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Sample records for benzoylation

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION CHEMOSELECTIVE C-BENZOYLATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BCSE

    Department of Chemistry, Savitribaiphule Pune University, Pune 411007, India ... Crafts acylation or benzoylation reactions employ acid chlorides and Lewis acids ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor [14] and cysteine protease modulator.

  2. N-Benzoyl-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Suchetan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H10N2O5S, the N—C bond in the C—SO2—NH—C segment has gauche torsion angles with respect to the S=O bonds. The conformation between the N—H bond and the ortho-nitro group in the sulfonyl benzene ring is syn. The molecule is twisted at the S—N bond with a torsion angle of −63.4 (2°. The sulfonyl benzene ring is tilted by 77.1 (1° relative to the —SO2—NH—C—O segment. The dihedral angle between the sulfonyl and the benzoyl benzene rings is 88.6 (1°. In the crystal, pairs of N—H...O(S hydrogen bonds link the molecules into inversion dimers, which are linked by weak C—H...O and C—H...π interactions along the b axis.

  3. Microwave-assisted facile and rapid Friedel-Crafts benzoylation of arenes catalysed by bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phoung Hoang; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pham, Thuy Than

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activity of metal triflates was investigated in Friedel–Crafts benzoylation under microwave irradiation. Friedel–Crafts benzoylation with benzoyl chloride of a variety of arenes containing electron-rich and electron-poor rings using bismuth triflate under microwave irradiation is de...

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Formulation and Characterization of Benzoyl Peroxide Gellified Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Naresh Kumar; Bharti, Pratibha; Mahant, Sheefali; Rao, Rekha

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating a gellified emulsion of benzoyl peroxide, an anti-acne agent. The formulations were prepared using four different vegetable oils, viz. almond oil, jojoba oil, sesame oil, and wheat germ oil, owing to their emollient properties. The idea was to overcome the skin irritation and dryness caused by benzoyl peroxide, making the formulation more tolerable. The gellified emulsions were characterized for their homogeneity, rheology, spreadability, drug content, and stability. In vitro permeation studies were performed to check the drug permeation through rat skin. The formulations were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their acute skin irritation potential. The results were compared with those obtained for the marketed formulation. Later, the histopathological examination of the skin treated with various formulations was carried out. Formulation F3 was found to have caused a very mild dysplastic change to the epidermis. On the other hand, the marketed formulation led to the greatest dysplastic change. Hence, it was concluded that formulation F3, containing sesame oil (6%w/w), was the optimized formulation. It exhibited the maximum drug release and anti-microbial activity, in addition to the least skin irritation potential. PMID:23264949

  6. Photoaffinity labeling of myosin subfragment-one-with 3'(2')-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, R.

    1985-01-01

    The photoaffinity analogue 3'(2')-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Bz 2 ATP) contains the photoreactive benzophenone group esterified at the 2' or 3' hydroxyl groups of ribose. MgBz 2 ADP has a single binding site on skeletal myosin chymotryptic subfragment-one (SF 1 ) with a binding constant of 3.2 x 10 5 M -1 . Bz 2 ATP is also a substrate for the ATPase activity of SF 1 in the presence of different cations. The irradiation of SF 1 with [ 3 H]Bz 2 ATP photoinactivates the ATPase activity with concomitant incorporation of the analogue into the enzyme. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of photolabeled SF 1 after milk trypsin digestion shows that all three tryptic peptides, 25 K, 50K, and 20 K, and both light chains are labeled. The presence of ATP during irradiation reduces labeling of the 50 K peptide only indicating that the other peptides are non-specifically labeled. To reduce the non-specific labeling [ 3 H]Bz 2 ATP is trapped on SF 1 by cross-linking the two reactive thiols, SH 1 and SH 2 , by N,N'-p-phenylene dimaleimide or Co(II)/Co(III) phenanthroline complexes. The Co(II)/Co(III) phenanthroline modified [ 14 C]Bz 2 ATP-SF 1 , after proteolytic digestion, yields five labeled peptides which were purified by gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography

