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Sample records for beriberi

  1. Beriberi cardiovascular agudo (Shoshin-Beriberi Acute cardiovascular beriberi (shoshin-beriberi

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    Osvaldo D. López Gastón

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El beriberi, la deficiencia de tiamina (B1, fue referido en el siglo XVII en la literatura asiática, y pue de manifestarse por síntomas neurológicos (beriberi «seco» donde la neuropatía periférica y la debilidad muscular son los más destacados y/o síntomas cardiovasculares (beriberi «húmedo», con una variante «clásica» donde es predominante la insuficiencia cardíaca derecha con índice cardíaco (IC normal o alto y otra aguda o «shoshin-beriberi», caracterizada por insuficiencia biventricular, acidosis láctica e IC variable y que sin tratamiento precoz evoluciona al colapso vascular y la muerte. Se presenta una paciente de 58 años y antecedente de enolismo, con disnea, oliguria, sígnos de fallo cardíaco biventricular con patrón hiperdinámico, acidosis metabólica, disfunción tubular renal y lactacidemia de 5.6 mEq/L. El exámen neurológico mostró una polineuropatía sensitiva, simétrica y distal en MMII y deterioro cognitivo con sígnos frontales. Horas después de la administración de 100 mg de tiamina ev. se observó una manifiesta mejoría de los valores hemodinámicos y el estado ácido-base. Se concluye que si bien el beriberi cardiovascular agudo es de presentación infrecuente hay consenso en que además es subdiagnosticado. La presencia de acidosis láctica o cuadro de insuficiencia cardíaca de alto volumen minuto sin etiología manifiesta, en pacientes con riesgo de deficiencia de B1, es suficiente para hacer la prueba terapéutica.Beriberi (BB, thiamine deficiency, has been described in the Asian literature in the 17th century and is characterized by peripheral neuropathy and muscle weakness, also called «dry» beriberi (BB to differentiate it from «wet» BB, with essentially cardiovascular manifestations. Wet can be either «classic» wet BB in which signs and symptons of right-sided heart failure with normal or high cardiac output are the presenting features or the «shoshin» BB variant with severe

  2. Infantile encephalitic beriberi: magnetic resonance imaging findings

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    Wani, Nisar A. [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jammu and Kashmir, Pin (India); Qureshi, Umar A.; Ahmad, Kaiser; Ahmad, Waseem [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Pediatrics, Jammu and Kashmir (India); Jehangir, Majid [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Radiology, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2016-01-15

    Thiamine deficiency in infants is still encountered in developing countries. It may present with acute neurological manifestations of infantile encephalitic beriberi. To review brain MRI findings in infantile encephalitic beriberi from a single institution. A retrospective review of MRI scans in 22 infants with acute-onset beriberi encephalopathy was carried out. Hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images were seen symmetrically in the putamen in all patients, in the caudate nuclei in 16/22 (73%), the thalami in 7/22 (32%) and the globi pallidi in 3/22 (14%) of the infants. Altered signal intensity lesions in the cerebral cortex were seen in 7/22 (32%). The mammillary bodies were seen in one infant and the periaqueductal gray matter in two. There was restricted diffusion in 14/22 (64%), and 6/8 children with no evidence of restriction had been imaged ≥10 days after presentation. MR spectroscopy showed increased lactate peak in 6/8 infants (75%). Recognition of symmetrical T2-W hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia with restricted diffusion and prominent lactate peak may allow early diagnosis of encephalitic beriberi in at-risk infants. (orig.)

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in wet beriberi

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    Giri Shivraman; Smith Sakima; Velez Michael R; Essa Essa; Raman Subha V; Gumina Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The clinical presentation of beriberi can be quite varied. In the extreme form, profound cardiovascular involvement leads to circulatory collapse and death. This case report is of a 72 year-old male who was admitted to the Neurology inpatient ward with progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness and parasthesia. He subsequently developed pulmonary edema and high output cardiac failure requiring intubation and blood pressure support. With the constellation of peripheral neuropathy,...

  4. [The history of healing; beriberi: 'kind of paralysis'].

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    de Knecht-van Eekelen, A

    1997-06-14

    Beriberi began to attract increasing attention in the second half of the 19th century, mostly due to the large numbers of victims among Dutch military personnel in the Netherlands East Indies. A study, carried out in Atjeh in 1886 by the Japanese Sugenoya and F. J. Cornelissen, led to the conclusion that there existed a beriberi bacillus which they could make visible in stained microscopical preparations. An extensive disinfection campaign in all barracks followed, but its benefits were a matter of debate. Inadequate nutrition in the investigators' eyes was only a predisposing factor. A.G. Vorderman (1844-1902) assumed a connection between rice feeding and beriberi in prisoners; he reported that the disease coincided with a diet of polished white rice. Beriberi could be prevented by providing the prisoners with 'red rice' (unpolished rice). However, red rice was regarded as inferior and status-lowering so that substitution of red for white rice in the rations was impossible. The concept of a 'lacking substance' (thiamine, vitamin B1) was hesitatingly accepted in the Netherlands. C. Winkler and C. Eijkman, for instance, refused until the early twenties of this century to exclude the possibility of a bacterial infection as the cause. As known, Eijkman in 1929 was awarded the Nobel prize for his contribution to vitamin research. PMID:9380156

  5. Shoshin Beriberi Induced by Long-Term Administration of Diuretics: A Case Report

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    Misumida, Naoki; Umeda, Hisashi; Iwase, Mitsunori

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that diuretic therapy for heart failure may lead to thiamine deficiency due to the increased urinary thiamine excretion. Herein, we present the case of a 61-year-old man with shoshin beriberi, a fulminant form of wet beriberi, induced by long-term diuretic therapy. The patient had a history of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and was receiving furosemide and trichlormethiazide therapy. He presented with worsening exertional dyspnea and was admitted for heart failure exacerbation. His condition failed to improve even after intensive treatment. A hemodynamic evaluation with the Swan-Ganz catheter revealed high-output heart failure with low peripheral vascular resistance. Thiamine was administered for suspected shoshin beriberi; his hemodynamic status improved dramatically within the next six hours. The serum thiamine level was below the normal range; the patient was therefore diagnosed with shoshin beriberi. The common causes of thiamine deficiency were not identified. Long-term diuretic therapy with furosemide and thiazide was thought to have played a major role in the development of thiamine deficiency. This case illustrates the importance of considering wet beriberi as a possible cause of heart failure exacerbation in patients taking diuretics, even when the common thiamine deficiency causes are not identified with history-taking. PMID:25105030

  6. Shoshin Beriberi Induced by Long-Term Administration of Diuretics: A Case Report

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    Naoki Misumida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that diuretic therapy for heart failure may lead to thiamine deficiency due to the increased urinary thiamine excretion. Herein, we present the case of a 61-year-old man with shoshin beriberi, a fulminant form of wet beriberi, induced by long-term diuretic therapy. The patient had a history of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and was receiving furosemide and trichlormethiazide therapy. He presented with worsening exertional dyspnea and was admitted for heart failure exacerbation. His condition failed to improve even after intensive treatment. A hemodynamic evaluation with the Swan-Ganz catheter revealed high-output heart failure with low peripheral vascular resistance. Thiamine was administered for suspected shoshin beriberi; his hemodynamic status improved dramatically within the next six hours. The serum thiamine level was below the normal range; the patient was therefore diagnosed with shoshin beriberi. The common causes of thiamine deficiency were not identified. Long-term diuretic therapy with furosemide and thiazide was thought to have played a major role in the development of thiamine deficiency. This case illustrates the importance of considering wet beriberi as a possible cause of heart failure exacerbation in patients taking diuretics, even when the common thiamine deficiency causes are not identified with history-taking.

