WorldWideScience

Sample records for bereavement

  1. School Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Elaine

    2000-01-01

    At a New York City school, a parent's death is a community tragedy. Caring for a bereaved student requires a generous investment of time and heart: participation in bereavement rituals; acceptance of wide-ranging emotions; increased individual attention; reliable, consistent routines; physical warmth and comforting; and gentle, honest dialogue.…

  2. Health outcomes of bereavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    In this Review, we look at the relation between bereavement and physical and mental health. Although grief is not a disease and most people adjust without professional psychological intervention, bereavement is associated with excess risk of mortality, particularly in the early weeks and months afte

  3. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN...... Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2...... years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents...

  4. Bereavement and complicated grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, M Katherine; Ghesquiere, Angela; Glickman, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Bereavement is a common experience in adults aged 60 and older. Loss of a loved one usually leads to acute grief characterized by yearning and longing, decreased interest in ongoing activities, and frequent thoughts of the deceased. For most, acute grief naturally evolves into a state of integrated grief, where the bereaved is able to reengage with everyday activities and find interest or pleasure. About 7 % of bereaved older adults, however, will develop the mental health condition of Complicated Grief (CG). In CG, the movement from acute to integrated grief is derailed, and grief symptoms remain severe and impairing. This article reviews recent publications on the diagnosis of CG, risk factors for the condition and evidenced-based treatments for CG. Greater attention to CG detection and treatment in older adults is needed.

  5. Same-Sex Partner Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlamazoglou, Lefteris; Simmonds, Janette G; Snell, Tristan L

    2017-01-01

    The experience of same-sex-attracted people who have lost a partner is neglected in the existing literature on bereavement. Previous research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer and questioning (LGBTIQ) populations tends to focus on the loss of a partner to HIV-related causes, and there is scant research concerning non-HIV-related bereavement. The purpose of this article is to investigate the non-HIV-related bereavement experiences of same-sex partners and to address the potential complications of disenfranchised grief. Coping with the loss of a same-sex partner and the impact of bereavement on subsequent relationships are also discussed. Implications for counseling of bereaved same-sex-attracted individuals are drawn, and recommendations for future psychological research on the experience of bereavement are made.

  6. Bereavement Care Provision in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldin, Mai-Britt; Murphy, Irene; Keegan, Orla

    2015-01-01

    The Bereavement Care Taskforce of the EAPC has conducted a survey on bereavement care service provision in Europe. Mai-Britt Guldin, Irene Murphy, Orla Keegan, Barbara Monroe, Maria Antonia Lacasta Reverte and Inger Benkel report on the results. One of the key findings is that not all palliative...

  7. Innovations in bereavement education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia Moyle

    2011-08-01

    Advanced practice nursing students provide care for clients and families in numerous settings where they will encounter end-of-life issues. Thus, graduate nursing education should include information on current trends in thanatology, such as the debate over the proposed complicated grief criteria and the paradigmatic shift toward evidence-based grief theory. In this article, an innovative approach to teaching bereavement content to graduate nursing students during a 3-hour class is presented. The assignments were developed specifically for adult learners with clinical experience. Students' responses to the learning activities and recommendations for modifications of the teaching methods are presented.

  8. Recovery following bereavement: metaphor, phenomenology, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C

    2008-01-01

    The concept of recovery following bereavement can be both useful and misleading. As a metaphor, the concept of recovery highlights some aspects of bereavement and obscures others. Bereaved people interviewed in 3 different studies typically did not bring up the term recovery so it did not seem to be a term that described their experience. Across cultures, the concept of recovery can be irrelevant or even misleading in understanding what goes on following bereavement. Arguably, a postmodern perspective in which no single concept is considered relevant for framing what goes on or what is desirable following bereavement might be best.

  9. PTSD in older bereaved people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2010-01-01

      Late life bereavement has been associated with psychological problems, mainly depression. A few studies indicated that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was an important issue to investigate in late life bereavement reactions. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of PTSD in recently...... subsequently assessed two months post-bereavement. They were compared with a control group of 276 married elderly people. The prevalence of PTSD and depression were measured through a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that 16% of the bereaved and 4% of the control group had a PTSD diagnosis (ES=.35...... as in general samples of bereaved persons. Furthermore, the prevalence of PTSD in the first months after bereavement was more elevated than the level of depression. This makes PTSD an important factor when studying late life bereavement reactions....

  10. Parents Bereaved by Infant Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)´symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Methods: Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study...

  11. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...

  12. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  13. The broken heart : suicidal ideation in bereavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Abakoumkin, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This report examined suicidal behavior during bereavement. METHOD: Suicidal ideation was examined in a group of 60 recently bereaved widows and widowers compared to 60 individually matched married comparison subjects. RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was higher among widowed people than married

  14. A Modest Proposal about Bereavement and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The author argues that the term "recovery" aptly describes the trajectory following the bereavement of most persons. While the term "resilience" has gained ascendancy in the thanatology literature and the term "recovery" has been dismissed as inappropriate to denote responses over time to being bereaved, the irony is that all dictionaries of the…

  15. Depression and Bereavement in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilewski, Michael J.; And Others

    Bereavement and depression are two clinical problems which are prevalent in elderly persons and which may coincide in older adults. This study was conducted to examine how depression interacts with bereavement status. Data were obtained from 393 adults over the age of 55 who participated at four times of measurement (within 1 month of their…

  16. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  17. Bereavement and the DSM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, M Katherine

    Close personal relationships are very important in our lives. Our closest relationships help us regulate our bodies and minds and contribute importantly to our sense of wellbeing (Hofer, 1984; Mikulincer, Orbach, & Iavnieli, 1998; Sbarra & Hazan, 2008). Losing a close attachment is usually one of the most difficult experiences we ever have. Bereavement often leaves us dazed and confused about how to understand the loss and navigate the future. Acute grief takes us out of our ongoing life and focuses our attention on our deceased loved one. Grief is finely tuned to each loss situation with a pattern and course that is unique to each person and each relationship.

  18. Psychosomatic status, personality traits, and coping styles of bereaved and non-bereaved survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui eXiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined personality, coping styles, and psychosomatic characteristics and their relationships in bereaved and non-bereaved earthquake survivors. Study design: Cross-sectional surveyMethods: A survey was conducted with a sample of 102 non-bereaved survivors and 79 bereaved survivors from Mianyang, Anyang, and similar districts 2 weeks after Wenchuan earthquake. Survivors completed questionnaires including items about demographics, personality characteristics, coping styles, and psychosomatic status. Results: Bereaved survivors had lower scores for gregariousness, trust, and optimism, but higher scores for depressed mood, loneliness, becoming easily fearful, irritation, and anxiety than non-bereaved survivors. In addition, bereaved participants scored higher for avoiding problems, self-blame, and fantasy coping styles than non-bereaved ones. Personality and coping styles significantly correlated with psychosomatic status in bereaved and non-bereaved survivors. Optimism and openness to feelings personality characteristics, and self-blame, avoiding problems, and rationalization coping styles significantly predicted psychosomatic status of bereaved survivors, while openness to fantasy, optimism, order, and trust personality characteristics, and self-blame and avoiding problems coping styles significantly predicted psychosomatic status of non-bereaved survivors. Conclusion: Earthquake survivors experienced PTSD symptoms and negative emotions. Bereaved survivors experienced more serious PTSD symptoms and negative emotions relative to non-bereaved survivors. Appropriate psychological crisis interventions should be conducted for earthquake survivors, especially bereaved survivors.

  19. Grief education and bereavement support in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeken, A

    1995-05-01

    This paper introduces the activities of the Japanese Association for Death Education and Grief Counseling, highlighting especially its grief education and bereavement support program. Because of greater life expectancy, most women in Japan will one day experience the death of their husbands, therefore pre-widowhood education programs are offered to married women in order to prepare them for widowhood. Memorial services, Buddhist, Christian and non-religious, are offered for bereaved persons. The search for a new self-identity after bereavement, the role of volunteer work, and the search for meaning in loss and bereavement are discussed. The issues of disenfranchised grief and grief after death from overwork are important themes in grief education.

  20. Effects of suicide bereavement on mental health and suicide risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Osborn, David; King, Michael

    2014-01-01

    used a systematic approach to carry out a narrative review of studies of the effect of suicide bereavement on mortality, mental health, and social functioning, and compared them with effects from other bereavements. We found 57 studies that satisfied strict inclusion criteria. Results from...... to psychiatric care for parents bereaved by the suicide of an offspring, increased risk of suicide in mothers bereaved by an adult child's suicide, and increased risk of depression in offspring bereaved by the suicide of a parent. Some evidence was shown for increased rejection and shame in people bereaved...

  1. Bereavement: a postgraduate training design for psychologists

    OpenAIRE

    Maricel Peña Villamar

    2015-01-01

    Background: death is a fact that impacts the lives of all human beings, so that it can neither be ignored nor distanced from its subsequent bereavement period, even if being wished. The grief reaction is one of the problems that most frequently demand the assistance of health staff, especially psychologists in all health care areas.Objective: to devise a system of activities that contributes to increase the psychologists’ knowledge about bereavement and its management.Methods: a multiple case...

  2. Bereavement: a postgraduate training design for psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Peña Villamar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: death is a fact that impacts the lives of all human beings, so that it can neither be ignored nor distanced from its subsequent bereavement period, even if being wished. The grief reaction is one of the problems that most frequently demand the assistance of health staff, especially psychologists in all health care areas.Objective: to devise a system of activities that contributes to increase the psychologists’ knowledge about bereavement and its management.Methods: a multiple cases study was carried out with the application of two research instruments (questionnaire and interview to those psychologists who work in primary and secondary health care in Las Tunas municipality to diagnose their needs related to the management of bereavement. Qualitative methodology was used, based on the method of participatory action research, and workshops were designed as forms of educational intervention.Results: it was proved that psychologists have insufficient theoretical and methodological training in relation to care for the bereaved. Consequently, psychotherapeutic workshops were designed, offering the general methodology and procedures to be followed by the professional who assists the bereaved.Conclusions: psychotherapeutic workshops constitute a referential theoretical and practical model very useful for the preparation of psychologists to deal with bereavement.

  3. Suicide bereavement and complicated grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal Young, Ilanit; Iglewicz, Alana; Glorioso, Danielle; Lanouette, Nicole; Seay, Kathryn; Ilapakurti, Manjusha; Zisook, Sidney

    2012-06-01

    Losing a loved to suicide is one is one of life's most painful experiences. The feelings of loss, sadness, and loneliness experienced after any death of a loved one are often magnified in suicide survivors by feelings of quilt, confusion, rejection, shame, anger, and the effects of stigma and trauma. Furthermore, survivors of suicide loss are at higher risk of developing major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal behaviors, as well as a prolonged form of grief called complicated grief. Added to the burden is the substantial stigma, which can keep survivors away from much needed support and healing resources. Thus, survivors may require unique supportive measures and targeted treatment to cope with their loss. After a brief description of the epidemiology and circumstances of suicide, we review the current state of research on suicide bereavement, complicated grief in suicide survivors, and grief treatment for survivors of suicide.

  4. Risk factors for bereavement outcome : a multivariate approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, Karolijne; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; van den Bout, Jan; Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek

    2010-01-01

    Bereavement increases the risk of ill health, but only a minority of bereaved suffers lasting health impairment. Because only this group is likely to profit from bereavement intervention, early identification is important. Previous research is limited, because of cross sectional designs, small numbe

  5. Water immersion in neonatal bereavement photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Water immersion in neonatal bereavement photography is a new technique intended to enhance the quality of the photographs provided to families following their loss. Water immersion appears to be most helpful following a second trimester fetal demise. This technique can be used by nurses, professional photographers and others in addition to more traditional neonatal bereavement photography. It does not require special skills or equipment and can be implemented in virtually any perinatal setting. The enhanced quality of photographs produced with this method can potentially provide a source of comfort to grieving families.

  6. Ethical Issues in Bereavement Research: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alicia Skinner

    1995-01-01

    Guidelines for the conduct of ethical research are reviewed and applied to the field of thanatology. Unique aspects of bereavement studies are identified and are discussed in the context of socially sensitive research. Topics include: freedom for subjects to withdraw from research, consideration of risks and benefits, and the qualifications of…

  7. Configurations of Time in Bereaved Parents' Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Adi; Leichtentritt, Ronit D

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we examined the configurations of time within narratives of bereaved Israeli parents, employing Gadamer's hermeneutic philosophy as the research methodology. Our results reveal that following a sudden violent loss, parents experienced a change in their sense of time. Three nonexclusive time possibilities were evident in the participants' narratives: time stopped, time moved forward, and time moved backward. Although most of the social science literature highlights the importance of linear temporal configuration to enhance the coherence of text, based on our study we call for other forms of temporal ordering, as varied time configurations were used by the bereaved and were perceived to have beneficial outcomes. Finally, we outline implications for mental health professionals.

  8. Adapting the Transtheoretical Model of Change to the Bereavement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Theorists currently believe that bereaved people undergo some transformation of self rather than returning to their original state. To advance our understanding of this process, this article presents an adaptation of Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of change as it could be applied to the journey that bereaved individuals…

  9. Religion and Spirituality in Adjustment Following Bereavement: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Jennifer H.; Park, Crystal L.

    2008-01-01

    Surprisingly little research has examined the widely held assumption that religion and spirituality are generally helpful in adjusting to bereavement. A systematic literature search located 73 empirical articles that examined religion/spirituality in the context of bereavement. The authors describe the multidimensional nature of…

  10. The Role of Hope in Bereavement for Chinese People in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Amy Y. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between hope and the emotional reactions of bereaved Chinese people in Hong Kong. Three groups--a clinical bereaved sample (n = 140), a general bereaved sample (n = 152), and a non-bereaved comparison sample (n = 144)--were included. Significant differences in 3 hope measures, hope (pathway), hope (agency) and…

  11. Long-Term Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Multiple Indicators of Grief in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.; Wolchik, Sharlene; Kennedy, Cara; Millsap, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports on results from a randomized experimental trial of the effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on multiple measures of grief experienced by parentally bereaved children and adolescents over a 6-year period. Method: Participants were 244 youths (ages 8-16, mean age = 11.4 years) from 156 families that had…

  12. Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2012-01-01

    indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years...... of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children. Results: Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age....... Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S...

  13. Language Analysis as a Window to Bereaved Parents' Emotions During a Parent-Physician Bereavement Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggly, Susan; Manning, Mark A; Slatcher, Richard B; Berg, Robert A; Wessel, David L; Newth, Christopher J L; Shanley, Thomas P; Harrison, Rick; Dalton, Heidi; Dean, J Michael; Doctor, Allan; Jenkins, Tammara; Meert, Kathleen L

    2015-03-01

    Parent-physician bereavement meetings may benefit parents by facilitating sense making, which is associated with healthy adjustment after a traumatic event. Prior research suggests a reciprocal relationship between sense making and positive emotions. We analyzed parents' use of emotion words during bereavement meetings to better understand parents' emotional reactions during the meeting and how their emotional reactions related to their appraisals of the meeting. Parents' use of positive emotion words increased, suggesting the meetings help parents make sense of the death. Parents' use of positive emotion words was negatively related to their own and/or their spouse's appraisals of the meeting, suggesting that parents who have a positive emotional experience during the meeting may also have a short-term negative reaction. Language analysis can be an effective tool to understand individuals' ongoing emotions and meaning making processes during interventions to reduce adverse consequences of a traumatic event, such as a child's death.

  14. The Spiritual and Theological Challenges of Stillbirth for Bereaved Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzum, Daniel; Meaney, Sarah; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2017-06-01

    Stillbirth is recognized as one of the most challenging experiences of bereavement raising significant spiritual and theological questions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with bereaved parents cared for in a tertiary maternity hospital to explore the spiritual impact of stillbirth. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Stillbirth was identified as an immensely challenging spiritual and personal experience with enduring impact for parents. The superordinate themes to emerge were searching for meaning, maintaining hope and questioning core beliefs. Most parents reported that their spiritual needs were not adequately addressed while in hospital. The faith of all parents was challenged with only one parent experiencing a stronger faith following stillbirth. This study reveals the depth of spiritual struggle for parents bereaved following stillbirth with a recommendation that spiritual care is provided as part of comprehensive perinatal bereavement care in the obstetric setting.

  15. Insomnia and complicated grief symptoms in bereaved college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Heather Gaines; Neimeyer, Robert A; Lichstein, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we extended previous research by concentrating on sleep- and grief-related symptoms in a cohort of bereaved college students, in view of the potential for each of these problems to exacerbate the other. A sample of 815 college students completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief (H. G. Prigerson & S. C. Jacobs, 2001), along with an assessment of diagnostic criteria for insomnia and associated sleep behaviors. As predicted, the rate of insomnia was significantly higher (22%) in the bereaved sample than in a nonbereaved comparison group (17%), a difference that was particularly pronounced in terms of middle insomnia. Also as hypothesized, bereaved insomniacs reported higher complicated grief scores than bereaved noninsomniacs, and several specific sleep variables (including sleep-onset insomnia related to nighttime rumination about the loss and sleep-maintenance insomnia associated with dreaming of the deceased) were significantly related to complicated grief symptomatology.

  16. War and bereavement: consequences for mental and physical distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nexhmedin Morina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term impact of the killing of a parent in childhood or adolescence during war on distress and disability in young adulthood. This study assessed current prevalence rates of mental disorders and levels of dysfunction among young adults who had lost their father due to war-related violence in childhood or adolescence. METHODS: 179 bereaved young adults and 175 non-bereaved young adults were interviewed a decade after experiencing the war in Kosovo. Prevalence rates of Major Depressive Episode (MDE, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and current suicide risk were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The syndrome of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD was assessed with the Prolonged Grief Disorder Interview (PG-13. Somatic symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. General health distress was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire. FINDINGS: Bereaved participants were significantly more likely to suffer from either MDE or any anxiety disorder than non-bereaved participants (58.7% vs. 40%. Among bereaved participants, 39.7% met criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 34.6% for PGD, and 22.3% for MDE. Bereaved participants with PGD were more likely to suffer from MDE, any anxiety disorder, or current suicide risk than bereaved participants without PGD. Furthermore, these participants reported significantly greater physical distress than bereaved participants without PGD. CONCLUSION: War-related loss during middle childhood and adolescence presents significant risk for adverse mental health and dysfunction in young adulthood in addition to exposure to other war-related traumatic events. Furthermore, the syndrome of PGD can help to identify those with the greatest degree of distress and dysfunction.

  17. Maternal bereavement and cryptorchidism in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen;

    2015-01-01

    of a close relative in the antenatal period increases the occurrence of cryptorchidism in the offspring. METHODS: In a population-based cohort, we studied death of a close relative as the exposure and cryptorchidism entries in nationwide medical registries as the outcome. Danish national registries included......BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testis) is a common anomaly with largely unexplained etiology. Animal studies have suggested maternal emotional stress as a potential risk factor, but this has not been studied in humans. We aimed to investigate whether maternal bereavement due to the death...... 898,961 (23,609 exposed) boys born from 1978 to 2008 with a maximum of 30 years of follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 20,947 boys had cryptorchidism, of whom 13,524 also underwent corrective surgery. We found no increased occurrence of cryptorchidism in the offspring (hazard ratio = 1.02 [95% confidence...

  18. Providing contact cards for relatives following bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K; Pearson, N

    This article describes the implementation of a Welsh Assembly Government policy to improve customer service and provide an opportunity for relatives to seek further information about the death of a loved one in an acute hospital setting. A new relative-centred pathway has been developed. It offers a single point of contact for recently bereaved relatives and provides an opportunity to discuss any concerns or anxieties in relation to the care and/or treatment in the final hours of their loved one's life. The pathway includes a contact card with the name and number of a designated person and is a more informal, empathetic and person-centred service than the formal complaint process.

  19. Belief in Afterlife as a Buffer in Suicidal and Other Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peggy C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined belief in afterlife and bereavement recovery following death by suicide, homicide, accident, or natural causes. Bereaved persons (n=121) completed scales measuring belief in afterlife, impact of event, perceived recovery, spiritual well-being, emotional pain, and social support. Feeling of recovery following bereavement appeared enhanced…

  20. Piloting a Therapeutic Residential for Children, Young People and Families Bereaved through Suicide in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braiden, Hannah Jane; McCann, Monica; Barry, Helen; Lindsay, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Families bereaved by suicide can experience an extremely intense and complicated grieving process. This can be associated with a range of difficulties and can put bereaved family members at risk of a range of problems. In recognition of this, Barnardo's Child Bereavement Service piloted a two-day residential programme (integrating separate…

  1. Parents' and children's perspectives of a children's hospice bereavement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Betty; Collins, John; Steele, Rose; Cook, Karen; Distler, Vivian; Brenner, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The provision of some form of bereavement services is an integral part of any pediatric hospice program. The Canuck Place hospice program has offered bereavement services since it began in 1995. A mixed-method evaluation of the impact of the Canuck Place program on the families it served during its first two-and-a-half years of operation was conducted. The bereavement services reviewed included follow-up care for families, and bereavement support groups for children and their parents. Eight children were interviewed in the initial phase, and nine completed a survey questionnaire; 28 parents rated their level of satisfaction with various aspects of their experience with the parent support group. Findings indicated that the follow-up component of the program was well-received by family members. When assessing their group experiences, children and parents most appreciated the support and understanding they received, the freedom to express themselves, a diminished sense of isolation, and the normalization of their emotions. Practical considerations when offering bereavement support groups are discussed in this paper.

  2. Caring for bereaved family caregivers: analyzing the context of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtslander, Lorraine F

    2008-06-01

    Deaths from cancer will continue to rise with an increasing and aging population. Family caregivers of patients with cancer will face loss, grief, and bereavement as a result. As mandated by cancer and palliative care clinical practice guidelines, support for family caregivers continues through the processes of grief and bereavement to facilitate a positive transition through loss. To provide evidence-based nursing with this population, an analysis of their context of care was undertaken. Key health policies, characteristics of the healthcare delivery system, and the results of research with bereaved palliative caregivers are described. A model of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity is used to examine the situation of bereaved caregivers and to suggest research questions to fill the gaps in what is known about their needs and experience. Bereaved caregivers are at high risk for many distressing symptoms, including depression and sleeplessness, related to a range of complex variables, such as age, gender, social support, resources, and their experiences during caregiving. Current systems of support have not been adequate to meet the needs of this population and very little is known about the caregivers' quality of life, well-being, and health outcomes or how best to provide compassionate and effective nursing care.

  3. Figures of grief: metaphors from a bereavement writing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Elizabeth

    In a community-based bereavement writing group, patterns of metaphor emerged and helped the group members identify and deal with particularly challenging aspects of death and grief, including taboo subjects such as abuse and suicide. The metaphors show how a bereavement writing group functioned to address the needs of people coping with different kinds of grief effectively and efficiently. Analysis of the specific metaphors suggests why figurative language enabled the group to bond quickly and strongly, delve into the complex emotions death elicits, and integrate experiences of loss and grief safely and productively. The patterns of metaphors the group produced in their writing about death and grief are discussed in terms of bereavement processes, and the topics the group used to elicit the figures of speech are presented for further refinement and use.

  4. Marriage, bereavement and mortality: the role of health care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    There is ample evidence that bereavement is associated with heightened mortality. Regardless of whether this strong association is truly causal, little is known about the factors contributing to it. This study begins to unpack the black box of the bereavement-mortality puzzle by investigating the extent to which heath behaviors and health care utilization patterns vary among chronically ill elderly males living with a spouse and those who are widowed, and by asking whether these differences contribute to the well-documented correlation between widowhood and health deterioration. In order to separate the effect of health care utilization from other potential channels it uses a unique dataset of doctor-patient encounters that allows in-depth analysis of the organization and effectiveness of medical care. Changes in health care utilization attributable to bereavement have a negative effect on survival but account for a small part of the overall negative effect of widowhood on longevity.

  5. Neutrophil function and cortisol:DHEAS ratio in bereaved older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanfer, Riyad; Lord, Janet M; Phillips, Anna C

    2011-08-01

    Bereavement is a common life event for older adults and is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, though the underlying reasons for this link are poorly understood. Although physical and emotional stressors and ageing are known to suppress immunity, few studies have explored the impact of bereavement upon immunity in the older population. We therefore hypothesised that the emotional stress of bereavement would suppress immune function, specifically neutrophil bactericidal activity, in older adults. A between-subjects design was used to examine the effect of recent bereavement (Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) levels were determined in serum to assess potential mechanisms. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by questionnaire. Neutrophil superoxide production was significantly reduced among the bereaved when challenged with E. coli (p=0.05), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (p=0.009). Further, the bereaved group had a significantly higher cortisol:DHEAS ratio compared to controls (p=0.03). There was no difference in neutrophil phagocytosis between the two groups. The psychological questionnaire results showed that the bereaved had significantly greater depressive and anxiety symptoms than the non-bereaved. The emotional stress of bereavement is associated with suppressed neutrophil superoxide production and with a raised cortisol:DHEAS ratio. The stress of bereavement exaggerates the age-related decline in HPA axis and combines with immune ageing to further suppress immune function, which may help to the explain increased risk of infection in bereaved older adults.

  6. The case for a sociology of dying, death, and bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil; Allan, June; Carverhill, Philip A; Cox, Gerry R; Davies, Betty; Doka, Kenneth; Granek, Leeat; Harris, Darcy; Ho, Andy; Klass, Dennis; Small, Neil; Wittkowski, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dying, death, and bereavement do not occur in a social vacuum. How individuals and groups experience these phenomena will be largely influenced by the social context in which they occur. To develop an adequate understanding of dying, death, and bereavement we therefore need to incorporate a sociological perspective into our analysis. This article examines why a sociological perspective is necessary and explores various ways in which sociology can be of practical value in both intellectual and professional contexts. A case study comparing psychological and sociological perspectives is offered by way of illustration.

  7. Guilt in Bereavement : A Review and Conceptual Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jie; Stroebe, Margaret; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Chow, Amy Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-four quantitative and 9 qualitative studies are reviewed to indicate current understanding of the nature and impact of guilt in bereavement. This overview suggests that guilt is especially prevalent among some vulnerable subgroups, and it is associated with maladaptive health outcomes. Being

  8. Does worry affect adjustment to bereavement? A longitudinal investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.; Boelen, Paul A.; Schut, Henk A W; Stroebe, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Repetitive thought is a trans-diagnostic risk-factor for development of psychopathology. Research on repetitive thought in bereaved individuals has focused primarily on clarifying the role of rumination, repetitive thinking about past negative events and/or negative emotio

  9. Childhood Bereavement: Psychopathology in the 2 Years Postparental Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerel, Julie; Fristad, Mary A.; Verducci, Joseph; Weller, Ronald A.; Weller, Elizabeth B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the death of a parent is one of the most significant stressors a child can experience, the psychiatric sequelae of parental death are not fully understood. Method: A total of 360 parent-bereaved children (ages 6-17) and their surviving parents were directly interviewed four times during the first 2 years following the death (at…

  10. Television Reporting of the Bereaved: A General Semantics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Patrick J.

    Knowledge and application of basic general semantics principles when interviewing the bereaved can heighten social sensitivity, reduce misinterpretations, and minimize misevaluations. General semantics is concerned with the need to make transformations between sensory input and language output more isomorphic. It is an attempt to produce the best…

  11. Hardiness and Grief in a Sample of Bereaved College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Laura L.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between hardiness and both grief symptoms and personal growth were investigated in a sample of bereaved college students. Hardiness was inversely associated with grief symptoms and offered prediction of grief misery above and beyond that provided by more commonly investigated individual and death-related variables. Hardiness was…

  12. The Grief Grapevine: Facebook Memorial Pages and Adolescent Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Mardi

    2014-01-01

    How adolescents use the social networking site Facebook to express grief is a growing area of research. In reviewing current literature, it is evident that many questions still remain unanswered. Additionally, this ever-evolving platform for grief, mourning and bereavement may hold many implications for educators, policy developers and school…

  13. Personal Fear of Death and Grief in Bereaved Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Peter; Cacciatore, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    The study explored the relation of fear of death (Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale) to maternal grief (Perinatal Grief Scale-33) following miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death, or infant/child death. The 400 women participants were recruited from the website, e-mail lists, and parent groups of an organization that supports bereaved parents.…

  14. ATTEND: Toward a Mindfulness-Based Bereavement Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Joanne; Flint, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Few, if any, mindfulness-based bereavement care models exist. The ATTEND (attunement, trust, touch, egalitarianism, nuance, and death education) model is an interdisciplinary paradigm for providers, including physicians, social workers, therapists, nursing staff, and others. Using a case example to enhance the breadth and depth of understanding,…

  15. "DSM-5" and Bereavement: The Loss of Normal Grief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Jones, K. Dayle

    2013-01-01

    The mood disorder work group has proposed to eliminate the bereavement exclusion criterion from the diagnosis of major depression in the 5th edition of the American Psychiatric Association's (2012) "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders." The proposal would break tradition with the long-held distinction between…

  16. Music Therapy with Bereaved Teenagers: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina; Roberts, Melina; O'Grady, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative investigations have indicated that music therapy groups may be beneficial for bereaved teenagers. The existing relationship between young people and music serves as a platform for connectedness and emotional expression that is utilised within a therapeutic, support group format. This investigation confirms this suggestion through…

  17. Music Therapy with Bereaved Youth: Expressing Grief and Feeling Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Music therapy is a promising intervention with bereaved youth. In comparison to other programs, it appears particularly effective for promoting the resolution of grief-related feelings; providing opportunities to express and release feelings through musical participation. Descriptions from music therapy participants are supported by research…

  18. Psychological adjustment among bereaved parents: individual and interpersonal predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaards-de Meij, L.D.N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Bereaved parents are a highly vulnerable group. Nevertheless, considerable individual differences exist between parents who have lost their child. The aim of this thesis was to identify factors that can predict which parents will be at particularly elevated risk for problematic adjustment after the

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Bereavement and Childbirths in the Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973...

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder among bereaved relatives of cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Reinholt, Nina; Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of PTSD in individuals who experienced the loss of a close relative to cancer. A total of 251 bereaved relatives ages 14 to 76 (M = 41.3, SD = 16.8) were recruited at a counseling service for cancer patients...

  1. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  2. A Longitudinal Study of PTSD in the Elderly Bereaved: Prevalence and Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the PTSD-frequency in elderly bereaved people across the first 18 months of bereavement. Additionally, risk factors for the prediction of bereavement outcome in relation to four domains of the bereavement process were investigated. Data was collected via self...... one significant loss (N=276, Mean=70 years). The PTSD-frequency within the sample was high (16%) compared to the control group (4%) and remained stable across time. Individually analyzed each domain was a predictor of PTSD 18 months post loss. Most predictors remained stable across time......, remains so over the first 18 months post bereavement, and underline the importance of further investigation of PTSD in the elderly bereaved....

  3. Promoting Neonatal Staff Nurses' Comfort and Involvement in End of Life and Bereavement Care

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nurses who provide end of life and bereavement care to neonates and their families are potentially at risk for developing stress-related health problems. These health problems can negatively affect nurses’ ability to care for their patients. Purpose. Nurses need to be knowledgeable about end of life and bereavement issues to provide quality care. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a bereavement seminar on the attitudes of nurses regarding end of life and palliative care...

  4. Do anticipatory grief and preparedness affect distress in bereaved caregivers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    Objective Family caregivers of terminally ill patients are in a vulnerable position, and previous studies show that bereaved caregivers are at risk of psychological distress. Pre-loss grief symptoms seem to predict post-loss psychological distress, while preparedness for a looming loss tends...... to decrease distress. The aim of this nation-wide study was to investigate the association of both anticipatory grief symptoms and preparedness with psychological distress in bereaved family caregivers. Methods A list of all adult patients in Denmark receiving drug reimbursement for terminal illness...... months after the loss. The baseline questionnaire included a pre-loss version of the Prolonged Grief-13 and one question regarding caregiver preparedness, while the follow-up questionnaire contained the Prolonged Grief-13 and Beck’s Depression Inventory II. Results Of the contacted 9,512 patients 3...

  5. Spiritual Distress in Bereavement: Evolution of a Research Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Burke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many mourners turn to their spiritual beliefs and traditions when confronted by the death of a loved one. However, prior studies have either focused primarily on the benefits of faith following loss or studied spiritual struggle outside the context of bereavement. Moreover, scales to measure bereavement-related crises of faith and interventions specifically designed for spiritually inclined, distressed grievers are virtually non-existent. Our program of research, which to date has consisted of working with Christian grievers and is outlined below, elucidates complicated spiritual grief (CSG—a spiritual crisis following the loss of a loved one. For example, our longitudinal examination of 46 African American homicide survivors established the relation between positive religious coping, CSG, and complicated grief (CG, to clarify whether religious coping more strongly predicted bereavement distress or vice versa, with a follow-up study that determined the relation between religious coping and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. We replicated and expanded these findings with a diverse sample of 150 grievers to explore the complex relation between CSG, CG, and meaning making in a comparison study of mourners who had experienced traumatic-versus natural death losses. In a companion study, we qualitatively analyzed 84 grievers’ narratives and interviewed a 5-member focus group to capture and learn from their firsthand experiences of spiritual distress. To close the gap in terms of CSG assessment, we also developed and validated the Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief (ICSG. Currently, our ongoing CSG investigation extends in several directions: first, to a sample of family members anticipating the loss of their hospice-eligible loved one in palliative care; and, second, to the development and testing of a writing-intensive intervention for newly bereaved, spiritually inclined grievers.

  6. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    OpenAIRE

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Based on Bowlby’s attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity.Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew’s attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the re...

  7. Cultural influences on parental bereavement in Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sio-Wa; Brotherson, Sean E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the bereavement experiences of parents who had experienced the death of a child in Chinese families. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 bereaved parents in Macau, China. Narrative accounts of Chinese parents' experience in the loss of a child were explored to understand how their connection to the deceased child and their worldview were influenced by cultural beliefs and values. Study themes related to parental connections with the deceased child included the use of object linking, memorializing acts, and avoidance of traditional funeral processes, with clear patterns of Chinese cultural influence. Additionally, themes related to impacts on parental worldview included use of the concept of fate as a rationale for child loss and influences on religious orientation. The influence of cultural beliefs and background on Chinese parents as they deal with the issue of a child's death was apparent. Further research is needed and will benefit our understanding of parental bereavement in Chinese families.

  8. Combining regional expertise to form a bereavement support alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Judy B; Kobler, Kathie; Roose, Rosmarie E; Meyer, Charlotte; Schmitz, Nancy; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Providing compassionate bereavement care for families experiencing perinatal loss is a standard of care in most healthcare organizations. In this article, we describe the development of The Alliance of Perinatal Bereavement Support Facilitators, begun over 25 years ago in Chicago by staff who identified the need to reach out to colleagues at other area institutions for advice and support in this work. This collaboration created a regional support network that has resulted in a long-lasting, active, sustainable organization of excellence focused on enhancing practice, education, and perinatal bereavement care. Alliance activities center around four main areas: education, networking/support, policy, and recognizing outstanding service to families. By continuing to draw upon the collective talent, wisdom, and expertise of its members, The Alliance still serves grieving families and provides mentoring for future interdisciplinary team members engaged in this work. The path taken to build this organization can be used by professionals in other specialties who are looking to create their own alliance infrastructure based on mutual benefit and interest.

  9. Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

  10. The prediction of bereavement outcome : development of an integrative risk factor framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret Susan; Folkman, Susan; Hansson, Robert O; Schut, Henk

    2006-01-01

    We propose an integrative risk factor framework to enhance understanding of individual differences in adjustment to bereavement and to encourage more systematic analysis of factors contributing to bereavement outcome (e.g., examination of interactions between variables and establishing pathways in t

  11. 77 FR 27542 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB... any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B... INFORMATION: Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR). OMB Control...

  12. Setting up and Running a Loss and Bereavement Support Group for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…

  13. Personal Strength and Finding Meaning in Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults: A Four-Year Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hyun; Kjervik, Diane; Belyea, Michael; Choi, Eun Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the patterns and mechanisms of the development of personal strength of bereaved older adults over a 4-year period after spousal death. The findings showed that while bereaved older adults, on average, experienced a moderate level of personal strength at 6 months post-spousal death with a slight increase over a…

  14. Mediating processes in bereavement : the role of rumination, threatening grief interpretations, and deliberate grief avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, Karolijne; Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang; van den Bout, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Limited research so far has examined coping processes that mediate between risk factors and bereavement outcome. Knowledge of these pathways is important, since it helps establish why some bereaved persons are more vulnerable than others and suggests possibilities for intervention. In this internati

  15. Resilience Rather than Recovery: A Contextual Framework on Adaptation Following Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2008-01-01

    Using a contextual resilience framework, the authors examine the processes whereby bereaved persons change over time. Rather than the concept recovery, the authors propose that the concept adaptation best captures the process of change following bereavement and that the desired outcome of such adaptation is denoted by the term resilience.…

  16. Maternal Antenatal Bereavement and Neural Tube Defect in Live-Born Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    -up, 1,115 children were diagnosed with any NTDs: spina bifida (n = 889), anencephaly (n = 85) and encephalocele (n = 164). And 23 children were diagnosed with two types of NTDs. Overall, when comparing bereaved mothers to non-bereaved mothers, no significant increased prevalence of NTDs in the offspring...

  17. Post traumatic stress symptoms in the first years of conjugal bereavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Henk; de Keijser, Adrianus; van den Bout, Jan; Dijkhuis, Jos

    1990-01-01

    Bereavement is generally regarded as one of the most stressful events one can encounter. Yet, bereavement research and the study of post-traumatic stress seem to be mainly developing along separate lines. Strictly speaking, post-traumatic stress disorder can only occur after encountering events outs

  18. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide: a population-based longitudinal case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D; Martens, Patricia J; Enns, Murray W; Roos, Leslie L; Katz, Laurence Y; Wilcox, Holly C; Erlangsen, Annette; Chateau, Dan; Walld, Randy; Spiwak, Rae; Seguin, Monique; Shear, Katherine; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2 years after death of the offspring. Adjusted relative rates (ARRs) were generated by generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING Manitoba, Canada. PARTICIPANTS All identifiable parents who had an offspring die by suicide between 1996 and 2007 (n = 1415). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use. RESULTS Suicide bereavement was associated with an increased rate of depression (ARR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.43), anxiety disorders (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), and marital breakup (ARR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23) in the 2 years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents (15.9%; P = .005), whereas suicide-bereaved parents had higher rate increases of hospitalization for mental illness (P = .049). Suicide-bereaved parents were more likely than their MVC-bereaved counterparts to have depression (ARR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), physical disorders (ARR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.45), and low income (ARR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.51) before their offspring's death. CONCLUSIONS Suicide bereavement is associated with adverse mental health and social outcomes

  19. Factors Related to Complicated Grief among Bereaved Individuals after the Wenchuan Earthquake in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lin Hu; Xiao-Lin Li; Xin-Man Dou; Rong Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:The Wenchuan earthquake in China caused shock and grief worldwide.Sudden bereavement caused by the earthquake led to physical disorders as well as psychological disturbances in the bereaved individuals.The bereaved had a high risk for complicated grief (CG),which may have led to significant distress and impairment in their health.However,there was few available studies on CG among disaster-bereaved individuals in China after the disaster.The aim of this study was to identify factors (demographic characteristics and disaster-related variables) associated with symptoms of CG among the bereaved 18 months after the Wenchuan earthquake.Methods:This study was conducted with a cross-sectional design and a convenience sample of 27 1 bereaved individuals from three of the hardest hit areas.Data were collected by questionnaires and the instruments used in the study were:General questionnaire and Inventory ofCG (ICG).Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with symptoms of CG.Results:The mean score on ICG was 52.77 (standard deviation:10.00).Being female and loss of a child were related to higher level of CG while having another child after the disaster and receiving psychological counseling experience were associated with lower level of CG.Forty-nine percent of the variance of CG was explained by these identified factors.Conclusions:Eighteen months after the Wenchuan earthquake,the symptoms of CG among the bereaved were higher than the previous studies with bereaved individuals.This study uncovers a vulnerable population of the bereaved at high risk for CG.Early assessments,targeted interventions,and policy support tailored for the disaster-bereaved individuals are necessary to identify and alleviate symptoms of CG and to improve their well-being.

  20. Bereavement Follow-Up After the Death of a Child as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Sweeney, Corinne R; Roberts, Kailey E; Corner, Geoffrey W; Donovan, Leigh A; Prigerson, Holly G; Wiener, Lori

    2015-12-01

    After a child's death to cancer, families commonly want continued connection with the healthcare team that cared for their child, yet bereavement follow-up is often sporadic. A comprehensive literature search found that many bereaved parents experience poor psychological outcomes during bereavement and that parents want follow-up and benefit from continued connection with their child's healthcare providers. Evidence suggests that the standard of care should consist of at least one meaningful contact between the healthcare team and bereaved parents to identify those at risk for negative psychosocial sequelae and to provide resources for bereavement support.

  1. A missional perspective on funerals and bereavement counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kotze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the importance of a missional approach to the funeral and bereavement counselling process in congregational praxis in the midst of a context of secularisation. The creation of a missional perspective on the funeral and bereavement counselling could support the nature and praxis of a congregation in a secular society, especially if the congregation finds its relevance in the expression of the missio Dei. The basic theoretical research for missional ecclesiology, which is the systematic study directed toward greater knowledge of the fundamental aspects of missional ecclesiology (National Science Foundation 1953:38, is based on the premise that God is the source of all missions. The expression missio Dei means to join God in the mission he is already busy with in the world. As the one who sends, God the Father sends the Son, the Son sends the Holy Spirit, and the Holy Spirit sends the church. The church only participates in the mission God is already busy with. It is a mission that uses both words and deeds and brings hope in the midst of tragedy. It is the hope of the kingdom of God and the incarnation of Christ that can already be experienced and expressed in the present. It is also the hope of the transformation of everything to form a new heaven and earth. Hope and mission can therefore not be separated. The concretisation of the expression of the kingdom of Christ in the world is hope, and a strong emphasis is therefore placed on mission as action in hope. Hope must be present where tragedy reigns, and the funeral and bereavement counselling can be used as a vehicle for this hope. Hope can then become an instrument of healing. The church can thus participate in God’s mission in the midst of tragedy and make an impact on society by taking on a missional character of hope.