  7. Rapid detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by using Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Dhakal, Sagar; Xu, Tianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Benzoyl peroxide is a common flour additive that improves the whiteness of flour and the storage properties of flour products. However, benzoyl peroxide adversely affects the nutritional content of flour, and excess consumption causes nausea, dizziness, other poisoning, and serious liver damage. This study was focus on detection of the benzoyl peroxide added in wheat flour. A Raman scattering spectroscopy system was used to acquire spectral signal from sample data and identify benzoyl peroxide based on Raman spectral peak position. The optical devices consisted of Raman spectrometer and CCD camera, 785 nm laser module, optical fiber, prober, and a translation stage to develop a real-time, nondestructive detection system. Pure flour, pure benzoyl peroxide and different concentrations of benzoyl peroxide mixed with flour were prepared as three sets samples to measure the Raman spectrum. These samples were placed in the same type of petri dish to maintain a fixed distance between the Raman CCD and petri dish during spectral collection. The mixed samples were worked by pretreatment of homogenization and collected multiple sets of data of each mixture. The exposure time of this experiment was set at 0.5s. The Savitzky Golay (S-G) algorithm and polynomial curve-fitting method was applied to remove the fluorescence background from the Raman spectrum. The Raman spectral peaks at 619 cm-1, 848 cm-1, 890 cm-1, 1001 cm-1, 1234 cm-1, 1603cm-1, 1777cm-1 were identified as the Raman fingerprint of benzoyl peroxide. Based on the relationship between the Raman intensity of the most prominent peak at around 1001 cm-1 and log values of benzoyl peroxide concentrations, the chemical concentration prediction model was developed. This research demonstrated that Raman detection system could effectively and rapidly identify benzoyl peroxide adulteration in wheat flour. The experimental result is promising and the system with further modification can be applicable for more products in near

  8. Regioselective Benzoylation of Diols and Carbohydrates by Catalytic Amounts of Organobase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuchao; Hou, Chenxi; Ren, Jingli; Xin, Xiaoting; Xu, Hengfu; Pei, Yuxin; Dong, Hai; Pei, Zhichao

    2016-05-17

    A novel metal-free organobase-catalyzed regioselective benzoylation of diols and carbohydrates has been developed. Treatment of diol and carbohydrate substrates with 1.1 equiv. of 1-benzoylimidazole and 0.2 equiv. of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) in MeCN under mild conditions resulted in highly regioselective benzoylation for the primary hydroxyl group. Importantly, compared to most commonly used protecting bulky groups for primary hydroxyl groups, the benzoyl protective group offers a new protection strategy.

  9. Benzoylated Uronic Acid Building Blocks and Synthesis of N-Uronate Conjugates of Lamotrigine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bård Helge Hoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemoenzymatic approach towards benzoylated uronic acid building blocks has been investigated starting with benzoylated hexapyranosides using regioselective C-6 enzymatic hydrolysis as the key step. Two of the building blocks were reacted with the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine. Glucuronidation of lamotrigine using methyl (2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-α-D-glycopyranosyl bromideuronate proceeded to give the N2-conjugate. However, lamotrigine-N2-glucuronide was most efficiently synthesised from methyl (2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl bromideuronate. Employing nitromethane as solvent with CdCO3 as a base lamotrigine-N2 glucuronide was prepared in a high yield (41%. Also methyl (2,3-di-O-benzoyl-4-deoxy-4-fluoro-α-D-glucosyl bromideuronate underwent N-glucuronidation, but the product was unstable, eliminating hydrogen fluoride to give the corresponding enoate conjugate.

