as (137)Cs and (210)Pbex. As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (>25tha(-1)yr(-1)). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of (239+240)Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of (137)Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of (137)Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of (239+240)Pu through less preferential transport compared to (137)Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, (239+240)Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the soil and lateral transport during water erosion was shown to differ from that of (137)Cs, there is a clear

  5. Staphylococcal Protein A Promotes Colonization and Immune Evasion of the Epidemic Healthcare-Associated MRSA ST239

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xufen; Qin, Juanxiu; Li, Tianming; Dai, Yingxin; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Qian; He, Lei; Lu, Huiying; Gao, Qianqian; Lin, Yong; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    The highly successful epidemic of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) ST239 is a growing concern worldwide, due to its progressive adaptation to the highly selective environment of the healthcare system. HA-MRSA ST239 display the reduced virulence and successfully colonize in hospital settings, while the emergent community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) maintain full virulence and cause infections in the community environment. Our aim was to investigate what enables S. aureus ST239 to be highly adaptive under hospital circumstances and gradually progress to a series of widespread invasive infections. We found that spa expression of HA-MRSA ST239 is much higher than that of CA-SA ST398. And we discovered that the highly production of staphylococcal protein A (SpA), having no concern with spa gene structure, enhances nasal colonization and cell adhesion in ST239. S. aureus ST239 defends against the adaptive immune response by resisting phagocytosis and inducing apoptosis of B cells through expression of surface-anchored and released protein A, facilitating its dissemination within the circulatory system to other organs. Protein A also plays another key role in subverting the host immune response through its ability to induce early shedding of TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) from phagocytic cells. The increased levels of soluble TNFR1 present during experimental S. aureus ST239 infection may neutralize circulating TNF-α and impair the host inflammatory response. Protein A is also a virulence factor, as tested in our bacteremia model in mice, contributing to the durative tissue damage of abscess formation sites in ST239 infection. These functions of protein A eventually benefit to widespread infections of S. aureus ST239. We draw the conclusion that Staphylococcal Protein A may be a crucial determinant in the colonization and immune evasion of ST239 infections, contributing to persistent spread in the hospital settings. These results

  6. 239PU(N, f) at Resonance Energies and its Multi-Modal Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Bax, H.; Ruskov, I.; Demattè, L.

    2003-10-01

    A measurement of fission fragment total kinetic energy (TKE) and mass yield distributions Y (A,TKE) in the 239Pu(n,f) resolved resonance region has been performed applying the twin Frisch gridded ionization chamber technique. Special emphasis was devoted to cope with the strong α-activity of this isotope by an improved pile-up rejection system. Up to about 200 eV all fission resonances could be resolved and their two-dimensional mass yield and TKE distribution, Y(A,TKE), measured. Compared to the results on 235U(n,f), much smaller fluctuations of the fission fragment mass and TKE have been observed in the case of 239Pu. From a physical point of view such fluctuations have been expected for the fission fragment properties, because the only possible lowenergy spin states (Jπ=0+,1+) belong to well separated (about 1.25 MeV) transition state bands. Hence, it was expected to observe differences in the fission fragment mass and TKE distributions between spin 0+ and 1+ resonances. However, no spin dependence and only a slight anti-correlation of the TKE with the prompt neutron multiplicity, νp. has been found in the resolved resonance energy region above 1 eV. Within the multi-modal random neck-rupture (MM-RNR) model the Y(A,TKE) distributions have been fitted assuming three fission modes, two asymmetric and one symmetric one. The branching ratio of the two asymmetric modes shows similar fluctuations as the experimental TKE. Recently, a new theoretical approach has given a solution to the absence of pronounced fluctuations of the fission properties in the case of 239Pu. Since only one transition state is involved in the fission of 0+ and 1+ resonances with a given fission fragment distribution, no fluctuations are expected.

  7. Direct reduction of 238PuO2 and 239PuO2 to metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for reducing 700 g 239PuO2 to metal is a standard procedure at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This process is based on research for reducing 200 g 238PuO2 to metal. This report describes in detail the experiments and development of the 200-g process. The procedure uses calcium metal as the reducing agent in a molten CaCl2 solvent system. The process to convert impure plutonia to high-purity metal by oxide reduction followed by electrorefining is also described

  8. Distribution and retention of 239Pu in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) following intramuscular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention of intramuscularly injected monomeric 239Pu has been studied in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri), a primitive prosimian species. Resorption from the injection site is rapid, and the main depository organs are skeleton and liver with approximately 50 and 20% of the absorbed dose, respectively. The half life of retention in skeleton is approximately 500-600 days and in liver approximately 150 days, these half lives are compared to data for the retention of transuranium elements in other animal species. Indications of liver lesions were found in 5 animals and 1 animal died at day 790 with an osteosarcoma. (author)

  9. Simulation of neutron rich nuclei production through 239U fission at intermediates energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical part and some results obtained from a model realised for fission processes in wide range of mass-asymmetries are presented. The fission barriers are computed in a tridimensional configuration space using the Yukawa - plus - exponential macroscopic energies corrected within the Strutinsky procedure. It is assumed that channel probabilities are proportional with Gamow penetrabilities. The model is applied for the disintegration of the 239U in order to determine the relative yields for the production of neutron rich nuclei at diverse intermediate energies. (author)

  10. The evaluation of the mass distribution data for 238U, 239Pu and 242Pu fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass distribution data for 238U at En=1.5, 5.5, 8.3, 11.3, 14.9, 22.0, 27.5, 50.0, 99.5, 160.0 MeV, Ep=20.0, 60.0 MeV 239Pu at En=0.17, 7.9, 14.5 MeV and 242Pu at En=15.1 MeV were evaluated and recommended based on the main available experimental data up to now. The experimental data were make necessary corrections and their errors were also made necessary adjustments. The problems concerned were discussed

  11. Status of 239Pu cross-section evaluation in the resonance region at Cadarache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the evaluations of 239 Pu cross-sections in the resonance region have been presented in this report. A set of resonance parameters assembling the results of a multilevel analysis in the energy range thermal to 200 eV and the result of a single analysis in the energy range 200 eV - 660eV is proposed for the calculation of the cross-sections in the energy range thermal-600eV. These parameters provide a quite good representation of the most recent measured fission cross-sections

  12. Some Yields in the Thermal- and Epi-Cadmium-Neutron Fission of Pu239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yields of several nuclides in the thermal- and epi-cadmium-neutron fission of Pu239 have been measured and are reported. In epi-cadmium-neutron fission a decrease, relative to thermal fission, in the yields of Ag111 and Ag113, i.e. an increased peak-to-valley ratio, was found. The yield of As77 and As78, which represent, highly unsymmetrical fission, were found to be greater in epi-cadmium-neutron fission than in thermal fission. This result is' shown to be inconsistent with the simple two mode of fission hypothesis. (author)

  13. 'In-vivo' and bioassay results from two contrasting cases of plutonium-239 inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'In-vivo' and bioassay measurements following two incidents involving plutonium-239 inhalation are described and contrasted. Incident 1, involving the inhalation of insoluble plutonium oxide, resulted in a lung content of about 20 nCi after the initial clearance. Urine excretion was negligible and the estimation of exposure was based on 'in-vivo' data and faecal excretion. Incident,2, involving the inhalation of soluble plutonium, proved negligible and the estimation of exposure, based on urinary excretion, was 0.6 nCi. (author)

  14. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author)

  15. {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents Sea Regions. Sources and radioecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The radioecological assessment for {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents sea regions was made using the compartment modelling approach. The following sources of radioactive contamination were under consideration: global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, transport of {sup 239+240}Pu from the Sellafield and La Hauge nuclear plants and underwater testing of nuclear weapons in Chernaya Bay, Novaya Zemlya. The box model developed at NRPA uses a modified approach for compartmental modeling, which takes into account the dispersion of radionuclides over time. The box structures for surface, mid-depth and deep water layers have been developed based on the description of polar, Atlantic and deep waters in the Arctic Ocean and the Northern Seas, as well as site-specific information for the boxes. The volume of the three water layers in each box has been calculated using detailed bathymetry together with Geographical Information Systems. The box model includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing and a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers. Radioactive decay is calculated for all compartments. The contamination of biota is further calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumptions, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota are determined on the basis of calculated radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. Results of the calculations show that atmospheric deposition is the dominant source for the Barents Sea, except for the Chernaya Bay region. It is also demonstrated that the impact of the Sellafield nuclear facilities has

  16. Repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to aerosols of 239PuO2. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed once or semi-annually for 10 yr by inhalation to aerosols of 239PuO2 to study the relative doses and effects of these two types of exposures. All exposures have been completed. Dogs exposed at high levels died predominantly of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Dogs exposed at lower levels, either once or repeatedly, are dying of a variety of causes including lung cancer. Dogs have survived up to 11 yr after their first exposure. Preliminary results suggest that single and repeated exposures cause similar health effects for equal accumulated radiation doses. (author)

  17. Dominant lethal tests of male mice given 239Pu salt injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the possible genetic effects of 239Pu manifesting in dominant lethals, five test series (E1-E5) were performed. Males from an inbred CBA strain were given 239Pu salt injections intravenously and mated weekly to 3 CBA females each for 12 to 24 weeks. Some interruptions in the mating scheme were made. For the first two test series (E1, E2) 239Pu nitrate solution and 239Pu citrate, used in E3-E5, were prepared. The solution was millipore filtered just prior to injection. Among a total of 10255 implants sired by males given Pu-nitrate in E1 and E2 no significant excess of intra-uterine death relative to 7216 control implants occurred. Test series E3-E5 with 60 males each, used three groups of 20, with one control group. In E3, 0.5 μCi and 0.1 μCi were given per male/group, respectively; in E4 and E5, 0.25 μCi and 0.05 μCi, respectively. The males given 0.5 μCi in E3 became successively sterile from the 7th week. The results in E3-E5 point in the same direction with significant excess of intra-uterine death in E3 and E5. In E4 the females from matings from the 9th, 14th and 16th week, and in E5 females from the 9th week, were allowed to litter to give F1 offspring. Dominant lethal tests of F1 males gave concordant results in all four samples, showing significantly excessive death in offspring to F1 males whose fathers had received Pu. The excessive death was evenly distributed and did not indicate the presence of semisterile F1 males. In tests of Pu-injected males and of F1 males a remarkable excess of death in late stages of foetal development was observed. Such effects had never before been observed in this CBA strain in tests of extrinsic and intrinsic exposure to ionizing irradiation

  18. Determination of isobar composition and yields of 239Pu fission-products by thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the research nuclear reactor WWR-SM of INP Uz AS by means of mass-spectrometer the heavy fission-products of 239Pu nuclei induced by thermal neutrons are measured in ranges of mass Ai = 125 -157, kinetic energies Ek = 45 - 87 MeV and effective ionic charges z* = 18 - 30. 102 isobar nuclei in composition of the measured fission-products, also the partial yields of the each element giving the contribution to formation of a total yield of heavy fission-product with mass Ai are defined. (authors)

  19. On the ENDF/B unresolved resonance region formalism representation for 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to compare the performance of several cross-section evaluation files for the calculation of average cross sections in the unresolved resonance region and to test the validity of the ENDF/B methodology for the calculation of self-shielding factors in this region. The 239Pu neutron cross sections were used for this comparison since a multilevel R-matrix analysis was available, which extended the resolved resonance region from its present ENDF/B limit of 300 eV up to 1 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  20. R-matrix analysis of the 239Pu neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    239Pu neutron cross-section data in the resolved resonance region were analyzed with the R-Matrix Bayesian Program SAMMY. Below 30 eV the cross sections computed with the multilevel parameters are consistent with recent fission and transmission measurements as well as with older capture and alpha measurements. Above 30 eV no suitable transmission data were available and only fission cross-section measurements were analyzed. However, since the analysis conserves the complete covariance matrix, the analysis can be updated by the Bayes method as transmission measurements become available. To date, the analysis of the fission measurements has been completed up to 300 eV. (author)

  1. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of 239PuO2 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groups of rats were exposed or sham exposed to cigarette smoke for 7 mo, at which time they were exposed to an aerosol of 239PuO2. Rats were then subjected to whole-body counting (17-keV X-rays) periodically, beginning at day 4 after plutonium exposure, and smoke exposures or sham exposures were resumed on day 7. Clearance of plutonium from the lungs of cigarette-smoke-exposed rats was significantly slower than that from the sham-exposed rats' lungs. The difference between the two groups became significant 7 days after the resumption of cigarette-smoke exposures

  2. Neutron activation determination of uranium in geologic objects with 239U radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of instrumental determination of uranium in geological objects using short-time (1 min) activation by epithermal neutrons and intensity measurement of 74.7 keV uranium-239 radionuclide γ-radiation using gamma-spectrometer with low-background Ge(Li)-detector of the planar type is presented. In addition, the possibility of thorium and cobalt determination at the same conditions from short-lived thorium-233 and cobalt-60 m radionuclide radiations is shown. Results of twelve standard rocks analysis are presented

  3. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

  4. Evaluation of 239+240Pu, 137Cs and natural 210Pb fallout in agricultural upland fields in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background distributions of 239+240Pu and 137Cs fallout in agricultural soil were investigated in Rokkasho where Japan's first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is now being constructed. The mean inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs in three fields with non-yam-cultivation history were 116 Bq x m-2 and 3.4 kBq x m-2, respectively. The mean atomic ratio of 240Pu/239Pu for all studied fields was 0.18±0.04, and was similar to that of global fallout. The 239+240Pu concentrations correlated very well with 137Cs (r = 0.97) in spite of heavy disturbance of the soil, and the activity ratio of 239+240Pu/137Cs was 0.037 ± 0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. These results showed that the nuclides had similar behavior in agricultural upland fields in Rokkasho. Since 210Pb is steadily deposited from the atmosphere to the land, this nuclide could be an index for the degree of disturbance of a field and of soil lost from the field. The ratio of excess 210Pb inventory in the soil to the equivalent inventory of atmospheric 210Pb deposition was 96%, and indicated that soil was not lost from the cultivated fields. (author)

  5. Decreased pulmonary clearance of 239PuO2 and lung toxicity induced by inhaled beryllium metal in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers in nuclear industries may be accidentally exposed to both beryllium and plutonium. To characterized the effects of combined exposures to these agents on their pulmonary clearance, groups of F344/N rats inhaled aerosols of beryllium metal and 239PuO2 to result in initial lung burdens for beryllium metal of 0, 50, 150, and 450 μg, and for 239PuO2 of 0, 56, and 170 Bq. Rats were exposed to each possible beryllium/plutonium combination. The whole-body clearance half time of 239Pu in the absence of beryllium metal was approximately 50 days. For rats exposed to both materials, however, 239Pu clearance half-times ranged from 280 to 410 days, with no apparent dose-dependent effect of beryllium metal. Analysis of the lungs for both agents confirmed this pattern of retention. The lungs of beryllium metal-exposed rats displayed a hemorrhagic, exudative pneumonitis, with an influx of neutrophils, and later, progressive fibrosis accompanied by macrophage and epithelial cell hyperplasia. Enhanced 239PuO2 retention will increase the radiation dose to the lung and may result in an eventual synergistic neoplastic response in rats exposed to the two agents

  6. The coagulation of dissolved sup(239,240)Pu in estuaries as determined from a mixing experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixing experiment, using large volumes (100 l) of filtered (240Pu during estuarine mixing. An organic-rich freshwater with a relatively high concentration (0.8 dpm/100 l) of dissolved sup(239,) 240Pu was used as one end-member; Buzzards Bay seawater (dissolved sup(239,) 240Pu=0.04 dpm/100 l) was the other. The results demonstrate that dissolved sup(239,) 240Pu in the freshwater undergoes extensive and rapid coagulation under simulated estuarine conditions. There is a strong correlation between the amount of coagulation of dissolved sup(239,) 240Pu, humic acids (HA), and Fe. The extent of coagulation of all three constituents increases with increasing salinity and the net extent of their removal is 53%, 57%, and 100% for Pu, HA, and Fe respectively. As has been domented for Fe in freshwater, dissolved sup(239,) 240Pu appears to be stabilized by naturally occurring humic substances to form negatively charged colloids which are then coagulated by seawater cations. The extrapolation of these experimental results to real estuaries will require additonal research. (orig.)

  7. The pore water chemistry of sup(239,240)Pu and 137Cs on sediments of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection of large volumes of pore water and low level radiochemical measurements of sup(239,240)Pu and 137Cs have been combined to produce the first study of these fallout artificial radionuclides in marine pore waters. Profiles from box cores taken in June and September 1982 from Buzzards Bay, Mass., are reported along with profiles of many diagenetic constituents (i.e. SO42-, alkalinity, Fe, Mn, DOC, and nutrients). The sup(239,240)Pu pore water profile is characterized by a subsurface maximum of about 0.28 dpm/100 kg lying between 3 to 11 cm. Overlying seawater, in contrast, has an activity of 0.01 +- 0.02 dpm/100 kg. Below about 11 cm, the pore water sup(239,240)Pu distribution follows that of the solid phase which decreases rapidly with depth. The pore water profiles of 137Cs are characterized by a broad and deeply penetrating maximum where activities of about 35 to 40 dpm/100 kg extend from 3 to 20 cm. Overlying seawater, in contrast, has an activity of 17 to 24 dpm/100 kg. The 137Cs and sup(239,240)Pu pore water data show that there is preferential downward transport of 137Cs and that sup(239,240)Pu does not have an active diagenetic chemistry and is not significantly mobile in these coastal sediments. (author)

  8. Surrogate Reaction Measurement of Angular Dependent 239Pu (n , f) Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglin, Johnathon; Burke, Jason; Casperson, Robert; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-10-01

    The surrogate method has previously been used to measure (n , f) cross sections of difficult to produce actinide isotopes. These measurements have inaccuracies at excitation energies below 1.5 MeV where the distribution of angular momentum states populated in the compound nucleus created by neutron absorption significantly differs from that arising from direct reactions. A method to measure the fission probability of individual angular momentum states arising from 239Pu (d , pf) and 239Pu (α ,α' f) reactions has been developed. This experimental apparatus consists of charged particle detectors with 40 keV FWHM resolution at 13 angles up and downstream of the particle beam. A segmented array of photovoltaic (solar) cells is used to measure the angular distribution of fission fragments. This distribution uniquely identifies the populated angular momentum states. These are fit to expected distributions to determine the contribution of each state. The charged particle and fission rates matrix obtained from this analysis determines fission probabilities of specific angular momentum states in the transition nucleus. Development of this scheme and first results will be discussed.

  9. Comparison of early mortality in baboons and dogs after inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from experiments with baboons were compared with those from experiments with dogs to determine the relative sensitivity of the two species to early mortality from inhaled 239PuO2. To ensure a valid comparison of data developed at two laboratories, methodology differences were minimized by establishing a common pool of raw data, using the same computer programs to analyze the data, and standardizing assumptions regarding the calculation of plutonium concentration in lungs. Several comparison methods were used involving variations in estimating different parameters used in these calculations. Although nearly all comparisons suggested baboons were slightly more sensitive, none of the methods for comparing the relationship between dose and survival time showed consistently significant differences between baboons and dogs. Although the baboons were physiologically and morphologically immature when exposed to plutonium, whereas the dogs were mature, we concluded that adult baboons and dogs are similarly sensitive to the early effects of inhaled 239PuO2. Since only early mortality was considered in this comparison, the results do not apply to possible late effects caused by much lower levels of plutonium than were used in these experiments

  10. Preliminary evaluation of lung doses for dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled 239PuO2 is being followed for life-span effects. This paper reports preliminary lung dose estimates and dose-response relationships for incidence of lung tumors and radiation pneumonitis which have been observed to date. Doses were estimated by using both conventional dose-averaging and microdosimetric techniques. Cascade impactor sampling data were used to reconstruct the original plutonium aerosol size distributions unique to each of about 120 individual dogs exposed to 239PuO2. Data providing the initial plutonium lung burden and lifetime lung retention-clearance functions of plutonium for each dog were used for calculating average dose rates, cumulative absorbed doses, and specific energy distributions. A linear dose-response relationship for lung tumor induction was estimated on the basis of cumulative lung dose. Average time to death was estimated as a function of average dose rate. Conclusions regarding the potential value of microdosimetry in the interpretation of such dose-response relationships are discussed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Lymphocytopenia induced in beagle dogs by inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium, we gave 124 beagle dogs a single exposure of 239PuO2 2 to 3 years ago at six different levels, i.e., 4, 20, 80, 300, 1100, or 5800 nCi mean initial alveolar depositions. Another group (20 dogs) served as controls. All dogs were about 18 months old. At the four highest exposure levels, a chronic lymphocytopenia developed which correlated with the initial alveolar plutonium burden in regard to magnitude of depression and time of development after exposure. The nadir occurred near 10 months after exposure in dogs receiving 5800, 1100, and 300 nCi, with corresponding lymphocyte levels 40, 55, and 75 percent, respectively, of those observed in control dogs. In the 80-nCi level the nadir occurred about 2 years after exposure at approximately 80 percent of control values. At the two lowest doses, i.e., 4 and 20 nCi, no effect on lymphocyte concentrations was noted 3 years after exposure. The persistent lymphocytopenia related to plutonium inhalation may be of significance in the subsequent development of pulmonary neoplasms previously observed in beagles at this laboratory 8 to 11 years after initial lung depositions of 200 to 1000 nCi of 239Pu

  12. Artificial neural networks applied in the spectrometry of a 239Pu-Be source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the potential use of a neutron source and to define the procedure to handle it under safety conditions, features like neutron spectrum and the ambient dose equivalent of the source must be known. The aim of this work was to determine the spectrum, the total fluence rate and the ambient dose equivalent of a 185 GBq 239Pu-Be neutron source. Using Monte Carlo methods the spectrum, the total fluence rate, and the ambient dose equivalent of a 239Pu-Be were calculated. The spectrum was calculated at 50, 100, 200 and 300 cm from the source in air using MCNP X and MCNP 4C codes. The neutron spectrum was also obtained, at 100 cm, using a Bonner sphere spectrometer whose count rates were used to unfold the neutron spectrum, the unfolding was carried out using an Artificial Neural Network for neutron spectrometry. With the spectrum, the total neutron fluence and the ambient dose equivalent were determined. Calculated results were compared with measured values where Monte Carlo results were smaller than those measured. These differences were attributed to the presence of 241Pu during the source manufacturing. In order to match calculated and measured quantities a 0.102 w/o of 241Pu was estimated. After corrections the differences between calculated and experimental results were 1%. This result shows the advantages of using Artificial Neural Networks technology in the unfolding of neutron spectrum using as a single piece of information the count rates of a Bonner sphere spectrometer. (author)

  13. Fission-Neutron Spectra of U235, Pu239 And Cf252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the fission neutron spectra from the neutron-induced fission of U235 and Pu239, and the spontaneous fission of Cf252, have been made. The spectra were measured with a time-of-flight technique using a plastic scintillator as the fission-neutron detector. The low energy part of the Cf252 fission-neutron spectrum (below 0.3 MeV) was also measured with a Li6 -glass detector replacing the plastic scintillator. The fissile materials were mounted in xenon-gas scintillation cham-bers. The primary neutrons were produced by a 2.5-MeV Van de Graaff accelerator with top terminal pulsing. The resolving time of the time-of-flight equipment was better than 3 ns. Results fitted to Maxwellian distributions, √Ee-E/T, are presented for neutron-induced fissions of U235 at 40 keV and 1.5 MeV of incident neutron energy and for Pu239 at 40 keV. Results are also given for the fission-neutron energy spectrum of Cf252. (author)

  14. Consistent Data Assimilation of Actinide Isotopes: 235U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report we illustrate the methodology of the consistent data assimilation that allows to use the information coming from integral experiments for improving the basic nuclear parameters used in cross section evaluation. A series of integral experiments were analyzed using the EMPIRE evaluated files for 235U, 238U, and 239Pu. Inmost cases the results have shown quite large worse results with respect to the corresponding existing evaluations available for ENDF/B-VII. The observed discrepancies between calculated and experimental results were used in conjunction with the computed sensitivity coefficients and covariance matrix for nuclear parameters in a consistent data assimilation. Only the GODIVA and JEZEBEL experimental results were used, in order to exploit information relative to the isotope of interest that are, in this particular case: 235U and 239Pu. The results obtained by the consistent data assimilation indicate that with reasonable modifications (mostly within the initial standard deviation) it is possible to eliminate the original large discrepancies on the Keff of the two critical configurations. However, some residual discrepancy remains for a few fission spectral indices that are, most likely, to be attributed to the detector cross sections.

  15. New data on the toxicity and translocation of inhaled 239PuO2 in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973-1974, baboons were exposed to a polydispersed aerosol of 239PuO2, prepared at 10000C, at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France. The data published in 1978 for these baboons were used by Bair et al (1980), for comparison with those obtained in beagles exposed to 239PuO2 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, USA. Since our 1978 publication, 8 baboons have died or were killed by euthanasia when moribund, and 11 were still alive when the present report was drafted. Two of the eight baboons died of lung squamous cell carcinoma at 2171 and 2528 days respectively. The remaining 6 died of fibrosis, interstitial pneumonia or diseases unrelated to Pu toxicity. The relationship observed in the eight baboons between initial lung burden and survival time shows that their lifespan was longer than expected from the data curve based on the findings for the first 1000 days. However, this increased survival time was not observed if the lifespan was expressed as a function of the average lung burden. (author)

  16. Comparison of acute mortality in baboons and dogs after inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from experiments with baboons were compared with those from experiments with dogs to determine the relative sensitivity of the two species to acute mortality from inhaled 239PuO2. To assure a valid comparison of data developed at two laboratories, methodology differences were minimized by establishing a common pool of raw data, using the same computer programs to analyze the data, and standardizing assumptions regarding the calculation of radiation doses to lungs. Several comparison methods were used involving variations in estimating different parameters such as the concentration of plutonium in the lungs. Although nearly all comparisons suggested baboons were slightly more sensitive, none of the methods for comparing the relationship between dose and survival time showed consistently significant differences between baboons and dogs. Although the baboons were physiologically and morphologically immature when exposed to plutonium, whereas the dogs were mature, it was concluded that adult baboons and dogs are similarly sensitive to the acute effects of inhaled 239PuO2. Since only acute mortality was considered in this comparison, the results do not apply to possible late effects caused by much lower levels of plutonium than were used in these experiments

  17. Subcellular distribution of Pu-239 in the liver of rat, mouse, Syrian and Chinese hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our studies was to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the differences in the biological half life of actinides in the liver of different mammalian species. Rats and mice were chosen as models for rapid elimination, and Syrian and Chinese hamsters as models for slow elimination. To distinguish between fixation in lysosomes and mitochondria, the lysosomes were isolated following injection of Triton WR1339 6 days after 239Pu administration. The animals were sacrificed 4 days later. In order to study the possible association with ferritin, 59Fe was also injected. Liver homogenates were subjected to differential and isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. The typical shift in the density of the lysosomal marker acid phosphatase from rho approximately 1.2 to rho approximately 1.1 following Triton WR1339 injection was observed in all species. It was possible therefore to separate lysosomes from other cell organelles, especially mitochondria. It was concluded that: 1) Mitochondria can virtually be excluded as binding sites in all four species; 2) Lysosomes are one important storage site in rats, mice and Syrian hamsters; 3) If 239Pu is bound to another cell constituent in addition to lysosomes in the hamster species (which is not yet proven) its density should be approximately 1.17. (H.K.)

  18. Occurrence of bone cancer among young adult Beagles given 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred thirty-five young adult Beagles of both sexes were each given a single intravenous injection of 239Pu-citrate at graded dose-levels averaging about 0.026 to 106 kBq/kg when they were about 1 1/2 years of age and were maintained for lifespan observation. An additional 133 young adult Beagles of both sexes were entered into the experiment as control animals. All of these animals have now died or have been removed from the colony, and the occurrence of skeletal malignancies has been determined from histological examination. There were a total of 85 radiographically apparent malignant bone tumors in 77 dogs given 239Pu, and there was one control animal that developed a skeletal malignancy. Most of these were osteosarcomas, but there were seven chondrosarcomas of bone, one liposarcoma of bone, and in addition, there was one plasma cell myeloma and one ameloblastoma (admantinoma). Only those dogs that survived to at least the minimum latent period for death with radiation-induced bone sarcoma are included in the tabulation. There appeared to be a linear relationship between the percent of dogs with bone tumor and the average skeletal dose up to a dose of about 1 Gy. All dose-levels with skeletal doses of about 2 Gy and greater exhibited close to 100% occurrence

  19. Comunicato stampa N°239 della IARC "Le persone affette da HIV sono colpite in modo sproporzionato da tumori dovuti alle infezioni" pubblicato il 23 ottobre 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Fellone, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Versione autorizzata in italiano del Comunicato Stampa della IARC N°239 pubblicato il 23 ottobre 2015: "LE PERSONE AFFETTE DA HIV SONO COLPITE IN MODO SPROPORZIONATO DA TUMORI DOVUTI ALLE INFEZIONI". Documento originale all'indirizzo: http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2015/pdfs/pr239_E.pdf Authorized Italian version of the IARC Press Release N°239 published on 23 October 2015:  HIV-POSITIVE PEOPLE DISPROPORTIONATELY AFFECTED BY INFECTION-RELATED CANCERS. Origina...

  20. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu, Thule, North-West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strodl Andersen, J. (JSA EnviroStat (Denmark))

    2011-10-15

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241Am and 239,240Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241Am is 2.8x105 Bq m-2. Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241Am is 1.9-104 Bq m-2. Prediction of the overall amount of 241Am and 239,240Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  1. Microlocalization of 239Pu in structural elements of the interalveolar septa after inhalation of its various compounds and pentacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative and qualitative evaluation of 239 Pu mictodistribution in the structural elements of the interalveolar septa after inhalation of three plutonium compounds different in solubility is made. Thirty minutes after the inhalation 55.3-85.3% of plutonium (dioxide>nitrate>=citrate) was revealed in rhe cells, predominantly in the microphages. More than half of the isotope found in the noncellular elements, lies in the surface layer of the alveoli and the intercellular matter. First 239Pu is seen as ''stars'' of tracks (dioxide), mainly (nitrate) or exclusively (citrate) as individual tracks. The different extent of plutonium elimination from the interalveolar septa (dioxide239Pu from the cells is mainly determined by its escape from the macrophages (dioxide) or from all cellular elements (nitrate, citrate). Pentacin accelates elimination of plutonium from the most of the structural elements of the interalveolar septa (citrate>nitrate)

  2. 239Pu(n,2n) 238Pu cross section inferred from IDA calculations and GEANIE measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Ormand, W E; Dietrich, F S

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the latest {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross sections inferred from calculations performed with the nuclear reaction-modeling code system, IDA, coupled with experimental measurements of partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for incident neutron energies ranging from 5.68 to 17.18 MeV. It is found that the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section peaks at E{sub inc} {approx} 11.4 MeV with a peak value of approximately 326 mb. At E{sub inc} {approx} 14 MeV, the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section is found to be in good agreement with previous radio-chemical measurements by Lockheed. However, the shape of the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section differs significantly from previous evaluations of ENDL, ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI. In our calculations, direct, preequilibrium, and compound reactions are included. Also considered in the modeling are fission and {gamma}-cascade processes in addition to particle emission. The main components of physics adopted and the parameters used in our calculations are discussed. Good agreement of the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross sections derived separately from IDA and GNASH calculations is shown. The two inferences provide an estimate of variations in the deduced {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section originating from modeling.

  3. Analysis of Fuel Temperature Reactivity Coefficients According to Burn-up and Pu-239 Production in CANDU Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonances for some kinds of nuclides such as U-238 and Pu-239 are not easy to be accurately processed. In addition, the Pu-239 productions from burnup are also significant in CANDU, where the natural uranium is used as a fuel. In this study, the FTCs were analyzed from the viewpoints of the resonance self-shielding methodology and Pu-239 build-up. The lattice burnup calculations were performed using the TRITON module in the SCALE6 code system, and the BONAMI module was executed to obtain self-shielded cross sections using the Bondarenko approach. Two libraries, ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII.0, were used to compare the Pu-239 effect on FTC, since the ENDF/B-VII has updated the Pu-239 cross section data. The FTCs of the CANDU reactor were newly analyzed using the TRITON module in the SCALE6 code system, and the BONAMI module was executed to apply the Bondarenko approach for self-shielded cross sections. When compared with some reactor physics codes resulting in slightly positive FTC in the specific region, the FTCs evaluated in this study showed a clear negativity over the entire fuel temperature range on fresh/equilibrium fuel. In addition, the FTCs at 960.15 K were slightly negative during the entire burnup. The effects on FTCs from the library difference between ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII.0 are recognized to not be large; however, they appear more positive when more Pu-239 productions with burnup are considered. This feasibility study needs an additional benchmark evaluation for FTC calculations, but it can be used as a reference for a new FTC analysis in CANDU reactors

  4. In vitro dose-response of macrophages to 239PuO2 and 241AmO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a study designed to examine various means of solubilizing actinide particles within macrophages, we have measured the in vitro effects of 241AmO2 and 239PuO2 on these cells. Dose distribution within the cell population was estimated by autoradiography and compared to cell detachment as a function of time. The 241AmO2 and 239PuO2 were toxic in proportion to their radioactivity rather than their mass. Approximately 385 intracellular disintegrations are required from either radionuclide to cause cells to detach from the flask surface

  5. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  6. Investigation of forming mechanism of instantaneous neutron spectrum of 235U, 239Pu, 252Cf nuclei fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation mechanism of prompt neutrons spectrum during the fission of the 235U, 239Pu nuclei by thermal and fast neutrons and spontaneous fission of 252Cf is investigated. The formation procedure for prompt neutrons spectrum during the fission of nuclei as superposition of three partial evaporation Weisskopf spectra with the mean energy of neutrons 0.4, 2.06 and 2.8 MeV is proposed. Formation mechanism of the spectrum just as during the fission of the 235U, 239Pu nuclei by thermal and fast neutrons, so spontaneous fission of the 252Cf nuclei is identical

  7. Calculation of 239Pu fission observables in an event-by-event simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J; Pruet, J; Younes, W

    2010-03-31

    The increased interest in more exclusive fission observables has demanded more detailed models. We describe a new computational model, FREYA, that aims to meet this need by producing large samples of complete fission events from which any observable of interest can then be extracted consistently, including any interesting correlations. The various model assumptions are described and the potential utility of the model is illustrated. As a concrete example, we use formal statistical methods, experimental data on neutron production in neutron-induced fission of {sup 239}Pu, along with FREYA, to develop quantitative insights into the relation between reaction observables and detailed microscopic aspects of fission. Current measurements of the mean number of prompt neutrons emitted in fission taken together with less accurate current measurements for the prompt post-fission neutron energy spectrum, up to the threshold for multi-chance fission, place remarkably fine constraints on microscopic theories.

  8. Pulmonary distribution of inhaled 239PuO2 in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of plutonium in the lungs was studied by analyzing autoradiographs from dogs killed up to 69 months after single, nose-only exposures to 239PuO2 aerosols. Within 5 months of exposure, the pattern of alpha-star distribution was relatively dispersed and uniform throughout the lung section, changing by 12 months to a less uniform distribution that exhibited focal concentration, subpleural concentration, and alpha-star aggregation. Increased subpleural concentrations were demonstrated infve of six dogs killed 12 or more months after exposure. The percentage of alpha stars found in localized regions of relatively high concentration and the portion found in aggregation (define here as two or more alpha stars with overlapping tracks) increased with tie postexposure. The data demonstrate that an initial relatively uniform dispersion of plutonium particles changed with time to a focally concentrated distribution with relatively small tissue volume containing most of the pulmonary plutonium burden

  9. The self-absorption effect of gamma rays in 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear materials assay with gamma-ray spectrum measurement is a well-established method for safeguards. However, for a thick source, the self-absorption of characteristic low-energy gamma rays has been a handicap to accurate assay. The author has carried out Monte Carlo simulations to study this effect using the 239Pu α-decay gamma-ray spectrum as an example. The thickness of a plutonium metal source can be considered a function of gamma-ray intensity ratios. In a practical application, gamma-ray intensity ratios can be obtained from a measured spectrum. With the help of calculated curves, scientists can find the source thickness and make corrections to gamma-ray intensities, which then lead to an accurate quantitative determination of radioactive isotopes in the material

  10. 238Pu and 239+240Pu activities in lower Rhone valley in cultivated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured 238Pu and 239+240Pu activities in French soils can be explained by the fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests and the disintegration of a US nuclear reactor satellite in 1964. However, some soil samples from the lower Rhone valley show higher mass activities, due to the Marcoule nuclear fuel reprocessing plant discharges. Soil samples from the Camargue, flooded in 1993 and 1994, where Rhone River sediments have been deposited, contain Pu from liquid effluents released by the nuclear plant. Seven samples taken near the nuclear facility show a direct influence by its atmospheric releases. Samples from soils irrigated with Rhone River water for 30 years do not show any activity significantly higher than regional means. (authors)

  11. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography. [Pu-238, Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martin, F.M.; Fore, C.S. (comps.)

    1977-03-01

    This eighth published bibliography of 427 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium in the critical organs of man and animals. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keyword(s), taxon, title, and publication description.