  2. Unresolved bereavement: medical reenactment of a loved one's terminal illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melson, S J; Rynearson, E K

    1982-07-01

    In our psychiatric practice in Seattle, we have found several cases of complicated bereavement in which the patient has been unable to accept the death of her mother for an unusually long time and, consequently, continues to complain of physical symptoms similar to those of her mother. These patients initially sought medical care from primary care physicians, who tried to treat the symptoms without considering the cause. In some instances, needless medical and even surgical procedures were pursued to no avail. We believe that such patients usually require only referral for psychiatric care, which unfortunately often is palliative but not curative.

  3. The impact of dreams of the deceased on bereavement: a survey of hospice caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott T; Kerr, Christopher W; Doroszczuk, Nicole M; Kuszczak, Sarah M; Hang, Pei C; Luczkiewicz, Debra L

    2014-03-01

    Many recently bereaved persons experience vivid and deeply meaningful dreams featuring the presence of the deceased that may reflect and impact the process of mourning. The present study surveyed 278 bereaved persons regarding their own perspective of the relationship between dreams and the mourning process. Fifty eight percent of respondents reported dreams of their deceased loved ones, with varying levels of frequency. Most participants reported that their dreams were either pleasant or both pleasant and disturbing, and few reported purely disturbing dreams. Prevalent dream themes included pleasant past memories or experiences, the deceased free of illness, memories of the deceased's illness or time of death, the deceased in the afterlife appearing comfortable and at peace, and the deceased communicating a message. These themes overlap significantly with previous models of bereavement dream content. Sixty percent of participants felt that their dreams impacted their bereavement process. Specific effects of the dreams on bereavement processes included increased acceptance of the loved one's death, comfort, spirituality, sadness, and quality of life, among others. These results support the theory that dreams of the deceased are highly prevalent among and often deeply meaningful for the bereaved. While many counselors are uncomfortable working with dreams in psychotherapy, the present study demonstrates their therapeutic relevance to the bereaved population and emphasizes the importance for grief counselors to increase their awareness, knowledge, and skills with regards to working with dreams.

  4. Analysing the role played by district and community nurses in bereavement support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna

    2015-06-01

    This article explores bereavement support as one of the roles of the district nurse (DN) and community nurse (CN). Bereavement support is considered part of palliative care, which is a major role for all nurses. There is, however, a constant move to increase acute care in the home, questionably placing greater demand on DNs/CNs and primary care provision. Discussion in this article is framed around research into bereavement care in the community, existing guidelines, and policy drivers stressing its importance. Bereavement can result in depression, stress-related disorders, and high mortality; it is therefore imperative to understand the complexities, theoretical aspects, and implications of poor service provision. Palliative care is one of the primary roles of a DN, and it largely involves emotional support. It has been shown that DNs lack confidence and the skills to provide bereavement support to families and carers of palliative care patients. Education, training, and time management are the main determinants of effective bereavement support. The need is to develop a standard collaborative approach to bereavement support and incorporate it into the palliative care role of DNs.

  5. Bereavement: Contemporary Scientific Perspectives for Researchers and Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Zech

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The death rate within the European Union is 9.6/1000, which is about the same as it is in North America (8.4 for 2009 in the Unites States of America, see CIA World Factbook, 2010. In concrete terms, this means that about 100,000 of the total population of 10 million Belgian people die each year (in fact, the death rate in Belgium is a bit higher, 10.5/1000. The 2001 the Belgian Health Interview Survey indicated that the relationship or social support network of Belgian citizens is composed of a mean number of 9 persons (Gisle, Buziarsist, Van der Heyden, Demarest, Miermans, Sartor et al., 2002. As a consequence, a rough estimation of the number of persons who become bereaved each year in Belgium is 945,000 (i.e., 9.5% of the Belgian population. In fact, the death of a loved one is an experience that occurs some time or other in nearly everyone’s life. Many of us will suffer multiple losses long before we reach old age, when such events occur with increasing frequency. We will lose our grandparents, parents, siblings, or close friends and romantic partners through death. Bereavement is a very frequent phenomenon, and as the contributions to this Special Issue will make amply clear, it is a personally impactful life event for most people.

  6. How do attachment dimensions affect bereavement adjustment? A mediation model of continuing bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; He, Li; Xu, Wei; Wang, Jianping; Prigerson, Holly G

    2016-04-30

    The current study aims to examine mechanisms underlying the impact of attachment dimensions on bereavement adjustment. Bereaved mainland Chinese participants (N=247) completed anonymous, retrospective, self-report surveys assessing attachment dimensions, continuing bonds (CB), grief symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Results demonstrated that attachment anxiety predicted grief symptoms via externalized CB and predicted PTG via internalized CB at the same time, whereas attachment avoidance positively predicted grief symptoms via externalized CB but negatively predicted PTG directly. Findings suggested that individuals with a high level of attachment anxiety could both suffer from grief and obtain posttraumatic growth after loss, but it depended on which kind of CB they used. By contrast, attachment avoidance was associated with a heightened risk of maladaptive bereavement adjustment. Future grief therapy may encourage the bereaved to establish CB with the deceased and gradually shift from externalized CB to internalized CB.

  7. Maternal bereavement in the antenatal period and oral cleft in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Liang, H.; Olsen, J.;

    2013-01-01

    in the offspring, especially when the bereavement was due to a sudden death or death of a child. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The aetiology of oral cleft is unknown but includes both genetic and environmental causes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION: We performed a population-based cohort study based on several national...... to a sudden death, the risk of oral cleft in the offspring was higher (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.06; 2.94). Losing a relative in the time period before pregnancy and during the first trimester showed a tendency to an increased risk. The risk increase was 77% when the mother was bereaved due to sudden death......STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal bereavement (emotional stress) due to loss of a close relative in the antenatal period associated with the risk of oral cleft in the offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our study suggests prenatal maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of oral cleft...

  8. The forgotten children of Africa: Voicing HIV and Aids orphans’ stories of bereavement: a narrative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Richter

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the bereavement of children left orphaned by the HIV and Aids pandemic that is crippling the continent of Africa. Their bereavement is examined by means of the narrative approach and by integrating this approach with the traditional African art of storytelling. By listening to the stories of three Zulu children, the article gives them the opportunity to express their own unique stories of bereavement: stories that would otherwise have been silenced by the wave of bereavement in the wake of countless deaths worldwide as a result of HIV and Aids infection. It looks at the losses these children have suffered, their greatest fears and how their Zulu culture and customs influence their emotional experience of losing their parents. The article shows how they can – by means of storytelling – reformulate the story of their lives and find the proverbial pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

  9. Suicidal Ideation and Distress in Family Members Bereaved by Suicide in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sara; Campos, Rui C.; Tavares, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the impact of suicide and distress on suicidal ideation in a sample of 93 Portuguese family members bereaved by suicide. A control community sample of 102 adults also participated. After controlling for educational level, those bereaved by the suicide of a family member were found to have higher levels of suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent of family members had Suicide Ideation Questionnaire scores at or above the cutoff point. General distress, dep...

  10. Distress in Portuguese Family Members Bereaved by Suicide: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sara; Tavares, Sofia; Campos, Rui C.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of several sociodemographic and suicide-related variables on the distress of family members bereaved by suicide. A sample of Portuguese family members bereaved by suicide (N¼93) living in the Alentejo region completed a sociodemographic and suicide information questionnaire and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Forward multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that several sociodemographic and suicide variables were related to gener...

  11. Insights into the processes of suicide contagion: Narratives from young people bereaved by suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Jo; Stanley, Nicky; Mallon, Sharon; Manthorpe, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Death by suicide can have a profound and long lasting impact on the people left behind. Research has demonstrated that, in comparison to the general population, those bereaved by suicide, particularly young people, are at increased risk for suicide. However, the process of suicide contagion, as it has now become widely known, is poorly understood. This paper examines the phenomenon of suicide contagion amongst young people who have been bereaved by suicide with data from research...

  12. Japanese Bereaved Family Members' Perspectives of Palliative Care Units and Palliative Care: J-HOPE Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Sato, Kazuki; Shoji, Ayaka; Chiba, Yurika; Miyazaki, Tamana; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The study purpose was to understand the perspectives of bereaved family members regarding palliative care unit (PCU) and palliative care and to compare perceptions of PCU before admission and after bereavement. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted, and the perceptions of 454 and 424 bereaved family members were obtained regarding PCU and palliative care, respectively. Family members were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions after bereavement (ranging from 73% to 80%) compared to before admission (ranging from 62% to 71%). Bereaved family members who were satisfied with medical care in the PCU had a positive perception of the PCU and palliative care after bereavement. Respondents younger than 65 years of age were significantly more likely to have negative perceptions of PCU and palliative care.

  13. Predictors of complicated grief and depression in bereaved caregivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjaergaard; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2016-01-01

    and depressive symptoms, caregiver burden, preparedness for death, communication about dying and socio-economic factors predicted complicated grief and post-loss depressive symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, prospective Danish survey of caregivers. Questionnaires for their closest caregiver were...... (BDI-II) and predictive factors were analyzed with mutually adjusted multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: At six-month follow-up, 7.6% reported complicated grief and 12.1% reported post-loss depressive symptoms, whereas the levels of grief and depressive symptoms were higher pre......CONTEXT: Complicated grief and depressive symptoms in bereaved caregivers have been associated with female gender, spousal relation and pre-loss psychological distress, but population-based, prospective studies are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether severe pre-loss grief...

  14. Positive Outcomes Following Bereavement: Paths to Posttraumatic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence G Calhoun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent theory and research have drawn attention to the need to better understand the positive changes, termed posttraumatic growth, that often occur in bereaved individuals; even as negative emotions related to grief persist. We describe five dimensions of posttraumatic growth and present a model for understanding how the loss of a close other can eventually lead to a recognition of important positive personal changes. Loss, especially unexpected loss, disrupts an individual's beliefs about the world and initiates a process of rebuilding an understanding. During this process, many people come to realise their own strengths, appreciate the impact of their relationships, and have new spiritual insights. A strategy for facilitating growth during clinical work also is described.

  15. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  16. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC). A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing attachment styles. This may

  17. Changes in Perceptions of Opioids Before and After Admission to Palliative Care Units in Japan: Results of a Nationwide Bereaved Family Member Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Sato, Kazuki; Miyazaki, Tamana; Shoji, Ayaka; Chiba, Yurika; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify perspectives of bereaved family members regarding opioids and compare perceptions before admission and after bereavement. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey for bereaved family members in 100 inpatient palliative care units was administered. Participants were 297 bereaved family members of patients who used opioids. Many bereaved family members had misconceptions of opioids before admission. There was improvement after bereavement, but understanding remained low. Respondents less than 65 years old showed significantly greater decreases in misconceptions regarding opioids compared to older generations, after bereavement. Bereaved family members who were misinformed about opioids by physicians were significantly more likely to have misconceptions about opioids. Educational interventions for physicians are needed to ensure that they offer correct information to the general population.

  18. Strengthening Effective Parenting Practices over the Long Term: Effects of a Preventive Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Melissa J.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ayers, Tim S.; Luecken, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for bereaved families, on effective parenting (e.g., caregiver warmth, consistent discipline) 6 years after program completion. Families (n = 101; 69% female caregivers; 77% Caucasian, 11% Hispanic) with children between ages 8 and 16 who had…

  19. Bereavement photography for children: program development and health care professionals' response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Blehart, Kathleen; Hochberg, Todd; James, Kristin

    2013-07-01

    Reports of in-hospital bereavement photography focus largely on stillborns and neonates. Empiric data regarding the implementation of bereavement photography in pediatrics beyond the neonatal period and the impact of such programs on healthcare professionals (HCPs) is lacking. The authors describe the implementation of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) bereavement photography program and use questionnaire data from HCPs to describe HCPs' reflections on the program and to identify program barriers. From July 2007 through April 2070, families of 59 (36%) of the 164 patients who died in the PICU participated in our bereavement photography program. Forty questionnaires from 29 HCPs caring for 39 participating patients/families indicated that families seemed grateful for the service (n = 34; 85%) and that the program helped HCPs feel better about their role (n = 30; 70%). Many HCPs disagreed that the program consumed too much of his/her time (n = 34; 85%) and that the photographer made his/her job difficult (n = 37; 92.5%). Qualitative analysis of responses to open-ended questions revealed 4 categories: the program's general value; positive aspects of the program; negative aspects of the program; and suggestions for improvements. Implementing bereavement photography in the PICU is feasible though some barriers exist. HCPs may benefit from such programs.

  20. Truth disclosure of cancer diagnoses and its influence on bereaved Japanese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Michiyo; Onishi, Chiemi; Ouishi, Fumiko

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how patients with cancer and their families are informed of the results of the patients' diagnoses. The bereaved families' assessments and satisfaction with the consequences of their decisions were examined after the patients' deaths. Data were collected from the bereaved families of 53 patients who had died of lung cancer at a Japanese university hospital between January 1994 and December 1997. Data were analyzed by employing descriptive statistics for each factor. Fifty-three bereaved families responded to the questionnaire. The true diagnosis-lung cancer-was disclosed to 15.1% of the patients, whereas 26.4% were told that they were suffering from lung tumors. Other less ominous clinical descriptions were given to 58.5% of the participants. Concerning the bereaved families' responses to the manner in which the decisions had been made on truth disclosure, the average degree of satisfaction was expressed as 3.7 cm on a 5.0-cm scale. An ambiguous expression such as "lung tumor" has been arbitrarily interpreted. However, simple truth disclosure to the patient does not necessarily satisfy a bereaved family. If family members can allay a patient's doubt about the diagnosis, the family's satisfaction may improve.

  1. The prediction of bereavement outcome: development of an integrative risk factor framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebe, Margaret Susan; Folkman, Susan; Hansson, Robert O; Schut, Henk

    2006-11-01

    We propose an integrative risk factor framework to enhance understanding of individual differences in adjustment to bereavement and to encourage more systematic analysis of factors contributing to bereavement outcome (e.g., examination of interactions between variables and establishing pathways in the adaptation process). The examination of individual differences in adaptation to bereavement is essential for practical (e.g. targeting high risk individuals for intervention) and theoretical (e.g. testing the validity of theoretical claims about sources of differences) purposes. And yet, existing theoretical approaches have not led to systematic empirical examination and empirical studies in the current literature are fraught with shortcomings. Derived from Cognitive Stress Theory [Lazarus, R. S. & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer] and the stressor-specific Dual Process Model of Coping with Bereavement [Stroebe, M. S., & Schut, H. A. W. (1999). The dual process model of coping with bereavement: Rationale and description. Death Studies, 23, 197-224], the framework incorporates an analysis of stressors, intra/interpersonal risk/protective factors, and appraisal and coping processes that are postulated to impact on outcome. Advantages of using the approach are outlined. Challenges in undertaking such research are addressed.

  2. DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S; Cohen, Judith A; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in the Appendix as an invitation for further research. These diagnoses currently do not include developmentally informed criteria, despite the importance of developmental processes in the ways children and adolescents grieve. In this article, we draw upon a selective review of the empirical literature and expert clinical knowledge to recommend developmentally informed modifications and specifiers of the proposed criteria for both bereavement disorders and strategies to improve future research. This article is derived from an invited report submitted to the DSM-V Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma, and Dissociative Disorders Sub-Work Group, and suggested modifications have received preliminary approval to be incorporated into the DSM-V at the time of this writing. Adoption of these proposals will have far-reaching consequences, given that DSM-V criteria will influence both critical treatment choices for bereaved youth and the next generation of research studies.

  3. Emotion regulation in bereavement: searching for and finding emotional support in social network sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döveling, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    In an age of rising impact of online communication in social network sites (SNS), emotional interaction is neither limited nor restricted by time or space. Bereavement extends to the anonymity of cyberspace. What role does virtual interaction play in SNS in dealing with the basic human emotion of grief caused by the loss of a beloved person? The analysis laid out in this article provides answers in light of an interdisciplinary perspective on online bereavement. Relevant lines of research are scrutinized. After laying out the theoretical spectrum for the study, hypotheses based on a prior in-depth qualitative content analysis of 179 postings in three different German online bereavement platforms are proposed and scrutinized in a quantitative content analysis (2127 postings from 318 users). Emotion regulation patterns in SNS and similarities as well as differences in online bereavement of children, adolescents and adults are revealed. Large-scale quantitative findings into central motives, patterns, and restorative effects of online shared bereavement in regulating distress, fostering personal empowerment, and engendering meaning are presented. The article closes with implications for further analysis in memorialization practices.

  4. Sudden-On-Chronic Death and Complicated Grief in Bereaved Dementia Caregivers: Two Case Studies of Complicated Grief Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiano, Katherine P; Andersen, Troy C; Haynes, Lara Burns

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease is challenging and often has negative health and mental health effects that, for 7-20% of caregivers, persist into bereavement in the form of complicated grief. Complicated grief is a state of prolonged and ineffective mourning. An under-recognized phenomenon in dementia care and bereavement is "sudden-on-chronic death." In these situations, the caregiver is preparing for a gradual dying process from dementia, but the care recipient dies instead from a sudden death. In this study, an application of complicated grief group therapy for bereaved dementia caregivers with complicated grief is presented, and the effect of therapy with two bereaved caregivers who experienced the sudden death of their spouses who had a diagnosis of dementia is described. The unique treatment elements of complicated grief group therapy facilitated resolution of the 'trauma-like" features of bereavement and progression to a healthy grief process.

  5. Impact of a Neonatal-Bereavement-Support DVD on Parental Grief: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Joan L; Smith, Joan R; Yan, Yan; Abram, Nancy; Jeffe, Donna B

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the effect of a neonatal-bereavement-support DVD on parental grief after their baby's death in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit compared with standard bereavement care (controls). Following a neonatal death, the authors measured grief change from a 3- to 12-month follow-up using a mixed-effects model. Intent-to-treat analysis was not significant, but only 18 parents selectively watched the DVD. Thus, we subsequently compared DVD viewers with DVD nonviewers and controls. DVD viewers reported higher grief at 3-month interviews compared with DVD nonviewers and controls. Higher grief at 3 months was negatively correlated with social support and spiritual/religious beliefs. These findings have implications for neonatal-bereavement care.

  6. Preconception maternal bereavement and infant and childhood mortality: A Danish population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Dalman, Christina; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Khashan, Ali S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, though these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood. Methods Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979–2009 (N=1,865,454), we predicted neonatal (0–28 days), post-neonatal infant (29–364 days), and early childhood (1–5 years) mortality following maternal bereavement in the preconception (6–0 months before pregnancy) and prenatal (between conception and birth) periods. Maternal bereavement was defined as death of a first degree relative of the mother. Analyses were conducted using logistic and log-linear Poisson regression that were adjusted for offspring, mother, and father sociodemographic and health factors. Results We identified 6,541 (0.004%) neonates, 3,538 (0.002%) post-neonates, and 2,132 (0.001%) children between the ages of 1 to 5 years who died. After adjusting for covariates, bereavement during the preconception period was associated with an increased odds of neonatal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.53–2.30) and post-neonatal infant mortality (aOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.15–2.02). Associations were timing-specific (6 months prior to pregnancy only) and consistent across sensitivity analyses. Bereavement during the prenatal period was not consistently associated with increased risk of offspring mortality, however this may reflect relatively low statistical power. Conclusions Results support and extend previous findings linking bereavement during the preconception period with increased odds of early offspring mortality. The period immediately prior to pregnancy may be a sensitive period with potential etiological implications and ramifications for offspring mortality. PMID:26374948

  7. Does bereavement-related first episode depression differ from other kinds of first depressions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla;

    2009-01-01

    (4.7%) had experienced death of a first degree relative (parent, sibling, child) or a near friend, 163 patients (54.2%) had experienced other moderate to severe stressful life events and 112 patients had not experienced stressful life events in a 6 months period prior to the onset of depression....... Patients who had experienced bereavement did not differ from patients with other stressful life events or from patients without stressful life events in socio-demographic variables or in the phenomenology of the depression, psychiatric comorbidity, family history or response to antidepressant treatment....... CONCLUSION: Bereavement-related first episode depression does not differ from other kinds of first depression....

  8. "No rights or wrongs, no magic solutions": teachers' responses to bereaved adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Nicola; Rowland, Ann; Beinart, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to understand how teachers responded to students bereaved of a parent. The authors interviewed 12 secondary school teachers and implemented a grounded theory design. Participants described how they engage in six central processes: flexibility, openness, support, emotionality, sharing, and communication. The authors conceptualized these processes as continua with opposing actions at each end. Teachers' movement on the continua is fluid, influenced by systemic factors, student-specific factors and factors individual to the teacher. Responses on the continua in relation to each student's bereavement are unique to each teacher-student relationship.

  9. Parental divorce and parental death - An integrative systematic review of children’s double bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Poul; Marcussen, Jette; Hounsgaard, Lise;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge...... and practice for nurses and other health professionals, so they can intervene with these children and adolescents more efficaciously. An integrative systematic review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The results show four major themes: Complexity in their experiences of double bereavement...

  10. Suicidal ideation and distress in family members bereaved by suicide in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Campos, Rui C; Tavares, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the impact of suicide and distress on suicidal ideation in a sample of 93 Portuguese family members bereaved by suicide. A control community sample of 102 adults also participated. After controlling for educational level, those bereaved by the suicide of a family member were found to have higher levels of suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent of family members had Suicide Ideation Questionnaire scores at or above the cutoff point. General distress, depression, anxiety, and hostility related to suicidal ideation, whereas time since suicide also interacted with general distress and depression in predicting suicidal ideation.

  11. The Effects of the Family Bereavement Program to Reduce Suicide Ideation and/or Attempts of Parentally Bereaved Children Six and Fifteen Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim S

    2016-04-01

    Findings concerning the long-term effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) to reduce suicide ideation and/or attempts of parentally bereaved children and adolescents are presented. Parental death is a significant risk factor for suicide among offspring (Guldin et al., 2015). This study is a long-term follow-up of 244 children and adolescents who had participated in a randomized trial of the FBP, examining the intervention effects on suicide ideation and/or attempts as assessed through multiple sources. Results indicate a significant effect of the FBP to reduce suicide ideation and/or attempts at the 6- and 15-year follow-up evaluation. The findings support the potential benefits of further research on "upstream" suicide prevention.

  12. Concept of death and perceptions of bereavement in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEvoy, J

    2012-02-01

    Bereavement is potentially a time of disruption and emotional distress. For individuals with an intellectual disability (ID), a limited understanding of the concept of death may exacerbate this distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate how individuals with ID understand and explain death and make sense of life without the deceased.

  13. Concept of Death and Perceptions of Bereavement in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, J.; MacHale, R.; Tierney, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bereavement is potentially a time of disruption and emotional distress. For individuals with an intellectual disability (ID), a limited understanding of the concept of death may exacerbate this distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate how individuals with ID understand and explain death and make sense of life without…

  14. Ghosts, Meaning, and Faith: After-Death Communications in Bereavement Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwilecki, Susan

    2011-01-01

    After-death communications (ADCs) are reported encounters with a deceased loved one, a contemporary type of ghost experience heralded as therapeutic in coping with bereavement. Pertinent literature generally illustrates the healing power of ADCs with brief, self-contained episodes. The functions of ADCs over the course of grief need exploration.…

  15. Dreams of Deceased Children and Countertransference in the Group Psychotherapy of Bereaved Mothers: Clinical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents, in the form of a clinical illustration, a therapeutic group of bereaved mothers with special reference to their dreams about their deceased children. The article presents descriptions of the emotions of these mothers and countertransference feelings, a topic that, to our knowledge, has not been frequently studied. The group…

  16. Opportunities for quality improvement in bereavement care at a children's hospital: assessment of interdisciplinary staff perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contro, Nancy; Sourkes, Barbara M

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the current state of bereavement care at a university-based children's hospital from the perspective of the interdisciplinary staff. In all, 60 staff members from multiple disciplines participated in in-depth interviews. In at least two-thirds of the interviews, issues related to the bereavement experience of both staff and families emerged and were consistently identified. Themes included: disparities in bereavement care based on relationship factors; logistics of time and space; geographical distances; the different cultures and languages of families; continuity in family follow-up; needs of siblings and other family members; staff communication, cooperation, and care coordination; staff suffering; and education, mentoring, and support for staff. This evidence-based needs assessment furnishes an empirical basis for the design and implementation of bereavement services for both families and staff. It can serve as a template for evaluation at other children's hospitals and thus contribute to the sound and creative development of the field of pediatric palliative care.

  17. Uses of media in everyday practices of grief among bereaved parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    continues the bonds (Cf. Walter 1999) to the dead child so that the bereaved can re-integrate the dead into their everyday life. This perspective implies that grieving is not allocated to a specific period of time (a time of mourning) but that grieving and the uses of social technologies like media related...

  18. Guilt in Bereavement : The Role of Self-Blame and Regret in Coping with Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Van De Schoot, Rens; Schut, Henk; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the apparent centrality of guilt in complicating reactions following bereavement, scientific investigation has been limited. Establishing the impact of specific components associated with guilt could enhance understanding. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between two gu

  19. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on on

  20. From loss to loneliness : The relationship between bereavement and depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E. I.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Arjadi, R.; Borsboom, D.; Amshoff, M.; Cramer, A. O. J.; Epskamp, S.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Carr, D.; Stroebe, M.

    2015-01-01

    Spousal bereavement can cause a rise in depressive symptoms. This study empirically evaluates 2 competing explanations concerning how this causal effect is brought about: (a) a traditional latent variable explanation, in which loss triggers depression which then leads to symptoms; and (b) a novel ne

  1. Navigating Bereavement with Spirituality-Based Interventions: Implications for Non-Faith-Based Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Jacqueline E. Thurston; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between spirituality and bereavement has been studied in a multitude of disciplines, yet there is a significant gap in the counseling literature on this topic. The authors explore how spirituality is often avoided in secular counseling settings, discuss adverse effects of unresolved grief on clients' functioning, and propose the…

  2. Parents bereaved by infant death: Sex differences and moderation in PTSD, attachment, coping, and social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Olff, Miranda; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents bereaved by infant death experience a wide range of symptomatology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that may persist for years after the loss. Little research has been conducted on PTSD in fathers who have lost an infant. Mothers report most symptoms to a greater...

  3. Visiting the Site of Death: Experiences of the Bereaved after the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Tonnessen, Arnfinn; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined how many bereaved relatives of Norwegian tourists who perished in the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami had visited the site of death and the most important outcome from the visit. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 110) and used self-report questionnaires (Impact of Event Scale--Revised, Inventory of Complicated Grief, and…

  4. Bereavement and Loss: Developing a Memory Box to Support a Young Woman with Profound Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Garrard, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Supporting bereaved people with profound learning disabilities still remains an under-researched area. Moreover, the barriers of communication and disenfranchised grief mean that they often do not receive the support they require, leading to emotional and behavioural difficulties. This article describes research using a case study design, which…

  5. Race and Type of Death as Factors in the Experience of Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Beth N.; Mauger, Paul A.

    Recent research suggests that circumstances surrounding the death of a loved one and the characteristics of the survivor may affect the grief reaction. To investigate the effect of race and type of death (sudden or anticipated) on the bereavement experience, a true-false questionnaire and the Grief Experience Inventory were administered to 74…

  6. Recruiting bereaved parents for research after infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin R; Roche, Cathy; Christian, Becky J; Bakitas, Marie; Meneses, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Understanding parental experiences following infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a high research priority and a necessary first step to improving health services. However, recruiting bereaved parents to discuss their experiences on such an extremely sensitive topic can be challenging and research procedures must be planned carefully in order to get an adequate sample. There is little published in the literature detailing specific strategies for recruiting bereaved parents for grief research, especially strategies for contacting parents and identifying factors that might affect participation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of recruiting bereaved parents into a qualitative research study exploring parental NICU experiences and grief responses following infant death. We describe a successful recruitment plan that led to the enrollment of difficult to recruit participants such as fathers, and individuals representing minorities and those from lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. Bereaved parents of infants after an NICU hospitalization should continue to be recruited for research studies for their unique perspectives and valuable insights about the devastating experience of infant death. Participants in this study reported more benefits than harm and the results addressed a critical gap in the literature.

  7. Bereavement and Coping of South Asian Families Post 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Arpana G.; Yeh, Christine J.; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Nath, Shivani

    2007-01-01

    Eleven first-generation South Asian family members who lost a relative in the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001, were interviewed about their loss and their coping strategies. Data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology. Participant responses clearly delineated bereavement reactions and coping within a…

  8. Do personal conditions and circumstances surrounding partner loss explain loneliness in newly bereaved older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarsen, B.; Smit, J.H; Snijders, T.A.B.; Knipscheer, K.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to explain loneliness in newly bereaved older adults, taking into account personal and circumstantial conditions surrounding the partner's death. A distinction is made between emotional and social loneliness. Data were gathered both before and after partner loss. Results

  9. Who Dies and Who Cries: Death and Bereavement in Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy E.; Mae, Reet

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the portrayal of death and bereavement in children's literature, focusing on the central character in the book, the death, and the subsequent effect of the death on the central character. Reveals that characters exhibit stereotypical male/female behavior, with little portrayal of natural grief or changed life circumstances. (MM)

  10. The Effect of Bereavement Upon Death-Related Attitudes and Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Howard T.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews and critiques existing theory and research on the issue of how attitudes and fears of death are influenced by recent bereavement. While the identification and validation of distinct stages of grief has demonstrated the powerful impact of death upon survivors, other research suggests that exposure to death does not alter one's attitudes or…

  11. Family matters in bereavement : Toward an integrative intra-interpersonal coping model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, M.S.; Schut, H.A.W.

    2015-01-01

    The death of a loved one can be heartbreaking for those left behind, and indeed, bereavement is associated not only with adverse health effects but also a higher risk of dying oneself. Not surprisingly, its consequences have been the subject of much psychological enquiry, with a major interest in sh

  12. Commentary on the Inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder in DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2012-01-01

    The DSM-5 Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, Posttraumatic, and Dissociative Disorders Work Group has proposed criteria for Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder (PCBRD) for inclusion in the appendix of DSM-5. The authors feel that it is important that dysfunctional grief will become a formal condition in DSM-5 because that would…

  13. A Delphi Study on Staff Bereavement Training in the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Truesdale, Jesslyn

    2015-01-01

    The Delphi technique was used to obtain expert panel consensus to prioritize content areas and delivery methods for developing staff grief and bereavement curriculum training in the intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) field. The Delphi technique was conducted with a panel of 18 experts from formal and informal disability caregiving,…

  14. Evaluation of a Bereavement Training Program for Staff in an Intellectual Disabilities Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sile; Guerin, Suzanne; McEvoy, John; Dodd, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The impact of a staff-training program on knowledge and confidence in supporting people with intellectual disabilities (ID) at the time of bereavement was examined. Thirty-three staff members from a Dublin, Ireland-based ID support service participated in the study. Both the training (n = 17) and control (n = 16) groups completed measures of…

  15. Prenatal exposure to bereavement and type-2 diabetes: a Danish longitudinal population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasveer Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type-2 diabetes is only partly known, and a possible role of prenatal stress in programming offspring for insulin resistance has been suggested by animal models. Previously, we found an association between prenatal stress and type-1 diabetes. Here we examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and pregnancy and development of type-2 diabetes in the off-spring. METHODS: We utilized data from the Danish Civil Registration System to identify singleton births in Denmark born January 1(st 1979 through December 31(st 2008 (N = 1,878,246, and linked them to their parents, grandparents, and siblings. We categorized children as exposed to bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband or parent during the period from one year before conception to the child's birth. We identified 45,302 children exposed to maternal bereavement; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. The outcome of interest was diagnosis of type-2 diabetes. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs from birth using log-linear poisson regression models and used person-years as the offset variable. All models were adjusted for maternal residence, income, education, marital status, sibling order, calendar year, sex, and parents' history of diabetes at the time of pregnancy. RESULTS: We found children exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life were more likely to have a type-2 diabetes diagnosis later in life (aIRR: 1.31, 1.01-1.69. These findings were most pronounced when bereavement was caused by death of an elder child (aIRR: 1.51, 0.94-2.44. Results also indicated the second trimester of pregnancy to be the most sensitive period of bereavement exposure (aIRR:2.08, 1.15-3.76. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that fetal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and the prenatal period may increase the risk for developing type-2 diabetes in

  16. Viewing the body after bereavement due to suicide: a population-based survey in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Omerov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on the assumed, positive and negative, psychological effects of viewing the body after a suicide loss is sparse. We hypothesized that suicide-bereaved parents that viewed their childs body in a formal setting seldom regretted the experience, and that viewing the body was associated with lower levels of psychological morbidity two to five years after the loss. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 915 suicide-bereaved parents by linkage of nationwide population-based registries and collected data by a questionnaire. The outcome measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. In total, 666 (73% parents participated. Of the 460 parents (69% that viewed the body, 96% answered that they did not regret the experience. The viewing was associated with a higher risk of reliving the child's death through nightmares (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.32 and intrusive memories (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38, but not with anxiety (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.40 and depression (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.83. One limitation of our study is that we lack data on the informants' personality and coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: In this Swedish population-based survey of suicide-bereaved parents, we found that by and large everyone that had viewed their deceased child in a formal setting did not report regretting the viewing when asked two to five years after the loss. Our findings suggest that most bereaved parents are capable of deciding if they want to view the body or not. Officials may assist by giving careful information about the child's appearance and other details concerning the viewing, thus facilitating mental preparation for the bereaved person. This is the first large-scale study on the effects of viewing the body after a suicide and additional studies are needed before clinical recommendations can be made.

  17. Meaning Making during Parent-Physician Bereavement Meetings after a Child’s Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, Kathleen L.; Eggly, Susan; Kavanaugh, Karen; Berg, Robert A.; Wessel, David L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Harrison, Rick; Dalton, Heidi; Dean, J. Michael; Doctor, Allan; Jenkins, Tammara; Park, Crystal L

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify and describe types of meaning-making processes that occur among parents during bereavement meetings with their child’s intensive care physician after their child’s death in a pediatric intensive care unit. Methods Fifty-three parents of 35 deceased children participated in a bereavement meeting with their child’s physician 14.5±6.3 weeks after the child’s death. One meeting was conducted per family. Meetings were video recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using a directed content analysis, an interdisciplinary team analyzed the transcripts to identify and describe meaning-making processes that support and extend extant meaning-making theory. Results Four major meaning-making processes were identified: (1) sense making, (2) benefit finding, (3) continuing bonds, and (4) identity reconstruction. Sense making refers to seeking biomedical explanations for the death, revisiting parents' prior decisions and roles, and assigning blame. Benefit finding refers to exploring positive consequences of the death including ways to help others such as giving feedback to the hospital, making donations, participating in research, volunteering, and contributing to new medical knowledge. Continuing bonds refers to parents’ ongoing connection with the deceased child manifested by reminiscing about the child, sharing photographs, and discussing personal rituals, linking objects and community events to honor the child. Identity reconstruction refers to changes in parents' sense of self including changes in relationships, work, home, and leisure. Conclusions Parent-physician bereavement meetings facilitate several types of meaning-making processes among bereaved parents. Further research should evaluate the extent to which meaning making during bereavement meetings affects parents’ health outcomes. PMID:25822059

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Bereavement: Early Psychological Sequelae of Losing a Close Relative Due to Terminal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T. E.; Elklit, A.; Karstoft, K. I.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of bereavement from terminal illness. Therefore, knowledge on the traumatizing effects of bereavement and risk factors for traumatization from bereavement is rather sparse. This study investigated prevalence...... and predictors of PTSD in a group of people who had recently lost a close relative due to incurable cancer. The participants were 132 persons who were assessed with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, the Trauma Symptom Checklist, and the Crisis Support Scale. One month after the loss, 29.5% of the subjects had...... clinical PTSD and an additional 26.2% reached a subclinical PTSD level. Negative affectivity, social support, and locus of control in relation to the loss predicted 57% of the variance in PTSD severity. A focus on these risk factors in early assessment after bereavement will help identify subjects at risk...

  19. From Body to Mind and Spirit: Qigong Exercise for Bereaved Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bereavement may bring negative impacts on the mind, body, and spiritual well-being of grieving persons. Some bereaved persons with chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- illness experience a dual burden of distress. This study investigated the effects of bereavement on CFS-like illness by comparing bereaved and nonbereaved participants. It also adopted a random group design to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong on improving the well-being of bereaved participants. The Qigong intervention comprised 10 group sessions delivered twice a week for 5 weeks and home-practice for at least three times a week lasting 15–30 minutes each. The participants’ fatigue, anxiety, and depression, quality of life (QoL, and spiritual well-being were measured at baseline and 3 months after treatment. The bereaved participants experienced significantly greater mental fatigue (16.09 versus 14.44, p=0.017 and lower physical QoL (34.02 versus 37.17, p=0.011 than their nonbereaved counterparts. After 3 months, the mental fatigue (−8 versus −4, p=0.010 and physical fatigue (−10 versus −5, p=0.007 experienced by intervention group had declined significantly, and improvements on their spirituality (14 versus −2, p=0.013 and psychological QoL (8.91 versus 0.69, p=0.002 scores exceeded those of the control group.

  20. Bereavement and behavioral changes as risk factors for cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca LM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Luciana Mascarenhas Fonseca,1 Melaine Cristina de Oliveira,2 Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto,3,4 Esper Abrao Cavalheiro,3,4 Cássio MC Bottino1 1Old Age Research Group, Department of Psychiatry, 2Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, University of São Paulo, 3Association of Parents and Friends of People with Intellectual Disability of São Paulo, 4Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease often affect older adults with Down syndrome (DS much earlier than those in the general population. There is also growing evidence of the effects of negative life events on the mental health and behavior of individuals with intellectual disability. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study investigating objective cognitive decline following bereavement in aging individuals with DS.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of a caregiver or with behavioral changes in a sample of adult individuals with DS who do not meet the criteria for dementia or depression, using the longitudinal assessment of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG, together with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE.Methods: We evaluated 18 subjects at baseline and over a follow-up period of 14–22 months, attempting to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of the main caregiver or with behavioral changes (as assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.Results: The mean rate of change in CAMCOG was -1.83 (standard deviation 4.51. Behavioral changes had a significant direct influence on cognitive decline. When bereavement was accompanied by behavioral changes, the probability of cognitive decline was 87% (odds ratio 3.82. Conclusion: The occurrence of behavioral changes attributed to bereavement following the loss of

  1. Recruitment methods for intervention research in bereavement-related depression. Five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlernitzauer, M; Bierhals, A J; Geary, M D; Prigerson, H G; Stack, J A; Miller, M D; Pasternak, R E; Reynolds, C F

    1998-01-01

    The authors compared various strategies for recruiting elderly subjects with bereavement-related depression into a randomized clinical trial. Over 5 years, they empaneled 65 patients from a total of 441 subjects screened (14.7%). Response to media advertisements was the single most effective strategy (54% of subjects). Another effective, but labor-intensive, strategy was using letters to bereaved spouses found through newspaper obituaries (14%); another 14% were referred by friends who had seen study advertisements. Information letters to healthcare providers yielded no study participants. Pathways to study participation did not differ as a function of race or gender and did not influence study retention or remission rates. Our experience suggests that successful intake depends on a personal mode of recruitment.

  2. Good grief: bereavement literature for young adults and A Monster Calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Giskin

    2012-12-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of critically acclaimed novels for young adults dealing with bereavement. This is part of a 'bereavement turn'--a contemporary cultural movement to examine publicly our attitudes to death and grieving. This paper examines the narrative strategies in Patrick Ness's award-winning novel A Monster Calls to look at the ways in which the psychic burden of the impending loss of a parent through cancer is managed. The book draws on conventions of children's literature to create a sense of familiarity that helps to balance the emotional stress of the story. The Kübler-Ross stages of grief serve as a heuristic that helps the story deliver catharsis in spite of its inevitably traumatic subject matter. A Monster Calls is an important addition to the canon of fictional pathography.

  3. Bereaved parents’ online grief communities: de-tabooing practices or relationbuilding grief-ghettos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Hård af Segerstad, Ylva

    Parents may talk about their children extensively, as long as they are alive, but expressing the same kind of parental practice is taboo, once your child is dead (at least in the Nordic countries). This limits bereaved parents’ means for coping with and interpersonally communicating about...... both the interpersonal communication and social interactions about and with the deceased child. This study presents results from case studies of both open and closed online grief communities for bereaved parents in Denmark and Sweden (Refslund Christensen & Sandvik 2013, Hård af Segerstad & Kasperowski...... norms and traditions are performed, challenged and negotiated in the various formats of interpersonal comminications. Can these practices lead to a softening of prejudices against mourners, i.e. de-tabooing the loss of a child, or do they lead to new biases and misconceptions as displayed in popular...

  4. Posttraumatic symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members with special regard to suicide and homicide cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n = 42), and others (n = 35). With regard to the 3 main PTSD-related criteria, (a) re-experiencing symptoms were not dependent on the manner of death or the relationship to the deceased; (b) avoidance behaviors were more highly related to homicide than natural death for relatives other than parent-child and conjugal relationships; and (c) hyperarousal and maladaptation symptoms were more serious for conjugal loss. These findings suggest that avoidance behaviors in homicidal cases are more closely associated with a distant family relationship, whereas conjugal loss is traumatic, irrespective of the manner of death, often causing hyperarousal and maladaptation symptoms.

  5. In-utero exposure to bereavement and offspring IQ: a Danish national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasveer Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. METHODS: We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N = 167,900. The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. RESULTS: When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value = 0.01. We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. CONCLUSION: We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal

  6. Bereaved Parents’ and Siblings’ Reports of Legacies Created by Children With Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Terrah L.; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Davies, Betty; Barrera, Maru; Fairclough, Diane; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study explored bereaved parents’ and siblings’ reports of legacies created by children with advanced cancer. Participants included 40 families of children who died from cancer, with 36 mothers, 27 fathers, and 40 siblings (ages 8–18 years). Individual interviews were completed at home approximately 10.68 months (SD = 3.48) after the child’s death. Content analysis of interviews indicated that many children living with cancer did specific things to be remembered, such as makin...