  7. Erythrocyte transketolase activity, markers of cardiac dysfunction and the diagnosis of infantile beriberi.

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    Douangdao Soukaloun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infantile beriberi is a potentially lethal manifestation of thiamin deficiency, associated with traditional post-partum maternal food avoidance, which persists in the Lao PDR (Laos. There are few data on biochemical markers of infantile thiamin deficiency or indices of cardiac dysfunction as potential surrogate markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case control study of 47 infants with beriberi and age-matched afebrile and febrile controls was conducted in Vientiane, Laos. Basal and activated erythrocyte transketolase activities (ETK and activation (α coefficients were assayed along with plasma brain natriuretic peptide, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and troponin T. Basal ETK (and to a lesser extent activated ETK and plasma troponin T were the only infant biochemical markers that predicted infantile beriberi. A basal ETK ≤ 0.59 micromoles/min/gHb gave a sensitivity (95%CI of 75.0 (47.6 to 92.7% and specificity (95%CI of 85.2 (66.3 to 95.8% for predicting infantile beriberi (OR (95%CI 15.9 (2.03-124.2; p = 0.008 (area under ROC curve = 0.80. In contrast, the α coefficient did not discriminate between cases and controls. Maternal basal ETK was linearly correlated with infant basal ETK (Pearson's r = 0.66, p < 0.001. The odds of beriberi in infants with detectable plasma troponin T was 3.4 times higher in comparison to infants without detectable troponin T (OR 3.4, 95%CI 1.22-9.73, p = 0.019. Detectable troponin T had a sensitivity (95%CI of 78.6 (59.0 to 91.7 % and specificity (95%CI of 56.1 (39.7 to 71.5 % for predicting infantile beriberi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Basal ETK is a more accurate biochemical marker of infantile beriberi than the activation coefficient. Raised plasma troponin T may be a useful indicator of infantile beriberi in infants at risk and in the absence of other evident causes.

  8. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency and high infant mortality in northern Laos.

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    Hubert Barennes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos.Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009. Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2% were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%. In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8 died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6% were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2% reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4% respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6% had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8% possible thiamine deficiency.Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity

  9. [Introduction of Indian medicine into China in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern dynasties as interpreted by beriberi].

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    Fan, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the sea route between China and all countries in the Western Region was unimpeded, many Buddhist monks came to China. Some of them settled in Lingnan Region. With them, Indian medicine was imported which greatly expanded the coverage of TCM. Some of the Northerners moved southward into Lingnan Region and contracted beriberi which were cured by Indian monks. The author explores the importation of Indian medcine through analysis of beriberi as an example.

  10. A Retrospective Investigation of Thiamin and Energy Intakes Following an Outbreak of Beriberi in the Gambia

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    Margaret B. E. Livingstone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated within the affected district to retrospectively examine dietary factors potentially contributing to the outbreak. There had previously been cases of beriberi in one compound (BBC but not in the other (NBC. We measured energy and thiamin intakes for four days on six occasions during the year. We calculated energy and thiamin intakes of people living in the two compounds and foods were collected for thiamin analysis through the year. Thiamin:Energy ratios only met international recommendations in the immediate post‑harvest season when energy and thiamin intakes were highest and then fell through the year. In the rainy season when food was short and labour was heaviest, energy intakes were lower in the NBC but thiamin:energy ratios were lower in BBC. Records of rainfall in 1988 collected near the village indicated that the amount in August was twice the average. We suggest the heavy rainfall may have increased farm workload and reduced income from outside-village work activity. The lower energy intakes in the NBC may have forced adults to rest thus sparing thiamin demands and delaying onset of beriberi. In contrast, the higher energy intake of adults in the BBC may have enabled them to continue working, thus increasing demands for thiamin and inducing the earlier onset of beriberi.

  11. Rapidly progressive polyneuropathy due to dry beriberi in a man: a case report

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    Lekwuwa Godwin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe a case of rapidly progressive and severely debilitating polyneuropathy in a patient with confirmed hypovitaminosis B1, consistent with dry beriberi. Crucially, this is a treatable condition, although sometimes with incomplete recovery, but it is probably under-recognized yet increasingly common given increasing levels of alcohol abuse in the western world. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian British man presented with progressive weakness of both lower limbs of approximately seven months' duration. He noted difficulty climbing stairs. He also complained of lethargy, and loss of muscle bulk, including his thighs. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and admitted prior alcohol abuse but denied excessive alcohol intake in the five years prior to presentation. Initial clinical and neurophysiological examinations were consistent with a mild peripheral neuropathy and probable proximal myopathy. However, over the subsequent four months he evolved a marked tetraparesis, with profound sensory disturbance of all limbs. Repeat neurophysiology revealed a widespread polyneuropathy with extensive acute and sub-acute denervation changes in all four limbs, and reduced or absent sensory nerve action potentials. Hypovitaminosis B1 was confirmed (45 nmol/L, reference range 66-200 nmol/L. His rapid clinical deterioration was in keeping with dry beriberi. He was treated with thiamine. Subsequent follow-up revealed slow but significant improvement, such that by 15-16 months from the initial onset of symptoms, and approximately six months after the onset of his marked tetraparesis, he was able to stand independently and was gradually gaining confidence in walking pending a period of in-patient neurorehabilitation. Conclusion A potentially wide differential diagnosis exists for this type of presentation. Confirming hypovitaminosis B1 by requesting the assay prior to vitamin replacement ensures accurate diagnosis and

  12. Dry beriberi preceded Wernicke′s encephalopathy: Thiamine deficiency after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

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    Debopam Samanta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, pediatric obesity has become widely prevalent. If first-line treatment with lifestyle modification fails, bariatric surgery may be indicated for severely obese patients. Many patients now travel abroad to get these surgeries done. Some of these patients receive inadequate postoperative care. We described a morbidly obese 17-year-old girl who had a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy procedure for weight loss. Due to severe nausea, she stopped her multivitamin supplementation. Within a few weeks, she developed symptoms of dry beriberi was soon followed by classic symptoms of Wernicke′s encephalopathy. The prompt diagnosis was made with confirmation from serum thiamine level and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Thiamine supplementation reversed ophthalmological symptoms promptly. However, the patient needed inpatient rehabilitation for neuropathy. This case describes that thiamine deficiency can occur after restrictive bariatric surgery, despite lower risk of malnutrition in the absence of intestinal bypass procedure. This report highlights that in the presence of risk factors: dietary noncompliance, inadequate follow-up, and severe nausea with and without vomiting can precipitate the development of Wernicke′s encephalopathy, even after restrictive surgery. Physicians may increasingly encounter thiamine and other nutrient deficiencies in increasing numbers due to increasing prevalence of obesity disorders and availability of bariatric surgeries. This report also emphasized the importance of identifying vague sensory symptoms in thiamine deficiency.

  13. Severe Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, Vegetative Instability and Neuropathy with 5-Fluorouracil Treatment – Pyrimidine Degradation Defect or Beriberi

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    A. Rosen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 19-year-old female with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, who received two courses of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in combination with folic acid and cisplatin. Upon developing esophageal strictures in the course of her radiotherapy, she required total parenteral nutrition. In the course of therapy, the patient developed severe multisystem failure with encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, vegetative instability and neuropathy. The treatment with 5-FU can lead to severe toxicity due to enzyme deficiencies in the degradation of pyrimidines, but it can also lead to thiamine deficiency with the classic symptoms of beriberi. Beriberi is a rare disorder, usually attributed to malnutrition or alcoholism. 5-FU has been shown to induce thiamine depletion. Reduced food intake or total parenteral nutrition devoid of vitamin supplements may aggravate symptoms. We were unable to find a genetic cause for increased 5-FU toxicity in our patient, ruling out deficiencies of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, dihydropyrimidinase or β-ureidopropionase and double-strand break repair deficits. We come to the conclusion that, even without any definable enzyme deficiency, treatment with 5-FU can lead to high toxicity due to thiamine deficiency if vitamin supplementation is not undertaken.