  12. Quantitative scanning electron microscopic autoradiography of inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain autoradiographs of particles of 239PuO2 deposited in rat lung. The technique was used to obtain quantitative information on the clearance rates of particles from the alveoli, bronchioles and trachea up to 240 d after exposure. At all times, the concentration of particles on the surface of the bronchioles was an order of magnitude greater than on the tracheal surface. The clearance of Pu from both regions followed a biphasic pattern, similar to that obtained by radiometric analysis of the whole lung. Most of the radiation dose to the bronchiolar epithelium originated from Pu particles in peribronchiolar alveoli in which they were preferentially retained, compared to other alveolar regions. The prolonged retention of particles in the peribronchiolar alveoli may be a significant factor in the induction of lung carcinomas

  13. Aerosols generated by 239PU and 233U droplets burning in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhalation hazards of radioactive aerosols produced by the explosive disruption and subsequent combustion of metallic plutonium in air are not adequately understood. Results of a study to determine whether uranium can be substituted for plutonium in such a situation in which experiments were performed under identical conditions with laser-ignited, single, freely falling droplets of 239Pu and 233U are reported. The total amounts of aerosol produced were studied quantitatively as a function of time during the combustion. Also, particle size distributions of selected aerosols were studied with aerodynamic particle separation techniques. Results showed that the ultimate quantity of aerosols, their final particle size distributions, and depositions as a function of time are not identical mainly because of the different vapor pressures of the metals, and the unlike degrees of violence of the explosions of the droplets

  14. The simultaneous determination of 235U and 239Pu using delayed neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA) remains one of the most sensitive methods of nondestructively determining fissile materials in a variety of sample matrices, provided that the samples contain only a single fissile component. This has historically been the limiting factor in many applications of DNAA, and often chemically destructive methods of analysis have needed to be utilized for many real-world samples. This work seeks to develop a method that will allow for DNAA to be utilized on samples containing multiple fissile components. Initial efforts, presented here, show that using a multivariate linear regression model to describe the delayed neutron emission profile of an irradiated sample allows for the concurrent determination of fissile nuclides in samples containing both 235U and 239Pu, without chemical separations and using only a single counting step. (author)

  15. Comparison of rats and dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats and dogs inhaled aerosols of 239PuO2 at comparable ages relative to their lifespan. Both received a single exposure. The estimated lung doses at death in dogs were between 1100 and 11,000 rad. From two inhalation experiments, rats receiving doses in this range were chosen from the high-level exposed animals for comparison. Based on this data base, several comparisons were investigated. Metabolism of the material was compared for all animals and for animals which developed lung tumors. The differences in histopathology and tumor incidence in the lung were also reviewed. Although there were several differences between species, there were also many similarities. On-going research in dogs should produce data which will allow clarification of these relationships

  16. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and plutonium-239 dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. The purpose of this ongoing study is to investigate potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, Be metal, or these agents in combination. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high-linear-energy transfer, alpha-particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be. As a result, Be is classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United STates and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This study is in progress.

  17. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a 1.5 μm aerodynamic diameter monodisperse aerosol of 239PuO2 to compare the biological effects with those seen in young adult and aged dogs exposed to a similar aerosol. To date, 18 dogs have been exposed to the aerosol, resulting in graded initial lung burdens ranging from 0.003 to 0.38 μCi/kg body weight. Two dogs have been exposed to the aerosol diluent and serve as controls. Two of the 18 exposed animals were sacrificed 8 days after exposure to provide information on initial deposition and distribution. All other exposed animals are alive 400 days after exposure. No dogs were exposed during the past year because of an outbreak of canine parvovirus enteritis which caused death in 8 to 10 week-old dogs

  18. Investigation of slot discharge on a 239 MVA hydro generator stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Hong, W. [BC Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a slot discharge investigation conducted on a 239 MVA generator stator winding. The generator in which the winding was located had experienced core split distortion, stator winding phase-to-phase failures, winding failures during Hipot testing, and high partial discharge (PD) activity. The results of on-line PD testing data were evaluated. The stator winding was subjected to visual inspections, bar dissections, and failure mechanism analyses. Eleven winding bars were removed from the stator slots in order to assess groundwall insulation conditions and identify the cause of the slot discharge activity. It was determined that the root cause of the slot discharge was a loose, non-uniform bar in the slot. The vibrating bar caused the semi-conductive coating to wear out and degraded the armour tape. Results of the study demonstrated the importance of on-line PD monitoring for detecting slot PD activity. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  19. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia); Wisnubroto, Djarot S. [The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup −1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup −1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup −3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup −3}.

  20. Thermal-Neutron-Induced Fission of U235, U233 and Pu239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used solid-state detectors to measure the kinetic energies of the coincident fission fragments in the thermal-neutron-induced fission of U235, U233 and Pu239. Special care has been taken to eliminate spurious-events near symmetry to give an accurate measure of such quantities as the average total kinetic energy at symmetry. For each fissioning system over 106 events were recorded. As a result the statistics are good enough to see definite evidence for fine structure over a wide range of masses and energies. The data have been analysed to give mass yield curves, average kinetic energies as a function of mass, and other quantities of interest. For each fissioning system the average total kinetic energy goes through a maximum for a heavy fragment mass of about 132 and for the corresponding light fragment mass. There is a pronounced minimum at symmetry, although not as deep as that found in time-of-flight experiments. The difference between the maximum average kinetic energy and that at symmetry is about 32 MeV for U235, 18 MeV for U233 and 20 MeV for Pu239. The dispersion of kinetic energies at symmetry is also smaller than that found in time-of-flight experiments. Fine structure is apparent in two different representations of the data. The energy spectrum of heavy fragments in coincidence with light fragment energies is greater than the most probable value. This structure becomes more pronounced as the light fragment energy increases. The mass yield curves for a given total kinetic energy show a structure suggesting a preference for fission fragments with masses ∼134, ∼140 and ∼145 (and their light fragment partners). Much of the structure observed can be understood by considering a semi-empirical mass surface and a simple model for the nuclear configuration at the saddle point. (author)

  1. Symmetry of Neutron-Induced Pu239 Fission in Resonance Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetry of fission produced in Pu239 by time-of-flight energy-resolved neutrons has been radiochemicaly measured in the resonance region by a neutron time-of-flight method, called the ''wheel'' method, which has been described previously. Data were obtained from 200 eV to 600 eV in energy intervals ranging from 10 eV to 25 eV in width, containing 3 to 12 resonances per sample. Both increases and decreases in symmetry of fission were observed as compared with thermal-neutron fission of Pu239. Measured by the ratio of Cd115, a ''valley'' fission product, to Moss, a ''peak'' fission product, the symmetric yield decreased by 18% at 250 ± 4 eV, 29% at 307 ± 5 eV and 33% at 395 ± 6 eV. The symmetric yield increased by 16% at 206 eV. The average symmetry of fission over the energy region 196 eV to 585 eV showed a decrease of 8% from the thermal value. Changes in the ratio Ag111/Mo99 appeared to be about one-third as great as changes in the Cd115/Mo99 ratio from level to level. The ratio Ba114/Mo99 showed no systematic changes from the thermal value within analytical error and the average is within 1% of the thermal ratio, which permits the assumption that Mo99 and Ba114 yields are not variable for resonance fission and are the same as in thermal fission. (author)

  2. A comparative study of the carcinogenetic effects of 241Am, 239Pu and 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this experiment, 420 wistar rats were used to study the comparative carcinogenetic effects of 241Am, 239Pu and 237Np. These nuclides were injected to animals intravenously, subcutaneously or directly into the lung (Stansen's lung puncture method) in doses of 1.0, 5.0 and 8.5 μCi/kg, respectively. As soluble nitrate, the nuclides were rapidly transfered from the site of injection into the bone and the liver. Osteosarcomas were found in some animals 8 months to one year after intoxication. Diagnosis of osteosarcoma is based on the histopatological examination and X-ray photography. In the Am-poisoned rats the incidence of osteosarcoma is about 31-74%, varied with different doses and different routes of intoxication; in Pu-poisoned rats, the incidence of osteosarcoma is about 55-66%. while in Np-poisoned rats, it is about 36-53%. Primary lung cancers were also found in those animals poisoned by means of Stansen's lung puncture method with the above three nuclides. The incidence of primary lung cancers is about 6% in Am-and Pu-poisoned rats and 13% in Np-poisoned rats. The incidence of metastasis of osteosarcoma in lung is about 25-65% for Am-poisoned rats, 45-55% for Pu-poisoned rats and 41-80% for Np-poisoned rats. The life-span of above poisoned rats was significantly shorter than that of the normal control animals. The chemical weight for 241Am, 239Pu and 237Np in same unit of radioactivity (1.0 μCi) equals to 0.308 μg, 15.9 μg and 1418.7 μg, respectively. For this reason, we have to pay more attention to the chemical mass effect in carcinogenesis of the above three nuclides

  3. Dosimetry and response in rat pulmonary epithelium following inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of inhaled 239PuO2 and pathologic changes have been studied in the lung of rats. The clearance of inhaled 237239PuO2 from the lung is a function of the amount of deposited Pu with a decrease in early alveolar clearance with increasing lung burden. With increasing time post-exposure there is a greater concentration of PuO2 and an increased aggregation of PuO2 particles in subpleural regions of the lung. Fibrotic and metaplastic lesions in the lung were usually focal, being found in subpleural regions associated with aggregates of PuO2. An average of 12 +- 6 percent of the lung volume was fibrotic at 530 days after an initial alveolar deposition of 180 nCi 239Pu. Lung tumors occupied 4 +- 6 percent and epithelial metaplasias less than 1 percent of the lung volume at this time. Cell proliferation as assayed by tritiated thymidine autoradiography was greater in fibrotic, metaplastic and neoplastic regions than in areas of normal alveolar-bronchiolar epithelium. Turnover times ranged from about 6 days for fibrotic lesions to 1 to 3 days for metaplastic and neoplastic lesions. The lung tumor doubling times were 57 to 116 days due to tumor cell necrosis and other factors that limit tumor cell survival. Cell proliferation rates for adenomatous metaplasia were similar to those for adenocarcinoma while those for squamous cell metaplasia were similar to those for squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous lesions exhibited a more rapid growth than did adenomatous lesions

  4. 5 CFR 591.239 - How do agencies treat COLAs and post differentials for the purpose of overtime pay and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do agencies treat COLAs and post differentials for the purpose of overtime pay and other entitlements? 591.239 Section 591.239 Administrative... treat COLAs and post differentials for the purpose of overtime pay and other entitlements? (a)...

  5. 17 CFR 239.18 - Form S-11, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate companies. 239.18 Section 239.18... Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate companies. This form shall be used for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of (a) securities issued by real estate investment trusts,...

  6. Determination Of Concentrations Of Cs-137 And Pu-239/240 In Sediment From Muria Peninsula And Surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of concentration of Cs-137 and Pu-239/240 on sediment from Muria Peninsula and Surrounding has been done. The samples were collected from 10 locations. The aim of this research is to get status data of concentrations of Cs-137 and Pu-239/240 in sediment at those locations. Concentration of Cs-137 was determined after drying the sediment, then was measured directly by using Gamma Spectrometer with high pure. Germanium Detector (HPGe), mean while concentration Pu-239/240 was determined by leaching using HNO sub.3 solution, and then separated from other materials by anion exchanger and measured with alpha spectrometer Silicon Surface Barrier Detector. The results show that the concentration of Cs-137 in sediment is in the range of between under lower limit detection (< MDC) value to (0,71 n 0,15) Bq/kg, and the concentrations of Pu-239/240 is in the range of between (< MDC) and (26,47 n 2,98) mBq/kg

  7. Initial deposition and early clearance of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from exposures of 113 beagle dogs to 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols were analyzed for effects of aerosol properties on deposition and early clearance. The percent of inhaled aerosols deposited was not significantly dependent on particle size or aerosol concentration. The early clearance rate was significantly slower at the highest exposure levels than at medium and low levels

  8. Comparison of metabolism and late effects in dogs and rats exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung tumors were observed proportionally earlier in relation to expected life span in dogs than in rats after inhalation of 239PuO2. Dogs appear to translocate a higher percentage of initial lung burden to liver, skeleton and thoracic lymph nodes than rats

  9. The inflow of 238Pu and 239+240Pu from the Vistula River catchment area to the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was to estimate plutonium inflow from the Vistula River's catchments area to the Baltic Sea. There were differences in plutonium activities depending on season and sampling site. The highest activities of 238Pu and 239+240Pu were transported from the Vistula River watershed to the Baltic Sea in spring and the lowest in summer. Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched via the Vistula River with 10.3 MBq of 238Pu and 89.0 MBq of 239+240Pu. The enhanced concentration of plutonium in water from the Vistula River is the result of its runoff from the Vistula drainage area, mostly from snowmelt, enhanced rainfalls and leached materials from river bed. - Highlights: → We estimated plutonium inflow from the Vistula River catchment area to the Baltic Sea. → We found differences in Pu activities depending on season and sampling site. → The highest amount of 239 + 240Pu was transported in spring and the lowest in summer. → Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched with 89.0 MBq of 239 + 240Pu. → Enhanced Pu amount in water came from snowmelt, rainfalls and leached materials.

  10. Measurement of fallout radionuclides, (239)(,240)Pu and (137)Cs, in soil and creek sediment: Sydney Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B S; Child, D P; Fierro, D; Harrison, J J; Heijnis, H; Hotchkis, M A C; Johansen, M P; Marx, S; Payne, T E; Zawadzki, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples from the Sydney basin were measured to ascertain fallout radionuclide activity concentrations and atom ratios. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) was measured using gamma spectroscopy, and plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) were quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Fallout radionuclide activity concentrations were variable ranging from 0.6 to 26.1 Bq/kg for (137)Cs and 0.02-0.52 Bq/kg for (239+240)Pu. Radionuclides in creek sediment samples were an order of magnitude lower than in soils. (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentration in soils were well correlated (r(2) = 0.80) although some deviation was observed in samples collected at higher elevations. Soil ratios of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu (decay corrected to 1/1/2014) ranged from 11.5 to 52.1 (average = 37.0 ± 12.4) and showed more variability than previous studies. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.117 to 0.165 with an average of 0.146 (±0.013) and an error weighted mean of 0.138 (±0.001). These ratios are lower than a previously reported ratio for Sydney, and lower than the global average. However, these ratios are similar to those reported for other sites within Australia that are located away from former weapons testing sites and indicate that atom ratio measurements from other parts of the world are unlikely to be applicable to the Australian context. PMID:26344369

  11. Suitability of 239+240Pu and 137Cs as tracers for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides have been distributed globally due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. While the negative consequences of this radioactive contamination are self-evident, the ubiquitous fallout radionuclides (FRNs) distribution form the basis for the use as tracers in ecological studies, namely for soil erosion assessment. Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. We compare the suitability of the anthropogenic FRNs, 137Cs and 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracers in two alpine valleys of Switzerland (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri, Central Swiss Alps and Val Piora, Ticino, Southern Alps). We sampled reference and potentially erosive sites in transects along both valleys. 137Cs measurements of soil samples were performed with a Li-drifted Germanium detector and 239+240Pu with ICP-MS. Our data indicates a heterogeneous deposition of the 137Cs, since most of the fallout origins from the Chernobyl April/May 1986 accident, when large parts of the European Alps were still snow-covered. In contrast, 239+240Pu fallout originated mainly from 1950s to 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, resulting in a more homogenous distribution and thus seems to be a more suitable tracer in mountainous grasslands. Soil erosion assessment using 239+240Pu as a tracer pointed to a huge dynamic and high heterogeneity of erosive processes (between sedimentation of 1.9 and 7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.2-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the Urseren Valley and sedimentation of 0.4-20.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.1-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) at Val Piora). Our study represents a novel and successful application of 239+240Pu as a tracer of soil erosion in a mountain environment. PMID:24374184

  12. Effect of alpha irradiation of the lungs from inhaled 239PuO2 on the immunity of mice to Listeria monocytogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulmonary clearance of inhaled Listeria monocytogenes from the lungs of nonimmunized and immunized mice was observed 3 to 4 or 26 wks after prior exposure to 239PuO2 to achieve initial lung burdens of 2.6, 5.0 and 11.9 nanocuries (nCi). Mice from 239PuO2 and sham-exposed groups were immunized against L. monocytogenes and 1 wk later challenged via the respiratory route. Pulmonary clearance was suppressed in mice with an 11.9 nCi initial lung burden of 239Pu 26 wk after 239PuO2 inhalation but not in the mice with initial lung burdens of 2.6 and 5.0 nCi at 4 to 5 or 27 wk after 239PuO2 exposure. Mice with a mean initial lung burden of 11.9 nCi of 239Pu, which were immunized against L. monocytogenes 26 wk after 239PuO2 inhalation, had a decreased survival after respiratory challenge with L. monocytogenes when compared to immunized control animals. Body weight gain and hematological differences did not correlate with suppressed pulmonary clearance or decreased survival. Pulmonary lavage studies indicated that fewer alveolar macrophages were recoverable from mice with a mean initial lung burden of 11.9 nCi of 239Pu 26 wk after 239PuO2 inhalation. It was concluded that an initial lung burden of 11.9 nCi of 239Pu which delivered approximately 700 rads of alpha radiation to the lungs of mice resulted in decreased pulmonary clearance and decreased survival of mice which had been immunized against L. monocytogenes

  13. Pu-239 organ specific dosimetric model applied to non-human biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Matthew Jason

    There are few locations throughout the world, like the Maralinga nuclear test site located in south western Australia, where sufficient plutonium contaminate concentration levels exist that they can be utilized for studies of the long-term radionuclide accumulation in non-human biota. The information obtained will be useful for the potential human users of the site while also keeping with international efforts to better understand doses to non-human biota. In particular, this study focuses primarily on a rabbit sample set collected from the population located within the site. Our approach is intended to employ the same dose and dose rate methods selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adapted by the scientific community for similar research questions. These models rely on a series of simplifying assumptions on biota and their geometry; in particular; organisms are treated as spherical and ellipsoidal representations displaying the animal mass and volume. These simplifications assume homogeneity of all animal tissues. In collaborative efforts between Colorado State University and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), we are expanding current knowledge on radionuclide accumulation in specific organs causing organ-specific dose rates, such as Pu-239 accumulating in bone, liver, and lungs. Organ-specific dose models have been developed for humans; however, little has been developed for the dose assessment to biota, in particular rabbits. This study will determine if it is scientifically valid to use standard software, in particular ERICA Tool, as a means to determine organ-specific dosimetry due to Pu-239 accumulation in organs. ERICA Tool is normally applied to whole organisms as a means to determine radiological risk to whole ecosystems. We will focus on the aquatic model within ERICA Tool, as animal organs, like aquatic organisms, can be assumed to lie within an infinite uniform medium. This model would

  14. First measurements of 236U concentrations and 236U/239Pu isotopic ratios in a Southern Hemisphere soil far from nuclear test or reactor sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation of the 236U and 239Pu concentrations as a function of depth has been studied in a soil profile at a site in the Southern Hemisphere well removed from nuclear weapon test sites. Total inventories of 236U and 239Pu as well as the 236U/239Pu isotopic ratio were derived. For this investigation a soil core from an undisturbed forest area in the Herbert River catchment (17°30′ – 19°S) which is located in north-eastern Queensland (Australia) was chosen. The chemical separation of U and Pu was carried out with a double column which has the advantage of the extraction of both elements from a relatively large soil sample (∼20 g) within a day. The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using the 14UD pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. The highest atom concentrations of both 236U and 239Pu were found at a depth of 2–3 cm. The 236U/239Pu isotopic ratio in fallout at this site, as deduced from the ratio of the 236U and 239Pu inventories, is 0.085 ± 0.003 which is clearly lower than the Northern Hemisphere value of ∼0.2. The 236U inventory of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 1011 at/m2 was more than an order of magnitude lower than values reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The 239Pu activity concentrations are in excellent agreement with a previous study and the 239+240Pu inventory was (13.85 ± 0.29) Bq/m2. The weighted mean 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratio of 0.142 ± 0.005 is slightly lower than the value for global fallout, but our results are consistent with the average ratio of 0.173 ± 0.027 for the southern equatorial region (0–30°S). - Highlights: • Exploration of uranium-236 (236U) and plutonium-239 (239Pu) in the Southern Hemisphere by accelerator mass spectrometry. • We report the depth profile for both isotopes from a forest site well removed from nuclear test or reactor sites. • 236U and 239Pu were deposited at the same time due to nuclear weapons tests but show a slightly different depth dependence. • The

  15. 239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra Impact on a Set of Criticality and Experimental Reactor Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneliau, Y.; Litaize, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.

    2014-04-01

    A large set of nuclear data are investigated to improve the calculation predictions of the new neutron transport simulation codes. With the next generation of nuclear power plants (GEN IV projects), one expects to reduce the calculated uncertainties which are mainly coming from nuclear data and are still very important, before taking into account integral information in the adjustment process. In France, future nuclear power plant concepts will probably use MOX fuel, either in Sodium Fast Reactors or in Gas Cooled Fast Reactors. Consequently, the knowledge of 239Pu cross sections and other nuclear data is crucial issue in order to reduce these sources of uncertainty. The Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra (PFNS) for 239Pu are part of these relevant data (an IAEA working group is even dedicated to PFNS) and the work presented here deals with this particular topic. The main international data files (i.e. JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0, BRC-2009) have been considered and compared with two different spectra, coming from the works of Maslov and Kornilov respectively. The spectra are first compared by calculating their mathematical moments in order to characterize them. Then, a reference calculation using the whole JEFF-3.1.1 evaluation file is performed and compared with another calculation performed with a new evaluation file, in which the data block containing the fission spectra (MF=5, MT=18) is replaced by the investigated spectra (one for each evaluation). A set of benchmarks is used to analyze the effects of PFNS, covering criticality cases and mock-up cases in various neutron flux spectra (thermal, intermediate, and fast flux spectra). Data coming from many ICSBEP experiments are used (PU-SOL-THERM, PU-MET-FAST, PU-MET-INTER and PU-MET-MIXED) and French mock-up experiments are also investigated (EOLE for thermal neutron flux spectrum and MASURCA for fast neutron flux spectrum). This study shows that many experiments and neutron parameters are very sensitive to

  16. Distribution of 239Pu and 241Am in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 241Am and 239Pu distribution in the skeletons of two former nuclear workers has been measured. The skeletons of both individuals appear to be within normal limits for Caucasian men about 50 y old. Both had lower limb bones that were heavier than the age controls and Case I had upper-body bones that were lighter than the age control group. The distribution of americium in the skeleton of Case I, 25 years post exposure, indicated that a more rapid turnover of initially deposited americium on the bone surfaces of cancellous bone, as compared to that deposited on the bone surfaces of compact bone, had occurred. This resulted in a larger proportion of americium located in the compact bone of the extremities and a lesser quantity in the more cancellous bones of the vertebral column, pelvis and rib cage. A similar shift in the distribution of plutonium occurred in Case II in the 35 y since initial deposition, but at a slower rate than that for americium. The ratio of each actinide in the liver to that in the systemic system (liver content/systemic system content) was 0.065 and 0.436, for americium and plutonium, respectively, suggesting that a much more rapid turnover of americium in the liver, compared to plutonium, provided a much larger fraction of that nuclide for circulatory feedback to the remodeling skeletal system. 8 references, 3 tables

  17. Incidence of liver tumors in beagles with body burdens of 239Pu or 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetravalent 239Pu or trivalent 241Am in a citrate buffer, given via a single intravenous injection to beagles, induced very pronounced liver changes, usually at relatively long postinjection times. The lesions consisted of cell injury or cell necrosis which was followed by nodular hyperplasia and a significant incidence of primary liver tumors. The most frequent neoplasm was the bile duct adenoma, followed by the bile duct carcinoma. A lesser number of sarcomas were also induced, especially fibrosarcomas. The number of hepatic cell tumors was low. An abnormally high incidence of both hyperplastic nodules and primary liver tumors occurred at long postinjection times and at average doses extending down to ∼10 rads. The various nodular lesions and liver tumors frequently occurred as incidental findings in dogs dying from other causes, especially bone cancer. In comparison to bone neoplasia, the liver was a much less important target organ in the high-dose level groups, but in some of the low-dose groups, especially in the 241Am groups, the risk of radiation-induced liver cancer was approximately equal to or exceeded the risk of skeletal tumors. However, in any projection of the risks observed in this animal model to man, one should be mindful that the beagle skeleton is approximately 25 times more sensitive to radiation-induced bone neoplasia than is the human skeleton (Mays et al., 1976) and that the radiosensitivity difference for the beagle and human liver is unknown. 41 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Numbers of prompt neutrons per fission for U233, U235, Pu239, and Cf252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An absolute measurement of #-v#, the average number of prompt neutrons emitted per fission, is being made for the spontaneous fission of Cf262. The relative values of #-v# are being measured for neutron-induced fission of U233, U235, and Pu239, and are being compared with the spontaneous fission #-v# of Cf252. Neutrons with energies between thermal and 15 MeV are used. Particular emphasis is put on studying the dependence of #-v# on the incident neutron energy. A fission counter containing the appropriate isotope is placed in the centre of a large cadmium-loade d liquid scintillator. Through the fissionable isotope is passed a collimated beam of neutrons. Fission events, identified by pulses from the fission counter, open an electronic gate between the large liquid scintillator and a scaler. Scintillator pulses due to capture in the scintillating solution of thermalized fission neutrons are counted during the gate. The fission neutrons are detected almost independently of energy and with very high efficiency. With this technique values of #-v# to an accuracy of 1 % are expected. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the thermal cross sections of 239Pu and 241Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal neutron cross sections of the isotopes 239Pu and 241Pu have been evaluated in the thermal neutron energy region below 1.0 eV. The method of evaluation fitted energy-dependent data constrained by a modified Adler-Adler multilevel resonance fission and capture formalism and multilevel Breit-Wigner scattering theory. The energy dependence of the number of neutrons per fission was prescribed in the theory by introducing nu as fitted resonance spin-dependent values. The data were fitted in a resonance parameter fitting code, RPFC, using the method of maximum likelihood. The code fits simultaneously the total and partial energy-dependent cross section data to the theory. The types of data explicitly fitted are total, fission, capture, total scattering, coherent scattering, and absorption cross sections plus the quantities alpha, total nu and eta. Relative energy-dependent data with precision errors are fitted along with absolute values and errors at chosen energies. RPFC also allows energy-scale adjustment and Doppler broadening of selected data sets, and fits correlated data of two isotopes simultaneously. Reference experimental data bases of original data plus condensed and modified data were assembled for the evaluation for each isotope. 19 figures, 9 tables

  20. Effects of combined inhalation exposure of rats to 239PuO2 and beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We exposed rats acutely to achieve one of two initial lung burdens (ILBs) of 239PuO2 alone or in combination with one of three ILBs of beryllium metal. Additional control groups of rats were sham exposed to air. Currently, approximately 58% of all rats planned for inclusion have been exposed. This report describes procedures used for the exposure, maintenance, and evaluation of rats in this study. Most of the animals are to be held for their life span in order to quantitate cancer incidence, with other animals assigned to serial sacrifice groups for quantitation of Pu and Be retention and determination of translocation patterns. Exposure to beryllium at any of the three doses tested retarded clearance of plutonium from the lung by a factor of approximately six. Acute inflammatory responses were studied in a separate group of rats exposed to Be. Except for rats receiving the highest ILB of beryllium metal, no differences between exposed and sham-exposed control groups have yet been noted in terms of mortality, weight changes, and clinical signs. (author)

  1. Effects of the herbicide glyphosate on the uptake of 239Pu and 241Am to vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyphosate (n-phosphonomethyl glycine) is a broad spectrum herbicide widely used in lowland agriculture, forestry and improved upland pastures. Although its metal chelating properties are well established, its interaction with radionuclides remains unknown. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of soil applications of glyphosate on the uptake of 239Pu and 241Am to peas and carrots grown in loam, peat and sand soils. Soil-to-plant transfer factors were calculated for treated and untreated soils at harvest. The most marked effect was an increase in 241Am uptake to crops grown in loam soil. Supplementary laboratory batch experiments were conducted by shaking radiolabelled soil and its associated soil solution with glyphosate. The activity concentration of 241Am increased ten fold in the liquid phase of loam soils treated with glyphosate. It is postulated that this 241Am desorption could have been mediated by the formation of a stable Am-glyphosate complex which was subsequently more available for crop uptake than Am alone. (author)

  2. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu with 22-MeV bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianfei; Yang, Haori

    2016-06-01

    In homeland security and nuclear safeguards applications, non-destructive techniques to identify and quantify special nuclear materials are in great demand. Although nuclear materials naturally emit characteristic radiation (e.g. neutrons, γ-rays), their intensity and energy are normally low. Furthermore, such radiation could be intentionally shielded with ease or buried in high-level background. Active interrogation techniques based on photofission have been identified as effective assay approaches to address this issue. In designing such assay systems, nuclear data, like photofission product yields, plays a crucial role. Although fission yields for neutron-induced reactions have been well studied and readily available in various nuclear databases, data on photofission product yields is rather scarce. This poses a great challenge to the application of photofission techniques. In this work, short-lived high-energy delayed γ-rays from photofission of 238U were measured in between linac pulses. In addition, a list-mode system was developed to measure relatively long-lived delayed γ-rays from photofission of 238U and 239Pu after the irradiation. Time and energy information of each γ-ray event were simultaneously recorded by this system. Cumulative photofission product yields were then determined using the measured delayed γ-ray spectra.

  3. Beta and gamma decay-heat measurements for fast and thermal reactors, particularly for Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The mounting evidence suggests (a) that the ORNL thermal-neutron fission decay heat data are likely correct to within stated uncertainties; (b) present data files (ENDF/B-V and others related to it) require more effort, and as improvements are made agreement with ORNL results is likely to become better; and (c) fast fission decay heat, induced by reactor-spectrum neutrons, appears to be little, if any, different from thermal-neutron fission-decay heat. The ANS 5.1 working group seems to be moving toward the above position but the standard for /sup 235/U has not yet been revised. Using /sup 235/U decay-heat data for /sup 239/Pu is quite conservative. Use of /sup 235/U decay-heat data for /sup 241/Pu decay-heat data as required in the standard is conservative only because of the over-statement (by approx. = 8%) of the /sup 235/U data in the standard.

  4. Pulmonary retention and tissue distribution of 239Pu nitrate in F344 rats and syrian hamsters inhaling carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is possible that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to CCl4 and plutonium compounds. Potential for future exposure exists during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapon production sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. The current Threshold Limit Value for CCl4 is 5 ppm; however, concentrations of CCl4 occurring in the nuclear weapons facilities over the past 40-50 y are unknown and may have exceeded this value. The pilot study described in this report is designed to determine whether subchronic inhalation of CCl4 by CDFregister(F-344)/CrlBR rats and Syrian golden hamsters, at concentrations expected to produce some histologic changes in liver, alters the hepatic retention and toxic effects of inhaled 239Pu nitrate 239Pu(NO3)4

  5. Derivation of decay heat benchmarks for U235 and Pu239 by a least squares fit to measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A least squares technique used by previous authors has been applied to an extended set of available decay heat measurements for both U235 and Pu239 to yield simultaneous fits to the corresponding beta, gamma and total decay heat. The analysis takes account of both systematic and statistical uncertainties, including correlations, via calculations which use covariance matrices constructed for the measured data. The results of the analysis are given in the form of beta, gamma and total decay heat estimates following fission pulses and a range of irradiation times in both U235 and Pu239. These decay heat estimates are considered to form a consistent set of benchmarks for use in the assessment of summation calculations. (author)

  6. Assessment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu, in marine sediments of the oceans Atlantic and Pacific of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation samples of marine sediments were taken from 14 places representatives of the oceans coast of Guatemala. For the assesment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in sediments a radiochemical method was used to mineralize sediments and by ionic interchange it was separated from other elements, after that an electrodeposition of plutonium was made in metallic discs. The radioactivity of plutonium was measured by alpha spectrometry system and the alpha spectrums were obtained. The levels of plutonium are not higher than other countries that shown contamination. The contamination of isotope of 239+240Pu is higher than 238Pu and the contamination by two isotopes of plutonium is higher in the Atlantic than the Pacific ocean

  7. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled 239PuO2 and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilitates have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as 239Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled 239Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to, via tobacco smoke, is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of the curing of tobacco and pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent tumors in the liver, nasal passages, and pancreas. The purpose of this study is to characterize the effects of combined exposure of rats to NNK and internally deposited plutonium, as well as to these agents alone

  8. Study of neutron-deficient isotopes of Fl in the 239Pu, 240Pu + 48Ca reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. A.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Brewer, N. T.; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Abdullin, F. Sh; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Tsyganov, Yu S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Vostokin, G. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Stoyer, M. A.; Strauss, S. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The results of the experiments aimed at the synthesis of Fl isotopes in the 239Pu + 48Ca and 240Pu + 48Ca reactions are presented. The experiment was performed using the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator at the U400 cyclotron. In the 239Pu+48Ca experiment one decay of spontaneously fissioning 284Fl was detected at 245-MeV beam energy. In the 240Pu+48Ca experiment three decay chains of 285Fl were detected at 245 MeV and four decays were assigned to 284Fl at the higher 48Ca beam energy of 250 MeV. The α-decay energy of 285Fl was measured for the first time and decay properties of its descendants 281Cn, 277Ds, 273Hs, 269Sg, and 265Rf were determined more precisely. The cross section of the 239Pu(48Ca,3n)284Fl reaction was observed to be about 20 times lower than those predicted by theoretical models and 50 times less than the value measured in the 244Pu+48Ca reaction. The cross sections of the 240Pu(48Ca,4-3n)284,285Fl at both 48Ca energies are similar and exceed that observed in the reaction with lighter isotope 239Pu by a factor of 10. The decay properties of the synthesized nuclei and their production cross sections indicate rapid decrease of stability of superheavy nuclei with departing from the neutron number N=184 predicted to be the next magic number.

  9. Cross sections and neutron yields for U233, U235 and Pu239 at 2200 m/sec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental information on the 2200 m/sec values for σabs, σf, α, ν and η for 233U , 235U and 23 been collected and discussed. The values will later be used in an evaluation of a 'best' set of data. In appendix the isotopic abundances of the uranium isotopes are discussed and also the alpha activities of the uranium isotopes and Pu-239

  10. Probing energy dissipation, γ-ray and neutron multiplicity in the thermal neutron-induced fission of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Mirfathi, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    The incorporation of the four-dimensional Langevin equations led to an integrative description of fission cross-section, fragment mass distribution and the multiplicity and energy distribution of prompt neutrons and γ-rays in the thermal neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. The dynamical approach presented in this paper thoroughly reproduces several experimental observables of the fission process at low excitation energy.

  11. Numerical simulation of 137Cs and 239,240Pu concentrations by an ocean general circulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We simulated the spatial distributions and the temporal variations of 137Cs and 239,240Pu concentrations in the ocean by using the ocean general circulation model which was developed by National Center of Atmospheric Research. These nuclides are introduced into seawaters from global fallout due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The distribution of radioactive deposition on the world ocean is estimated from global precipitation data and observed values of annual deposition of radionuclides at the Meteorological Research Institute in Japan and several observed points in New Zealand. Radionuclides from global fallout have been transported by advection, diffusion and scavenging, and this concentration reduces by radioactive decay in the ocean. We verified the results of the model calculations by comparing simulated values of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in seawater with the observed values included in the Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the HAM database, which has been constructed by the Meteorological Research Institute. The vertical distributions of the calculated 137Cs concentrations were in good agreement and are in good agreement with the observed profiles in the 1960s up to 250 m, in the 1970s up to 500 m, in the 1980s up to 750 m and in the 1990s up to 750 m. However, the calculated 137Cs concentrations were underestimated compared with the observed 137Cs at the deeper layer. This may suggest other transport processes of 137Cs to deep waters. The horizontal distributions of 137Cs concentrations in surface water could be simulated. A numerical tracer release experiment was performed to explain the horizontal distribution pattern. A maximum 239,240Pu concentration layer occurs at an intermediate depth for both observed and calculated values, which is formed by particle scavenging. The horizontal distributions of the calculated 239,240Pu concentrations in surface water could be simulated by considering the scavenging effect

  12. Extrapolation to man of the relation between activity and damage to organism of laboratory animals internally contaminated with 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relations were analyzed between the initial amount of the radionuclide deposited and mortality. The mortality curves were analyzed using the Gompaertz relation and the exponential relation was found between the rate of the mortality changes and 239Pu activity. Using comparative analysis the results of the model were approximated to man and compared with data published in the literature on human contamination. The comparison did not exclude the validity of the applied model. (author)

  13. Estimation of uncertainties in resonance parameters of {sup 56}Fe, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-05-01

    Uncertainties have been estimated for the resonance parameters of {sup 56}Fe, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 238}U contained in JENDL-3.2. Errors of the parameters were determined from the measurements which the evaluation was based on. The estimated errors have been compiled in the MF32 of the ENDF format. The numerical results are given in tables. (author)

  14. Comparison of evaluations for 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu with integral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluations for 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu are considered. Intercomparison is made of the neutron cross section data from INDL/A, ENDL-84, ENDF/B-5 and ENDF/B-6 (where applicable). Integral measurements of the spectrum averaged cross sections are compared to the values derived from evaluated data libraries. (author). 40 refs, 49 figs, 11 tabs

  15. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahannah, F.N.; Maxwell, S.L. III.

    1992-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U{sup 235} and Pu{sup 239}. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U{sup 235} content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu{sup 239,240} by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U{sup 235} concentrations to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu{sup 239,240} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} g/L.

  16. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahannah, F.N.; Maxwell, S.L. III

    1992-08-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U{sup 235} and Pu{sup 239}. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U{sup 235} content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu{sup 239,240} by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U{sup 235} concentrations to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu{sup 239,240} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} g/L.

  17. Measurement of trace uranium-235 and plutonium-239, 240 in waste tank material at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), large quantities of radioactive liquid waste are evaporated to reduce volume before eventual processing through the In-Tank Precipitation process. Actinides in the liquid waste are only slightly soluble in the highly alkaline waste solution. Since some of the actinide isotopes are fissionable, the quantities being processed through the evaporator system are of interest. To better quantify the concentration and mass of fissionable material entering the evaporator system and eventually deposited as salt, analysis of the actinide elements were necessary. The predominant fissionable actinide isotopes of interest are U235 and Pu239. To enable the reliable measurement of these radionuclides, the Central Laboratory has developed high speed separation techniques to measure U235 content by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and Pu239,240 by alpha spectrometry. Due to the high radioactivity levels in the samples all separations are performed in shielded analytical cells. Uranium is purified and concentrated using a high speed extraction chromatography technique that employs applied vacuum and columns containing tri (2-ethylene) phosphate solvent coated on a small particle inert support. The uranium method enables measurement of U235 concentrations to 1 x 10-4 g/L. Plutonium is purified and concentrated using a high speed anion exchange technique. The Pu method enables measurements of Pu239,240 to 2 x 10-6 g/L

  18. Distribution and source of (129)I, (239)(,240)Pu, (137)Cs in the environment of Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ežerinskis, Ž; Hou, X L; Druteikienė, R; Puzas, A; Šapolaitė, J; Gvozdaitė, R; Gudelis, A; Buivydas, Š; Remeikis, V

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for (129)I, (137)Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of (238)Pu/((239,24)0)Pu, (129)I/(127)I and (131)I/(137)Cs were used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02-0.18 and 0.18-0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 10(-9) to 10(-6) for (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio revealed that the source of (129)I in Lithuania is global fallout in most cases though several sampling sites shows a possible impact of reprocessing releases. Estimated (129)I/(131)I ratio in soil samples from the southern part of Lithuania shows negligible input of the Chernobyl fallout. No correlation of the (137)Cs and Pu isotopes with (129)I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout. PMID:26476410

  19. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  20. Fission Product Yields for 14 MeV Neutrons on 235U, 238U and 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Innes, M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Kawano, T.