  10. X-ray investigations of sulfur-containing fungicides. IV. 4'-[[Benzoyl(4-chlorophenylhydrazono)methyl]sulfonyl]acetanilide and 4'-[[benzoyl(4-methoxyphenylhydrazono)methyl]sulfonyl]acetanilide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, W M

    2001-09-01

    The conformations of the two approximately isomorphous structures 4'-[[benzoyl(4-chlorophenylhydrazono)methyl]sulfonyl]acetanilide, C(22)H(18)ClN(3)O(4)S, and 4'-[[benzoyl(4-methoxyphenylhydrazono)methyl]sulfonyl]acetanilide, C(23)H(21)N(3)O(5)S, are stabilized by resonance-assisted intramolecular hydrogen bonds linking the hydrazone moieties and sulfonyl groups. The stronger bond is observed in the former compound. The difference in electronic properties between the Cl atom and the methoxy group is too small to significantly alter the non-bonding interactions of the sulfonyl and beta-carbonyl groups.

  11. AuBr3-catalyzed azidation of per-O-acetylated and per-O-benzoylated sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Jayashree; Hotha, Srinivas; Vangala, Madhuri

    2018-01-01

    Herein we report, for the first time, the successful anomeric azidation of per- O -acetylated and per- O -benzoylated sugars by catalytic amounts of oxophilic AuBr 3 in good to excellent yields. The method is applicable to a wide range of easily accessible per- O -acetylated and per- O -benzoylated sugars. While reaction with per- O -acetylated and per- O -benzoylated monosaccharides was complete within 1-3 h at room temperature, the per- O -benzoylated disaccharides needed 2-3 h of heating at 55 °C.

  12. Copper-Catalyzed Electrophilic Amination of Organoaluminum Nucleophiles with O-Benzoyl Hydroxylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangliu; Yang, Zhiyong; Chen, Xu; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Lijun; Fang, Hong; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Xiancui; Wang, Shaowu

    2015-06-19

    A copper-catalyzed electrophilic amination of aryl and heteroaryl aluminums with N,N-dialkyl-O-benzoyl hydroxylamines that affords the corresponding anilines in good yields has been developed. The catalytic reaction proceeds very smoothly under mild conditions and exhibits good substrate scope. Moreover, the developed catalytic system is also well suited for heteroaryl aluminum nucleophiles, providing facile access to heteroaryl amines.

  13. Copper(II)-catalyzed electrophilic amination of quinoline N-oxides with O-benzoyl hydroxylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Jia, Chunqi; Sun, Kai; Lv, Yunhe; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Kexiao; Wu, Hankui

    2015-03-21

    Copper acetate-catalyzed C-H bond functionalization amination of quinoline N-oxides was achieved using O-benzoyl hydroxylamine as an electrophilic amination reagent, thereby affording the desired products in moderate to excellent yields. Electrophilic amination can also be performed in good yield on a gram scale.

  14. Synthesis, screening and QSAR studies of 3-benzoyl-2-oxo/thioxo-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5-Acyl-6-methyl-4-substituted-2-oxo/thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines (A) were synthesized by cyclocondensation reaction between appropriate aldehyde, acetoacetate and urea/thiourea in presence of aluminium chloride and hydrochloric acid which upon treatment with benzoyl chloride in presence of pyridine in ...

  15. Remediation of Contaminated Soils by Thermal Desorption; Effect of Benzoyl Peroxide Addition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Topka, Pavel; Soukup, Karel; Maléterová, Ywetta; Demnerová, K.; Kaštánek, Petr; Šolcová, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 125, JUL 1 (2016), s. 309-313 ISSN 0959-6526 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020700 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : soil * hydrocarbons * benzoyl peroxide Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 5.715, year: 2016

  16. LC determination of propylene glycol in human plasma after pre-column derivatization with benzoyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinjewel, A.; Swart, E.L.; Lingeman, H.; Wilhelm, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method, using photodiode array detection was developed for the determination of propylene glycol in human plasma and in the fluid retreived after continuous veno-venous hemofiltration. The method entailed alkaline derivatization with benzoyl chloride