  7. Maternal bereavement and childhood asthma-analyses in two large samples of Swedish children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal factors such as prenatal psychological stress might influence the development of childhood asthma. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the association between maternal bereavement shortly before and during pregnancy, as a proxy for prenatal stress, and the risk of childhood asthma in the offspring, based on two samples of children 1-4 (n = 426,334 and 7-12 (n = 493,813 years assembled from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Exposure was maternal bereavement of a close relative from one year before pregnancy to child birth. Asthma event was defined by a hospital contact for asthma or at least two dispenses of inhaled corticosteroids or montelukast. In the younger sample we calculated hazards ratios (HRs of a first-ever asthma event using Cox models and in the older sample odds ratio (ORs of an asthma attack during 12 months using logistic regression. Compared to unexposed boys, exposed boys seemed to have a weakly higher risk of first-ever asthma event at 1-4 years (HR: 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98, 1.22 as well as an asthma attack during 12 months at 7-12 years (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.24. No association was suggested for girls. Boys exposed during the second trimester had a significantly higher risk of asthma event at 1-4 years (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.02 and asthma attack at 7-12 years if the bereavement was an older child (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.25. The associations tended to be stronger if the bereavement was due to a traumatic death compared to natural death, but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed some evidence for a positive association between prenatal stress and childhood asthma among boys but not girls.

  8. Is rumination after bereavement linked with loss avoidance? Evidence from eye-tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten C Eisma

    Full Text Available Rumination is a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement. It is associated with and predicts psychopathology after loss. Yet, the function of rumination in bereavement remains unclear. In the past, researchers often assumed rumination to be a maladaptive confrontation process. However, based on cognitive avoidance theories of worry in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD and rumination after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, others have suggested that rumination may serve to avoid painful aspects of the loss, thereby contributing to complicated grief. To examine if rumination is linked with loss avoidance, an eye-tracking study was conducted with 54 bereaved individuals (27 high and 27 low ruminators. On 24 trials, participants looked for 10 seconds at a picture of the deceased and a picture of a stranger, randomly combined with negative, neutral or loss-related words. High ruminators were expected to show initial vigilance followed by subsequent disengagement for loss stimuli (i.e., picture deceased with a loss word in the first 1500 ms. Additionally, we expected high ruminators to avoid these loss stimuli and to show attentional preference for non-loss-related negative stimuli (i.e., picture stranger with a negative word on longer exposure durations (1500-10000 ms. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence for an effect of rumination on vigilance and disengagement of loss stimuli in the first 1500 ms. However, in the 1500-10000 ms interval, high ruminators showed shorter gaze times for loss stimuli and longer gaze times for negative (and neutral non-loss-related stimuli, even when controlling for depression and complicated grief symptom levels. Effects of rumination on average fixation times mirrored these findings. This suggests that rumination and loss avoidance are closely associated. A potential clinical implication is that rumination and grief complications after bereavement may be reduced through the use of exposure and acceptance

  9. Communication skills in Obstetrics: what can we learn from bereaved parents?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nuzum, D

    2017-02-01

    Communicating bad news in obstetrics is challenging. This study explores the impact of how bad news was communicated to parents following a diagnosis of stillbirth. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 mothers and 5 fathers, bereaved following stillbirth at a tertiary maternity hospital where the perinatal mortality rate is 5.2\\/1000. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. How the diagnosis of stillbirth was communicated had a profound and lasting impact on parents. Dominant superordinate themes were Language used, Sensitivity and Diversionary techniques. Parents recalled in detail where and how bad news was broken and language used. Diversionary techniques created a sense of mistrust especially when parents felt information was being withheld. Bereaved parents valued privacy at the time of diagnosis of stillbirth.This study highlights the importance of language, sensitivity and environment where clinicians can learn from the experiences of bereaved parents who value open, sensitive and honest communication. The results of this study highlight the importance of patient-focused communication training for clinicians.

  10. Witness to suffering: mindfulness and compassion fatigue among traumatic bereavement volunteers and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieleman, Kara; Cacciatore, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    This study used a survey to investigate the relationship between mindfulness and compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction among 41 volunteers and professionals at an agency serving the traumatically bereaved. Compassion fatigue comprises two aspects: secondary traumatic stress and burnout. Because prior research suggests that compassion satisfaction may protect against compassion fatigue, the authors hypothesized that (a) mindfulness would be positively correlated with compassion satisfaction, (b) mindfulness would be inversely correlated with compassion fatigue, and (c) there would be differences between respondents with a personal history of traumatic bereavement and those with no such history. Correlation analyses supported the first two hypotheses; an independent means t test did not provide evidence for the latter hypothesis, although the number ofnontraumatically bereaved respondents was small. Overall, this sample showed surprisingly high levels of compassion satisfaction and low levels of compassion fatigue, even among respondents thought to be at higher risk of problems due to personal trauma. Implications of these findings are particularly relevant for social workers and other professionals employed in positions in which they encounter trauma and high emotional stress.

  11. Family functioning and its predictors among disaster bereaved individuals in China: eighteen months after the Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China resulted in great loss of life and property, and previous studies have focused on psychopathological symptoms in survivors after disasters. This study examined perceived family functioning and its predictors in disaster bereaved individuals eighteen months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 264 bereaved individuals. The instruments used in the study included Family APGAR Index, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation ScaleãÀ, Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale, and a range of items eliciting demographic characteristics and disaster-related variables. The results indicated that the rates of moderate family dysfunction and severe family dysfunction in bereaved individuals were 37.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Less financial loss during the earthquake was a significant predictor for positive family function. Better self-rated health status after the earthquake was significantly related to positive family function, cohesion, and adaptability. Scores on family cohesion and adaptability in bereaved individuals from extended or nuclear families were significantly higher than those from single-parent families. The ability to give birth to another baby of bereaved parents was a significant predictor for positive family function and cohesion. Poorer family function, cohesion and adaptability were significantly related to greater loneliness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study found a high prevalence of family dysfunction in bereaved individuals eighteen months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Strategies can be designed to facilitate post-disaster recovery, particularly for the bereaved at high risk for family dysfunction. The study provides useful information for post-disaster rebuilding and relief work.

  12. The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Bereaved People with Loss-Related Distress: a Controlled Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Piet, Jacob; Hougaard, Esben

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on symptom severity of depression, complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, and working memory in elderly bereaved people with long-term bereavement-related distress. A non-randomized, controlled pilot design was used in a sample...

  13. A Comparative Study of the Child Bereavement and Loss Responses and Needs of Schools in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Anne; Holland, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of schools' responses to child bereavement in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland. In order to gain an insight and compare how schools in both geographical areas respond to and manage bereavement, the questionnaire "Loss in schools" was selected as an appropriate tool. It…

  14. Do circumstances of the death matter? Identifying socioenvironmental risks for grief-related psychopathology in bereaved youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Howell, Kathryn H; Layne, Christopher M

    2014-02-01

    We examined bereaved children's and surviving caregivers' psychological responses following the death of the other caregiver as a function of the stated cause of death. Participants included 63 parentally bereaved children and 38 surviving caregivers who were assessed using self-report instruments and in-person interviews. Surviving caregivers reported the causes of death as resulting from sudden natural death (34.9%), illness (33.3%), accident (17.5%), and suicide (14.3%). Results revealed differences between caregiver-reported versus child-reported cause of death, particularly in cases of suicide. Children who lost a caregiver due to a prolonged illness exhibited higher levels of both maladaptive grief (d = 3.13) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS; d = 3.33) when compared to children who lost a caregiver due to sudden natural death (e.g., heart attack). In contrast, surviving caregivers did not differ in their levels of maladaptive grief and PTSS as a function of the cause of death; however, caregivers bereaved by sudden natural death reported higher levels of depression than those bereaved by prolonged illness (d = 1.36). Limited sample size prevented analysis of outcomes among those bereaved by suicide or accident. These findings suggest that anticipated deaths may contain etiologic risk factors for maladaptive grief and PTSS in children.

  15. Bereavement healing ministry amongst Abaluyia: Towards a ‘circle for pastoral concern’ as a healing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Shikwati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article formulates a new integrated pastoral care approach to bereavement healing ministry in Africa, termed a circle for pastoral concern. In pursuit of this, the article highlights the pastoral challenge brought about by the occurrence of death and bereavement within the cultural and Christian intermix. Using the example of the Abaluyia of western Kenya, traditional cultural bereavement healing approaches are assessed against the backdrop of Christian influence on the understanding and response to death and bereavement healing and the resultant tension. The article juxtaposes the Abaluyia cultural concept of okhukura[to encircle with loving care] with the biblical koinōnia[fellowship, communion] as springboard for building culturally sensitive and biblically sound Christian caring communities. It is hoped that the juxtaposition helps to establish and promote meaningful engagement between therapeutic traditional beliefs and practices, and the gospel. The gospel-culture engagement within a local church setting provides the context in which bereavement healing and individual growth after the death of a significant other takes place. The juxtaposition is necessitated by the rampant practice in African pluralistic societies where Christians consciously, or otherwise, lurch back to cultural approaches in their effort to provide or find healing when faced with death and bereavement. The ‘circle for pastoral concern’ model encourages inclusiveness by enlisting the means and talents of the community of believers, both ordained and lay. The principle of inclusion ensures that the load of pastoral care is shared and assumes a deeper response due to diversity of gifts and talents within the caring community.

  16. The temporal relationship between change in symptoms of prolonged grief and posttraumatic stress following old age spousal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Nickerson, Angela; Aderka, Idan M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: High levels of both prolonged grief symptoms (PGS) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are relatively common following bereavement, and the two types of bereavement complications share some of the same features. Little research has studied which of the two precedes the other...... during the year of 2006 lost their spouse. Participants completed self-report questionnaires at six months (n = 237), 13 months (n = 198), 18 months (n = 192), and 48 months (n = 213) post-loss. Main outcome measures were Inventory of Complicated Grief–Revised and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire...

  17. Seeking Legitimacy for DSM-5: The Bereavement Exception as an Example of Failed Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, James E; Daniels, Norman

    2017-02-01

    In 2013 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Even before publication, DSM-5 received a torrent of criticism, most prominently over removal of the "bereavement exclusion" for the diagnosis of major depression. We argue that while the APA can claim legitimate authority for deciding scientific questions, it does not have legitimacy for resolving what is ultimately a question of ethics and public policy. We show how the "accountability for reasonableness" framework for seeking legitimacy in health policy could have been used to achieve a better resolution of the conflict than actually occurred.

  18. Death and bereavement in the First World War: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalland, Pat

    2014-06-01

    The First World War was a turning point in the cultural history of death and bereavement in Australia. The mass deaths of some 60,000 soldiers overseas led to communal rituals of mourning for the war dead and minimal public expressions of private grief. The mass slaughter of so many young men and the interminable grief of so many families devalued the deaths of civilians at home and helped to create a new cultural model of suppressed and privatised grieving which deeply constrained the next two generations. Emotional and expressive grieving became less common, mourning ritual was minimised and sorrow became a private matter.

  19. Ideological meaning making after the loss of a child: the case of Israeli bereaved parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Adi; Leichtentritt, Ronit D

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a view of ideological meaning-making processes of 10 Israelis who lost a child examining the parents' perspectives and written public documents. The texts and interviews were analyzed using Gadamer's hermeneutic philosophy. Findings indicate that bereaved parents construct conflicting ideologically oriented viewpoints: doubting and affirming the Zionist ideology; ascribing sense and senselessness to the loss; and joining the ethos but keeping personal meanings. Our conclusion is consistent with theorists who reject the notion that the human narrative should be coherently unified. We point to potential links between relational dialectics and meaning-making theory and outline implications for practice.

  20. Predictors of grief in bereaved family caregivers of person's with Alzheimer's disease: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Melissa M; Ott, Carol H; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to identify factors in 66 spouses and adult child caregivers of person's with Alzheimer's disease prior to the death that predicted higher levels of grief in bereavement. A hierarchical regression model was tested. Predeath grief, dysfunctional coping, depression, social support, and decreased positive states of mind explained 54.7% of the variance in postdeath grief. Factors that contributed significantly to postdeath grief included predeath grief and depression. Results from this study indicate that risk factors for postdeath grief can be predicted prior to the death.

  1. Predictors of article impact in suicidology: the bereavement literature, a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina; Stack, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Citation analysis has been neglected in suicidology. The present note applies a mixed-methods approach to both test and suggest hypotheses for the variation in article impact in the bereavement literature. One hundred three articles from three core suicidology journals met the criteria for inclusion in the investigation. Citations to the articles were obtained from the Web of Science. Predictor variables included structural characteristics of the author (e.g., gender) and the article itself (e.g., years since publication). A multivariate regression analysis determined that, controlling for the other variables, the most important predictor of citations was the review article (β = .461), followed by year of publication (β = -.414), the multiauthored article (β = .302), publication in Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior (SLTB) (β = .161), and male gender (β = .156). The 12 most cited articles were published between 1979 and 2004 in SLTB. The majority of these papers was written by males, were U.S. authors, and had more than one author. Four of the most cited articles were reviews. The study concludes that structural characteristics of articles and authors explained 41% of the variance in citations. The qualitative analysis determined that review papers, and papers on characteristics of suicide bereavement and psychological autopsies have been most frequently cited. Replication studies are needed for other subfields of suicidology.

  2. A community for grieving: affordances of social media for support of bereaved parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstad, Ylva Hård Af; Kasperowski, Dick

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study bereaved parents' use of a closed peer grief support community on Facebook and the features of the community that are important to them. The death of a child is an uncomfortable subject in most contemporary societies. This limits the exploration of experiences and possibilities for coping with grief. However, with the introduction of social media, this has changed. Theoretical perspectives on parental grief recognizing the importance of continued relational bonds with the lost child are used, together with the ontological assumption that social media enhance the dissolving of private/public and time/space. This study is based on questionnaire, interviews, and content from the closed peer grief support community, to which the research team has insider access. The community encompasses a diverse range of experiences and stages of grief, independent of the time elapsed since the loss of a child. Bereavement of children of all ages and from all conceivable causes of death is distributed among the members. The results show how the affordances of social media become vital resources for coping with grief in ways not available previously, comprising aspects of the closed nature of the group, shared experiences, time, and accessibility.

  3. Anger toward God: social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exline, Julie J; Park, Crystal L; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many people see themselves as being in a relationship with God and see this bond as comforting. Yet, perceived relationships with God also carry the potential for experiencing anger toward God, as shown here in studies with the U.S. population (Study 1), undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3), bereaved individuals (Study 4), and cancer survivors (Study 5). These studies addressed 3 fundamental issues regarding anger toward God: perceptions and attributions that predict anger toward God, its prevalence, and its associations with adjustment. Social-cognitive predictors of anger toward God paralleled predictors of interpersonal anger and included holding God responsible for severe harm, attributions of cruelty, difficulty finding meaning, and seeing oneself as a victim. Anger toward God was frequently reported in response to negative events, although positive feelings predominated. Anger and positive feelings toward God showed moderate negative associations. Religiosity and age correlated negatively with anger toward God. Reports of anger toward God were slightly lower among Protestants and African Americans in comparison with other groups (Study 1). Some atheists and agnostics reported anger involving God, particularly on measures emphasizing past experiences (Study 2) and images of a hypothetical God (Study 3). Anger toward God was associated with poorer adjustment to bereavement (Study 4) and cancer (Study 5), particularly when anger remained unresolved over a 1-year period (Study 5). Taken together, these studies suggest that anger toward God is an important dimension of religious and spiritual experience, one that is measurable, widespread, and related to adjustment across various contexts and populations.

  4. Psychological and environmental correlates of HPA axis functioning in parentally bereaved children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Shapiro, Danielle N; Wardecker, Britney M; Howell, Kathryn H; Abelson, James L; Worthman, Carol M; Prossin, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    This study examined bereaved children's HPA-axis functioning (cortisol awakening response; CAR) in relation to psychological distress, coping, and surviving parents' grief reactions. Participants included 38 children (20 girls) with recent parental loss (previous 6 months) and 28 of their surviving caregivers (23 women) who were assessed using self-report instruments and in-person, semistructured interviews. Interviews involved discussions about the child's thoughts and feelings related to the loss. Participants provided 3 saliva samples at home (awakening, 30 minutes later, and evening) over 3 successive days, beginning on the day following the interview. Results show a significant relation between dampening of the child's Day 1 CAR and more symptoms of anxiety (r = -.45), depression (r = -.40), posttraumatic stress (r = -.45), and maladaptive grief (r = -.43), as well as higher levels of avoidant coping (r = -.53). Higher levels of parental maladaptive grief were also associated (r = -.47) with a dampening of the child's Day 1 CAR. Our results raise the possibility that blunted CAR may be a result of accumulating allostatic load and/or a result of emotionally challenging events (discussions regarding the deceased) and their subsequent processing (or lack thereof) within the family, which may be particularly stressful for those bereaved children experiencing high levels of psychological distress, avoidant coping, and parental maladaptive grief.

  5. The development of a sustainable, community-supported children's bereavement camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Betty

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the creation and development of a sustainable, community-supported children's bereavement camp. Numerous grief camps were examined prior to the project development. The project development was guided by the S.M.A.R.T. (S--Strategic/specific; M--Measurable; A--Achievable/attainable; R--Realistic; and T--Time-framed) stratagem to direct steps toward the development of the bereavement camp. Outcome measures included program participation, as well as evaluations completed by campers, family members, and volunteers. Camp attendance continues to grow, with 48 children the first year and an average of 65 the following 3 years. According to post-evaluation surveys, campers were able to integrate back into school with a decrease in stress and an increase in their ability to verbalize their grief, share feelings and begin to trust others. One child "got her sparkle back" according to her grandmother. Several campers commented that camp allowed them to see themselves as normal children. The goal of Camp Healing Hearts was that campers would laugh again, and they are.

  6. Guilt in bereavement: the role of self-blame and regret in coping with loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stroebe

    Full Text Available Despite the apparent centrality of guilt in complicating reactions following bereavement, scientific investigation has been limited. Establishing the impact of specific components associated with guilt could enhance understanding. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between two guilt-related manifestations, namely self-blame and regret, with grief and depression. A longitudinal investigation was conducted 4-7 months, 14 months and 2 years post-loss. Participants were bereaved spouses (30 widows; 30 widowers; their mean age was 53.05 years. Results showed that self-blame was associated with grief at the initial time-point and with its decline over time. Such associations were not found for depression. Initial levels of regret were neither associated with initial levels of grief and depression, nor were they related to the decline over time in either outcome variable. These results demonstrate the importance of examining guilt-related manifestations independently, over time, and with respect to both generic and grief-specific outcome variables. A main conclusion is that self-blame (but not regret is a powerful determinant of grief-specific difficulties following the loss of a loved one. Implications for intervention are considered.

  7. Outcomes of bereavement care among widowed older adults with complicated grief and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesquiere, Angela; Shear, M Katherine; Duan, Naihua

    2013-10-01

    Bereavement is common among older adults and may result in major depression or complicated grief (CG). Little is known about the effectiveness of physician care for these conditions. We examined whether, among older adults with CG and/or major depression, using physician support was associated with reductions in grief, depression, or anxiety severity. Outcomes were compared to group and religious support. We analyzed data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) Study, a prospective cohort study of married couples in the Detroit area. Spousal death was tracked over 5 years, and follow-up interviews conducted with widowed participants at 6 months (wave 1) and 18 months (wave 2) post loss. Analyses were limited to those with CG or depression with support-seeking data (weighted n = 89). Yes/no items asked whether participants had seen each provider for help with grief up until wave 1. A 19-item grief severity measure was developed by CLOC researchers. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale measured depression severity. The Symptom Checklist 90-Revised assessed anxiety severity. Regressions indicated that seeking support from a family doctor at wave 1 was not associated with changes in anxiety, depression, or grief severity at wave 2 (P > .05). However, support group use was associated with reductions in grief severity (β = -8.46, P grief may not be effective, and support group referral may be helpful. Physicians may benefit from training in recognizing and appropriate referring for bereavement-related distress.

  8. Maternal bereavement in the antenathal period and Neural tube defect in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2013-01-01

    was seen (OR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.07; 2.41). Discussion: We only studied live born children but about 2/3 of children with spina bifida survive the birth or longer with corrective surgery. We did not adjust for folic acid, but a sub-analysis of approximately 85,000 mothers showed no difference in intake during...... all children born in Denmark from 1978-2008 and their mothers (n=1,734,190). In the time window of one year before pregnancy or during the first trimester of pregnancy 34,407 mothers were exposed to bereavement. Results: A total of 5,031 cases of neural tube defects were identified: 889 with spina...... bifida and 2,095 with hydrocephalous. For all neural tube defects combined no significant association was seen (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.88; 1.31), however stratified on sex a higher risk was seen in girls compared to boys. Moreover, when bereavement was due to death of an older child an increased risk...

  9. The Experience of Carers in Supporting People with Intellectual Disabilities through the Process of Bereavement: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Emily; Hutchinson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explored the personal experiences of family carers and residential care staff in supporting adults with intellectual disabilities through the process of bereavement. Method: A semi-structured interview was used to interview 11 carers on their experience of supporting adults with intellectual disabilities through the process…

  10. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting:Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primar...... improvement and attention should be drawn to the "professionalization" of the relatives and the need to strike a balance between their needs, wishes and resources in end-of-life care and bereavement.......Background: Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary...... care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods: Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results: Three main categories of experience were identified: 1) The health professionals' management, where...

  11. Living with the Dead or Communicating with the dead: media practices of continuing bonds among bereaved parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    when getting a memory tattoo. Based on observation studies and qualitative contents analysis performed since 2008 on children’s graves and on online memorial sites (Christensen & Sandvik 2013, 2014a, 2014b, 2015a) and furthermore including interviews with bereaved parents (Christensen & Sandvik...

  12. Bereavement Experiences of Mothers and Fathers over Time after the Death of a Child due to Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Rifat; Barrera, Maru; D'Agostino, Norma; Nicholas, David B.; Schneiderman, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated longitudinally bereavement in mothers and fathers whose children died of cancer. Thirty-one parents were interviewed 6 and 18 months post-death. Analyses revealed parental differences and changes over time: (a) employment--fathers were more work-focused; (b) grief reactions--mothers expressed more intense grief reactions…

  13. Sound Continuing Bonds with the Deceased: The Relevance of Music, Including Preloss Music Therapy, for Eight Bereaved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C.; McDermott, Fiona; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines music's relevance, including preloss music therapy, for 8 informal caregivers of people who died from cancer. The design was informed by constructivist grounded theory and included semistructured interviews. Bereaved caregivers were supported or occasionally challenged as their musical lives enabled a connection with the…

  14. Meaning-Making through Psychological Autopsy Interviews: The Value of Participating in Qualitative Research for Those Bereaved by Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyregrov, Kari Madeleine; Dieserud, Gudrun; Hjelmeland, Heidi Marie; Straiton, Melanie; Rasmussen, Mette Lyberg; Knizek, Birthe Loa; Leenaars, Antoon Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Too often ethical boards delay or stop research projects with vulnerable populations, influenced by presumed rather than empirically documented vulnerability. The article investigates how participation is experienced by those bereaved by suicide. Experiences are divided into 3 groups: (a) overall positive (62%), (b) unproblematic (10%), and (c)…

  15. Cancer bereavement grief reactions of children%癌症丧亲儿童哀伤反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向峰儀

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解儿童在丧亲前后生理、情绪、行为等方面发生的变化,从而得出丧亲儿童哀伤反应资料。方法:2012.5-2013.4宁养居家服务过程中对9名年龄分别为2岁以下、3至5岁、5至9岁、大于9岁的癌症丧亲儿童本人及其主要照顾者进行深度访谈。结果:9名丧亲儿童出现多种哀伤反应。结论:丧亲儿童哀伤反应的表现复杂多样,其主要照顾者应及时发现并正确引导儿童度过哀伤反应期。%Objective:Understanding of children's physical, emotional, behavioral changes before and after the bereavement, to arrive at some grief reactions of bereaved children. Methods:Hospice home care, in-depth interviews of five cancer bereaved children themselves and their primary caregivers.Results:Five bereaved children there are a variety of grief reactions. Conclusion:Performance of bereaved children's grief reactions are complex and diverse, and their primary caregivers should be to detect and correct guide children through the grief reactions of.

  16. Course of bereavement over 8-10 years in first degree relatives and spouses of people who committed suicide : longitudinal community based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marieke; Kollen, Boudewijn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors predicting the long term course of complicated grief, depression, and suicide ideation in a community based sample of relatives bereaved through suicide. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Included in the multilevel regression models were sociodemographic and personality

  17. Prenatal stress exposure related to maternal bereavement and risk of childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that prenatal stress contributes to the risk of obesity later in life. In a population-based cohort study, we examined whether prenatal stress related to maternal bereavement during pregnancy was associated with the risk of overweight in offspring during school age. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We followed 65,212 children born in Denmark from 1970-1989 who underwent health examinations from 7 to 13 years of age in public or private schools in Copenhagen. We identified 459 children as exposed to prenatal stress, defined by being born to mothers who were bereaved by death of a close family member from one year before pregnancy until birth of the child. We compared the prevalence of overweight between the exposed and the unexposed. Body mass index (BMI values and prevalence of overweight were higher in the exposed children, but not significantly so until from 10 years of age and onwards, as compared with the unexposed children. For example, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for overweight was 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.61 at 12 years of age and 1.63 (95% CI 1.00-2.61 at 13 years of age. The highest ORs were observed when the death occurred in the period from 6 to 0 month before pregnancy (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.71-6.42 at age 12, and OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.08-4.97 at age 13. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that severe pre-pregnancy stress is associated with an increased risk of overweight in the offspring in later childhood.

  18. The possible effects on bereavement of assisted after-death communication during readings with psychic mediums: a continuing bonds perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beischel, Julie; Mosher, Chad; Boccuzzi, Mark

    Unresolved, complicated, prolonged, or traumatic grief can have detrimental effects on mental and/or physical health. The effects of traditional grief counseling, with its focus on the client's acceptance of separation and integration of loss, are unclear. Within the model of continuing bonds, however, grief resolution includes an ongoing relationship between the living and the deceased. Spontaneous and induced experiences of after-death communication (ADC) have been shown to be beneficial in the resolution of grief by demonstrating these continued bonds. Presently, many bereaved individuals are experiencing assisted ADCs by receiving readings from psychic mediums and though little is known about the effects of this selfprescribed treatment option, anecdotal reports and exploratory data posit a positive outcome. This article aims to inform those who work with the bereaved about the relationships between grief, spontaneous, induced, and assisted ADC experiences, and the continuing bonds paradigm. Suggestions for future research are also included.

  19. Ways of knowing hope: Carper's fundamental patterns as a guide for hope research with bereaved palliative caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtslander, Lorraine F

    2008-01-01

    Carper's ways of knowing in nursing, empirics, esthetics, personal knowing, and ethics, provide a guide to holistic practice, education, and research. The origin and evolution of the ways of knowing are discussed and applied to current and proposed hope research with bereaved palliative caregivers, with the ultimate goal of promoting healthy, positive outcomes for this unique population. Bereaved palliative caregivers have unmet needs that may be addressed by research exploring hope during grief. For example, research from an empirical perspective identifies hope as a variable in grief resolution, esthetic knowing guides qualitative research on hope, personal knowing provides a constructivist philosophy to a qualitative inquiry, and ethical knowing includes the moral obligation for evaluation research. Unknowing and sociopolitical knowing offer a critical perspective as research is developed and applied, while considering complexity and social context. Nursing research from diverse epistemological perspectives will enhance the effectiveness and appropriateness of evidence-based practice.

  20. Retraction statement: Investigating factors associated with nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care: a study in Shandong and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The above article from Journal of Clinical Nursing, 'Investigating factors associated with nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care: a study in Shandong and Hong Kong' by Chan, M. F., Lou, F.-l., Cao, F.-l., Li, P., Liu, L. and Wu, L. H. published online on 6 July 2009 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 18, pp. 2344-2354, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation carried out by the National University of Singapore due to major overlap with a previously published article: Chan MF, Lou F-l, Arthur DG, Cao F-l, Wu LH, Li P, Sagara-Rosemeyer M, Chung LYF & Lui L (2008) Investigating factors associate to nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care. Journal of Clinical Nursing 17: 509-518. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02007.x.

  1. Facing bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    2016-01-01

    Hvilke faktorer har sammenhæng med psykiske komplikationer hos pårørende til alvorligt syge patienter under et sygdomsforløb og i tiden efter patientens dødsfald? Det har Mette Kjærgaard Nielsen undersøgt i en ny sundhedsvidenskabelig ph.d.-afhandling. Resultaterne viser, at mange pårørende oplev...

  2. Normal grief and complicated bereavement among traumatized Cambodian refugees: cultural context and the central role of dreams of the dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Peou, Sonith; Joshi, Siddharth; Nickerson, Angela; Simon, Naomi M

    2013-09-01

    This article profiles bereavement among traumatized Cambodian refugees and explores the validity of a model of how grief and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) interact in this group to form a unique bereavement ontology, a model in which dreams of the dead play a crucial role. Several studies were conducted at a psychiatric clinic treating Cambodian refugees who survived the Pol Pot genocide. Key findings included that Pol Pot deaths were made even more deeply disturbing owing to cultural ideas about "bad death" and the consequences of not performing mortuary rites; that pained recall of the dead in the last month was common (76 % of patients) and usually caused great emotional and somatic distress; that severity of pained recall of the dead was strongly associated with PTSD severity (r = .62); that pained recall was very often triggered by dreaming about the dead, usually of someone who died in the Pol Pot period; and that Cambodians have a complex system of interpretation of dreams of the deceased that frequently causes those dreams to give rise to great distress. Cases are provided that further illustrate the centrality of dreams of the dead in the Cambodian experiencing of grief and PTSD. The article shows that not assessing dreams and concerns about the spiritual status of the deceased in the evaluation of bereavement results in "category truncation," i.e., a lack of content validity, a form of category fallacy.

  3. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder Symptom Domains Relate Differentially to PTSD and Depression: A Study of War-Exposed Bosnian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, Meredith A; Charak, Ruby; Kaplow, Julie; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-10-01

    Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) is a newly proposed diagnosis placed in the Appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as an invitation for further research. To date, no studies have examined the dimensionality of PCBD or explored whether different PCBD criteria domains relate in similar, versus differential, ways to other psychological conditions common to war-exposed bereaved youth, including symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression. We evaluated the dimensionality of proposed PCBD B and C symptom domains, and their respective relations with measures of PTSD and depression, in 1142 bereaved Bosnian adolescents exposed to the 1992-1995 Bosnian civil war. Instruments included the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, the Depression Self-Rating Scale, and the UCLA Grief Screening Scale (a prototype measure of PCBD symptoms). We investigated potential differences in grief, PTSD, and depression scores as a function of cause of death. We then examined hypothesized differential relations between PCBD B and C symptom domain subscales and selected external correlates, specifically measures of depression and the four-factor emotional numbing model of PTSD. Results of both analyses provide preliminary evidence of a multidimensional structure for PCBD in this population, in that the PCBD Criterion C subscale score covaried more strongly with each of the four PTSD factors and with depression than did PCBD Criterion B. We conclude by discussing theoretical, methodological, clinical, and policy-related implications linked to the ongoing study of essential features of PCBD.

  4. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting: Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Anders

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results Three main categories of experience were identified: 1 The health professionals' management, where a need to optimize was found. 2 Shared care, which was lacking. 3 The relatives' role, which needs an extra focus. Conclusion Relatives experience insufficient palliative care mainly due to organizational and cultural problems among professionals. Palliative care in primary care in general needs improvement and attention should be drawn to the "professionalization" of the relatives and the need to strike a balance between their needs, wishes and resources in end-of-life care and bereavement.

  5. Evaluation of care for leukemia and lymphoma patients during their last hospitalization from the perspective of the bereaved family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yuki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Kawa, Masako; Motokura, Toru; Sano, Fumiaki; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Oshimi, Kazuo; Kazuma, Keiko

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate care for leukemia and lymphoma patients during their last hospitalization from the perspective of the bereaved family. Questionnaires were sent to the bereaved family members of adult leukemia and lymphoma patients. We used the Care Evaluation Scale (CES) and asked the bereaved family members about care satisfaction and "good death" factors during the patient's last week of life or last admission period. We distributed 177 questionnaires and were able to analyze 103 (58.2%) responses. Compared with the results of a previous study of palliative care units in Japan, the CES scores were significantly lower in 9 out of 10 domains. Assessment of the "good death" components revealed that only 33% of respondents agreed that the patient had been relieved as far as possible of pain and physical distress during the last week of life. Only 21.4% of respondents agreed that the patient had been relieved as far as possible of psychological distress, and 57% of caregivers were not satisfied with the level of care. During the last hospitalizations of leukemia or lymphoma patients, their care was insufficient and a good death was not often achieved. Improvement of end-of-life care for leukemia and lymphoma patients is needed.

  6. Prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement and childbirths in the offspring: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleguer Plana-Ripoll

    Full Text Available The decline in birth rates is a concern in public health. Fertility is partly determined before birth by the intrauterine environment and prenatal exposure to maternal stress could, through hormonal disturbance, play a role. There has been such evidence from animal studies but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring.This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973 and follow-up started at the age of 12 years. Subjects were categorized as exposed if their mothers lost a close relative during pregnancy or the year before and unexposed otherwise. The main outcomes were age at first child and age-specific mean numbers of childbirths. Data was analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazards models stratified by gender and adjusted for several covariates. Subanalyses were performed considering the type of relative deceased and timing of bereavement.A total of 4,121,596 subjects were followed-up until up to 41 years of age. Of these subjects, 93,635 (2.3% were exposed and 981,989 (23.8% had at least one child during follow-up time. Compared to unexposed, the hazard ratio (HR [95% confidence interval] of having at least one child for exposed males and females were 0.98 [0.96-1.01] and 1.01 [0.98-1.03], respectively. We found a slightly reduced probability of having children in females born to mothers who lost a parent with HR = 0.97 [0.94-0.99] and increased probability in females born to mothers who lost another child (HR = 1.09 [1.04-1.14], the spouse (HR = 1.29 [1.12-1.48] or a sibling (HR = 1.13 [1.01-1.27].Our results suggested no overall association between prenatal exposure to maternal stress and having a child in early adulthood but a longer time of follow-up is necessary in order to reach a firmer conclusion.

  7. Perspectives of Suicide Bereaved Individuals on Military Suicide Decedents' Life Stressors and Male Gender Role Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, A Graham; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Perera, Kanchana U; DeYoung, Kathryn A; Harrington-LaMorie, Jill; Haigney, Diana; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2017-01-02

    The objective of this study was to pilot the newly developed Male Gender Role Stressor Inventory (MGRSI) in military suicide bereaved (i.e., decedents' family members and significant others) and to determine the association between Male Gender Role Stress (MGRS) and other life stressors observed by survivors. Sixty-five survivors attending a national survivor seminar completed original surveys, reporting demographic information about themselves and the decedent and observations of the decedent's life stressors during the 1-month and 1-year periods prior to death. The MGRSI obtained acceptable internal reliability (α = .76) and indicated that factors including honor, strength, and achievement were the most commonly reported sources of MGRS. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that legal- and trauma-related stressors 1 month prior to suicide were significantly associated with MGRSI score. MGRS may contribute to a better understanding of military male suicide. The Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration may benefit from suicide prevention programs targeting rigid male gender role beliefs and male-specific stressors.

  8. Prenatal maternal bereavement and mortality in the first decades of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Cnattingius, Sven; Olsen, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    .07-3.23), endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases (MRR 3.23, 95% CI 2.02-5.17), diseases of nervous system (MRR 3.36, 95% CI 2.47-4.58), and congenital malformations (MRR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.80). No excess mortality risk in offspring was observed for unnatural causes of death. CONCLUSION: Prenatal maternal......BACKGROUND: The loss of a close relative is one of the most stressful life events. In pregnancy, this experience has been associated with a higher risk of fetal death and under-five mortality, but little is known about potential effects on long-term mortality in offspring. We examined......, spouse, sibling, or parent during or 1 year before pregnancy were categorized as exposed. RESULTS: Prenatal maternal bereavement was associated with a 10% increased all-cause mortality risk in offspring [mortality rate ratio (MRR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.18]. The association...

  9. Risk of Suicide and Dysfunctional Patterns of Personality among Bereaved Substance Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Masferrer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that suicide is a phenomenon highly present among the drug dependent population. Different studies have demonstrated an upraised level of comorbidity between personality disorders (PD and substance use disorders (SUD. This study aimed to describe which PDs are more frequent among those patients with a risk of suicide. Methods: The study was based on a consecutive non-probabilistic convenience sample of 196 bereaved patients attended to in a Public Addiction Center in Girona (Spain. Sociodemographic data, as well as suicide and drug related characteristics were recorded. The risk of suicide was assessed with the Spanish version of “Risk of suicide”. Personality disorders were measured with the Spanish version of Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory. Results: The PDs more associated with the presence of risk of suicide were depressive, avoidant, schizotypal and borderline disorders. However, the histrionic, narcissistic and compulsive PDs are inversely associated with risk of suicide even though the narcissistic scale had no statistical correlation. Conclusions: The risk of suicide is a significant factor to take into account related to patients with SUD and especially with the presence of specific PDs. These findings underline the importance of diagnosing and treating rigorously patients with SUD.

  10. Risk of Suicide and Dysfunctional Patterns of Personality among Bereaved Substance Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masferrer, Laura; Caparrós, Beatriz

    2017-03-20

    Background: Research has shown that suicide is a phenomenon highly present among the drug dependent population. Different studies have demonstrated an upraised level of comorbidity between personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to describe which PDs are more frequent among those patients with a risk of suicide. Methods: The study was based on a consecutive non-probabilistic convenience sample of 196 bereaved patients attended to in a Public Addiction Center in Girona (Spain). Sociodemographic data, as well as suicide and drug related characteristics were recorded. The risk of suicide was assessed with the Spanish version of "Risk of suicide". Personality disorders were measured with the Spanish version of Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory. Results: The PDs more associated with the presence of risk of suicide were depressive, avoidant, schizotypal and borderline disorders. However, the histrionic, narcissistic and compulsive PDs are inversely associated with risk of suicide even though the narcissistic scale had no statistical correlation. Conclusions: The risk of suicide is a significant factor to take into account related to patients with SUD and especially with the presence of specific PDs. These findings underline the importance of diagnosing and treating rigorously patients with SUD.

  11. Continuing social presence of the dead: exploring suicide bereavement through online memorialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Louis; Bell, Jo; Kennedy, David

    2015-04-01

    The last 10 years have seen a rise in Internet sites commemorating those lost to suicide. These sites describe the life of the deceased and the afterlife of relatives, parents, friends or siblings who have been termed the "forgotten bereaved". It is clear that such sites have implications for continuing bonds and for what many commentators refer to as the continuing social presence of the dead. This paper presents interim findings from ongoing research which focuses on two aspects of suicide memorial websites. First, we explore the extent to which such sites help us understand how the Internet is enabling new ways of grieving and is, in effect, making new cultural scripts. Second, although there is a large body of writing on the management of trauma there is little evidence-based research. The paper draws on face-to-face interviews with owners of suicide memorial sites (family members and friends) and explores how the establishment and maintenance of such a site is an important part of the therapeutic process and how, for grieving relatives, making or contributing to such sites provides ways of managing trauma in the aftermath of a death by suicide.

  12. Risk of Suicide and Dysfunctional Patterns of Personality among Bereaved Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masferrer, Laura; Caparrós, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that suicide is a phenomenon highly present among the drug dependent population. Different studies have demonstrated an upraised level of comorbidity between personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to describe which PDs are more frequent among those patients with a risk of suicide. Methods: The study was based on a consecutive non-probabilistic convenience sample of 196 bereaved patients attended to in a Public Addiction Center in Girona (Spain). Sociodemographic data, as well as suicide and drug related characteristics were recorded. The risk of suicide was assessed with the Spanish version of “Risk of suicide”. Personality disorders were measured with the Spanish version of Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory. Results: The PDs more associated with the presence of risk of suicide were depressive, avoidant, schizotypal and borderline disorders. However, the histrionic, narcissistic and compulsive PDs are inversely associated with risk of suicide even though the narcissistic scale had no statistical correlation. Conclusions: The risk of suicide is a significant factor to take into account related to patients with SUD and especially with the presence of specific PDs. These findings underline the importance of diagnosing and treating rigorously patients with SUD. PMID:28335530

  13. Bereavement coping strategies on the death of the critical ill patients: perceptions and nursing experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gálvez González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore the coping strategies responses that the intensive care unit nurses experiment when facing the death of a critical ill patient.Methods. Qualitative study of a phenomenological nature carried out on 16 professionals throughin-depth interviews. The selection of the participants was intentional and the incorporation was progressive until reaching the data saturation. The analytic scheme, proposed by Taylor- Bogdan, was followed to effectuate the data analysis.Results. The coping strategies identified after the qualitative analysis were grouped according to their frequency of appearance in primary and secondary strategies. Acceptance and distance are resources of primary coping strategies, whereas search for social support, self-confidence, cognitive redefinition, generation of positive emotions, denial and search for spiritual support are secondary coping strategies.Conclusion. Bereavement coping strategies on the death of the critical ill patients is a very complex process which implies that nurses mobilize a large group of emotional resources to achieve adaptation. The strategies of acceptance and distance, as they are described in this study, must be considered adaptative strategies that demonstrate very clearly that caring for critical ill patients represents a significant fight for nurses in a personal and professional sense.