  14. Wernicke’s Encephalopathy, Wet Beriberi, and Polyneuropathy in a Patient with Folate and Thiamine Deficiency Related to Gastric Phytobezoar

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    Nuria Huertas-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE is an acute neurological disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency. It is mainly related to alcohol abuse but it can be associated with other conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders. This vitamin deficiency can also present with cardiovascular symptoms, called “wet beriberi.” Association with folate deficit worsens the clinical picture. Subject. A 70-year-old man with gastric phytobezoar presented with gait instability, dyspnoea, chest pain associated with right heart failure and pericarditis, and folate deficiency. Furosemide was administered and cardiac symptoms improved but he soon developed vertiginous syndrome, nystagmus, diplopia, dysmetria, and sensitive and motor deficit in all four limbs with areflexia. Results. A cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed typical findings of WE. He was immediately treated with thiamine. Neurological symptoms improved in a few days and abnormal signals disappeared in a follow-up MRI two weeks later. Conclusion. Patients with malabsorption due to gastrointestinal disorders have an increased risk of thiamine deficiency, and folate deficiency can make this vitamin malabsorption worse. An established deficiency mainly shows neurological symptoms, WE, or rarely cardiovascular symptoms, wet beriberi. Early vitamin treatment in symptomatic patients improves prognosis. We recommend administration of prophylactic multivitamins supplements in patients at risk as routine clinical practice.

  15. Perfil epidemiológico do beribéri notificado de 2006 a 2008 no Estado do Maranhão, Brasil Epidemiological profile of reported beriberi cases in Maranhão State, Brazil, 2006-2008

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    Estela Maura Padilha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos casos e óbitos de beribéri notificados de 2006-2008 no Estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Informações foram obtidas de fichas de notificação da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Maranhão e utilizou-se o Índice Global de Moran para avaliar autocorrelação espacial. Foram notificados 1.207 casos e 40 óbitos. Regiões oeste e central mostraram forte presença de autocorrelação espacial da incidência. Ocorrência de casos e óbitos concentrou-se de maio a agosto, em homens jovens (20-40 anos. Hábito de consumir álcool e fumar esteve presente entre os óbitos; baixa renda e ocupação com atividade pesada, entre os casos. Os sintomas mais comuns foram diminuição da força, dormência e edema das pernas, dificuldade para caminhar e dor na panturrilha. O perfil dos acometidos e os sintomas, exceto edema de membros inferiores, são característicos de beribéri seco. É pertinente que estudos sobre seu ressurgimento no país sejam aprofundados.This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of beriberi cases and related deaths reported from 2006 to 2008 in Maranhão State, Brazil. Data were obtained from beriberi notification forms at the State Health Department. The global Moran index was used to evaluate spatial auto-correlation. 1207 cases and 40 deaths were reported. The western and central regions of the State showed strong spatial auto-correlation of incidence rates. Cases and deaths were concentrated from May to August, in young men (20-40 years. Regular alcohol consumption and smoking were recorded among fatal cases. Low income and heavy labor were widespread among cases. Common symptoms were asthenia, numbness, and swollen legs, difficulty walking, and calf pain. The profile of cases and their symptoms (except swollen legs are characteristic of dry beriberi. We recommend further studies on the resurgence of beriberi in Brazil.

  16. Effect of complex puccoon preparation on fungi which could cause beriberi%紫草复合制剂对脚气真菌的抑制作用研究

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    杨东方; 张玮玮; 蔡翠芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of complex puccoon preparation on fungi which could cause beriberi.Methods:Puccoon,propolis and bee pollen were selected as the main materials,complex puccoon preparation of different ratio was formulated.Inhibitory effects of complex puccoon preparation of different ratio on Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus niger were preliminarily studied by orthogonal design.Results:Complex puccoon preparation of different ratio have certain inhibitory effects on two kinds of fungi.A3BZC3 was optimal process and its inhibitory rate on Candida tropicalis was more than 95%.Conclusion:Long-period performance and stability of inhibitory effect of complex puccoon preparation on fungi should be continued to investigate.%目的:探究中药材紫草复合制剂对引起脚气病病菌的抑制效果。方法:选取紫草、蜂胶、蜂花粉为主要材料,配置不同配比的紫草复合制剂,采用正交设计就紫草复合制剂对热带假丝酵母与黑曲霉菌的抑制作用进行了初步研究。结果:不同配比的紫草复合制剂处理对两类真菌均有一定的抑制作用,本试验G号处理样A3B2C3为最优处理组合,对热带假丝酵母的抑菌率达到了95%以上。结论:其抑制真菌的长效性和稳定性还有待继续观察和研究。

  17. Perinatal consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia. A randomized clinical trial

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    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...

  18. Maternal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce during pregnancy and lactation improves maternal and infant thiamin status and breast milk thiamin concentrations.

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    Infantile beriberi, a disease caused by thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and other parts of Southeast Asia. Infantile beriberi presents during the exclusive breastfeeding period and without treatment commonly results in death within *24 hours of clinical p...

  19. The discovery of thiamin.

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    Carpenter, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Thiamin deficiency was long known as 'beriberi' in English and 'kakké' in Japan and China. The cause of beriberi was attributed to miasmas rising from wet soil and later to an unknown infectious organism. Systematic studies of beriberi began in the Dutch East Indies in the 1880s. Cornelis Pekelharing and Cornelis Winkler investigated beriberi in the Dutch East Indies and thought that they had isolated a micrococcus that was responsible for the disease. Christiaan Eijkman observed that chickens fed white rice developed a leg paralysis or 'polyneuritis', whereas chickens fed brown (unpolished) rice did not. Gerrit Grijns succeeded Eijkman in the beriberi studies in Java and concluded correctly that there were unknown substances in foods that were needed for the peripheral nervous system. In 1926, Barend Jansen and Willem Donath isolated and crystallized a substance that cured polyneuritis in pigeons. Robert Williams synthesized thiamin in 1936. PMID:23183292

  20. Vitamin B1

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    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  1. Vitamin D and its use in veterinary and animal husbandry

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    Alla Savinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the effect of vitamin D on the body of agricultural animals. Analyzed the clinical, pathologic changes, methods of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hypo- and hyper beriberi.

  2. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

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    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  3. A Review of the Biochemistry, Metabolism and Clinical Benefits of Thiamin(e and Its Derivatives

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    Derrick Lonsdale

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thiamin(e, also known as vitamin B1, is now known to play a fundamental role in energy metabolism. Its discovery followed from the original early research on the ‘anti-beriberi factor’ found in rice polishings. After its synthesis in 1936, it led to many years of research to find its action in treating beriberi, a lethal scourge known for thousands of years, particularly in cultures dependent on rice as a staple. This paper refers to the previously described symptomatology of beriberi, emphasizing that it differs from that in pure, experimentally induced thiamine deficiency in human subjects. Emphasis is placed on some of the more unusual manifestations of thiamine deficiency and its potential role in modern nutrition. Its biochemistry and pathophysiology are discussed and some of the less common conditions associated with thiamine deficiency are reviewed. An understanding of the role of thiamine in modern nutrition is crucial in the rapidly advancing knowledge applicable to Complementary Alternative Medicine. References are given that provide insight into the use of this vitamin in clinical conditions that are not usually associated with nutritional deficiency. The role of allithiamine and its synthetic derivatives is discussed. Thiamine plays a vital role in metabolism of glucose. Thus, emphasis is placed on the fact that ingestion of excessive simple carbohydrates automatically increases the need for this vitamin. This is referred to as high calorie malnutrition.