  17. Investigation of the decomposition reaction and dust explosion characteristics of crystalline benzoyl peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, K.-T.; Chen, T.-C.; Hu, K.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is widely used in the chemical industry. Many catastrophes have been caused by its thermal instability or reactive incompatibility in storage or thermal decomposition reaction. Thus, its hazard characteristics have to be clearly identified. First of all, the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) is used to measure the heat of decomposition reaction, which can contribute to understanding the reaction characteristics of benzoyl peroxide. The accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) is used to measure the rates of temperature and pressure rises of decomposition reaction, and then the kinetics parameters are estimated. Furthermore, the MIKE 3 apparatus and the 20-l-Apparatus are used to measure and analyze the dust explosion characteristics of benzoyl peroxide under room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Finally, Semenov's thermal explosion theory is applied to investigate the critical runaway condition and the stability criterion of decomposition reaction, and to build the relationship of critical temperature, convective heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer surface area and ambient temperature. These results contribute to improving the safety in the reaction, transportation and storage processes of benzoyl peroxide

  18. Chemoselective C-benzoylation of phenols by using AlCl3 under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substituted phenols were chemo-selectively reacted with benzoylchloride in presence of aluminum chloride under solvent-free condition to afford the corresponding 2'-hydroxy aryl benzophenones in excellent yields (72-96%). Naphthol benzoylation resulted in lower yields as compared to phenols. Both reactions ...

  19. A cold active (2R,3R)-(-)-di-O-benzoyl-tartrate hydrolyzing esterase from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christian; Platz, Tanja; Cadez, Neza; Giffhorn, Friedrich; Kohring, Gert-Wieland

    2006-11-01

    In a screening procedure a pink-colored yeast was isolated from enrichment cultures with (2R,3R)-(-)-di-O-benzoyl-tartrate (benzoyl-tartrate) as the sole carbon source. The organism saar1 was identified by morphological, physiological, and 18S ribosomal DNA/internal transcribed spacer analysis as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a basidiomycetous yeast. During growth the yeast hydrolyzed the dibenzoyl ester stoichiometrically to the monoester using the separated benzoate as the growth substrate, before the monoester was further cleaved into benzoate and tartrate, which were both metabolized. The corresponding benzoyl esterase was purified from the culture supernatant and characterized as a monomeric glycosylated 86-kDa protein with an optimum pH of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 45 degrees C. At 0 degrees C the esterase still exhibited 20% of the corresponding activity at 30 degrees C, which correlates it to psychrophilic enzymes. The esterase could hydrolyze short chain p-nitrophenyl-alkyl esters and several benzoyl esters like benzoyl-methyl ester, ethylene-glycol-dibenzoyl ester, phenyl-benzoyl ester, cocaine, and 1,5-anhydro-D: -fructose-tribenzoyl ester. However feruloyl-ethyl ester was not hydrolyzed. The activity characteristics let the enzyme appear as a promising tool for synthesis of benzoylated compounds for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, or fine chemical applications, even at low temperatures.

  20. Characterization of Benzoyl Coenzyme A Biosynthesis Genes in the Enterocin-Producing Bacterium “Streptomyces maritimus”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Longkuan; Moore, Bradley S.

    2003-01-01

    The novel benzoyl coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) biosynthesis pathway in “Streptomyces maritimus” was investigated through a series of target-directed mutations. Genes involved in benzoyl-CoA formation were disrupted through single-crossover homologous recombination, and the resulting mutants were analyzed for their ability to biosynthesize the benzoyl-CoA-primed polyketide antibiotic enterocin. Inactivation of the unique phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-encoding gene encP was previously shown to be absolutely required for benzoyl-CoA formation in “S. maritimus”. The fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes encH, -I, and -J, on the other hand, are necessary but not required. In each case, the yield of benzoyl-CoA-primed enterocin dropped below wild-type levels. We attribute the reduced benzoyl-CoA formation in these specific mutants to functional substitution and cross-talk between the products of genes encH, -I, and -J and the enzyme homologues of primary metabolism. Disruption of the benzoate-CoA ligase encN gene did not perturb enterocin production, however, demonstrating that encN is extraneous and that benzoic acid is not a pathway intermediate. EncN rather serves as a substitute pathway for utilizing exogenous benzoic acid. These experiments provide further support that benzoyl-CoA is formed in a novel bacterial pathway that resembles the eukaryotic assembly of benzoyl-CoA from phenylalanine via a β-oxidative path. PMID:12511484

  1. Correlations between retention indices and molecular structure of their benzoyl derivatives on phenyl substituted polysiloxane stationary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pias, J.B.; Gasco, L.