  14. The bereavement experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people who have lost a partner: A systematic review, thematic synthesis and modelling of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Marshall, Steve; Harding, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socially excluded populations have poorer access to care; however, little attention has been paid to lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people are at increased risk of certain life-limiting illnesses and may not receive the care and support they need at the end of life and into bereavement. Aim: To identify and appraise the evidence of the bereavement experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people who have lost a partner and develop an explanatory model of lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* partner bereavement. Design: Systematic review (in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines) and thematic synthesis with assessment of reporting and rigour. Quantitative or qualitative articles reporting bereavement experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* partners were included, excluding articles reporting multiple losses in the context of HIV or AIDS. Data sources: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library. Inclusion dates: database inception – 30 April 2015. Results: A total of 23 articles reporting on 13 studies were identified. Studies described universal experiences of the pain of losing a partner; however, additional barriers and stressors were reported for lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people, including homophobia, failure to acknowledge the relationship, additional legal and financial issues and the ‘shadow’ of HIV or AIDS. A novel model was developed to explain how the experience for lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people is shaped by whether the relationship was disclosed and acknowledged in life and into bereavement and how this impacts upon needs and access to care. Conclusion: There is a need for healthcare providers to avoid hetero-normative assumptions; be mindful of additional stressors in bereavement for lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people; and consider additional sources of

  15. Attitudes towards those bereaved by a suicide: a population-based, cross-sectional study in rural Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji Masako

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family or friends bereaved by suicide are at risk of experiencing complications because of attitudes regarding suicide. It is important that individuals close to those grieving after a death by suicide demonstrate adequate knowledge and compassionate attitudes. To this end, we examined the factors that contribute to attitudes toward persons bereaved by the suicide of a family member or friend, and perceptions of suicide prevention and the promotion of mental health. Methods A total of 5154 residents of a rural town in northern Japan aged 30–69 years completed a cross-sectional questionnaire. The questionnaire gathered data about demographic variables, depressive symptoms, and issues related to suicide including personal experience of an acquaintance's suicide, attitudes towards those bereaved by suicide, and perceptions regarding suicide prevention. Factors related to these attitudes and perceptions were analysed using logistic regression models. Results Overall, 67.5% of respondents demonstrated appropriate attitudes towards those bereaved by suicide; 30.4% of responses were undetermined, and 2.1% were inappropriate. Undetermined attitudes were associated with male gender (adjusted OR 1.42, 95%CI = 1.26–1.61, younger age (2.64, 2.12–3.29, lower education level (1.32, 1.07–1.62, greater severity of depression (3.81, 2.80–5.20, and lack of personal experience of an acquaintance's suicide (1.39, 1.22–1.57. Inappropriate attitudes were associated with male gender (adjusted OR 1.98, 95%CI = 1.33–2.94, lower education level (2.55 1.34–4.83, and greater severity of depression (6.93, 3.52–13.67. Overall, 16.0% demonstrated passive thoughts regarding suicide prevention and the promotion of mental health in the community, and were associated with male gender (1.22, 1.04–1.42, younger age (2.72, 2.03–3.65, lower education level (1.32, 1.02–1.71, and greater severity of depression (4.94, 3.58–6.82. Conclusion

  16. The Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study (J-HOPE Study): views about legalization of death with dignity and euthanasia among the bereaved whose family member died at palliative care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okishiro, Nao; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Tsuneto, Satoru; Sato, Kazuki; Shima, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    There has been a debate in appropriateness of legalization of death with dignity and euthanasia in Japan. To clarify views about these issues, we conducted a large nationwide study of the bereaved whose family member died at palliative care units. The percentages of 429 bereaved family members (response rate 65%) who affirmed legal authorization were 52 for death with dignity and 45 for euthanasia and who affirmed assignment at the discretion of the physician involved were 37 for death with dignity and 38 for euthanasia. In conclusion, views about legalization of death with dignity and euthanasia among the bereaved are inconsistent. No consensus is reached as to legislation of these issues.

  17. The Impact of Personal Loss on the Experience of Health Professions: Graduate Students in End-of-Life and Bereavement Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiano, Katherine P.; Vaughn-Cole, Beth

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of prior personal experience with grief on self-reported personal and professional development of graduate students in nursing, social work, counseling, pastoral care, and genetic counseling involved as cofacilitators in bereavement support groups, and of medical students observing interdisciplinary inpatient…

  18. Stability and change: the role of keepsakes and family homes in the lives of parentally bereaved young adults in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.C.; Parrott, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the loss of a parent in young adulthood, showing how this emergent and distinctive life stage shapes Dutch young people’s experience of bereavement. Youth material cultures have commonly been analysed in terms of the construction and expression of youth identities, for example, t

  19. Grief and Bereavement Issues and the Loss of a Companion Animal: People Living with a Companion Animal, Owners of Livestock, and Animal Support Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Companion animals play various roles in people's lives and these roles can impact on loss, grief, bereavement and mourning when the animal has been lost, whether that is through death, when missing, or when relinquished. This paper considers not only companion animal owners, but also those who own farm animals and those who work in animal service…

  20. Parentally Bereaved Children's Grief: Self-System Beliefs as Mediators of the Relations between Grief and Stressors and Caregiver-Child Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether 3 self-system beliefs--fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem--mediated the relations between stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality and parentally bereaved youths' general grief and intrusive grief thoughts. Cross-sectional (n = 340 youth) and longitudinal (n = 100 youth) models were tested. In…

  1. Stability and change: the role of keepsakes and family homes in the lives of parentally bereaved young adults in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Visser; F.R. Parrott

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the loss of a parent in young adulthood, showing how this emergent and distinctive life stage shapes Dutch young people’s experience of bereavement. Youth material cultures have commonly been analysed in terms of the construction and expression of youth identities, for example, t

  2. The Impact of Staff Training on the Knowledge of Support Staff in Relation to Bereavement and People with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Laura; McKenzie, Karen; Wright, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether a 1-day training course improved support staff knowledge about bereavement and grief in people with a learning disability. A questionnaire based, mixed design was used. Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to one of two equal groups. A staggered design allowed for group 2 to act both as a control…

  3. A qualitative research about adolescent's bereavement process%丧亲青少年哀伤过程的定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁; 陈顺森; 张日昇; 张雯

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescent's bereavement process in order to pivide basis for the grief consulting of bereaved adolescence. Methods: According to the idea of theoretical sampling, 18 persons who lost their father or mather during 9-18 year-old were interviewed in-depth. Theme analysis and Atlas, ti 5.0 software were used for data processing. Results: Bereaved adolescence's bereavement process had 4 common themes, namely facing life's big changes (strong reactions; denying and avoiding; life order's sudden changes; involvement in the reorganization of the family system), experience of suffering and loss (bearing the pain of farewell, regretting for unfinished business, strong yearning and missing, bearing the death's truth), continuing to live in grief (the needs to bereave lonely, reflection with grief, finding the coping strategies, the repeated bereavement), re-interpretation of death ( rationalization of death, establishing links with the deceased, establishing the meaning of death, bereavement's transformation and transcendence). Conclusion: Bereaved adolescents will experience 4-phrase grief processes before rehabilitation from grief, which has adolescent's special age characteristic. In grief counseling for adolescence, it is important to guide the adolescence to accept their bereavement process, respect the uniqueness ofadolescence'bereavement process, and cope with family grief at the same time.%目的:探讨丧亲青少年的哀伤过程,为青少年的哀伤咨询提供依据.方法:据理论抽样原则选取18名在青少年时期丧亲(父或母去世)的被访者进行深度访谈.采用主题分析方法分析数据,运用编码分析软件Atlas.ti 5.0对访谈资料进行分析.结果:丧亲青少年的哀伤过程有4个共同主题,即面对生活的巨变、体验丧亲的痛苦与失落、在哀伤中继续生活、重新诠释死亡.共同主题还分别有4个次级主题,即强烈的反应、否认与逃避、生活秩序的骤变、

  4. Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on academic outcomes, educational expectations and job aspirations 6 years later: the mediating role of parenting and youth mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin N

    2015-02-01

    Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is associated with a variety of difficulties, including lower academic achievement, that have implications for functioning in childhood and adulthood. This study examines effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth and their caregivers, on grade point averages (GPA), educational expectations and job aspirations of youths 6 years after the intervention. A total of 244 bereaved youths ages 8-16 and their caregivers were randomized to either the FBP or a comparison group that received books about bereavement. Assessments occurred at pretest, post-test, and 11-month and 6-year follow-ups. Direct program effects on educational outcomes and job aspirations 6 years later were non-significant, although the program improved educational expectations for children with fewer behavior problems at program entry, and GPA for younger children. Mediational pathways for program effects on educational outcomes were also tested. Program-induced improvements in effective parenting at 11-month follow-up were associated with higher GPAs at 6-year follow-up for youth who were younger or for whom more time had passed since the loss. Program-induced improvements in parenting and teacher-rated youth mental health problems at the 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on youths' educational expectations for those with fewer behavior problems at program entry. The implications of these findings for understanding processes related to academic and educational outcomes following the death of a parent and for prevention efforts to help bereaved and other high-risk children succeed in school are discussed.

  5. 丧亲人群哀伤辅导的研究构思%A Conception of Grief Counseling for the Bereaved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 李洁; 时勘; 曾晓颖; 曹燕; 钟岭; 王彩琴; 林红; 闫立新

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of attention for the health situation of the bereaved especially because of disasters. The Dual Process Model proposed by Stroebe (1999) integrated the attachment theory, trauma theory, and cognitive coping theory, which pointed that the experiences of the bereaved included two aspects:loss-oriented and restoration-oriented. The bereaved oscillated between the two sides to cope with challenges from two aspects. Basis of DPM, we proposed a conception model of grief counseling, which includes three systems, a manual and interventions. The aim is to assist the bereaved to get through grief, accept death, adjust self-identity, reconstruct meaning system, get personal growth, adapt to bereavement, and keep a good level of physical, psychological and social adjustment.%丧亲者的哀伤过程可以分为丧失导向(loss-oriented)和恢复导向(restored-oriented)。丧亲者往往在这两者之间主动来回摆动,以此应对双方面的挑战。基于“依恋与哀伤双过程模型”,提出了建立丧亲人群哀伤辅导系统的构想。该支持系统由三大系统、一个手册、一套干预所构成。丧亲人群哀伤辅导系统的目的在于帮助丧亲人群完成“悲伤功课”,接受丧亲事实、面对哀伤、调整自我认同、重构人生意义、达成个人成长,适应丧亲后的日常生活,保持良好的生理、心理与社会功能适应水平。

  6. Complicated grief in those bereaved by violent death: the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder on complicated grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Satomi; Ito, Masaya; Shirai, Akemi; Konishi, Takako

    2012-06-01

    Violent death, such as homicide, accident, and suicide, is sudden, unexpected, and caused by intentional power, The prevalence of complicated grief among those bereaved by violent death is 12.5% to 78.0%. The factors affecting this prevalence rate are considered to be comorbid mental disorders, lack of readiness for the death, difficulty in making sense of the death, high level of negative appraisal about the self and others, and various social stressors. Post-traumatic stress disorder is, in particular, considered to contribute to the development of complicated grief by suppressing function of the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, which works at facilitating the normal mourning process. An understanding of the mechanism and biological basis of complicated grief by violent death will be helpful in developing effective preventive intervention and treatment.

  7. Giving birth to life--again!: bereaved parents' experiences with children born following the death of an adult son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Rosenfeld, Sarah; Buchbinder, Eli

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study examining the experiences of parents that lost a son during military service in Israel and consequently choose to give birth to another child. Seven couples and 3 mothers were interviewed for the study, and their interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Three main themes were extracted from parents' descriptions of their experiences: (a) "From the place where pain and sadness was sown, a new smile was grown," relating to transforming the experience of loss into a new meaning for life; (b) "No to a child memorial," focusing on parents' awareness of the burden placed on the child who was born; and (c) "Different parenting," dealing with participant's parenting following their loss. The study's findings are discussed in the context of literature dealing with reconstructing meaning through coping and bereavement.

  8. Sexuality of widows: a study of the sexual practices of widows during the first fourteen months of bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, J

    1986-01-01

    The sexual adjustment of 31 Caucasian women, ages 30-62, widowed less than 14 months was assessed using a structural interview. The relationship between the frequencies of autostimulation, coitus, sexual desire and other selected variables was analyzed. Results showed that the sexual identity and experience of each individual widow; circumstances surrounding the death of the husband, particularly whether the death was sudden or delayed; the widow's age; overall sexual satisfaction and intimacy within the marriage, as opposed to ambivalence toward the relationship; and the degree and kind of attachment to the deceased spouse; seem to be significantly associated with the sexual desires and activities of widows during the first 14 months of bereavement.

  9. Growing in times of grief: attachment modulates bereaved adults' posttraumatic growth after losing a family member to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Fu, Zhongfang; He, Li; Schoebi, Dominik; Wang, Jianping

    2015-11-30

    This study explored whether attachment moderated the relationship between grief and posttraumatic growth. A total of 240 Chinese adults who have lost a family member to cancer reported on their grief (Prolonged Grief Questionnaire-13; PG-13), posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory; PTGI) and attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships; ECR). The results suggested that bereaved individuals who scored high on attachment anxiety showed a substantial and positive relationship between grief and posttraumatic growth, while their less anxiously attached counterparts showed no such association. Attachment avoidance was not significantly related to the association between grief and posttraumatic growth. Findings indicated that individuals high in attachment anxiety have the potential to benefit and gain from the process of adapting to the loss. The implications of the results for relevant research and grief counseling were discussed.

  10. Parentally Bereaved Children’s Grief: Self-system Beliefs as Mediators of the Relations between Grief and Stressors and Caregiver-child Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether three self-system beliefs -- fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem -- mediated the relations between stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality and parentally bereaved youths’ general grief and intrusive grief thoughts. Cross-sectional (n=340 youth) and longitudinal (n=100 youth) models were tested. In the cross-sectional model, fear of abandonment mediated the effects of stressors and relationship quality on both measures of grief and coping ef...

  11. Measuring the quality of structure and process in end-of-life care from the bereaved family perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tatsuya; Hirai, Kei; Sakaguchi, Yukihiro; Maeyama, Etsuko; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2004-06-01

    Measurement of the structure/process of care is the first step in improving end-of-life care. The primary aim of this study was to psychometrically validate an instrument for directly measuring the bereaved family's perception of the necessity for improvement in structural/procedural aspects of palliative care. Different sets of questionnaires were sent to 800 and 425 families who lost family members at one of 70 certified palliative care units in Japan in the development and validation phases, respectively, and 281 families of the latter group in the follow-up phase. The participants were requested to fill out a newly-developed Care Evaluation Scale (CES), along with outcome measures (the perceived experience and satisfaction levels) and potential covariates (the degree of expectation, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Social Desirability Scale). We obtained 485, 310, and 202 responses in the development, validation, and follow-up phases (response rates: 64%, 75%, and 72%, respectively). The 28-item CES had an overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha of 0.98; the intra-class correlation coefficient in the test-retest examination was 0.57. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed 10 subscales: physical care (by physicians, by nurses), psycho-existential care, help with decision-making (for patients, for family), environment, family burden, cost, availability, and coordination/consistency. The CES subscales were only moderately correlated with the perceived-experience and satisfaction levels of corresponding areas (r=0.36-0.52 and 0.39-0.60, respectively). The CES score was not significantly associated with the degree of expectation, the changes of depression, or the Social Desirability Scale. The CES is a useful tool to measure the bereaved family's perception of the necessity for improvement in structural/procedural aspects of palliative care. The advantages of the CES are: 1) it specifically evaluates the structure and process of care, 2

  12. Development and pilot testing of a questionnaire to determine the ability and willingness of health personnel accompanying perinatal bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José Domínguez Santarén

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The care that parents receive around the time of a loss has a huge impact on their perception of what happened and on their ability to cope. Good care cannot remove the pain and devastation that the loss of a pregnancy or the death of a baby can bring, but can promote healing.Methodology: Creation and pilot study for a questionnaire to determinate the capacity and willingness of perinatal bereavement support from staff in hospitalization and delivery room services in Zaragoza and Jaca who care for couples with a perinatal death.Statistical analysis. Qualitative analysis is made of the difficulties and limitations of this support staff is performing. Psychometric tests were conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire by calculating Cronbach´s alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient. For the analysis of construct validity, we performed the principal components factorial analysis (PCFA through the Varimax rotation system.Results. The qualitative analysis of open-ended responses indicates a lack of knowledge about this type of mourning and social and communication tools that often precludes effective accompaniment. We obtained a Cronbach alpha value of 0.835 overall questionnaire, which indicates high internal consistency or coherence among the items and relatively high CCI indicates good stability over time with significance p<,001. Making appropriate modifications could assess the ability and willingness of workers.

  13. Parental bereavement after the death of an offspring in a motor vehicle collision: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Walld, Randy; Chateau, Dan; Martens, Patricia J; Leslie, William D; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-15

    Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the leading cause of death in young people in North America. The effects of such deaths on parents have not been systematically studied. Administrative data sets were used to identify all parents (n = 1,458) who had an offspring die in a MVC between 1996 and 2008 in the province of Manitoba, Canada. They were matched to general population control parents who had not had offspring die from any sudden cause during the study period. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment utilization in the 2 parent groups in the 2 years before and after offspring death, with adjustment for confounding factors. The risk of depression among bereaved parents almost tripled (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.44, 3.33; P death of an offspring. Significant increases in the risk of anxiety disorders (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 1.67; P death period. In conclusion, parents who lose an offspring in a MVC experience considerable mental illness and marital disruption.

  14. Comparison of the PTSD symptoms, depression and anxiety between bereaved and non-bereaved survivors after Wenchuan earthquake%汶川地震丧亲与非丧亲者创伤后应激障碍焦虑和抑郁情绪的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁茵; 陈丽云; 何江军; 毛文君; 杨德华; 冉茂盛; 孔娣; 张涛; 楼玮群; 王筱璐; 何孝恩

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨在地震灾害发生半年后丧亲者与非丧亲者创伤后应激障碍、焦虑和抑郁的关系及对比情况.方法 采用一般情况凋查表、创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)检查表、贝克抑郁量表(BDI)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)在地震半年后对都汀堰灾区安置点的人群560人进行调查.结果 10.9%的被调查者在地震中丧失亲人.丧亲组符合PTSD症状诊断的比例(44.4%)显著高于非丧亲组(15.1%)(t=4.737,P<0.05).丧亲组中重度抑郁、焦虑和自杀观念的发生率分别为55.5%、44.4%和44.5%显著高于非丧亲组17.4%、16.7%和14.2%(χ~2=46.522,P<0.01).丧亲组符合PTSD症状诊断者中合并中重度抑郁的占79.2%,合并焦虑或明显焦虑的占75%;中重度抑郁中合并焦虑或明显焦虑的占83.4%.抑郁总分、焦虑总分、既往焦虑、噩梦、丧亲后感到寂寞为丧亲者创伤后应激障碍症状的预测因素.结论 地震灾区丧亲者的抑郁、焦虑、自杀观念及符合PTSD症状诊断的均较非丧亲者高.丧亲人群的抑郁、焦虑及PTSD症状三者共病率高.丧亲者PTSD症状的预测因素足多方面的.%Objective To compare the differences of PTSD symptoms, depression and anxiety between bereaved and non-bereaved survivors, and to explore the risk factors of PTSD among victims of the Sichuan earthquake 2008. Methods To investigate the mental health status among 560 survivors of disaster six-month after the earthquake using post-traumatic stress disorder Checklist, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). Results There were 10.9% of victims who lost their relatives in the earthquake. The rates of PTSD symptoms among bereaved survivors (44.4% ) were significantly higher than non-bereaved group (15.1% ) (P<0.05). The rates of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among bereaved survivors (55.5% , 44.4%, and 44.5% ) were significantly higher than that of the non-bereaved group respectively ( 17.4%, 16

  15. An Observational Study to Explore the Feasibility of Assessing Bereaved Relatives' Experiences Before and After a Quality Improvement Project to Improve Care of Dying Medical Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katherine; Willis, Abby; Byfieldt, Naomi

    2017-04-01

    Although hospitals are the most likely place of death, the quality of care received by dying inpatients remains variable. This is concerning for both the dying person and their relatives, with poorer bereavement outcomes likely for those who perceived their family member suffered unduly. There is a real need to consider how this situation can be improved. This work was conducted with the aim of exploring the feasibility of including bereaved relatives' experiences as part of a larger project exploring the use of a care bundle to improve care of the dying inpatients. Fifty relatives of inpatients who had died previously in hospital were contacted by letter with a request for interview before the implementation of a care bundle for the dying, with a care bundle being a collection of care processes that are implemented together. After this project had been in place for 6 months, a further 50 families were contacted who had died on the bundle. Ten families responded initially to the first request and 10 the second, with the interviews based on the Quality of Dying and Death (QODD) tool and a final open-ended question. Although all families who agree to be interviewed completed the session, with regard to the QODD, some families indicated that they would rather talk than provide numeric scores. No major differences in the prescores and postscores were noted. When invited to share their experiences, without prompting, families spoke of consistent concerns that included communication, place of death, and symptom control. This work confirms that it is highly feasible to incorporate assessments of bereaved family members' opinions as part of the wider assessment of research into end-of-life care.

  16. Imagining the absent dead: rituals of bereavement and the place of the war dead in German women's art during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebrecht, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on women's visual responses to the First World War, this article examines female mourning in wartime Germany. The unprecedented death toll on the battlefronts, military burial practices and the physical distance from the remains of the war dead disrupted traditional rituals of bereavement, hindered closure and compounded women's grief on the home front. In response to these novel circumstances, a number of female artists used their images to reimagine funerary customs, overcome the separation from the fallen and express acute emotional distress. This article analyses three images produced during the conflict by the artists Katharina Heise, Martha Schrag and Sella Hasse, and places their work within the civilian experience of bereavement in war. By depicting the pain of loss, female artists contested the historical tradition of proud female mourning in German society and countered wartime codes of conduct that prohibited the public display of emotional pain in response to soldiers’ deaths. As a largely overlooked body of sources, women's art adds to our understanding of the tensions in wartime cultures of mourning that emerged between 1914 and 1918.

  17. The concept of shalōm as a constructive bereavement healing framework within a pluralist health seeking context of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of health, that is, sickness in Africa is viewed in personalistic terms. A disease is explained as effected by ‘the active purposeful intervention of an agent, who may be human’, non-human (a ghost, an ancestor, an ‘evil spirit, or supernatural (a deity or other very powerful being’ (Foster. Illness is thus attributed to breaking of taboos, offending God and/ or ancestral spirits; witchcraft, sorcery, the evil eye, passion by an evil spirit and a curse from parents or from an offended neighbour. In view of these personalistic theories of ill health, treatment is through ritual purification, exorcism or sacrifices. For an appropriate diagnosis and intervention, it is imperative to determine ‘who’ caused the illness and then ‘why’ it was caused, to which answers are offered through divination by a healer. This interpretive framework, is applicable to all types of sickness, facilitates co-existence of African traditional healing and biomedical treatment, that is, plurality of health seeking practices. The approach fails to offer a constructive approach and contradicts the biblical healing framework whereby one may not have explanatory causes to a situation of ill health. This article engaged the biblical concept of shalōm as a relevant constructive framework. The Hebrew concept of shalōm, though distinctly salvific, is inclusive of holistic and personalistic healing aspects. The concept encompasses constructive aspects of completeness, wholeness, health, peace, welfare, safety, soundness, tranquillity, prosperity, perfectness, fullness, rest, harmony and the absence of agitation or discord, which provides a useful holistic healing theological framework. It therefore provides a health and well-being framework that is relational, sensitive and applicable to healing patterns in Africa. Using the case study of the Abaluyia people of East Africa, this article discussed bereavement as a state that requires healing and how the

  18. [Facing perinatal bereavement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Launière, M G; Boudreault, A

    1995-02-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth are, for most women, wonderful and memorable experiences. Yet, without warning, they can have a heartbreaking outcome. Regardless of the stage of pregnancy at which a baby is lost, the family grieves the death. The authors of this article suggest how nurses can best support the couple, siblings, grandparents and significant others through their time of sorrow. The article highlights key points from the 1992 the Hôpital de Chicoutimi (Québec) reference guide entitled "Guide d'accompagnement des familles devant un deuil périnatal." The guide includes the types of grief and the six phases of grief resolution. It outlines specific nursing interventions and recommends various strategies for the nurse to help these families grieve their loss. Some strategies include the holding and cuddling of the baby by the parents, post-partum follow-up by nursing personnel and family therapy sessions. The authors suggest that nurses who are knowledgeable about the grief experiences of these parents will be better equipped to help other parents cope with similar grief. The increased knowledge will also assist nurses to sort out and deal with their own feelings on this subject. Nurses who are able to effectively care for these grieving families can often enhance their personal and professional self-esteem.

  19. Relationship between loneliness and family function among 264 bereaved cases in Wenchuan earthquake%264例汶川地震丧亲者孤独感与其家庭功能的相关关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 许卢万珍; 王世平; 李小麟; 豆欣蔓; 朱世超

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between loneliness and family function among the bereaved people. Methods Totally 264 bereaved cases in Wenchuan earthquake were investigated with Family APGAR Index and UCLA Loneliness Scale. Results The average score of loneliness was 42.06±9.96, and over 50% of the bereaved showed moderate level of loneliness. The scores of loneliness varied with age,economic condition,marital status and family structure (P0.05). There was a negative correlation between the score of loneliness and family function(P<0.01). Conclusion Loneliness is a general psychological problem in the bereaved and they have moderate level of loneliness. Family function affects loneliness of the bereaved from different aspects,and good family function may be helpful to relieve loneliness.%目的 探讨丧亲者孤独感与家庭功能相关关系.方法 采用便利抽样,使用家庭关怀度问卷(APGAR)和UCLA孤独量表,对264名汶川地震丧亲者的孤独感和家庭功能进行问卷调查.结果丧亲者孤独感均分( 42.06±9.96)分,50%以上丧亲者体验到中等水平的孤独感;孤独感在性别方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),在年龄、经济状况、婚姻状态和家庭结构方面差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);丧亲者孤独感与家庭功能呈负相关(P<0.01).结论孤独感是丧亲者普遍存在的心理问题且处于中等水平;丧亲者的家庭功能从不同侧面对其孤独感产生影响,良好的家庭功能有助于减轻孤独感.

  20. The perspectives of bereaved family carers on dying at home: the study protocol of ‘unpacking the home: family carers’ reflections on dying at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne Sheila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent end of life care policy prioritises patient choice over place of care and in particular promotes dying at home. This policy is predicated on the assumption that there are family carers able and willing to provide care for the dying person. Through the accounts of bereaved family members, the ‘Unpacking the home’ study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of ‘home’ and the issues faced by family members caring for a dying older person at home; it also aims to examine the way the home is transformed in the process of providing end of life care, and offer a critical analysis of policies that aim to increase home deaths. This paper presents the protocol for this study. Methods/design A cross-sectional qualitative study has been designed to achieve the study aims. In-depth interviews will be conducted in the north and south of England with 50 bereaved family carers to elicit their accounts of witnessing the dying in the home of an older person (50+ years. All interviews will be subjected to thematic analysis, and narrative analysis will be undertaken on a subset of 30 interview transcripts. A final phase of integration and policy analysis will be conducted towards the end of the study. User involvement is integral to this study, with service users actively engaged at every stage. Discussion This study will seek to take a qualitative approach by explicitly recognising that family carers are central to the experience of dying at home for older people, and they have needs that may be amenable to support and anticipatory planning. The strengths of this study, which include its interdisciplinary and participatory approach, and in-depth data collection and analysis methods, will be explored. The limitations and challenges of this research will also be considered. This study seeks to make recommendations that will ensure that family carers receive appropriate and adequate support in caring for their loved ones at the end

  1. Concordance between Experiences of Bereaved Relatives, Physicians, and Nurses with Hospital End-of-Life Care: Everyone Has Their “Own Truth”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Witkamp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When patients die relatives and healthcare professionals may appreciate the quality of the dying phase differently, but comparisons are rare. In a cross-sectional study (June 2009–July 2012 the experiences of bereaved relatives, physicians, and nurses concerning the quality of dying in a large Dutch university hospital were compared, and the relation to communication was explored. Measurements were concordance on the quality of dying (QOD (0–10 scale, awareness of impending death, and end-of-life communication. Results. Data on all three perspectives were available for 200 patients. Concordance in general was poor. Relatives’ scores for QOD (median 7; IQR 5–8 were lower than physicians and nurses’ (both median 7; IQR 6–8 (P=0.002. 48% of the relatives, 77% of the physicians, and 73% of the nurses had been aware of impending death. Physicians more often reported to have informed patients and relatives of end-of-life issues than relatives reported. When both physicians and relatives reported about such discussion, relatives’ awareness of impending death and presence at the patient’s deathbed were more likely. Conclusion. Relatives, physicians, and nurses seem to have their “own truth” about the dying phase. Professionals should put more emphasis on the collaboration with relatives and on verification of relative’s understanding.

  2. 童年丧亲对抑郁症患者个性及临床特征的影响%A comparative study of personalities and clinical features between depressive patients with and without childhood bereavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚洪秀

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解童年丧亲的抑郁症患者个性和临床方面特征。方法:采用艾森克个性问卷测评52例童年丧亲的抑郁症患者(A组)及144例早年父母双全的抑郁症患者(B组)进行对照研究。结果:A组E分显著较低、N分显著较高,焦虑和自杀行为显著较多、临床显效率显著较低。病程迁延者显著多于B组。结论:童年丧亲患者个性更为内向且情绪更趋向不稳定,更易出现焦虑和自杀行为,临床疗效较差,预后不良。%Objective:To compare the personalities and clinical features between depressive patients with and without childhood bereavement. Method:Fifty-two depressive patients with childhood bereavement (group A) and 144 counterparts without it (group B) were assessed with Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and a self-made questionnaire. Results:Scores in E dimension were lower,while scores in N were higher in group A than in group B.Significant differences were also found between two groups in clinical data about anxiety,suicide,the improvement rate and disease course. Conclusion:Depressive patients with childhood bereavement have more introversive personalities,more unstable temperaments and are easier to have symptoms of anxiety and suicide.It seems less satisfying for these patients in the clinical efficacy.

  3. Age-related differences in the lifestyle regularity of seniors experiencing bereavement, care-giving, insomnia, and advancement into old-old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Timothy H; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Nofzinger, Eric A; Thompson, Wesley K; Mazumdar, Sati A; Reynolds, Charles F

    2006-01-01

    Compared to younger adults, seniors (> or = 60 yrs) often adopt a highly regular lifestyle, perhaps as an adaptive response to age-related changes in their sleep and circadian rhythms. At baseline, diary measures of lifestyle regularity (SRM-5) were obtained from 104 seniors of three separate groups. Thirty-three subjects were challenged by spousal bereavement or the need to care for a spouse at home with dementia (Challenged); 33 were suffering from formally diagnosed (DSM-IV) insomnia (Insomnia); and 38 were healthy, well-functioning older seniors in the second half of their eighth decade of life or later (Healthy Older). The objective of this study was to determine whether lifestyle regularity increased as a function of age within each of these three senior groups. Overall, age was significantly correlated with SRM-5 (r=0.41, p<0.001), with the SRM score increasing by 0.67 units/decade. The same was true for the Challenged and Insomnia groups, which also showed a significant correlation between SRM and age (Challenged: r=0.48, p<0.01; Insomnia: r=0.36, p<0.05), though with a slightly faster rate of SRM increase in the Challenged (0.95 units/decade) than Insomnia (0.55 units/decade) group. Perhaps there was no correlation between age and SRM (r=0.07, n.s.) in the Healthy Older group due to the small age range, although this group did have a higher overall SRM score than the other two groups (p<0.01). The study thus confirmed that the previously observed increase in lifestyle regularity over the adult lifespan persists into later life. This may represent an adaptive behavioral response that might be used in future therapeutic approaches.

  4. Application of Traditional Chinese Psychotherapy Ideas in Bereavement Counseling%我国传统心理治疗思想在哀伤辅导中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀; 杜文东

    2014-01-01

    我国传统心理治疗思想有自己独具的文化特色,它以“中和”为核心,即通过对事物协调,使之达到和谐有序,具有形神合一、天人合一的特点。我国传统心理治疗主张利用和谐的人际关系。提出集修心、修体、修德与修行于一体进行心理调适的方案,即以养神促进调养整个形体;心理治疗与德行修养相统一。这些思想与理念是对当前哀伤辅导工作的有益补充,对建构本土化的哀伤辅导理论和实践具有重大的指导意义。%Traditional Chinese psychotherapy ideas have their own unique cultural characteristics ,of which the Zhonghe as the core .That is to realize harmony and order through coordination ,and it embodies such features as integration of body and mind and integration of human and nature .It advocates the use of harmonious interpersonal relationship .It puts forward the psychological adjustment plan of uniting the training of mind and body ,and the cultivating of morality and good deeds .That is to nurse the whole body through Yangshen and realize the unity of psychotherapy and the cultivating of morality and good deeds .These ideas serve as necessary complements to today’s bereavement counseling ,and they are of vital importance to construct localized bereavement counseling theories and practice .

  5. Suicide bereavement and complicated grief

    OpenAIRE

    Tal Young, Ilanit; Iglewicz, Alana; Glorioso, Danielle; Lanouette, Nicole; Seay, Kathryn; Ilapakurti, Manjusha; Zisook, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Losing a loved to suicide is one is one of life's most painful experiences. The feelings of loss, sadness, and loneliness experienced after any death of a loved one are often magnified in suicide survivors by feelings of quilt, confusion, rejection, shame, anger, and the effects of stigma and trauma. Furthermore, survivors of suicide loss are at higher risk of developing major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal behaviors, as well as a prolonged form of grief called compl...

  6. Online Dating and Conjugal Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dannagal Goldthwaite; Caplan, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-presentation in the online dating profiles of 241 widowed and 280 divorced individuals between 18 and 40 years old. A content analysis of open-ended user-generated profiles assessed the presence or absence of various themes, including the user's marital status, the backstory of their lost relationship, and whether they…

  7. Bereavement care in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldin, Mai-Britt; Vedsted, Peter; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2013-01-01

    I dette studie testes effekten af en klinisk intervention over for håndtering af sorg i almen praksis. Interventionen handlede om, at tidlig identifikation af komplicerede sorgreaktioner via praktiserende læge kan være med til at sikre behandling til behandlingskrævende sorgreaktioner, der volder...... patienter, mens praktiserende læger i kontrolgruppen oftere udskrev psykofarmaka til de sørgende. Ingen af resultaterne i studiet var signifikante. Det har ikke været muligt i den internationale litteratur at finde tidligere interventionsstudier om sorg i almen praksis, og dette studie betragtes som en god...

  8. The perspectives of clinical staff and bereaved informal care-givers on the use of continuous sedation until death for cancer patients: The study protocol of the UNBIASED study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Heide Agnes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant minority of dying people experience refractory symptoms or extreme distress unresponsive to conventional therapies. In such circumstances, sedation may be used to decrease or remove consciousness until death occurs. This practice is described in a variety of ways, including: 'palliative sedation', 'terminal sedation', 'continuous deep sedation until death', 'proportionate sedation' or 'palliative sedation to unconsciousness'. Surveys show large unexplained variation in incidence of sedation at the end of life across countries and care settings and there are ethical concerns about the use, intentions, risks and significance of the practice in palliative care. There are also questions about how to explain international variation in the use of the practice. This protocol relates to the UNBIASED study (UK Netherlands Belgium International Sedation Study, which comprises three linked studies with separate funding sources in the UK, Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of the study are to explore decision-making surrounding the application of continuous sedation until death in contemporary clinical practice, and to understand the experiences of clinical staff and decedents' informal care-givers of the use of continuous sedation until death and their perceptions of its contribution to the dying process. The UNBIASED study is part of the European Association for Palliative Care Research Network. Methods/Design To realize the study aims, a two-phase study has been designed. The study settings include: the domestic home, hospital and expert palliative care sites. Phase 1 consists of: a focus groups with health care staff and bereaved informal care-givers; and b a preliminary case notes review to study the range of sedation therapy provided at the end of life to cancer patients who died within a 12 week period. Phase 2 employs qualitative methods to develop 30 patient-centred case studies in each country. These involve

  9. Del dolor al duelo: límites al anhelo frente a la desaparición forzada. // From the bereavement to the grief: limits to the yearning faced with the frorced dissapearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Diaz.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article develops the research question about the logic of the grief process when a subject lost is caused by forced disappearance of a loved one. Even though the study of the sources allows to state that the common response to this event is a suspended bereavement, research results allow to propose that there are collective -justice and ritual and individual –grief act- mechanisms which can contribute for a subject to overcome the obstacles and to begin grief resolution. In order to come to this conclusion, the concepts of grief work, reality test, bereavement, and act are discussed to be able to state that the grief for the disappearance does not depend on the reunion with the lost object, nor on the find of a corpse, but on a change of the subject/object relationship where this latter is psychically assumed as radically lost. // El artículo desarrolla la pregunta de investigación en torno a la lógica del proceso de duelo cuando la pérdida de un sujeto es causada por la desaparición forzada de un ser amado. Si bien el estudio de las fuentes permite afirmar que la respuesta común a este evento es la de un dolor suspendido, los resultados de la investigación permiten proponer que existen mecanismo colectivos —la justicia y el ritual— y particulares —el acto de duelo— que pueden contribuir a que un sujeto movilice los obstáculos e inicie la elaboración de su duelo. Se discuten, para llegar a esta conclusión, las nociones de trabajo de duelo, de prueba de realidad, de dolor y de acto, para llegar a afirmar que el duelo por la desaparición no depende del reencuentro con el objeto perdido, ni siquiera bajo la forma de hallazgo del cadáver, sino de un cambio en la relación del sujeto con el objeto donde se instaure psíquicamente este último como radicalmente perdido.

  10. Infant death and interpretive violence in Northeast Brazil: taking bereaved Cearense mothers' narratives to heart Mortes infantis e violência interpretativa no Nordeste brasileiro: levando em conta as narrativas de mães cearenses enlutadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn K. Nations

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates bereaved mothers' ethnoetiologies of avoidable infant deaths in Northeast Brazil. It critically examines the anthropological debate concerning "selective maternal negligence" as a relevant explanation for high infant mortality, based on an analysis of preexisting data. From 2003 to 2006, 316 ethnographic interviews collected by the author from 1979 to 1989 in six communities in Ceará State were retrieved. Forty-five narratives of fatal illness and death of 56 children Investiga a etnoetiologia de óbitos infantis evitáveis na óptica da mãe em luto no Nordeste brasileiro. Refina o debate antropológico sobre a "negligência materna seletiva" como relevante explicação de alta mortalidade infantil. Trata-se de uma análise crítica de dados preexistentes. Entre 2003-2006, foram resgatadas 316 entrevistas etnográficas coletadas pela autora durante 1979-1989, em seis comunidades no Ceará, Brasil. Identificaram-se 45 narrativas de mães sobre a doença fatal e morte de 56 filhos < 5 anos para aprofundamento. Apesar da baixa renda e escolaridade, as mães construíram explicações próprias para a morte precoce. Causas maiores são doenças infecto-contagiosas (37,9% e cuidados desumanizados do profissional de saúde (24,1%. Nenhuma mãe acusa o descuido, desapego ou negligência materna. Nesse contexto de pobreza, argumenta-se que se existe "desprezo" é do sistema econômico-político e social injusto e da prática da saúde pública desumana que violentam os direitos da mulher-cidadã. Caracterizar essa mãe em luto como "negligente", ou, pior, cúmplice na morte do filho, é uma violência interpretativa que injustamente culpabiliza e desmoraliza a mãe-cuidadosa nordestina.

  11. Luto pela morte de um filho: utilização de um protocolo de terapia cognitivo-comportamental Bereavement for a child: a cognitive-behavioral treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira e Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um caso de tratamento de luto, decorrente da perda de um filho, com protocolo cognitivista comportamental. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 28 anos, casada, que perdeu seu filho mais velho em um acidente 6 semanas antes do primeiro atendimento. A terapia, composta por 12 sessões, envolveu o trabalho das alterações emocionais e cognitivas, a aprendizagem de novas habilidades, o desenvolvimento de estratégias para lidar com as principais queixas somáticas e o treinamento para manejo dos problemas comportamentais. Os resultados foram avaliados utilizando-se os seguintes instrumentos: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, os testes de atenção concentrada (AC e sustentada (AS e o Questionário de Saúde Geral de Goldberg (QSG. COMENTÁRIOS: paciente apresentou redução do quadro de depressão, ansiedade e desesperança. Todos os fatores do QSG apresentaram decréscimo, e houve aumento nas medidas de atenção concentrada e sustentada. O tratamento se mostrou efetivo em relação aos fatores apresentados.OBJECTIVE: To describe the case of a patient treated for grief and bereavement for a child using a cognitive-behavioral treatment protocol. CASE DESCRIPTION: Female patient, 28 years old, married, who had lost her older son in an accident 6 weeks prior to the first treatment session. The protocol comprised 12 sessions and involved treatment of cognitive and emotional symptoms, the learning of new abilities, development of strategies to deal with the main somatic complaints and training aimed at the handling of behavioral problems. Results were evaluated using the following instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, concentrated and sustained attention tests, and Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GGHQ. COMMENTS: The patient presented an improvement of depression, anxiety and hopelessness

  12. Formation and Governance of Self-organization among Families Bereaved of Their Only-Child---A Case Study Based on Field Survey in Jiangsu and Shanghai%失独群体自组织的形成及其社会治理功能--基于江苏、上海的实地调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恩

    2016-01-01

    Due to the special psychological characteristics and the lack of effective external intervention , families bereaved of their only-child will bypass the institutional barriers through weak organization system to build their group identity , acquire leadership , recruit group members and overcome the restriction of re-sources.They will form a self-organization based on similar fate for mutual aid and more self-organizations will come into being .These self-organizations play an extremely important role in spiritual comfort and social integration of parents bereaved of their only-child, and can effectively alleviate the problems of social govern-ance caused by the absence of government .But they also have the defects of psychological polarization , overdependence on group leaders , lack of participation in social governance , secondary harm and intensif-ying the problem of bereavement of their only-child.It is suggested that government should correctly recog-nize the function of these self-organizations , support and guide their development .%由于失独者的特殊心理特征及缺少有效外部干预,在特定机会—结构条件下,失独群体以弱组织形式绕过体制屏障、建构群体认同、获得领导精英、招募同命人、克服资源制约,从而建立起基于“命缘”的联谊互助自组织,并不断分化出更多自组织。失独群体自组织在失独者的精神慰藉和社会融入中发挥着极其重要的作用,有效地缓解了政府缺位所造成的失独群体社会治理难题。但失独群体自组织存在诸如心理极化现象、过分依赖领导精英、缺乏参与社会治理的机会、二次伤害及增强“失独”问题化等缺陷,建议政府正确认识失独群体自组织的功能,扶持和引导失独群体自组织的发展。

  13. Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

  14. What To Say to Bereaved Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Coleen

    1997-01-01

    When a student or former student dies, the principal should offer more than condolences. Principals can avoid feeling awkward or tongue-tied at the child's funeral by doing some homework (recalling memorable moments with the child); asking teachers for shared memories; considering a home visit, personal note, or phone call; and talking about the…

  15. Death and Bereavement: What Counselors Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephen J.; Ward, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    Training in death education and grief counseling is not typically a part of a counselor's curriculum, yet the odds of a counselor seeing people in various stages of grieving are great. Beginning with Bowlby's attachment theory, this article provides an overview of the grieving process and what counselors should know. (Author/MKA)

  16. Grief, Bereavement, and Coping with Loss (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  17. Moving family-centered care forward: Bereaved fathers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Betty; Baird, Jennifer; Gudmundsdottir, Maria

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the key behaviors of "excellent" pediatric healthcare providers - a term used by fathers of children with complex, life-threatening illness to describe providers who consistently and effectively engage in family-centered care for children and their families. Using interview data from a multi-site grounded theory study of 60 fathers with a deceased child, five behaviors were identified: getting to know the family as individuals, talking about non-healthcare related topics, connecting in a human-human relationship, including parents as team members, and applying specialized knowledge to help the family. These behaviors are consistent with the goals of family-centered care, but they are inconsistently practiced, resulting in less-than-optimal care for children and their families during periods of crisis and vulnerability. A renewed focus on relationship building and interactions with families is needed, as well as a re-evaluation of the training of pediatric healthcare providers.