    2011-12-01

    We report cumulative fission product yields (FPY) measured at Los Alamos for 14 MeV neutrons on 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The results are from historical measurements made in the 1950s-1970s, not previously available in the peer reviewed literature, although an early version of the data was reported in the Ford and Norris review. The results are compared with other measurements and with the ENDF/B-VI England and Rider evaluation. Compared to the Laurec (CEA) data and to ENDF/B-VI evaluation, good agreement is seen for 235U and 238U, but our FPYs are generally higher for 239Pu. The reason for the higher plutonium FPYs compared to earlier Los Alamos assessments reported by Ford and Norris is that we update the measured values to use modern nuclear data, and in particular the 14 MeV 239Pu fission cross section is now known to be 15-20% lower than the value assumed in the 1950s, and therefore our assessed number of fissions in the plutonium sample is correspondingly lower. Our results are in excellent agreement with absolute FPY measurements by Nethaway (1971), although Nethaway later renormalized his data down by 9% having hypothesized that he had a normalization error. The new ENDF/B-VII.1 14 MeV FPY evaluation is in good agreement with our data.

  1. Fission Product Yields for 14 MeV Neutrons on 235U, 238U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report cumulative fission product yields (FPY) measured at Los Alamos for 14 MeV neutrons on 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The results are from historical measurements made in the 1950s–1970s, not previously available in the peer reviewed literature, although an early version of the data was reported in the Ford and Norris review. The results are compared with other measurements and with the ENDF/B-VI England and Rider evaluation. Compared to the Laurec (CEA) data and to ENDF/B-VI evaluation, good agreement is seen for 235U and 238U, but our FPYs are generally higher for 239Pu. The reason for the higher plutonium FPYs compared to earlier Los Alamos assessments reported by Ford and Norris is that we update the measured values to use modern nuclear data, and in particular the 14 MeV 239Pu fission cross section is now known to be 15–20% lower than the value assumed in the 1950s, and therefore our assessed number of fissions in the plutonium sample is correspondingly lower. Our results are in excellent agreement with absolute FPY measurements by Nethaway (1971), although Nethaway later renormalized his data down by 9% having hypothesized that he had a normalization error. The new ENDF/B-VII.1 14 MeV FPY evaluation is in good agreement with our data.

  2. Study of α and triton particles emission in Uranium 235, Uranium 238, Plutonium 239 fast neutron fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutrons up to 2.5 MeV have been used to induce light particle accompanied fission in 235U, 238U and 239Pu targets. The energy spectra and relative intensities of 3H and 4He have been measured with a ΔE-E telescope. Absolute particle yields were derived from the number of 4He particle per 1000 binary fissions of 235U and 239Pu induced by thermal neutrons measured under the same geometrical conditions. We observe that all the energy distributions are well reproduced by gaussian lineshape, the mean energies of which remain constant while varying the neutron incident energy. (For all nuclei, the 4He mean energies lie close to 16 MeV and the corresponding energies for 3H particle at about 8-9 MeV). The production rates of 3H and 4He show a decrease of about 30% between thermal energy and En = 2 MeV with a small maximum at En = 1 MeV. Conversely the 3H and 4He particle yields obtained in fast neutron fission of 239U remain constant between En = 1.5 MeV and En = 2.5 MeV. Some possible explanation for these observations are briefly and qualitatively explored

  3. Spa therapy for elderly: a retrospective study of 239 older patients with osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagülle, Mine; Kardeş, Sinan; Dişçi, Rian; Gürdal, Hatice; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Very few studies tested the effectiveness of spa therapy in older patients with osteoarthritis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of spa therapy in patients aged 65 years and older with generalized, knee, hip, and cervical and lumbar spine osteoarthritis. In an observational retrospective study design at the Medical Ecology and Hydroclimatology Department of Istanbul Medical Faculty, we analyzed the records of 239 patients aged over 65 years with the diagnosis of all types of osteoarthritis who were prescribed a spa therapy course in some spa resorts in Turkey between 7 March 2002 and 31 December 2012. They travelled to a spa resort where they stayed at a thermal spa hotel and followed the usual therapy packages for 2 weeks. Patients were assessed by an experienced physician within a week before the spa journey and within a week after the completion of the spa therapy. Compared with baseline in whole sample, statistically significant improvements were observed in pain (visual analog scale, VAS), patient and physician global assessments (VAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), Lequesne algofunctional index (LAFI) for knee, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC), Waddell disability index (WDI), and Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD). According to Outcome Measures in Rheumatology—Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) Set of Responder Criteria, responder rate were 63.8 % (51/80) in generalized, 52 % (13/25) in knee, 50 % (2/4) in hip, 66.7 % (8/12) in lumbar, and 100 % (6/6) in cervical osteoarthritis subgroups. Spa therapy improved pain and physical functional status in older patients with osteoarthritis, especially generalized osteoarthritis and multiple joint osteoarthritis with involvement of knee. This improvement was clinically important in majority of the patients. To confirm the results of this preliminary study, there is a need of a randomized controlled clinical study

  4. Pb-210 and Pu-239,240 in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pb-210, Ra-226, and Pu-239,240 activities were measured in nearshore Gulf of Mexico sediments. Sediment cores were collected from the Mississippi delta, and the western Gulf of Mexico shelf. Mississippi delta cores which exhibit significantly higher sedimentation rates show larger inventories of Pb-210. The measured Pu levels from the western shelf are lower than from the delta at comparable depths. In three of the western shelf cores, the observed Pu inventory is considerably less than predicted from atmospheric flux. Therefore, Pu is not being removed to the sediment, or is being released following deposition. A key difference between these isotopes is that Pu exists in a less particle-reactive state. The ratio of excess Pb-210 to Pu levels increases with water depth in the delta and the western shelf. Water depth acts as an integrator of depth-sensitive processes. Pu scavenging is more sensitive to these processes. A sub-surface Pu maximum has been observed. Excess Pb-210 and Pu levels correlate well with sedimentation rates. This suggests that particle flux is important in removal of Pb-210 and Pu to the sediment. The flux of Mn out of the sediment is correlated with inventory data, suggesting that redox cycling of Mn may play a role in increasing Pb-210 and Pu sediment inventories. It is unclear whether the effects of increased sedimentation rates and increased Mn fluxes can be evaluated independently. Mixing of surface sediment correlates with inventory data. Increased sediment mixing allows for additional scavenging of Pb-210 and Pu from overlying waters. Mixing of sediment at depths below the mixed surface layer may play a role in increasing sediment inventories of Pb-210 and Pu

  5. On uncertainties and fluctuations of averaged neutron cross sections in unresolved resonance energy region for 235U, 238U, 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the reasons for the differences which exist between group-averaged evaluated cross-section data from different evaluated data files for U235, U238 and Pu239 in the unresolved resonance energy region. (author)

  6. Comparative genomics and drug resistance of a geographic variant of ST239 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Two distinct classes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are spreading in hospitals (as hospital-acquired MRSA, HA-MRSA and in the community (as community-acquired MRSA, CA-MRSA. Multilocus sequence type (ST 239 MRSA, one of the most worldwide-disseminated lineages, has been noted as a representative HA-MRSA. Here, we isolated ST239 MRSA (spa type 3 [t037] and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec [SCCmec] type III.1.1.1 and its novel variant with ST239/spa351 (t030/SCCmecIII.1.1.4 (SCCmecIII(R not only from hospitals but also from patients with urethritis in the community in Russia. The Russian variant (strain 16K possessed a hybrid genome consisting of CC8 and CC30, similar to the ST239/spa3/SCCmecIII.1.1.1 HA-MRSA (TW20 genome, but with marked diversity. The 16K' CC30 section had SCCmecIII(R carrying the dcs-carrying unit (which corresponded to the SCCmecIVc J3 joining region of ST30 CA-MRSA, lacked SCCmercury, and possessed a novel mobile element structure (MES16K carrying the ccrC-carrying unit (with the recombinase gene ccrC1 allele 3 and drug resistance tranposons. The Russian variant included strains with a high ability to transfer its multiple drug resistance by conjugation; e.g., for strain 16K, the transfer frequency of a chloramphenicol resistance plasmid (p16K-1 with 2.9 kb in size reached 1.4×10(-2, followed by Tn554 conjugative transfer at 3.6×l0(-4. The Russian variant, which has been increasing recently, included divergent strains with different plasmid patterns and pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles. The data demonstrate the alternative nature of ST239 MRSA as CA-MRSA and also as a drug resistance disseminator, and its micro but dynamic evolution in Russia.

  7. Photonuclear reactions of U-233 and Pu-239 near threshold induced by thermal neutron capture gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photonuclear cross sections of U-293 and Pu-239 have been studied by using monochromatic and discrete photons, in the energy interval from 5.49 to 9.72 MeV, produced by thermal neutron capture. The gamma fluxes incident on the samples were measured using a ( 3 x 3 )'' NaI (TI) crystal. The photofission fragments were detected in Makrofol-Kg (SSNTD). A possible structure was observed in the U-233 cross sections, near 7.23 MeV. The relative fissionability of the nuclides was determined at each excitation energy and shown to be energy independent: ( 2.12 ± 0.25) for U-233 and ( 3.32 ± 0.41 ) for Pu-239. The angular distribution of photofission fragments of Pu-239 were measured at two mean excitation energies of 5.43 and 7.35 MeV. An anisotropic distribution of ( 12.2 ± 3.6 ) % was observed at 5.43 MeV. The total neutron cross sections were measured by using a long counter detector. The photoneutron cross sections were calculated by using energy dependent neutron multiplicities values, γ(E), obtained in the literature. The competition Γn/γf was also determined at each excitation energy, and shown to be energy independent: ( 0.54 ± 0.05 ) for U-233 and ( 0.44 ± 0.05 ) for Pu-239, and were correlated to the parameters Z sup(2)/A, ( Ef'-Bn'), A. According to the FUJIMOTO-YAMAGUCHI and CONSTANT NUCLEAR TEMPERATURE models, the nuclear temperatures were calculated. The total photoabsorption cross sections were also calculated as a sum of the photofission and photoneutron cross sections at each energy excitation. From these results the competition Γf/ΓA, called fission probability Pf, were obtained: ( 0.66 ± 0.02) for U-233 and ( 0.70 ± 0.02 ) for Pu-239. (author)

  8. 29 CFR 779.239 - Meaning of “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of âengaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.â 779.239 Section 779.239 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.” The term “engaged in commerce or in the production...

  9. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl4 and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl4 by hamsters reduces uptake of 239Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the 239Pu to the skeleton

  10. Simultaneous evaluation for (n,f) cross section of 235U, 239Pu, 238U and (n,γ) cross sections of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission cross sections for 235U, 238U, 239Pu, the capture cross sections for 238U and the ratios for 239Pu(n,f)/235U(n,f), 238U(m,f)/235U(n,f), 238U(n,γ)/235U(n,f) were firstly evaluated respectively. The experimental data were collected, analysed, selected and corrected. The data were fitted with spline fit program

  11. Transport of low 240:239 atom ratio plutonium in the Ob and Yenisey rivers to the Kara sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear installations (Tomsk-7, Mayak PA; Krasnoyarsk) are situated in the drainage areas of the Ob and Yenisey. The low-level Pu contamination in the two estuaries has been mainly attributed to transport of global fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests deposited in the drainage areas. The future concern for the Arctic is, however, that a sudden large release may occur due to accidents at the nuclear sites etc. Such incidents could lead to the eventual transport of released radionuclides to the Kara Sea. Therefore, information on Pu speciation and processes controlling the behaviour of plutonium in estuarine systems is a prerequisite for predicting the transfer and subsequent environmental impact to Arctic Seas. To obtain information on estuarine processes in the Ob and Yenisey River influencing the size distribution pattern Pu was studied by at site size fractionation in the river estuary systems. Large samples collected from varying depths at stations along a transect from fresh riverine water through the estuary zone and into high salinity sea water were filtered (0.45 μm), and ultra-filtered (8 kDa). Filters and filtrates were analyzed by means of AMS obtaining Pu concentrations and 240Pu /239Pu atom ratios. Most of the Pu in the surface water samples collected in the freshwater end member of the two rivers appears to be associated with particulate material while a majority of the Pu in both estuaries is in a dissolved form. The colloidal fraction ranged from 29 48% (Yenisey), 29 73% (Ob) and 50% (Kara Sea). 240Pu /239Pu atom ratios vary within the fractions, being rather low for the dissolved phases and significantly higher for the particulate fraction. 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios show that particulate Pu is fallout related and that Pu in dissolved form originates from other, low atom ratio sources. (author)

  12. Bioturbation depths, rates and processes in Massachusetts Bay sediments inferred from modeling of 210Pb and 239 + 240Pu profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, John; Bothner, Michael H.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2004-01-01

    Profiles of 210Pb and 239 + Pu from sediment cores collected throughout Massachusetts Bay (water depths of 36-192 m) are interpreted with the aid of a numerical sediment-mixing model to infer bioturbation depths, rates and processes. The nuclide data suggest extensive bioturbation to depths of 25-35 cm. Roughly half the cores have 210Pb and 239 + 240Pu profiles that decrease monotonically from the surface and are consistent with biodiffusive mixing. Bioturbation rates are reasonably well constrained by these profiles and vary from ~0.7 to ~40 cm2 yr-1. As a result of this extensive reworking, however, sediment ages cannot be accurately determined from these radionuclides and only upper limits on sedimentation rates (of ~0.3 cm yr-1) can be inferred. The other half of the radionuclide profiles are characterized by subsurface maxima in each nuclide, which cannot be reproduced by biodiffusive mixing models. A numerical model is used to demonstrate that mixing caused by organisms that feed at the sediment surface and defecate below the surface can cause the subsurface maxima, as suggested by previous work. The deep penetration depths of excess 210Pb and 239 + 240Pu suggest either that the organisms release material over a range of >15 cm depth or that biodiffusive mixing mediated by other organisms is occurring at depth. Additional constraints from surficial sediment 234Th data suggest that in this half of the cores, the vast majority of the present-day flux of recent, nuclide-bearing material to these core sites is transported over a timescale of a month or more to a depth of a few centimeters below the sediment surface. As a consequence of the complex mixing processes, surface sediments include material spanning a range of ages and will not accurately record recent changes in contaminant deposition.

  13. Photofission cross sections of U-233 and Pu-239 near threshold induced by gamma-rays from thermal neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photofission cross sections of U-233 and PU-239 have been studied using monochromatic photons produced by thermal neutron capture in several materials placed in a radial beam hole of the IEA-R1, 2 MW pool type research reactor, in the energy interval from 5.43 MeV to 9.72 MeV. The gamma flux incident on the samples were measured using a (3X3) inch. NaI(Tl) crystal. The photofission fragments were detected in MAKROFOL-KG (solid state nuclear track detector) etched 30 min. in a KOH (35%wt) solution at 600C. The efficiency of the detector was obtained using a Californium-252 calibrated source and its value was (0.4323 ± 3%). The tracks were counted by means of an automatic spark counting. Analyzing the photofission data we have observed similarities between the cross sections obtained for the two samples in comparison with other authors. A structure was also observed in the U-233 cross section near the energy of 7.23 MeW. Acoording to the liquid drop model the height of the simple fission barrier were determined: (5.6 ± 0.2) MeV and (5.7 ± 0.2) MeV for U-233 and Pu-239 respectively. The relative fissionability of the samples to U-238 were also determined in each excitation energy and showed to be energy independent: (2.12 +-0.25) for U-233, and (3.32+-0.41) for Pu-239. (author)

  14. Determination of the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in low activity environmental samples by alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a simple technique, based on commercially-available software developed for gamma spectra analysis (MicroSAMPO trademark), is described by which this complex multiplet can be resolved at the much lower activities typical of many environmental samples. In our approach, it is not necessary to make any alterations to the normal alpha spectrometric set-up (including energy dispersion), other than to improve collimation. The instrumental function is defined for each spectrum by fitting a modified gaussian with exponential tails to the comparatively well-resolved 242Pu ''doublet'' (used as tracer) and, if present, the 238Pu ''doublet''. The fitted peaks are used to create an energy calibration file with which, using published energy data, the positions (in channels) of the component peaks of the multiplet are predicted. These positions are not altered subsequently when MicroSAMPO's interactive multiplet analysis facility is used to quantify the relative spectral intensities of the components. Before calculating the 240Pu/239Pu ratio, it is advisable to correct for coincidence summing of alpha particles and conversion electrons. The technique has been applied to the determination of the 240Pu/239Pu ratio in a set of environmental samples, most of which were supplied by IAEA-MEL under their laboratory intercomparison programme. Subsequently, replicate samples were analysed independently using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. The agreement between the two sets of data was most satisfactory. Further validation of this deconvolution technique was provided by the good agreement between the measured alpha-emission probabilities for the component peaks in the 239,240Pu multiplet and published values. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of covariances for resolved resonance parameters of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu in JENDL-3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of covariances for resolved resonance parameters of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu was carried out. Although a large number of resolved resonances are observed for major actinides, uncertainties in averaged cross sections are more important than those in resonance parameters in reactor calculations. We developed a simple method which derives a covariance matrix for the resolved resonance parameters from uncertainties in the averaged cross sections. The method was adopted to evaluate the covariance data for some important actinides, and the results were compiled in the JENDL-3.2 covariance file. (author)

  16. Study of delayed neutron decay curves from thermal neutron induced fission of 235U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measurements of decay curves for delayed neutrons, obtained in the thermal neutron induced fission of 235U and 239Pu, are presented. The data were obtained by the periodical irradiation method on the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in the time interval from 5 to 730 msec after the end of irradiation. The comparison of the measured curves with the curves calculated with using several known from literature parameter sets (relative weights and half-lives of 6 or 8 exponents) was carried out. The new 7-group parameter set, which describes experimental data better, is proposed. (author)

  17. Determination of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study allowed to determine the concentration of radioactivity alpha, due to contamination for plutonium in cultivated soils of different regions of Guatemala. They were carried out samplings for convenience in cultivated soils of 15 departments of the republic, determined in each soils sample, the activity concentration for plutonium 238Plutonium and 239+240Plutonium expressed in mili-becquerel by kilogram (mBq/Kg), which has been caused from all over the world by the different provoked liberations or accidents of radioactive particles to the atmosphere

  18. Impact of soil humus material on the behaviour of 239+240Pu in the terrestrial environment in tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When long-lived radionuclides deposited by fallout come in contact with soil, most are bound so tightly to soil particles that they are nearly immobile. Many fallout radionuclides are held either by adsorption on reactive sites on clay mineral soil particles, or by ion exchange and precipitation as hydroxide or sulfide. Thus, the radionuclides are distributed in organic and inorganic constituents of soil. Natural organic matter of soil consists of the dead plant and animal material and partially decomposed and resynthesized organic compounds present in soils and sediments. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of 239,240Pu with natural organic substances in soils

  19. Reactor Decay Heat in 239Pu: Solving the γ Discrepancy in the 4-3000-s Cooling Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The β feeding probability of 102,104,105,106,107Tc, 105Mo, and 101Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the γ component of the decay heat for 239Pu in the 4-3000 s range.

  20. Reactor decay heat in 239Pu: solving the γ discrepancy in the 4-3000-s cooling period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, A; Jordan, D; Taín, J L; Rubio, B; Agramunt, J; Perez-Cerdan, A B; Molina, F; Caballero, L; Nácher, E; Krasznahorkay, A; Hunyadi, M D; Gulyás, J; Vitéz, A; Csatlós, M; Csige, L; Aysto, J; Penttilä, H; Moore, I D; Eronen, T; Jokinen, A; Nieminen, A; Hakala, J; Karvonen, P; Kankainen, A; Saastamoinen, A; Rissanen, J; Kessler, T; Weber, C; Ronkainen, J; Rahaman, S; Elomaa, V; Rinta-Antila, S; Hager, U; Sonoda, T; Burkard, K; Hüller, W; Batist, L; Gelletly, W; Nichols, A L; Yoshida, T; Sonzogni, A A; Peräjärvi, K

    2010-11-12

    The β feeding probability of (102,104,105,106,107)Tc, 105Mo, and 101Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the γ component of the decay heat for 239Pu in the 4-3000 s range. PMID:21231223

  1. Energy dependence of mass, charge, isotopic, and energy distributions in neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, H.; Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kim, Y.

    2016-05-01

    The mass, charge, isotopic, and kinetic-energy distributions of fission fragments are studied within an improved scission-point statistical model in the reactions 235U+n and 239Pu+n at different energies of the incident neutron. The charge and mass distributions of the electromagnetic- and neutron-induced fission of 214,218Ra, 230,232,238U are also shown. The available experimental data are well reproduced and the energy-dependencies of the observable characteristics of fission are predicted for future experiments.

  2. Model testing of radioactive contamination by 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for 90Sr in water for all considered models, 137Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and 239,240Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE (239,240Pu) and CASSANDRA (137Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For 90Sr and 137Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of 239,240Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of 239,240Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to 137Cs and 90Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium

  3. Plutonium concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio in biota collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska: recent measurements using ICP-SFMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three underground nuclear tests, including the Unites States' largest, were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Monitoring of the radiological environment around the island is challenging because of its remote location. In 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) became responsible for the long term maintenance and surveillance of the Amchitka site. The first DOE LM environmental survey occurred in 2011 and is part of a cycle of activities that will occur every 5 years. The University of Alaska Fairbanks, a participant in the 2011 study, provided the lichen (Cladonia spp.), freshwater moss (Fontinalis neomexicanus), kelp (Eualaria fistulosa) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) samples from Amchitka Island and Adak Island (a control site). These samples were analyzed for 239Pu and 240Pu concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were generally consistent with previous terrestrial and marine studies in the region. The 239+240Pu levels (mBq kg−1, dry weight) ranged from 3.79 to 57.1 for lichen, 167–700 for kelp, 27.9–148 for horse mussel, and 560–573 for moss. Lichen from Adak Island had higher Pu concentrations than Amchitka Island, the difference was likely the result of the higher precipitation at Adak compared to Amchitka. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were significantly higher in marine samples compared to terrestrial and freshwater samples (t-test, p 240Pu/239Pu ratios in terrestrial samples are within the range of global fallout. • Elevated 240Pu/239Pu in marine samples was characteristic of North Pacific Ocean. • Potential sources of enriched Pu to the marine environment regionally are suggested. • Pu ratios cannot by themselves explain the enriched Pu in seawater around Amchitka

  4. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963); Metabolisme et toxicologie du plutonium 239 - evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [French] Apres avoir passe en revue les principales proprietes metaboliques et toxicologiques du plutonium 239, ainsi que les normes professionnelles actuellement en vigueur, le rapport aborde le probleme difficile de l'evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees. Cette evaluation est fonction de l'organisation pratique de la surveillance: - surveillance systematique par des analyses periodiques de Pu urinaire et surveillance speciale en cas d'incidents par des examens appropries a chaque cas. Une interpretation simple des analyses systematiques, ainsi que des methodes d'evaluation utilisables dans les principaux cas de contamination accidentelle sont exposees. (auteur)

  5. Migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239+240Pu in Mediterranean forests: influence of bioavailability and association with organic acids in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of downward migration of anthropogenic radionuclides in soil is a key factor in the assessment of their environmental behavior. There are several factors that can affect this process, such as the radionuclide source, their chemical form, soil and environmental characteristics, etc. Two Mediterranean pinewood ecosystems in Spain, which were affected mainly by global fallout, were selected to assess the migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239+240Pu. Using auxiliary modeling (diffusion–convection equation and compartmental model), it followed from field observations that the migration velocities of 90Sr and 239+240Pu were similar and higher than that of 137Cs. The downward migration of radionuclides can be considered a consequence of their association with soil particles. A sequential speciation procedure also confirmed that 90Sr was the most bioavailable radionuclide followed by 239+240Pu and 137Cs. Although this can explain the different velocity of 90Sr and 137Cs, bioavailability could not explain by itself the similar velocities of 239+240Pu and 90Sr. The presence of organic acids in the soil can also influence the migration of radionuclides attached to them, which decreased in the order: 239+240Pu > 90Sr > 137Cs. Thus, the joint consideration of bioavailable and humic + fulvic acid fractions can explain the observed differences in the downward velocities. - Highlights: • Downward migration velocities of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in two Mediterranean forests were determined. • Downward migration velocities: 90Sr ≈ 239+240Pu > 137Cs. • Bioavailability by itself (90Sr > 239+240Pu > 137Cs) does not explain differences in migration velocities. • Humic + Fulvic acids: 239+240Pu > 90Sr > 137Cs. • Humic + Fulvic acids and bioavailable fraction can explain the downward migration velocities

  6. Retention, distribution, and excretion of 239PuO2 particles labeled with 169Yb in the Rhesus monkey after a single acute inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen Rhesus monkeys were exposed to a high fired 239PuO2 aerosol labeled with 169Yb, and retention, distribution, and excretion patterns were determined. After an early rapid clearance phase, which had a half-life of less than one day, the remaining plutonium was retained in the lungs with a half-life that appeared to be greater than 500 days. By 30 days after exposure, 99 percent of the 239Pu in the body was in the lungs. At this time, 6 to 10 percent of the 169Yb burden was in the carcass and skeleton suggesting that there was dissociation of some 169Yb from the particles. The remaining 169Yb activity was in the lungs. There was little 239Pu in the liver, bone, or lymph nodes. The particulate material was cleared rapidly from the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts and appeared in feces over the first four days. The level of 239Pu in feces returned to background by six days. Urinary excretion of 239Pu reached a peak by 8 to 10 days and then remained at a constant rate throughout the remainder of the experiment. These data are useful in calculating radiation dose to a variety of organs and relating this dose to the appearance of late effects from inhaled alpha-emitting particles. (U.S.)

  7. An intercomparison experiment on isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using plutonium-239 spike for the determination of plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of plutonium concentration in the dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is one of the key measurements in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of an intercomparison experiment performed between Fuel Chemistry Division (FCD) at BARC and PREFRE, Tarapur for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel using 239Pu spike in isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). The 239Pu spike method was previously established at FCD as viable alternative to the imported enriched 242Pu or 244Pu; the spike used internationally for plutonium concentration determination by IDMS in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel. Precision and accuracy achievable for determining plutonium concentration are compared under the laboratory and the plant conditions using 239Pu spike in IDMS. For this purpose, two different dissolver solutions with 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios of about 0.3 and 0.07 corresponding, respectively, to high and low burn-up fuels, were used. The results of the intercomparison experiment demonstrate that there is no difference in the precision values obtained under the laboratory and the plant conditions; with mean precision values of better than 0.2%. Further, the plutonium concentration values determined by the two laboratories agreed within 0.3%. This exercise, therefore, demonstrates that ID-TIMS method using 239Pu spike can be used for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel, under the plant conditions. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  8. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature, young adult and aged Syrian hamsters. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human populations that might be exposed in the event of a catastrophic nuclear accident would include individuals with widely differing ages. To obtain better information on the possible effects of age on observed dose-response relationships for inhaled 239PuO2, groups of Syrian hamsters were exposed via inhalation at either 28 (immature), 84 (young adults) or 340 (aged) days of age to polydisperse aerosols of 239PuO2. The projected graded levels of initial lung burden were 240, 60, 15, 3.8, 0.95, 0.25 and 0.029 nCi for the immature and young adult animals and 240, 60, 15 and 3.8 nCi for the aged animals. Additional animals were included in the 60 nCi initial lung burden level for serial sacrifice to determine the radiation dose pattern. All other animals were maintained for life span observation. For all age groups, less than 1% of the sacrifice body burden was found in all tissues other than lung. Mortality data analysis indicated significant life shortening only in animals that received the highest level inital lung burden. These early deaths were related to radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. No pulmonary neoplasms were observed

  9. The induction of nuclear abnormalities in the alveolar macrophages of mouse lung after inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of inhaled 239PuO2 on the free-cell population of the lungs of CBA/H mice have been studied using broncho-alveolar lavage following initial alveolar depositions (IADs) of 209 to 2800 Bq. The numbers of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were quantified using a radioactive tracer technique. The number of PAM declined soon after exposure; the extent of the depression and the time taken to reach the nadir were both dose-dependent. Numbers eventually returned to normal but, with high IADs, only after 3 months. The number of binucleate PAM and those with micronuclei increased following relatively low IADs in a dose-dependent manner. Micronucleate PAM were the most sensitive indicator of cellular damage as a result of 239PuO2 inhalation, providing a short-term assessment of radiation damage to lung cells at doses known to produce lung tumors. The results also provide further evidence that mitosis in PAM, or in their precursor cells, does occur within the lung. (author)

  10. Mass Yields and Average Total Kinetic Energy Release in Fission for 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Dana

    2015-10-01

    Mass yield distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) in neutron induced fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets were measured with a gridded ionization chamber. Despite decades of fission research, our understanding of how fragment mass yields and TKE depend on incident neutron energy is limited, especially at higher energies (above 5-10 MeV). Improved accuracy in these quantities is important for nuclear technology as it enhances our simulation capabilities and increases the confidence in diagnostic tools. The data can also guide and validate theoretical fission models where the correlation between the fragment mass and TKE is of particular value for constraining models. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE - WNR) provides a neutron beam with energies from thermal to hundreds of MeV, well-suited for filling in the gaps in existing data and exploring fission behavior in the fast neutron region. The results of the studies on target nuclei 235U, 238U, and 239Pu will be presented with a focus on exploring data trends as a function of neutron energy from thermal through 30 MeV. Results indicate clear evidence of structure due to multi-chance fission in the TKE . LA-UR-15-24761.

  11. Determination of 90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu in waters with use of preliminary concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the simultaneous determination of artificial radionuclides (90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu) in water samples is described. The following preconcentration steps are used: co-precipitation of cesium on copper ferrocyanide; co-precipitation of plutonium on iron hydroxide; and precipitation of strontium in the carbonate form. The chemical yield is determined by using the tracers: 88Y, 85Sr, 134Cs and 236Pu or 242Pu. The method was applied to the determination of artificial radionuclides in water sources at nuclear test sites - the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and the 'Azgir' and 'Lira' test sites. The volume of water samples was 0.5 - 30.0 l, and the mineralization ranged from 0.1g/l to 100 g/l. The determination limits were: < 1 mBq/l for cesium-137; 0.02 mBq/l for plutonium-(239+240); and 1.5 mBq/l for strontium-90. The chemical yield was 60 - 90%

  12. Performance of an Arrangement of Several Large-Area Proportional Counters for the Assessment of Pu239 Lung Burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If plutonium-239 has been deposited in the human lung, some of the emitted soft X-rays can be measured from the outside by proportional counters. Efficiency of such measurements depends on sensitive area and geometrical arrangement of the counters in regard to the body, on absorption of the X-rays inside the counter, on reduction of the radiation in the wall or window of the counter, on the background of the counter and on stability of this background in spite of β- and γ- radiation coming from other nuclides than plutonium-239 in the body. Most of these parameters are optimized by using three large-area, thin-window, argon filled proportional counters mounted inside a large steel-room opposite the chest and both lung lobes of a sitting patient. These counters are anti-coincidence shielded in such a way that only soft X-rays causing the origination of photoelectrons inside the measuring counter proper are detected. The effect is enforced by passing the electrical pulses through a one-channel pulse height analyser. Construction and performance of such an arrangement are described in the paper. (author)

  13. Investigation of resonance structure and Doppler-effect of cross sections for 232 Th, 235 U and 239 Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measuring the neutron transmissions for 232 Th, 235 U and 239 Pu metal samples carried out at the 60 m, 123 m and 1006 m flight paths of the Dubna IBR-30 booster in the neutron energy range of 2 eV - 200 keV are given and discussed. The measurements were made at the room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The batteries of 3 boron and 26 helium counters were used as detectors. The results of the calculations of analogous transmissions realized on the base of the evaluated data libraries BROND-2, ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3 by means of the GRUCON computer program package are also given. It is concluded that the 235 U Doppler coefficients and effective total cross sections taken from measured transmissions are in a good agreement with calculation results based on the ENDF/B-6 library at energies of 2.15 eV - 200 keV. The BROND-2 and JENDL-3 parameters give the Doppler coefficients and effective cross sections which are 10-30% higher than the experimental and ENDF/B-6 ones at the resonance energies of 46.5 - 465 eV. For 239 Pu there is agreement of the experimental and calculational results within the experimental error limits. For 232 Th experimental values for the Doppler coefficients and effective cross sections are 10-15% higher than the calculated ones with all libraries in resonance energy region. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Determination of Pu-239, 240 tissue concentrations in non-occupationally exposed residents of New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.

    1977-03-01

    The study reports on the Pu-239, 240 concentrations in various tissues obtained from individuals residing in New York City. Twenty-six tissue samples have been analyzed for their Pu-239, 240 content, which include sections from the right lung, the liver, bone (4th and 5th vertebrae) and the kidney. The tissues were obtained at autopsy from a selected population not occupationally exposed to plutonium and whose deaths were the result of causes other than metabolic disorders. A detailed description is presented of the radiochemical procedures employed to separate Pu and electrochemically deposit plutonium isotopes prior to alpha spectrometry with Si surface-barrier detectors. Results of these measurements are given as activity per gram wet weight and activity per gram of calcium in the individual tissue. All results have been compared to similar measurements made at other laboratories and with estimates of concentration based on metabolic models. To date, the magnitudes and the distribution of the measured values are consistent with the values inferred from the ICRP lung model and measured concentrations of air.

  15. A modelling study on {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu behaviour in the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perianez, R. [Departamento Fisica Aplicada I, E.U. Ingenieria Tecnica Agricola, Universidad de Sevilla, Ctra., Utrera km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: rperianez@us.es

    2008-04-15

    A model for simulating the dispersion processes of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in the Alboran Sea is described. The model consists of two hydrodynamic models: a 2D depth-averaged model and a two-layer model which provide tidal and geostrophic currents, respectively; a sediment transport model which provides suspended particle concentrations and sedimentation rates over the domain; and the radionuclide dispersion model including interactions of dissolved radionuclides with suspended particles and bed sediments. These processes are formulated using kinetic transfer coefficients. The hydrodynamic and sediment models are run and validated in advance, and their results are then used to simulate the dispersion of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu, which are introduced from atmospheric fallout. Radionuclide concentrations in the water column and distributions in bed sediments have been compared with measurements in the sea. Both set of data are, in general, in agreement. The model has also been applied to calculate radionuclide fluxes through the Strait of Gibraltar. These computed fluxes have been compared with previous estimations as well.

  16. Measurement of 239Pu in urine samples at ultra-trace levels using a 1 MV compact AMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine bioassay monitoring of Pu intake in exposed workers of research and nuclear industry is usually performed by alpha spectrometry. This technique involves large sample volumes of urine and time-consuming preparative and counting protocols. Compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facilities make feasible the determination of ultra low-level Pu activity concentrations and Pu isotopic ratios in biological samples (blood, urine and feces), being a rapid and cost-effective measurement technique. The plutonium results in urine samples presented here have been obtained on the 1 MV compact AMS system sited at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), in Seville, Spain. In this work, a different methodological approach has been developed alternative to the 'classical' preparation of urine samples for alpha spectrometry. The procedure avoids the Pu precipitation step, and involves acid sample evaporation and acid digestion in a microwave oven. Finally, purification of plutonium was achieved by using chromatography columns filled up with BioRad AG1X2 anion exchange resin (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc.). The total time needed for analysis is about 10 h, unlike the 'classical' methods based on alpha spectrometry which need about 1 week. At present, it has been demonstrated that this method allows quantifying 239Pu activity concentrations in urine of, at least, 30 μBq (13 fg 239Pu). We can conclude that the procedure would be suitable to perform in vitro routine bioassay measurements. Moreover, the innovative application of AMS opens new and interesting analytical alternatives in this field.