    1976-01-01

    The retention indices of aliphaticalcohols of carbon number up to Csub(g), and of their benzoyl derivatives up to C 7 , were determined in columns packed with Chromosorb G (AW-DMCS-HP) coated previously with 5% methyl, and methyl phenyl polysiloxanes with increasing polarity (SE-30, OV-3, OV-7; OV-11, OV-17 and OV-25). Correlations between retention indices and chain length for 1-alcohols, 2-alcohols, 3-alcohols, 1, on -3-alcohols, 2-methyl-1-alcohols and for their corresponding benzoyl derivatives were calculated at 100, 120 and 140 0 C. In alcohols, a -CH 2 - group increases I approximately 100 units, and in their benzoyl derivatives from 80 to 100 units. Dispersion indices ΔI, and positional and structural increments of I were evaluated for -OH and benzoyl groups in terms for phase polarity and chain length. Effects of chain length, chain branching and double bond location on retention parameters were also studied. (author)

  2. Sensory and Functionality Differences of Whey Protein Isolate Bleached by Hydrogen or Benzoyl Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tucker J; Foegeding, E Allen; Drake, MaryAnne

    2015-10-01

    Whey protein is a highly functional food ingredient used in a wide variety of applications. A large portion of fluid whey produced in the United States is derived from Cheddar cheese manufacture and contains annatto (norbixin), and therefore must be bleached. The objective of this study was to compare sensory and functionality differences between whey protein isolate (WPI) bleached by benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP). HP and BP bleached WPI and unbleached controls were manufactured in triplicate. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were conducted to determine flavor differences between treatments. Functionality differences were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, protein solubility, SDS-PAGE, and effect of NaCl concentration on gelation relative to an unbleached control. HP bleached WPI had higher concentrations of lipid oxidation and sulfur containing volatile compounds than both BP and unbleached WPI (P protein loss at pH 4.6 of WPI decreased by bleaching with either hydrogen peroxide or benzoyl peroxide (P whey with either BP or HP resulted in protein degradation, which likely contributed to functionality differences. These results demonstrate that bleaching has flavor effects as well as effects on many of the functionality characteristics of whey proteins. Whey protein isolate (WPI) is often used for its functional properties, but the effect of oxidative bleaching chemicals on the functional properties of WPI is not known. This study identifies the effects of hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide on functional and flavor characteristics of WPI bleached by hydrogen and benzoyl peroxide and provides insights for the product applications which may benefit from bleaching. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Recovery of plutonium from oxalate supernatant using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) from oxalate supernatant was carried out employing varying concentrations of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP). Near quantitative extraction of Pu(IV) from an aqueous solution of 0.2M oxalic acid and 3M HNO 3 was possible employing 0.05M PMBP solution in xylene. Extraction studies at different uranium loading conditions were carried out and conditions for quantitative stripping were arrived at. (author). 2 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Profile of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 3.75% aqueous gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common and chronic skin disease, and is a frequent source of morbidity for affected patients. Treatment of acne vulgaris is often difficult due to the multifactorial nature of this disease. Combination therapy, such as that containing clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide, has become the standard of care. Several fixed formulations of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide of varying concentrations are available and have been used with considerable success. The major limitation is irritation and dryness from higher concentrations of benzoyl peroxide, and a combination providing optimal efficacy and tolerability has yet to be determined. Recently, a clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide 3.75% fixed combination formulation was developed. Studies have suggested that this formulation may be a safe and effective treatment regimen for patients with acne vulgaris. Here, we provide a brief review of acne pathogenesis, benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin, and profile a new Clindamycin-BP 3.75% fixed combination gel for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris. PMID:26604811