  18. War and bereavement: consequences for mental and physical distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; von Lersner, U.; Prigerson, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term impact of the killing of a parent in childhood or adolescence during war on distress and disability in young adulthood. This study assessed current prevalence rates of mental disorders and levels of dysfunction among young adults who had lost their fat

  19. Positive effects of Religious and Spiritual Coping on Bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yoffe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make new projects into the future.

  20. An evaluation of a suicide bereavement peer support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Constance A; Schiff, Jeannette Waegemakers; Chugh, Urmil; Rawlinson, Dixie; Hides, Elizabeth; Leith, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Peer support, a cornerstone in recovery programs for mental illness and addiction, has not been widely applied to service programs for survivors of suicide. In 2004-2006 Canadian Mental Health Association Suicide Services in Calgary, Alberta, introduced the Peer Support Program for adults, an adjunct to conventional individual and group intervention. This article reports on a mixed-methods evaluation of the Peer Support Program. Hogan's Grief Response Checklist and the qualitative data tracked positive outcomes for both the peer supporters and the clients. This study challenges the unspoken assumption that survivors of suicide, due to their vulnerability, require the services of highly skilled professionals and would not be in a position to offer unsupervised support to peers. Rather it supports an intervention protocol that consists of peer supporters and professionals working collaboratively to offer cost-effective, client-centered services.

  1. The Effect of Childhood Bereavement on Secondary School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnoor, Adam; Hollins, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a UK survey of GCSE examination results for children from schools throughout England who had lost a parent (n =73) or sibling (n =24) through death to establish whether this had a long-term impact on school performance, levels of anxiety and self-esteem, and school attendance. Participants were matched for school, age, gender…

  2. Homicide Bereavement: Reflections on the Therapeutic Relationship in Trauma Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesino, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    This critical narrative ethnography focused on the aftermath of gang-related homicide of two Latino teenage boys, as articulated from the perspectives of their mothers. Grounded in critical race theory, this study situates the phenomenon of Latino youth violence within contexts of local oppressive political and historical conditions. This article…

  3. Culture as an Influencing Factor in Adolescent Grief and Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Culture is a complex and important consideration in the process of helping others. In clinical practice, we must view the individual within the context of their culture in order for assessment or treatment to be effective. Further, to overlook or negate culture, a practitioner may possibly operate from faulty cultural assumptions or…

  4. Beyond PTSD: Socio-economic Bereavement in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø

    2007-04-01

    By drawing upon data collected through in-depth interviews with 20 victims of the Ethio-Eritrean war, this paper addresses how psychosocial consequences of political war are expressed and conceptualized by people from Tigray, Ethiopia. War events were typically described in terms of their negative impacts on the household's means for income generation, and psychosocial complaints centred on aspects of impaired post-war economy rather than on politically violent experiences. The most reported complaints were (a) household erosion complaints, (b) social marginalization complaints and (c) education abortion complaints. Post-war psychosocial health problems were perceived as consequences of these aspects of impaired household economy, and were described in terms of their negative impacts on future income generation. Informants' expressions of distress were found to be highly informed by the socio-cultural and socio-economic structures of the Tigrayan society. Being the only study of its kind from this context, the study provides a unique illustration of the limitations of western trauma measures and calls for a context-based conceptualization of trauma.

  5. The Grief Account: Dimensions of a Contemporary Bereavement Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2008-01-01

    The genre of the grief account is identified to include published narratives of surviving grief. Thematic analysis of Andrew Holleran's (2006) "Grief: A Novel," Lolly Winston's (2004) "Good Grief: A Novel," Joan Didion's (2005) "The Year of Magical Thinking," and J. Canfield and M. V. Hansen's (2003) "Chicken Soup for the Grieving Soul: Stories…

  6. [Risc factors for assisted suicide for cancer patients - mental burden of bereaved].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Caroline; Müller-Busch, H Christof

    2015-12-01

    Chronic and progressive disease represents a significant risk factor for suicidal behavior. Cancer patients have almost twice the rate of suicides compared to the general population. Based on a case report, the suicidal risk factors for cancer patients are presented. It is further investigated to what extent professional support by a mobile palliative care team can affect the wish for assisted suicide or the suicidal behavior generally among patients receiving palliative care. In addition, the mental impact on individuals, who were witnesses of assisted suicide of relatives or close friends are presented. The occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressions, anxiety disorders and complicated grief (CG) in close family members is shown. However, further research will be necessary to develop adequate support for patients (and their relatives), who plan an assisted suicide.

  7. Sources of support received by pregnant women in prenatal bereavement1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zully Araya Cubero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of research conducted in the canton of San Ramón, Costa Rica are presented, with 2012 data provided by the Local Committee on Maternal and Infant Mortality Review ( COLAMMI . The goal was to identifysources of support received by pregnant women, during pregnancy, after learning that the fetus had, malformations incompatible with life outside the womb, this support is provided in the process of mourning and sought to know the impact of that support with regard to mental health. From a qualitative approach the retrospective case study methodology was developed. The population was composed of three pregnant women who participated voluntarily and informed, the loss occurred between 3 months and a year prior to the study. Interview technique and review of the reports prepared by the COLAMMI was applied. The results indicate thatinterventions received by the first level of care are scarce and very late. It is concluded that the support provided by health personnel in the third level of health helped the pregnant to receive information about the grieving process and take more favorably decision. In this case, the intervention of first level of care was delayed and was difficult to access.

  8. Addressing the dead - the role of digital/social media in times of bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    This presentation explores the connections between new communication media for emotional sharing and co-created memorials, and the somehow connected and slowly changing national culture around the death of a human being. The key research will take place from 2016 and consists of several case...

  9. Deconstructing Death – Changing Cultures of Death, Dying, Bereavement and Care in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    engagement with the phenomenon of death. Among the themes touched specifically upon in the book are: organ transplantation, death education, communication with the dead, changes in commemorative rituals, mourning practices on the internet, parental responses to children’s suicide, death control, practice...... and ethics of end-of-life care, and the lonely death. Deconstructing Death contains contributions written by researchers and practitioners from Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland with professional and academic backgrounds within areas such as sociology, anthropology, religious studies and palliative care...

  10. Death, Dying and Bereavement in Norway and Sweden in Recent Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gustavsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of my research projects examines pictorial symbols and epitaphs on gravestones in Norway and Sweden. The focus has been on the 1990s and the 2000s. The choice of this period is motivated by the fact that new national burial laws were adopted in both countries in the early 1990s. These laws provided the next of kin with the possibility of choosing memorial symbols and inscriptions more freely than had previously been the case. To judge from the data under study, individual symbols have gained popularity, especially in Sweden, while Norway has been more faithful to earlier traditions of a collective character; moreover, secular motifs are more manifest on the gravestones in Sweden than in Norway. Another research project analyses memorial websites on the Internet related to persons who have died in recent years. The all-inclusive issue in these studies concerns mourners’ expressions of their emotions and beliefs regarding the deceased person’s afterlife, that is, beliefs in after-death existence. Belief in the deceased being somewhere in heaven is common. Belief in angels is also a popular concept in memorial websites. Moreover, in Sweden, this includes deceased pets as well. The previously strictly observed distinction between humans and pets has become indiscernible in Sweden. Norwegian practice, however, remains critical towards this type of “humanlike characterization”. In Norway, memorial websites for the deceased are generally associated with more traditional Christian concepts than are similar sites in Sweden. By contrast, in Sweden, one observes a kind of diffuse religiosity reminiscent of New Age ways of thinking, according to which the individual plays the central role, and glorification of afterlife existence prevails. Secularization, that is, a decline in the influence of traditional forms of religious experience, is conspicuously more prominent in Sweden. Within the project on memorial websites, I have performed a special study of memorials of persons who have committed suicide. In Norway, differences between suicide and deaths by other causes are conceived in an entirely different manner than on memorial websites in Sweden. There, the contrast between suicide and other forms of death has been increasingly wiped out. Norway has preserved earlier mortuary traditions to a greater extent, and no notions of a bright afterlife, or of angels, are to be found in connection with suicides.

  11. Bereavement on the College Campus: Establishing an Effective Ritual for the Classroom and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Kristine M.; Witherow, Laurie B.

    2012-01-01

    On a Thursday night in December 2010, a Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) first-year student stepped in front of a train and killed himself. Because it took some time for the news to reach campus and be confirmed, the student was "funeralized," as they say in the South, and buried before his professors or peers could be informed. That left…

  12. A nationwide study on the risk of autism after prenatal stress exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    children were in the unexposed group. All children were followed up from birth until their death, migration, onset of autism, or the end of 2006. Information on autism was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios in the exposed group...... ratios were comparable between the 5 prenatal exposure periods under study (7-12 months before pregnancy, 0-6 months before pregnancy, first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based cohort study to examine the effect of prenatal stress on autism...

  13. Complicated grief – a challenge in bereavement support in palliative care: an update of the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldin, Mai-Britt

    2014-01-01

    udgave af den amerikanske diagnose-manual (DSM-V) er sorg ikke blevet anerkendt som diagnostisk kategori. I stedet diagnosticeres sorgen som depression, men dette giver nogle kliniske problemstillinger i forhold til intervention. Denne artikel ser nærmere på kompliceret sorg som en tabsrelateret lidelse...

  14. Bereaved relatives' perspectives of the patient's oral intake towards the end of life: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, N.J.H.; Clark, J.B.; Zuylen, L. van; Allan, S.G.; Heide, A. van der

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients approaching death often have a decreasing oral intake, which can be distressing for relatives. Little is known about the relatives' experiences with and perceptions of oral intake at the end of life. Aim:This study aims to contribute to a more thorough understanding of relatives

  15. Investigation of a Developmental Model of Risk for Depression and Suicidality Following Spousal Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Zhang, Baohui; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based multi-wave investigation were used to examine a developmental model of risk for depression and suicidality following the death of a spouse. Measures of perceived parental affection and control during childhood were administered to 218 widowed adults 11 months after the death of the spouse. Self-esteem, spousal…

  16. Bereaved parents' online grief communities: de-tabooing practices or grief-ghettos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Hård af Segerstad, Ylva

    , children are not supposed to die before their parents, old people are supposed to die. Losing a child cuts to the core of human existence. A 100 years ago, the most common death was a child. Today, it is an old person. So the percentage of parents who have suffered the death of a child is comparably small...... compared with people who have lost an old relative. Moreover, the traditional view for socially accepted grief and mourning (at least in protestant Nordic countries) is often that you should not to grieve for too long, not too intensely or not to publicly. A taboo can be said to be a rule against something......-tabooing practices going on. In everyday interaction in the physical world there is a taboo against performing parenthood once your child is dead. It is normal for a parent to talk about their children extensively, as long as it lives. What is to be considered normal, or accepted, is a matter of perspective...

  17. Violent Deaths and Traumatic Bereavement: The Importance of Appropriate Death Notification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Leo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The communication of a death due to unexpected and traumatic causes is considered a very sensitive issue that can deeply affect both operators responsible for reporting the incident and the mourning process of family members, relatives, and other survivors. By focusing particularly on cases of traumatic death, this article tries to explain how inadequate communication of death may adversely affect the course of mourning. The article also illustrates the basic principles of correct notification of death. In this way, we hope to contribute to the ongoing dialogue on this topic and the promotion of new studies aimed at setting best practices for those professionally involved in the challenging task of communicating that a life has ended. This would be important in order to safeguard the emotional integrity of notifiers whilst effectively helping the survivors to cope with the early stages of their difficult mourning process.

  18. The Effect of a Videotape about Death on Bereaved Children in Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Janet B.; Weinstein, Sanford A.

    1980-01-01

    Children who had lost a family member were tested to determine the effect of a videotape about reactions to death. Those who viewed the tape were more able to discuss death in family therapy sessions than those who did not view the tape. (JAC)

  19. Working with the effects of traumatic bereavement by uxoricide (spouse killing) on young children's attachment behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D

    1998-01-01

    This is a clinical description of the work of the Traumatic Stress Clinic, London with children where one parent kills the other, paying special attention to the disorder of attachment which occurs in a majority of the young children. It is suggested that this arises from the combination of the extreme trauma of witnessing the homicide, the frequent changes of carer, and the relative lack of therapeutic help.

  20. Maternal bereavement: the heightened mortality of mothers after the death of a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Javier; Evans, William N

    2013-07-01

    Using a 9-year follow-up of 69,224 mothers aged 20-50 from the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey, we investigate whether there is heightened mortality of mothers after the death of a child. Results from Cox proportional hazard models indicate that the death of a child produces a statistically significant hazard ratio of 2.3. There is suggestive evidence that the heightened mortality is concentrated in the first two years after the death of a child. We find no difference in results based on mother's education or marital status, family size, the child's cause of death or the gender of the child.

  1. Cognitive Development Considerations to Support Bereaved Students: Practical Applications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Jimerson, Shane R.; Comerchero, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the number of deaths that occur worldwide each year and their negative effects on school-aged children and teenagers, teachers and school psychologists report not being properly prepared to assist grieving students (Adamson and Peacock, "Psychology in the Schools," 44, 749-764, 2007; Pratt et al. "Education," 107,…

  2. A Death in the Family: Parental Bereavement in the First Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Judith A.

    1983-01-01

    Examined 145 parents' experiences after a child's death from cancer or a blood disorder. Data revealed men and women differed significantly in the extent to which they encountered distance and lack of comfort in spousal relationships and difficulty during first-year postdeath holidays. (JAC)

  3. Cognitive behaviour therapy to prevent complicated grief among relatives and spouses bereaved by suicide: Csuster andomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.; Keyser, de J.; Neeleman, J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Nolen, W.; Burger, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of a family based grief counselling programme to prevent complicated grief among first degree relatives and spouses of someone who had committed suicide. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with follow-up at 13 months after the suicide. Setting General p

  4. Cognitive behaviour therapy to prevent complicated grief among relatives and spouses bereaved by suicide : cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.; de Keijser, J.; Neeleman, J.; Kerkhof, A.; Nolen, W.; Burger, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of a family based grief counselling programme to prevent complicated grief among first degree relatives and spouses of someone who had committed suicide. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with follow-up at 13 months after the suicide. Setting General p

  5. End of life care and decision making: Opinions and experiences of the general public, bereaved relatives, and professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.H. Raijmakers (Natasja)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEnd-of-life care aims to improve quality of life of patients and their relatives facing problems associated with life-threatening illness in the last days of life. End-of-life decision-making is an important aspect of end-of-life care that can have a significant impact on the process of

  6. Images of heaven and the spiritual afterlife: Qualitative analysis of children's storybooks about death, dying, grief, and bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom, Nancy L

    Many parents turn to picture books and storybooks to help explain issues surrounding death and dying to their young children. In addition to dealing with topics such as death, funerals, memories, and grief, a number of the books also mention the concept of heaven and what our loved ones might experience after they die. This article uses qualitative research methods to analyze 49 children's storybooks that touch on the existence of heaven or a spiritual afterlife. Results show that heaven is portrayed in a simplistic fashion, as a place high in the sky with bright lights, angels, and clouds. Even as heaven is presented in a relatively simple way, there are also patterned differences in depictions of the spiritual afterlife depending upon whether the decedent in the book was a family pet, a child, a parent, or a grandparent. The article concludes with a discussion of how these depictions of heaven and the afterlife might help young children cope with death-related grief.

  7. The role of sensorial processes in Q'eqchi' Maya healing: A case study of depression and bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Andrew R; Waldram, James B

    2016-02-01

    Theory and research on the healing practices of Indigenous communities around the globe have often been influenced by models of "symbolic healing" that privilege the way patients consciously interpret or derive meaning from a healing encounter. In our work with a group of Q'eqchi' Maya healers in southern Belize, these aspects of "symbolic healing" are not always present. Such empirical observations force us to reach beyond models of symbolic healing to understand how healing might prove effective. Through the extended analysis of a single case study of rahil ch'ool or "depression," we propose to advance understanding of forms of healing which are not dependent on a shared "mythic" or "assumptive world" between patient and healer or where therapeutic efficacy does not rely on the patient's ability to "believe" in or consciously "know" what is occurring during treatment. In this we demonstrate how the body, as a site of experience, transformation, and communication, becomes the therapeutic locus in healing encounters of this kind and argue that embodied mediums of sensorial experience be considered central in attempts to understand healing efficacy.

  8. A survey of Dutch GPs' attitudes towards help seeking and follow-up care for relatives bereaved by suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marieke; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert

    2009-01-01

    Methods. A cross-sectional survey among 488 GPs in the northern part of The Netherlands. Results. A 44% response was achieved (n = 214) during the last 3 years, 38 (18%) were exposed to suicide, 21 (10%) to help requests without being exposed to suicide and 52 (24%) to both suicide and help requests

  9. Maladaptive coping in adults who have experienced early parental loss and grief counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Beverley Lim; Appel, Charlotte W; von Heymann-Horan, Annika B

    2017-01-01

    bereaved adults who received grief counseling (N = 822 women,N = 190 men) with bereaved controls who had not (N = 233 women,N = 66 men). Bereaved adults reported significantly more substance use, behavioral disengagement, and emotional eating than non-bereaved adults. Counseling participants reported...

  10. Tradução portuguesa, adaptação e validação da Perinatal Bereavement Grief Scale (PBGS em mulheres com perda de gravidez Traducción portuguesa, adaptación y validación de la Perinatal Bereavement Grief Scale (PBGS en mujeres con pérdida gestacional Portuguese translation, adaptation and validation of the Perinatal Bereavement Grief Scale (PBGS in women with pregnancy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Koch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A perda precoce de uma gravidez, para muitas mulheres, pode constituir um significativo stressor psicossocial. Fazer o luto deste tipo de perda pode ser complexo e uma avaliação precoce pode permitir intervenções mais eficazes. São poucos os instrumentos existentes para esta avaliação. Assim, neste estudo pretendeu-se traduzir, adaptar, validar e avaliar a aplicabilidade da PBGS em mulheres em situação de perda involuntária da gravidez, analisando as suas capacidades de mensuração. A amostra constituiu-se por 100 mulheres entre as quatro e as seis semanas pós-perda. A análise de componentes principais permitiu confirmar a estrutura dimensional única da escala, proposta pelo autor. O nível de confiabilidade da escala evidenciado no nosso estudo (coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach 0,81, embora um pouco inferior ao apresentado originalmente, é igualmente bom. Apresenta uma boa estabilidade temporal (r = 0,98, p La pérdida precoz del embarazo para muchas mujeres, puede ser un factor estresante psicosocial significativo. Hacer el duelo de este tipo de pérdida puede ser complejo y una evaluación temprana puede permitir intervenciones más eficaces. Existen pocos instrumentos para esta evaluación. Asimismo, en este estudio se ha pretendido traducir, adaptar, validar y evaluar la aplicabilidad de la PBGS en mujeres en situación de pérdida involuntaria del embarazo, analizando sus capacidades de mensuración. La muestra está constituida por 100 mujeres entre las cuatro a seis semanas tras la pérdida. El análisis de componentes principales permitió confirmar la estructura dimensional única de la escala, propuesta por el autor. El nivel de fiabilidad de la escala evidenciado en nuestro estudio (coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach 0,81, aunque un poco inferior al presentado originalmente, es igualmente bueno. Presenta una buena estabilidad temporal (r = 0,98, p The early loss of pregnancy for many women may be a significant psychosocial stressor. To mourn a loss of this type can be complex and early evaluation can allow more effective interventions. Few instruments exist for this assessment. Therefore in this study we sought to translate, adapt, and evaluate the applicability of the PBGS to women in situations of involuntary pregnancy loss, examining its measurement capabilities. The sample consisted of 100 women between four and six weeks after their respective losses. The analysis of the scale’s primary components confirmed its unique dimensional structure as proposed by the author. Although slightly lower than originally presented, the scale’s level of reliability, as evidenced in our study (Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient 0.81, is also satisfactory. The scale shows good temporal stability (r = 0.98, p <0.01. The scale, applied in this study, was found to be both reliable and valid, and may constitute an important tool to be used by nurses in evaluating women at risk of developing complications while adapting to pregnancy loss.

  11. Parental Grief and Marital Issues Aftermath: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atikah Mohamed Hussin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The death of a child is difficult to the bereaved parents. Literature had associated the loss with marriage disruption. The issues on that the difficulties to communicate, gender-related coping mechanisms and sexual need were discussed as reasons for bereaved parents to have conflict in their relationship. However there is limited knowledge about this issue. A pilot study has been conducted among six bereaved parents. The bereaved parents were Malaysian Muslim bereaved parents. They were interviewed individually to explore the challenges or conflicts that they had experienced after the death of their child. This study revealed that there were situations which bereaved parents described as having difficulties in their relationship. However, this study also revealed that the mutual understanding and respect to each other are the most of important components for bereaved parents to maintain their relationship post-loss. This study suggested the importance of suggesting couple counselling to bereaved parents after the death of their child.

  12. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ...

  13. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ...

  14. Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ...

  15. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ...

  16. At Least 39 Weeks

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ...

  17. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ... questions Ask our health experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ...

  18. Actitudes psicológicas ante la muerte y el duelo: Una revisión conceptual Psychological attitudes toward death and bereavement: One conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Gala León

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la muerte siempre ha sido objeto de profundas reflexiones filosóficas, religiosas y, actualmente, científicas; sin embargo en las sociedades postindustriales es difícil aceptar su mera idea, de modo que las actitudes hacia ella han sufrido una evolución desadaptativa, retrocediendo de la mano del "progreso" de las actitudes saludables del afrontamiento y la aceptación, a las prefóbicas del sinvivir por su temor y a las fóbicas de su negación. Cambios socioculturales: podemos diferenciar en Occidente dos momentos en la vivencia de la muerte: uno previo a su Institucionalización Hospitalaria, en el que es aceptada como parte natural de la existencia y otro, desde que el Hospital pasa a ser la Institución reservada para morir, traduciéndose en un cambio radical en la consciencia e información sobre la propia muerte. Actitudes del Personal Sanitario: estos cambios también han alcanzado al PS. generándole muchas veces actitudes distorsionadas tales como no querer nombrar a la muerte o a las patologías "que las atraen", no mirar cara a cara al enfermo terminal, incongruencias y disonancias entre la Comunicación Verbal y la No Verbal y aumento de la atención tecnológica en detrimento de la empático-afectiva, con el riesgo del encarnizamiento terapéutico, empeorándose las condiciones de la muerte. Conclusión: el Marco Sanitario precisa de componendas éticas y estéticas para afrontar integralmente el proceso de morir, dotándose de medios, conocimientos y actitudes adecuadas para atender las necesidades biopsicosociales del moribundo con el objetivo de morir con dignidad.Introduction: Death has always been the object of deep philosophical, religious, and currently scientific reflections; however in post-industrial societies it is difficult to accept the very idea of it, so that attitudes to death have undergone maladaptive evolution, drawing back in the name of "progress" from the healthy attitudes of confrontation and acceptance, to the pre-phobic attitude of living in constant worry for fear of death, and the phobic attitude of its denial. Socio-cultural changes: In the West we can differentiate two periods in the experience of dying: one prior to institutionalization in hospital where it is accepted as a natural part of existence and the other, from when the hospital becomes the institution reserved for dying, bringing about a radical change in the consciousness of and information on ones own death. Attitudes of medical personnel: These changes have also reached medical personnel, frequently generating distorted attitudes such as not wanting to name death or the pathologies leading to it, not dealing face-to-face with the terminal patient, incongruities and discord between verbal and non-verbal communication and an increase in technological attention in detriment of affective empathy , with the risk of therapeutic cruelty, worsening the conditions of death. Conclusion: The medical framework needs ethical and aesthetic arrangements to integrally face the process of dying, endowing it with adequate means, knowledge and attitudes to attend the biopsychosocial needs of the dying, with the object of dying with dignity.

  19. Sharing experiences to improve bereavement support and clinical care after stillbirth : report of the 7th annual meeting of the international stillbirth alliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heazell, Alexander E. P.; Leisher, Susannah; Cregan, Mairie; Flenady, Vicki; Froen, J. Frederik; Gravensteen, Ida K.; De Groot-Noordenbos, Mariette; De Groot, Paul; Hale, Sue; Jennings, Belinda; Mcnamara, Karen; Millard, Caron; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Stillbirth remains a global health challenge which is greatly affected by social and economic inequality, particularly the availability and quality of maternity care. The International Stillbirth Alliance (ISA) exists to raise awareness of stillbirth and to promote global collaboration in the preven

  20. Severe Maternal Stress Exposure Due to Bereavement before, during and after Pregnancy and Risk of Overweight and Obesity in Young Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Stresspåvirkning før fødslen kan måske føre til overvægt senere i livet. Dette studie undersøger, om der er en sammenhæng mellem overvægt hos unge mænd og sorg hos moderen lige før eller efter fødslen. Resultaterne viser, at sorg hos moderen som følge af tab af en nærtstående omkring fødselstidsp...

  1. Midlife suicide risk, partner's psychiatric illness, spouse and child bereavement by suicide or other modes of death: a gender specific study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben

    2005-01-01

    status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 9011 people aged 25-60 years who committed suicide; 180 220 age-gender matched controls; 111 172 marital partners; 174 672 children. MAIN RESULTS: The suicide risk in women whose partner had...... a parent was protective in women. Except for widows (1.6, 1.2 to 2.0) and widowers (3.0, 2.3 to 3.9) the suicide risk associated with being separated (2.0, 1.8 to 2.3), divorced (1.8, 1.7 to 2.0), never married (1.4, 1.3 to 1.6), cohabitant (1.2, 1.1 to 1.3) was virtually the same in the two sexes...

  2. Assessing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder's Latent Structure in Elderly Bereaved European Trauma Victims: Evidence for a Five Factor Dysphoric and Anxious Arousal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armour, Cherie; O'Connor, Maja; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    The three-factor structure of PTSD specified by the DSM-IV is not supported in the empirical literature. Two alternative four-factor models have received a wealth of empirical support. However, a consensus regarding which is superiorhas not been reached. A recent five-factor model has been shown ...

  3. Loss and grief in the workplace: the challenge of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Mary; Thompson, Neil

    There is no part of human existence that loss and grief do not reach, and the workplace is no exception to this. This article is therefore concerned with some of the implications of loss and grief in work settings in general and for workplace leaders in particular. By way of example, it explores in particular the needs of bereaved caregivers returning to work and the potential for stigma to emerge in relation to employment and bereavement. Central to the article is an argument in favor of the need for change within the workplace, specifically within the structures and systems that support bereaved caregivers returning to work. This article critically reflects on the leadership management challenge of supporting bereaved caregivers returning to, or seeking, work and addressing the problem of stigma in relation to employment and bereavement. Some structural and policy changes are highlighted to assist employers and bereaved caregivers faced with this situation.

  4. The denial of death: A three-decade long case of absent grief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bereavement reactions are associated with numerous physical and mental complications. Atypical bereavement reactions have been described but their place in the classificatory system has not been established. We present the case of an eighty-year-old woman who came with the belief that her deceased son was alive. We discuss the diagnostic dilemma she posed and conclude that it may be difficult to differentiate atypical bereavement from other psychiatric illnesses.

  5. The role of continuing bonds in coping with grief: overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Briana L; Exline, Julie Juola

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature depicts a complex picture of the role that continuing bonds play in coping with bereavement, with contradictory findings emerging across studies. This article presents an overview of continuing bonds research and highlights several areas ripe for exploration. First, definitional issues are identified. Second, three paths for clarification are presented: the bereaved's perception of the bond as positive or negative, the quality of the predeath relationship, and the bereaved's afterlife beliefs. Through refining the definition and exploring these potential avenues of research, we hope to clarify the roles that continuing bonds may play in coping with bereavement.

  6. 心理剧疗法在震后丧恸者心灵重建中的应用%Psychodrama and Its Application in Post-earthquake Psychological Rehabilitation of the Bereaved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江琴; 林大熙

    2009-01-01

    通过对"5·12"汶川地震后的心理援助实践,得出心理剧疗法是对震后丧恸者缓解忧伤、恐惧、愤怒、自责等不良情绪,以及帮助他们重塑生活的信心、重构生活的意义有良好的效果.主要治疗步骤包括建立安全信任感、引导情绪宣泄、举行告别仪式、与新生活联结.

  7. The perspectives of clinical staff and bereaved informal care-givers on the use of continuous sedation until death for cancer patients: The study protocol of the UNBIASED study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Seymour (Jane); J.A.C. Rietjens (Judith); J. Brown (Jayne); A. van der Heide (Agnes); S. Sterckx (Sigrid); L. Deliens (Luc)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A significant minority of dying people experience refractory symptoms or extreme distress unresponsive to conventional therapies. In such circumstances, sedation may be used to decrease or remove consciousness until death occurs. This practice is described in a variety of way

  8. Parents grieving the loss of their child : interdependence in coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek; Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang; van den Bout, Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Dijkstra, Iris

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A longitudinal study was conducted among bereaved parents, to examine the relationship between parents' own and their partners' ways of coping in terms of the constructs loss-orientation and restoration-orientation (coping strategies based on the bereavement-specific Dual Process Model (

  9. The role of loneliness and social support in adjustment to loss : a test of attachment versus stress theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, W; Stroebe, M; Abakoumkin, G; Schut, H

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study of a matched sample of 60 recently widowed and 60 married men and women tested predictions from stress and attachment theory regarding the role of social support in adjustment to bereavement. Stress theory predicts a buffering effect, attributing the impact of bereavement on wel

  10. Phyllis R. Silverman: An Omega Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Presents interview with Phyllis Silverman, who developed concept of Widow-to-Widow Program and directed research project that first demonstrated its effectiveness. Silverman discusses her views on grief, the Widow-to-Widow program, peer support, gender differences in peer support for bereavement, and the Child Bereavement Study. (NB)

  11. Long-Term Effects of Child Death on Parents' Health-Related Quality of Life: A Dyadic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Floyd, Frank J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the long-term effects of child death on bereaved parents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we compared 233 bereaved couples and 229 comparison couples (mean age = 65.11 years) and examined the life course effects of child death on parents' HRQoL. Variations in bereavement…

  12. Divergent gene expression responses to complicated grief and non-complicated grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Schultze-Florey, Christian R; Irwin, Michael R; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Cole, Steven W

    2014-03-01

    The "widowhood effect" (i.e., morbidity/mortality in recently bereaved spouses) may be related to changes in immune function, but little is known about the impact of bereavement on gene transcription in immune cells. This study examined how Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief responses to bereavement differentially affect leukocyte gene expression. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and bioinformatic analyses were completed on 63 older adults. Thirty-six of them had lost their spouse/partner on average 2years ago, and 27 were nonbereaved, married controls. Twelve of the bereaved participants met criteria for Complicated Grief. Compared to nonbereaved controls, bereavement (both Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief) was associated with upregulated expression of genes involved in general immunologic activation and a selective downregulation of genes involved in B lymphocyte responses. However, Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief differed markedly in their expression of Type I interferon-related transcripts, with Non-complicated Grief subjects showing substantial upregulation relative to nonbereaved controls and Complicated Grief subjects showing substantial downregulation. Bereavement significantly modulates immune function gene expression. The magnitude of bereavement-related distress (i.e., Complicated Grief vs. Non-complicated Grief) is linked to differential patterns of transcription factor activation and gene expression involved in innate antiviral responses. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding the health effects of bereavement, as well as new insights into the particular gene modules that are most sensitive to the individual's psychological response to loss.

  13. Performance of Complicated Grief Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E; Boelen, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    To the Editor: We read with interest the article by Cozza et al. on the accuracy of DSM-5 persistent complex bereavement disorder criteria (1). The study suggests that complicated grief criteria are more sensitive in detecting cases with grief-related symptoms than persistent complex bereavement dis

  14. Does "grief work" work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, M; Stroebe, W

    1991-01-01

    This article challenges the long-standing belief in the necessity of "grief work" for adjustment to bereavement. Evidence is offered from a prospective study of 30 widows and 30 widowers that indicates that grief work is not always as essential for adjustment to bereavement as theorists and clinicia

  15. Grief shortly after suicide and natural death : A comparative study among spouses and first-degree relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marieke; de Keijser, Adrianus; Neeleman, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Chronic dysfunction after complicated grief is not rare and emphasizes the need to identify bereaved individuals at risk. Three months following bereavement, self-reported psychiatric and general health of 153 relatives of 74 suicides was worse than of 70 relatives of 39 natural deaths. Moreover, th

  16. The Effects of Preparedness for Suicide Following the Death of a Young Adult Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Myfanwy; Plummer, David; Edwards, Helen; Minichiello, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Suicide deaths are often viewed as sudden and unexpected. Research examining bereavement responses to suicide are generally set within this conceptual framework. Twenty-two parents were interviewed about their bereavement experience following the suicide death of a young adult son or daughter. Data analyzed using narrative methods revealed the…

  17. Parental grief and memento mori photography: narrative, meaning, culture, and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Cybele; Cacciatore, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem photography is a widespread practice in perinatal bereavement care, yet few studies have explored how it affects bereaved parents, or how it might be received by parents of older children. This study is an examination of the meaning, utility, and social context of postmortem photography in a sample of 181 bereaved parents. Data were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Photographs were positively regarded by most parents after perinatal death and several parents of older children. Other parents rejected postmortem photography for aesthetic, personal, or cultural reasons. Brief recommendations are offered for healthcare providers.

  18. Compassionate Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The services provided by the... Help Support Compassionate Friends Rest assured, every donation we receive is used ... remembered.... Read More... Sign Up for the Compassionate Friends Newsletter Find Support Chapters To The Newly Bereaved ...

  19. James Blunt matuselaulude edetabeli tipus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Bereavement Registeri andmetel Suurbritannias matustel tellitavate laulude edetabelis: James Blunt "Goodbye My Lover", Robbie Williams "Angels", Jennifer Warnes ja Bill Medley "I've Had the Time Of My Life", Elton John "Candle in the Wind", Righteous Brothers "Unchained Melody"

  20. National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quality & Standards Committee Regulatory Committee Diversity Advisory Council Ethics Advisory Council Global Partners In Care Advisory Council ... Allied Therapist Bereavement Professional CEO/Executive Director Certified Nursing Assistant Clinical and Operations Management Development/Public Relations/ ...

  1. Symptoms of Major Depression and Complicated Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Loss of a Loved One Symptoms of major depression and complicated grief Depression It’s common for people ... person might be getting worse—going into a major depression. About 1 in 5 bereaved people will develop ...

  2. Coping with Life after Death: The Counselor's Response Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Maurice P.

    1980-01-01

    Physicians, nurses, social workers, and counselors often fail to relate effectively to the dying and the bereaved. They must first come to terms with their own feelings about death in order to respond to others. (Author/JAC)

  3. Improving the understanding and treatment of complex grief: an important issue for psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Boelen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, every year 500,000 people are confronted with the death of a close relative. Many of these people experience little emotional distress. In some, bereavement precipitates severe grief, distress, and dysphoria. A small yet significant minority of bereaved individuals develops persistent and debilitating symptoms of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD (also termed prolonged grief disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. Knowledge about early identification of, and preventive care for complex grief has increased. Moreover, in recent years there has been an increase in treatment options for people for whom loss leads to persistent psychological problems. That said, preventive and curative treatments are effective for some, but not all bereaved individuals experiencing distress and dysfunction following loss. This necessitates further research on the development, course, and treatment of various stages of complex grief, including PCBD. Highlights of the article:

  4. 78 FR 66342 - Advisory Committee on Arlington National Cemetery (ACANC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... bereavement practices; b. Plans and strategies for addressing long-term governance challenges; c. Resource... speak; however, interested persons may submit a written statement or a request to speak...

  5. Understanding family member suicide narratives by investigating family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnarajah, Dorothy; Maple, Myfanwy; Minichiello, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The complex family environments in which a suicide death had previously occurred were explored in a qualitative study of narratives of suicide-bereaved participants. The participants searched for reasons why the suicide occurred in their family. Family patterning stories and the context of the environment in which the suicide death occurred provided an additional depth of meaning into the relational aspects of the family. Fractured families emerged as an important theme. Shared in the narratives were stories of conditions within the family that may have contributed to vulnerability towards persistent negative feelings about their lives, their family, and their future. The study also identifies the strengths of family culture that led to resilience in the suicide bereaved. These stories highlight the importance of support for those bereaved by the suicide of a close family member and the issues that places people in vulnerable situations that perhaps may explain the increased risk of suicide for those bereaved family members.

  6. Posttraumatic Outcomes and a New Method to Diagnose and Monitor Patients through MEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    symptoms when exposed to traumatic events. Bowlby (1980), a bereavement theorist, considers a positive reaction or no reaction to the loss of an important...to positive immunologic and health outcomes. Bowlby , J. (1980). Loss: Sadness and depression: Vol. 3. Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books...This book focuses on the emotional response to loss. This includes feelings of sadness, depression, grief, and bereavement. Bowlby created a four

  7. Elementos para uma intervenção em aconselhamento psicológico com pais enlutados = Elements for an intervention in counseling psychology with bereaved parents = Elementos para una intervención en consejería psicológica con los padres en duelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morelli, Ana Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo delinear os principais elementos que devem compor um programa de intervenção em aconselhamento psicológico com pais enlutados, a partir das necessidades de casais que perderam seus filhos. Trata-se de um estudo de caso coletivo desenvolvido com cinco casais, que foram entrevistados individualmente e, em seguida, em díades, totalizando 15 entrevistas. Os resultados permitiram a construção de três categorias, que constituem os elementos centrais a serem considerados na proposição de um programa de aconselhamento psicológico: (1 necessidade de acolhimento emergencial do sofrimento, (2 conjugalidade e (3 espiritualidade/religiosidade. Com base na experiência dos pais investigados, recomenda-se disponibilizar intervenções individuais, na estratégia de atendimento breve, ou de casal, com foco no acolhimento e potencialização de recursos adaptativos advindos da conjugalidade e da prática espiritual/religiosa

  8. La mort du prince Henri (†1612 : éthique et rhétorique du deuil dans un cycle de sermons funèbres anglais The prince Henry’s death (†1612 : ethics and rhetoric of bereavement in a cycle of English funeral sermons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Barros

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les spécificités thématiques et rhétoriques d’un cycle de sermons de deuil de Daniel Price, prononcés en 1612 à l’occasion de la mort du prince Henri, le fils aîné du roi d’Angleterre, Jacques Ier. Le premier volet expose les caractéristiques du sermon funèbre anglais, un genre de discours fortement codifié, dont les conventions se fixèrent dans la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle, alors même que le clergé s’efforçait de démontrer la légitimité de la prédication funèbre dans un contexte protestant. À l’aube du XVIIe siècle, les sermons funèbres imprimés se conforment en majorité à un modèle rhétorique bien défini et poursuivent un objectif pastoral double : la commémoration des morts et l’édification des vivants. Vis-à-vis de cette norme, les sermons de Daniel Price présentent des écarts considérables. En effet, ils se consacrent pour l’essentiel à la prise en charge du deuil des fidèles, un choix thématique qui implique une stratégie rhétorique spécifique. Se focalisant sur l’examen de ces caractéristiques, le deuxième volet de l’article montrera que ces textes, s’ils sont peu représentatifs de la pratique homilétique du clergé anglais au moment des funérailles, sont symptomatiques d’un changement culturel qui se dessine en Angleterre à l’aube du XVIIe siècle, et qui se traduit par la valorisation du deuil humain à des fins dévotionnellesThis article examines the thematic and rhetorical specificities of a cycle of funeral sermons preached in 1612 by Daniel Price on the occasion of the death of prince Henry, the eldest son of James I. It begins by describing the conventions of the English funeral sermon, which took shape in the second half of the sixteenth century, at a time when the clergy aimed at legitimizing the act of preaching over the dead in a Protestant context. It will be shown that at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the majority of printed funeral sermons conformed to a well-defined rhetorical pattern and pursued a two-fold pastoral aim : the commemoration of the dead and the edification of the living. Focusing on the grief of the audience, the sermons of Daniel Price significantly differ from this pattern, both rhetorically and thematically. The second part of the article will focus on the analysis of these idiosyncrasies, which will be shown to be symptomatic of a wider cultural change occurring in England at the beginning of the seventeenth century : the valuing of human grief in a devotional context.