  17. Determination of plutonium-239/240 in fish in Low-Level Radioactive Ocean Waste dump sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was concern that radioactivity might find its way into the food chain, namely fish, via low-level radioactive waste Ocean Dump Sites. This led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in collaboration with other Federal Agencies, to the monitoring and determination of radioactivity in fish samples from these Ocean Dump Sites. The radionuclide thought to be of major concern was plutonium-239/240. These sites were monitored at various periods from 1980. The sites were located off the coasts of New Jersey, California (near San Francisco) and Massachusetts Bay. The fish samples selected were shellfish that inhabited the ocean floor and bottom-feeders. The levels of activities required sophisticated measuring techniques since for plutonium-239/240, they were below the range. After a radiochemical procedure is used to separate the plutonium, it was measured using solid-state silicon detectors. These are coupled to a computer based multi-channel analyzer system. A plutonium-236 tracer is used to measure the recovery. The levels were found to be at background or in the 10 mBq range. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Laboratory studies of the diagenesis and mobility of sup(239,240)Pu and 137Cs in nearshore sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled laboratory experiments have been used to study the diagenetic chemistry of sup(239,240)Pu, 137Cs and 55Fe. Experiments using Buzzards Bay sediments in small tanks show that sulfate reduction is accompanied by the production of large pore water concentration gradients of alkalinity, phosphate, ammonia and dissolved organic carbon and the formation of subsurface maxima in Fe and Mn. These pore water profiles demonstrate that bacterially-mediated processes of organic matter degradation and redox reactions can be simulated in the laboratory. A vertical profile of 55Fe in pore waters is reported for the first time: it follows the profile of stable Fe and as such has a large subsurface maximum between 2 to 4 cm depth. Comparison of 55Fe/Fe ratios in sediments and pore waters shows that there is preferential solubilization of 55Fe over stable Fe. The pore water activities of sup(239,240)Pu show no gradients within the large uncertainties of the counting statistics, but are two to four times higher than Buzzards Bay seawater. The activity of 137Cs in the pore water profile is constant within the large counting uncertainties and is twice that of Buzzards Bay seawater. Cs-137 does not appear to be involved in diagenetic chemistry but may increase in pore waters as a result of ion exchange reactions. (author)

  19. Nuclear data evaluation for 239Pu in the energy region 100 075. ev - 15 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work incorporates the results of the new nuclear data evaluation for 239Pu. The complete file compiled by the authors in 1974 was practically completely re-examined. The most substantial changes were made above 0.5 keV. In the region of unresolved resonances (0.3-100 keV), the channel contribution to the process widths for a given state and some other aspects were taken into account. The fission cross section and the α-value were evaluated with regard for the correlation of experimental errors. The non-spherical potential with optimized parameters was used to make calculations by the optical and statistical models. The contribution of pre-equilibrium emission was taken into account in calculations of secondary neutron spectra. The new standard anti nusub(sp)(252Csub(f)) was used to calculate anti nusub(p). The 26-group constants and g-Westcott factors were obtained from the evaluated data. The complete file of the evaluated data for 239Pu is presented in the ENDF/B format and conveyed to the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA. (author)

  20. Soluble guanylyl cyclase-activated cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell migration independent of VASP-serine 239 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Andrew W; Martin, Danielle N; Shaver, Patti R; Adderley, Shaquria P; Stone, Joshua D; Joshi, Chintamani N; Francisco, Jake T; Lust, Robert M; Weidner, Douglas A; Shewchuk, Brian M; Tulis, David A

    2016-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for over half of all cardiovascular disease-related deaths. Uncontrolled arterial smooth muscle (ASM) cell migration is a major component of CAD pathogenesis and efforts aimed at attenuating its progression are clinically essential. Cyclic nucleotide signaling has long been studied for its growth-mitigating properties in the setting of CAD and other vascular disorders. Heme-containing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and maintains vascular homeostasis predominantly through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling. Considering that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can interfere with appropriate sGC signaling by oxidizing the cyclase heme moiety and so are associated with several CVD pathologies, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that heme-independent sGC activation by BAY 60-2770 (BAY60) maintains cGMP levels despite heme oxidation and inhibits ASM cell migration through phosphorylation of the PKG target and actin-binding vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). First, using the heme oxidant ODQ, cGMP content was potentiated in the presence of BAY60. Using a rat model of arterial growth, BAY60 significantly reduced neointima formation and luminal narrowing compared to vehicle (VEH)-treated controls. In rat ASM cells BAY60 significantly attenuated cell migration, reduced G:F actin, and increased PKG activity and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation (pVASP·S239) compared to VEH controls. Site-directed mutagenesis was then used to generate overexpressing full-length wild type VASP (FL-VASP/WT), VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-mimetic (FL-VASP/239D) and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-resistant (FL-VASP/239A) ASM cell mutants. Surprisingly, FL-VASP/239D negated the inhibitory effects of FL-VASP/WT and FL-VASP/239A cells on migration. Furthermore, when FL-VASP mutants were treated with BAY60, only the FL-VASP/239D group showed reduced migration compared to its VEH controls

  1. The APETALA-2-like transcription factor OsAP2-39 controls key interactions between abscisic acid and gibberellin in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud W Yaish

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2 domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key abscisic acid (ABA biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16α, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production.

  2. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author)

  3. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  4. Behaviors and transfers of anthropogenic radionuclides (137Cs, 239+240Pu and 241Am) in a protected alpine wetland (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to confirm and increase the knowledge on anthropogenic radionuclide (RN) behavior (137Cs, 239+240Pu, 241Am) in natural compartments (artificial pool in a protected upland area). The novelty lies on comparisons of the three main compartments (pool water, soil, sediments) of this original mountainous site. Migration processes and transfers were particularly detailed in the light of two processes: lixiviation and leaching. Regarding 238U, anthropogenic RNs, lithology, organic matter contents, sedimentation rates (210Pb) and isotopic mass balances, RNs are mainly transported by leaching processes with higher 241Am in-depth mobility compared to 137Cs (intermediate for 239+240Pu). (author)

  5. Development of 239Pu total cross section multilevel parameters determination technique by analysing experiments on neutron transmission in resolved resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is development of S-matrix multilevel resonance parameters determination technique with neutron transmission data used in resolved resonance region. Experimental transmission data values were obtained for the Pu-239 thickness range 0.00217-0.1234 nucl/barns on the time-of-flight spectrometer with 70 ns/m resolution. S-matrix Adler's formalism with least square method fit were used for experimental data description. The method developed enables to justify the resonance-resonance interference parameters H. Its possibilities are demonstrated by determination of these parameters for four resonances of the Pu-239 total cross section

  6. Statistical Tests for the Detection of Intermediate Structures in the Fission Cross-Sections of 235U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of intermediate structures in the neutron-induced fission cross sections of 235U and 239Pu was pointed out in 1957 by Egelstaff. An interpretation, recently proposed by Cao et al. and Blons et al., was based on the Strutinsky calculations of the deformation energies of the compound nucleus when shell effects are included in the liquid-drop model. The theoretical interpretation in terms of current reaction theories has been given by Weigmann and Lynn. The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate various statistical tests intended for the detection and interpretation of these narrow intermediate fission structures. A fission cross-section was computed in the interval 0-5 keV using randomly generated parameters with distributions chosen to mock up the 235U nucleus. The Jπ = 4- state fission width was ''modulated'' in the manner suggested by Weigmann's work. Auto-correlation and cumulative average tests were done on these mock-up cross-sections to determine if the correct average spacing of the shape isomer levels could be obtained by such tests. It is shown that the usual correlation tests tend to overestimate the spacing between structures. A proposed technique is based on the direct analysis of the averaged cross-section which affords a method of correcting for peaks of the intermediate structure below the detectability limit of the usual statistical tests. The techniques developed on the basis of the mock-up cross-sections were used to analyse the fission cross-sections of 235U and 239Pu. Average spacings of 227 and 312 eV were found for those two nuclei, respectively. These values are somewhat lower than the ones reported by Cao and Blons, which were based only on the auto-correlation analysis. The energy of the second minimum in the fission barrier was found to be 3.1 MeV for 235U and 2.9 for 239Pu. Both values are in close agreement with the values of 3 MeV predicted by Strutinsky. (author)

  7. Generation of neutralizing antibodies and divergence of SIVmac239 in cynomolgus macaques following short-term early antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Ozkaya Sahin

    Full Text Available Neutralizing antibodies (NAb able to react to heterologous viruses are generated during natural HIV-1 infection in some individuals. Further knowledge is required in order to understand the factors contributing to induction of cross-reactive NAb responses. Here a well-established model of experimental pathogenic infection in cynomolgus macaques, which reproduces long-lasting HIV-1 infection, was used to study the NAb response as well as the viral evolution of the highly neutralization-resistant SIVmac239. Twelve animals were infected intravenously with SIVmac239. Antiretroviral therapy (ART was initiated ten days post-inoculation and administered daily for four months. Viral load, CD4(+ T-cell counts, total IgG levels, and breadth as well as strength of NAb in plasma were compared simultaneously over 14 months. In addition, envs from plasma samples were sequenced at three time points in all animals in order to assess viral evolution. We report here that seven of the 12 animals controlled viremia to below 10(4 copies/ml of plasma after discontinuation of ART and that this control was associated with a low level of evolutionary divergence. Macaques that controlled viral load developed broader NAb responses early on. Furthermore, escape mutations, such as V67M and R751G, were identified in virus sequenced from all animals with uncontrolled viremia. Bayesian estimation of ancestral population genetic diversity (PGD showed an increase in this value in non-controlling or transient-controlling animals during the first 5.5 months of infection, in contrast to virus-controlling animals. Similarly, non- or transient controllers displayed more positively-selected amino-acid substitutions. An early increase in PGD, resulting in the generation of positively-selected amino-acid substitutions, greater divergence and relative high viral load after ART withdrawal, may have contributed to the generation of potent NAb in several animals after SIVmac239 infection

  8. Applicability of {sup 239}Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, R., E-mail: rajeev.lal@anu.edu.au [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Tims, S.G.; Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wasson, R.J.; Howe, D. [Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of {sup 239}Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (<25a) and which had a history of grazing and cultivation the measured soil loss rates over the past {approx}50 years were 7.5-19.5 t ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}. The measured rates are up to 5 times higher compared to agricultural and uncultivated areas within soil conservation banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  9. Uncertainty Budget and Efficiency Analysis for the 239Pu (n,2ny) Partial Reaction Cross-Section Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 239Pu(n,2nγ)238Pu partial reaction cross-section, σ(n,2nγ), has been measured as a function of neutron energy for several transitions in 238Pu. Partial γ-ray cross sections for yrast, ''collector'' transitions, can provide especially valuable constraints on the magnitude and shape of the total (n,2n) reaction cross-section. In essence, nuclear reaction models will be used to infer the shape and magnitude of the total (n,2n) reaction cross-section from the measured partial γ-ray cross-sections. The reason for undertaking this somewhat indirect approach is that previous measurements of the 239Pu(n,2nγ) have been hampered by a variety of constraints. Activation measurements have several hurdles: (1) intense flux and long counting times are required to overcome the relatively long half-life of 238Pu (87 years) and (2) isotopically pure samples of 239Pu in an environment free of 238Pu contamination are difficult to come by. Neutron counting experiments are subject to significant uncertainties because (1) large background statistics from fission neutrons and (2) the experimental fission neutron multiplicity spectrum is subject to systematic errors because the flux of low-energy neutrons which induce fissions in thermally-fissile 239Pu is very difficult to characterize. In this measurement, spallation neutrons are provided by the LANSCE/WNR facility, and reaction neutron energies are determined via time-of-flight. Neutron flux is monitored in-beam with one 235U fission chamber and one 238U fission chamber. The 238U is not sensitive to background from low-energy neutrons, whereas the 235U fission chamber has better statistics. Hence, in essence the partial γ-ray cross sections are normalized to the evaluated fission cross sections of 235U and 238U. As a check of our normalization to provide additional constraints to the nuclear reaction modeling, benchmark measurements of natFe(n, n(prime)γ) and 235U(n,2nγ) have also been undertaken. The secondary γ-rays are

  10. Evaluating the 239Pu Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum Induced by Thermal to 30 MeV Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neudecker D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new evaluation of the 239Pu prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS induced by thermal to 30 MeV neutrons. Compared to the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, this one includes recently published experimental data as well as an improved and extended model description to predict PFNS. For instance, the pre-equilibrium neutron emission component to the PFNS is considered and the incident energy dependence of model parameters is parametrized more realistically. Experimental and model parameter uncertainties and covariances are estimated in detail. Also, evaluated covariances are provided between all PFNS at different incident neutron energies. Selected evaluation results and first benchmark calculations using this evaluation are briefly discussed.

  11. Evaluating and adjusting 239Pu, 56Fe, 28Si and 95Mo nuclear data with a Monte Carlo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, Monte Carlo optimization and nuclear data evaluation are combined to produce optimal adjusted nuclear data files. The methodology is based on the so-called 'Total Monte Carlo' and the TALYS system. Not only a single nuclear data file is produced for a given isotope, but virtually an infinite number, defining probability distributions for each nuclear quantity. Then each of these random nuclear data libraries is used in a series of benchmark calculations. With a goodness-of-fit estimator, best 239Pu, 56Fe, 28Si and 95Mo evaluations for that benchmark set can be selected. A few thousands of random files are used and each of them is tested with a large number of fast, thermal and intermediate energy criticality benchmarks. From this, the best performing random file is chosen and proposed as the optimum choice among the studied random set. (authors)

  12. Polonium 210Po, uranium (234U, 238U and plutonium (238Pu, 239+240Pu bioaccumulation in marine birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the determination of 210Po, 234U, 238U, 238Pu and 239+240Pu concentration in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the southern Baltic Sea coast. We chose 11 species of seabirds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that analyzed radionuclides are non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver. The highest uranium content was found in liver, rest of viscera and feathers, while plutonium in the digestion organs and feathers. Omnivore seabirds accumulated more polonium, plutonium than species that feed on fish, while herbivore seabirds accumulated more uranium than carnivore.

  13. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n,f) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Regnier, D; Schunck, N; Verriere, M

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically using the time dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in tw...

  14. Applicability of 239Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of 239Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (−1 a−1. The measured rates are up to 5 times higher compared to agricultural and uncultivated areas within soil conservation banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  15. The deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled 239PuO2 in the lungs of rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individuals with chronic obstructive lung disease, such as emphysema, may be more susceptible to injury from other inhaled pollutants. However, dose-response studies of inhaled radionuclides conducted to aid in estimating the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in man have typically used healthy laboratory animals. Changes in radionuclide deposition, distribution and retention in the lungs as the result of pre-existing lung diseases could alter the radiation dose or the resulting biological effects. An experimental animal model for human emphysema, in which emphysema is induced by the intratracheal instillation of either elastase or papain, has been reviewed. This model was used to study the effects of pulmonary emphysema on the deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled 239PuO2 in rats. (author)

  16. Development of a rapid radiochemical procedure for the separation of /sup 235m/U from 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a rapid radiochemical procedure for the isolation and purification of /sup 235m/U (t/sub 1/2/ = 26 minutes) from 239Pu samples up to 250 mg. Purpose of developing the procedure was to measure the thermal neutron fission cross section of the isomeric meta state of 235U. We used rapid small-scale anion exchange columns that absorbed uranium in concentrated HBr but did not absorb plutonium. Uranium was easily eluted with very dilute HF. The separation time required 25 to 35 minutes. We were able to attain a separation factor of uranium from plutonium of approximately 1 x 1010 with samples ranging from 1 x 1010 to 3 x 1011. The ratio of the fission cross sections for the meta to ground state was measured to be 1.42. 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. sup(239/240)Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 40K in different types of honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the concentration of radionuclides in honey is of interest because this foodstuff consumed worldwide could be a source of radionuclides to man. Besides that, honey is used as a bioindicator for several radionuclides because the bees forage for nectar, pollen or honeydew over a large area of landscape. In this connection, it is of special interest to know when, and, if so, to what extent the concentrations of radionuclides in the honey depend on the type of honey sampled by the bees. For this reason, we determined sup(239/240)Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in three important types of honey produced in the F.R.G., namely in honey from flowers, from honeydew and from heather. The data obtained in this way was used also to investigate whether significant correlations exist between these radionuclides in the various honey samples. (author)

  18. Estimation of 239Pu independent and cumulative fission product yields from the chain yield data using a Bayesian technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The independent and cumulative fission product yields (FPYs) are obtained by using the Bayesian technique based on the evaluated mass chain yield, where required constraints such as the normalization can be straightforwardly included. We apply this technique to the 239Pu FPY data at neutron incident energies of 0.5, 2.0, and 14 MeV, where the most updated mass chain yield ENDF/B-VII.1 data are available. The obtained yield data are compared with the evaluated values by England and Rider in ENDF/B-VI, and differences from their values are investigated. We show that the modern decay data used, such as branching ratios to ground and metastable states, cause differences in the evaluated individual and cumulative fission yields. (author)

  19. Handling of a glove box accident. Surgical treatment of a wound contaminated by a mixture of plutonium-239 and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An employee of the Valduc Centre (France) suffered an injury to his right thumb when working in a glove-box on a pipeline which had contained a solution of 239Pu and Am. The lesion was slight but attempts at decontamination were fruitless. The contamination was deep-seated (activity of not less than 18nCi). DTPA was injected intravenously, and it was decided to excise the lesion surgically. Thanks to the quality of its physical facilities and the professional quality of its radiation medicine and surgery team, the Valduc Centre was able to carry out the operation successfully. The result was excellent, and the contamination was eliminated to the satisfaction of both the patient and the physician. (author)

  20. References to Studies of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in the Pacific Ocean a Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    2001-02-01

    This report contains a listing of publications known to this author on reported concentrations, reviews and discussions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in seawater, sediment and the biota from parts of the North and South Pacific Ocean. Each reference has been assigned an accession number consisting of the first three letters of the first author's last name followed by the first letter of the first name, the year of the publication and an assigned number. Studies in both the coastal areas and the open ocean are included as well as those providing data within lagoons of coral atolls. Some references to the radionuclides in the Indian Ocean are also provided.

  1. The bone volume effect on the dosimetry of plutonium-239 and americium-241 in the skeleton of man and baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken using bone removed from young adult baboons, which had been contaminated with plutonium-239 at various times prior to sacrifice, and human bone from adult male (USTR Case 246), who had received an internal deposition of americium-241 as a result of a glove-box explosion 11 years prior to his death. The baboon bone was supplied by the CEA, France, and the human bone by the United States Transuranium registry. The bone samples, examined by qualitative and quantitative autoradiography with CR 39 detectors, demonstrated the rapid redistribution of bone surface-seeking radionuclides in younger primates due to growth and the slower, bone turnover driven redistribution in the adult human bone. In both species, primary and secondary surface deposits of radionuclide remained conspicious despite bone activity; true volumization of radionuclide was seldom seen. The dosimetric implications of these findings are discussed. (author) 21 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Technical Basis for Safe Operations with Pu-239 in NMS and S Facilities (F and H Areas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium-239 is now being processed in HB-Line and H-Canyon as well as FB-Line and F-Canyon. As part of the effort to upgrade the Authorization Basis for H Area facilities relative to nuclear criticality, a literature review of Pu polymer characteristics was conducted to establish a more quantitative vs. qualitative technical basis for safe operations. The results are also applicable to processing in F Area facilities.The chemistry of Pu polymer formation, precipitation, and depolymerization is complex. Establishing limits on acid concentrations of solutions or changing the valence to Pu(III) or Pu(VI) can prevent plutonium polymer formation in tanks in the B lines and canyons. For Pu(IV) solutions of 7 g/L or less, 0.22 M HNO3 prevents polymer formation at ambient temperature. This concentration should remain the minimum acid limit for the canyons and B lines when processing Pu-239 solutions. If the minimum acid concentration is compromised, the solution may need to be sampled and tested for the presence of polymer. If polymer is not detected, processing may proceed. If polymer is detected, adding HNO3 to a final concentration above 4 M is the safest method for handling the solution. The solution could also be heated to speed up the depolymerization process. Heating with > 4 M HNO3 will depolymerize the solution for further processing.Adsorption of Pu(IV) polymer onto the steel walls of canyon and B line tanks is likely to be 11 mg/cm2, a literature value for unpolished steel. This value will be confirmed by experimental work. Tank-to-tank transfers via steam jets are not expected to produce Pu(IV) polymer unless a larger than normal dilution occurs (e.g., >3 percent) at acidities below 0.4 M

  3. A comparative study of 239,240Pu in soil near the former Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility, Golden, CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant near Golden, CO released plutonium into the environment during almost 40 years of operation. Continuing concern over possible health impacts of these releases has been heightened by lack of public disclosure of the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. A dose reconstruction study for the Rocky Flats facilities, begun in 1990, provided a unique opportunity for concerned citizens to design and implement field studies without participation of the DOE, its contractors, or other government agencies. The Citizens Environmental Sampling Committee was formed in late 1992 and conducted a field sampling program in 1994. Over 60 soil samples, including both surface and core samples, were collected from 28 locations where past human activities would have minimal influence on contaminant distributions in soil. Cesium-137 activity was used as a means to assess whether samples were collected in undisturbed locations. The distribution of plutonium (as 239,240Pu) in soil was consistent with past sampling conducted by DOE, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and others. Elevated levels of 239,240Pu were found immediately east of the Rocky Flats Plant, with concentrations falling rapidly with distance from the plant to levels consistent with background from fallout. Samples collected in areas south, west, and north of the plant were generally consistent with background from fallout. No biases in past sampling due to choice of sampling locations or sampling methodology were evident. The study shows that local citizens, when provided sufficient resources, can design and implement technical studies that directly address community concerns where trust in the regulated community and/or regulators is low

  4. 17 CFR 239.42 - Form F-X, for appointment of agent for service of process and undertaking for issuers registering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form F-X, for appointment of agent for service of process and undertaking for issuers registering securities on Form F-8, F-9, F-10... Statements § 239.42 Form F-X, for appointment of agent for service of process and undertaking for...

  5. First report on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of Spa type T037, Sequence type 239, SCCmec type III/IIIA in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Neela (Vasanthakumari); H. Ghasemzadeh Moghaddam (Hamed); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); D. Horst-Kreft (Deborah); N.S. Mariana (Nor Shamsudin); E. Ghaznavi Rad (Ehsanollah)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Malaysia were shown to possess staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)-III and IIIA. Spa sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) documented t037 and ST 239 (CC8) for 83.3% of the isolates. This confirms observation

  6. Distribution and source of 129I, 239,240Pu, 137Cs in the environment of Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezerinskis, Z.; Hou, Xiaolin; Druteikiene, R.;

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for 129I, 137Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu, 129I/127I and 131I/137Cs were u...

  7. Intercomparison study of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and fission track analysis of μBq quantities of 239Pu in synthetic urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even today, some Marshall Islanders are looking forward to permanently resettling their islands after five decades. The U.S. Department of Energy and the resettled residents require reasonable but cost-prudent assurance that the doses to resident from residual 239Pu will not exceed recognized international standards or recommendations, as estimated from the excretion of 239Pu in urine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the bias, uncertainty and sensitivity of analytical techniques that measure 3-56 μBq 239Pu in synthetic urine. The analytical techniques studied in this work included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and fission track analysis. The results of the intercomparison demonstrated that all three techniques were capable of marking the measurements, although not with equal degree of bias and uncertainty. The estimated minimum detectable activity was 1 μBq of 239Pu per synthetic urine sample. This exercise is also the first effort to certify test materials of plutonium in the nBqxg-1 range. (author)

  8. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediment following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of ∼0.18. Measurements of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing, has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240Pu/239Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240Pu/239Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was 0.033±0.004, while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056±0.003. Both ratios are consistent with those reported for soils samples at the Nevada site and Nagasaki, and are clearly indicative of weapons-grade plutonium. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. The biokinetics of four 239Pu/241Am dioxide bearing dusts in the rat after inhalation: the implications for occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the work described here were to provide an experimental basis for evaluating the committed effective dose equivalent per unit intake together with the ALI for four industrial oxide bearing dusts, and to assess the extent to which 241Am could be used for estimating the 239Pu content of the lung after an accidental intake of these materials. (author)

  10. Deposition of [sup 210]Pb, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu, and [sup 241]Am in the Antarctic peninsula area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P.; Holm, E.; Persson, R.B.R. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics); Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

    1994-01-01

    [sup 210]Pb, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu, and [sup 241]Am were analysed in lichen, moss, grass and soil samples, as well as in lake sediments, from the South Shetland Islands, the Antarctic, in order to evaluate the flux and deposition of these elements. Average inventories of the analysed radionuclides in 1988 are given. The ratios [sup 238]Pu/[sup 239+240]Pu and [sup 241]Am/[sup 239+240]Pu of 0.21 [+-] 0.04 and 0.35 [+-] 0.08 respectively agree well with expected values in this area. A significant difference in [sup 137]Cs/[sup 239+240]Pu ratios between lichens and moss/grass/soil is observed which may be an effect of submerging and melt water altering radionuclide ratios. From one of three lakes studied it is possible to perform [sup 210]Pb dating with reasonable accuracy showing an average annual sediment accumulation in this lake of about 45 g m[sup -2]. (author).

  11. Latitudinal distribution and sedimentation of 90Sr, 137Cs, 241Am and 239,240Pu in bottom sediment of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco, bottom sediment samples were collected along with water column samples in 1997 from the Northwest Pacific Ocean, and were analysed for 90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am contents in order to identify current distribution patterns and inventories, and to elucidate sources of these radionuclides in the region where the past US nuclear weapons tests were carried out. This study complements a previous reports on bottom sediments and water column. All the reported sediment data including data from 1997 cruise revealed that sedimentary 239+240Pu and 241Am concentrations peaked both in the latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg. N and 30-40 deg. N, and 137Cs and 90Sr in the latitudinal band between 30-40 deg. N. The latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg. N and 30-40 deg. N correspond to the major areas affected by close-in fallout and global fallout, respectively. Sediment inventories of 239,240Pu and 241Am exceeded or nearly equalled their overlying water inventories near the Bikini Atoll, however, in mid latitudes, more than 70% of 239,240Pu still remains in the water column. Sediment inventories of 137Cs and 90Sr account for about ten and less than five percent of the water column inventories, respectively. 241Am inventories in sediments exceeded those of the water column. The activity ratios of 137Cs/90Sr and 241Am/239,240Pu in sediments were higher than of the global fallout ratios. 90Sr content in the bottom sediments also appears to be controlled by the carbonate contents of the sea floor. The relative contribution of global and close-in fallouts to the total 239,240Pu was estimated using a two end-member mixing model based on the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu. The contribution of close-in fallout in sediment appears to be about 56 % for the latitudinal belt 10-20 deg. N. It is not unexpected that close-in fallout Pu

  12. Latitudinal distribution and sedimentation of 90Sr, 137Cs, 241Am and 239,240Pu in bottom sediment of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco, bottom sediment samples were collected along with water column samples in 1997 from the Northwest Pacific Ocean, and were analysed for 90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am contents in order to identify current distribution patterns and inventories, and to elucidate sources of these radionuclides in the region where the past US nuclear weapons tests were carried out. This study complements a previous reports on bottom sediments and water column. All the reported sediment data including data from 1997 cruise revealed that sedimentary 239+240Pu and 241Am concentrations peaked both in the latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg. N and 30-40 deg. N, and 137Cs and 90Sr in the latitudinal band between 30-40 deg. N. The latitudinal bands between 10-20 deg N and 30-40 deg. N correspond to the major areas affected by close-in fallout and global fallout, respectively. Sediment inventories of 239+240Pu and 241Am exceeded or nearly equalled their overlying water inventories near the Bikini Atoll, however, in mid latitudes, more than 70% of 239+240Pu still remains in the water column. Sediment inventories of 137Cs and 90Sr account for about ten and less than five percent of the water column inventories, respectively. 241Am inventories in sediments exceeded those of the water column. The activity ratios of 137Cs/90Sr and 241Am/239,240Pu in sediments were higher than of the global fallout ratios. 90Sr content in the bottom sediments also appears to be controlled by the carbonate contents of the sea floor. The relative contribution of global and close-in fallouts to the total 239,240Pu was estimated using a two end-member mixing model based on the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu. The contribution of close-in fallout in sediment appears to be about 56 % for the latitudinal belt 10-20 deg. N. It is not unexpected that close-in fallout Pu

  13. 239+240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae collected around the Japanese coast in the early 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine organisms, i.e. fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae, were collected in the early 1990s along the Sea of Japan coast and the Japanese Pacific coast and analyzed for their 239+240Pu and 137Cs concentrations. The 239+240Pu concentrations in muscle of fish were below 0.4 mBq/kg wet wt. and the lowest among the analyzed marine organisms. Most 137Cs concentrations in muscle of fish ranged from 100 to 300 mBq/kg wet wt. Higher concentrations of 239+240Pu, ranging from 1.6 to 5.7 mBq/kg wet wt., were observed in viscera of cephalopods than in their muscle. The 239+240Pu concentrations in whole soft tissues of bivalves varied approximately one order of magnitude from 0.8 to 6.1 mBq/kg wet wt., while 137Cs concentrations had little variation, being approximately 60 mBq/kg wet wt. The 239+240Pu concentrations in algae had a wide variation, ranging from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt., and were higher than those of the other marine organisms. No statistically significant difference in mean concentrations of 239+240Pu was detected among the whole soft tissues of bivalves, viscera of cephalopods and crustaceans, and whole bodies of cephalopods and crustaceans within the 95% confidence limit. The mean concentrations of 137Cs became higher in the order, cephalopods and crustaceans and bivalves, algae, viscera of fish, muscles of fish. The mean concentrations of 239+240Pu were comparable for algae collected along the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast. Furthermore, the difference in mean concentrations of 137Cs in algae between the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast was not statistically significant within the 95% confidence limit. These results can be considered to indicate no definite influence from radioactive dumping into the Japan Sea by the former USSR and Russia with respect to radioactive pollution of marine organisms collected along the Japanese coast

  14. 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am in boreal forest soil and their transfer into wild mushrooms and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profiles of podzolic soil from boreal forests were sampled from eight sites in Finland and the distribution of 137Cs in the soil layers was determined. In addition, 239,240Pu and 241Am were determined from two soil profiles taken at one sampling site. Inventories of 137Cs in the soil profiles varied between 1.7 kBq/m2 and 42 kBq/m2, reflecting known variation in 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The highest proportions of the radionuclides were found in the organic layer at a depth of less than 5 cm, which on average contained 47% of 137Cs, 76% of 239,240Pu and 79% of 241Am. In the litter, clearly higher proportions of 137Cs were found compared to 239,240Pu and 241Am, probably indicating its more effective recycling from the organic layer back to the surface. Only very minor proportions of 137Cs were recorded below 20 cm. The concentration of 137Cs in the soil profiles could be approximated with a declining logarithmic trend. The activity concentrations of 137Cs were determined for six wild mushroom species and three wild berry species at two sites, as well as the aggregated transfer factors and the distribution of 137Cs between their various parts. In addition, 239,240Pu and 241Am were determined in one mushroom and three berry species at one site. Very high concentrations of 137Cs, up to 20 kBq/kg (d.w.), were found in mushrooms, and their transfer factors were between 0.1 m2/kg and 1.0 m2/kg. In berries, the transfer factors were an order of magnitude lower. 137Cs accumulated more in the caps of mushrooms and in the fruits of berries than in other parts. Transfer factors for 239,240Pu and 241Am were two to three orders of magnitude lower than those of 137Cs. - Highlights: ► 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 241Am mainly concentrated in organic layer in podzolic soil. ► Distribution of 137Cs in the upper 20 cm soil follows exponential declining trend. ► 137Cs concentrates into mushrooms but varies considerably between species. ► 137Cs concentrates in mushroom

  15. Using 239+240Pu atmospheric deposition and a simplified mass-balance model to re-estimate the soil erosion rate. A case study of Liaodong Bay in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the mass balance model of 137Cs and introducing 239+240Pu atmospheric deposition, a simplified mass balance model of 239+240Pu was developed and the soil erosion rate was re-estimated. The results indicated that the reference inventory of 239+240Pu was estimated to be 88.4 Bq/m2 in Liaodong Bay. In addition, the atomic ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in all core samples were approximately 0.18, which indicated that the major source of Pu was the global fallout. Statistical analysis of the erosion rates derived from the model demonstrates that the 239+240Pu atmospheric deposition is a feasible way to estimate the soil erosion rate and further improve tracer technique to assess the soil erosion rate. (author)

  16. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediments following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P I; León Vintró, L; Dahlgaard, H; Gascó, C; Sánchez-Cabeza, J A

    1997-08-25

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of approximately 0.18. Measurement of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing (e.g. Bikini Atoll, Nevada test site, Mururoa Atoll), has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240Pu/239Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment (and soil) collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240Pu/239Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution, and confirmed in the case of the most active samples by high-resolution X-ray spectrometry. Only samples which displayed plutonium heterogeneities, i.e. hot particles or concentrations well in excess (at least two orders of magnitude) of those expected from global fallout, were selected for analysis. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio was 0.033 +/- 0.004 (n = 4), while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056 +/- 0.003 (n = 4). Both ratios are indicative of low burn-up plutonium and are consistent with those reported for weapons-grade plutonium. It is noteworthy that the mean 238Pu/239Pu activity ratio in the Thule samples, at 0.0150 +/- 0.0017 (n = 4), was also lower than that measured in the Palomares samples, namely, 0.0275 +/- 0.0012 (n = 4). The 241Pu/239Pu ratios were similarly different. Finally, the data show, in contrast to Palomares, that not all of the samples from the Thule accident site were contaminated with plutonium of identical isotopic composition. PMID:9241884

  17. Distribution of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in Caspian Sea water and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Froehlich, Klaus; Gastaud, Janine; Oregioni, Beniamino; Pagava, Samson V.; Pham, Mai K.; Rusetski, Vladimir

    2003-09-01

    Two sampling expeditions were carried out in the Caspian Sea in 1995 and 1996. The aim was to investigate oceanographic conditions, water dynamics of the Sea and to measure radionuclide concentrations using 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu as tracers in the water column. Of the three basins comprising the Caspian Sea, the two deep basins (the central and southern basins) appear to be rapidly ventilated on a time scale of about 30 years, as shown by the penetration of radionuclides to bottom waters. The main source of radionuclides in the Sea has been global fallout and subsequent river run-off from catchment areas. At the stations visited, there were no signs of radioactive waste dumping, although the 90Sr levels found were higher than expected from global fallout, which may be due to remobilization of 90Sr from soil and its transport by rivers to the Sea. Radionuclide concentrations in fish and caviar are within the expected ranges and are not of radiological importance for consumption of fish and caviar from the Caspian Sea.

  18. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopic constituents of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by a coincident alpha-conversion electron measurement. This presents a unique signature to allow the unfolding of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy and reduce backgrounds of an unseparated sample. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector and alpha spectroscopy with a passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20-55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information and calibration to aid in the coincident measurement approach. Furthermore, an alpha-conversion electron spectrometer was assembled using the silicon based detectors described and results of a coincident spectrum analysis is reported for 241Am.

  19. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled 239PuO2 were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-α protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-α. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-α also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-α were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Neutron emission effects on fragment mass and kinetic energy distribution from fission of 239Pu induced by thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average of fragment kinetic energy () and the multiplicity of prompt neutrons (ν(bar sign)) as a function of fragment mass (m*), as well as the fragment mass yield (Y (m*)) from thermal neutron induced fission of 239Pu, have been measured by Tsuchiya et al.. In that work the mass and kinetic energy are calculated from the measured kinetic energy of one fragment and the difference of time of flight of the two complementary fragments. However they do not present their results about the standard deviation σE*(m*). In this work we have made a numerical simulation of that experiment, assuming an initial distribution of the primary fragment kinetic energy (E(A)) with a constant value of the standard deviation as function of fragment mass σE(A)). As a result of that simulation we obtain the dependence σE*(m*) which presents an enhancement between m* = 92 and m* 110, and a peak at m* = 121. (orig.)

  1. Neutron emission effects on fragment mass and kinetic energy distribution from fission of 239Pu induced by thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average of fragment kinetic energy (E-bar sign*) and the multiplicity of prompt neutrons (ν(bar sign)) as a function of fragment mass (m*), as well as the fragment mass yield (Y(m*)) from thermal neutron-induced fission of 239Pu have been measured by Tsuchiya et al.. In that work the mass and kinetic energy are calculated from the measured kinetic energy of one fragment and the difference of time of flight of the two complementary fragments. However they do not present their results about the standard deviation σE*(m*). In this work we have made a numerical simulation of that experiment which reproduces its results, assuming an initial distribution of the primary fragment kinetic energy (E(A)) with a constant value of the standard deviation as function of fragment mass (σE(A)). As a result of the simulation we obtain the dependence σE*(m*) which presents an enhancement between m* = 92 and m* = 110, and a peak at m* = 121.

  2. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site

  3. A Study of the Resonance Interaction Effect between 238U and 239Pu in Lower Energy Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation has been made of the statistical frequency function for the distances between the 238U and the 239Pu resonances in the region 4-244 eV. It is concluded that the frequency function is probably constant but that the distances diverge appreciably from a constant function in the actual case, and that the divergence is such that the interaction effect on the resonance integral is smaller than would be expected from statistical considerations. This is also confirmed by calculations on the interaction effect. These have been performed using three different methods, namely: a) considering the actual positions and widths of the resonances, b) assuming a constant frequency function for the resonance. spacing and applying a theory developed by Rowlands and E A Fischer. c) applying a simplified, approximate method for calculations based on the statistical theory. The calculations are made for two temperatures and two values of the plutonium enrichment. It is shown that the average cross sections are considerably larger than the statistical calculations indicate

  4. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  5. Fission Mode Influence on Prompt Neutrons and γ-rays Emitted in the Reaction 239Pu(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serot, O.; Litaize, O.; Regnier, D.

    Recently, a Monte-Carlo code, which simulates the fission fragment de-excitation process, has been developed at CEA- Cadarache. Our aim is to get a tool capable to predict spectra and multiplicities of prompt particles (neutron and gamma) and to investigate possible correlations between fission observables. One of the main challenges is to define properly the share of the available excitation energy at scission between the two nascent fission fragments. Initially, after the full acceleration of the fission fragments, these excitation energies were treated within a Fermi-gas approximation in aT2 (where a and T stand for the level density parameter and the nuclear temperature) and a mass dependent law of the temperature ratio (RT=TL/TH, with TL and TH the temperature of the light and heavy fragment) has been proposed. With this RT-law, the main fission observables of the 252Cf(sf) could be reproduced. Here, in order to take into account the fission modes by which the fissioning nucleus undergoes to fission, we have adopted a specific RT-law for each fission mode. For actinides, the main fission modes are called Standard I, Standard II and Super Long (following Brosa's terminology). This new procedure has been applied in the case of the thermal neutron induced fission of 239Pu, reaction for which fission modes are rather well known.