  4. The Clinical Cases of Moxibustion Therapy%艾灸疗法验案举偶

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    陈慧

    2013-01-01

    Moxibustion set lement, the float is Yang; can go three yin and permeability of the classics; can dampness and cold, from the il s and in addition to chronic il ness. Moxibustion treat corns, beriberi, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual pain, curative ef ect is bet er.%艾灸可以沉降而纳诸浮越之阳;可以走三阴而透诸经;可以祛湿散寒,起沉疴而除痼疾。用艾灸治疗鸡眼、脚气、痛经、经前腰痛,疗效较佳。

  5. Clinically unapparent infantile thiamin deficiency in Vientiane, Laos.

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    Sengmanivong Khounnorath

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beriberi occurs in Vientiane, Lao PDR, among breastfed infants. Clinical disease may be the tip of an iceberg with subclinical thiamin deficiency contributing to other illnesses. Thiamin treatment could improve outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 778 sick infants admitted during one year without clinical evidence of beriberi were studied prospectively and erythrocyte transketolase assays (ETK performed. Biochemical thiamin deficiency was defined both in terms of the activation coefficient (α>31% and basal ETK activity 31% and 13.4 % basal ETK<0.59 micromoles/min/gHb. Infants≥2 months old had a higher frequency of biochemical markers of thiamin deficiency. Mortality was 5.5% but, among infants ≥2 months old, mortality was higher in those with basal ETK<0.59 micromoles/min/gHb (3/47, 6.4% than in those with basal ETK≥0.59 micromoles/min/gHb (1/146, 0.7% (P=0.045, relative risk=9.32 (95%CI 0.99 to 87.5. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that infant age≥2 months and fewer maternal years of schooling were independently associated with infant basal ETK<0.59 micromoles/min/gHb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinically unapparent thiamin deficiency is common among sick infants (≥2 months old admitted to hospital in Vientiane. This may contribute to mortality and a low clinical threshold for providing thiamin to sick infants may be needed.

  6. The Emerging Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation of Metabolic Cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, S; Markousis-Mavrogenis, G; Markussis, V; Kolovou, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and follow-up of metabolic cardiomyopathies. The classification of myocardial diseases, proposed by WHO/ISFC task force, distinguished specific cardiomyopathies, caused by metabolic disorders, into 4 types: 1) endocrine disorders, 2) storage or infiltration disorders (amyloidosis, hemochromatosis and familial storage disorders), 3) nutritional disorders (Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, and alcohol), and 4) diabetic heart. Thyroid disease, pheochromocytoma, and growth hormone excess or deficiency may contribute to usually reversible dilated cardiomyopathy. Glucogen storage diseases can be presented with myopathy, liver, and heart failure. Lysosomal storage diseases can provoke cardiac hypertrophy, mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. Hereditary hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder of iron metabolism, leads to tissue iron overload in different organs, including the heart. Cardiac amyloidosis is the result of amyloid deposition in the heart, formed from breakdown of normal or abnormal proteins that leads to increased heart stiffness, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Finally, nutritional disturbances and metabolic diseases, such as Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, alcohol consumption, and diabetes mellitus may also lead to severe cardiac dysfunction. CMR, through its capability to reliably assess anatomy, function, inflammation, rest-stress myocardial perfusion, myocardial fibrosis, aortic distensibility, iron and/or fat deposition can serve as an excellent tool for early diagnosis of heart involvement, risk stratification, treatment evaluation, and long term follow-up of patients with metabolic cardiomyopathies. PMID:26197853

  7. Chapter 30: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: the water-soluble B vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    This historical review addresses major neurological disorders associated with deficiencies of water-soluble B vitamins: beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, pellagra, neural tube defects, and subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Beriberi: Beriberi was known for millennia in Asia, but was not described by a European until the 17th century when Brontius in the Dutch East Indies reported the progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The prevalence of beriberi increased greatly in Asia with a change in the milling process for rice in the late 19th century. In the 1880s, Takaki demonstrated the benefits of dietary modification in sailors, and later instituted dietary reforms in the Japanese Navy, which largely eradicated beriberi from the Japanese Navy by 1887. In 1889 Eijkman in Java serendipitously identified dietary factors as a major contributor to "chicken polyneuritis," which he took to be an animal model for beriberi; the polyneuritis could be cured or prevented by feeding the chickens either unpolished rice or rice polishings. By 1901, Grijns, while continuing studies of beriberi in Java, suggested a dietary deficiency explanation for beriberi after systematically eliminating deficiencies of known dietary components and excluding a toxic effect. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: In the late 1870s, Wernicke identified a clinicopathological condition with ophthalmoparesis, nystagmus, ataxia, and encephalopathy, associated with punctate hemorrhages symmetrically arranged in the grey matter around the third and fourth ventricles and the aqueduct of Sylvius. In the late 1880s, Korsakoff described a spectrum of cognitive disorders, including a confabulatory amnestic state following an agitated delirium, occurring in conjunction with peripheral polyneuropathy. Beginning around 1900, investigators recognized the close relationship between Korsakoff's psychosis, delirium tremens, and Wernicke's encephalopathy, but not until several decades later were Wernicke

  8. [Clinical appearance and scalable profile Thiamine deficiency in prison in Guinea: study of thirty-eight observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, F A; Konaté, M M; Ekué, W A; Cissé, M; Camara, N; Djigué, B S; Baldé, A O M; Camara, I A; Diallo, F L Y; Diallo, B S; Konaté, F; Barry, L F; Diakhaté, I; Cissé, A

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular and neurological manifestations associated with thiamine deficiency in Guinean prisons are common but not reported.We performed a prospective study of 38 cases related to vitamin B1 deficiency over a period of 4 years. In this population, the literature of traditional data gathered: frequency peak after thirty (92.6%) and clear representation male (sex ratio M/F: 18/1). The clinical symptomatology remains essentially dominated by sensorimotor polyneuropathy and pure sensory (52.2%), overall heart failure (31.5%) and to a lesser degree by Gayet Wernicke's encephalopathy (7.8%) and shoshin beriberi with severe evolution (5.2%). The study of nutritional status by body mass index (BMI) of the World Health Organization, by the criteria of Detsky and biological markers including albumin, shows that these patients are severely malnourished. PMID:27100861

  9. Christiaan Eijkman. First bacteriologist at Utrecht University, Nobel laureate for his work on vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, J; Snippe, H; Nottet, H S

    1999-04-01

    One century ago, Christiaan Eijkman was appointed Professor of Bacteriology at the Utrecht University, The Netherlands. Despite his appointment to teach bacteriology, Christiaan Eijkman made his main contribution to medical science not in bacteriology but in nutrition. He discovered that Beri-Beri was not an infection but a nutritient deficiency (later called vitamin-deficiency) and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1929 for these observations. These landmark studies were made in the former Dutch East Indies. Interestingly, the results of his studies were presented in the Dutch language, in the medical journal of the Dutch East Indies. As a professor of Bacteriology, his work was the beginning of an important school in biochemistry in The Netherlands. PMID:10427404

  10. 《关于国外渗透性脱髓鞘综合征部分文献之重新分析:反思》英文摘要与说明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海鹏; 王荣明; 杨子军; 闫四梅; 陈萌; 崔松; 张力; 杜长生; 陈宗羡; 曾伏虎; 翟所鑫; 李玉清; 刘庆梅; 朱玉忠