  9. Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder due to Bereavement:A Control Study%丧亲创伤后应激障碍患者眼动脱敏和再加工治疗与认知行为治疗的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲; 张桂青; 胡敏; 时若欢

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨眼动脱敏和再加工治疗( EMDR)与认知行为治疗( CBT)对丧亲所致创伤后应激障碍( PTSD)疗效的优劣性。方法将2013年1—12月在石河子大学医学院第一附属医院诊断为PTSD的丧亲者随机分为EMDR组与CBT组,分别于治疗前后评价两组患者PTSD症状及焦虑、抑郁情况。结果共纳入34例患者,两组各17例。治疗前两组创伤后应激障碍量表平民版( PCL-C)总分及3个症状群得分、汉密顿焦虑量表( HAMA)和汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD)得分间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);而治疗后EMDR组PCL-C总分及再体验症状群、易激惹症状群得分和 HAMA 得分均低于 CBT 组,差异有统计学意义( P 0. 05)in the total score of PCL-C, the scores of three syndromes,and scores of HAMA and HAMD. After treatment,EMDR group Was loWer(P<0. 05)than CBT group in the total score of PCL-C,the scores of flashback and hyperarousal and the score of HAMA. Conclusion EMDR and CBT are all effective in the treatment of PTSD,While EMDR is more effective in alleviating PTSD symptoms and anxiety.

  10. Elementos para uma intervenção em aconselhamento psicológico com pais enlutados = Elements for an intervention in counseling psychology with bereaved parents = Elementos para una intervención en consejería psicológica con los padres en duelo

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli,Ana Bárbara; Scorsolini-Comin,Fabio; SANTOS, Manoel Antônio dos

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo teve por objetivo delinear os principais elementos que devem compor um programa de intervenção em aconselhamento psicológico com pais enlutados, a partir das necessidades de casais que perderam seus filhos. Trata-se de um estudo de caso coletivo desenvolvido com cinco casais, que foram entrevistados individualmente e, em seguida, em díades, totalizando 15 entrevistas. Os resultados permitiram a construção de três categorias, que constituem os elementos centrais a serem considerado...

  11. Ældre efterladte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    is a significant increase in mortality rate, use of alcohol and medicine, visits to the local physician, hospitalization, physical and mental problems etc.. Social support and preventive work with the widowed is generally considered to reduce the psychological effect of stress and traumatization. This thesis...... includes an introduction to and a discussion of the subject "Elderly bereaved" and focusses on traumatization, social support and preventive work in this group. Following this a psychological survey of elderly bereaved in Denmark has been done.Method. A questionnaire syrvey of  54 bereaved Danes over...... the age of 65 years from five geographically different countys. Results. 1 month after the loss 27% of the subjects had PTSD. 6 months after the loss this was reduced to 24%. Social support measured on two of the variables within CSS was significantly related to level of psychological symptoms measured...

  12. Abnormal Grief: Should We Consider a More Patient-Centered Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedoddin, Babak; Markowitz, John C

    2015-01-01

    Grief, the psychological reaction to the loss of a significant other, varies complexly in its cause, experience, evolution, and prognosis. Although most bereaved individuals experience a normal grieving process, some develop complicated grief (CG) or major depressive disorder (MDD). The DSM-5, which controversially altered the nosology, recognizes grief-related major depression (GRMD) as a diagnostic subtype if a patient meets MDD criteria two weeks post bereavement. The (DSM-5) tries to distinguish between grief and MDD, but remains a symptom-based, centered approach to grief that is not patient centered. This article reviews grief in its normal and abnormal dimensions. Using an illustrative clinical case in which interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) was employed, we discuss the need for a more patient-centered approach to treating abnormal grief, considering the patient's personal history, perceptions, experiences of bereavement, and interpersonal environment. Clinical studies need to better identify subgroups of individuals susceptible to abnormal grief and to evaluate their response to early interventions.

  13. The relation among variables of mental health and cognition in widowed elders / A relação entre variáveis de saúde mental e cognição em idosos viúvos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Marceli Trentini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the cognitive abilities of widowed elders, a total sample of 34 elders (who have lost their spouses in the last 12 months was identified among elders in Veranópolis-RS and 30 of them accepted to participate in the study. The control group was composed by 30 married subjects paired according to gender, age and level of education. The instruments used were: Measure Questionnaire of Memory Loss Complaints; Verbal Fluency - animal category; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test; Digit subtest; Geriatric Depression Scales and Bereavement Phenomenology Questionnaire. Widowed elders had significantly more depressive symptoms and more points on the bereavement scale. However, there was no significant difference between the means of cognitive performance of widowed or married elders. In the census, the choice of widowhood as a selection criterion instead of bereavement (self reported might have influenced the lack of association between widowhood and cognitive dysfunction, among other aspects.

  14. Healing the social self: how parents whose children were killed in terror attacks construct the experience of help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possick, Chaya; Shamai, Michal; Sadeh, Ruth Ann

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on expressed needs and structures of assistance received by Israeli parents whose children were killed in terror attacks. The loss takes place within a multi-systemic network that can be a healing force and/or a distorting factor in the grief process. The qualitative research paradigm employed privileges the knowledge of the parents themselves. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 parents. (1) The primary criterion that determines the parents' attribution of helpfulness is perceived inclusiveness. (2) The subsystem of "family of the bereaved" is salient in the healing process. (3) There is a clear preference for the services provided by NGO's as opposed to governmental agencies. (4) The bereaved parents engage the symbolic level of the macro-system-the heritage of the Jewish people. The article concludes with the practical implications of the findings for the development and delivery of psychosocial services to parents bereaved in terror attacks.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Peer Support Program for Parents Facing Perinatal Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Rachel M; Roose, Rosmarie E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to understand the perspectives of peer parents and parents receiving support within a peer support program for perinatal bereavement at a midsized hospital within the midwestern United States. To document participants' perceptions of the program, a focus group was conducted with peer parents, and surveys were completed by both peer parents and parents receiving support. In this article we review our model of a peer support program for perinatal bereavement and report on parents' evaluation of the program. Recommendations through which other organizations can develop peer support programs for parents who have experienced a perinatal loss are provided.

  16. Sudden cardiac death in adults: causes, incidence and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    Many nurses will be familiar with the unexpected death of an adult patient following a sudden, life-threatening cardiac event. It is a situation that demands sensitive nursing care and skilled interventions to provide a foundation for recovery and promote healthy bereavement. This article examines the causes and incidence of sudden cardiac death in adults. Possible reactions of those who are suddenly bereaved are described and immediate care interventions aimed at dealing with the grief process are discussed. The article concludes by identifying ways in which the incidence of sudden cardiac death may be reduced.

  17. "Second class loss": political culture as a recovery barrier--the families of terrorist casualties' struggle for national honors, recognition, and belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Udi

    2014-01-01

    Israeli families of terrorist victims have undertaken initiatives to include their dearest in the national pantheon. The objections opposed the penetration of "second-class loss" into the symbolic closure of heroic national bereavement. The "hierarchy of bereavement" is examined through the lens of political culture organized around the veneration held for the army fallen and their families, which has symbolic as well as rehabilitative outcomes. Families of civilian terror victims claims for similar status and treatment had to frame their loss as national in the eyes of the social policy. The article claimed linkage between collective memory and rehabilitation.

  18. Suicide Survivors' Mental Health and Grief Reactions: A Systematic Review of Controlled Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveen, Carl-Aksel; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a debate over several decades whether suicide survivors experience more severe mental health consequences and grief reactions than those who have been bereaved through other causes of death. This is the first systematic review of suicide survivors' reactions compared with survivors after other modes of death. Studies were identified…

  19. Repressive Coping, Emotional Adjustment, and Cognition in People Who Have Lost Loved Ones to Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Holly A.; McNally, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that a repressive coping style is psychologically protective against the stress of trauma, yet it is unclear whether this finding generalizes to suicide bereavement. Thus, we assessed cognitive ability and mental health among individuals who lost a loved one to suicide. The results indicate that repressive coping may be…

  20. A Matter of Life and Death: Knowledge about the Body and Concept of Death in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, J.; Treacy, B.; Quigley, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: An increased awareness of how people with intellectual disabilities (ID) understand death and dying is necessary in supporting life-long learning, post-bereavement support and planning end-of-life care. Previous research suggests that adults with ID have a limited or "patchy" understanding of the basic biological components…

  1. Death becoming social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    2014-01-01

    A dead child – be it a stillborn or dead at a very early age – renders the bereaved (mainly the parents) in an existential void: all preparational efforts leading up to the life as parents to a (new) child are rendered meaningless and all hopes and dreams for the future as a family are scattered ...

  2. Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…

  3. Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…

  4. Organ retention and communication of research use following medico-legal autopsy: a pilot survey of university forensic medicine departments in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the circumstances and problems that departments of forensic medicine encounter with bereaved families regarding samples obtained from medico-legal autopsies. A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medico-legal autopsies in Japan, and responses were received from 48 (63.2%). Of the respondents, 12.8% had approached and communicated with bereaved families about collecting samples from the deceased person during an autopsy and the storage of the samples. In addition, 23.4% of these had informed families that samples might be used in research. Eighteen departments had received enquiries and requests from families about the samples, with most requests concerning their return. The response to such requests varied according to the department. Few departments interacted with the bereaved families regarding the procedure for obtaining autopsy samples, and their methods for handling family concerns differed depending on the person within the department authorised to contact the family. Moreover, the procedures for engaging in such communication have long been unclear, and no legal or ethical consensus or agreement with the general public has been established. It is important for researchers to further discuss the correct way for forensic medicine departments to communicate with bereaved families.

  5. Dream Content in Complicated Grief: A Window into Loss-Related Cognitive Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Anne; Shear, Katherine M.; Walsh, Colleen; Buysse, Daniel J.; Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F., III; Frank, Ellen; Silowash, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Bereavement and its accompanying psychological response (grief) constitute potent experiences that necessitate the reorganization of cognitive-affective representations of lost significant attachment figures during both wakefulness and dreaming. The goals of this preliminary study were to explore whether the dream content of 77 adults with…

  6. Parenthood, Stress, and Mental Health in Late Midlife and Early Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2009-01-01

    Using 2 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I examine psychological consequences of potentially stressful, non-normative, or "off-time" aspects of the parental role in late midlife and early old age, including coresidence with adult children, stepparenthood, and parental bereavement. Additionally, I analyze gender differences in…

  7. Sense-Making, Grief, and the Experience of Violent Loss: Toward a Mediational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Joseph M.; Holland, Jason M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Bereavement following violent loss by accident, homicide or suicide increases the risk for complications in grieving. This is the first study to examine a constructivist model of grief that proposes that sense-making, or the capacity to construct an understanding of the loss experience, mediates the association between violent death and…

  8. Measuring Experiential Avoidance: Reliability and Validity of the Dutch 9-item Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, P.A.; Reijntjes, A.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies evaluated psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 9-item Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ)—a self-report measure designed to assess experiential avoidance as conceptualized inAcceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Study 1, among bereaved adults, showed that a one-

  9. Predicting Social Support for Grieving Persons: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently reported that social support from family, friends, and colleagues is an important factor in the bereaved person's ability to cope after the loss of a loved one. This study used a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to identify those factors that predict a person's intention to interact with, and support, a grieving…

  10. Couples at risk following the death of their child : predictors of grief versus depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek; Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang; van den Bout, Jan; van der Heijden, Peter; Dijkstra, Iris

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relative impact of major variables for predicting adjustment (in terms of both grief and depression) among bereaved parents following the death of their child. Couples (N = 219) participated 6, 13, and 20 months postloss. Use of multilevel regression analyses ena

  11. 42 CFR 418.64 - Condition of participation: Core services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the patient's initial assessment, comprehensive assessment, and updated assessments. (2) If State law...'s needs and acceptance of these services. (d) Standard: Counseling services. Counseling services... kind of bereavement services to be offered and the frequency of service delivery. A special...

  12. The impact of circumstances surrounding the death of a child on parents' grief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; Van den Bout, Jan; Van Der Heijden, Peter G M; Dijkstra, Iris

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted among bereaved parents to examine the relationship between the circumstances surrounding the death of their child and psychological adjustment. Two hundred nineteen couples participated at 6, 13, and 20 months post-loss. Examination was made of two categories of fa

  13. The Psychological Effects of Sudden Infant Death on Grandmothers and Grandfathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrain, John D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychological and social impact of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) on 80 grandmothers and grandfathers. Results of quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest that SIDS for most grandparents is a devastating experience. Common feelings expressed included disbelief, anger, guilt, anxiety, depression, concern for their bereaved adult…

  14. "Good Night, Sweet Prince": Saying Goodbye to the Dead in Shakespeare's Plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Samuel

    1996-01-01

    Themes of death and loss have often been treated with greater eloquence in literature than in psychology and the helping professions. This article explores the treatment of bereavement and mortality in some of Shakespeare's tragedies and comedies, illustrating his deep understanding of the place of loss in human life. (Author)

  15. The (Re)Construction of Self after the Death of a Partner to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadell, Susan; Marshall, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore individuals' self-construals after the loss of a partner from HIV/AIDS for whom they were a caregiver. Seven gay or transsexual bereaved caregivers were interviewed after the death of their partners. The data revealed patterns suggestive of A. Aron and E. N. Aron's (1986) "inclusion of others in the self" (IOS)…

  16. The Effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavior Grief Therapy to Prevent Complicated Grief in Relatives of Suicide Victims: The Mediating Role of Suicide Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Marieke; Neeleman, Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert

    2010-01-01

    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, the effect of suicide ideation on the…

  17. The Effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavior Grief Therapy to Prevent Complicated Grief in Relatives of Suicide Victims : The Mediating Role of Suicide Ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.; Neeleman, J.; van der Meer, K.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n =122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therap

  18. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  19. Metaphor-Visual Aid in Grief Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Borden, Gwen

    1992-01-01

    Sees use of metaphor as providing powerful and useful framework for lowering resistance to pain of bereavement for parental grief. Contends that metaphor offers graphic, nonjudgmental symbolic representation through which mourner may freely express sorrow, loss, anger, and guilt needed to accomplish tasks of grieving. Notes that neutral symbol can…

  20. Exposure Therapy for Fear of Spiders in an Adult with Learning Disabilities: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdrey, Felicity A.; Walz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-base for exposure therapy in people with learning disabilities experiencing specific phobias is sparse. This case study describes the assessment, formulation and treatment of spider phobia in a woman with learning disabilities using an exposure-based intervention augmented with mindfulness practice and bereavement work. To evaluate…

  1. Exploring Hospice Decisions: The Road from the Institute on Aging and Social Work to an ARRA Challenge Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Decisions about treatment and options for care at the end stage of an advanced chronic illness are important determinants of the quality of a person's death and of how family members adapt in bereavement. This article describes the steps taken to secure federal funding to study how people make the decision to enroll in hospice. The National…

  2. Grief: Lessons from the Past, Visions for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Murray Parkes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last millennium patterns of mortality have changed and have determined who grieves and how. At all times grief has been recognised as a threat to physical and mental health. More recently the scientific study of bereavement has enabled us to quantify such effects and to develop theoretical explanations for them. This paper reviews our evolving understanding of grief, focusing especially on the developments in research, theory and practice that have taken place during the twentieth century. Wars and similar conflicts are associated with repression of grief but methods of helping by facilitating its expression, which were introduced during the two World Wars are less needed and effective at other times. In recent years more attention has been paid to the social context in which grief arises and, particularly, to the nature of the attachments which precede and influence the reaction to bereavement and to other traumatic life events. At the same time a range of caring resources have become available and acceptable to bereaved people and the results of scientific evaluation of these give promise that we are moving towards an era in which more sensitive and appropriate care will be provided to the bereaved by both voluntary and professional caregivers.

  3. Missed Opportunity: Hospice Care and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabler, Jennifer; Utz, Rebecca L; Ellington, Lee; Reblin, Maija; Caserta, Michael; Clayton, Margaret; Lund, Dale

    2015-01-01

    A typical mission statement of hospice services is to provide quality, compassionate care to those with terminal illness and to support families through caregiving and bereavement. This study explored the ways that bereavement needs of caregivers, either predeath or postdeath of their spouse/partner, were addressed using qualitative retrospective phone interviews with 19 caregivers whose spouse/partner was enrolled in hospice care for cancer. Overall, participants expressed high satisfaction with hospice care, most often noting a high satisfaction with the quality of care provided to their spouse/partner. During the predeath phase, caregivers recalled being so focused on their spouse/partner's needs that they rarely spoke with hospice staff about their own personal needs and emotions. Participants said that bereavement counseling occurred primarily after the death of the spouse/partner, in the form of generic pamphlets or phone calls from someone they had not met during prior interactions with hospice staff. These findings suggest that caregivers' high satisfaction with hospice may be more associated with the quality of care provided to the spouse/partner than with bereavement support they received. Our findings illustrated a potential missed opportunity for hospices to address the family-oriented goals that are commonly put forward in hospice mission statements.

  4. Who benefits from disclosure? : Exploration of attachment style differences in the effects of expressing emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Pennebaker's disclosure paradigm is a powerful manipulation: writing or talking about emotional experiences has positive effects on health. Nevertheless, the effect does not work for all people and some studies, including those of the highly emotional event of bereavement, have failed to demonstrate

  5. Mortality in parents after death of a child in Denmark: A nationwide follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of parental bereavement on physical health. We investigated whether the death of a child increased mortality in parents. METHODS: We undertook a follow-up study based on national registers. From 1980 to 1996, we enrolled 21062 parents in Denmark who ha...

  6. Observing a Client's Grieving Process: Bringing Logical Positivism into Qualitative Grief Counselling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John; Gabriel, Lynne; James, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    This positional paper originates from our need as researcher/practitioners to establish a meaningful epistemological framework for research into bereaved people's journey through loss and grief over time. We describe how the field of grief research has a long and established biological basis, in keeping with a positivist epistemology.…

  7. Risk of depressive disorder following disasters and military deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J. P.; Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Bertelsen, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies describe the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters, but less is known about the risk of major depression. AIMS: To review the risk of depressive disorder in people surviving disasters and in soldiers returning from military deployment. METHO....... Whether psychological trauma per se or bereavement is on the causal path is unresolved....

  8. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) : toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of

  9. The web site of the center to advance palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, Jonathan R

    2004-01-01

    The web site of the Center to Advance Palliative Care is reviewed. This is an excellent resource containing resources that address financial tutorials and customizable Excel worksheets, development and marketing tools, particularly the decision checklists, satisfaction tools, the information on tracking and reporting outcomes, bereavement tools and a press kit.

  10. The Good Funeral: Toward an Understanding of Funeral Participation and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, T.; Spitzberg, Brian H.; Hannawa, Annegret F.

    2011-01-01

    This study posits a model of funeral satisfaction in which religiosity predicts general funeral attitudes, which predict levels and types of funeral participation, mediating the relationship between attitudes and satisfaction in a particular bereavement context. Over a thousand respondents rated their attitudes toward funerals in general and…

  11. A Teenager Revisits Her Father's Death during Childhood: A Study in Resilience and Healthy Mourning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Russell C.

    2004-01-01

    "Debbie," 14, was 8 when her father died. During 4 interviews over 3 months, Debbie described the impact of his death as she progressed from childhood to adolescence. Themes drawn from her experience were related to theories of development, bereavement, and resilience. Triangulating interviews with her mother and brother established validity.…

  12. Innovative Moments in Grief Therapy: Reconstructing Meaning Following Perinatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniela; Mendes, Ines; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an intensive analysis of a good outcome case of constructivist grief therapy with a bereaved mother, using the Innovative Moments Coding System (IMCS). Inspired by M. White and D. Epston's narrative therapy, the IMCS conceptualizes therapeutic change as resulting from the elaboration and expansion of unique outcomes (or as we…

  13. Grief and everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2016-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how everyday practices among parents who suffer the loss of a child include the use of both analogue and digital means, both established media and materialities occasionally functioning as media in order to create meaning-making relations to the dead child, the bereaved ...

  14. Complicated Grief in the Aftermath of Homicide: Spiritual Crisis and Distress in an African American Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Burke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Both grieving the loss of a loved one and using spirituality or religion as an aid in doing so are common behaviors in the wake of death. This longitudinal examination of 46 African American homicide survivors follows up on our earlier study that established the relation between positive and negative religious coping on the one hand and complicated grief (CG on the other. In the current report, we broadened this focus to determine the relation between religious coping and other bereavement outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, to establish whether religious coping more strongly predicted bereavement distress or vice versa. We also sought to determine if the predictive power of CG in terms of religious coping over time exceeded that of PTSD and depression. Our results suggested a link between negative religious coping (NRC and all forms of bereavement distress, whereas no such link was found between positive religious coping (PRC and bereavement outcomes in our final analyses. Significantly, only CG prospectively predicted high levels of spiritual struggle six months later. Clinical implications regarding spiritually sensitive interventions are noted.

  15. Avoidance processes mediate the relationship between rumination and symptoms of complicated grief and depression following loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisma, Maarten C; Stroebe, Margaret S; Schut, Henk A W; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Boelen, Paul A; van den Bout, Jan

    2013-11-01

    Ruminative coping has been associated with negative outcomes in bereavement. Rather than assuming it to be a problematic confrontation process, researchers have recently suggested rumination to be maladaptive through its links with avoidance processes. The main aim of this study was to examine, for the first time, whether the relationship between ruminative coping and symptoms of complicated grief and depression is mediated by avoidance processes (suppression, memory/experiential avoidance, behavioral avoidance, loss-reality avoidance). A sample of 282 adults (88% female, 12% male), bereaved on average 18 months previously, filled out three questionnaires at 6-month intervals. We assessed symptom levels, grief rumination, and trait rumination at baseline; avoidance processes after 6 months; and symptom levels after 12 months. When controlling for initial symptom levels, experiential avoidance mediated the link between grief rumination and complicated grief, and experiential avoidance and behavioral avoidance mediated the link between grief rumination and depression. Post hoc analyses showed suppression may also mediate the link between grief rumination and symptoms of complicated grief, but not depression. Loss-reality avoidance was no significant mediator of these relationships. This study provides initial evidence that rumination during bereavement increases and perpetuates symptoms of psychopathology, because it is linked with specific avoidance processes. Bereaved individuals with problematic grief and (chronic) rumination may benefit from therapy focused on countering avoidance tendencies.

  16. Do Grief Self-Help Books Convey Contemporary Perspectives on Grieving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2012-01-01

    Grief therapy and psychology literatures of the modern Western world conceptualized bereavement and grief as processes to be "worked through" so that other relationships could be pursued. In the last decade or so, however, grief theorists have endorsed the value of attaining new meaning(s) and continuing bonds with our lost loved ones instead of…

  17. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  18. Distinguishing Symptoms of Grief and Depression in a Cohort of Advanced Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Juliet C.; Zhang, Baohui; Block, Susan D.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the symptoms of grief are different from symptoms of depression among bereaved family members. This study is an attempt to replicate this finding among advanced cancer patients and examine clinical correlates of patient grief and depression. Analyses were conducted on data from interviews with 123 advanced cancer…

  19. A Study of Complicated Grief Symptoms in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, P.; Guerin, S.; McEvoy, J.; Buckley, S.; Tyrrell, J.; Hillery, J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have shown a significant association between familial bereavement and the onset of challenging behaviours and psychopathology in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, little work has been done to accurately describe the specific symptoms of grief, in particular symptoms of complicated grief in this…

  20. When a Child Dies: A Critical Analysis of Grief-Related Controversies in "DSM-5"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieleman, Kara; Cacciatore, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The upcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" has incited vociferous debate among academics, clinicians, and the general public. Two contested changes are eliminating the bereavement exclusion from the major depressive disorder diagnosis and creating a…

  1. Tweeting Prayers and Communicating Grief over Michael Jackson Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Jimmy; Cheong, Pauline Hope

    2010-01-01

    Death and bereavement are human experiences that new media helps facilitate alongside creating new social grief practices that occur online. This study investigated how people's postings and tweets facilitated the communication of grief after pop music icon Michael Jackson died. Drawing on past grief research, religion, and new media studies, a…

  2. Treatment for complicated grief : State of the science and ways forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doering, Bettina K.; Eisma, Maarten C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review There is increasing recognition that a minority of bereaved persons experiences persistent and disabling grief symptoms, also termed complicated grief. We review currently proposed criteria for complicated grief in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) a

  3. Continuing relationships with the deceased : disentangling bonds and grief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Henk A W; Stroebe, Margaret S; Boelen, Paul A; Zijerveld, Annemieke M

    2006-01-01

    Some studies of the relationship between continuing bonds and grief intensity have claimed that continuing bonds lead to poor adaptation to bereavement. However, operationalizations of continuing bonds and grief intensity appear to overlap conceptually. Thus, it is still unclear what character the c

  4. Comparison of Continuing Bonds Reported by Parents and Siblings after a Child's Death from Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terrah L.; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Davies, Betty; Dietrich, Mary S.; Barrera, Maru; Fairclough, Diane L.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have distinguished similarities and differences between continuing bonds as they appear in various bereaved populations, particularly parent versus sibling cohorts following a child's death. This mixed-method study compared how parents and siblings experienced continuing bonds in 40 families who lost a child to cancer. Thirty-six…

  5. Talking about death with children with incurable cancer: perspectives from parents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerst, I.M.M. van der; Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M. van den; Vliet, L.M. van; Pluijm, S.M.F.; Streng, I.C.; Michiels, E.M.C.; Pieters, R.; Darlington A.S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the rationale and consequences associated with a parent's decision to discuss death with a child with incurable cancer. Study design: We present data from a larger retrospective study involving bereaved parents of a child who died of cancer. Parents were asked whether they

  6. The Effect of Death Education on Specific Attitudes toward Death in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Rita T.

    1981-01-01

    After a course on death and dying students perceived themselves as more comfortable in interacting with the dying and bereaved and held stronger beliefs about rights of the dying. Little change was observed in attitudes towards life after death but a trend away from traditional burial preferences was noted. (JAC)

  7. Associations between stress and quality of life: differences between owners keeping a living dog or losing a dog by euthanasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Tzivian

    Full Text Available The loss of a pet may be stressful to the owner. The main objectives of this study were to compare the levels of stress and to explore the correlates of QOL of healthy adults who currently own or who have just lost their dog.The study sample contained 110 current, and 103 bereaved dog owners, all females, who lost their dogs due to euthanasia. QOL was assessed with the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and divided into four major domains-Physical, Psychological, Relationship, and Environmental. Demographic variables, stress, health behaviors, and social support from family, friends, and significant other were included in multivariate analysis.Stress levels were significantly higher in bereaved owners. QOL in three of the four domains (Physical, Psychological, and Relationship of current owners were significantly better than among bereaved owners. Stress was significantly associated with these three domains of QOL. Quality of life was found to be positively associated with social support. Age was related directly only to current owners' QOL.The results suggest that a loss of a dog is associated with stress for the bereaved owner and reduced physical, psychological, and relationship QOL. Lack of social support in the case of death of a companion animal has a strong effect on owners' grief reactions.

  8. Death Writ Large

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

  9. 38 CFR 17.98 - Mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental health services... Outpatient Treatment § 17.98 Mental health services. (a) Following the death of a veteran, bereavement... mental health services in connection with treatment of the veteran under 38 U.S.C. 1710, 1712,...

  10. Internet-Based Exposure and Behavioral Activation for Complicated Grief and Rumination : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, M.C.; Boelen, P.A.; van den Bout, J.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, H.A.W.; Lancee, Jaap; Stroebe, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of therapist-guided Internet-delivered exposure (EX) and behavioral activation (BA) for complicated grief and rumination. Forty-seven bereaved individuals with elevated levels of complicated grief and grief rumination were randomly assigned to th

  11. Internet-based exposure and behavioral activation for complicated grief and rumination: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, M.C.; Boelen, P.A.; van den Bout, J.; Stroebe, W.; Schut, H.A.; Lancee, J.; Stroebe, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of therapist-guided Internet-delivered exposure (EX) and behavioral activation (BA) for complicated grief and rumination. Forty-seven bereaved individuals with elevated levels of complicated grief and grief rumination were randomly assigned to th

  12. Virtual Mourning and Memory Construction on Facebook: Here Are the Terms of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Rhonda N.; Scheaffer, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the online information practices of persons grieving and mourning via Facebook. It examines how, or whether, these practices and Facebook's terms of use policies have implications for the bereaved and/or the memory of the deceased. To explore these questions, we compared traditional publicly recorded asynchronous…

  13. And Then the Dog Died

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R.; Kaufman, Nathaniel D.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood grief and mourning of family and friends may have immediate and long-lasting consequences including depression, anxiety, social withdrawal, behavioral disturbances, and school underachievement. Childhood pet bereavement is no less important, because the pet is often considered a member of the family by the child. However, society does…

  14. Parental Perceptions of Siblings' Grieving after a Childhood Cancer Death: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; Alam, Rifat; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Nicholas, David B.; Schneiderman, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    We investigated longitudinally parental perceptions of siblings' bereavement after childhood cancer death. Parents were interviewed 6 months (n = 25) and 18 months (n = 15) post-death. Data are analyzed combined and over time. The following themes emerged: (a) expression of grief: missing deceased child (verbally, crying), behavioral problems,…

  15. Those Who Are Left behind: An Estimate of the Number of Family Members of Suicide Victims in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joe; Choi, Yun Jeong; Mori, Kohta; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Saki

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of suicide studies by presenting procedures and its estimates of the number of family members who lose their loved ones to suicide. Using Japanese aggregate level data, three main findings emerge: first, there are approximately five bereaved family members per suicide; second, in 2006, there were about…

  16. Addressing Peer Death by Suicide: The School's Role in the Aftermath of Student Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent suicide devastates family, friends, and the larger community of the deceased. This dissertation seeks to explore the impact of peer death by suicide on students in the school system, and the policies that schools have put in place to address these effects. This work will critically evaluate current suicide bereavement interventions, and…

  17. The BRACELET Study: surveys of mortality in UK neonatal and paediatric intensive care trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platt Martin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subject of death and bereavement in the context of randomised controlled trials in neonatal or paediatric intensive care is under-researched. The objectives of this phase of the Bereavement and RAndomised ControlLEd Trials (BRACELET Study were to determine trial activity in UK neonatal and paediatric intensive care (2002-06; numbers of deaths before hospital discharge; and variation in mortality across intensive care units and trials and to determine whether bereavement support policies were available within trials. These are essential prerequisites to considering the implications of future policies and practice subsequent to bereavement following a child's enrolment in a trial. Methods The units survey involved neonatal units providing level 2 or 3 care, and paediatric units providing level II care or above; the trials survey involved trials where allocation was randomized and interventions were delivered to intensive care patients, or to parents but designed to affect patient outcomes. Results Information was available from 191/220 (87% neonatal units (149 level 2 or 3 care; and 28/32 (88% paediatric units. 90/177 (51% eligible responding units participated in one or more trial (76 neonatal, 14 paediatric and 54 neonatal units and 6 paediatric units witnessed at least one death. 50 trials were identified (36 neonatal, 14 paediatric. 3,137 babies were enrolled in neonatal trials, 210 children in paediatric trials. Deaths ranged 0-278 (median [IQR interquartile range] 2 [1, 14.5] per neonatal trial, 0-4 (median [IQR] 1 [0, 2.5] per paediatric trial. 534 (16% participants died post-enrolment: 522 (17% in neonatal trials, 12 (6% in paediatric trials. Trial participants ranged 1-236 (median [IQR] 21.5 [8, 39.8] per neonatal unit, 1-53 (median [IQR] 11.5 [2.3, 33.8] per paediatric unit. Deaths ranged 0-37 (median [IQR] 3.5 [0.3, 8.8] per neonatal unit, 0-7 (median [IQR] 0.5 [0, 1.8] per paediatric unit. Three trials had a

  18. Cost-utility of a visiting service for older widowed individuals: Randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemse Godelief

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a growing understanding of the effectiveness of bereavement interventions and the groups that benefit most from them, we know little about the cost-effectiveness of bereavement interventions. Methods We conducted a cost-utility analysis alongside a randomized clinical trial on a visiting service for older widowed individuals (n = 110 versus care as usual (CAU; n = 106. The visiting service is a selective bereavement intervention that offers social support to lonely widows and widowers by a trained volunteer. Participants were contacted 6–9 months post-loss. Eleven percent of all contacted persons responded and eight percent participated in the trial. The primary outcome measure was quality adjusted life years (QALYs gained (assessed with the EQ-5D, which is a generic measure of health status. Costs were calculated from a societal perspective excluding costs arising from productivity losses. Using the bootstrap method, we obtained the incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR, projected these on a cost-utility plane and presented as an acceptability curve. Results Overall, the experimental group demonstrated slightly better results against slightly higher costs. Whether the visiting service is acceptable depends on the willingness to pay: at a willingness to pay equal to zero per QALY gained, the visiting service has a probability of 31% of being acceptable; beyond €20,000, the visiting service has a probability of 70% of being more acceptable than CAU. Conclusion Selective bereavement interventions like the visiting service will not produce large benefits from the health economic point of view, when targeted towards the entire population of all widowed individuals. We recommend that in depth analyses are conducted to identify who benefits most from this kind of interventions, and in what subgroups the incremental cost-utility is best. In the future bereavement interventions are then best directed to these groups. Trial

  19. Cautioning Health-Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Henk; Boerner, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Science and practice seem deeply stuck in the so-called stage theory of grief. Health-care professionals continue to “prescribe” stages. Basically, this perspective endorses the idea that bereaved people go through a set pattern of specific reactions over time following the death of a loved one. It has frequently been interpreted prescriptively, as a progression that bereaved persons must follow in order to adapt to loss. It is of paramount importance to assess stage theory, not least in view of the current status of the maladaptive “persistent complex bereavement-related disorder” as a category for further research in DSM-5. We therefore review the status and value of this approach. It has remained hugely influential among researchers as well as practitioners across recent decades, but there has also been forceful opposition. Major concerns include the absence of sound empirical evidence, conceptual clarity, or explanatory potential. It lacks practical utility for the design or allocation of treatment services, and it does not help identification of those at risk or with complications in the grieving process. Most disturbingly, the expectation that bereaved persons will, even should, go through stages of grieving can be harmful to those who do not. Following such lines of reasoning, we argue that stage theory should be discarded by all concerned (including bereaved persons themselves); at best, it should be relegated to the realms of history. There are alternative models that better represent grieving processes. We develop guidelines to enhance such a move beyond the stage approach in both theory and practice. PMID:28355991

  20. 箱庭疗法应用于儿童哀伤咨询的临床实践和理论%The Theoretic Basis and Clinical Practice of Sandplay Therapy Applied to Grief Counseling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁; 张日昇

    2011-01-01

    In order to integrate the practice and research of counseling and psychotherapy, research topic why sandplay therapy could heal the bereaved children was explored from sandplay therapy practice for a bereaved children.A case study of sandplay therapy for a child with complicated grief was done to prove the possibility and feasibility of sandplay therapy applied to counseling for bereaved children.Theory of sandplay therapy and grief counseling for children was summarized to explain the effective mechanism of sandplay therapy applied to counseling for bereaved ehildren:①Non-verbal setting could provide the safe space for expressing bereavement; ②Sandtrays could be the transitional object; ③Sandplay process could trigger bereavement; ④Sandplay could promote self-growth; ⑤The idea between sandplay therapy with grief counseling was correspondent; ⑥Family sandplay helped family members complete their grief tasks.%为尝试将心理咨询与治疗实践和研究统一起来,首先对一名复杂哀伤儿童进行箱庭治疗实践,从中提取了研究的主题一箱庭疗法用于儿童哀伤咨询的机制;接着对复杂哀伤儿童进行箱庭治疗个案研究验证箱庭疗法与儿童哀伤咨询结合的可能性与可行性;最后将箱庭疗法和儿童哀伤咨询的理论背景进行梳理和总结获得箱庭疗法应用于儿童哀伤咨询的有效机制:①箱庭疗法的非言语特性可以提供安全表达哀伤的空间;②箱庭疗法为丧亲者提供过渡性客体;③箱庭制作能引发哀伤;④箱庭疗法能促进自我成长;⑤箱庭疗法与哀伤咨询的治疗理念相符;⑥箱庭疗法能促进家庭哀伤的完成.

  1. The revival of death: expression, expertise and governmentality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Arnar; Hafsteinsson, Sigurjón Baldur

    2003-03-01

    This paper discusses Walter's (1994) assertion that death in the West has recently undergone a revival. In particular it focuses on his claim that this revival is composed of two different strands: a late modern strand and a postmodern strand. The former, according to Walter, is driven by experts who seek to control death, the latter by ordinary people who seek to express their emotions freely. Describing the history and work of Cruse Bereavement Care, the largest bereavement counselling organization in the UK, we question Walter's distinction. We then problematize Walter's suggestion that the revival of death is caused by general social transformations. In contrast we evoke Rose's (1996) work on 'subjectification' and seek to link recent changes in the management of death and grief to permutations in governmental rationality.

  2. Hospitalization for mental illness among parents after the death of a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Precht, Dorthe Hansen;

    2005-01-01

    , 1.59 to 2.30) and 1.61 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.15 to 2.27) for bereaved mothers and fathers, respectively. Among mothers, the relative risk of being hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder was highest during the first year after the death of the child but remained significantly elevated...... five years or more after the death. Conclusions The risk of psychiatric hospitalization was increased among parents, especially mothers, who lost a child.......Background The loss of a child is considered one of the most stressful events in the life of a parent. We hypothesized that parental bereavement increases the risk of hospital admission for a psychiatric disorder, especially for affective disorders. Methods We studied a cohort of 1,082,503 persons...

  3. Cancer incidence in parents who lost a child: a nationwide study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Johansen, Christoffer; Hansen, Dorthe;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been debated whether psychological stress causes cancer, but the scientific evidence remains contradictory. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the death of a child is related to cancer risk in bereaved parents. METHODS: The authors undertook a follow-up study...... based on national registers. All 21,062 parents who lost a child from 1980 to 1996 were recruited for the exposed cohort together with 293,745 randomly selected, unexposed parents. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relative risk of cancer incidence up to 18 years after....../immune-related malignancies (ICD7 codes 155, 171, 191, 200-202, and 204), lymphatic/hematopoietic malignancies (ICD7 codes 200-205), and hormone related malignancies (ICD7 codes 170, 172, 175, and 177). RESULTS: The authors observed a slightly increased overall cancer risk in bereaved mothers (relative risk [RR], 1.18; 95...

  4. Don't rest in peace: cross media uses in everyday practices of grief and commemoration on children’s graves and online memorial sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    This paper demonstrates how everyday practices among those who suffer the loss of a child include the use of both analogue and digital means and media to create meaningful relations to the dead child, the bereaved as well as to the surrounding world. A dead child – be it a stillborn or dead...... at a very early age – renders the parents in a highly vulnerable situation. The loss of a child leaves the parents in an existential void: their identity as parents-to-be and all preparations for this as well as all hopes and dreams for the future are rendered meaningless by the child’s death...... acknowledged. Based on observation studies and qualitative content analyses of both children’s graves and online memory profiles (Christensen & Sandvik 2013, 2014) combined with interviews with bereaved parents, we present some reflections on how these practices of commemoration, meaning...

  5. Being parent to an angel – mediating parenthood online and offline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    This paper demonstrates how everyday practices among those who suffer the loss of a child include the use of both analogue and digital means and media to create meaningful relations to the dead child, the bereaved as well as to the surrounding world. A dead child – be it a stillborn or dead...... at a very early age – renders the parents in a highly vulnerable situation. The loss of a child leaves the parents in an existential void: their identity as parents-to-be and all preparations for this as well as all hopes and dreams for the future are rendered meaningless by the child’s death...... acknowledged. Based on observation studies and qualitative content analyses of both children’s graves and online memory profiles (Christensen & Sandvik 2013, 2014) combined with interviews with bereaved parents, we present some reflections on how these practices of commemoration, meaning...

  6. Ubiquitous media in everyday practices of grief and commemoration on children’s graves and online memorial sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    Ubiquitous media is not just a matter of (digital) media being everywhere and embedded in various objects (clothing, household hardware, buildings…). Using the practices of bereavement and commemoration as displayed by parents on children’s graves and online memorial sites as a case, this paper...... claims that ubiquitous media as a concept also relates to processes of mediatization (Cf. Hjarvard 2008, Lundbye 2009, Hepp 2013); to the ‘thingification of media’ (Lash & Lury 2007) and to everyday practices through which we (re)appropriate and change existing media ‘to suit our needs’ (Cf. Jensen 2010...... memory profiles (Christensen & Sandvik 2013, 2014), it is demonstrated how bereaved parents perform practices on children’s graves – ubiquitously mirrored in other media practices such as online memorial sites – that transform the dead child into a being with whom an altered relationship may be built...

  7. Maternal stress before and during pregnancy and subsequent infertility in daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Li, Jiong; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal stress following the death of a close relative before or during pregnancy associated with the risk of infertility in daughters? SUMMARY ANSWER: Compared with unexposed women, women whose mothers had experienced bereavement stress during, or in the year before, pregnancy...... had a similar risk of infertility overall, but those exposed to maternal bereavement during the first trimester had a higher risk of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Animal studies have shown that prenatal maternal stress results in reduced offspring fertility. In humans, there is evidence......, or a sibling during pregnancy or in the year before conception. Infertility was defined as any record of infertility treatment or diagnosis of female infertility. We considered the date of onset as the date of the first appearance of any such record. The association between exposure and outcome was examined...

  8. Surviving Parents' Influence on Adult Children's Depressive Symptoms Following the Death of a First Parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jeffrey E

    2016-10-01

    Parents and children are linked across the life course, and they share common experiences. This article focuses on the bereavement experience of adult children's loss of a first parent during adulthood and examines the downward influence of emotional closeness with a surviving parent on adult children's depressive symptoms following loss. Analyses are based on adult children who experienced the death of a first parent (N = 227), drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Generations, a study of three-and four-generation families from Southern California. Multilevel lagged dependent variable models indicate that an emotionally close relationship with a surviving parent is related with fewer post-bereavement depressive symptoms when a mother survives a father, but not vice versa. This analysis extends the theory of linked lives and highlights the mutual influence parents and children exert, as well as the complex role of gender in shaping family relationships.