  6. Radionuclide distribution dynamics in skeletons of beagles fed 90Sr: Correlation with injected 226Ra and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data for the bone-by-bone redistribution of 90Sr in the beagle skeleton are reported for a period of 4000 d following a midgestation-to-540-d-exposure by ingestion. The partitioned clearance model (PCM) that was originally developed to describe bone-by-bone radionuclide redistribution of 226Ra after eight semimonthly injections at ages 435-535 d has been fitted to the 90Sr data. The parameter estimates for the PCM that describe the distribution and clearance of 226Ra after deposition on surfaces following injection and analogous parameter estimates for 90Sr after uniform deposition in the skeleton as a function of Ca mass are given. Fractional compact bone masses per bone group (mi,COM) are also predicted by the model and compared to measured values; a high degree of correlation (r = 0.84) is found. Bone groups for which the agreement between the model and experimental values of mi,COM was poor had tissue-to-calcium weight ratios about 1.5 times those for bones that agreed well. Metabolically defined surface in PCM is initial activity fraction per Ca fraction in a given skeletal component for intravenously injected alkaline earth (Sae) radionuclides; comparisons are made to similarly defined surface (Sact) values from 239Pu injection studies. The patterns of Sae and Sact distribution throughout the skeleton are similar

  7. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. PMID:26141189

  8. Reciprocal translocations in ageing mice and mice with long-term low-level 239Pu contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single intravenous injections of 185 Bq monomeric 239Pu were given to male mice, and the frequency of primary spermatocytes with reciprocal translocations, determined 724 days after treatment, was not significantly different from that of age-matched untreated controls. These old animals showed significantly higher aberration frequencies than young adults. The data therefore show that for low initial activity and very long retention time the possible cytogenetic effects of incorporated nuclide does not change the age-related pattern of increase of spontaneous chromosome aberrations. Considerations of the main variables involved in the induction of cytogenetic effects of incorporated plutonium, based on literature data, indicate that the initial injected activity, the estimated total accumulated average organ dose, and the retention time interact in a complex way; as far as can be seen at present, the effects seem to be dependent mainly on the initial activity at short times after contamination, while the retention time appears to be predominant in the case of long-term observations. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the thermal-neutron constants for 233U, 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consistent set of best values of the 2200 meter/second neutron cross sections, Westcott g-factors, and fission neutron yields for 233U, 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu are presented. A least squares fitting program, LSF, is used to obtain the best fit and to estimate the sensitivity of these fissile parameters to the quoted uncertainties in experimental data. The half-lives of the uranium and plutonium nuclides have been evaluated and these have been used to reassess the significant experimental data. The latest revision of the spontaneous fission neutron yield anti nu, of 252Cf and the foil thickness corrections to the fission neutron yield ratios of fissile nuclei to 252Cf are included. These lead to greater consistency in the data used for anti nu (252Cf). Similarly, the 234U half-life as revised leads to improved consistency in the 235U fission cross section. Comparison is made with the values from ENDF/B-V and other evaluations

  10. Neutron-induced transmutation reactions in 237Np, 238Pu, and 239Pu at the massive natural uranium spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmutation reactions in the 237Np, 238Pu, and 239Pu samples were investigated in the neutron field generated inside a massive (m = 512 kg) natural uranium spallation target. The uranium target assembly QUINTA was irradiated with the deuteron beams of kinetic energy 2, 4, and 8 GeV provided by the Nuclotron accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. The neutron-induced transmutation of the actinide samples was measured off-line by implementing methods of gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe detectors. Results of measurement are expressed in the form of both the individual reaction rates and average fission transmutation rates. For the purpose of validation of radiation transport programs, the experimental results were compared with simulations of neutron production and distribution performed by the MCNPX 2.7 and MARS15 codes employing the INCL4-ABLA physics models and LAQGSM event generator, respectively. In general, a good agreement between the experimental and calculated reaction rates was found in the whole interval of provided beam energies

  11. Re-entrainment of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} Particles Captured on HEPA Filter Fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y.; Koizumi, A.; Miyamoto, K

    1999-07-01

    Filter performance is very important not only before use but also in use. In addition to particle collection, particle retention or dispersion rate should be evaluated. Re-entrainment of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} particles collected on HEPA filter fibres was investigated under various conditions of air flow direction, air flow rate, air flow pattern and dust loading. Plutonium aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 0.45 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0 were used. Dispersion rate per hour, which is defined as activity ratio on the sampling filter downstream to that on the source filter, under forward flow, was measured as less than 2.3 x 10{sup -7} h{sup -1}. Under reverse flow, higher dispersion rates were observed, but the dispersion decreased with repeated sample runs. A high air flow rate increased the dispersion rate. There was no significant differences among air flow patterns. Dispersion rate depended strongly on the dust loading level. For example, at 2.9 times the loading of atmospheric aerosols compared with the initial pressure drop the dispersion rate was increased by approximately 100 times to 10{sup -2} h{sup -1}. (author)

  12. A comparison of the distribution of 239-Pu and calcein in the ilium of the female CBA mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well recognised that plutonium 239 and certain vital stains such as calcein behave similarly when injected i.v. into experimental animals. Both are rapidly cleared from blood, and concentrate on bone surfaces. Certain differences of behaviour are also known, such as the competitive concentration of plutonium in liver and other soft tissues; and differences in the distribution of site of location of the substances on bone surface. Plutonium tends to concentrate evenly on all bone surfaces in proportion to the blood supply to that region, leading to higher concentrations on endosteal than periosteal surfaces. Calcein deposits at sites of mineralisation, which occur on both endosteum and periosteum in response to the demands of growth and remodelling. Subsequent behaviour of both substances would appear to depend entirely on the growth and remodelling activities of the bone, the deposits remaining fixed in position until the containing bone is resorbed or buried by freshly formed bone. Many studies of the distribution and dosimetry of plutonium in experimental animals, mainly dogs, and mice have been recorded. There is however, a lack of information concerning the behaviour of the radionuclide in man. More information is available on the behaviour in man and experimental animals of the vital stains, some of which are well known anti-biotics. Consequently, there is much to be gained if a knowledge of the behaviour of vital stains such as calcein can be used to predict the distribution of plutonium in the human skeleton. (orig.)

  13. Coulomb effects in isobaric cold fission from reactions 233U(nth,f), 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f) and 252Cf(sf)

    CERN Document Server

    Montoya, Modesto

    2014-01-01

    The Coulomb effect hypothesis, formerly used to interpret fluctuations in the curve of maximal total kinetic energy as a function of light fragment mass in reactions 233U(nth,f), 235U(nth,f) and 239Pu(nth,f), is confirmed in high kinetic energy as well as in low excitation energy windows, respectively. Data from reactions 233U(nth,f), 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f) and 252Cf(sf) show that, between two isobaric fragmentations with similar Q-values, the more asymmetric charge split reaches the higher value of total kinetic energy. Moreover, in isobaric charge splits with different Q-values, similar preference for asymmetrical fragmentations is observed in low excitation energy windows.

  14. Studying of distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm according to the organic acids fractions of the alienation zone soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with data of research on the distribution of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm of ''the Chornobyl rains'' by the fractions of the organic matters of derno-podzolic sandy, derno-meadow and peat soils sampled in the alienation zone of the Chornobyl NPP. Functioning of organic matters was carried according to Tyurin's method. It is stressed that, independently on soil type, 137Cs is connected with the mineral contituent by 80-95%. It is found out that, independently on the soil type, 50-70% 137Sr and 15-45% 241Am are associated with fulvic acid fractions. The 241Am and 244Cm distribution according to organic acids taking into account deviations while carrying out determinations is unambiguous. It is found out that in all the soils tested the main quality of 239+24Pu is connected with humic acids

  15. Evaluation of quantitative factors of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu, 241Am transfer from contaminated soil with gastric and intestine juices of cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological availability and parameters of transuranium elements metabolism in an organism of cows pasturing in the Chernobyl NPP alienation zone are evaluated. The values of the radioactivity of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu and 241Am are presented in samples of gastric and intestine juices of cows as well as in simulative solutions after soil processing by them. Quantitative parameters of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239Pu and 241Am transfer from solid phase of soil to gastric, intestine juice of cows as well as to simulative solutions have been estimated on the basis of results of laboratory incubation experiments. A prevailing role of enzyme complex and microflora of gastrointestinal tract in radionuclides transfer from solid phase of soil to solution has been shown

  16. Assinatura da deposição atmosférica de testes nucleares em sedimentos da costa brasileira (240+239Pu e 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Sanders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to take a look at Cold War era nuclear tests signatures found in Brazilian coastal sediments. Both137Cs and 240+239Pu signatures have been documented in mangrove, coastal mudflats and continental shelf sediments, associated with above ground nuclear tests beginning in the 1950's. The dates associated to the anthropogenic radionuclide signatures 137Cs and 240+239Pu along sediment columns are confirmed by 210Pb geochronology in many of the studies highlighted in this review. The results outlined in this review characterize the extent to which nuclear fallout products reach the Brazilian coast in quantities sufficient for detection, allowing the use of these radioisotopes as geochronometers.

  17. Using uncertainty analyses to test for differences in fractional transfers of 238Pu and 239+240Pu to cattle grazing a contaminated arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of Monte Carlo uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of the modeled fractional transfers of 238Pu and 239+240Pu from the gastrointestinal tract to the tissues of cattle that grazed a plutonium contaminated arid site near the Nevada Test Site. The analyses were conducted to assess the uncertainty in model parameters for the purpose of testing if the fractional transfer of 238Pu was greater than that of 239+240Pu to the tissues of the cattle. A sensitivity analysis of the fractional transfer model indicated that the Pu tissue concentration was the model parameter that had the highest correlation with computed fractional transfers. It was shown that accurate information on the variability of tissue concentrations is needed to obtain accurate estimates of the uncertainty of modeled fractional transfers. 34 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Comparison of the ENDF/B-V and SOKRATOR evaluations of 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Pu at low neutron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US and USSR's most recent evaluationsof 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Pu are compared over the thermal region and over the first few resonances. The two evaluations rest on essentially the same experimental data base and the differences reflect different approaches to the representation of the cross sections or different weightings of the experimental results. It is found that over the thermal and resolved ranges the two evaluations are very similar. Some differences in approaches are briefly discussed

  19. Recombinant Yellow Fever Vaccine Virus 17D Expressing Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239 Gag Induces SIV-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Responses in Rhesus Macaques ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaldo, Myrna C.; Martins, Mauricio A.; Rudersdorf, Richard; Mudd, Philip A.; Sacha, Jonah B.; Piaskowski, Shari M.; Costa Neves, Patrícia C.; Veloso de Santana, Marlon G.; Vojnov, Lara; Capuano, Saverio; Rakasz, Eva G.; Wilson, Nancy A.; Fulkerson, John; Sadoff, Jerald C.; Watkins, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe a novel vaccine vector for expressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens. We show that recombinant attenuated yellow fever vaccine virus 17D expressing simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 Gag sequences can be used as a vector to generate SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the rhesus macaque. Priming with recombinant BCG expressing SIV antigens increased the frequency of these SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses after recombinant YF17D boosting. These recombinan...

  20. Long-term effects of inhaled Ca-DTPA in rats previously exposed to 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaled Ca-DTPA given 20 days after 239Pu(NO3)4 inhalation was marginally effective (p = 0.10) in reducing the amount of Pu in rat lung. This reduction in Pu lung burden did not, however, affect the later induction of lung tumors. An increased osteosarcoma incidence was noted in control rats exposed only to nitric acid aerosols. Complete tumor incidence data are not yet available. (U.S.)

  1. The subcellular distribution of 239Pu, 241Am and 59Fe in the liver of rat and Chinese hamster as dependent on time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcellular distribution of monomeric 239Pu, 241Am and iron in rat and Chinese hamster liver has been investigated by sucrose-, metrizamide- and Percoll-density gradients. In rat liver, the transuranium elements become and remain bound to typical lysosomes primary storage organelle in Chinese hamster liver. However, their apparent density in sucrose decreases with time, which possible indicates transition into telolysomes. The transuranium nuclides show a subcellular distribution which is quite different from that of iron. (orig.)

  2. Some pathophysiological and biochemical changes in dogs with different forms of lesions induced by inhalation of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 241/Am nitrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmykova, Z.I.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Buldakov, L.A.; Nifatov, A.P.; Vedeneev, V.S.

    Dogs were acutely, subacutely and chronically inhaled with polymeric /sup 239/Pu and monomeric /sup 241/Am nitrates. Distinctly directed changes were observed in the protein fraction and glycoproteins, as well as in transaminases and sorbitoldehydrogenase of the blood serum, which were attributed to unequal radiation loads to the lungs and the organs of the secondary deposition of nuclides, and also to different degree of the respiratory distress.

  3. Effect of CD8+ Lymphocyte Depletion on Virus Containment after Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Challenge of Live Attenuated SIVmac239Δ3-Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Jörn E.; Johnson, R. Paul; McClure, Harold M.; Manson, Kelledy H.; Wyand, Michael S.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Khunkhun, Rajinder S.; McEvers, Kimberly J.; Gillis, Jacqueline; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Grosschupff, Gudrun; Racz, Paul; Tenner-Racz, Klara

    2005-01-01

    Although live attenuated vaccines can provide potent protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenges, the specific immune responses that confer this protection have not been determined. To test whether cellular immune responses mediated by CD8+ lymphocytes contribute to this vaccine-induced protection, we depleted rhesus macaques vaccinated with the live attenuated virus SIVmac239Δ3 of CD8+ lymphocytes and then challenged them with SIV...

  4. Alkaline phosphatase and transaminase activity in rat liver and blood serum at delayed periods following external γ-irradiation combined with internal exposure to plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of activity of alkaline phosphatase and alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase in rat liver and blood serum at remote times after external γ-irradiation combined with internal exposure to 239Pu nitrate delivered in two chronically effective doses. The radionuclide was shown to be mainly responsible for the changes observed in activity of the enzymes under study. The degree to which the changes were manifest depended upon dose of plutonium administered

  5. XAS and XRD study of annealed 238Pu- and 239Pu-substituted zircons (Zr0.92Pu0.08SiO4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An annealing study has been completed on two compositionally identical Pu-substituted zircons (Zr0.92Pu0.08SiO4) prepared 18 yr ago with different 238Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios. The activity and accumulated dose for each material varies greatly due to the very different half-lives of 238Pu (87.7 yr) and 239Pu (24 100 yr). The predominantly 238Pu-substituted zircon is in a highly amorphous state after accumulating a dose of 2.8x1019 α-decays/g, which is a factor of two higher than the dose previously determined necessary to amorphize this material. The 239Pu-substituted zircon has remained highly crystalline after an accumulated dose of 1.2x1017 α-decays/g. The Pu in both samples is trivalent due to sintering under reducing conditions. The short-range and long-range structures of each sample have been characterized by detailed X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The oxidation of Pu3+ to Pu4+ in the crystalline 239Pu-substituted zircon during annealing in air resulted in a decrease in lattice distortion due to the decrease in ionic radius of Pu3+ to Pu4+ on the Zr4+ site. A significant amount of PuO2 exsolved from the zircon structure after annealing at 1200 deg. C in air. Detailed characterization of the amorphous 238Pu-substituted zircon demonstrated that while devoid of long-range order it still retained a distorted zircon structure and composition over a length scale of 0.5 nm. The recrystallization of the amorphous 238Pu-substituted zircon could be achieved directly at temperatures as low as 1200 deg. C when annealed for 12 h in air; however, annealing at 1000 deg. C resulted in decomposition into constituent oxides

  6. High workload and job stress are associated with lower practice performance in general practice: an observational study in 239 general practices in the Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Grol Richard; Akkermans Reinier; van Doremalen Jan; Elwyn Glyn; Künzi Beat; van den Hombergh Pieter; Wensing Michel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The impact of high physician workload and job stress on quality and outcomes of healthcare delivery is not clear. Our study explored whether high workload and job stress were associated with lower performance in general practices in the Netherlands. Methods Secondary analysis of data from 239 general practices, collected in practice visits between 2003 to 2006 in the Netherlands using a comprehensive set of measures of practice management. Data were collected by a practice...

  7. The concentration of 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 238Pu in the surface air of Prague in 1989 and 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, positive values were found twice for 90Sr, namely in monitoring periods January-February (0.6 μBq.m-3) and September-October (0.8 μBq.m-3). In other monitoring periods, the concentrations of 90Sr in the surface air in Prague were below 0.3 μBq.m-3. Presence of 239,240Pu was not proved in Prague surface air in 1989. In the individual monitoring periods the concentrations of 239,240Pu were less than 0.13 μBq.m-3. In 1990, 90Sr concentrations in January-February and September-October were 2.1 and 1.2 μBq.m-3, respectively. In other monitoring periods, the concentrations of 90Sr were less than 0.3 μBq.m-3. The presence of 239,240Pu was not proved in Prague surface air in 1990 either. In the individual monitoring periods the concentrations were below 0.04 μBq.m-3. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 8 refs

  8. Gamma-emitters 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am in bones and liver of eagles from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study focused on analyzing samples of bones, livers and kidneys of European white-tailed eagles (Haliaetus albicilla) and lesserspotted eagle (Aquila pomarina). Bone samples were collected for both species, from 7 and 2 individuals, respectively, whereas liver and kidney samples for white-tailed eagle species only, 2 and 1 individuals, respectively. The samples were analyzed for the presence of gamma-emitters and then for 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The applied radiochemical method is presented. Activity concentration in ashen bones (600 deg C) for 90Sr ranged from 4.6±1.2 to 31.0±2.5 Bq/kg, for 239+240Pu from 238Pu from 241Am from 239+240Pu activity concentration of 78±9 mBq/kg (for fresh weight) was recorded in a single kidney sample. The liver samples showed activities of magnitude at least one order lower. No clear correlations were found between the activities of different radionuclides. (author)

  9. Routine radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine analytical procedures have been developed for the reliable simultaneous determination of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 242-244Cm, Chernobyl derived radioisotopes and fallout after nuclear weapon tests in a wide range of environmental samples: soil (100-200 g), sediments, aerosols, water and vegetation. This procedure has been applied to thousands of soil and sediment samples and hundreds of biological and water samples taken in the exclusive zone of Chernobyl NPP and different regions of Ukraine from 1989 to the present. After the sample has been properly prepared and isotopic tracers added, plutonium, americium and curium are precipitated with calcium oxalate and then lanthanum fluoride. Plutonium is separated from americium and curium by anion-exchange. Americium and curium are separated from rare earths by cation-exchange with gradient elute α-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid. During projects by AQCS IAEA 'Evaluation of Methods for 90Sr in a Mineral Matrix' and 'Proficiency Test for 239Pu, 241Pu and 241Am Measurement in a Mineral Matrix' accuracy and precision for 90Sr, 239Pu and 241Am by present procedure was evaluated. Advantages, difficulties and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  10. Spatial distributions of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Zaharudin, E-mail: zahar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.m [Radiochemistry and Environmental Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah [Radiochemistry and Environmental Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    The studies of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 242}Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60 {sup o}C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62 keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89 Bq/m{sup 3} and 2.3-7.9 mBq/m{sup 3}, respectively. The {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area.

  11. Estimates of /sup 239-240/Pu + 241Am inventory, spatial pattern, and soil tonnage for removal at nuclear site-201, NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of /sup 239-240/Pu + 241Am inventory and spatial pattern in surface soil are given for Nuclear Site (NS)-201 in Area 18 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These estimates were obtained using Kriging techniques and the estimated average /sup 239-240/Pu to 241Am ratio of 7.5. (Henceforth, Pu and Am refer to /sup 239-240/Pu and 241Am.) Estimated concentration contours, 68% confidence bands on contours, and estimated average concentrations in 100- x 100-foot blocks are given. The total Pu + Am inventory estimated to be in the top 5 cm of soil over the defined area is approximately 9.4 curies. Lower and upper limits on this inventory estimate are 4 and 30 curies. It is estimated that about 33 acres (approx. = 13 hectares) of land are contaminated at levels greater than 160 pCi/g and about 51 acres (approx. = 21 hectares) to levels greater than 40 pCi/g. Approximately 23,000 tons of soil would need to be removed (to 15-cm depth) to clean up all areas with estimated concentrations greater than or equal to 160 pCi/g. About 36,000 tons would require removal at the 40- pCi/g level. The above estimates will be updated when additional data become available early in Calender Year 1980. 10 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  12. Suppression of the pulmonary clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in mice that had inhaled either 144CeO2 or 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of pulmonary clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus in mice was determined at intervals after inhalation exposure to either 144CeO2 or 239PuO2. In mice with mean initial lung burdens between 0.6 and 4.7 μCi 144Ce the pulmonary clearance of S. aureus was suppressed up to 12 weeks after inhalation of 144CeO2. In mice with mean initial lung burdens between 1.3 and 29.0 μCi 239Pu the pulmonary clearance of S. aureus was suppressed up to 26 weeks after inhalation of 239PuO2. The suppressed pulmonary clearance of S. aureus appeared to correlate with the radiation dose rate to the lungs at the time of exposure to bacteria but not with the cumulative radiation dose to the lungs. The changes in bacterial clearance did not appear to be correlated with changes in body weight, hematological parameters, or radiation-induced histopathological changes. Altered bacterial clearance may be related to radiation damage to pulmonary macrophages. It was concluded that irradiation of the lung from radionuclides inhaled in relatively insoluble forms may result in increased bacterial invasion of the lungs

  13. Radiosensitivity and proliferative activity of vertebral CFU-s surviving in mice injected with oncogenic activities of 239Pu or 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survival, radiosensitivity and capability to produce differentiated progeny were studied in CFU-S from lumbar vertebrae of mice injected with 198.6 kBq 239Pu/kg or 208.6 kBq 241Am/kg. The CFU-S assay and 59Fe uptake by spleen colonies were used. The number of CFU-S from treated mice was significantly lower than in the controls. Higher radiosensitivity of CFU-S from 239Pu- or 241Am-treated mice was demonstrated using additional exposure to 0.5 Gy X-rays 1, 24, 48, 72 hrs after cell transplant and expressed more accurately by survival curves obtained 1 hr after the marrow cell injection. The effect of 239Pu on CFU-S was characterized by D0 0.58 Gy (n=0.91) and that of 241Am by D0 0.64 Gy (n=0.91); corresponding control values were D0 0.89 Gy, n=1.11. Lower iron utilization due not only to the decreased CFU-S numbers, but also to the defective production of erythrocytes per one CFU-S was found. The complexity of radiation effect on hematopoietic stem cells was demonstrated by the present study. (author)

  14. Spatial distributions of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of 137Cs and 239+240Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of 134Cs and 242Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60 oC for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62 keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89 Bq/m3 and 2.3-7.9 mBq/m3, respectively. The 239+240Pu/137Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area.

  15. Bioaccumulation of 239+240Pu in benthic organisms crab (Scylla serrata) and arca (Anadara granosa) : a case study from Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study presents the concentration of (239+240)Pu in various size groups of crab (SCYLLA SERRATA) and arca (ANADARA GRANOSA). Around 96 crabs and 650 arcas were harvested from the Mumbai Harbour Bay. Crabs and arcas were grouped in different size groups as per their widths. The maximum concentration 239+240Pu is observed in case of crab for the lowest size group whereas for arca the same is observed in the highest size group. This difference in the uptake of (239+240)Pu is attributed to the difference in metabolic functions of the two species. Bio-accumulation factor (Bp) values in case of crab flesh ranged between 70 to 1140 kg-1 with a GM value of 180 and in arca the value ranged between 6 to 60 l kg-1 with a GM of 20. The values for shell were higher by factors of 2 to 9 in case of crab and 3 to 22 in case of arca. The smallest size group of crab shows maximum Bp value whereas for arca maximum Bp is observed for maximum size group. (author)

  16. Examining (239+240)Pu, (210)Pb and historical events to determine carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus burial in mangrove sediments of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Breithaupt, Joshua L; Smoak, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael; Call, Mitchell; Sanders, Luciana; Eyre, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Two sediment cores were collected in a mangrove forest to construct geochronologies for the previous century using natural and anthropogenic radionuclide tracers. Both sediment cores were dated using (239+240)Pu global fallout signatures as well as (210)Pb, applying both the Constant Initial Concentration (CIC) and the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) models. The (239+240)Pu and CIC model are interpreted as having comparable sediment accretion rates (SAR) below an apparent mixed region in the upper ∼5 to 10 cm. In contrast, the CRS dating method shows high sediment accretion rates in the uppermost intervals, which is substantially reduced over the lower intervals of the 100-year record. A local anthropogenic nutrient signal is reflected in the high total phosphorus (TP) concentration in younger sediments. The carbon/nitrogen molar ratios and δ(15)N values further support a local anthropogenic nutrient enrichment signal. The origin of these signals is likely the treated sewage discharge to Moreton Bay which began in the early 1970s. While the (239+240)Pu and CIC models can only produce rates averaged over the intervals of interest within the profile, the (210)Pb CRS model identifies elevated rates of sediment accretion, organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), and TP burial from 2000 to 2013. From 1920 to 2000, the three dating methods provide similar OC, N and TP burial rates, ∼150, 10 and 2 g m(-2) year(-1), respectively, which are comparable to global averages. PMID:26004816

  17. Pulmonary connective tissue modifications induced by internal α-irradiation. II. Alterations of collagen and non collagen proteins biosynthesis following inhalation of plutonium 239 dioxide aerosol in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies have shown that internal α irradiation following inhalation of plutonium 239 dioxide in rat increased collagen content in the lung. Effect was maximal at 200 days with the highest dose. This increase was found transient and collagen dropped back to control values after 400 days in rats with the same initial lung burden or the same total dose. A new increase was observed later on, largely related to oncoming death. Here, we have studied, simultaneously, content and biosynthesis of collagen and non collagen proteins, 200 d and 400 d after 239PuO2 inhalation (100-150 nCi ILB). The results confirmed a biphasic effect of inhaled 239PuO2 on the pulmonary connective tissue: a/ A significant increase (p < 0.01) of soluble non-collagen proteins correlated to a decrease of the insoluble fraction was observed 200 d after inhalation. Similar parameters were not significantly different in controls on irradiated rats after 400 days. b/ Soluble and non-soluble collagen contents increased by a factor of 3 and 1.5 respectively 200 d after inhalation. No effect after 400 d. c/ Biosynthesis of non-collagen connective tissue components were 2 to 5 lower than in controls at 400d. d/collagen biosynthesis was decreased by a factor between 4 and 6 for the soluble and insoluble fractions at 200 d but normal at 400 d

  18. Report on intercomparison IAEA/SOIL-6 of the determination of Cs-137, Pu-239, Ra-226, and Sr-90 in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of a laboratory intercomparison of the determination of the activity level of cesium-137, plutonium-239, radium-226 and strontium-90 in a provided soil sample organized by the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service. Twenty-seven laboratories from 16 countries returned results based on 77 laboratory means (295 individual determinations). The aim of the interlaboratory comparison was to offer to the laboratories engaged in soil investigation an opportunity to control their analytical performance and to establish the concentration level of some radionuclides in a batch of analyzed soil for certification purposes. All radionuclides were determined by typical commonly used methods: cesium-137 by direct gamma spectroscopy, plutonium-239 by alpha spectroscopy after separation and electrodeposition, radium-226 by direct determination without or with separation or by determination of radon, and strontium-90 by measurement of its daughter yttrium-90. In general, the results can be accepted as satisfactory at such low level of activity (pCi/kg). The relative confidence intervals of the medians of 137Cs and 239Pu are below +-10% and of 226Ra and 90Sr below +-20%

  19. A study of 239Pu production rate in a water cooled natural uranium blanket mock-up of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Song; Liu, Rong; Lu, Xinxin; Yang, Yiwei; Xu, Kun; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Tonghua; Jiang, Li; Qin, Jianguo; Jiang, Jieqiong; Han, Zijie; Lai, Caifeng; Wen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    The 239Pu production rate is important data in neutronics design for a natural uranium blanket of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, and the accuracy and reliability should be validated by integral experiments. The distribution of 239Pu production rates in a subcritical natural uranium blanket mock-up was obtained for the first time with a D-T neutron generator by using an activation technique. Natural uranium foils were placed in different spatial locations of the mock-up, the counts of 277.6 keV γ-rays emitted from 239Np generated by 238U capture reaction were measured by an HPGe γ spectrometer, and the self-absorption of natural uranium foils was corrected. The experiment was analyzed using the Super Monte Carlo neutron transport code SuperMC2.0 with recent nuclear data of 238U from the ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u2, JEFF-3.2 and CENDL-3.1 libraries. Calculation results with the JEFF-3.2 library agree with the experimental ones best, and they agree within the experimental uncertainty in general with the average ratios of calculation results to experimental results (C/E) in the range of 0.93 to 1.01.

  20. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  1. CD8+ and CD4+ cytotoxic T cell escape mutations precede breakthrough SIVmac239 viremia in an elite controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burwitz Benjamin J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-specific T cells are critical components in the containment of immunodeficiency virus infections. While the protective role of CD8+ T cells is well established by studies of CD8+ T cell-mediated viral escape, it remains unknown if CD4+ T cells can also impose sufficient selective pressure on replicating virus to drive the emergence of high-frequency escape variants. Identifying a high frequency CD4+ T cell driven escape mutation would provide compelling evidence of direct immunological pressure mediated by these cells. Results Here, we studied a SIVmac239-infected elite controller rhesus macaque with a 1,000-fold spontaneous increase in plasma viral load that preceded disease progression and death from AIDS-related complications. We sequenced the viral genome pre- and post-breakthrough and demonstrate that CD8+ T cells drove the majority of the amino acid substitutions outside of Env. However, within a region of Gag p27CA targeted only by CD4+ T cells, we identified a unique post-breakthrough mutation, Gag D205E, which abrogated CD4+ T cell recognition. Further, we demonstrate that the Gag p27CA-specific CD4+ T cells exhibited cytolytic activity and that SIV bearing the Gag D205E mutation escapes this CD4+ T cell effector function ex vivo. Conclusions Cumulatively, these results confirm the importance of virus specific CD8+ T cells and demonstrate that CD4+ T cells can also exert significant selective pressure on immunodeficiency viruses in vivo during low-level viral replication. These results also suggest that further studies of CD4+ T cell escape should focus on cases of elite control with spontaneous viral breakthrough.

  2. Calculation of prompt fission product average cross sections for neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield-weighted average cross sections of neutron radiative capture, (n,2n), and (n,3n) reactions over prompt fission products (FPs) from 235U and 239Pu are calculated. The prompt fission production yields are taken from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The FPs for each fissile material exist over a range of approximately 1000 neutron-rich nuclides. Several nuclear reaction codes are utilized for calculating the cross sections on each individual fission product - EMPIRE-2.19, TALYS-1.0, GNASH, and CoH. The influence of the FP isomers on the average cross sections is examined with TALYS. We investigate the dependence of the average cross sections on the number of FPs taken for averaging. It is shown that the average capture cross section is much more sensitive to the number of FPs included, compared with the (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions. An intercomparison of the calculated cross sections with the different reaction codes is carried out. In the capture reaction, EMPIRE predicted lower cross section than TALYS and CoH owing to different default assumptions used in the γ-ray strength function modeling. Moreover, the pre-equilibrium models implemented in each code give different predictions for the neutron-emission reactions, although the differences are relatively small. We also discuss a difference between the macroscopic and microscopic calculation options in TALYS for the pre-equilibrium model, optical potential model, and γ-ray strength function. The predictive capability of the reaction codes for the capture reaction is examined by comparing their calculations with the ENDF data, which are based on measurements. Compared with the historic Foster and Arthur's evaluation, our new (n,2n) predictions are similar, although our capture predictions are almost an order of magnitude higher. Recommended cross sections for use in applications have been tabulated in ENDF-formatted files. (author)

  3. Radiosensitivity of vertebral bone marrow CFU-S surviving in mice internally contaminated with 239Pu or 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells was studied in ICR ''Swiss'' mice (28 g/mouse) given i.v. 198.6 kBq 239Pu/kg as citrate complex or 208.6 kBq 241Am/kg as nitrate at the age of 10 weeks. The bone marrow cells were examined at the early and late phases of radionuclide contamination. To obtain data for survival curves and D0 of stem cells the CFU-S assay was used and the donor vertebral marrow cells were exposed to the complementary X-irradiation either early after injection to the heavily irradiated recipients or to the ''in vitro'' irradiation given before the transplantation. To determine the iron uptake in splenic erythroid progeny the recipients given marrow cells unexposed to the X-rays received 37 kBq 59Fe 6 h before they were killed and the relative activity per colony was calculated. The radiation effect of the used actinides on the bone marrow cells resulted in decreased cellularity and seriously altered both relative and absolute CFU-S numbers. The radiosensitivity of CFU-S increased in all intervals examined (D0 from 0.60 to 0.86 Gy, in controls 0.97 to 1.06 Gy) and was more expressed when the CFU-S were exposed to the X-rays immediately after the bone marrow cell transplantation to the heavily irradiated hosts. The stem cell pool appeared, especially at older age, to be affected also in its ability to produce erythrocytic progeny. (orig.)

  4. Delayed Fission Gamma-ray Characteristics of Th-232 U-233 U-235 U-238 and Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Taylor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Delayed fission gamma-rays play an important role in determining the time dependent ioniz- ing dose for experiments in the central irradiation cavity of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). Delayed gamma-rays are produced from both fission product decay and from acti- vation of materials in the core, such as cladding and support structures. Knowing both the delayed gamma-ray emission rate and the time-dependent gamma-ray energy spectrum is nec- essary in order to properly determine the dose contributions from delayed fission gamma-rays. This information is especially important when attempting to deconvolute the time-dependent neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray contribution to the response of a diamond photo-conducting diode (PCD) or fission chamber in time frames of milliseconds to seconds following a reactor pulse. This work focused on investigating delayed gamma-ray character- istics produced from fission products from thermal, fast, and high energy fission of Th-232, U-233, U-235, U-238, and Pu-239. This work uses a modified version of CINDER2008, a transmutation code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to model time and energy dependent photon characteristics due to fission. This modified code adds the capability to track photon-induced transmutations, photo-fission, and the subsequent radiation caused by fission products due to photo-fission. The data is compared against previous work done with SNL- modified CINDER2008 [ 1 ] and experimental data [ 2 , 3 ] and other published literature, includ- ing ENDF/B-VII.1 [ 4 ]. The ability to produce a high-fidelity (7,428 group) energy-dependent photon fluence at various times post-fission can improve the delayed photon characterization for radiation effects tests at research reactors, as well as other applications.

  5. Feedback on 239Pu and 240Pu nuclear data and associated covariances through the CERES integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchmark measurements of irradiated and un-irradiated fuel samples were performed in the framework of the CERES collaborative program between AEA (UK Atomic Energy Agency) and CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission). These experiments provide relevant data for the validation of fuel burn-up and criticality-safety calculations for the whole fuel cycle. As part of this program, pile-oscillation measurements were carried out on a range of mixed-oxide samples with plutonium of various mass and isotopic contents, both in the MINERVE and DIMPLE reactors. Four core configurations, two over-thermalized situations and two pressurized water reactor (PWR)-type situations, were constituted with different forward and adjoint flux spectra, emphasizing fission and/or capture contributions. The experiments were analyzed using reference TRIPOLI4 calculations with the JEFF-3.1.1 library, using exact three-dimensional models of the core configurations. In a first step, calculations of each DIMPLE configuration were performed and compared with the experiment, showing very good agreements with a maximum C-E of -230 pcm. In the second step, reactivity worth experiments were analyzed, using recently developed exact-perturbation capabilities in TRIPOLI4. A consistent assimilation of calculation over experiment discrepancies was performed with the CONRAD code, using the integral data assimilation method. Covariance matrix on multigroup neutron cross sections and multiplicities were generated and significant trends were identified, especially on the 239Pu and 240Pu capture cross sections in the thermal energy range (E < 0.1 eV). Further investigations should be required to confirm these conclusions, due to the strong dependence of these trends and of posterior covariances to prior covariances. (author)

  6. Analytical Method for Pu-239, Pu-240, Np-237 and Tc-99 using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient analytical method for Pu isotopes (Pu-239 and Pu-240), Np-237 and Tc-99 in environmental samples has been developed using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) detection. The chemical separation of Pu in terrestrial samples, soil, and sediment was carried out on two extraction resins, Sr-Spec and TEVA, which were sequentially combined in PrepLab, an integrated liquid handing device. By reducing the final eluent volume to 2.4 mL, directly injecting it to SF-ICPMS, and employing MCN-6000, a membrane desolvating sample introduction system, the analysis of Pu isotopes was found to be feasible in 1 g of soil. The detection limits of Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-242 were approximately 4 fg mL-1 (9.2 Bq mL-1), 3 fg mL-1 (25 Bq mL-1), and 6 fg mL-1 (0.87 Bq mL-1), which represent total amounts of 9.6, 7.2, and 14 fg, respectively, in the final eluent. Chemical separation and measurement were fully automated by a sequential injection (SI) program in an on-line system, and the analysis could thereby be completed within roughly 5 hours. The reliability of this method was confirmed by a validity test with several certified standard reference materials (NIST-4350b, IAEA-6, IAEA-300, IAEA-367, IAEA-368, IAEA-375). The analytical method for Pu in environmental seawater is different from that of terrestrial samples owing to the strong interference effect of U as well as ultra-low level Pu. Although the principle of chemical separation is nearly the same as in soil, seawater was co-precipitated with Fe(OH)2 in the pre-treatment step and a micro TEVA column (50 L) was used in the on-line system to improve precision and the lower detection limit. With this method, it was possible to analyze ultra-trace level Pu isotopes in only 5 L of surface seawater within 1 day, and the precision for Pu-239 and Pu-240 was less than 3.4% (n=7) and 5% (n=7), respectively. The accuracy of this method was verified by analysis of reference seawater (IAEA-381) as

  7. Analytical Method for Pu-239, Pu-240, Np-237 and Tc-99 using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Su

    2007-02-15

    An efficient analytical method for Pu isotopes (Pu-239 and Pu-240), Np-237 and Tc-99 in environmental samples has been developed using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) detection. The chemical separation of Pu in terrestrial samples, soil, and sediment was carried out on two extraction resins, Sr-Spec and TEVA, which were sequentially combined in PrepLab, an integrated liquid handing device. By reducing the final eluent volume to 2.4 mL, directly injecting it to SF-ICPMS, and employing MCN-6000, a membrane desolvating sample introduction system, the analysis of Pu isotopes was found to be feasible in 1 g of soil. The detection limits of Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-242 were approximately 4 fg mL-1 (9.2 Bq mL-1), 3 fg mL-1 (25 Bq mL-1), and 6 fg mL-1 (0.87 Bq mL-1), which represent total amounts of 9.6, 7.2, and 14 fg, respectively, in the final eluent. Chemical separation and measurement were fully automated by a sequential injection (SI) program in an on-line system, and the analysis could thereby be completed within roughly 5 hours. The reliability of this method was confirmed by a validity test with several certified standard reference materials (NIST-4350b, IAEA-6, IAEA-300, IAEA-367, IAEA-368, IAEA-375). The analytical method for Pu in environmental seawater is different from that of terrestrial samples owing to the strong interference effect of U as well as ultra-low level Pu. Although the principle of chemical separation is nearly the same as in soil, seawater was co-precipitated with Fe(OH)2 in the pre-treatment step and a micro TEVA column (50 L) was used in the on-line system to improve precision and the lower detection limit. With this method, it was possible to analyze ultra-trace level Pu isotopes in only 5 L of surface seawater within 1 day, and the precision for Pu-239 and Pu-240 was less than 3.4% (n=7) and 5% (n=7), respectively. The accuracy of this method was verified by analysis of reference seawater (IAEA-381) as

  8. Physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN239 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 2009-08-22 to 2009-09-20 (NODC Accession 0104355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104355 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN239 in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North...