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the main etiological factors of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) and of the “osmotic demyelination syndrome(ODS)”that occurs after hepatic transplantation, to explore the differential diagnosing the manifestation consisting of dysarthria, dysphagia and quadriplegia presented after vomiting for a number of times, and to explore which fraction to be mainly involved by the “ODS”, what to be the pathological mechanism of the “ODS”, and how to prevent the “ODS”.Methods: Physiopathological principles are applied on the base of the clinical certificates, the diagnostic results differring from those in the case reports (that have been analyzed again by us).Results and Conclusions: It could be suggested that (1) CPM based mainly on alcoholism should result mainly from beriberi, as was mentioned by HUANG Ke-wei, the well-known Chinese neurologist, before or in 1960; (2) The coma secondary to hepatic transplantation could be often caused by Wernicke encephalopathy(WE, one of beriberi), which could be asscociated with the postoperative elevated corticosteroid or/and high-starch food for liver cirrhosis, which complicated by hepatic encephalopathy; (3)The case that was in 1995 reported by Kabeer et al, of possiblity of the earliest reported CPM due to cyclosporine, appeared to be the bilateral type of pontine lower paracentral hematal syndrome, a bilateral uncomplete Foville syndrome. It should be considerable whether an epileptic attack related to both cyclosporine and corticosteroid could result from reverible posterior leukoencephalopath syndrome with negative MRI owing to the effect of corticosteroid; (4) It is cerebral cortex that could be mainly involved by the “ODS” following a number of times of vomiting, of which one of evidences has been the 2 cases reported by Tomlinson et al in 1976.The kind of “ODS” following the encephalopathy of alkalosis yet without hypoxemic hypoxia, is possibly preventable not only if the

  11. A kinetic model of thiamine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matos, Marta; Herrgard, Markus; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam;

    2014-01-01

    Thiamine can only be synthesized by prokaryotes and some eukaryotes, humans for example get it through their diet. Yet, it is key for the correct functioning of the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and thiamine deficiency in humans can cause beriberi, which can result in muscle weakness...... or cardiovascular problems, among other symptoms. Nowadays it is common to add thiamine to commercial foods. Thus, it is important to produce it in a sustainable and efficient way. One approach to produce thiamine in a sustainable way is to use cell factories, and modeling of the metabolic network can be used...... to develop strategies for improved process efficiency. Constraint-based modeling methods have been successfully used to increase cell factory productivity. However, these approaches assume that the system is in a steady state, i.e., metabolite concentrations and reaction fluxes are constant along time...

  12. Dysautonomia, a Heuristic Approach to a Revised Model for Etiology of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Lonsdale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysautonomia refers to a disease where the autonomic nervous system is dysfunctional. This may be a central control mechanism, as in genetically determined familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day Syndrome, or peripherally in the distribution of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. There are multiple reports of a number of different diseases associated with dysautonomia. The etiology of this association has never been explained. There are also multiple publications on dysautonomia associated with specific non-caloric nutritional deficiencies. Beriberi is the prototype of autonomic dysfunction. It is the best known nutritional deficiency disease caused by an imbalance between ingested calories and the vitamins required for their oxidation, particularly thiamin. Long thought to be abolished in modern medical thinking, there are occasional isolated reports of the full-blown disease in developed Western cultures.

  13. [THIAMINE--"THE ROAD EXPERIENCE" OF THE VITAMIN AS A MANIFESTATION OF DEFICIENCY IN A WORLD OF ABUNDANCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Einat; Markel, Arie

    2015-10-01

    Thiamine or vitamin B1 is a water soluble vitamin of the vitamin B complex. It is synthetized by bacteria, fungi and plants and is an essential component of multicellular living organisms. Humans are not able to synthetize this vitamin and have to obtain it from different foods. Thiamin has a vital role in the normal function of the human body. It functions as a coenzyme in the catabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids and has an antioxidant role. It has an essential function in a series of metabolic processes related to energy production and conversion of sugar to ATP, as a catalyst in the Krebs cycle. It takes part in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and has a main role in the central nervous system and immune system. Deficiency results in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, optic neuropathy, Beri-Beri and other disorders. Vitamin B deficiency in not rare and may occur in conditions related to malnutrition, alcoholism, diabetes, congestive heart failure and others. In this review an effort has been made to demonstrate the presence of thiamine deficiency in various clinical situations frequent in modern medicine, attributed in the past to populations with "classical" inadequate feeding and starvation, or severe malnutrition. Identification of potential causes of vitamin B1 deficiency, knowledge of its metabolic properties and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are important for the implementation of early therapeutic response required for the reduction and prevention of symptoms related to this disorder. PMID:26742231

  14. Socio-economic development and mortality patterns and trends in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan Poo Chang; Kwok Kwan Kit; Tan Boon Ann; Shyamala Nagaraj; Tey Nai Peng; Siti Norazah Zulkifli

    1987-03-01

    Morality in Peninsular Malaysia has reached a level that is quite similar to that prevailing in the low mortality countries. This article systematically documents changes in mortality levels and differentials in Malaysia over time and relates these to changes in development indicators and health-related policies. Remedial measures undertaken by the authorities including the expansion of hospital and health services into the estates, together with a comprehensive malaria-eradication program, improvements in sanitation laws, and increased provision of public utilities and education, resulted in beriberi being eliminated and the incidence of malaria, typhus, and smallpox being greatly reduced by the time of World War II. The gain in life expectancy over the period of 1957-1979 was greatest for the Malay, the most significant period being 1957-1967, which saw the introduction of rural health programs. The infant mortality rate and the neonatal and post-neonatal rates declined substantially for all ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia for the same time period. Although the lower infant mortality of the Chinese can be explained by their advantageous socioeconomic position the same reason cannot explain the lower decline in infant mortality levels of the Indians. Much still needs to be done to narrow, if not to eliminate, the existing mortality differentials of different groups in the country. Overall, the quality of life of the general population can be further enhanced by reducing the high mortality level of disadvantaged groups. PMID:12341034

  15. Thiamine Deficiency in Tropical Pediatrics: New Insights into a Neglected but Vital Metabolic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiffler, Laurent; Rakotoambinina, Benjamin; Lafferty, Nadia; Martinez Garcia, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In humans, thiamine is a micronutrient prone to depletion that may result in severe clinical abnormalities. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on thiamine deficiency (TD) and bridges the gap between pathophysiology and clinical presentation by integrating thiamine metabolism at subcellular level with its function to vital organs. The broad clinical spectrum of TD is outlined, with emphasis on conditions encountered in tropical pediatric practice. In particular, TD is associated with type B lactic acidosis and classic forms of beriberi in children, but it is often unrecognized. Other severe acute conditions are associated with hypermetabolism, inducing a functional TD. The crucial role of thiamine in infant cognitive development is also highlighted in this review, along with analysis of the potential impact of TD in refeeding syndrome during severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This review aims to increase clinical awareness of TD in tropical settings where access to diagnostic tests is poor, and advocates for an early therapeutic thiamine challenge in resource-limited settings. Moreover, it provides evidence for thiamine as treatment in critical conditions requiring metabolic resuscitation, and gives rationale to the consideration of increased thiamine supplementation in therapeutic foods for malnourished children. PMID:27379239

  16. Thiamine Deficiency in Tropical Pediatrics: New Insights into a Neglected but Vital Metabolic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiffler, Laurent; Rakotoambinina, Benjamin; Lafferty, Nadia; Martinez Garcia, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In humans, thiamine is a micronutrient prone to depletion that may result in severe clinical abnormalities. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on thiamine deficiency (TD) and bridges the gap between pathophysiology and clinical presentation by integrating thiamine metabolism at subcellular level with its function to vital organs. The broad clinical spectrum of TD is outlined, with emphasis on conditions encountered in tropical pediatric practice. In particular, TD is associated with type B lactic acidosis and classic forms of beriberi in children, but it is often unrecognized. Other severe acute conditions are associated with hypermetabolism, inducing a functional TD. The crucial role of thiamine in infant cognitive development is also highlighted in this review, along with analysis of the potential impact of TD in refeeding syndrome during severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This review aims to increase clinical awareness of TD in tropical settings where access to diagnostic tests is poor, and advocates for an early therapeutic thiamine challenge in resource-limited settings. Moreover, it provides evidence for thiamine as treatment in critical conditions requiring metabolic resuscitation, and gives rationale to the consideration of increased thiamine supplementation in therapeutic foods for malnourished children.