  9. Prolonged Grief in Palliative Family Caregivers: A Pilot Study in a Portuguese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Alexandra; Delalibera, Mayra; Barbosa, António; Lawlor, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers are particularly vulnerable to experience intense levels of distress following the loss. The aim of this prospective pilot study is to determine the incidence of prolonged grief disorder symptoms among caregivers. A total of 73 bereaved families responded to the Prolonged Grief Disorder Evaluation Instrument (PG-13) at 6 and 12 months following their loss. The incidence of prolonged grief disorder at the first assessment was 28.8%, and it decreased to 15.1% at the second assessment. The prevalence of prolonged grief disorder declined significantly over time (p = .041). In the second evaluation, six bereaved individuals continued to meet criteria for a diagnosis of prolonged grief disorder, 15 remitted, and 4 new (incident) cases emerged. The important differences in values that occur after 12 months suggest time is important in distinguishing between those at risk for persistent distress and those whose grief symptomatology will decrease with time.

  10. Grief and mourning gone awry: pathway and course of complicated grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, M Katherine

    2012-06-01

    Complicated grief is a recently recognized condition that occurs in about 7% of bereaved people. People with this condition are caught up in rumination about the circumstances of the death, worry about its consequences, or excessive avoidance of reminders of the loss. Unable to comprehend the finality and consequences of the loss, they resort to excessive avoidance of reminders of the loss as they are tossed helplessly on waves of intense emotion. People with complicated grief need help, and clinicians need to know how to recognize the symptoms and how to provide help. This paper provides a framework to help clinicans understand bereavement, grief, and mourning. Evidence-based diagnostic criteria are provided to help clinicians recognize complicated grief, and differentiate it from depression as well as anxiety disorder. We provide an overview of risk factors and basic assumptions and principles that can guide treatment.

  11. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  12. Deaths Due to Choking in Prader-Willli Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, David A.; Heinemann, Janalee; Angulo, Moris; Merlin G. Butler; Loker, Jim; Rupe, Norma; Kendell, Patrick; Clericuzio, Carol L; Scheimann, Ann O

    2007-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common known syndromic cause of life threatening obesity, yet few studies have examined the causes of death in PWS. The objective of this study was to examine the contribution of choking leading to mortality in PWS. In 1999, a brief survey was made available from the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) bereavement program, which documented demographic data and causes of death. Families were subsequently offered the opportunity to fill out a detailed...

  13. WHEN THE DEATH VISIT THE MATERNITY: PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTENTION DURING THE PERINATAL LOSS

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Erica Nascimento de; Arrais, Alessandra da Rocha; Iaconelli,Vera; Muza, Julia Costa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This study was based on qualitative methodology in order to know the meaning of perinatal loss to the bereaved families and assess the psychological intervention in situations of perinatal grief. Five families participated in this study who experienced perinatal deaths, a maternity of Brasilia. The psychological record of the psychology of maternity and post-assessment interview death were used as instruments. From the analysis of Bardin (1977), which emerged five categories, namely...

  14. Death and Divorce: The Long-term Consequences of Parental Loss on Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Heisz, Andrew; Corak, Miles

    1999-01-01

    Two quasi-experiments are used to estimate the impact of parental divorce on the adult incomes and labour market behaviour of adolescents, as well as on their use of social programs, and their marital/fertility behaviour. These involve the use of individuals experiencing the death of a parent, and legislative changes to the Canadian divorce law in 1986. Parental loss by death is assumed to be exogenous; the experiences of children with a bereaved background offering a benchmark to assess the ...

  15. [Failure of a mourning ritual and reactive depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Pape Lamine; Thiam, Mamadou Habib

    2011-01-01

    In some African societies, mourning rituals are a way of isolating death from the territory of the living and to allow the bereaved to regain, after a certain time, their place in society. However, for a young educated woman confronted with the brutal death of her sister, the traditional ritual to which her family subjected her resulted in a prolonged reactive depression combined with cognitive disorders..

  16. Psychosocial rehabilitation and democratic development in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter; Sassene, Michel

    2011-01-01

    interventions have made critics proclaim that Western psychosocial expertise subjects the bereaved of the Third World to repressive administrative power by objectifying and colonizing their minds. Meanwhile, advocates of psychosocial rehabilitation maintain that such criticisms fail to appreciate the ability...... of local healing strategies to actually empower torture victims through rehabilitation programmes. Inspired by Michel Foucault's concept of government, this article argues that both these assessments of torture rehabilitation overlook forms of power that work through the constitution of subjectivities...

  17. Prolonged grief disorder: Psychometric validation of criteria proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly G Prigerson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bereavement is a universal experience, and its association with excess morbidity and mortality is well established. Nevertheless, grief becomes a serious health concern for a relative few. For such individuals, intense grief persists, is distressing and disabling, and may meet criteria as a distinct mental disorder. At present, grief is not recognized as a mental disorder in the DSM-IV or ICD-10. The goal of this study was to determine the psychometric validity of criteria for prolonged grief disorder (PGD to enhance the detection and potential treatment of bereaved individuals at heightened risk of persistent distress and dysfunction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 291 bereaved respondents were interviewed three times, grouped as 0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 mo post-loss. Item response theory (IRT analyses derived the most informative, unbiased PGD symptoms. Combinatoric analyses identified the most sensitive and specific PGD algorithm that was then tested to evaluate its psychometric validity. Criteria require reactions to a significant loss that involve the experience of yearning (e.g., physical or emotional suffering as a result of the desired, but unfulfilled, reunion with the deceased and at least five of the following nine symptoms experienced at least daily or to a disabling degree: feeling emotionally numb, stunned, or that life is meaningless; experiencing mistrust; bitterness over the loss; difficulty accepting the loss; identity confusion; avoidance of the reality of the loss; or difficulty moving on with life. Symptoms must be present at sufficiently high levels at least six mo from the death and be associated with functional impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The criteria set for PGD appear able to identify bereaved persons at heightened risk for enduring distress and dysfunction. The results support the psychometric validity of the criteria for PGD that we propose for inclusion in DSM-V and ICD-11. Please see later in the article for

  18. Managing depression through needlecraft creative activities: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the personal meanings of needlecrafts and their role in the self-management of depression. Written and spoken narratives from 39 women were studied. Respondents described themselves as experiencing chronic or episodic depression (e.g. associated with stressful work situations, bereavement or caring for an ill relative). Some had received treatment for depression but most had not. When analysing the therapeutic effects of creative activity, most women describ...

  19. "As vast as the world"--reflections on A Very Easy Death by Simone de Beauvoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, F

    2004-12-01

    In 1964, Simone de Beauvoir, arguably one of the greatest writers of 20th century Europe, published an account of the final 6 weeks of her mother's life. It is a beautifully written, raw, honest, and powerful evocation of that period from the viewpoint of a relative. Its themes are universal-love, ambivalence in family ties, loss, and bereavement. Given that the events preceded the modern palliative care movement, reflections are made on differences in medical practice since the book's publication.

  20. Losing Thomas & Ella: A Father's Story (A Research Comic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B

    2015-10-14

    "Losing Thomas & Ella" presents a research comic about one father's perinatal loss of twins. The comic recounts Paul's experience of the hospital and the babies' deaths, and it details the complex grieving process afterward, including themes of anger, distance, relationship stress, self-blame, religious challenges, and resignation. A methodological appendix explains the process of constructing the comic and provides a rationale for the use of comics-based research for illness, death, and grief among practitioners, policy makers, and the bereaved.

  1. Innovative moments in grief therapy : reconstructing meaning following perinatal death

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an intensive analysis of a good outcome case of constructivist grief therapy with a bereaved mother, using the Innovative Moments Coding System (IMCS). Inspired by M. White and D. Epston’s narrative therapy, the IMCS conceptualizes therapeutic change as resulting from the elaboration and expansion of unique outcomes (or as we prefer, innovative moments), referring to experiences not predicted by the problematic or dominant self-narrative. The IMCS ident...

  2. Trauma in the workplace: grief counseling 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Guido R

    2014-01-01

    Trauma in the workplace can be precipitated by a number of tragedies, but death of an employee is the most common occurrence. Bereavement, mourning, and grief are common reactions. In most cases, people successfully cope with the death within two months, but some develop chronic grief, which is also referred to as complicated grief. Principles of grief counseling are outlined along with the need for employee training on trauma.

  3. The Challenge of Recruiting Control Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2011-01-01

      Recruitment of a large and reliable control group is a challenge in psychological survey based research. The effect of recruitment styles and age on response-rate, data quality, and individual differences were investigated in a control group for a postal survey of elderly bereaved people. This ...... incentive had the highest response-rate (51%), good data quality, and no sampling bias in individual differences. This method can be highly recommended in future control group recruitment....

  4. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Teruomi Tsukahara; Hiroaki Arai; Tomoko Kamijo; Yoshikiyo Kobayashi; Shinsuke Washizuka; Heihachiro Arito; Tetsuo Nomiyama

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief)....

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St John of God Community Services Ltd, Louth

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nuzum, D

    2017-02-01

    Communicating bad news in obstetrics is challenging. This study explores the impact of how bad news was communicated to parents following a diagnosis of stillbirth. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 mothers and 5 fathers, bereaved following stillbirth at a tertiary maternity hospital where the perinatal mortality rate is 5.2\\/1000. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. How the diagnosis of stillbirth was communicated had a profound and lasting impact on parents. Dominant superordinate themes were Language used, Sensitivity and Diversionary techniques. Parents recalled in detail where and how bad news was broken and language used. Diversionary techniques created a sense of mistrust especially when parents felt information was being withheld. Bereaved parents valued privacy at the time of diagnosis of stillbirth.This study highlights the importance of language, sensitivity and environment where clinicians can learn from the experiences of bereaved parents who value open, sensitive and honest communication. The results of this study highlight the importance of patient-focused communication training for clinicians.

  6. Impact of specialist home-based palliative care services in a tertiary oncology set up: A prospective non-randomized observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil R Dhiliwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Home-based specialist palliative care services are developed to meet the needs of the patients in advanced stage of cancer at home with physical symptoms and distress. Specialist home care services are intended to improve symptom control and quality of life, enable patients to stay at home, and avoid unnecessary hospital admission. Materials and Methods: Total 690 new cases registered under home-based palliative care service in the year 2012 were prospectively studied to assess the impact of specialist home-based services using Edmonton symptom assessment scale (ESAS and other parameters. Results: Out of the 690 registered cases, 506 patients received home-based palliative care. 50.98% patients were cared for at home, 28.85% patients needed hospice referral and 20.15% patients needed brief period of hospitalization. All patients receiving specialist home care had good relief of physical symptoms ( P < 0.005. 83.2% patients received out of hours care (OOH through liaising with local general practitioners; 42.68% received home based bereavement care and 91.66% had good bereavement outcomes. Conclusion: Specialist home-based palliative care improved symptom control, health-related communication and psychosocial support. It promoted increased number of home-based death, appropriate and early hospice referral, and averted needless hospitalization. It improved bereavement outcomes, and caregiver satisfaction.

  7. Tsunami-exposed tourist survivors: signs of recovery in a 3-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh; Lundin, Tom; Fröjd, Thomas; Hultman, Christina M; Michel, Per-Olof

    2011-03-01

    Long-term follow-up after disaster exposure indicates increased rates of psychological distress. However, trajectories and rates of recovery in large samples of disaster-exposed survivors are largely lacking. A group of 3457 Swedish survivors temporarily on vacation in Southeast Asia during the 2004 tsunami were assessed by postal questionnaire at 14 months and 3 years after the tsunami regarding post-traumatic stress reactions (IES-R) and general mental health (GHQ-12). There was a general pattern of resilience and recovery 3 years postdisaster. Severe exposure and traumatic bereavement were associated with increased post-traumatic stress reactions and heightened risk for impaired mental health. The rate of recovery was lower among respondents exposed to life threat and among bereaved. Severe trauma exposure and bereavement seem to have considerable long-term impact on psychological distress and appear to slow down the recovery process. Readiness among health agencies for identification of symptoms and provision of interventions might facilitate optimal recovery.

  8. Compassion in healthcare – lessons from a qualitative study of the end of life care of people with dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Jacqueline; Wilson, Kenneth CM; Horton, Siobhan; Lloyd-Williams, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A lack of compassion in UK healthcare settings has received much recent attention. This study explores the experiences of people with dementia in the last year of life and time surrounding death and how the presence and lack of compassion, kindness and humanity influenced the experience of care. Design Qualitative in-depth interviews with bereaved informal carers of people with dementia. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Forty bereaved carers – 31 women and nine men – with an age range of 18–86 years and from wide socioeconomic backgrounds participated. Main outcome measures Experiences of carers of care for person with dementia during last year of life. Results The interviews highlighted differences and challenges in care settings in providing compassionate, humanistic care and the impact of the care experienced by the person with dementia during the last year of life on informal carers during the bereavement period and beyond. Excellent examples of compassionate care were experienced alongside very poor and inhumane practices. Conclusion The concepts of compassion, kindness and humanity in dementia care are discussed within the paper. The ability to deliver care that is compassionate, kind and humanistic exists along a continuum across care settings – examples of excellent care sit alongside examples of very poor care and the reasons for this are explored together with discussion as to how health and social care staff can be trained and supported to deliver compassionate care. PMID:24108538

  9. Distinctiveness of prolonged grief disorder symptoms among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Takumi; Hasegawa, Yukako; Hiraga, Masashi; Ishiki, Mikihito; Asukai, Nozomu

    2014-06-30

    Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) has been proposed for diagnostic classification as an independent psychiatric disorder. Previous research has investigated it in relation to other axis I disorders in order to determine whether it could be considered an independent nosological entity. The distinctiveness of this condition was apparent in cases of ordinary bereavement and in those following human-made disasters. However, this disorder may be expanded to include bereavement resulting from natural disasters. The present study aims to explore the differences between this disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder or major depressive disorder as experienced after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The subjects were 82 hospital workers. Each type of disorder was assessed by means of the Inventory of Complicated Grief, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Exploratory factor analysis showed 3 dimensions, with PGD items independently clustering in the same dimension. Our findings support the uniqueness of PGD even in a post-natural disaster situation in a non-Western culture and warrant grief intervention for high-risk bereaved survivors.

  10. Israeli mothers' meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Leichtentritt, Ronit D

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first to our knowledge to provide an in-depth account of the meanings reconstructed by bereaved Israeli mothers of homicide victims. Homicide survivors tend to receive little or no support from society; this is especially true in Israel, where homicide victims are a neglected population whose voice is socially muted. Constructivist theories have informed understanding of grief, emphasizing the role of meaning reconstruction in adaptation to bereavement, as well as the role of social support in the process of meaning reconstruction. We derived 3 prototypes of meaning from interviews of 12 bereaved mothers: the existential paradox; a bifurcated worldview; and oppression, mortification, and humiliation. Most informants used all 3 prototypes in the process of reconstructing meaning, describing changes in the perception of themselves, the world, and society. However, change was also accompanied by continuity, because participants did not abandon their former worldview while adopting a new one. The findings suggest that meaning reconstruction in the aftermath of homicide is a unique, multifaceted, and contradictory process. Implications for practice are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Narrative reconstruction therapy for prolonged grief disorder—rationale and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvia Peri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged grief disorder (PGD is a potentially disabling condition affecting approximately 10% of bereaved people. It has been suggested that the impaired integration of the loss memory, as expressed in recurrent memories of the loss and disorganization of memory, is involved in the development of PGD. Narrative reconstruction (NR, originally designed for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in an integrative therapy module, and consisting of exposure to the loss memory, detailed written reconstruction of the loss memory narrative and an elaboration of the personal significance of that memory for the bereaved, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of intrusion symptoms. Objective: In light of findings that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, including cognitive restructuring and exposure, is effective in the treatment of PGD, we suggest the implementation of a somewhat novel therapy module, NR, for the treatment of intrusive phenomena in bereaved patients. Method: The rationale for the implementation of NR for PGD and a case study of the treatment of a woman suffering from PGD after the death of her father are presented. Therapy took place in a university outpatient training clinic. Results: Evaluations conducted before and after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up demonstrated the effectiveness of NR in reducing symptoms of PGD and depression. The analysis of spontaneous narratives recorded before and after treatment showed an increased organization of the narratives. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates an adaptation of NR for the treatment of PGD. The results provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of NR for PGD. The significance of the study and its limitations are discussed.

  12. Complicated grief and manic comorbidity in the aftermath of the loss of a son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmassi, Claudia; Shear, M Katherine; Socci, Chiara; Corsi, Martina; Dell'osso, Liliana; First, Michael B

    2013-09-01

    Based on the recommendations of the sub-workgroup on trauma and dissociative disorders, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the "bereavement exclusion" from the criteria for major depression in DSM-5. In addition, proposed DSM-5 research criteria for persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) were included in the new manual in a section for conditions and criteria needing further research. We describe a case that warranted such a diagnosis. The patient was a 52- year-old woman who was admitted to the inpatient unit of our clinic on the birthday of her son who had died 18 months earlier. She was diagnosed with a manic episode with psychotic symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and was treated accordingly. Three months after discharge, she made a suicide attempt and was admitted and re-assessed. During this admission, she completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Mood-Spectrum Rating Scale (MOODS-SR), and the Trauma and Loss Spectrum questionnaire (TALS-SR). She endorsed symptoms of intense yearning for her son, feelings of shock and disbelief, anger and bitterness related to his death, estrangement from others, auditory, tactile and visual hallucinations of the deceased, and intense emotional reactivity to memories of her son. These symptoms were sufficiently prolonged and severe to meet criteria for complicated grief. While complicated grief appeared to be the primary diagnosis for this patient, when she was diagnosed using only DSMIV-TR criteria, her treatment failed to address herprimary problem. This case draws attention to the occurrence of manic-like symptoms as well as depression-like manifestations following bereavement and highlights the importance of including the syndrome of complicated grief in the diagnostic nomenclature.

  13. Privacy with Public Access: Digital Memorials on QR Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2015-01-01

    takes the departure in gravestones with QR-codes; objects at once physical and digital, underhandedly putting presumably private content within public reach. A plethora of issues of privacy and publicness are at play within the study's two connected but rather different empirical spaces: the physical...... space with the stonecutters, the cemetery, and the grave, and the emotional space of significance and forms of expression. In this study, the gravestones with QR codes act as a prism for cultural change within the subjects of death, bereavement and memorials. The ongoing negotiation of definitions...

  14. Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-03-15

    This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment.

  15. Happiness and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Oswald, Andrew J.; Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Some firms say they care about the happiness and ‘well-being’ of their employees. But are such\\ud claims hype? Or might they be scientific good sense? This study provides evidence that happiness\\ud makes people more productive. First, we examine fundamental real-world shocks (bereavement and\\ud family illness) imposed by Nature. We show that lower happiness is associated with lower\\ud productivity. Second, within the laboratory, we design two randomized controlled trials. Some\\ud individuals ...

  16. The Diagnosis of Complicated Grief as a Mental Disorder: A Critical Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Wagner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on grief complications has focused on the development and validation of Complicated Grief diagnostic criteria for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V. Even though research has shown that complicated grief is a disorder distinct from other psychiatric disorders such as PTSD and MDD, there are still concerns about the validation and conceptualisation of the proposed criteria. In this article, we review findings and different concepts with regard to complicated grief. Key issues are the currently proposed diagnostic criteria, differentiation between traumatic and non-traumatic bereavement, and relational aspects of the grief process.

  17. Contributions of the Evolutive Perspective for Gerontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briseida Dôgo de Resende

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contributions that researches from Ethology and Evolutive Psychology can bring to Gerontology. From this perspective, human behavior may be understood under the light of Natural Selection. Thus, it is extremely important to consider how society and environment during human evolution were. This comprehension may facilitate the knowledge about how the mind and human society work, and may help to build a modern environment more similar to that of our ancestors. This paper introduces examples of evolutionary researches related to important aspects for gerontology, such as bereavement, depression and the role of grandmothers for raising children.

  18. Building a Middle-Range Theory of Adaptive Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobratz, Marjorie C

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a Roy adaptation model based- research abstraction, the findings of which were synthesized into a middle-range theory (MRT) of adaptive spirituality. The published literature yielded 21 empirical studies that investigated religion/spirituality. Quantitative results supported the influence of spirituality on quality of life, psychosocial adjustment, well-being, adaptive coping, and the self-concept mode. Qualitative findings showed the importance of spiritual expressions, values, and beliefs in adapting to chronic illness, bereavement, death, and other life transitions. These findings were abstracted into six theoretical statements, a conceptual definition of adaptive spirituality, and three hypotheses for future testing.

  19. Do grief self-help books convey contemporary perspectives on grieving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2012-01-01

    Grief therapy and psychology literatures of the modern Western world conceptualized bereavement and grief as processes to be "worked through" so that other relationships could be pursued. In the last decade or so, however, grief theorists have endorsed the value of attaining new meaning(s) and continuing bonds with our lost loved ones instead of "moving on from," "letting go of" or "achieving closure from" them. This article tracks the evolution of thought pertaining to this shift and examines its relevance to grief self-help books that may offer Americans guidance in the ways of grieving.

  20. Mason & Dixon and Hamlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Wallhead

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there is no explicit comparison in 'Mason & Dixon' of the astronomer protagonist Charles Mason to the eponymous hero of Shakespeare's masterpiece, indisputable references to the play are to be found in the novel. Mason is endowed with qualities which mirror Hamlet's virtues and vices: he is a leader and a man of education and wit, though his metaphysical longings entice him towards madness and suicide. He is emburdened with a  deep melancholy stemming from bereavement, loss of love, the hauntings of a ghost, indecision, even cowardice and frustrated ambition.

  1. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as "important," as "sacred," and as a vehicle to continue intense and physical relationships with the dead. Based on quantitative and qualitative data this article illustrates the ambiguity of such relationships. It highlights the diverse experiences, unexpected challenges, and moral obligations that can be evoked by the deceased's ashes, where the latter are seen as embedded in material practices and entangled in social relationships.

  2. Death thoughts and images in treatment-seekers after violent loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Jenna L; Williams, Joah L; Rynearson, Ted; Correa, Fanny; Saindon, Connie; Rheingold, Alyssa A

    2015-01-01

    Violent loss survivors often describe experiencing recurrent imagery about their loved one's death. The Death Imagery Scale assesses 5 kinds of imagery: reenactment, rescue, revenge, reunion, and remorse. We explored the frequency of these forms of imagery and their associations with PTSD, depression, and/or complicated grief (CG) among 130 treatment-seeking survivors who were, on average, 3.5 years postloss. Reenactment, rescue, and remorse imagery were most frequently endorsed, and all forms of imagery were associated with PTSD, depression, and CG. Bereaved parents reported more remorse and reunion imagery than others. Homicide survivors reported more revenge imagery than suicide and accident survivors.

  3. Reinterpreting funerals and pastoral care: a pastoral theology response to Tom Long's Accompany Them with Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Gene

    2012-03-01

    This article addresses Tom Long's (2009) criticism that a traditional pastoral care approach to funerals is responsible for significant distortions in contemporary Christian funeral practices in the United States. The article will show that his criticism should be affirmed but that his solution for a contemporary understanding of pastoral care and funerals is not adequate. A critique and reinterpretation of pastoral care and funerals will show that Long's reform of Christian funerals needs to incorporate a contemporary understanding of caring for the bereaved in funerals.

  4. Holding on to hope: A review of the literature exploring missing persons, hope and ambiguous loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Sarah; Maple, Myfanwy; McKay, Kathy; Glassock, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    When a person goes missing, those left behind mourn an ambiguous loss where grief can be disenfranchised. Different to bereavement following death, hope figures into this experience as a missing person has the potential to return. This review explores hope for families of missing people. Lived experience of ambiguous loss was deconstructed to reveal responses punctuated by hope, which had practical and psychological implications for those learning to live with an unresolved absence. Future lines of enquiry must address the dearth of research exploring the role of hope, unresolved grief, and its clinical implications when a person is missing.

  5. On the Child's Own Initiative: Parents Communicate with Their Dying Child About Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalmsell, Li; Kontio, Taru; Stein, Maria; Henter, Jan-Inge; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Open and honest communication has been identified as an important factor in providing good palliative care. However, there is no easy solution to if, when, and how parents and a dying child should communicate about death. This article reports how bereaved parents communicated about death with their child, dying from a malignancy. Communication was often initiated by the child and included communication through narratives such as fairy tales and movies and talking more directly about death itself. Parents also reported that their child prepared for death by giving instructions about his or her grave or funeral and giving away toys.

  6. Memorialising Gallipoli: Manufacturing Memory at Anzac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Scates

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The memorials of Gallipoli have not lost their power to move, confront and often even inspire their visitors. Their meanings are re-visited, even re-invented by each successive generation of Anzac pilgrim and, contrary to the simplistic mono-dimensional readings of some historians, the Peninsula’s commemorative landscape remains a site of fierce contestation. Pacifist and patriot, back packer and bereaved all interpret it differently. Moreover, the memorials of Gallipoli continue to alert us to different cultures of commemoration; Christian, secular and Islamic, Turkish, British, French and Australian.

  7. Nursing Care after Death

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nurses care, help and support patients before they are born, when they are alive and after they die. The starting points of this study were how nurses provide physical care for the dead patients and psychological care for the bereaved families. The purpose of this study was to describe the role of a nurse when patients die. The aims of this study were that the results of the study could help the nurses’ clinical work and could be used as part of teaching material in post-mortem care or nu...

  8. Silent loss and the clinical encounter: Parents’ and physicians’ experiences of stillbirth–a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Maureen C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, an estimated 70 stillbirths occur each day, on average 25,000 each year. Research into the prevalence and causes of stillbirth is ongoing, but meanwhile, many parents suffer this devastating loss, largely in silence, due to persistent stigma and taboo; and many health providers report feeling ill equipped to support grieving parents. Interventions to address bereavement after neonatal death are increasingly common in U.S. hospitals, and there is growing data on the nature of parent bereavement after a stillbirth. However, further research is needed to evaluate supportive interventions and to investigate the parent-clinician encounter during hospitalization following a stillbirth. Qualitative inquiry offers opportunities to better understand the lived experience of parents against the backdrop of clinicians’ beliefs, intentions, and well-meaning efforts to support grieving parents. Methods We present a secondary qualitative analysis of transcript data from 3 semi-structured focus groups conducted with parents who had experienced a stillbirth and delivered in a hospital, and 2 focus groups with obstetrician-gynecologists. Participants were drawn from the greater Seattle region in Washington State. We examine parents’ and physicians’ experiences and beliefs surrounding stillbirth during the clinical encounter using iterative discourse analysis. Results Women reported that the cheery, bustling environment of the labor and delivery setting was a painful place for parents who had had a stillbirth, and that the well-meaning attempts of physicians to offer comfort often had the opposite effect. Parents also reported that their grief is deeply felt but not socially recognized. While physicians recognized patients’ grief, they did not grasp its depth or duration. Physicians viewed stillbirth as an unexpected clinical tragedy, though several considered stillbirth less traumatic than the death of a neonate

  9. Parent Perspectives of Neonatal Intensive Care at the End-of-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin R; Christian, Becky J; Hinds, Pamela S; Perna, Samuel J; Robinson, Cheryl; Day, Sara; Meneses, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study explored parent experiences related to their infant's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization, end-of-life care, and palliative care consultation. "Life and death in the NICU environment" emerged as the primary theme with the following categories: ups and downs of parenting in the NICU, decision-making challenges in the NICU, and parent support. Parents encountered challenges with areas for improvement for end-of-life and palliative care in the NICU. Further research is necessary to understand barriers with integrating palliative care and curative care in the NICU, and how NICU care affects bereavement and coping outcomes after infant death.

  10. Supporting families after sudden infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, M E; Shaefer, S J

    1996-04-01

    Parents consistently report that supportive contacts with their health care providers make a difference in their overall adjustment to their baby's death. Parents require continuing validation that the baby's death is no one's fault, that it was not caused by anything they did or did not do. In supporting bereaved families, our goal is to assist parents to incorporate the baby's death into their lives in a way that allows them to continue to function and to recognize life as worth living and happiness as possible.

  11. "The Police Have Given Up": An Empirical Examination of Covictims' Beliefs About Cold Case Homicide Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretesky, Paul B; Cope, Kathryn; Shelley, Tara O'Connor; Hogan, Michael J; Unnithan, N Prabha

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the perception by cold case homicide covictims that police have given up trying to solve their loved one's murder. A random sample (n = 65) of cold case homicide covictims is surveyed to determine if, and how, different forms of communication may be important in their perceptions about police. Ordered logistic regression analyses indicate that perceived importance of the information communicated, frequency of police contact, and satisfaction with communication efforts by police are inversely correlated with covictims' perceptions that police have given up on the investigation. These inverse correlations persist despite statistical controls and have important implications for the bereavement of covictims and for crime rates.

  12. Tranquebar - cemeteries and grave monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karin; Gasparski, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    Danish and Norwegian tradesmen and officials, military personnel, German missionaries and British officers with their wives and children-a motley assortment of people-all found their last resting place in the former Danish trading station of Tranquebar in southern India. The bereaved relatives...... and their hopes. In 1935 Knud Heilberg, a missionary, registered some of the inscriptions in the old Danish cemeteries. In 1999 the art historian Karin Kryger and the archtect Lisbeth Gasparski completed this registration work. This book presents complete documentation of the stillexisting gravestones...

  13. Experiences of African American Parents Following Perinatal or Pediatric Death: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Jackelyn Y.; Kavanaugh, Karen; Issel, L. Michele; Eldeirawi, Kamal; Meert, Kathleen L.

    2013-01-01

    A child’s death is one of life’s most difficult experiences. Little is known about the unique factors that influence the grief experience for bereaved African American parents. Through an integrative review of 10 publications, the authors describe the grief responses, outcomes, and implications for African American parents who experience the death of a child. Four themes emerged: (a) emotional response to loss; (b) factors that added to the burden of loss; (c) coping strategies; and (d) health consequences of grief. Healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers should be sensitive to the unique needs of African American parents following a child’s death. PMID:24666143

  14. Lucius Iulius Optatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargfeldt, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Even though Roman grave markers offer us valuable glimpses into the society in which they were created they also effectively conceal the actual character traits of the people behind the monuments because of their lauding habitual phrases. This concealment is strengthened by the very nature...... of intimacy between the deceased and the bereaved that the monuments themselves are an expression of, which is an inherent aspect of funerary culture in general. This article examines the grave marker of a frontier doctor that seemingly breaks the tradition of idealising the deceased and instead reveals...

  15. Men’s Grief, Meaning and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Byrialsen, Mia Nørremark; Langdridge, Darren

    2012-01-01

    -worlds of a small number of bereaved men. The study looked specifically at how the loss of a spouse influences men's experience of meaning, grief and loss. Three men aged between 32 and 54 years old who had all lost their partners to cancer between 3 and 7 years ago were interviewed. The hermeneutic...... phenomenological method of Van Manen (1990) was used to uncover three key themes, labelled grief and self-reflection, meaning of life and loss, and re-figuring the life-world. These themes are discussed in the light of broader existential concerns and the extant literature....

  16. Parental mortality rates in a western country after the death of a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Smits, Luc J.M.; Li, Jiong

    2010-01-01

    within a larger sample and focus on adverse health effects as an objective measure of possible long-term effects of maladaptive grief reactions. Methods: For the time period between 1980 and 1996, all children in Denmark who died before 18 years of age were identified. Parents who had lost a child were...... was not greater for fathers than for mothers. Conclusions: The results of this study revealed no significant effect of sex of the deceased child on mortality in these bereaved parents. The results might differ if this study was replicated in a population with a different grief culture and, more importantly...

  17. Shoestrings and bricolage: some notes on researching the impact of a child's death on family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Gordon; Dawson, Pam

    2002-04-01

    An earlier version of this paper appeared as the appendix to our recent book, An Intimate Loneliness: Supporting Bereaved Parents and Children (G. Riches & P. Dawson, 2000). In it, we attempt to offer a brief history of the processes we have gone through in taking a simple research question, developing it into a practical proposal, experiencing how it shifted as we explored it, accounting for the changes that our broader reading imposed on our perceptions of what we were doing, and, finally, how the data itself and our efforts to understand it, resulted in a set of broad theoretical propositions rather than any tight conclusions.

  18. Hannelore Wass as a Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    As an educator, Hannelore Wass had a major influence on young professionals who were teaching in the field of thanatology. She influenced new professors by mentoring and providing an exceptional example of a compassionate, competent professional in the fields of thanatology and educational methodology. As a strong advocate for death education for all ages, Hannelore was a supporter of death educators. Her books provided a solid knowledge base in dying, death, and bereavement and thereby helped professionals learn the body of information in thanatology.

  19. Social support "internetworks," caskets for sale, and more: thanatology and the information superhighway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofka, C J

    1997-01-01

    A unique indicator of change in our culture's openness to and interest in death, dying, and bereavement is the availability of "thanatechnology": technological mechanisms such as interactive videodiscs and computer programs that are used to access information or aid in learning about thanatology topics. This article describes resources available through society's latest and most widely accessible type of thanatechnology, the Internet and World Wide Web. The conceptual framework of mediated interpersonal communication is used to illustrate sites available as resources for social support. Additional categories of thanatology sites, including narrative, commemorative, expressive, and experiential sites, are defined. Implications for the use of these resources in clinical practice, death education, and research are considered.

  20. The organization of thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J; Heflin-Wells, E Neil; Martin, Terry L; Redmond, Lula M; Schachter, Sherry R

    2011-01-01

    This article explores, using Wilensky's Model of Professionalization, the emergence of professional organizations within the thanatology. The authors review the history of four organizations--The Foundation of Thanatology, Ars Moriendi, The Forum for Death Education and Counseling (now the Association for Death Education and Counseling: A Thanatology Organization [ADEC]), and The International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement (IWG). The authors speculate on some of the reasons that the first two failed while IWG and ADEC remain viable-while noting challenges that these remaining thanatological organizations will experience as they seek to continue to stay relevant.

  1. Qualitative research in thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carverhill, Philip A

    2002-04-01

    A new research paradigm has been emerging which holds significant potential for the field of death studies. The qualitative project is a diverse collection of methodologies that focuses its interests on the words, narratives, and stories of individuals and groups. Part of its appeal may lie in the inherent closeness of fit between qualitative inquiry and applied work with the dying and the bereaved. The author introduces the individual articles in this special issue and outlines the development of the project as well as some current issues in qualitative research in thanatology.

  2. Experiences of african american parents following perinatal or pediatric death: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Jackelyn Y; Kavanaugh, Karen; Issel, L Michele; Eldeirawi, Kamal; Meert, Kathleen L

    2014-01-01

    A child's death is one of life's most difficult experiences. Little is known about the unique factors that influence the grief experience for bereaved African American parents. Through an integrative review of 10 publications, the authors describe the grief responses, outcomes, and implications for African American parents who experience the death of a child. Four themes emerged: (a) emotional response to loss; (b) factors that added to the burden of loss; (c) coping strategies; and (d) health consequences of grief. Healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers should be sensitive to the unique needs of African American parents following a child's death.

  3. Variations in the quality and costs of end-of-life care, preferences and palliative outcomes for cancer patients by place of death: the QUALYCARE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffman Jonathan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging trends and new policies suggest that more cancer patients might die at home in the future. However, not all have equal chances of achieving this. Furthermore, there is lack of evidence to support that those who die at home experience better care and a better death than those who die as inpatients. The QUALYCARE study aims to examine variations in the quality and costs of end-of-life care, preferences and palliative outcomes associated with dying at home or in an institution for cancer patients. Methods/Design Mortality followback survey (with a nested case-control study of home vs. hospital deaths conducted with bereaved relatives of cancer patients in four Primary Care Trusts in London. Potential participants are identified from death registrations and approached by the Office for National Statistics in complete confidence. Data are collected via a postal questionnaire to identify the informal and formal care received in the three months before death and the associated costs, relatives' satisfaction with care, and palliative outcomes for the patients and their relatives. A well-established questionnaire to measure relatives' views on the care integrates four brief and robust tools - the Client Service Receipt Inventory, the Palliative Outcome Scale, the EQ-5 D and the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief. Further questions assess patients and relatives' preferences for place of death. The survey aims to include 500 bereaved relatives (140 who experienced a home death, 205 a hospital death, 115 a hospice death and 40 a nursing home death. Bivariate and multivariate analyses will explore differences in place of death and place of end-of-life care, in preferences for place of death, patients' palliative outcomes and relatives' bereavement outcomes, in relation to place of death. Factors influencing death at home and the costs of end-of-life care by place of death will be identified. Discussion Collecting data on end

  4. Broken heart, tako-tsubo or stress cardiomyopathy? Metaphors, meanings and their medical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferth, Thomas; Banerjee, Mita; Paul, Norbert W

    2017-03-01

    The cardiac impact of psychological stress historically and socially understood as boundary experiences of human life has long since become an icon. From the aching heart to the sudden death provoked by awe, horror, grief, anger, and humiliation on one side and extreme enchantment, enthusiasm, and excitement on the other, the broken heart has become a globally recognized and powerful metaphor present from folklore to popular culture to high literature and back to everyday communication. In medicine, the "broken heart syndrome" is described as a relatively new nosological entity that has been used synonymously with the term tako-tsubo or stress cardiomyopathy. Among those three terms, however, the broken heart most vividly draws the connection between conditions under which lived experience triggers cardiac damage and conversely, cardiovascular death occurs. According to Hassan and Yamasaki (2013) [1] and quite apart from the general perception medical notions of the broken heart indeed go back to at least 1967, when Rees and Lutkins studied the death rate among 903 relatives of patients who died in Wales. They found that 4.8% of bereaved close relatives died within a year of bereavement compared with 0.68% of a non-bereaved control group. Among widows and widowers, the mortality rate was even 10 times greater than that of the matched controls. After the first year of bereavement, however, mortality rates of relatives of a deceased person did not differ significantly from the control group Rees and Lutkins (1967) [2]. Similar findings were published by Parkes et al. (1969) [3] following up on 4486 widowers at the age of 55 for 9years following the death of their wives in 1957. During the first six months after the spouse had died, the mortality rate of the widowers was 40% above the rate of married men of the same age. While it seems plausible to accept the etiological role and pathogenic impact of personal loss, the pathogenic processes causing death remained

  5. Stress-Related Growth among Suicide Survivors: The Role of Interpersonal and Cognitive Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Belz, Yossi

    2015-01-01

    Although stress-related growth had been documented in bereaved individuals, it is still not clear to what extent it can be experienced by suicide survivors or which psychological processes facilitate it. The current study examined the role of interpersonal factors-self disclosure and social supports as well as cognitive coping strategies in stress-related growth among suicide survivors. The sample consisted of 135 suicide survivors (104 women and 31 men) aged 18-70. All participants completed the stress-related growth questionnaire as well as instruments measuring interpersonal activities, cognitive strategies, and demographic characteristics concerning the bereavement. The findings showed significant positive correlations between time elapsed since death, self-disclosure, social support, adaptive cognitive strategies, and stress-related growth. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis revealed that together these variables accounted for over 38% of the variance in stress-related growth. Interpersonal activities such as talking and interacting with others, as well as a cognitive focus on planning for the future emerged as important factors in personal transformation after suicide loss.

  6. Mourning 2.0--Continuing Bonds Between the Living and the Dead on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Melissa D

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the burgeoning phenomenon of Facebook memorial pages and how this research about online social networking environments can contribute to the existing literature related to Klass, Silverman, and Nickman (1996) continuing bonds thesis. I argue that memorial pages constitute a new ritualized and public space for maintaining these continued bonds and that individuals exhibit several types of bonding interactions with the deceased. I conducted a content analysis on a purposively selected sample of 12 public Facebook "pages" where I coded 1,270 individual Wall postings. Analyses demonstrated that many individuals routinely used these Walls to continue their relationships with the deceased. Findings revealed several Wall posting categories, "guidance from beyond and reunion with the deceased," "messages and visitations from the deceased," and "conversations with the deceased," which I then combined under a central thematic heading of "paranormal copresence." There were 267 Wall postings coded under "guidance and reunion," 26 for "messages and visitations," and 340 for "conversations," with the total of 633 Wall postings under the central thematic heading of paranormal copresence. This research highlights how individuals have transcended the limitations of time and physical space in relation to traditional bereavement behavior and rituals and how data found on public websites, such as Facebook, can be used to further theorize bereavement and to demonstrate continue bonds between the living and the dead.

  7. The relationship between mortality and time since divorce, widowhood or remarriage in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Kjersti Norgård; Kravdal, Oystein

    2012-12-01

    The chance of dying within any given year probably depends not only on marital status in that year but also on earlier partnership history. There is still not much knowledge about such effects, however. Our intention is to see how mortality is associated with time since divorce, bereavement and remarriage and time between marital disruption and remarriage. We use register data that include the entire Norwegian population aged 40-89 from 1970 to 2008 (70,701,767 person-years of exposure and 1,484,281 deaths). The excess mortality of divorced men compared to their married counterparts increases with time since divorce, while there is no such trend among divorced women. The pattern is opposite for the widowed, among whom there are indications of a more sharply positive association with time since bereavement for women than for men, though the association is rather weak for both sexes. The remarried have higher mortality than the first-time married, with one surprising exception: men who have remarried after a period of less than 10 years as divorced or widowed have the same mortality as the married. There is no clear association between mortality and time since remarriage. We discuss possible reasons for these patterns.

  8. The effect of losing the twin and losing the partner on mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomassini, Cecilia; Rosina, Alessandro; Billari, Francesco C;

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have explored the impact of marital bereavement on mortality, while increasing emphasis has recently been placed on genetic factors influencing longevity - in this paper, we study the impact of losing the spouse and losing the co-twin, for twins aged 50 to 70. We use data from...... the Danish Twin Registry and the Population Register of Denmark for the period 1968 through 1999. Firstly, we use survival analysis to study mortality after the death of the spouse or the co-twin. We find that the risk of dying is highest in the first year after the death of the spouse, as well...... as in the second year after the death of the co-twin. We then use event history analysis techniques to show that there is a strong impact of the event 'losing the co-twin' even after controlling for age, sex and zygosity and that this effect is significantly higher in the second year of bereavement. The effect...