  9. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  10. Pseudo-merohedral twinning and noncrystallographic symmetry in orthorhombic crystals of SIVmac239 Nef core domain bound to different-length TCRζ fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P212121 crystals of SIV Nef core domain bound to a peptide fragment of the T-cell receptor ζ subunit exhibited noncrystallographic symmetry and nearly perfect pseudo-merohedral twinning simulating tetragonal symmetry. For a different peptide fragment, nontwinned tetragonal crystals were observed but diffracted to lower resolution. The structure was determined after assignment of the top molecular-replacement solutions to various twin or NCS domains followed by refinement under the appropriate twin law. HIV/SIV Nef mediates many cellular processes through interactions with various cytoplasmic and membrane-associated host proteins, including the signalling ζ subunit of the T-cell receptor (TCRζ). Here, the crystallization strategy, methods and refinement procedures used to solve the structures of the core domain of the SIVmac239 isolate of Nef (Nefcore) in complex with two different TCRζ fragments are described. The structure of SIVmac239 Nefcore bound to the longer TCRζ polypeptide (Leu51–Asp93) was determined to 3.7 Å resolution (Rwork = 28.7%) in the tetragonal space group P43212. The structure of SIVmac239 Nefcore in complex with the shorter TCRζ polypeptide (Ala63–Arg80) was determined to 2.05 Å resolution (Rwork = 17.0%), but only after the detection of nearly perfect pseudo-merohedral crystal twinning and proper assignment of the orthorhombic space group P212121. The reduction in crystal space-group symmetry induced by the truncated TCRζ polypeptide appears to be caused by the rearrangement of crystal-contact hydrogen-bonding networks and the substitution of crystallographic symmetry operations by similar noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) operations. The combination of NCS rotations that were nearly parallel to the twin operation (k, h, −l) and a and b unit-cell parameters that were nearly identical predisposed the P212121 crystal form to pseudo-merohedral twinning

  11. Exploratory study of fission product yields of neutron-induced fission of 235U , 238U , and 239Pu at 8.9 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B. F.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Rusev, G. Y.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    Using dual-fission chambers each loaded with a thick (200 -400 -mg /c m2) actinide target of 235 ,238U or 239Pu and two thin (˜10 -100 -μ g /c m2) reference foils of the same actinide, the cumulative yields of fission products ranging from 92Sr to 147Nd have been measured at En= 8.9 MeV . The 2H(d ,n ) 3He reaction provided the quasimonoenergetic neutron beam. The experimental setup and methods used to determine the fission product yield (FPY) are described, and results for typically eight high-yield fission products are presented. Our FPYs for 235U(n ,f ) , 238U(n ,f ) , and 239Pu(n ,f ) at 8.9 MeV are compared with the existing data below 8 MeV from Glendenin et al. [Phys. Rev. C 24, 2600 (1981), 10.1103/PhysRevC.24.2600], Nagy et al. [Phys. Rev. C 17, 163 (1978), 10.1103/PhysRevC.17.163], Gindler et al. [Phys. Rev. C 27, 2058 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevC.27.2058], and those of Mac Innes et al. [Nucl. Data Sheets 112, 3135 (2011), 10.1016/j.nds.2011.11.009] and Laurec et al. [Nucl. Data Sheets 111, 2965 (2010), 10.1016/j.nds.2010.11.004] at 14.5 and 14.7 MeV, respectively. This comparison indicates a negative slope for the energy dependence of most fission product yields obtained from 235U and 239Pu , whereas for 238U the slope issue remains unsettled.

  12. The subcellular distribution of 239Pu, 241Am and 59Fe in the liver of rat and Chinese hamster as dependent on time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcellular distribution of monomeric 239Pu, 241Am and iron in rat and Chinese hamster liver has been investigated by sucrose-, metrizamide- and Percoll-density gradients. In rat liver, the transuranium elements become and remain bound to typical lysosomes up to several months after incorporation. Lysosomes are also the primary storage organelle in Chinese hamster liver. However, their apparent density in sucrose decreases with time, which possibly indicates transition into telolysomes. The transuranium nuclides show a subcellular distribution which is quite different from that of iron. (orig.)

  13. Radiotoxicological analyses of 239+240Pu and 241Am in biological samples by anion-exchange and extraction chromatography: a preliminary study for internal contamination evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many biological samples (urines and faeces) have been analysed by means of chromatographic extraction columns, utilising two different resins (AG 1-X2 resin chloride and T.R.U.), in order to detect the possible internal contamination of 239+240Pu and 241Am, for some workers of a reprocessing nuclear plant in the decommissioning phase. The results obtained show on one hand the great suitability of the first resin for the determination of plutonium, and on the other the great selectivity of the second one for the determination of americium

  14. Criticality Evaluation of Plutonium-239 Moderated by High-Density Polyethylene in Stainless Steel and Aluminum Containers Suitable for Non-Exclusive Use Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, T T

    2007-08-10

    Research is conducted at the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Facility (JASPER) on the effects of high pressure and temperature environments on plutonium-239, in support of the stockpile stewardship program. Once an experiment has been completed, it is necessary to transport the end products for interim storage or final disposition. Federal shipping regulations for nonexclusive use transportation require that no more than 180 grams of fissile material are present in at least 360 kilograms of contiguous non-fissile material. To evaluate the conservatism of these regulatory requirements, a worst-case scenario of 180g {sup 239}Pu and a more realistic scenario of 100g {sup 239}Pu were modeled using one of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Monte Carlo transport codes known as COG 10. The geometry consisted of {sup 239}Pu spheres homogeneously mixed with high-density polyethylene surrounded by a cube of either stainless steel 304 or aluminum. An optimized geometry for both cube materials and hydrogen-to-fissile isotope (H/X) ratio were determined for a single unit. Infinite and finite 3D arrays of these optimized units were then simulated to determine if the systems would exceed criticality. Completion of these simulations showed that the optimal H/X ratio for the most reactive units ranged from 800 to 1600. A single unit of either cube type for either scenario would not reach criticality. An infinite array was determined to reach criticality only for the 180g case. The offsetting of spheres in their respective cubes was also considered and showed a considerable decrease in the number of close-packed units needed to reach criticality. These results call into question the current regulations for fissile material transport, which under certain circumstances may not be sufficient in preventing the development of a critical system. However, a conservative, theoretical approach was taken in all assumptions and such idealized configurations may not be

  15. Fission Cross-Section Measurements on Pu239, Pu241 , U232, and a Search for Fission Components in Pu238 Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission cross-section measurements on Pu239 and Pu241 have been carried out from sub-thermal-neutron energy to the keV region; resonance parameters are given and errors in the average values of the cross-section are discussed. The discovery of large fission components in the U232 neutron resonances stimulated a search for fission components in Pu238. The results of these experiments are given. All the measurements were performed on the Harwell time-of-flight spectrometer. (author)

  16. Evaluation of fission cross sections and covariances for {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Matsunobu, Hiroyuki [Data Engineering, Inc. (Japan); Murata, Toru [AITEL Corporation, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    2000-02-01

    A simultaneous evaluation code SOK (Simultaneous evaluation on KALMAN) has been developed, which is a least-squares fitting program to absolute and relative measurements. The SOK code was employed to evaluate the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu for the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.3. Procedures of the simultaneous evaluation and the experimental database of the fission cross sections are described. The fission cross sections obtained were compared with evaluated values given in JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  17. Experimental determination of residual nuclei formation cross sections in 660 MeV proton reactions with Pu-239 and U-nat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katovsky, K.; Adam, Jindřich; Balabekyan, A.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.

    VOL 1. COUTABOEUF: EDP SCIENCES, 2008 - (Bersillon, O.; Gunsing, F.; Bauge, E.; Jacqmin, R.; Leray, S.), s. 1089-1090 ISBN 978-2-7598-0091-9. [International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology. Nice (FR), 22.04.2007-27.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : proton induced reaction * Pu-239 * U-nat * fission Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  18. Role of natural organic matter on iodine and (239)(,240)Pu distribution and mobility in environmental samples from the northwestern Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Sugiyama, Yuko; Ohte, Nobuhito; Ho, Yi-Fang; Fujitake, Nobuhide; Kaplan, Daniel I; Yeager, Chris M; Schwehr, Kathleen; Santschi, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    In order to assess how environmental factors are affecting the distribution and migration of radioiodine and plutonium that were emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, we quantified iodine and (239,240)Pu concentration changes in soil samples with different land uses (urban, paddy, deciduous forest and coniferous forest), as well as iodine speciation in surface water and rainwater. Sampling locations were 53-63 km northwest of the FDNPP within a 75-km radius, in close proximity of each other. A ranking of the land uses by their surface soil (forest > deciduous forest > urban > paddy, and (239,240)Pu concentrations ranked as deciduous forest > coniferous forest > paddy ≥ urban. Both were quite distinct from that of (134)Cs and (137)Cs: urban > coniferous forest > deciduous forest > paddy, indicating differences in their sources, deposition phases, and biogeochemical behavior in these soil systems. Although stable (127)I might not have fully equilibrated with Fukushima-derived (129)I, it likely still works as a proxy for the long-term fate of (129)I. Surficial soil (127)I content was well correlated to soil organic matter (SOM) content, regardless of land use type, suggesting that SOM might be an important factor affecting iodine biogeochemistry. Other soil chemical properties, such as Eh and pH, had strong correlations to soil (127)I content, but only within a given land use (e.g., within urban soils). Organic carbon (OC) concentrations and Eh were positively, and pH was negatively correlated to (127)I concentrations in surface water and rain samples. It is also noticeable that (127)I in the wet deposition was concentrated in both the deciduous and coniferous forest throughfall and stemfall water, respectively, comparing to the bulk rainwater. Further, both forest throughfall and stemflow water consisted exclusively of organo-iodine, suggesting all inorganic iodine in the original bulk deposition (∼ 28.6% of total iodine) have

  19. Plants as bio-monitors for Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239,240 and K-40 at the Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Eric Frank; Duff, Martine C; Ferguson, Caitlin E; Coughlin, Daniel P

    2011-05-01

    The Savannah River Site was constructed in South Carolina to produce plutonium (Pu) in the 1950s. Discharges associated with these now-ceased operations have contaminated large areas within the site, particularly streams associated with reactor cooling basins. Evaluating the exposure risk of contamination to an ecosystem requires methodologies that can assess the bioavailability of contaminants. Plants, as primary producers, represent an important mode of transfer of contaminants from soils and sediments into the food chain. The objective of this study was to identify local area plants for their ability to act as bio-monitors of radionuclides. The concentrations of cesium-137 ((137)Cs), potassium-40 ((40)K), (238)Pu and (239,240)Pu in plants and their associated soils were determined using γ and α spectrometry. The ratio of contamination concentration found in the plant relative to the soil was calculated to assess a concentration ratio (CR). The highest CR for (137)Cs was found in Pinus palustris needles (CR of 2.18). The correlation of soil and plant (137)Cs concentration was strong (0.76) and the R(2) (0.58) from the regression was significant (p = 0.006). This suggests the ability to predict the degree of (137)Cs contamination of a soil through analysis of the pine needles. The (238)Pu and (239,240)Pu concentrations were most elevated within the plant roots. Extremely high CR values were found in Sparganium americanum (bur-reed) roots with a value of 5.86 for (238)Pu and 5.66 for (239,240)Pu. The concentration of (40)K was measured as a known congener of (137)C. Comparing (40)K and (137)C concentrations in each plant revealed an inverse relationship for these radioisotopes. Correlating (40)K and (137)Cs was most effective in identifying plants that have a high affinity for (137)Cs uptake. The P. palustris and S. americanum proved to be particularly strong accumulators of all K congeners from the soil. Some species that were measured, warrant further

  20. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the long terminal repeats of simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 in T-cell lines and macrophage cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, M G; Clements, J E

    1991-01-01

    The U3 regions of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 were analyzed for basal transcriptional activity and for interaction with cellular factors in the T-cell line HUT-78 and the monocyte/macrophage cell line U937. A number of 5' deletions and mutations were made in the U3 regions of the two LTRs, and these constructs were placed upstream of a plasmid containing the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. The nucleotid...

  1. Energy dependence of the neutron multiplicity P/sub nu/ in fast neutron induced fission of /sup 235,238/U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain applications require knowledge of the higher moments of the neutron multiplicity probability. It can be shown that the second factorial moment is proportional to the fission rate in the sample, and that the third factorial moment can be of use in disentangling spontaneous fission from induced fission. Using a source of unpublished work in which neutron multiplicities were derived for the fast neutron induced fission of U-235, U-238, and Pu-239, the multiplicity probability has been calculated as a function of neutron energy for the energy range 0 to 10 MeV

  2. Beta-decay half-lives of neutron rich Cu and Ni isotopes produced by thermal fission of 235U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The half-lives of very neutron rich isotopes of Ni and Cu have been measured. The isotopes are produced in very asymmetric thermal fission of 235U and 239Pu at the I.L.L. high flux reactor. They are separated by means of the Lohengrin spectrometer. They are identified with a ΔE-E ionization chamber and implanted in one of the 8 Si planar detectors where the β- particles are also detected. The time correlations between the implantation and the detection of β- particles provide the half-life. The values obtained are compared to current theoretical predictions

  3. Simultaneous multi-level analysis of the total and fission cross-sections of 239Pu up to 160 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to describe cross-sections a multi-level scheme based on S-matrix theory was used taking the Doppler effect and the resolution into account. A multi-level analysis of the total cross-section and fission cross-section of 239Pu was made by the least-squares method in the energy region up to 160 eV. The experimental cross-section data used have a good resolution. The multi-level parameters can be used to represent all the features of the detailed energy structure of experimental cross-sections where the regions of interference minima are of the greatest interest. (author)

  4. Model testing of radioactive contamination by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu of water and bottom sediments in the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ecomod@obninsk.com; Boyer, P.; Monte, L.; Brittain, J.E.; Dzyuba, N.N.; Krylov, A.L.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nosov, A.V.; Sanina, K.D.; Zheleznyak, M.I. [Scientific and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Ave., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents results of testing models for the radioactive contamination of river water and bottom sediments by {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu. The scenario for the model testing was based on data from the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia), which was contaminated as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive waste into the river. The endpoints of the scenario were model predictions of the activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water and bottom sediments along the Techa River in 1996. Calculations for the Techa scenario were performed by six participant teams from France (model CASTEAUR), Italy (model MARTE), Russia (models TRANSFER-2, CASSANDRA, GIDRO-W) and Ukraine (model RIVTOX), all using different models. As a whole, the radionuclide predictions for {sup 90}Sr in water for all considered models, {sup 137}Cs for MARTE and TRANSFER-2, and {sup 239,240}Pu for TRANSFER-2 and CASSANDRA can be considered sufficiently reliable, whereas the prediction for sediments should be considered cautiously. At the same time the CASTEAUR and RIVTOX models estimate the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu in water more reliably than in bottom sediments. The models MARTE ({sup 239,240}Pu) and CASSANDRA ({sup 137}Cs) evaluated the activity concentrations of radionuclides in sediments with about the same agreement with observations as for water. For {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs the agreement between empirical data and model predictions was good, but not for all the observations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the river water-bottom sediment system. The modelling of {sup 239,240}Pu distribution proved difficult because, in contrast to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, most of models have not been previously tested or validated for plutonium.

  5. Measurement/Evaluation Techniques and Nuclear Data Associated with Fission of 239Pu by Fission Spectrum Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisden, P; Bauge, E; Ferguson, J; Gilliam, D; Granier, T; Jeanloz, R; McMillan, C; Robertson, D; Thompson, P; Verdon, C; Wilkerson, C; Young, P

    2010-03-16

    This Panel was chartered to review and assess new evaluations of work on fission product data, as well as the evaluation process used by the two U.S. nuclear weapons physics laboratories. The work focuses on fission product yields resulting from fission spectrum neutrons incident on plutonium, and includes data from measurements that had not been previously published as well as new or revised fission product cumulative yield data, and related quantities such as Q values and R values. This report documents the Panel's assessment of the work presented by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Based on the work presented we have seven key observations: (1) Experiments conducted in the 1970s at LANL, some of which were performed in association with a larger, NIST-led, program, have recently been documented. A preliminary assessment of this work, which will be referred to in this document as ILRR-LANL, shows it to be technically sound. (2) LLNL has done a thorough, unbiased review and evaluation of the available literature and is in the process of incorporating the previously unavailable LANL data into its evaluation of key fission product yields. The results of the LLNL effort, which includes a preliminary evaluation of the ILRR-LANL data, have been documented. (3) LANL has also conducted an evaluation of fission product yields for fission spectrum neutrons on plutonium including a meta-analysis of benchmark data as part of a planned upgrade to the ENDF/B compilation. We found that the approach of using meta-analysis provides valuable additional insight for evaluating the sparse data sets involved in this assessment. (4) Both laboratories have provided convincing evidence for energy dependence in the fission product yield of {sup 147}Nd produced from the bombardment of {sup 239}Pu with fission spectrum neutrons over an incident neutron energy range of 0.2 to 1.9 MeV. (5) Consistent, complete, and explicit treatment

  6. Nuclear data and measurements series: Ratio of the prompt-fission-neutron spectrum of plutonium 239 to that of uranium 235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prompt-fission-neutron spectrum resulting from 239Pu fission induced by 0.55 MeV incident neutrons is measured from 1.0 to 10.0 MeV relative to that of 235U fission induced by the same incident-energy neutrons. The measurements employ the time-of-flight technique. Energy-dependent ratios of the two spectra are deduced from the measured values over the energy range 1.0 to 10.0 MeV. The experimentally-derived ratio results are compared with those calculated from ENDF/B-V, revision-2, and with results of recent microscopic measurements. Using the ENDF/B-V 235U Watt parameters for the 235U spectrum, the experimental measurements imply a ratio of average fission-spectrum energies of 239Pu/235U = 1.045 +- 0.003, compared to the value 1.046 calculated from ENDF/B-V, revision 2. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. The Association of Inbreeding With Lung Fibrosis Incidence in Beagle Dogs That Inhaled 238PuO2 or 239PuO2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brigantic, Andrea M.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-09-12

    Studies of health effects in animals after exposure to internally deposited radionuclides were intended to supplement observational studies in humans. Both nuclear workers and Beagle dogs have exhibited plutonium associated lung fibrosis; however, the dogs smaller gene pool may limit the applicability of findings to humans. Data on Beagles that inhaled either plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2) or plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) were analyzed. Wright's Coefficient of Inbreeding was used to measure genetic or familial susceptibility and was assessed as an explanatory variable when modeling the association between lung fibrosis incidence and plutonium exposure. Lung fibrosis was diagnosed in approximately 80% of the exposed dogs compared with 23.7% of the control dogs. The maximum degree of inbreeding was 9.4%. Regardless of isotope, the addition of inbreeding significantly improved the model in female dogs but not in males. In female dogs an increased inbreeding coefficient predicted decreased hazard of a lung fibrosis diagnosis. Lung fibrosis was common in these dogs with inbreeding affecting models of lung fibrosis incidence in females but not in males. The apparent protective effect in females predicted by these models of lung fibrosis incidence is likely to be minimal given the small degree of inbreeding in these groups.

  8. Effect of physical exercise on the state of the heart and central hemodynamics in dogs exposed to external (60Co) and internal (239PuO2) irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted on mongrel dogs aged 2 to 4 with the body mass of 15.1 ± 0.9 kg. The animals were exposed to combined and isolated γ-irradiation at a dose of 51.6 mC/kg and submicron 239PuO2 in the amount not less than 7 kBq/kg. Single circular irradiation was provided from 60Co γ-sources at a dose rate of 1.03-1.3 mA/kg. 239PuO2 was inhaled 6 days after irradiation. 20 min. running on a tredbahn with the speed of 4.7 km/h served as a physical exercise model. The dogs were examined 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 4 yrs. after the initiation of the experiment at rest and within 1 h after physical exercise. Methods of tetrapolar chest rheography and electrocardiography were employed. It was shown that in the combined effect of two radiation factors the rates of increase in the cardiac index were inhibited at the expense of physical exercise influence as compared to those in the isolated radionuclide effect and resulted from less ''economical'' heart action

  9. Role of 239Pu-induced chromosome alterations and mutated Ki-v-ras oncogene during liver-cancer induction in Chinese hamsters and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberrations and mutated oncogenes can cause important changes during carcinogenesis. Model systems are being studied in which defined cellular and molecular changes can be quantitated and altered, and tumor frequency, type, and time of appearance can be evaluated. Dose-response relationships for Pu Citrate-induced chromosome aberrations and liver cancer were measured in Chinese hamsters. Chromosome aberrations increased linearly according to dose, with a slope of 4.8 x 10-1 aberrations/cell/Gy; liver-tumor incidence was 1.1 x 10-1 tumors/animal/Gy. The dose was calculated at the 50% survival time. The interaction between Pu and Ki-v-ras, an altered, dominant-acting oncogene, on the induction of liver cancer was measured in B6C3F1 mice. The neo oncogene was used as a negative control in these studies. The Ki-v-ras oncogene was inserted into a viral vector and incorporated into the livers of mice either 30 days before or after the incorporation of 239Pu. Compared with both the controls and the mice injected with a single insult, mortality increased in groups of animals that received combined exposure to oncogenes, CCl4, and 239Pu. The relationships between molecular and cellular damage and the induction of cancer is being defined in both mice and Chinese hamsters

  10. Long-term effects of low-level 239Pu contamination on murine bone-marrow stem cells and their progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of long-term internal contamination with 13.3 kBq kg-1239Pu injected intravenously were studied in 10-week-old ICR (SPF) female mice. Radiosensitivity of spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) and 125IUdR incorporation into proliferating cells of vertebral bone marrow and spleens were determined in plutonium-treated and control animals one year after nuclide injection. The CFU-S in 239Pu-treated mice were more sensitive to X-rays (D0 = 0.52 +- 0.01 Gy) than in controls (D0 = 0.84 +- 0.02 Gy). 125IUdR incorporation into bone marrow and spleen cells was reduced after plutonium contamination. At one year following plutonium injection, the occurrence of chromosome aberrations was evaluated in metaphase figures of femoral bone marrow cells. The frequency of aberrations increased early after plutonium treatment, at later intervals it tended to decrease but not below the control level. While the relative numbers of vertebral marrow CFU-S decreased significantly, but only to 86% of normal, cellularity of vertebral bone marrow, peripheral blood counts and survival of 239Pu-treated mice did not differ from the control data. (author)

  11. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry For The Determination Of 237Np In Spent Nuclear Fuel Samples By Isotope Dilution Method Using 239Np As A Spike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A determination method for 237Np in spent nuclear fuel samples was developed using an isotope dilution method with 239Np as a spike. In this method, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was taken for the 237Np instead of the previously used alpha spectrometry. 237Np and 239Np were measured by ICP-MS and gamma spectrometry, respectively. The recovery yield of 237Np in synthetic samples was 95.9±9.7% (1S, n=4). The 237Np contents in the spent fuel samples were 0.15, 0.25, and 1.06 μg/mgU and these values were compared with those from ORIGEN-2 code. A fairly good agreement between the measurements (m) and calculations (c) was obtained, giving ratios (m/c) of 0.93, 1.12 and 1.25 for the three PWR spent fuel samples with burnups of 16.7, 19.0, and 55.9 GWd/MtU, respectively

  12. Measurement of the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio using a transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter for total decay energy spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Andrew S; Bond, Evelyn M; Croce, Mark P; Holesinger, Terry G; Kunde, Gerd J; Rabin, Michael W; Wolfsberg, Laura E; Bennett, Douglas A; Hays-Wehle, James P; Schmidt, Dan R; Swetz, Daniel; Ullom, Joel N

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a new category of sensor for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu mass ratio from aqueous solution samples with advantages over existing methods. Aqueous solution plutonium samples were evaporated and encapsulated inside of a gold foil absorber, and a superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter detector was used to measure the total reaction energy (Q-value) of nuclear decays via heat generated when the energy is thermalized. Since all of the decay energy is contained in the absorber, we measure a single spectral peak for each isotope, resulting in a simple spectral analysis problem with minimal peak overlap. We found that mechanical kneading of the absorber dramatically improves spectral quality by reducing the size of radioactive inclusions within the absorber to scales below 50 nm such that decay products primarily interact with atoms of the host material. Due to the low noise performance of the microcalorimeter detector, energy resolution values of 1 keV fwhm (full width at half-maximum) at 5.5 MeV have been achieved, an order of magnitude improvement over α-spectroscopy with conventional silicon detectors. We measured the (240)Pu/(239)Pu mass ratio of two samples and confirmed the results by comparison to mass spectrometry values. These results have implications for future measurements of trace samples of nuclear material. PMID:25723106

  13. Precision and accuracy in the determination of sup(238)Pu/(sup(239)Pu + sup(240)Pu) alpha activity ratio by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out for the evaluation of precision and accuracy in determining sup(238)Pu/(sup(239)Pu + sup(240)Pu) activity ratio by α spectrometry from the point of view of determining sup(238)Pu accurately in plutonium samples and in exploiting Isotope Dilution Alpha Spectrometry (IDAS) for determining the concentration of plutonium in the irradiated fuel dissolver solutions. Synthetic mixtures with α activity ratios ranging from 0.01 to 10 were prepared using sup(238)Pu and sup(239)Pu isotopes. Different methods which can be routinely used were tried to calculate the α activity ratio from the α spectrum taken on electrodeposited sources prepared from these mixtures. An accuracy of better than 0.5% and a precision of +- 0.2% (1 sigma) is demonstrated in the determination of α activity ratios ranging from 0.01 to 10 using electrodeposited sources and the evaluation method based on the geometric progression decrease (G.P.) for the far tail of the spectrum. (auth.)

  14. Development of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry (SINRD) to measure U-235 and Pu-239 content in a PWR spent fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, Adrienne M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The use of Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) to measure the {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu content in a PWR spent fuel assembly was investigated via Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. The sensitivity of SINRD is based on using the same fissile materials in the fission chambers as are present in the fuel because the effect of resonance absorption lines in the transmitted flux is amplified by the corresponding (n, f) reaction peaks in fission chamber. These simulations utilize the {sup 244}Cm spontaneous fission neutrons to self-interrogate the fuel pins. The amount of resonance absorption of these neutrons in the fuel can be measured using {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu fission chambers placed adjacent to the assembly. We used ratios of different fission chambers to reduce the sensitivity of the measurements to extraneous material present in fuel. The development of SINRD to measure the fissile content in spent fuel is of great importance to the improvement of nuclear safeguards and material accountability. Future work includes the use of this technique to measure the fissile content in FBR spent fuel and heavy metal product from reprocessing methods.

  15. Measurements of the ratio fo 239Pu and 235U fission cross sections in the 0.024-7.4 MeV neutron energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimed at improving the accuracy of available nuclear data 239Pu-to-235U fission cross section ratios were measured in a broad range of neutron energies. The measurements were taken in electrostatic accelerators with the Li(p,n)-,T(p,n)- and D(d,n) reactions used as neutron sources. The fission fragments were registered by a twin ionization chamber. The measured energy dependence curve of the fission cross section ratios was calibrated by means of an auxiliary technique employing glass detectors. The quantity ratio of the fissioning nuclei in 239Pu- and 235U layers was determined by two independent methods: from the alpha-activity in the layers and by taking measurements in the reactor thermal column. The total errors in the measured results makes up 1.4 to 1.5% for the most portion of the investigated neutron energy range, while rowing up to 1.7 to 2% in the range below 100 keV

  16. Early retention and distribution of monomeric 237Pu(IV) and 239Pu(IV) in C57BL/Do mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early metabolism of monomeric Pu may depend upon its in vivo concentration, since in higher concentrations it may polymerize forming radiocolloids and be subject to phagocytosis. In this study the early biological behavior of 237Pu(IV) and 239Pu(IV), administered by intraperitoneal injection in citrate solution into C57BL/Do mice, is compared with the in vivo concentrations of these two nuclides differing by a factor of 105. 237Pu is also used as a γ-ray tracer of the α-emitting 239Pu in order to determine the latter's biological retention and tissue distribution. The results show no significant difference in the metabolism of the two nuclides throughout a 91 day serial sacrifice schedule. However, there is a significant sex dependence in the total body retention of Pu primarily due to a factor of 2.7 greater quantity of Pu excreted by the female during the first 24 hours post-injection. Furthermore, the half-time for removal of Pu from the livers of males is 42.7 +- 5.5 days and from livers of females 29.0 +- 2.7 days

  17. Oxidation-reduction properties of americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium, and thermodynamic consequences for the 5f series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amalgamation of 5f elements from Am to Fm has been studied by using 241Am, 244Cm, 249Bk, 249Cf, 252Cf, 253Es, 254Es, 252Fm and 255Fm with two electrochemical methods, radiocoulometry and radiopolarography, perfectly adapted to investigate extremely diluted solutions when the concentration of electroactive species is as low as 10-16M. The theory of radiocoulometry has been developed in the general cases of reversible and irreversible electrode process. It has been used to interpret the experimental data on the kinetic curves of amalgamation, and to estimate the standard rate constant of the electrode process in complexing medium (citric). On the other hand the radiopolarographic method has been applied to study the mechanism of reduction at the dropping mercury electrode of cations M3+ in aqueous medium to the metal M with formation of amalgam. The results are exploited into two directions: 1- Acquisition of some data concerning the oxidation-reduction properties of elements from Am to Fm. Therefore the standard electrode E0 [M(III-0)] potentials for Bk, Cf and Es, and the standard electrode E0 [M(II-0)] potential for Fm are estimated and the relative stability of each oxidation state (from II to VII) of 5f elements is discussed; 2- Acquisition of unknown thermodynamic data on transcalifornium elements. Correlations between 4f and 5f elements are precised and some divergences appear for the second half of 4f and 5f series (i.e. for 65<=Z<=71 and 97<=Z<=103)

  18. Evaluation of thermal neutron cross-sections and resonance integrals of protactinium, americium, curium, and berkelium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the thermal neutron fission and capture cross-sections as well as their corresponding resonance integrals are reviewed and analysed. The data are classified according to the form of neutron spectra under investigation. The weighted mean values of the cross-sections and resonance integrals for every type of neutron spectra were adopted as evaluated data. (author). 87 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 230,232Th on the fractions of natural organic species soils of ChNPP alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental data determination of distribution 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am 'Chernobyl' releases and 230,232Th on the fraction of humic and fulvic acids sandy- podsolic, meadow and peaty soils taken in the exclusive zone ChNPP are presents. Soils organic matter was isolated by conventional alkali extraction (Turin's method). It was shown that, with depending of soils types 15-45 % 241Am associate with fulvic acids. In all investigated types of soils 30 - 40 % 239+240Pu connects with humic acids, as strong complexes. The distribution of environmental 230,232Th and artificial 239+240Pu on the fraction natural organic species is the same

  20. Alveolar macrophage kinetics after inhalation of 239PuO2 by CBA/Ca mice: Changes in synthesis of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For workers in the nuclear industry, the primary route for the entry of radioactive materials into the body is by inhalation, and the rate of clearance of particles from the pulmonary region of the lung is an important factor in determining radiation dose. It is the function of alveolar macrophages (AM) to maintain the sterility of the lung and to remove insoluble particles from the respiratory surfaces and airways. The AM population is not static, and under normal conditions the loss of macrophages from the alvoli via the conducting airways is balanced by renewal. In this investigation the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 (plutonium dioxide) particles on the synthesis of DNA by AM were studied at times up to 77 days after exposure. We also measured the number of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage and the incidence of AM with nuclear aberrations. The latter provides a sensitive indicator of the effects of radiation. One of the earliest effects observed after exposure to 239PuO2 is a reduction in the number of AM recovered by lavage. This reduction is associated with a 3-fold reduction in the proportion of AM undergoing DNA synthesis at early times after exposure. The overall mean pulse labeling index of AM recovered from sham-exposed mice is 1.68%, and no trends is observed with time. At later times after exposure there is a concurrent increase both in the number of AM recovered by lavage and the proportion of AM in the S-phase of the cell cycle. This repopulation of the AM pool is associated with an increase in the incidence of AM with nuclear aberrations. The results of this study are consistent with the theory of an intrapulmonary pool of proliferating macrophages. The depletion of the AM pool and the latency in the induction of nuclear aberrations after exposure to 239PuO2 can be attributed to a radiation-induced inhibition of cell division in addition to interphase death of AM. 57 refs., 4 figs

  1. Distributions of long-lived anthropogenic radionuclides (14C, 129I and 239+240Pu) in coastal water columns off Sanriku, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first commercial facility for reprocessing nuclear spent fuel in Japan is going to run in July 2006 and routine release of radionuclides to marine environment off Rokkasho will begin. Off Rokkasho area is located in the boundary where subarctic (Oyashio) and subtropical (Kuroshio) gyre mixes. And the Tsugaru Warm Current (TWC) flows into this region through the Tsugaru Strait and originates in the Kuroshio flowing in the Sea of Japan/the East Sea. Those three water masses of different origins and coastal water mass coexist in the surface layer of this domain. So it is important to clarify the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides and their behaviors in the coastal seawater. Seawater samples were collected by use of CTD/Multi-Bottle Samplers (MBS) and large volume samplers (LVS) in October 2001 and June 2002. Carbon-14 and 129I were analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and 239,240Pu was determined by the method of radiochemical separation and alpha spectrometry. Th long- lived radionuclide concentrations for all samples were in the range -233 - 75 per mille for Δ14C, not detected (N.D.) - 2.5x107 atoms/l for 129I, and N.D. - 0.025 mBq/l for 239,240Pu, respectively. The other anthropogenic radionuclides have the same concentration as those reported by the other organization. The vertical profiles of 14C and 129I decreased monotonically with depths. On the other hand, 239,240Pu profile have maximum at a depth of 500 - 700 m. The plots of potential density versus the concentrations designate that 14C and 129I virtually occurred in the water column lighter than the density of 26.6 - 26.8 and slightly penetrate into dense deeper layer. The maximum of Pu concentration existed at a density of 26.8 - 27.2. There is no difference of 129I concentration between two water masses (Oyashio and TWC) classified according to water temperature and salinity. Δ14C concentrations in TWC are higher than those in Oyashio, because TWC flows in sea surface over

  2. Simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  3. Results of 90Sr and 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am measurements in some samples of mushrooms and forest soil from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90, plutonium and americium activity concentrations in a few samples of forest soils, some species of mushrooms and fern leaves were determined. These results are compared with caesium activity concentrations in the same materials obtained in a previous work. Radiochemical procedures are described. The origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident or nuclear test explosion release) is discussed. The 90Sr activity concentration ranges from 0.6 Bq/kg (mushroom samples) to 48.4 Bq/kg (fern leaves). For 239+240Pu, it ranges from not detected above background (mushrooms, fern) to 10.8 Bq/kg (humus layer of forest soil). The maximum concentration of 241Am is found to be 2.4 Bq/kg (humus sample) and for 238Pu it is 0.85 Bq/kg (also in the humus sample). (author). 12 refs, 9 figs, 7 tabs

  4. Soil to plant transfer factors for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240 determined by field and glasshouse measurements in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further data on soil to plant transfer factors is provided for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240, as an extension of results presented at the previous IUR Workshop at Wageningen in December 1982. Field crops of grass, barley and oats produced in 1982 at 11 locations in Britain were analysed for radionuclides. Analysis of soils that produced these crops showed that they contained 'background' nuclear weapons fallout concentrations of Cs-137 and plutonium which were elevated in regions with high rainfall. Analysis of basic soil properties was also made. In separate experiments, transfer factors were derived for 10 crop plants grown in pot trials under glasshouse conditions. In one trial the soil used contained low concentrations of radionuclides derived from nuclear weapons fallout. In a second trial a brown earth was used, which contained additional radionuclides from long-term deposition by nuclear fuel reprocessing. (orig.)

  5. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation...... counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5×105 for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature......, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference...

  6. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4π-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4π-α spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4π -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  7. Spatial distribution of 241Am, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 241Pu over 17 year periods in the Ravenglass saltmarsh, Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety five surface scrape samples were collected at the Ravenglass saltmarsh and analysed for radionuclides by alpha spectrometry (238Pu and 239,240Pu), gamma spectrometry (241Am and 137Cs) and liquid scintillation counting (241Pu). Both 241Am and 137Cs activities are compared with those reported by Horrill [1983. Concentrations and spatial distribution of radioactivity in an ungrazed saltmarsh. In: Coughtrey, P.J. (Ed.), Ecological Aspects of Radionuclide Release. British Ecological Society Special Publication No. 3. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 119-215.] Significant decreases in activities for both radionuclides were observed which is caused by the declining levels of discharges from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant since the 1980s. It has been concluded that the spatial distribution of these radionuclides are controlled by the tidal currents and the clay contents in the sediments. There is evidence of surface erosion of the saltmarsh and redistribution of radionuclides in the saltmarsh using isotopic ratios of measured Pu.

  8. Quantitative estimation of the combined effect of external γ-radiation and incorporated α-radiation (239Pu) by the biochemical indices of rat immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effect of external γ-radiation (137Cs, 103-26 mC/kg) and incorporated α-radiation (239Pu nitrate, 93-9.3 kBq/kg body mass) was estimated by changes in the nucleic acid metabolism and the number of cells in rat thymus, spleen and bone marrow. The data obtained were processed using a model of multiplicate action of the factors which is equivalent, in the case of low effects, to a traditional model of additive effects. The results of the combined action of the two factors may be estimated by the coefficient of the interaction and the coefficient of the enhancement of the effects

  9. Estimating Reaction Cross Sections from Measured (Gamma)-Ray Yields: The 238U(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W

    2002-11-18

    A procedure is presented to deduce the reaction-channel cross section from measured partial {gamma}-ray cross sections. In its simplest form, the procedure consists in adding complementary measured and calculated contributions to produce the channel cross section. A matrix formalism is introduced to provide a rigorous framework for this approach. The formalism is illustrated using a fictitious product nucleus with a simple level scheme, and a general algorithm is presented to process any level scheme. In order to circumvent the cumbersome algebra that can arise in the matrix formalism, a more intuitive graphical procedure is introduced to obtain the same reaction cross-section estimate. The features and limitations of the method are discussed, and the technique is applied to extract the {sup 235}U (n,2n) and {sup 239}Pu(n,2n) cross sections from experimental partial {gamma}-ray cross sections, coupled with (enhanced) Hauser-Feshbach calculations.