  17. Thiamine Deficiency in Tropical Pediatrics: New Insights into a Neglected but Vital Metabolic Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiffler, Laurent; Rakotoambinina, Benjamin; Lafferty, Nadia; Martinez Garcia, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In humans, thiamine is a micronutrient prone to depletion that may result in severe clinical abnormalities. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on thiamine deficiency (TD) and bridges the gap between pathophysiology and clinical presentation by integrating thiamine metabolism at subcellular level with its function to vital organs. The broad clinical spectrum of TD is outlined, with emphasis on conditions encountered in tropical pediatric practice. In particular, TD is associated with type B lactic acidosis and classic forms of beriberi in children, but it is often unrecognized. Other severe acute conditions are associated with hypermetabolism, inducing a functional TD. The crucial role of thiamine in infant cognitive development is also highlighted in this review, along with analysis of the potential impact of TD in refeeding syndrome during severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This review aims to increase clinical awareness of TD in tropical settings where access to diagnostic tests is poor, and advocates for an early therapeutic thiamine challenge in resource-limited settings. Moreover, it provides evidence for thiamine as treatment in critical conditions requiring metabolic resuscitation, and gives rationale to the consideration of increased thiamine supplementation in therapeutic foods for malnourished children. PMID:27379239

  18. THIAMINE–RESPONSIVE MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA, SENSORINEURAL DEAFNESS AND DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kadivar R. Moradian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- The syndrome of diabetes mellitus, sensorineural deafness and megaloblastic anemia dose not result from thiamine deficiency. The previous reported patients had no sign of beriberi, had normal nutrition, and had no evidence of malabsorption. The features of this syndrome with apparent inheritance of autosomal recessive trait may define this puzzling syndrome as a true thiamine dependency state. The first Iranian patient was described by Vossough et al. in 1995. We found nine new cases with diagnostic criteria of thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia during eight years of our study. In two patients, presentation of diabetes and anemia was concomitant. All of them were deaf with sensorineural hearing loss which was detected in infancy up to two years of age. The presence of congenital valvular heart disease was eliminated by normal echocardiography, but cardiomyopathy was discovered in two. Nonspecific amino-aciduria was discovered in three but urinary screening tests for hereditary orotic aciduria were negative. Ox-Phos biochemistry of muscle mitochondria which demonstrates severe defect in complexes I, III, IV in diabetes mellitus associated with deafness, were done but was unremarkable in our patients. Urinary methylmalonic acid and methyl malonyl carnitine by GS/MS and TMS was done in our patients and showed abnormal results in six patients. Thiamine gene, SLC 19A2, was detected in four patients.

  19. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy : The result of dosage and individual predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, B

    2016-09-01

    The individual amount of alcohol consumed acutely or chronically decides on harm or benefit to a person's health. Available data suggest that one to two drinks in men and one drink in women will benefit the cardiovascular system over time, one drink being 17.6 ml 100 % alcohol. Moderate drinking can reduce the incidence and mortality of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. More than this amount can lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which is defined as alcohol toxicity to the heart muscle itself by ethanol and its metabolites. Historical examples of interest are the Munich beer heart and the Tübingen wine heart. Associated with chronic alcohol abuse but having different etiologies are beriberi heart disease (vitamin B1 deficiency) and cardiac cirrhosis as hyperdynamic cardiomyopathies, arsenic poising in the Manchester beer epidemic, and cobalt intoxication in Quebec beer drinker's disease. Chronic heavy alcohol abuse will also increase blood pressure and cause a downregulation of the immune system that could lead to increased susceptibility to infections, which in turn could add to the development of heart failure. Myocardial tissue analysis resembles idiopathic cardiomyopathy or chronic myocarditis. In the diagnostic work-up of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, the confirmation of alcohol abuse by carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) and increased liver enzymes, and the involvement of the heart by markers of heart failure (e.g., NT-proBNP) and of necrosis (e.g., troponins or CKMb) is mandatory. Treatment of alcoholic cardiomyopathy consists of alcohol abstinence and heart failure medication. PMID:27582365

  20. Characteristic Analysis of the Elsholtzia's Chemistry and Pharmacology in Clinical Application%香薷的化学、药理与临床应用特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 苗明三

    2015-01-01

    香薷含有挥发油类、黄酮类、香豆素类等多种活性成分,具有抗病原微生物、消炎、解热、镇痛、解痉、增强免疫等药理作用,临床上常用于发汗解暑,行水散湿,温胃调中,夏月感寒饮冷,头痛发热,恶寒无汗,胸痞腹痛,呕吐腹泻,水肿,脚气等。香薷作为药食同源的植物具有广泛的应用性和广阔的应用前景,积极研究香薷的药用价值具有重要意义。%Elsholtzia includes many active ingredients,such as essential oil,flavonoid,coumarins,and so on. The pharmacologic action of elsholtzia is resistant microorganisms,anti-inflammatory,antipyretic and analgesic,spasmolysis,enhance immunity. In clinic,the elsholt-zia was used for diaphoresis relieving summer-heat,flowing water and dispersing damp,warm the stomach,in summer have a cold,have a headache and fever,aversion to cold and adiapneustia,feeling of stuffiness in chest and abdominal pain,vomit and diarrhea,edema, beriberi. Elsholtzia has extensive applicability and wide application prospect as a plant of homology of medicine and food. It has signifi-cant for study the medicinal value of elsholtzia.

  1. Enhancement of Thiamin Content in Arabidopsis thaliana by Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Stockwell, Virginia O; Goyer, Aymeric

    2015-12-01

    Thiamin is an essential nutrient in the human diet. Severe thiamin deficiency leads to beriberi, a lethal disease which is common in developing countries. Thiamin biofortification of staple food crops is a possible strategy to alleviate thiamin deficiency-related diseases. In plants, thiamin plays a role in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses, and data from the literature suggest that boosting thiamin content could increase resistance to stresses. Here, we tested an engineering strategy to increase thiamin content in Arabidopsis. Thiamin is composed of a thiazole ring linked to a pyrimidine ring by a methylene bridge. THI1 and THIC are the first committed steps in the synthesis of the thiazole and pyrimidine moieties, respectively. Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a vector containing the THI1-coding sequence under the control of a constitutive promoter. Total thiamin leaf content in THI1 plants was up approximately 2-fold compared with the wild type. THI1-overexpressing lines were then crossed with pre-existing THIC-overexpressing lines. Resulting THI1 × THIC plants accumulated up to 3.4- and 2.6-fold more total thiamin than wild-type plants in leaf and seeds, respectively. After inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae, THI1 × THIC plants had lower populations than the wild-type control. However, THI1 × THIC plants subjected to various abiotic stresses did not show any visible or biochemical changes compared with the wild type. We discuss the impact of engineering thiamin biosynthesis on the nutritional value of plants and their resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  2. [Sun Simiao's voyage to Chu and Shu regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenmin

    2014-07-01

    During the 4(th)-11(th) years of Zhenguan reign of the Tang Dynasty, Sun Simiao paid a voyage to the regions of Chu (now mostly the Hubei Province) and Shu (now Sichuan Province) for a total of 14 years. In the 4(th) year of Zhenguan, he went to treat the "hydropsy" of Li Gui, the King of Hanyang, hence, the record given as the 9(th) year of Zhenguan by Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions for Emergency Worth a Thousand Gold) is not correct. Later, he went to Jiangzhou (now Jiujiang city of Jiangxi Province) to treat Chen Shuping's, the King of Chenxiangdong beriberi due to wind-poisoning. In the 15(th) of July, the 5(th) year of Zhenguan, he himself suffered a swelling pain in his finger when travelling in Shu region, due to a poisonous sting, which was cured by rubbing with the juice from the root and stem of dendelion. In the 7(th) year of Zhenguan, he suffered a facial erysipelas due to over drinking when he was in Neijiang County which was treated by the mayor, Master Li, with various medications to no avail, which was eventually cured by himself. In the 10(th) year of Zhenguan, he treated the Governor of Zizhou Li Wenbo's consuming thirst. He also got a large amount of copper salts in the Counties of Xuanwu and Feiwu nearby. In the 17(th) year of Zhenguan or later, he processed the "Tai yi spiritual powder" in Wei's family of Shu County. After finishing the processing, he returned to Guanzhong (now Shaanxi) at certain period of "August of 17(th) year of Zhenguan", "January of 18(th) year of Zhenguan", or "January of 19(th) year of Zhenguan". PMID:25429884

  3. The discovery of niacin, biotin, and pantothenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to describe the discovery of niacin, biotin, and pantothenic acid. By the 1920s, it became apparent that 'water-soluble B' (vitamin B) is not a single substance. In particular, fresh yeast could prevent both beriberi and pellagra, but the 'antipolyneuritis factor' in yeast is thermolabile, while the antipellagra factor is heat stable, suggesting that there are at least two water-soluble vitamins. Various terms were proposed for these water-soluble factors, but vitamins B(1) and B(2) were most widely used to refer to the thermolabile and heat-stable factors, respectively. Although vitamin B(1) proved to be a single chemical substance (thiamin), vitamin B(2) was ultimately found to be a complex of several chemically unrelated heat-stable factors, including niacin, biotin, and pantothenic acid. Recognition that niacin is a vitamin in the early 20th century resulted from efforts to understand and treat a widespread human disease - pellagra. American epidemiologist and US Public Health Service officer Joseph Goldberger (1874-1929) had been instrumental to elucidating the nutritional basis for pellagra. Goldberger conducted a classic series of observational and experimental studies in humans, combined with an extensive series of experiments with an animal model of the condition (black tongue in dogs). In contrast, recognition that biotin and pantothenic acid are vitamins occurred somewhat later as a result of efforts to understand microbial growth factors. The metabolic roles in humans of these latter substances were ultimately elucidated by human experiments using particular toxins and by studies of rare inborn errors of metabolism. Symptomatic nutritional deficiencies of biotin and pantothenic acid were, and continue to be, rare.

  4. A simple turn on fluorescent sensor for the selective detection of thiamine using coconut water derived luminescent carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2016-05-15

    In this study microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to prepare highly luminescent carbon dots (1-6 nm size) within a minute from tender coconut (Cocos nucifera) water. The synthesized carbon dots (C-dots) exhibit emission of blue and green lights while excited at 390 and 450 nm wavelengths, respectively. As an application, these C-dots were tested for a simple "turn on" fluorescent sensor for rapid detection of thiamine (vitamin B1). The detection of thiamine in human body is very important to prevent various diseases such as beriberi, neurological disorders, optic neuropathy, etc. The fluorescence emission intensity of C-dots quenches after addition of Cu(2+) ion and then again increases selectively (turn on) after the addition of thiamine. The fluorescence emission intensity enhancement of Cu(2+) ion modified C-dots in the presence of thiamine exhibits a linear relationship within the thiamine concentration range of 10-50 μM. The limit of detection was found to be 280 nM from this study. The selectivity of the detection was also tested in the presence of different organic molecules and inorganic ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NO3(-)) which are present in blood serum and urine and found to be almost no interference in the detection. Finally, to see the applicability in real samples a commercial vitamin capsule was tested and found less than 3% error in the detected concentration. The C-dots were also used for bioimaging of fungus and the results show they are also suitable for this application too. PMID:26745793

  5. 丰宁县城洗浴场所公共用品卫生状况调查%Survey on statue of public supplies hygiene in bath place of Fengning County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚振江

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the Fengning County bath places of sanitation of public articles and provide a basis on the theroy for the main work of the supervision. According to (Public health surveillance specification and test methods manual) , data were analyzed. The results showed that the qualified rate of public supplies health indicators in bath places was very low. Fully qualified bathrooms accounted for 18. 8%. We can make a conclusion that there was the existence of infectious disease seriously . The public goods, for exampie, nearly half of the slippers were unqualified and it is easy to spread the beriberi. So we should increase the supervision dynamics. Aims; To understand the Fengning County bath place of sanitation of public articles, better prevention of infectious disease is put.%为了解丰宁县洗浴场所公共用品卫生状况,为卫生监督重点工作提供理论依据.依照《公共场所卫生监测规范与检验方法手册》微生物部分.洗浴场所公共用品卫生指标合格率非常低,完全合格的浴室占18.8%.丰宁县洗浴场所存在传染病安全隐患,特别是拖鞋近一半不合格,极易造成脚气病的传播,应加大监管力度.

  6. Efficacy of adding folic acid to foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Violeta; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-06-01

    In the past, food fortification along with nutritional education and the decrease in food costs relative to income have proven successful in eliminating common nutritional deficiencies. These deficiencies such as goiter, rickets, beriberi, and pellagra have been replaced with an entirely new set of "emergent deficiencies" that were not previously considered a problem [e.g., folate and neural tube defects (NTDs)]. In addition, the different nutrition surveys in so-called affluent countries have identified "shortfalls" of nutrients specific to various age groups and/or physiological status. Complex, multiple-etiology diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and obesity have emerged. Food fortification has proven an effective tool for tackling nutritional deficiencies in populations; but today a more reasonable approach is to use food fortification as a means to support but not replace dietary improvement strategies (i. e. nutritional education campaigns). Folic acid (FA) is a potential relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies. The evidence linking FA to NTD prevention led to the introduction of public health strategies to increase folate intakes: pharmacological supplementation, mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with FA, and the advice to increase the intake of folate-rich foods. It is quite contradictory to observe that, regardless of these findings, there is only limited information on food folate and FA content. Data in Food Composition Tables and Databases are scarce or incomplete. Fortification of staple foods with FA has added difficulty to this task. Globally, the decision to fortify products is left up to individual food manufacturers. Voluntary fortification is a common practice in many countries. Therefore, the "worldwide map of vitamin fortification" may be analyzed. It is important to examine if fortification today really answers to vitamin requirements at different ages and/or physiological states. The

  7. 以需求为导向的大众营养健康教育实施效果评价%Effect evaluation on nutritional health education based on public need