  9. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised: Are we measuring complicated grief or posttraumatic stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Shevlin, Mark

    2010-01-01

      The Inventory of Complicated Grief Revised (ICG-R) assesses symptoms of complicated grief in bereaved individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the factorial structure of Complicated Grief (CG) and investigate the relationship between CG and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder through the asse......  The Inventory of Complicated Grief Revised (ICG-R) assesses symptoms of complicated grief in bereaved individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the factorial structure of Complicated Grief (CG) and investigate the relationship between CG and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder through...... the assessment of models which combine both constructs. A secondary aim was to test the construct validity of the Danish version of ICG-R. The questionnaire was completed by respondents who were elderly and married with a history of at least one significant, interpersonal loss (145 males and 147 females, 60......-81 years). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a two-factor model (separation distress and traumatic distress) of CG. To investigate the relationship between CG and PTSD three combined models were specified and estimated using CFA. A model where all five factors, the two factors of CG...

  10. A qualitative inquiry into the application of verbal autopsy for a mortality surveillance system in a rural community of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mony, Prem K; Vaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify operational and ethical issues encountered in the application of verbal autopsy (VA) in a rural community in south India. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews was conducted with 183 bereaved caregivers in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Simple descriptive analysis was undertaken. Only 16% of adult deaths and 27% of child deaths occurred in healthcare settings. Healthcare utilization for the terminal illness was reported in two thirds of medical (non-injury) causes of death. Supporting medical evidence was available in <10% of cases to supplement the interpretation of verbal autopsies. About 14% of bereaved caregivers refused to give written consent but provided oral consent. Additional ethical concerns included inability to ensure privacy in 15% of interviews and unsolicited information from unauthorized neighbours in 5% of cases. Such methodological, logistical and ethical issues operate to impact on the quality of VAs. Consideration of these issues would strengthen ongoing efforts in the harmonization of VA procedures.

  11. Nurses’ Experiences of Grieving When There Is a Perinatal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Jonas-Simpson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many nurses grieve when patients die; however, nurses’ grief is not often acknowledged or discussed. Also, little attention is given to preparing nurses for this experience in schools of nursing and in orientations to health care organizations. The purpose of this research was to explore obstetrical and neonatal nurses’ experiences of grieving when caring for families who experience loss after perinatal death. A visual arts-informed research method through the medium of digital video was used, informed by human science nursing, grief concepts, and interpretive phenomenology. Five obstetrical nurses and one neonatal intensive care nurse who cared for bereaved families voluntarily participated in this study. Nurses shared their experiences of grieving during in-depth interviews that were professionally audio- and videotaped. Data were analyzed using an iterative process of analysis-synthesis to identify themes and patterns that were then used to guide the editing of the documentary. Thematic patterns identified throughout the data were growth and transformation amid the anguish of grief, professional and personal impact, and giving–receiving meaningful help. The thematic pattern of giving–receiving meaningful help was made up of three thematic threads: support from colleagues; providing authentic, compassionate, quality care; and education and mentorship. Nurses’ grief is significant. Nurses who grieve require acknowledgment, support, and education. Supporting staff through their grief may ultimately have a positive impact on quality of work life and home life for nurses and quality of care for bereaved families.

  12. A Greek perspective on concepts of death and expression of grief, with implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Parpa, Efi; Katsouda, Emmanuela; Vlahos, Lambros

    2003-12-01

    Death has been conceptualised in different ways by different cultures and civilizations. It is increasingly entering into the public consciousness and society is now more ready to discuss and lessen the fear of dying and grief than it has been in the past few decades. In Greece, by Classical times there was an increase in burial rituals and commemorative practices compared to earlier periods. When Christianity was introduced into Greece it attempted to change the way the dead were mourned, preaching immortality of the soul and resurrection of the dead. Nevertheless, the way people grieve and bury their dead in Greece has not changed greatly since before the introduction of Christianity, except for the difficulty experienced in witnessing burial procedures observed in the large cities. Burial and bereavement traditions were introduced to help Greeks cope with death and bereavement. In Greece today beliefs about grief and death are based both on the ancient and the Christian Orthodox traditions. Healthcare professionals need to develop cultural competence to improve nursing and future health care. If care is culturally informed and tailored its quality is improved.

  13. What's the diagnosis? Organisational culture and palliative care delivery in residential aged care in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Rosemary; Boyd, Michal; Foster, Sue; Robinson, Jackie; Gott, Merryn

    2016-07-01

    Organisational culture has been shown to impact on resident outcomes in residential aged care (RAC). This is particularly important given the growing number of residents with high palliative care needs. The study described herein (conducted from January 2013 to March 2014) examined survey results from a convenience sample of 46 managers, alongside interviews with a purposively selected sample of 23 bereaved family members in order to explore the perceptions of organisational culture within New Zealand RAC facilities in one large urban District Health Board. Results of the Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) completed by managers indicated a preference for a 'Clan' and the structured 'Hierarchy' culture. Bereaved family interviews emphasised both positive and negative aspects of communication, leadership and teamwork, and relationship with residents. Study results from both managers' OCAI survey scores and next of kin interviews indicate that while the RAC facilities are culturally oriented towards providing quality care for residents, they may face barriers to adopting organisational processes supportive of this goal.

  14. The Trauma of Birth or Parenting a Child: Effect on Parents' Negative Emotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yanhui; Chi, Xinli; Wu, Hao; Zeng, Tianyu; Chao, Xiaomei; Zhang, Peichao; Mo, Lei

    2017-04-01

    The present study assessed negative emotions associated with the traumas of infertility and child rearing (child's disability or death) and the correlates of duration of trauma. The widely used Chinese Mental Health Scale was used to assess negative emotions in 294 individuals who experienced the aforementioned traumas and 124 who did not (control group). Results showed that individuals with infertility exhibited greater anxiety, depression, and solitude than the control group; bereaved parents and had greater solitude and fear than control group; and parents of children with disabilities had greater solitude than the control group. Parents who experienced the death of a child had more fear and physiological maladjustment than parents of a child with disabilities. In addition, individuals without parenting experience had higher scores on solitude, fear, and physiological disease than those with parenting experience. After controlling for demographic variables, the duration of trauma significantly negatively predicted depression in the infertile group and for bereaved parents. The results suggest that in order to prevent psychological and physiological health problems among infertile couples, parents of a disabled child, and parents who experience the death of child, family and community-based strategies should be developed and implemented.

  15. Male fetal loss in the U.S. following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The secondary sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male birth) reportedly declines following natural disasters, pollution events, and economic collapse. It remains unclear whether this decline results from an excess of male fetal loss or reduced male conceptions. The literature also does not converge as to whether the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 induced "communal bereavement", or the widespread feeling of distress among persons who never met those directly involved in the attacks. We test the communal bereavement hypothesis among gravid women by examining whether male fetal deaths rose above expected levels in the US following September 11, 2001. Methods We apply interrupted time-series methods to all fetal deaths at or greater than the 20th week of gestation in the US from 1996 to 2002. Time-series methods control for trends, seasonality, and other forms of autocorrelation that could induce spurious associations. Results Results support the hypothesis in that the fetal death sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male fetal death) increased above its expected value in September 2001. Additional analysis of the secondary sex ratio indirectly supports that the terrorist attacks may have threatened the gestation of male more than female fetuses. Conclusions Societal responses to events such as September 11, 2001 do not appear confined only to persons who have ever met the deceased. The fetal death sex ratio in the US population may serve as a sentinel indicator of the degree to which pregnant women react to population stressors. PMID:20500812

  16. The Stigma of Suicide Survivorship and Related Consequences—A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Lehnig, Franziska; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Kersting, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Background considerable proportion of the population experiences major life disruptions after losing a loved one to suicide. Social stigma attached to suicide survivors adds to complications occurring in the course of suicide bereavement. Despite its known risks, stigma related to suicide survivors has been sparsely investigated. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycInfo and PsyArticles, of studies indexed up through August 2015. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they addressed experiences of stigma in suicide survivors, compared them to other bereavement populations, or investigated stigmatizing attitudes within the public. The search was restricted to English-language studies. Results 25 records matched inclusion criteria. Study designs were heterogeneous, making comparisons difficult. Results demonstrated that suicide survivors experience stigma in the form of shame, blame, and avoidance. Suicide survivors showed higher levels of stigma than natural death survivors. Stigma was linked to concealment of the death, social withdrawal, reduced psychological and somatic functioning, and grief difficulties. Only one study investigated stigmatizing attitudes towards suicide survivors among the general population. Limitations Internal and external validity of the studies was restricted by a lack of valid measures and selection bias. Conclusions More methodologically sound research is needed to understand the impact of stigma on suicide survivors’ grief trajectories and to separate it from other grief aspects. Clinicians and grief-counselors as well as the public should be educated about the persistent stigma experienced by suicide survivors. PMID:27657887

  17. Talking through the dead: the impact and interplay of lived grief after suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Kathy; Tighe, Joe

    In the aftermath of suicide, grief becomes a multi-faceted experience. Traditionally, this grief was silenced where the shame attached to suicide invalidated a person's need for expression. Even now, it can be difficult for people to fully articulate their grief, let alone find an empathetic audience. How do we examine this grief to more clearly hear the voices of the bereaved, and to better understand how to support those who are grieving a suicide death? Indeed, the ripple of suicide grief touches more than those traditionally considered to be impacted by the death. Whole communities can be affected and it cannot be presumed that researchers do not have their own lived experiences of suicide bereavement. In this way, the newly-opened discourse around the experience of suicide grief needs to be dissected within more practical and appropriate research. A balance needs to be created in research where the voices of grief can be included but the experiential context understood and respected.

  18. Publication Trends in Thanatology: An Analysis of Leading Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkowski, Joachim; Doka, Kenneth J; Neimeyer, Robert A; Vallerga, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To identify important trends in thanatology as a discipline, the authors analyzed over 1,500 articles that appeared in Death Studies and Omega over a 20-year period, coding the category of articles (e.g., theory, application, empirical research), their content focus (e.g., bereavement, death attitudes, end-of-life), and for empirical studies, their methodology (e.g., quantitative, qualitative). In general, empirical research predominates in both journals, with quantitative methods outnumbering qualitative procedures 2 to 1 across the period studied, despite an uptick in the latter methods in recent years. Purely theoretical articles, in contrast, decline in frequency. Research on grief and bereavement is the most commonly occurring (and increasing) content focus of this work, with a declining but still substantial body of basic research addressing death attitudes. Suicidology is also well represented in the corpus of articles analyzed. In contrast, publications on topics such as death education, medical ethics, and end-of-life issues occur with lower frequency, in the latter instances likely due to the submission of such work to more specialized medical journals. Differences in emphasis of Death Studies and Omega are noted, and the analysis of publication patterns is interpreted with respect to overall trends in the discipline and the culture, yielding a broad depiction of the field and some predictions regarding its possible future.

  19. Future Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    Today the dying and the bereaved attend memorialization both online and offline. Cemeteries, urns, coffins, graves, memorials, monuments, websites, social network sites, applications and software services, form technologies that are influenced by discourse, culture, public, professional and econo......Today the dying and the bereaved attend memorialization both online and offline. Cemeteries, urns, coffins, graves, memorials, monuments, websites, social network sites, applications and software services, form technologies that are influenced by discourse, culture, public, professional...... and economic power. They constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices and designs dealing with death, mourning, memorialization and remembrance. The paper presents findings from two research projects; the 2015 exhibition Death: The Human Experience at Bristol Museum and Art...... Gallery (bristolmuseums.org.uk) and the Future Cemetery Design Competition 2016 held by the Centre for Death and Society and Arnos Vale Cemetery in Bristol (futurecemetery.org). Grounded in sociological theory on death and memorialization technologies, ethnographic fieldwork and survey results (n=348...

  20. The psychological well-being of children orphaned by AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cluver Lucie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2 million children are parentally bereaved by AIDS in South Africa. Little is known about mental health outcomes for this group. Methods This study aimed to investigate mental health outcomes for urban children living in deprived settlements in Cape Town. 30 orphaned children and 30 matched controls were compared using standardised questionnaires (SDQ on emotional and behavioural problems, peer and attention difficulties, and prosocial behaviour. The orphan group completed a modified version of a standardised questionnaire (IES-8, measuring Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms. Group differences were tested using t-tests and Pearson's chi-square. Results Both groups scored highly for peer problems, emotional problems and total scores. However, orphans were more likely to view themselves as having no good friends (p = .002, to have marked concentration difficulties (p = .03, and to report frequent somatic symptoms (p = .05, but were less likely to display anger through loss of temper (p = .03. Orphans were more likely to have constant nightmares (p = .01, and 73% scored above the cut-off for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Conclusion Findings suggest important areas for larger-scale research for parentally-bereaved children.

  1. The effect of music video exposure on students' perceived clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori F; Mori-Inoue, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of video exposure on music therapy students' perceptions of clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy. Fifty-one participants were randomly divided into two groups and exposed to a popular song in either audio-only or music video format. Participants were asked to indicate clinical applications; specifically, participants chose: (a) possible population(s), (b) most appropriate population(s), (c) possible age range(s), (d) most appropriate age ranges, (e) possible goal area(s) and (f) most appropriate goal area. Data for each of these categories were compiled and analyzed, with no significant differences found in the choices made by the audio-only and video groups. Three items, (a) selection of the bereavement population, (b) selection of bereavement as the most appropriate population and (c) selection of the age ranges of pre teen/mature adult, were additionally selected for further analysis due to their relationship to the video content. Analysis results revealed a significant difference between the video and audio-only groups for the selection of these specific items, with the video group's selections more closely aligned to the video content. Results of this pilot study suggest that music video exposure to popular music can impact how students choose to implement popular songs in the field of music therapy.

  2. Events prior to completed suicide: perspectives of family survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kathleen; Murphy, Gillian; Jackson, Debra

    2013-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the experiences of those bereaved by suicide, particularly in the weeks leading to the death of a loved one. This study used a qualitative methodology to explore the perspectives of close survivors of a completed suicide. Ten people who were bereaved by suicide participated in face-to-face interviews that were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Analysis revealed the following three themes: He Tried to Hang Himself: Purposeful indications of the intent to end life; They Still Ignored It: Disappointment with health services; and Nobody Talked to Me: Exclusion of family members from treatment information. Prior to the suicide of their loved one, participants had identified that the loved one was at risk and perceived they were unable to acquire appropriate assistance from services. Rather, services were perceived by participants as unsupportive and inadequate. Health and social service professionals could benefit from further specialised education concerning suicide and its sequelae to ensure more effective and sensitive care delivery to suicide survivors.

  3. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-06-22

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved.

  4. A comparison study on mental health status between suicide survivors and survivors of accidental deaths in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Li, N

    2014-12-01

    Suicide has become a major public health problem worldwide. For every suicide there are six suicide survivors, a term referring to family members or friends of a person who has died by suicide. Within the literature there has been ongoing debate regarding the bereavement process and if it differs in survivors of suicide as opposed to survivors of those who have died from accidental death. There are scarcely any published reports on comparison between these two groups of survivors in China. In this study, we aimed to explore the difference of mental health status between suicide survivors and survivors of accidental deaths in China. We used a cross-sectional study design to collect data of survivors. Consecutive sampling was used and 92 suicide survivors and 64 survivors of accidental deaths were interviewed. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised was used to assess the survivors' mental health status. After controlling for demographic variables and time interval between death and interview, no significant differences were found on mental health status between these two groups of survivors. Several explanations might account for the lack of differences. Further studies employing qualitative measures and suicide-specific instruments are needed to explore the bereavement of Chinese suicide survivors.

  5. "Whenever they cry, I cry with them": Reciprocal relationships and the role of ethics in a verbal autopsy study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, H N; Kelly-Hanku, A; Wilson, L; Maraga, S; Riley, I D

    2016-08-01

    Verbal autopsy (VA) methods usually involve an interview with a recently bereaved individual to ascertain the most probable cause of death when a person dies outside of a hospital and/or did not receive a reliable death certificate. A number of concerns have arisen around the ethical and social implications of the use of these methods. In this paper we examine these concerns, looking specifically at the cultural factors surrounding death and mourning in Papua New Guinea, and the potential for VA interviews to cause emotional distress in both the bereaved respondent and the VA fieldworker. Thirty one semi-structured interviews with VA respondents, the VA team and community relations officers as well as observations in the field and team discussions were conducted between June 2013 and August 2014. While our findings reveal that VA participants were often moved to cry and feel sad, they also expressed a number of ways they benefited from the process, and indeed welcomed longer transactions with the VA interviewers. Significantly, this paper highlights the ways in which VA interviewers, who have hitherto been largely neglected in the literature, navigate transactions with the participants and make everyday decisions about their relationships with them in order to ensure that they and VA interviews are accepted by the community. The role of the VA fieldworker should be more carefully considered, as should the implications for training and institutional support that follow.

  6. A relação entre variáveis de saúde mental e cognição em idosos viúvos The relation among variables of mental health and cognition in widowed elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Marceli Trentini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as habilidades cognitivas de idosos viúvos. O grupo total de 34 viúvos (com perda do companheiro nos últimos 12 meses foi identificado entre os idosos de Veranópolis (RS, sendo que 30 aceitaram participar do estudo. Outros 30 participantes casados, pareados conforme sexo, idade e escolaridade, compuseram o grupo controle. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Questionário de Medida de Queixas Subjetivas de Memória (Mac-Q; Fluência verbal, categoria animal; Mini-exame do estado mental (MEEM; Teste de evocação seletiva livre e com pistas de Buschke; subteste de Dígitos da escala WAIS; Escala de depressão geriátrica (GDS e Questionário fenomenológico do luto (BPQ. Verificou-se que os viúvos tinham significativamente mais sintomas depressivos e mais pontos na escala de luto. Entretanto, não foi evidenciada diferença significativa entre as médias no desempenho cognitivo de idosos viúvos ou idosos casados. Discute-se que a escolha da viuvez censitária (ter o estado civil viúvo e não do luto emocional (auto-referido como critério de seleção pode ter influído na ausência de associação entre viuvez e disfunção cognitiva, entre outros.To assess the cognitive abilities of widowed elders, a total sample of 34 elders (who have lost their spouses in the last 12 months was identified among elders in Veranópolis-RS and 30 of them accepted to participate in the study. The control group was composed by 30 married subjects paired according to gender, age and level of education. The instruments used were: Measure Questionnaire of Memory Loss Complaints; Verbal Fluency - animal category; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test; Digit subtest; Geriatric Depression Scales and Bereavement Phenomenology Questionnaire. Widowed elders had significantly more depressive symptoms and more points on the bereavement scale. However, there was no significant difference between the

  7. Mortality after parental death in childhood: a nationwide cohort study from three Nordic countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bereavement by spousal death and child death in adulthood has been shown to lead to an increased risk of mortality. Maternal death in infancy or parental death in early childhood may have an impact on mortality but evidence has been limited to short-term or selected causes of death. Little is known about long-term or cause-specific mortality after parental death in childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1968 to 2008 (n = 2,789,807 and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,380,301, and a random sample of 89.3% of all born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,131,905. A total of 189,094 persons were included in the exposed cohort when they lost a parent before 18 years old. Log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratio (MRR. Parental death was associated with a 50% increased all-cause mortality (MRR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.43-1.58. The risks were increased for most specific cause groups and the highest MRRs were observed when the cause of child death and the cause of parental death were in the same category. Parental unnatural death was associated with a higher mortality risk (MRR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-2.00 than parental natural death (MRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.24-1.41. The magnitude of the associations varied according to type of death and age at bereavement over different follow-up periods. The main limitation of the study is the lack of data on post-bereavement information on the quality of the parent-child relationship, lifestyles, and common physical environment. CONCLUSIONS: Parental death in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased all-cause mortality into early adulthood. Since an increased mortality reflects both genetic susceptibility and long-term impacts of parental death on health and social well-being, our findings have implications in clinical responses and public health strategies. Please see later in the article for the

  8. Dead bodies matter: gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sophie

    2012-12-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body donation is a practice in which the medical and scientific value of the donor bodies has always been praised. Increasingly the fact that the bodies represent real human beings who have mourning relatives has also been acknowledged. This change in attitude has resulted in a desire on the part of anatomical professionals to give back a monument, not only for the donors themselves but also, in particular, for the donors' relatives. The great public interest in the monuments has revealed that many of the bereaved, in the absence of having the physical body of the donor, need a symbolic final resting place for their loved ones.

  9. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding.

  10. Impact of patient suicide on front-line staff in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaffney, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Research and anecdotal evidence suggests that coming to terms with the suicide of a patient can be extremely distressing for front-line professionals. Some research also suggests that exposure to such situations can undermine professionals\\' functioning and feelings of competence, cause them to question their professional standing and ultimately contribute to burnout. A survey of 447 front-line professionals\\' experiences of patient suicide was undertaken to further explore these issues. Thematic analysis of open-ended questionnaire items revealed that concerns for the bereaved family, feelings of responsibility for the death and having a close therapeutic relationship with the client are key factors that influence the adjustment and coping of a health professional in the aftermath of the death of a client by suicide. The results are discussed with a focus on the impact of suicide on front-line staff, the need for ongoing support and training and the development of specific post-suicide protocols.

  11. Understanding suicide in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Guido R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2010-02-01

    One suicide occurs every 16 minutes. Intentionally killing oneself is distinctly human; other species don't commit suicide. Suicide is an exceedingly complex phenomenon stemming from intolerable stress and the inability to cope. Elders tend to plan their suicides well, choose means of killing themselves that are more violent than younger people do, and are less likely to survive the attempt than others. Numerous factors increase risk for elder suicide: recent bereavement, pain, chronic illness, hopelessness, and despair. Identifying and treating depression early is essential to avoid tragedy. Regardless, many elders are treated with anxiolytics and analgesics in lieu of antidepressants, and some medications may increase suicide risk. Consultant pharmacists need to be aware that suicide is a serious concern for elders. When depression seems to be worsening in an elder, aggressive action is needed.

  12. PRIMARY PALLIATIVE CARE? - Treating terminally ill cancer patients in the primary care sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Olesen, Frede;

    sectors.METHOD. A number of focus group interviews were conducted with three types of subgroups: 1) Bereaved relatives, 2) GPs and 3) Various health-care-professionals, namely community nurses, hospital physicians and GPs. The interviews were transcribed and analysed according to a phenomenological......BACKGROUND. Palliative care for cancer patients is an important part of a GP's work. Although every GP is frequently involved in care for terminally ill cancer patients, only little is known about how these palliative efforts are perceived by the patients and their families, a knowledge...... approach.RESULTS. The analyses revealed several key areas, e.g.: 1) How to take, give and maintain professional responsibility for palliative home care. 2) A need for transparent communication both among primary care professionals and among professionals across the primary/secondary interface. 3...

  13. Dying under the bird's shadow: narrative representations of degedege and child survival among the Zaramo of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Vinay R

    2008-03-01

    In this article, I examine the cultural interpretations of degedege, an indigenous illness commonly recognized by the Zaramo people of coastal Tanzania as life threatening. Drawing on the narratives of three bereaved parents who lost a child to degedege, I analyze the contextual and circumstantial factors involved in these parents' negotiation of the identity of an illness and in their subsequent therapy seeking behavior. I show that even though cultural knowledge and etiological beliefs about degedege may be shared locally, there is significant variation in the therapeutic pathways that parents follow to deal with an actual episode of the illness. I emphasize the need for more contextualized data on health-seeking behaviors, and argue that it is necessary to pay attention to the micropolitics of health care decision making at the household level. Finally, I also call attention to the politics of provider-patient communication at public health facilities as a means to improve public health interventions to increase child survival.

  14. Social Service has moved

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The offices of the Social Service are now on the 1st floor of Building 33 (Reception), exactly one floor above the old location. We remind you that the team, consisting of two social workers, a psychologist (external consultant, 1 day/week) and an administrative assistant, is at the disposal of all members of the personnel, whatever their status, as well as to their family members. Advice and support in the following areas are offered : · information on integration in the local area; · assistance in dealing with the relevant authorities/services; · consultations with a view to resolving problems of a personal, family or professional nature, such as problems of dependency (alcohol, drugs) relationship or behavioral problems (stress, depression, eating disorders), etc.; · support in facing new situations (maternity, divorce, bereavement, job change, separation from family/familiar surroundings); · assistance with decision making relating to family, personal or profes...

  15. THE SOCIAL AFFAIRS ARE THERE FOR YOU!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We would like to remind you that the Social Affairs Service is a centre offering advice and support that can provide the following: Information and documentation (education for your children, language courses, child-minding facilities, health-related matters etc.). Information on social protection (illness, disability, handicap, retirement, death, etc.) and integration. Assistance in dealings with the authorities/services concerned. Consultations with a view to resolving problems of a personal, family or professional nature, such as problems of dependency (alcohol, drugs, relationship) or behavioural problems (stress, depression, eating disorders)... Support in facing new situations (maternity, divorce, bereavement, change of post, geographical isolation). Assistance with decision making relating to family, personal or professional matters. The team is at the disposal of all members of personnel, whatever their status, as well as to members of their family. Interviews with this service are CONFIDENTI...

  16. A NEW COLLEAGUE IN THE SOCIAL AFFAIRS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Social Affairs Service is pleased to announce that from now on it offers the services of a psychologist on Tuesday and Thursday mornings. The Social Affairs Service is a centre offering advice and support which can provide the following: Information and documentation (education for your children, language courses, child-minding facilities, health-related matters etc.). Information on social protection (illness, disability, handicap, retirement, death, etc.) and integration. Assistance in dealings with the authorities/services concerned. Consultations with a view to resolving problems of a personal, family or professional nature, such as problems of dependancy (alcohol, drugs, relationship) or behavioural problems (stress, depression, eating disorders). Support in facing new situations (maternity, divorce, bereavement, change of post, geographical isolation). Assistance with decision making relating to family, personal or professional matters. The team is at the disposition of all members of person...

  17. Suicide and the afterlife: popular religion and the standardisation of 'culture' in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Mary

    2012-06-01

    For an overwhelming majority of commentators, including many anthropologists, 'Japanese culture' is still associated with a positive view of suicide. Western-language writings have contributed by feedback loop to perpetuate this stereotype. Besides the local 'samurai ethic', Japanese Buddhism is also said not to prohibit taking one's life. However, the most popular examples of heroic self-sacrifice, from the Edo period to WWII, are fraught with covert contradictions. From ancient times to the present religious practitioners of all sorts have maintained that suicide creates unhappy, resentful spirits who harm the living. This article discusses many examples of a diverse series of narratives, from spirit medium's séances to drama to contemporary films, in which the anguished spirits of suicides are allowed to express themselves directly. After the figures rose alarmingly in the late 1990s various religious organisations have attempted to fight the stigma suffered by bereaved family members and have introduced new interpretations and new rituals.

  18. Bridging generic and professional care practices for Muslim patients through use of Leininger's culture care modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe-Alamah, Hiba

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide knowledge of traditional Muslim generic (folk) care beliefs, expressions and practices derived from research and descriptive sources, in order to assist nurses and other health care professionals to integrate generic (folk) into professional care practices. Muslim generic (folk) care beliefs and practices related to the caregiving process, health, illness, dietary needs, dress, privacy, modesty, touch, gender relations, eye contact, abortion, contraception, birth, death and bereavement were explored. A discussion involving the use of Leininger's culture care preservation and/or maintenance, culture care accommodation and/or negotiation and culture care repatterning and/or restructuring action modes to bridge the gap between generic (folk) and professional (etic) care practices and to consequently promote culturally congruent care is presented.

  19. I am many: the reconstruction of self following acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelech, Jan M; Desjardins, Michel

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine the construction of self following acquired brain injury from an experience-centered perspective. Life history and semistructured interview transcripts collected from four brain injury survivors were analyzed using thematic, syntactic, and deep structure analysis. Though notions of the "lost" or "shattered" self have dominated discussions of personhood in the acquired brain injury literature, we argue that this perspective is a crude representation of the postinjury experience of self, and that aspects of stability, recovery, transcendence, and moral growth are also involved in this process. We highlight the intersubjective nature of the self, and present the processes of delegitimation, invalidation, negotiation, and resistance as crucial aspects of the postinjury construction of personhood. We explore the implications of this complex process of construction of self for grief and bereavement theories, clinical practice, and professional discourse in the area of acquired brain injury.

  20. Differences in investigations of sudden unexpected deaths in young people in a nationwide setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inherited disease may be causative in many young sudden unexpected death cases. Autopsy is essential in the counselling of the bereaved, as the family of the victim may be at risk too. In a nationwide setting operating under the same set of laws, we hypothesized that regional...... investigations of young persons suffering a sudden unexpected death. This is probably not unique for Denmark although no data exist to confirm that. The results are worrying and call for a revision of the way these deaths are handled. Mandatory autopsy in sudden unexpected death in young persons is warranted...... differences exist in the investigation of young persons dying suddenly and unexpectedly. METHODS AND RESULTS: All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-2006 were included. Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. External examination as well as autopsy status was retrieved...

  1. Does the Size of the Effect of Adverse Events at High Ages on Daily-Life Physical Functioning Depend on the Economic Conditions Around Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Robert; van den Berg, Gerard J; Lindeboom, Maarten; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers determinants of physical functional limitations in daily-life activities at high ages. Specifically, we quantify the extent to which the impact of adverse life events on this outcome is larger in case of exposure to adverse economic conditions early in life. Adverse life events include bereavement, severe illness in the family, and the onset of chronic diseases. We use a longitudinal data set of individuals born in the first decades of the 20th century. The business cycle around birth is used as an indicator of economic conditions early in life. We find that the extent to which functional limitations suffer from the onset of chronic diseases is larger if the individual was born in a recession. The long-run effect of economic conditions early in life on functional limitations at high ages runs primarily via this life event. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Factors associated with preference for dying at home among terminally ill patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Andersen, Marianne; Ullersted, Maria P; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An important element in end-of-life care advocacy is to meet patients' end-of-life preferences. Most Scandinavian patients die in hospitals even though the majority prefers to die at home. Earlier studies have shown socio-economic differences in relation to dying at home, but more...... qualifies prior studies on preferences for end-of-life care and advocates for a more nuanced picture of the subject. Advocacy in end-of-life nursing recommends optimising active listening and communication skills striving towards more patients' preferences in all settings may be heard and fulfilled....... relatives of deceased patients who died of cancer in Denmark in 2006. Bereaved relatives were asked to state patient's preference concerning place of death at the beginning and end of the palliative period. These data were recently combined with updated, extensive demographic and socio-economic data from...

  3. In bits, bytes and stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline. Combined, the cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... designs'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites, applications and software services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by discourses of publics, economics, power, technology and culture. Designers, programmers, stakeholders and potential end-users often...... do not recognize the need or potential of working with or using, specific 'death-services/products', since they find little or no comfort in contemplating, working or playing around with the concept of death and its life changing consequences. Especially not while being alive and well...

  4. Human-animal bonds II: the role of pets in family systems and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Froma

    2009-12-01

    The vast majority of pet owners regard their companion animals as family members, yet the role of pets in family systems and family therapy has received little attention in research, training, and practice. This article first notes the benefits of family pets and their importance for resilience. It then examines their role in couple and family processes and their involvement in relational dynamics and tensions. Next, it addresses bereavement in the loss of a cherished pet, influences complicating grief, and facilitation of mourning and adaptation. Finally, it explores the ways that clients' pets and the use of therapists' companion animals in animal-assisted therapy can inform and enrich couple and family therapy as valuable resources in healing.

  5. Spiritual perspectives and practices at the end-of-life: A review of the major world religions and application to palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer-Wu S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care professionals promote well-being and ease suffering at the end-of-life through holistic care that addresses physical, emotional, social and spiritual needs. The ways that individuals cope with serious illness and prepare for death are often done so within a religious context. Therefore, it is essential that palliative care practitioners are sensitive to and have an appreciation of different religious perspectives and rituals to meet the unique needs of their patients and families. This paper provides a brief overview of the five major world religions - Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism - with particular emphasis of the respective perspectives on suffering, death and afterlife. Despite wide variation in these traditions, an understanding of common rituals surrounding death, funerals and bereavement can improve care for patients, families and communities facing the end-of-life.

  6. "Modern medical science and the divine providence of god": rethinking the place of religion in postwar U.S. medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Janet; Abel, Emily K

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a large cache of letters to John and Frances Gunther after the death of their son as well as memoirs and fiction by bereaved parents, this essay challenges the assumptions of secularization that infuse histories of twentieth-century American medicine. Many parents who experienced the death of children during the postwar period relied heavily on religion to help make sense of the tragedies medicine could not prevent. Parental accounts included expression of belief in divine intervention and the power of prayer, gratitude for God's role in minimizing suffering, confidence in the existence of an afterlife, and acceptance of the will of God. Historians seeking to understand how parents and families understood both the delivery of medical care and the cultural authority of medical science must integrate an understanding of religious experiences and faith into their work.

  7. Living Through the Life-Altering Loss of a Child: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jayne E; Jones, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The death of a child is a life-altering event for parents, leading to grief that is individual, intense, and long lasting. The grief experienced by parents following the death of their child can affect their relationships and as they sometimes see it, their role within society. Parents can find grief isolating, due to society's lack of understanding of their grief experience. Gendered differences in grief reactions have also been noted. Theoretical understandings of bereavement, now acknowledge parental need "not to let go" but rather to reconstruct relationships with their deceased child in terms of a continuing bond. This narrative literature review draws together theory and research on the topic, highlighting current knowledge and suggesting ways in which children's nurses can support parents as they live through the loss of their child.

  8. Grief, consolation, and religions: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Consolation is grief's traditional amelioration, but contemporary bereavement theory lacks a conceptual framework to include it. The article begins to develop that framework. The article argues that grief is inter-subjective, even at the biological level. Consolation and grief happen in the same inter-subjective space. Material from the histories of several religions sets the article in a cross-cultural and historical environment. The article examines consolation in interpersonal relationships, and then moves to consolation in cultural/religious resources that range from the literal image of God as an idealized parent to the abstract architecture of Brahm's Requiem. The most common consolation in the histories of religions comes within continuing bonds that are accessed in a wide variety of beliefs, rituals, and devotional objects. The article closes by briefly drawing the connection between consolation and faith.

  9. Nicolas Delruelle 1965 - 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    On Tuesday, 20th September, many CERN colleagues gathered to attend the funeral of Nicolas Delruelle, accompanying and supporting his family in this difficult moment. During the farewell ceremony, many colleagues and friends expressed their deep sorrow, evoking not only the career of Nicolas, but also the personality and qualities of this jovial and likeable person, who was also committed to the Staff Association. We hope that all these moving testimonies could bring some comfort to his bereaved family. We reproduce hereafter the tribute paid by the Staff Association to Nicolas, our dear colleague, friend and comrade in the Staff Council.   Meyrin, 20th September Translated form the French original In Memoriam Nicolas Delruelle Our colleague Nicolas was elected as delegate to the CERN Staff Council in 2010. Beyond merely a colleague, Nicolas became, for all of us, a remarkable contributor to the work of the Staff Association. Soon, he joined the Executive Committee, our political organ, to repre...

  10. Preparing the Pediatric Dentist for Palliative and End-of-life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvas, Elise W; Schwantes, Scott A; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric dentists are the primary providers of dental homes for children with life-threatening and complex chronic conditions. These children are increasingly living at home and seeking health care in community-based settings, including dental offices. Pediatric dentists may feel ill prepared to assume the roles and responsibilities of a pediatric palliative care provider due to limited education and training during dental school and residency; however, they should be sensitive to the palliative care needs of children and families. The purpose of this clinical article was to highlight palliative care scenarios in pediatric dentistry and provide actionable resources to empower pediatric dentists to gather health care information, make informed ethical decisions, promote patient- and family-centered care, and prepare dentists and their dental teams for episodes of death and bereavement when providing a dental home to patients with life-threatening and complex chronic conditions.

  11. Hard times can happen to anyone--even a dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sally

    2011-11-11

    The BDA Benevolent Fund has been helping needy dentists and their families for 130 years, while the Dentist Health Support Trust, founded in 1986, offers support specifically on addiction and other mental health issues. The Ben Fund offers a lifeline to those struggling with poverty arising from illness, accidents, bereavement, addiction, mental health issues, and many other difficulties. It may be that someone needs financial help to deal with a short-term problem before they get themselves back on track, and the Fund can do this with a one-off grant or perhaps an interest-free loan, to be repaid when their life is on an even keel again. Other people may face long-term uncertainty and need regular support.

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Malkinson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT model for grief are reviewed. The focus of intervention based on CBT-REBT is to facilitate a healthy adaptation to loss following death. A distinction is made between rational (adaptive and irrational (maladaptive grief processes. Case example illustrating the application of the model specifically a dialogue with repetitive thoughts, are presented.

  13. Associations between successful palliative cancer pathways and community nurse involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most terminally ill cancer patients and their relatives wish that the patient dies at home. Community nurses (CNs) are often frontline workers in the patients' homes and CN involvement may be important in attaining successful palliative pathways at home.The aim of the present...... were used to obtain data on CNs' efforts, GP-questionnaires were used to obtain data on pathway characteristics and relatives answered questionnaires to evaluate the palliative pathway at home. Questionnaires addressed the palliative pathway of a total of 599 deceased cancer patients. Associations...... between bereaved relatives' evaluation of palliative pathways at home and place of death and CN involvement were analysed. RESULTS: 'A successful palliative pathway at home' was positively associated with home-death and death at a nursing home compared with death at an institution. No significant...

  14. After sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: Lessons learned and the road forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Elizabeth J; Waddell, Briony; Osland, Karen; Leach, John P; Duncan, Susan; Nashef, Lina; Picot, Marie Christine

    2016-01-01

    The devastating effects of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) can be difficult to navigate, even for experienced clinicians. Mounting evidence supports full disclosure of the risks of epilepsy to those affected and their caregivers, and recommendations from regulatory and professional groups encourage the same. Following a death, families are faced with tragedy, guilt, and sometimes anger. Clinicians are often called upon to provide information and support. The development of a comprehensive approach to SUDEP education requires careful consideration of the people living with epilepsy, facts about SUDEP and known risk factors, as well as experiences of families and care providers. In this article, we share the experiences of those working in SUDEP education and epilepsy care, including the voluntary sector. We explore the experience of bereaved families and clinicians, derive lessons from published research, highlight areas where more research is needed, and report on preliminary data from a nationwide study from France.

  15. [Importance of Anesthesiologists in the Work of a Palliative Care Team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Jun; Sumitani, Masahiko

    2016-03-01

    World Health Organization has proposed that palliative medicine should be applied early in the course of the malignant diseases. Regrettably, however, palliative care has been usually provided to patients with the advanced stage of cancer, as terminal care. Recently, palliative medicine begins at the time when patients are diagnosed with cancer. In response to changes in clinical settings of palliative medicine, anesthesiologists, with substantial experience in interdisciplinary pain management, can utilize their advantages in providing palliative medicine to cancer patients: 1) use of opioid analgesics; 2) considering the biopsychosocial model of pain; 3) helping patients live as actively as possible until death; and 4) helping the family cope with the patient's illness and their own bereavement.

  16. [New challenges in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justiniano, I; Desbaillets, M

    2010-04-14

    Old age, with its inevitable succession of bereavement and loss, is a difficult time of life, and is often a cause of suffering on both an individual and a family level. The crises of aging, such as retirement, dependency or old age, bring a person face-to-face with their finiteness, creating anxiety and raising questions related to death. These are times of intense instability, which can lead either to personal growth through a process of adaptation and a rebuilding of one's self-image, or to a dysfunctional approach and an increase in suffering, through resistance to change. Through its work, the therapist aims to assist the elderly person to cope more serenely with the frustrations of the external reality and to come to terms with their future death.

  17. Marital stability following the birth of a child with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, B J; Laurence, K M; Payne, H; Rawnsley, K

    1977-07-01

    The matrimonial stability of 142 families where a child with neural tube malformation (mostly spina bifida) was born between 1964 and 1966, including 56 families with a surviving spina bifida child, was examined in January 1976. The divorce rate for families with a surviving child was found to be nine times higher than that for the local population and three times higher than for families experiencing bereavement of their spina bifida child. Marriages which followed a pre-nuptial conception resulting in a spina bifida child were particularly vulnerable and had a divorce or separation risk of 50 per cent. All the divorced fathers had remarried, but only one of the mothers. It is concluded that a handicapped child adds greatly to the strain on a marriage, especially when this has not been cemented before the arrival of a child. This strain is diminished by the child's early death.

  18. End-of-life management in pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelman, Claudia L

    2012-04-01

    Pediatric palliative care at the end-of-life is focused on ensuring the best possible quality of life for patients with life-threatening illness and their families. To achieve this goal, important needs include: engaging with patients and families; improving communication and relationships; relieving pain and other symptoms, whether physical, psychosocial, or spiritual; establishing continuity and consistency of care across different settings; considering patients and families in the decision-making process about services and treatment choices to the fullest possible and desired degree; being sensitive to culturally diverse beliefs and values about death and dying; and responding to suffering, bereavement, and providing staff support. Any effort to improve quality of palliative and end-of-life care in pediatric oncology must be accompanied by an educational strategy to enhance the level of competence among health care professionals with regard to palliative care and end-of-life management skills as well as understanding of individualized care planning and coordination processes.

  19. Public Figures, Professional Ethics, and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David R

    2016-08-01

    Death certificates and autopsy reports contain personal identifying information and clinical information protected under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. These documents are used, for example, by the families of the deceased for settling estates, bereavement and closure, and genetic counseling of relatives. Insurance companies, public health and law enforcement officials, and the legal community also have legitimate claims to this information. Critical ethical questions have not yet been settled about whether and when this information should be public and under which circumstances making this kind of information public incurs benefits, harms, or both. Additional considerations include which organizations-the media, academic institutions, or government agencies, for example-are best suited to interpret these questions and respond to them.

  20. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.