  10. Neutron induced fission cross section ratios for 232Th, /sup 235,238/U, 237Np, and 239Pu from 1 to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-of-flight measurements of neutron induced fission cross section ratios for 232Th, /sup 235,238/U, 237Np, and 239Pu, were performed using the WNR high intensity spallation neutron source located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A multiple-plate gas ionization chamber located at a 20-m flight path was used to simultaneously measure the fission rate for all samples over the energy range from 1 to 400 MeV. Because the measurements were made with nearly identical neutron fluxes, we were able to cancel many systematic uncertainties present in previous measurements. This allows us to resolve discrepancies among different data sets. In addition, these are the first neutron-induced fission cross section values for most of the nuclei at energies above 30 MeV. 8 refs., 3 figs

  11. FPGA Implementation of A New Chien Search Block for Reed-Solomon Codes RS (255, 239 Used In Digital Video Broadcasting DVB-T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Habti El Idrissi Anas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Reed-Solomon codes RS are widely used in communication systems, in particular forming part of the specification for the ETSI digital terrestrial television standard. In this paper a simple algorithm for error detection in the Chien Search block is proposed. This algorithm is based on a simple factorization of the error locator polynomial, which allows reducing the number of components required to implement the proposed algorithm on FPGA board. Consequently, it reduces the power consumption with a percentage which can reach 50 % compared to the basic RS decoder. First, we developed the design of Chien Search Block Second, we generated and simulated the hardware description language source code using Quartus software tools,finally we implemented the proposed algorithm of Chien search block for Reed-Solomon codesRS (255, 239 on FPGA board to show both the reduced hardware resources and low complexity compared to the basic algorithm.

  12. Aerosol sampling and characterization for hazard evaluation. Progress report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978. [/sup 239/Pu aerosol monitor performance in work area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Tillery, M.I.; Stafford, R.G.; Romero, P.O.

    1979-11-01

    Measurements of the dilution of air contaminants between worker breathing zone and area air samplers were made by releasing a test fluorescent aerosol in workrooms equipped with aerosol surveillance systems. These data were used to evaluate performance and suggest improvements in design of alarming air monitor systems. In one workroom studied, average half-hour breathing zone air concentration needed to trigger alarm was found to be 960 times the maximum permissible air concentration for occupational exposure to soluble /sup 239/Pu (MPC/sub a/). It was shown that alternative monitor placement in this room could result in decreasing average triggering concentration to 354 times the MPC/sub a/. Analysis of data from impaction-autoradiographic sizing comparison studies showed average disintegration to track ratio called track efficiency factor, to be 2.7 +- 0.4.

  13. 90Sr and 239+240Pu 238Pu 241Am in some samples of mushrooms and forest soil from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90, plutonium and americium activity concentrations in a few samples of forest soils, some species of mushrooms and fern leaves have been determined. These results are compared with cesium activity concentrations in the same materials obtained in a previous work. Radiochemical procedures are described. The origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident or nuclear test explosion release) is discussed. The 90Sr activity concentration ranges from 0.6 Bq/kg (mushroom samples) to 48.4 Bq/kg (fern leaves). For 239+240Pu, it ranges from not detected above background (mushrooms, fern) to 10.8 Bq/kg (humus layer of forest soil). The maximum concentration of 241Am is found to be 2.4 Bq/kg (humus sample) and for 238Pu it is 0.85 Bq/kg (also in the humus sample). (author) 16 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Am using neutrons produced in target-blanket system `Energy plus Transmutation' by relativistic protons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Adam; K Katovsky; A Balabekyan; V G Kalinnikov; M I Krivopustov; H Kumawat; A A Solnyshkin; V I Stegailov; S G Stetsenko; V M Tsoupko-Sitnikov; W Westmeier

    2007-02-01

    Target-blanket facility `Energy + Transmutation' was irradiated by proton beam extracted from the Nuclotron Accelerator in Laboratory of High Energies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Neutrons generated by the spallation reactions of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 GeV protons and lead target interact with subcritical uranium blanket. In the neutron field outside the blanket, radioactive iodine, neptunium, plutonium and americium samples were irradiated and transmutation reaction yields (residual nuclei production yields) have been determined using -spectroscopy. Neutron field's energy distribution has also been studied using a set of threshold detectors. Results of transmutation studies of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am are presented.

  15. Effect of plasma viremia on apoptosis and immunophenotype of dendritic cells subsets in acute SIVmac239 infection of Chinese rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Jun Xia

    Full Text Available Non-human primates such as Chinese rhesus macaques (Ch Rhs provide good animal models for research on human infectious diseases. Similar to humans, there are two principal subsets of dendritic cells (DCs in the peripheral blood of Ch Rhs: myeloid DCs (mDCs and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs. In this study, two-color fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analyses were used to identify the main DC subsets, namely CD1c(+ mDCs and pDCs from Ch Rhs. Then, the apoptosis and immunophenotype changes of DCs subsets were first described during the acute phase of SIVmac239 infection. Both the DCs subsets showed decreased CD4 expression and enhanced CCR5 expression; in particular, those of pDCs significantly changed at most time points. Interestingly, the plasma viral loads were negatively correlated with CD4 expression, but were positively correlated with CCR5 expression of pDCs. During this period, both CD1c(+ mDCs and pDCs were activated by enhancing expressions of co-stimulatory molecules, accompanied with increase in CCR7. Either CD80 or CD86 expressed on CD1c(+ mDCs and pDCs was positively correlated with the plasma viral loads. Our analysis demonstrates that the pDCs were more prone to apoptosis after infection during the acute phase of SIVmac239 infection, which may be due to their high expressions of CD4 and CCR5. Both DCs subsets activated through elevating the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, which was beneficial in controlling the replication of SIV. However, a mere broad immune activation initiated by activated DCs may lead to tragic AIDS progression.

  16. Dissolved forms of 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am in the Sahan river waters from the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolved forms of 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am were studied for river water samples from the Chernobyl area in Ukraine on the basis of molecular size distribution. The river waters were collected at a station from Sahan River, which is a tributary of Pripyat River and located in the so-called Exclusion Zone (30-km zone), near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in April and August 1996. The water samples had a pH of 7, conductivity of 190-210 mS m-1 and DOC concentration of 8-11 mg l-1. An ultrafiltration technique was used for the size-fractionation of the radionuclides in the river waters. Percentage of 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am in the size fraction over 10,000 daltons was 2-20%, 68-79% and 57-62%, respectively. On the other hand, percentage of DOC and Si was 25-36% and 3%, respectively, for the size fraction over 10,000 daltons. These results indicate that 90Sr is present as cationic ions, but Pu and Am may be associated with organics of high molecular size and not with inorganic colloids such as aluminosilicate. In order to understand the association properties, laboratory experiments were performed for Am using humic substances isolated from the Sahan River water in April 1999 because of a significant fraction of dissolved organic materials and high complexation ability for actinides. The molecular size of 241Am in the presence of humic substances were studied for 0.01M NaClO4 solution at pH7 and the humic concentration of 10 mg l-1. The size patterns of 241Am were in good agreement with those of the river water samples. These results suggest that the dissolved forms of actinides in the Sahan River water are controlled by the presence of aquatic humic substances. (author)

  17. An experimental study of the integral properties of U235 and Pu239 in an intermediate energy spectrum, and comparison with theoretical prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present-day methods of calculation for thermal and fast reactors involve the use of multigroup cross-section sets derived from basic nuclear data files. Since the accuracy of the calculations depends ultimately on the accuracy of these data, it is important to test them against results of 'integral experiments' in critical or sub-critical assemblies. The present report describes integral experiments designed to provide a sensitive test of the U235 and Pu239 cross-sections spectrum-averaged over the 'intermediate' energy range from about 10 eV to 10 keV. This is an area where the fissile nuclide cross-section data, particularly that for radiative capture, are still inadequately defined, as evidenced by the considerable discrepancies between various determinations. The difficulties stem from the problems of resolving and analysing the properties of closely spaced resonances and particularly in separating the fission and capture contributions. From the parameters of the resolved resonances, the distributions of the partial widths must be derived in order to provide a sound basis for the calculation of the averaged properties in the unresolved region, which constitute a significant part of the region of interest. The correct assignment of the fission and capture widths and their distributions is also necessary for the calculation of the spectrum-average capture to fission ratio (a), which has an important bearing on conversion and breeding ratios. Unlike the situation for the thermal and fast neutron regions (i.e. those below and above that considered here), where many critical and sub-critical assemblies have been made, very few integral experiments suitable for adequately testing the U235 and Pu239 data in the intermediate energy range have been reported. Hence the decision, in 1965, to undertake the work described here

  18. Application of 210Pb geochronology by the reconstruction of historical radionuclides concentrations ( 137Cs et 239+240Pu ) in the columns of the Alboran Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The marine sediments are considered as a final reservoir of radioactive contaminants. The 210Pb from atmospheric fallouts deposits is stored in sediments with those from 226Ra original lithogenic. The activity of 210Pb excess in the accumulated sediment is an important tool to study the chronological process of sedimentation on recent time scales at over 100 years. However, this method should be validated using at least one independent tracer which provides an unequivocal temporal marker as 137Cs from nuclear testing. This work presents a method to rebuild historic concentrations of 137Cs and 230+240Pu in the water column Alboran Sea and their corresponding stream sediment. This is achieved by coupling the radiometric dating of the sediment column profiles using three independent levels: the excess 210Pb, 137Cs and 239 +240Pu. On the other hand, a simple model of the water column has been adapted to this end by making use of atmospheric flow, the measured values of distribution coefficient (Kd) and a first approximation of the rate of sedimentation. The timing model CM-CSR (diffusion coefficient of sedimentation rate constant) has been successfully applied to the three independent profiles, and was able to determine the parameters of diffusion and mass sedimentation rate. The results obtained give some ideas on the fate of atmospheric inputs to the marine environment and, particularly, that of the Chernobyl accident. The results of the models showed that direct and deferred contributions of Chernobyl accident are negligible in the Alboran Sea. The annual input of 210Pb to the sediment was estimated at 720±150 Bq.m-2. by year, while the rate of sedimentation is about 0092±0.003 g.cm-2 by year. On the other hand, the model could successfully reconstruct historic concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the water column, and was able to reproduce the work of the same elements in the sediment column

  19. Separation and activity determination of 239+240Pu, 241Am and Curium (242and244Cm) in evaporator concentrate by Alpha Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha spectrometry analysis was used for activity determinations of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants. Using a sequential procedure the first step was Pu isolation by an anion exchange column followed by an Am and Cm separation of U and Fe by a co-precipitation with oxalic acid. The precipitate was used for americium and curium separation of strontium by using a TRU resin extraction chromatography column. Due to their chemical similarities and energy difference it was seen that the simultaneous determination of 241Am, 242Cm and 243,244Cm isotopes is possible using the 243Am as tracer, once they have peaks in different region of interest (ROI) in the alpha spectrum. In this work it was used tracers, 238Pu, 243Am, 244Cm and 232U, for determination and quantification of theirs isotopes, respectively. The standard deviations for replicate analysis were calculated and for 241Am it was (1,040 ± 160 mBqKg-1), relative standard deviation 15.38%, and for 239+240Pu it was (551 +- 44 mBqKg-1), relative standard deviation 7.98%. In addition, for the 242Cm isotope the standard deviation for determinations was(75 ± 23 mBqKg-1), with the relative standard deviation 30.67% higher than for 241Am and 239+240Pu. The radiometric yields ranged from 90% to 105% and the lower limit of detection was estimated as being 2.05 mBqKg-1. (author)

  20. 133Ba as a gamma-ray surrogate source for 1kg HEU and 10g 239Pu and 252Cf as a Neutron Surrogate for Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo was performed for the purpose of relating gamma-ray signal strength from 1kg of HEU and 10g of 239Pu (as described in the ASTM standards) to the radiation emitted from an amount of 133Ba. A determination was made on the amount of 133Ba that could act as a surrogate for the specified amounts of HEU and Pu. 133Ba is not the ideal source to use as a surrogate for HEU because of its higher energies. 133Ba was chosen as the surrogate since it has a half-life of 10.54 years, rather then the more ideal surrogate of 57Co which has a half-life of 271 days. A similar Monte Carlo was performed for the purpose of relating neutron signal strength from 200g of Pu (as described in the ASTM standards) to the radiation emitted from an amount of shielded 252Cf. A determination was made on the amount of 252Cf necessary to act as a surrogate for the 200g of Pu. An ASTM standard source is a metallic sphere, cube, or right cylinder of SNM having maximum self-attenuation of its emitted radiation. For plutonium, the source should be at least 93% 239Pu, less than 6.5% 240Pu, and less than 0.5% impurities. A cadmium filter of at least 0.08cm thick should be used to reduce the impact of 241Am. For uranium, the source should contain at least 95% 235U and less than 0.25% impurities. For neutron detector testing, the neutron source shall be placed in a lead shielding container that reduces the gamma radiation from the source to 1% of its unshielded value

  1. 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am in mammals' skulls from owls' pellets and owl skeletons in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skulls of small mammals belonging to two species of rodents and three species of insectivores collected in Eastern Poland were the subject of the present investigation. The skulls were separated from owl pellets. Activities of 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am were determined by means of gamma spectrometry as well as liquid scintillation spectrometry or alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. A detailed description of the procedures is provided. The research was supplied with the analysis of three skeletons of owls. No measurable difference between the skulls of rodents and insectivorous animals with regard to activity of any of the examined radionuclides was found. No accumulation effect in the owl skeletons was detected. Though measured activities of 137Cs and 40K for the skulls were of the same magnitude as those found previously for large wild herbivorous animals from typical locations in Poland, those for 90Sr were even lower than previously determined. A big difference was found for activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. Their mean activities were higher by an order of magnitude when compared to the examined previously values. The maximum 239+240Pu activity was equal to 97.5±7.7 mBq/kg, with 65% of it originating from global fallout. Relatively high content of transuranic elements found for rodents and insectivorous mammals seems to be unrelated to their feeding habits and should rather be attributed to the living conditions. It is suggested that small mammals, together with tiny soil particles present in mid-soil living tunnels, can inhale the transuranic elements

  2. Os quilombos perante o STF: a emergência de uma jurisprudência dos direitos étnicos (ADIN 3.239-9) The quilombos before Supreme Court: the emergence of an ethnic rights jurisprudency (ADIN 3.239-9)

    OpenAIRE

    João Carlos Bemerguy Camerini

    2012-01-01

    O STF apreciará este ano a ADIN nº 3.239-9, na qual se discute a interpretação do direito das comunidades remanescentes de quilombos à titulação de suas terras (art. 68 do ADCT). Para além de prenunciar impactos sociais sobremodo relevantes, notadamente no mercado de terras, essa ação recoloca a Corte Suprema brasileira face aos dilemas da jurisdição constitucional, tais como a sua legitimidade democrática, o seu compromisso com a concretização dos direitos fundamentais, além da necessidade d...

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1998 growing season (with a cumulative summary of 3H and 239Pu over time)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at eight locations within and around Area G, a disposal facility for low-level, radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 90Sr, 241Am, 137Cs, totU. Most of the radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation were within the upper 95% level of background concentrations except for 3H and 239Pu. Tritium concentrations in vegetation from most sites were greater than background concentrations of about 2 pCi mL-1. The concentrations of 239Pu in soils and understory vegetation were largest in samples collected several meters north of the transuranic waste pad area and were consistent with previous results. Based on 3H and 239Pu data through 1998, it was shown that concentrations were (1) significantly greater than background concentrations (p < 0.05) in soils and vegetation collected from most locations at Area G, and (2) there was no systematic increase or decrease in concentrations with time apparent in the data

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1998 growing season (with a cumulative summary of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu over time)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; R. J. Wechsler; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    1999-11-01

    Soils and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at eight locations within and around Area G, a disposal facility for low-level, radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup tot}U. Most of the radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation were within the upper 95% level of background concentrations except for {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu. Tritium concentrations in vegetation from most sites were greater than background concentrations of about 2 pCi mL{sup {minus}1}. The concentrations of {sup 239}Pu in soils and understory vegetation were largest in samples collected several meters north of the transuranic waste pad area and were consistent with previous results. Based on {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu data through 1998, it was shown that concentrations were (1) significantly greater than background concentrations (p < 0.05) in soils and vegetation collected from most locations at Area G, and (2) there was no systematic increase or decrease in concentrations with time apparent in the data.

  5. To study on the gamma cascade and the exited intermediate levels schemata of 153Sm, 182Ta, 59Ni and 239U by method of summation of coincident pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, in order to strengthen the ability of research of nuclear data and nuclear structure on the neutron beam at Dalat Research Reactor, a spectrometer of summation of coincident pulses (SACP) was installed, it is used to study the gamma cascades of 59Ni, 153Sm, 182Ta and 239U. The results are used for postgraduate education. (author)

  6. 137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am and 239+240Pu radionuclides speciation in soils of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of studies into 137Cs and 90Sr, 241Am and 239+240Pu techno-genic radionuclides speciation in soils of ecosystems at different topography of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), exposed to different nuclear testing. The data were obtained for radionuclides speciation in soils of the following STS ecosystems: - grassland ecosystems within near-portal areas of tunnels - horizontal adits constructed for nuclear testing, affected by radioactive-contaminated water flows from the tunnels of Degelen Site; - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination resulted from above-ground and aerial nuclear testing of different yield, as well as simulation (hydrodynamic and hydro-nuclear) experiments at 'Experimental Field' testing site. - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination caused by testing of liquid and powdery radiological warfare weapon (RWW) at Site '4 a'; - 'Northern' and 'Western' areas of STS, where concentration level of artificial radionuclides in soil is comparable with the level of global fall-outs ('background' areas). To study the radionuclides speciation, method of sequential extraction was applied, and water-soluble, exchange, organic mobile and tightly bound forms were separated. Feature of the studied grassland ecosystems is that they are developed solely along the bed of water streams flowing from tunnels and are located at small area of 1-2 m2. Radioactive contamination of soil is caused by radioactive contaminant sorption by sediments. Despite the significant space limitation of the ecosystems content of radionuclides speciation in soil greatly varies, particularly readily-soluble and mobile forms. The variation may be explained by high humidity which makes possible both sorption and desorption processes. If basic radionuclides contributing to radioactive contamination of grassland soils at Degelen Site are 137Cs and 90Sr, then at Experimental Field site these are transuranic radionuclides

  7. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu radionuclides speciation in soils of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabdyrakova, A.M.; Kunduzbaeva, A.Y.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Magasheva, R.Y. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results of studies into {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu techno-genic radionuclides speciation in soils of ecosystems at different topography of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), exposed to different nuclear testing. The data were obtained for radionuclides speciation in soils of the following STS ecosystems: - grassland ecosystems within near-portal areas of tunnels - horizontal adits constructed for nuclear testing, affected by radioactive-contaminated water flows from the tunnels of Degelen Site; - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination resulted from above-ground and aerial nuclear testing of different yield, as well as simulation (hydrodynamic and hydro-nuclear) experiments at 'Experimental Field' testing site. - steppe ecosystems, exposed to ground radioactive contamination caused by testing of liquid and powdery radiological warfare weapon (RWW) at Site '4 a'; - 'Northern' and 'Western' areas of STS, where concentration level of artificial radionuclides in soil is comparable with the level of global fall-outs ('background' areas). To study the radionuclides speciation, method of sequential extraction was applied, and water-soluble, exchange, organic mobile and tightly bound forms were separated. Feature of the studied grassland ecosystems is that they are developed solely along the bed of water streams flowing from tunnels and are located at small area of 1-2 m{sup 2}. Radioactive contamination of soil is caused by radioactive contaminant sorption by sediments. Despite the significant space limitation of the ecosystems content of radionuclides speciation in soil greatly varies, particularly readily-soluble and mobile forms. The variation may be explained by high humidity which makes possible both sorption and desorption processes. If basic radionuclides contributing to radioactive contamination of grassland soils at Degelen Site are {sup

  8. Decay Heat Analyses after Thermal-Neutron Fission of 235U and 239Pu by SCALE-6.1.3 with Recently Available Fission Product Yield Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat reaches about 1.5% after one hour and falls to 0.4% after a day. After a week it will be about 0.2%. The reactor, however, still requires further cooling for several years to keep the fuel rods safe. In general, the decay heat in the reactors can be calculated using a summation calculation method, which is simply the sum of the activities of the fission products produced during the fission process and after the reactor shutdown weighted by the mean decay energies. Consequently, the method is strongly dependent on the available nuclear structure data. Nowadays, the method has been implemented in various burnup and depletion programs such as ORIGEN and CINDER. In this study, the decay heat measurements after thermal-neutron fission of 235U and 239Pu have been evaluated by the ORIGEN-S with the decay data and fission product yield libraries included in the SCALE-6.1.3 software package. The new libraries were applied to the decay heat calculations, and the results were compared with those by the ORIGEN reference calculation. The decay heat measurements for very short cooling times after thermal-neutron fission of 235U and 239Pu have been evaluated by the ORIGEN-S summation calculation. The reference calculation results by the latest ORIGEN data libraries of the SCALE-6.1.3 have been validated with the measurements by ORNL and Studsvik. In addition, the generation of the new ORIGEN yield libraries has been completed based on the ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.1, JENDL/FPY-2011, and JENDL-4.0. The new libraries have been successfully applied to the decay heat calculations and comparative analyses have been devoted to verifying the importance of the fission product yield data when estimating the decay heat values for each isotope in a very short time. The decay data library occupies an important position in the ORIGEN summation calculation along with the fission product yield library

  9. Radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am and 239+240Pu in vegetation cover of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) is one of the largest testing grounds for nuclear weapons. Diverse nuclear explosions were carried out on its territory: 340 underground tests (sites 'Degelen', 'Balapan' and 'Sary-Uzen'), 30 surface and 86 nuclear air explosions (site for radioactive warfare agent (RWA) and 'Experimental Field'). Since the STS was shutdown a large amount of information about current radiological situation in its territory has been collected. In recent years, one of the main problems is gradual transfer of its lands for national economy. Under these conditions, an essential element for prediction of radioactive contamination levels of food products is radionuclides redistribution parameters in soil-plant system used in calculation of doses to the population living within STS territory. Until recently, matter of radionuclides migration from soil to plants has been poorly studied. Individual researches, more or less devoted to this issue occurred in the past, but have virtually no information about accumulation of transuranic radionuclides in plants. More regular studies in this direction have been initiated recently. Between 2007 and 2013 features of artificial radionuclides accumulation in certain plant species under radioactive tunnel watercourses at 'Degelen' site were studied. We've obtained statistically reliable data characterizing accumulation of radionuclides, including 239+240Pu and 241Am, in steppe plants at 'Experimental field' site. The content of radionuclides in plants was researched at the RWA site. Comprehensive ecological survey in order to release the lands to the national economic turnover investigated parameters of radionuclides accumulation in steppe grasses at conditionally 'background' areas of STS and some parts of radioactive trace plume caused by the explosion in 1953. To date, all the findings have been generalized. We present an integrated picture about accumulation of artificial radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and

  10. A comparison of the natural survival of beagle dogs injected intravenously with low levels of 239Pu, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, or 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural survival, relative to properly chosen controls, of 26 beagle dogs injected once intravenously with an average of 0.58 +/- 0.04 kBq 239Pu/kg, 23 dogs injected with 2.31 +/- 0.43 kBq 226Ra/kg, 13 dogs injected with 1.84 +/- 0.26 kBq 228Ra/kg, 12 dogs injected with 0.56 +/- 0.030 kBq 228Th/kg, and 12 dogs injected with 21.13 +/- 1.74 kBq 90Sr/kg was evaluated statistically. The amounts of these radionuclides are related directly to the estimated maximum permissible body burdens for humans suggested in ICRP II (1959). They constitute a level of exposure that initially was assumed to cause no deleterious effects in dogs. This study had two objectives: (1) identification of homogeneous control groups against which to evaluate the survival of the irradiated groups and (2) comparison of the survival characteristics and estimation of mortality or hazard rate ratios for control dogs vs dogs injected with the baseline dosages given above. It was shown, by goodness-of-fit plots, that the Cox proportional hazards model was an appropriate method of analysis. Therefore, covariates that possibly could influence survival were tested for significance. Only the effects of grand mal seizure, which is caused in epileptic dogs by an external stimulus and can be fatal if untreated, were significant (P less than 0.0001). Consequently, in the final model, death from grand mal seizure was considered as accidental. After censoring the dogs dying from grand mal seizure, it was established that the data for the control groups from previous and contemporary experiments could be pooled. The change in hazard rates relative to controls resulting from exposure to the baseline radionuclide level was modest, 1.6 times for 239Pu (P = 0.033), 1.0(4) for 226Ra (P = 0.86), 1.9 for 228Ra (P = 0.035), 2.5 for 228Th (P less than 0.001), and 0.52 for 90Sr (P = 0.041)

  11. Determination of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu and {sup 241}Am in radioactive waste from IPEN reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Cheberle, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Marcelo T., E-mail: bgeraldo@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: scsantos@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ferreira@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. of Pocos de Caldas; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Ion exchange resin is a common type of radioactive waste arising from treatment of coolant water of the main circuit of research and nuclear power reactors. This waste contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization in order to determine and quantify specific radionuclides including those known as difficult-to-measure radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of RDMs generally involves expensive and time-consuming complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides. The objective of this work is to show an easy methodology for quantifying plutonium and americium isotopes in spent ion exchange resin, used for purification of the cooling water of the IEA-R1 reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP. The resins were destroyed by acid digestion, followed by purification and separation of the Pu and Am isotopes with anionic and chromatographic resins. {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}+{sup 24}'0Pu, and {sup 24}'1Am isotopes were analyzed in an alpha spectrometer equipped with surface barrier detectors. {sup 241}Pu isotope was analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Chemical recovery yield ranged from 73 to 98% for Pu and 77 to 98% for Am, demonstrating that the methodology is suitable for identification and quantification of the isotopes studied in spent resins. (author)

  12. Distribution and inventories of fallout radionuclides (239+24Pu, 137Cs) and 21Pb to study the filling velocity of salt marshes in Donana National Park (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within an extensive multinational and multidisciplinary project carried out in Donana National Park (Spain) to investigate its preservation and regeneration, the filling velocity of the salt marshes has been evaluated through the calculation of their average sediment accumulation rates. 239+24Pu and 137Cs from weapons testing fallout and total 21Pb distribution profiles and inventories have been determined in some of the most characteristic zones of the park, namely, the ponds (or 'lucios') and the waterjets (or 'canos'). Plutonium inventories range from 16 to 101 Bq m-2, 137Cs values fluctuate between 514 and 3758 Bq m-2 and unsupported 21Pb values comprise between 124 and 9398 Bq m-2. Average sedimentation rates range from 3 to 5 mm y-1 (1952-2002). These data are higher than those obtained by carbon dating for the period 6500 AD-present, estimated as 1.5-2 mm y-1, suggesting an increase in the accumulation of sediments and the alteration of the park's hydrodynamics caused by the re-channeling of the major rivers feeding the salt marshes

  13. Comparative effects of protracted exposures to 60Co γ-radiation and 239Pu α-radiation on breeding performance in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding performances are compared of hybrid female mice given 239Pu(5 or 10μCikg-1 body mass in 1 per cent trisodium citrate via the tail-vein), or kept in a 10rad/day or 20rad/day 60Co γ-irradiation field (but mated in the control area), or unirradiated. Ovarian dose-rates from the injected plutonium were initially 0.8 and 1.7 rad/day, changing little thereafter; actual γ-ray dose-rates to breeding females averaged around 8 and 16 rad/day respectively. Both γ-ray treatments affected reproductive performance more than the plutonium injections, with respect to duration of fertility and to offspring per litter in successive 4-weekly periods, though overall mean litter-sizes were not significantly less than controls. The r.b.e. for these effects on reproduction, attributed to germ-cell killing, is about 2.5 for the α particles vs. γ-rays, lower than for testis mass reduction in males. This low r.b.e. may be connected with inhomogeneity of α-particle dose within the ovary, but it is known that fission neutron versus gamma r.b.e.'s for impairment of female fertility are also lower than those for impairment of male fertility. (Author)

  14. Study of High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Plutonium. Part I. Contribution to the Classification of the Arc Spectrum. Part II. Determination of the Magnetic Moment of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the hyperfine structure and isotope shift enabled the positions of the first five levels of the multiplet 7F0-6 belonging to the fundamental configuration 5f67s2 to be determined. The classification of the arc spectrum begun in this way led to 25 odd levels, the number of classified lines (70) representing about 30 p. 100 of the light emitted by this hollow cathode in the visible. In addition, the isotope shifts of many lines and the data given by the King furnace show that the first levels of the configuration 5f56d7s2 are also low less than 8000 cm-1 above the fundamental level 7F0. The proximity of the configuration f6s2 and f5ds2 shows that the bonding energies of the 5f and 6d electrons are of the same order of magnitude and this fact must be responsible for the multiple valences belonging to plutonium. From the hyperfine structure of spark lines (Pu II) the interval factor a7 for the electron was deduced giving for the calculated nuclear moment of 239Pu a value of +0.21 ±0.06 μN. The position of the hyperfine components show that the nuclear moment is positive, although the theoretical value given by B. R. Mottelson and S. Nillson is negative and equal to -0.1 μN. (author)

  15. Statistical activities during 1976 and the design and initial analysis of nuclear site studies. [/sup 241/Am, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R O; Essington, E H; Brady, D N; Doctor, P G; Eberhardt, L L

    1977-05-01

    Statistical design and analysis activities for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) during 1976 are briefly outlined. This is followed by a description of soil data collected thus far at nuclear study sites. Radionuclide concentrations in surface soil collected along a transect from ground zero (GZ) along the main fallout pattern are given for Nuclear Site (NS) 201. Concentrations in soil collected at 315 locations on a grid system at 200 foot spacings are also given for this site. The /sup 241/Am to /sup 137/Cs ratios change over NS 201 depending on location relative to GZ. They range from less than one where /sup 241/Am is at low levels, to more than fifty where /sup 241/Am levels are high (near GZ). The estimated median /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu to /sup 241/Am ratio is 11 and appears to be relatively constant over the area (the 95 percent lower and upper limits on the true median ratio are about 8 and 14).

  16. Use of faecal excretion function for quick estimation of initial and existing lung burden for occupational exposure control due to 239Pu for S-class of intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two functions namely initial lung deposition and lung retention per unit faecal excretion rate are constructed primarily based on the excretion pattern of four subjects exposed to 239Pu. In the absence of initial clear knowledge about the class of compound inhaled, faecal to urine excretion ratio was used to infer the type of inhaled class. Trends in the urine and faecal data had suggested that the intake was due to mixed class of plutonium compound for each case. With the assumption of 1:1 mixture of plutonium M and S class inhaled compound, faecal excretion rates for only S-class intake were worked out. Uptake inferred based on their urinary data had suggested it to be of similar level within 40% of uncertainty for 5 μm particle size distribution. Data, all the four cases, were pooled for analysis citing the similar level of intake, particle size distribution, nature and pattern of work. The function obtained was tested for S-class lung retention and faecal excretion rate value. These functions are handy tool for estimating initial lung burden and lung retention value for low level of S-class plutonium intake based on subject faecal analysis data. (authors)

  17. Inhaled 239PuO2 and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats and beagle dogs were given doses of 60Co gamma radiation and/or body burdens of 239PuO2 within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses of both species within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell concentrations and by long-term loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in animals of both species that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled plutonium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in both species, but its only effect on blood cell concentrations was lymphocytopenia in dogs. Combined gamma irradiation and plutonium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Plutonium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the long-term effect of plutonium lung burdens in both species. Rats were less sensitive to both kinds of radiation, whether administered alone or in combination. 71 refs., 105 figs., 48 tabs

  18. Depletion of CD8+ cells does not affect the lifespan of productively infected cells during pathogenic sivmac239 infection of rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shudo, Emi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    While CD8+ T cell responses are clearly important in anti-viral immunity during HIV/SIV infection, the mechanisms by which CD8+ T cells induce this effect remain poorly understood, as emphasized by the failure of the Merck adenovirus-based, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-inducing AIDS vaccine in a large phase IIb clinical trial. In this study, we measured the in vivo effect of CD8+ lymphocytes on the lifespan of productively infected cells during chronic SIVmac239 infection of rhesus macaques by treating two groups of animals (i.e., CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted or controls) with antiretroviral therapy (PMPA and FTC). The lifespan of productively infected cells was calculated based on the slope of the decline of SIV plasma viremia using a well-accepted mathematical model. We found that, in both early (i.e., day 57 post-inoculation) and late (i.e., day 177 post-inoculation) chronic SIV infection, depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes did not result in an increased lifespan of productively infected cells in vivo. This result indicates that direct killing of cells producing virus is unlikely to be a major mechanism underlying the anti-viral effect of CD8+ T cells during SIV infection. These results have profound implications for the development of AIDS vaccines.

  19. Identification and Structural Characterization of the ALIX-Binding Late Domains of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIV mac239 and SIV agmTan-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Q Zhai; M Landesman; H Robinson; W Sundquist; C Hill

    2011-12-31

    Retroviral Gag proteins contain short late-domain motifs that recruit cellular ESCRT pathway proteins to facilitate virus budding. ALIX-binding late domains often contain the core consensus sequence YPX{sub n}L (where X{sub n} can vary in sequence and length). However, some simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag proteins lack this consensus sequence, yet still bind ALIX. We mapped divergent, ALIX-binding late domains within the p6{sup Gag} proteins of SIV{sub MAC239} ({sub 40}SREK{und P}YKE{und VT}ED{und L}LHLNSLF{sub 59}) and SIV{sub agmTan-1} ({sub 24}AAG{und A}YDP{und AR}KL{und L}EQYAKK{sub 41}). Crystal structures revealed that anchoring tyrosines (in lightface) and nearby hydrophobic residues (underlined) contact the ALIX V domain, revealing how lentiviruses employ a diverse family of late-domain sequences to bind ALIX and promote virus budding.

  20. Identification and Structural Characterization of the ALIX-Binding Late Domains of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239 and SIVagmTan-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Q.; Robinson, H.; Landesman, M. B.; Sundquist, W. I.; Hill, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Retroviral Gag proteins contain short late-domain motifs that recruit cellular ESCRT pathway proteins to facilitate virus budding. ALIX-binding late domains often contain the core consensus sequence YPX{sub n}L (where X{sub n} can vary in sequence and length). However, some simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag proteins lack this consensus sequence, yet still bind ALIX. We mapped divergent, ALIX-binding late domains within the p6{sup Gag} proteins of SIV{sub mac239} ({sub 40}SREK{und P}YKE{und VT}ED{und L}LHLNSLF{sub 59}) and SIV{sub agmTan-1} ({sub 24}AAG{und A}YDP{und AR}KL{und L}EQYAKK{sub 41}). Crystal structures revealed that anchoring tyrosines (in lightface) and nearby hydrophobic residues (underlined) contact the ALIX V domain, revealing how lentiviruses employ a diverse family of late-domain sequences to bind ALIX and promote virus budding.

  1. Estimation of multi-group cross section covariances for 235,238U, 239Pu, 241Am, 56Fe, 23Na and 27Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the methodology used to estimate multi-group covariances for some major isotopes used in reactor physics. The starting point of this evaluation is the modelling of the neutron induced reactions based on nuclear reaction models with parameters. These latest are the vectors of uncertainties as they are absorbing uncertainties and correlation arising from the confrontation of nuclear reaction model to microscopic experiment. These uncertainties are then propagated towards multi-group cross sections. As major breakthroughs were then asked by nuclear reactor physicists to assess proper uncertainties to be used in applications, a solution is proposed by the use of integral experiment information at two different stages in the covariance estimation. In this paper, we will explain briefly the treatment of all type of uncertainties, including experimental ones (statistical and systematic) as well as those coming from validation of nuclear data on dedicated integral experiment (nuclear data oriented). We will illustrate the use of this methodology with various isotopes such as 235,238U, 239Pu, 241Am, 56Fe, 23Na and 27Al. (authors)

  2. Updated estimates of /sup 239-240/Pu + 241Am inventory, spatial pattern, and soil tonnage for removal at nuclear site-201, NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These new estimates are based on 712 241Am soil concentrations including 185 data values not previously available. Estimates were obtained using essentially the same kriging techniques and the estimated average /sup 239-240/Pu to 241Am ratio of 7.5 used to obtain previous results. The total Pu + Am inventory estimated to be in the top 5 cm of soil over the 109 hectare study is approximately 16.3 curies. Lower and upper limits on this inventory estimate are about 6.7 and 45.6 curies, respectively. It is estimated that about 58 acres (approx. = 23 hectares) of land in the study are contaminated at levels greater than 40 pCi/g which includes about 40 acres (approx. = 16 hectares) at levels greater than 160 pCi/g. Approximately 28,000 tons of soil would need to be removed (to 15-cm depth) to clean up all areas with estimated concentrates greater than or equal to 160 pCi/g. About 41,000 tons would require removal at the 40 pCi/g level. 5 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  3. Speciation analysis of 129I, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu in environmental soil and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are related to their physicochemical forms, namely species. We here present a speciation analysis of important radionuclides including 129I (also 127I), 137Cs, 232Th, 238U and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) in soil (IAEA-375) and sediment (NIST-4354) standard reference materials and two fresh sediment samples from Øvre Heimdalsvatnet Lake, Norway. A modified sequential extraction protocol was used for the speciation analysis of these samples to obtain fractionation information of target radionuclides. Analytical results reveal that the partitioning behaviour, and thus the potential mobility and bioavailability, are exclusively featured for the individual radionuclide. Iodine is relatively mobile and readily binds to organic matter, while plutonium is mainly bound to both organic matter and nitric acid leachable fractions. Thorium is predominated in nitric acid leachable fraction and caesium is primarily observed in nitric acid and aqua regia leachable fractions and residue. Our analytical results reveal that around 50% of uranium might still remain in the residue which could not be extracted with aggressive acid, namely, aqua regia.