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘紫萍; 杜云; 蔡凤英

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价以大众营养健康教育需求为导向开展的营养健康教育效果,为有效开展大众营养健康教育进行有益探索.方法 以分层随机抽样方法抽取不同层次的调查对象,了解大众营养知识需求,并根据调查结果设计健康教育内容及教育效果干预前后评价问卷,进行健康教育干预.结果 健康教育干预后吃鱼有益健康、鸡蛋含胆固醇高、可补铁食物、可补钙食物、吃粗粮与脚气病的关系、可补锌食物6个知识点差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).营养对健康的重要性、希望得到营养师指导2个态度干预前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).搭配营养、调整晚餐2个行为干预前后差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为77.93和10.97,P<0.01).自愿参与率达到96.0%,满意率达到99.6%.结论 开展以需求为导向的营养健康教育效果显著,值得推广.%Objective To evaluate the effectivess of nutrition health education based on public need assessment, and explore the effective strategy for public nutritional health education. Methods By stratified random sampling method, participants were enrolled to investigate the general demand on nutrition knowledge. According to the baseline survey results, health education information and evaluation questionnaire were designed and health education intervention activities were carried out. Results After health education intervention, the awareness rates of "fish healthy, eggs containning high cholesterol and beriberi" and "don't eat coarse grains" , common iron, calcium, zinc had statistically significance ( P < 0. 01). Four nutrition attitudes were changed, and changes of attitudes to importance of nutrition, guidance from nutrition specialist ( P < 0. 01) had significant difference. Two nutrition behaviors were adjusted, behavior of diet nutrition (χ2 = 77. 93 , P < 0. 01) and adjusting dinner ( χ2 = 10. 97, P < 0. 01 ) have statistical significance. After intervention

  8. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    beriberi (Katuke), were searched for in medical and agricultural laboratories. Dr. Suzuki discovered olizanine from rice bran, which was effective for deficiency of vitamin B1 disease. However, pharmaceutical scientists did not participate in this research. Hygienic and forensic chemistry were included in pharmaceutical departments. 8. Pharmaceutical scientific studies in Europe and Japan in the first half of the 20th century. The discovery of a drug for the treatment of syphilis by Ehrlich-Hata (1889), then chemotherapeutics were started. Adrenalin, the first isolated hormone, by Takamine (1900), after this time many hormones were discovered. The first Japanese pharmacists who studied abroad studied in Germany and came back to Japan. Then, they built the pharmaceutical sciences. Studies on natural products by chemistry and organic chemistry were started. 9. Pharmaceutical scientific and technology during 15 Years of War (1931-45). Since 1930, theoretical organic chemistry was developed in England and America. The discovery of chemotherapeutics and antibiotics (sulfonamides and penicillin) and studies on some vitamins and hormones proceeded during the 15 years of war (1931-45) at Tokyo and Kyoto Universities, and some institutes in China and Manchuria. Studies on anti-maralia, sulfonamides and penicillins were carried out. PMID:11613518

  9. Polineuropatia nutricional entre índios Xavantes Polyneuropathy deficiency among Xavante indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.B. Vieira Filho

    1997-03-01

    polineuropatia dos Xavantes é diferente da neuropatia verificada entre os índios Kreen-Akrore e a observada entre os adolescentes índios do Parque do Xingu.The authors present two cases of polyneuropathy deficiency among Xavante indians where the sole food was rice in case 1 and almost so in case 2. The rice consumed by these indians was processed or hulled. Intoxication by cyanide from maniot or other vegetables was excluded. CASE REPORT - Two indians aged 18 and 25 years with a progressive history of weaness, decrease in muscular force and thinning were observed in their villages. On removal to the Hospital São Paulo, atrophy of the distal musculature of the upper and lower limbs, motor deficit distally with zero degree in the flexor musculature, abolished deep reflexes, plantar cutaneous reflex without response bilaterally, decreased tactile, painful and pallesthetic sensitivity distally in the lower limbs were noted on neurological examination of case 1. On neurological examination of case 2 proximal hyporeflexia in the upper limbs, areflexia in the distal portions of the upper and lower limbs, tactile and painful hypoesthesia in the feet, right hypoacousis were noted. Electromyography showed abnormalities compatible with symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy with an axonal demyelination pattern in case 1 and predominantly demyelinizing in case 2. Cerebrospinal fluid tests were normal. DISCUSSION - Polyneuropathy was characterized by the clinical history and by neurological, electromyographic and cerebrospinal fluid tests. The diagnosis of polyneuropathy deficiency was established by the clinical history and by electromyography suggesting peripheral polyneuropathy of nutritional origin. This neuropathy deficiency does not fit myeloneuropathies such as ataxic tropical neuropathy, spastic paraparesis and Cuba neuropathy. CONCLUSION - The Xavante polyneuropathy deficiency is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency, that is dry beriberi, owing to consumption of

  10. 碳纳米颗粒修饰丝网印刷电极测定百合镉含量%Detection of cadmium content of lily by carbon nanoparticles modified screen-printed electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琦琦; 俞永华; 吴坚

    2015-01-01

    People are more and more interested in health foods with the improvement of living standard. Edible lily tastes sweet with a little bitter and can be used to treat cough, phthisis, beriberi, and so on. There are almost 10 species of edible lily in China. The production of lily is in rapid expansion. However, the sample of lily is usually found to have cadmium (Cd) above the national standard. Cd is one of the toxic heavy metals. It will cause damage of lung and kidney. There are a lot of methods to detect the cd in foods, such as graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, atomic fluorescence spectrometry, and spectrophotometry. Although these methods have high precision, they need large-scale equipment, high cost, and professional staff, and even some use toxic reagents. Scientists developed several rapid determination methods, one of which was electrochemical detection. In this paper, we designed a novel electrode, which combined screen printing technique with carbon nanodots to detect cd in lily. Carbon nanodots were prepared with candle soot which was low-cost and easily obtained. The carbon nanodots of 1.5μL dissolving in dimethyl formamide were added twice onto the working electrode of screen-printed electrode which was fabricated in our laboratory. Using scanning electron microscope to compare the surface texture of modified screen-printed electrode with original one, we found that the former had more uniform particles. We also compared the electrochemical performance by cyclic voltammetry. The result showed that the modified screen-printed electrode had larger peak current and smaller peak separation which meant superior electrochemical performance. Furthermore, we tested an HAc-NaAc buffer solution with 75μg/L Cd2+ using 2 different electrodes noted above by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The peak potential of original screen-printed electrode was?0.65 V, while modified one was?0.64 V. The anodic stripping voltammogarm showed that the

  11. Evaristo García Piedrahita: el salubrista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rico

    2006-03-01

    edades tempranas antes de cumplir los cinco años de donde resulta una gran cantidad de descendientes directos entre los cuales existen aún algunos nietos, una gran cantidad de bisnietos y algunos tataranietos. En su práctica médica realizó investigaciones sobre las principales enfermedades que afectaban a la población urbana y campesina, principalmente enfermedades infectocontagiosas, las diarreas, la lepra, el paludismo, el dengue, la fiebre tifoidea, el sarampión, la gripe o influenza y otras enfermedades respiratorias, el cólera, el herpes y la elefantiasis árabe y la malnutrición. Hizo una brillante investigación epidemiológica sobre la presencia de beriberi en la región de Buenaventura (1887 y determinó la naturaleza biológica y social de la enfermedad, sus causas y síntomas, diagnóstico y tratamiento, no sólo por el interés científico sino con la intención de prevenir a las autoridades sanitarias en Buenaventura para «revisar los sacos de arroz y rechazar para el uso los que presenten esos granos opacos, que se desmoronan a la presión entre los dedos, y que tengan señales de un principio de avería». El arroz alterado que provenía del exterior contenía el “bacillus beriberico” que era la causa de esa dolencia parasitaria. En el estudio sobre la «Elefantiasis de los Árabes» (1894 deja ver claramente su inclinación por la salud pública al deducir la «importancia de los progresos de la higiene pública, el uso de las aguas depuradas, de las mejoras en las casas de habitación, en los campos y en otras condiciones de la vida social, para poder disminuir las causas de la Elefantiasis en los climas calientes». En relación con los ofidios venenosos del Cauca y los gusanos urticantes desarrolló una casuística documentada y aplicó rigurosamente el método científico. No es por curiosidad o por capricho exótico de un naturalista que realiza uno de los estudios más interesantes que se han hecho sobre estos animales. Los accidentes