  4. Sequential leaching extraction of 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 241Pu and 241Am from a mud sample: An intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The determination of the association percentages of transuranics to different sediment phases could define their fate once they have been deposited onto the marine floor and their possible reactivity at the sediment/sea water interphase. Nowadays, there is a wide variety of leaching methods to extract transuranics from the different geochemical compounds conforming the sediments. Nevertheless, a general controversy is extended in the scientific world due to the extreme difficulty in testing their reliability, since the standards of transuranics linked to a certain sedimentary phase are not commercially available. Two mud subsamples taken from a storage container were analysed employing the same sequential extraction method, but with small handling differences.The following fractions were isolated: (1) Readily available (2) Carbonate bound and specifically adsorbed (3) Organically bound (4) Oxide and hydroxides bound and (5) residual. The 239,240Pu, 238Pu and 241Am extracted in each phase were analysed using standard radiochemical procedures. 241Pu was determined by both direct scintillation counting and through the 241Am in-growth up on the old disks containing Plutonium. The procedure for uncertainty calculations has been also included. (author)

  5. Sequential leaching extraction of 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 241Pu, 237Np and 241Am from a mud sample: An intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transuranics content of a mud sample taken from a nuclear waste storage container was analysed employing two different sequential extraction methods. The following fractions were isolated: (1)Water soluble (2) Readily available (3) Carbonate bound and specifically adsorbed (4) Organically bound (5) Oxide and hydroxides bound and (6) residual. Both methods differ in the reagents employed, the extraction sequence applied as well as the temperature and means of extraction. The 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 237Np and 241Am extracted in each phase were determined using standard radiochemical procedures. 241Pu was analysed through the 241Am in-growth on just one old disk of the residual fraction containing plutonium. Plutonium was mainly associated to organic-oxides fractions (89-92 %). The percentage extracted in each fraction depended on the method and the extraction sequence used. The soluble fraction of plutonium was less than 13%. Neptunium seemed to be the more soluble than the other transuranics (27%) and the americium showed a tendency to be associated to carbonates (30%). (author)

  6. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  7. A canine orthologue of the human GFAP c.716G>A (p.Arg239His) variant causes Alexander disease in a Labrador retriever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, Mario; Martlé, Valentine; Van Brantegem, Leen; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Ham, Luc; Bhatti, Sofie; Peelman, Luc J

    2016-06-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of astrocyte dysfunction in man, for which already a number of causal variants are described, mostly de novo dominant missense variants in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). A similar disorder was already phenotypically described in animals but without the identification of causal variants. We diagnosed a Labrador retriever with a juvenile form of AxD based on clinical (tetraparesis with spastic front limbs mimicking 'swimming puppy syndrome') and pathological (the detection of GFAP containing Rosenthal fibers in astrocytes) features. In order to identify a causal variant, the coding sequences of the four detected GFAP transcript variants (orthologues from human transcript variants α, γ, δ/ɛ and κ) were sequenced. From the five detected variants, a heterozygous c.719G>A nucleotide substitution resulting in a p.Arg240His substitution was considered to be causal, because it is orthologous to the heterozygous de novo dominant c.716G>A (p.Arg239His) hotspot variant in man, proven to cause a severe phenotype. In addition, the variant was not found in 50 unrelated healthy Labrador retrievers. Because the condition in dogs is morphologically similar to man, it could be a promising animal model for further elucidating the genotype/phenotype correlation in order to treat or prevent this disease. PMID:26486469

  8. Experimental determination of residual nuclei formation cross sections in 660 MeV proton reactions with 239Pu and natU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental cross sections for proton induced reactions of an energy of 660 MeV with various fission products, minor actinides, and 'major' actinides (plutonium, uranium, thorium) are studied. The paper describes 239Pu and natural U experiments; other experiments have already been published or are planned. Cross section determination consist of three parts: experiment, data processing, and mathematical codes simulation of the problem. This paper deals only with experiment description and data processing methodology. 4 irradiation experiments have been performed: 2 with natural uranium targets and 2 with plutonium targets. Each two experiments were identical, differences were only in irradiation time (and of course another sample was used). Uranium samples were in the thin foil form while plutonium was in dioxide form in a duralumin container. Shorter irradiation time experiments were used to observe isotopes with half-lives in the range of minutes and hours while the longer ones were used to observe long-lived isotopes. The irradiated samples were submitted to γ spectroscopy about 5 minutes after the end of irradiation. A total number of 105 uranium spectra and 156 plutonium spectra were acquired. Measured data were processed using standard γ spectrometry methods and standard software packages as well as home-made programs were used to determine cross-sections. Neither final results of processing, nor simulation of plutonium experiment are paper-ready at the moment. Uranium data have partially already been presented, final complete results are planned to be published with plutonium results together in reviewed journal

  9. Sequential determination of natural (232Th, 238U) and anthropogenic (137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am, 239+240Pu) radionuclides in environmental matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: Transuranic (TRU) and Strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by Uranium and Tetravalent Actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium- 238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. (authors)

  10. Inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats and dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Decker, J.R.; Lai, Y.L.; Lauhala, K.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Hiastala, M.P.; McGee, D.R.; Park, J.F.; Kuffel, E.G.; Ragan, H.A.; Cannon, W.C.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1988-08-01

    Rats and beagle dogs were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or body burdens of /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses of both species within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell concentrations and by long-term loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in animals of both species that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled plutonium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in both species, but its only effect on blood cell concentrations was lymphocytopenia in dogs. Combined gamma irradiation and plutonium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Plutonium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the long-term effect of plutonium lung burdens in both species. Rats were less sensitive to both kinds of radiation, whether administered alone or in combination. 71 refs., 105 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. Capture and Fission rate of 232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu from spallation neutrons in a huge block of lead.

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2000-01-01

    The study is centered on the research of the incineration possibility of nuclear waste, by the association of a particle accelerator with a multiplying medium of neutrons, in the project "Energy Amplifier" of C. Rubbia. It consists of the experimental determination of the rates of capture and fission of certain elements (232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu) subjected to a fluence of fast spallation neutrons. These neutrons are produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy protons (several GeV) provided by the CERN-PS accelerator, on a large lead solid volume. The measurement techniques used in this work, are based on the activation of elements in the lead volume and the subsequent gamma spectroscopy of the activated elements, and also by the detection of fission fragment traces. The development, of a Monte Carlo code makes it possible, on one hand, to better understand the relevant processes, and on the other hand, to validate the code, by comparison with measurements, for the design and the construction of...

  12. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4{pi}-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples; Spectrometrie alpha 4{pi} de sources d'actinides realisees par electronebulisation. Developpement et optimisation d'un protocole applique au mesurage des isotopes 238 et 239+240 du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement (DPRE), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4{pi}-{alpha} spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4{pi} -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  13. Antifungal Activities of Posaconazole, Ravuconazole, and Voriconazole Compared to Those of Itraconazole and Amphotericin B against 239 Clinical Isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Other Filamentous Fungi: Report from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, M. A.; Messer, S. A.; Hollis, R. J.; Jones, R. N.

    2002-01-01

    Posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole are new triazole derivatives that possess potent, broad-spectrum antifungal activity. We evaluated the in vitro activity of these investigational triazoles compared with that of itraconazole and amphotericin B against 239 clinical isolates of filamentous fungi from the SENTRY Program, including Aspergillus spp. (198 isolates), Fusarium spp. (7 isolates), Penicillium spp. (19 isolates), Rhizopus spp. (4 isolates), Mucor spp. (2 isolates), and miscel...

  14. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  15. Ultra-sensitive Mass Spectrometric and Other Advanced Methods Applied to Biological Samples. Second interlaboratory comparison study for the analysis of 239Pu in synthetic urine at the μBq (∼100 aCi) level by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a follow up to the initial 1998 intercomparison study, a second study was initiated in 2001 as part of the ongoing evaluation of the capabilities of various ultra-sensitive methods to analyze 239Pu in urine samples. The initial study was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of International Health Programs to evaluate and validate new technologies that may supersede the existing fission tract analysis (FTA) method for the analysis of 239Pu in urine at the μBq/l level. The ultra-sensitive techniques evaluated in the second study included accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) by LLNL, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) by LANL and FTA by the University of Utah. Only the results for the mass spectrometric methods will be presented. For the second study, the testing levels were approximately 4, 9, 29 and 56 μBq of 239Pu per liter of synthetic urine. Each test sample also contained 240Pu at a 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of ∼0.15 and natural uranium at a concentration of 50 μBq/ml. From the results of the two studies, it can be inferred that the best performance at the μBq level is more laboratory specific than method specific. The second study demonstrated that LANL-TIMS and LLNL-AMS had essentially the same quantification level for both isotopes. Study results for bias and precision and acceptable performance compared to ANSI N13.30 and ANSI N42.22 have been compiled. (author)

  16. Statistical evaluation of lung, bone, and liver tumors in rats exposed to aerosols of 238PuO2, 239PuO2, and 244CmO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mantel--Haenszel procedure was applied to the evaluation of tumor data from exposures to aerosols of 238PuO2, 239PuO2, and 244CmO2. Significance was evident for lung tumors for all three transuranics, for osteosarcomas in animals exposed to 244CmO2, and was suggested for liver tumors in animals exposed to 244CmO2

  17. Retrospective determination of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr activities in the outer bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) collected at various sites in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr were determined in 25 archived spruce outer bark samples collected in coniferous forests across the Czech Republic in 1995. At three sampling sites the radionuclide activity concentrations were determined in forest soil. Data was provided on the cumulative deposition and vertical distribution of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr in forest soil. The median activity concentration of 238Pu in the spruce bark samples was 0.009 Bq kg-1. The median activity concentration of 239,240Pu was 0.212 Bq kg-1, and the median activity concentration of 90Sr was 10.6 Bq kg-1. The radionuclide activity concentration distribution was not significantly explained by the local long-term (1961-2000) mean annual precipitation totals, by site elevation, by bark acidity, by soil moisture and soil texture. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides in bark were found to be higher than or comparable with the published and measured figures for radionuclide activity concentrations in cultivated and uncultivated soils (0-20 cm layer) in the Czech Republic and abroad. The activity concentration ratio of 90Sr/239,240Pu in the investigated spruce bark samples was higher than in the relevant soil samples. We assume that the crucial radioactive contamination loads in bark occurred in the first half of the 1960s, when the concentration of the investigated radionuclides in the air was highest. Spruce trunk bark has preserved relatively high activity concentrations of these radionuclides. The mechanism governing the long-term radionuclide activity concentrations in outer bark proportional to the local radioactive fallout rates is not correctly known. Our results indicate the suitability of spruce bark for use as an effective monitor of radioactive plume fallout loads even several decades after the contamination episode. (author)

  18. Adoptive Transfer of Lymphocytes Isolated from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239Δnef-Vaccinated Macaques Does Not Affect Acute-Phase Viral Loads but May Reduce Chronic-Phase Viral Loads in Major Histocompatibility Complex-Matched Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Justin M; Lhost, Jennifer J; Hines, Paul J.; Scarlotta, Matthew; Harris, Max; Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Budde, Melisa L; Dudley, Dawn M.; Pham, Ngoc; Cain, Brian; Mac Nair, Caitlin E.; Weiker, Madelyn K.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O'Connor, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVmac239Δnef is the most effective SIV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine in preclinical testing. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for protection may provide important insights for the development of HIV vaccines. Leveraging the uniquely restricted genetic diversity of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, we performed adoptive transfers between major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched animals to assess the role of ...

  19. High workload and job stress are associated with lower practice performance in general practice: an observational study in 239 general practices in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grol Richard

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of high physician workload and job stress on quality and outcomes of healthcare delivery is not clear. Our study explored whether high workload and job stress were associated with lower performance in general practices in the Netherlands. Methods Secondary analysis of data from 239 general practices, collected in practice visits between 2003 to 2006 in the Netherlands using a comprehensive set of measures of practice management. Data were collected by a practice visitor, a trained non-physician observer using patients questionnaires, doctors and staff. For this study we selected five measures of practice performance as outcomes and six measures of GP workload and job stress as predictors. A total of 79 indicators were used out of the 303 available indicators. Random coefficient regression models were applied to examine associations. Results and discussion Workload and job stress are associated with practice performance. Workload: Working more hours as a GP was associated with more positive patient experiences of accessibility and availability (b = 0.16. After list size adjustment, practices with more GP-time per patient scored higher on GP care (b = 0.45. When GPs provided more than 20 hours per week per 1000 patients, patients scored over 80% on the Europep questionnaire for quality of GP care. Job stress: High GP job stress was associated with lower accessibility and availability (b = 0.21 and insufficient practice management (b = 0.25. Higher GP commitment and more satisfaction with the job was associated with more prevention and disease management (b = 0.35. Conclusion Providing more time in the practice, and more time per patient and experiencing less job stress are all associated with perceptions by patients of better care and better practice performance. Workload and job stress should be assessed by using list size adjusted data in order to realise better quality of care. Organisational development using

  20. Procedures for the use of Lexan and Makrofol SSNTDs in the detection of environmental concentrations of 235U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors are used to study a variety of atomic particles. Polycarbonate SSNTD is used to study environmental concentrations of 235U and 239Pu in human urine and feces through fission track analysis. The samples of interest are deposited upon a Lexan slide, covered with a piece of Makrofol and exposed to a neutron fluence of 1.1 X 1017. The fissile isotopes in the sample fission and the resulting fission fragments pass through either the surface of the Lexan or the surface of the Makrofol. The positive Coulombic attraction of the ionized fission fragments causes the electrons of the polycarbonate lattice to move towards the path of these particles, resulting in the breakage of chemical bonds in the lattice. The detector is then chemically etched in 6.5 N KOH that preferentially dissolves the damaged polycarbonate left in the path of the fission fragment. The chemically etched fission tracks are permanent records of the path of the fission fragment. The etched fission tracks in Lexan are optically counted using a microscope and the fission tracks in Makrofol are counted using a Spark Chamber. The amount of fissile material in the original sample can be calculated from the number of fission tracks. This paper presents further details of procedures for etching fission tracks in Lexan and Makrofol and for operating a Spark Chamber to count etched fission tracks in Makrofol. The physics of fission track formation in dielectric detectors is also discussed, as well as the physics of the Spark Chamber

  1. Evaluation of the {sup 239}Pu prompt fission neutron spectrum induced by neutrons of 500 keV and associated covariances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neudecker, D., E-mail: dneudecker@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-B283, NM 87545 (United States); Talou, P., E-mail: talou@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-B283, NM 87545 (United States); Kawano, T., E-mail: kawano@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-B283, NM 87545 (United States); Smith, D.L., E-mail: donaldlarnedsmith@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1710 Avenida del Mundo #1506, Coronado, CA 92118 (United States); Capote, R., E-mail: r.capotenoy@iaea.org [Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Rising, M.E., E-mail: mrising@lanl.gov [X-Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-F663, NM 87545 (United States); Kahler, A.C., E-mail: akahler@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-B283, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-08-11

    We present evaluations of the prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) of {sup 239}Pu induced by 500 keV neutrons, and associated covariances. In a previous evaluation by Talou et al. (2010), surprisingly low evaluated uncertainties were obtained, partly due to simplifying assumptions in the quantification of uncertainties from experiment and model. Therefore, special emphasis is placed here on a thorough uncertainty quantification of experimental data and of the Los Alamos model predicted values entering the evaluation. In addition, the Los Alamos model was extended and an evaluation technique was employed that takes into account the qualitative differences between normalized model predicted values and experimental shape data. These improvements lead to changes in the evaluated PFNS and overall larger evaluated uncertainties than in the previous work. However, these evaluated uncertainties are still smaller than those obtained in a statistical analysis using experimental information only, due to strong model correlations. Hence, suggestions to estimate model defect uncertainties are presented, which lead to more reasonable evaluated uncertainties. The calculated k{sub eff} of selected criticality benchmarks obtained with these new evaluations agree with each other within their uncertainties despite the different approaches to estimate model defect uncertainties. The k{sub eff} one standard deviations overlap with some of those obtained using ENDF/B-VII.1, albeit their mean values are further away from unity. Spectral indexes for the Jezebel critical assembly calculated with the newly evaluated PFNS agree with the experimental data for selected (n,γ) and (n,f) reactions, and show improvements for high-energy threshold (n,2n) reactions compared to ENDF/B-VII.1.

  2. Synthesis and study of 239Pu-doped ceramics based on zircon, (Zr,Pu)Sio4, and hafnon, (Hf,Pu)SiO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon, ZrSiO4, as well as its Hf-analogue hafnon, HfSiO4, have been proposed for use as durable Pu host phases for the immobilization of weapons grade Pu and other actinides. Four samples of Pu-doped ceramics based on the zircon and hafnon structures were synthesized through sintering in air using precursors containing 5-6 and 10 wt% 239Pu. Synthesized ceramic samples were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microprobe method, MCC-1 leach test at 25 and 90 deg C. Inclusions of separated a PuO2 phase in the matrix of zircon-based ceramic and presumably, (Pu,Hf)O2 phase in the hafnon-based ceramic were observed for samples obtained from precursors doped with 10 wt% Pu. No separated Pu-phases in significant amounts were identified in the matrices of both ceramics obtained from the precursors doped with 5-6 wt% Pu. It was found that normalized Pu mass losses (without correction on ceramic porosity) for samples doped with 10 wt% Pu which contain separated inclusions of PuO2 or (Pu1Hf)O2 after 14/28 days were approximately (in g/m2) - for zircon: 0.2/0.2 - at 90 deg C and 0.03/0.04 - at 25 deg C and for hafnon: 0.02/0.04 - at 90 deg C and 0.01/0.01 - at 25 deg C. The losses of Pu from samples doped with 5-6 wt% are 1-2 order of magnitude less. It was suggested that optimal amount of Pu which could be incorporated by zircon and hafnon lattices does not exceed 7 wt%. An important additional conclusion is that Pu-doped ceramic based on zircon or hafnon can be successfully fabricated excluding hot pressing method. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  3. Simultaneous determination of radiocesium ((135)Cs, (137)Cs) and plutonium ((239)Pu, (240)Pu) isotopes in river suspended particles by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liguo; Zheng, Jian; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    Due to radioisotope releases in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, long-term monitoring of radiocesium ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in river suspended particles is necessary to study the transport and fate of these long-lived radioisotopes in the land-ocean system. However, it is expensive and technically difficult to collect samples of suspended particles from river and ocean. Thus, simultaneous determination of multi-radionuclides remains as a challenging topic. In this study, for the first time, we report an analytical method for simultaneous determination of radiocesium and Pu isotopes in suspended particles with small sample size (1-2g). Radiocesium and Pu were sequentially pre-concentrated using ammonium molybdophosphate and ferric hydroxide co-precipitation, respectively. After the two-stage ion-exchange chromatography separation from the matrix elements, radiocesium and Pu isotopes were finally determined by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS, respectively. The interfering elements of U ((238)U(1)H(+) and (238)U(2)H(+) for (239)Pu and (240)Pu, respectively) and Ba ((135)Ba(+) and (137)Ba(+) for (135)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively) were sufficiently removed with the decontamination factors of 1-8×10(6) and 1×10(4), respectively, with the developed method. Soil reference materials were utilized for method validation, and the obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu activities showed a good agreement with the certified/information values. In addition, the developed method was applied to analyze radiocesium and Pu in the suspended particles of land water samples collected from Fukushima Prefecture after the FDNPP accident. The (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios (0.329-0.391) and (137)Cs activities (23.4-152Bq/g) suggested radiocesium contamination of the suspended particles mainly originated from the accident-released radioactive contaminates, while similar Pu contamination of suspended

  4. Immunogenicity of seven new recombinant yellow fever viruses 17D expressing fragments of SIVmac239 Gag, Nef, and Vif in Indian rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio A Martins

    Full Text Available An effective vaccine remains the best solution to stop the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Cellular immune responses have been repeatedly associated with control of viral replication and thus may be an important element of the immune response that must be evoked by an efficacious vaccine. Recombinant viral vectors can induce potent T-cell responses. Although several viral vectors have been developed to deliver HIV genes, only a few have been advanced for clinical trials. The live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine virus 17D (YF17D has many properties that make it an attractive vector for AIDS vaccine regimens. YF17D is well tolerated in humans and vaccination induces robust T-cell responses that persist for years. Additionally, methods to manipulate the YF17D genome have been established, enabling the generation of recombinant (rYF17D vectors carrying genes from unrelated pathogens. Here, we report the generation of seven new rYF17D viruses expressing fragments of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239 Gag, Nef, and Vif. Studies in Indian rhesus macaques demonstrated that these live-attenuated vectors replicated in vivo, but only elicited low levels of SIV-specific cellular responses. Boosting with recombinant Adenovirus type-5 (rAd5 vectors resulted in robust expansion of SIV-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses, particularly those targeting Vif. Priming with rYF17D also increased the frequency of CD4(+ cellular responses in rYF17D/rAd5-immunized macaques compared to animals that received rAd5 only. The effect of the rYF17D prime on the breadth of SIV-specific T-cell responses was limited and we also found evidence that some rYF17D vectors were more effective than others at priming SIV-specific T-cell responses. Together, our data suggest that YF17D - a clinically relevant vaccine vector - can be used to prime AIDS virus-specific T-cell responses in heterologous prime boost regimens. However, it will be important to optimize rYF17D

  5. Transfer and translocation of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr after partial foliar contamination of bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P.; Colle, C.; Morello, M. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    Bean plants at the flowering development stage were contaminated by soaking their two first leaves for 3 hours in a solution containing one of the actinides {sup 241}Am or {sup 239}Pu, or both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr. The aim of the study was to assess the adequacy of using the values of Cs/Sr for the foliar transfer parameters of transuranic actinides, as used for example in the ASTRAL code to calculate the contamination of agricultural products after a nuclear accident. Secondly, these experiments were launched to tentatively determine specific values for the foliar transfer parameters for Am and Pu, despite technical limitations due to high radiotoxicity of these isotopes which prevented the contamination of the whole foliage of bean plants. Cs and Sr were used to compare the results with those obtained with other modes of contamination, by dry deposition of aerosols for example. Results showed that the soaking protocol was adequate to compare the foliar transfer of various radionuclides, although it should be difficult to provide specific values because of partial contamination of the foliage. Foliar transfer factors, expressed as Bq.kg{sup -1}{sub dw} {sub pods}/Bq.L{sup -1}{sub solution} (2.5x10{sup -2}) and translocation factors, dimensionless, (2.3x10{sup -3}) for Am and for Pu (1.5x10{sup -3} and 7.5x10{sup -5} respectively), compared to those for Sr (respectively 3.6x10{sup -3} and 5.9x10{sup -4}) and for Cs (respectively 2.9x10{sup -1} and 1.3x10{sup -1}), were studied using this procedure. Transfer and translocation factors for Am were significantly higher than those for Sr, but were smaller than those for Cs. Therefore, Am can be classified as a medium mobile radionuclide in plant. Transfer and translocation of Pu were significantly lower than these for Sr and for Am. Besides, the transfer and translocation factors of Am and Pu only differed from one order of magnitude or less from the one of Sr, which could be in the usual range of variation

  6. Involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) versus elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for 239 esophageal cancers: a single institutional retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study on early and locally advanced esophageal cancer was conducted to evaluate locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy. We assessed all patients with esophageal cancer of stages I-IV treated with definitive radiotherapy from June 2000 to March 2014. Between 2000 and 2011, ENI was used for all cases excluding high age cases. After Feb 2011, a prospective study about IFRT was started, and therefore IFRT was used since then for all cases. Concurrent chemotherapy regimen was nedaplatin (80 mg/m2 at D1 and D29) and 5-fluorouracil (800 mg/m2 at D1-4 and D29-32). Of the 239 consecutive patients assessed (120 ENI vs. 119 IFRT), 59 patients (24.7 %) had stage IV disease and all patients received at least one cycle of chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 34.0 months. There were differences in 3-year local control (44.8 % vs. 55.5 %, p = 0.039), distant control (53.8 % vs. 69.9 %, p = 0.021) and overall survival (34.8 % vs. 51.6 %, p = 0.087) rates between ENI vs. IFRT, respectively. Patients treated with IFRT (8 %) demonstrated a significantly lower risk (p = 0.047) of high grade late toxicities than with ENI (16 %). IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures (27.5 % in ENI and 13.4 % in IFRT). Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients. Both tendencies of improved loco-regional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate favored the IFRT arm over the ENI arm in this study

  7. Study on Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra and Associated Covariances for 235U(nth,f) and 239Pu(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, L.; Litaize, O.; Serot, O.; Jean, C. De Saint; Archier, P.; Peneliau, Y.

    normalization of experimental spectra, and the uncertainty on the energy-dependent neutron detection efficiency. We show the resulting PFNS and associated covariance matrix in the case of thermal neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu.

  8. Speciation analysis of 129I, 137Cs, 232Th, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu in environmental soil and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hansen, Violeta; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2012-01-01

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are related to their physicochemical forms, namely species. We here present a speciation analysis of important radionuclides including 129I (also 127I), 137Cs, 232Th, 238U and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) in soil (IAEA-375...... that the partitioning behaviour, and thus the potential mobility and bioavailability, are exclusively featured for the individual radionuclide. Iodine is relatively mobile and readily binds to organic matter, while plutonium is mainly bound to both organic matter and nitric acid leachable fractions. Thorium...

  9. Sequential determination of 239,240Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 90Sr in radioactive wastes using SPE sorbents Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 and TRU Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and rapid method of the sequential determination of radionuclides 239,240Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 90Sr in radioactive sludge from the NPP Bohunice A1 with high radiochemical yields and efficient removal of interfering components from a matrix was developed. Separation method combines SPE sorbents Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 made by IBC Advanced Technologies and TRU Resin (Eichrom Technologies) placed in tandem. Advantage of a single-stage column located on the vacuum box with a rapid flow is an effective pre-concentration and separation of radionuclides and minimization of sample separation time. (authors)

  10. Variation of Fission-Fragment Kinetic Energy Distribution, Mass Distribution, and Yield of Long-Range Alpha Particles in the Resonance-Neutron-Induced Fission of U235 and Pu239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These measurements were undertaken to obtain additional information on the fission process, and to investigate the application of this information to the assignment of J-values to resonance levels, as the usual methods of determining J-values are of limited applicability in the case of fissile isotopes. An earlier study of U235 showed that the fission-fragment kinetic energy and the alpha yield varied significantly from level to level, and fell into two groups suggestive of the two possible J-values. The present paper reports on measurements on Pu239. A study of 19 levels shows 15 levels with high average kinetic energy and 4 levels with low average kinetic energy, the former being assigned J -1 and the latter J = 0 on the basis of the expected ratio of population of the two spin states and also for maximum compatibility with other determinations. Some variation of relative alpha-particle yield was found. It is concluded that (1) there are definite variations of kinetic energy of the fragments from level to level; (2) the variation in the case of U235 is correlated with the relative yield of symmetric fission; (3) there is some indication in the case of Pu239 that the variation of fragment energy is correlated with the J-values; and (4) the relative yield of alpha particles varies in an expected fashion. (author)

  11. Intensified proliferative activity of the CFU-S in vertebral bone marrow of 239Pu-treated mice as one of the factors involved in the induction of granulocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the exocolonizing test, 59Fe utilization technique and classical cytology, 210 days after i.v. injection of 166.7 kBq of 239Pu/kg in about 30% of contaminated mice a proliferative activity was observed in vertebral bone marrow, characterized by high relative numbers of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells, significantly higher than in the seriously damaged vertebral bone marrow of other 239Pu-treated mice and even higher than in untreated controls. Also the amount of cells in the granulocytic series increased. After transplantation to the heavily irradiated syngeneic hosts the stem cells differentiated into splenic colonies with higher iron utilization than in corresponding controls. Higher numbers of mature granulocytes were also found in the peripheral blood and the spleen. It is assumed that this activity was an inadequate reparative response of the hemopoietic stem cell compartment to the damaging effect and it is considered to be the critical phase which not only preceded the induction of granulocytic leukemia but also created conditions favorable for leukemic transformation of the hemopoietic stem cells. (author)

  12. Os quilombos perante o STF: a emergência de uma jurisprudência dos direitos étnicos (ADIN 3.239-9 The quilombos before Supreme Court: the emergence of an ethnic rights jurisprudency (ADIN 3.239-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Bemerguy Camerini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O STF apreciará este ano a ADIN nº 3.239-9, na qual se discute a interpretação do direito das comunidades remanescentes de quilombos à titulação de suas terras (art. 68 do ADCT. Para além de prenunciar impactos sociais sobremodo relevantes, notadamente no mercado de terras, essa ação recoloca a Corte Suprema brasileira face aos dilemas da jurisdição constitucional, tais como a sua legitimidade democrática, o seu compromisso com a concretização dos direitos fundamentais, além da necessidade de forçá-la a perscrutar as consequências materiais de suas decisões. A partir da demonstração da tese da fundamentabilidade do direito às terras quilombolas e da crítica às teorias liberal-positivistas da jurisdição e da interpretação, este artigo visa demarcar as questões principais desse processo judicial, cujo enfrentamento se impõe, segundo métodos hermenêuticos adequados, se o tribunal quiser chegar a um provimento final efetivo, isto é, ser capaz de promover a pacificação social e promover a eficácia dos direitos fundamentais, que consubstanciam a razão última da função jurisdicional no contexto do Estado Constitucional.This year, the Brazilian Supreme Court will judge the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality 3239-9, which discusses the correct interpretation of the right of quilombo communities to their territories (article 68 of the Transitory Constitutional Provisions ACT. The decision of this process will bring social impacts, especially in the land market, and will compel the Court to face the dilemmas of constitutional jurisdiction, such as its democratic legitimacy, its commitment to the realization of fundamental rights and the problem of material consequences of hard cases decisions. Based on the thesis that the quilombo territories are fundamental rights, this text seeks to demarcate the key issues of this lawsuit, whose analysis is imposed, according to appropriate hermeneutical methods, if the Court

  13. The fission cross sections of 230Th, 232Th, 233U, 234U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 239Pu and 242Pu relative 235U at 14.74 MeV neutron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the fission cross section ratios of nine isotopes relative to 235U at an average neutron energy of 14.74 MeV is described with particular attention to the determination of corrections and to sources of error. The results are compared to ENDF/B-V and to other measurements of the past decade. The ratio of the neutron induced fission cross section for these isotopes to the fission cross section for 235U are: 230Th - 0.290 +- 1.9%; 232Th - 0.191 +- 1.9%; 233U - 1.132 +- 0.7%; 234U - 0.998 +- 1.0%; 236U - 0.791 +- 1.1%; 238U - 0.587 +- 1.1%; 237Np - 1.060 +- 1.4%; 239Pu - 1.152 +- 1.1%; 242Pu - 0.967 +- 1.0%. 40 refs., 11 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Synchronous Changes of the Shape of Histograms Constructed from the Results of Measurements of 90-Sr Beta-Decay and 239-Pu Alpha-Decay Observed in More than 3000 km Distant Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filin E. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It was discovered many years ago that histograms constructed from the results of mea- surements of various natural processes are not random. The histogram shape was demonstrated to be determined by the diurnal rotation and circumsolar movement of the Earth and to be independent of the nature of the process considered [1-17]. The results of those works change our basic views about stochasticity of natural processes. When the time series of physical measurements, which are traditionally considered stochastic, are transformed into the series of histograms constructed for an optimally small num- ber of the results (i.e., optimally short segment of the time series, one can see regular changes in the histogram shape. The paper illustrates the main manifestations of this phenomenon by comparing the results of 90 Sr -radioactivity and 239 Pu -decay mea- surements, with the distance between the laboratories in which the data were collected being about 3000 km.

  15. Beta and gamma decay heat measurements between 0.1s--50,000s for neutron fission of 235U, 238U and 239Pu. Final report, June 1, 1992--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a final reporting on the composition of separate beta and gamma decay heat measurements following neutron fission of 235U and 238U and 239Pu and on cumulative and independent yield measurements of fission products of 235U and 238U. What made these studies unique was the very short time of 0.1 s after fission that could be achieved by incorporating the helium jet and tape transport system as the technique for transporting fission fragments from the neutron environment of the fission chamber to the low-background environment of the counting area. This capability allowed for the first time decay heat measurements to extend nearly two decades lower on the logarithmic delay time scale, a region where no comprehensive aggregate decay heat measurements had extended to. This short delay time capability also allowed the measurement of individual fission products with half lives as short as 0.2s. The purpose of such studies was to provide tests both at the aggregate level and at the individual nuclide level of the nation's evaluated nuclear data file associated with fission, ENDF/B-VI. The results of these tests are in general quite encouraging indicating this data base generally predicts correctly the aggregate beta and aggregate gamma decay heat as a function of delay time for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. Agreement with the measured individual nuclide cumulative and independent yields for fission products of 235U and 238U was also quite good although the present measurements suggest needed improvements in several individual cases

  16. Removal of low level of 239+240Pu in aqueous solution between pH 2-6 by calcium alginate and its variation with aquatic humic substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this work laboratory simulated experiments were carried out for the removal of low level of 239+240Pu from the aqueous solution. Water samples after filtering through 0.22 mm filter paper were spiked with 250 Bq/1 of 239+240Pu as Pu(NO3)4. The pH of the solutions were controlled between 2-6 by using 0.01M NaOH/HNO3. Spiked samples were kept in the argon atmosphere for a week. The spiked water is passed separately through 20 cm column having about 4 gm of calcium alginate beads. Calcium-alginate beads were prepared by immobilising 2% sodium alginate in 0.2 M calcium chloride solution. At different pH about 95-98% Pu was retained in the beads and significant variation was not observed at pH range studied. To understand the impact of dissolved organic substance on the absorption characteristics of Pu(IV) on calcium-alginate beads, about 0.01% (weight/volume) humic acid solution was mixed in the ratio of 1-4/100 (V/V) experimental solutions. It was observed that the presence of organic matter decreased the absorption by 40% which clearly indicate the complexation of Pu(IV) with humic acid, which was not further forming complex within the alginate beads. The various physicochemical characteristics were measured before and after passing the solution. About 40% of Pu is recovered from sodium alginate beads by using 0.1 M HNO3. (author)

  17. Seasonal variations in activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ac, 99Tc, 90Sr, and 239/240Pu in Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum from the South-Eastern coast of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown algae have been proven to be useful indicator organisms for heavy metals and radionuclides in the marine environments due to their ability to concentrate elements from the ambient water. There is quite a lot of data available on 137Cs in brown algae, especially for Fucus Vesiculosus. Fucus Vesiculosus is also commonly used to monitor the impact of the releases of 99Tc from the reprocessing plant in Sellafield. There is however a lack of data for other long-lived anthropogenic nuclides as 90Sr and Pu, and for natural occurring radionuclides. There is also a need for more knowledge about the mechanisms for uptake and accumulation of the different elements, and about different factors influencing the uptake. In this study activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ac, 99Tc, 90Sr and 239/240Pu are measured in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum collected over a period of one year from the south-eastern coast of Norway. Significant differences between the two species have been found. For 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ra and 239/240Pu, the activity concentrations were significantly higher in Fucus vesiculosus than in Ascophyllum nodosum, whereas for 99Tc the activity concentrations were higher in Ascophyllum nodosum than in Fucus vesiculosus. There were great seasonal variations in the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. For 99Tc there was also a difference in the temporal pattern for the two species. Possible uptake mechanisms will be discussed based on the results and on the known physiological differences between the two species. (author)

  18. Accumulation of polonium 210Po, uranium (234U and 238U and plutonium (238Pu and 239+240Pu in tissues and organs of deer Carvidae from northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Livers, kidneys and muscles of large herbivorous animals: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, collected in northern Poland, were the subject of the investigation. Polonium, uranium and plutonium activities were measured using alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. The average concentrations of 210Po ranged between 0.02±0.01 Bq kg−1 ww in muscles and 7.15±0.12 Bq kg−1 ww in kidneys. The concentration of 238U ranged widely between 2.49±0.18 and 69.37±5.45 mBq kg−1 ww. The average concentrations of 239+240Pu ranged between 0.18±0.04 mBq kg−1 ww in muscle and 2.77±0.60 mBq kg−1 ww in kidneys. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling location, sex, age and species did not influence on the radioisotope activities in the analyzed samples.

  19. A novel SIV gag-specific CD4(+)T-cell clone suppresses SIVmac239 replication in CD4(+)T cells revealing the interplay between antiviral effector cells and their infected targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Victor I; Trivett, Matthew T; Coren, Lori V; Jain, Sumiti; Bohn, Patrick S; Wiseman, Roger W; O'Connor, David H; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E

    2016-06-01

    To study CD4(+)T-cell suppression of AIDS virus replication, we isolated nine rhesus macaque SIVGag-specific CD4(+)T-cell clones. One responding clone, Gag68, produced a typical cytotoxic CD8(+)T-cell response: induction of intracellular IFN-γ, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and CD107a degranulation. Gag68 effectively suppressed the spread of SIVmac239 in CD4(+)T cells with a corresponding reduction of infected Gag68 effector cells, suggesting that CD4(+)effectors need to suppress their own infection in addition to their targets to be effective. Gag68 TCR cloning and gene transfer into CD4(+)T cells enabled additional experiments with this unique specificity after the original clone senesced. Our data supports the idea that CD4(+)T cells can directly limit AIDS virus spread in T cells. Furthermore, Gag68 TCR transfer into CD4(+)T-cell clones with differing properties holds promise to better understand the suppressive effector mechanisms used by this important component of the antiviral response using the rhesus macaque model. PMID:27017056

  20. About the first experiment on investigation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu and 239Pu transmutation at the nuclotron 2.52 GeV deuteron beam in neutron field generated in U/Pb-assembly 'Energy plus transmutation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results of the first experiment with energy 2.52 GeV at the electronuclear setup which consists of Pb-target (diameter 8.4 cm, length 45.6 cm) and natU-blanket (206.4 kg), transmutation samples of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu and 239Pu (radioecological aspect) are described. Hermetically sealed samples in notable amounts are gathered in atomic reactors and setups of industries which use nuclear materials and nuclear technologies were irradiated in the field of neutrons produced in the Pb-target and propagated in the natU-blanket. Estimates of transmutations were obtained as a result of measurements of gamma activities of the samples. The information about the space and energy distribution of neutrons in the volume of the lead target and the uranium blanket was obtained with the help of sets of activation threshold detectors (Al, Co, Y, I, Au, Bi and others), solid-state nuclear track detectors, 3He neutron detectors and nuclear emulsion. Comparison of the experimental data with the results of simulation with the MCNPX program was performed