  5. Lanthanum benzoyl acetonates: an IR and mass spectrometric study of the composition and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, N.N.; Dik, T.A.; Tereshko, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to study the structure of lanthanum chelates of benzoyl acetone (1-phenyl-1,3-butadione, HBA) of the following compositions: La(BA) 3 · EtOH, La(BA) 2 , La(BA) 2 · CH 3 CN, and La(BA) 2 · HDA, where EtOH = ethanol, HDA = nonadecanoic acid. It is demonstrated that a quasi-aromatic metalloring is formed in lanthanum chelates studied. Stable metal-containing fragments of the molecular ions of lanthanum bis- and tris-benzoylacetonate were identified [ru

  6. Gadolinium (III) 2-benzoyl-1,1,3,3-tetracyanopropenide diacetate. Synthesis and crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, Sergey V.; Kayukov, Yakov S.; Grigor' ev, Arthur A. [Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutics, I.N. Ul' yanov Chuvash State University, Cheboksary (Russian Federation); Tafeenko, Victor A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2018-02-15

    2-Acyl-1,1,3,3-tetracyanopropenides (ATCN) is a stable organic salts, containing the carbonyl group in addition to the tetracyanoallyl (TCA) fragment in the anion. TCA anions are known as bridging ligands with variable denticity with potential application in organic electronics and as a ionic liquids components. In this communication we reporting the synthesis and crystal structure of gadolinium(III) 2-benzoyl-1,1,3,3-tetracyanopropenide diacetate - the first lanthanide ATCN. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The 2-(acetoxymethyl)benzoyl (AMB) group as a new base-protecting group, designed for the protection of (phosphate) modified oligonucleotides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, W.H.A.; Huskens, J.; Boeckel, van C.A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The 2-(acetoxymethyl)benzoyl (AMB) group is a new base-protecting group that facilitates the synthesis of labile, modified nucleotides, since it can be rapidly cleaved under mild basic conditions. The 2-(acetoxymethyl)benzoyl (AMB) group is a new base-protecting group that facilitates the synthesis

  8. Greener Friedel-Crafts Acylation using Microwave-enhanced reactivity of Bismuth Triflate in the Friedel-Crafts Benzoylation of Aromatic Compounds with Benzoic Anhydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Nguyen, Hai Truong; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    An efficient and facile bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate-catalyzed benzoylation of aromatic compounds using benzoic anhydride under solvent-free microwave irradiation has been developed. The microwave-assisted Friedel-Crafts benzoylation results in good yields within short reaction times. Bismuth...

  9. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-03

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group.

  10. Structural, antimicrobial and computational characterization of 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiş, Murat; Karipcin, Fatma; Sarıboğa, Bahtiyar; Taş, Murat; Çelik, Hasan

    2012-12-01

    A new thiourea derivative, 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea (bcht) has been synthesized from the reaction of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol with benzoyl isothiocyanate. The title compound has been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, (13)C, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of bcht derived from X-ray diffraction of a single crystal has been presented. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by using density functional method using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The complete assignments of all vibrational modes were performed on the basis of the total energy distributions (TED). Isotropic chemical shifts ((13)C NMR and (1)H NMR) were calculated using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Theoretical calculations of bond parameters, harmonic vibration frequencies and nuclear magnetic resonance are in good agreement with experimental results. The UV absorption spectra of the compound that dissolved in ACN and MeOH were recorded. Bcht was also screened for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and luminescence properties of novel 4-(N-carbazole methyl) benzoyl hydrazone Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dongcai; Wu Panliang; Tan Hui; Xia Long; Zhou Wenhui

    2011-01-01

    4-(N-carbazole methyl) benzoyl hydrazine was synthesized on the basis of carbazole, and then nine novel carbazolyl acylhydrazone Schiff bases were synthesized by the condensation reaction between 4-(N-carbazole methyl) benzoyl hydrazine and the substituted benzaldehydes. The relationships between the substituted group types and the UV fluorescence spectral properties, as well as the fluorescence quantum yields of the title Schiff bases were also investigated. The results show that the introduction of both the donating and accepting electron groups causes various grade redshifts of the fluorescence characteristic emission peak of the title Schiff bases to occur.The fluorescence quantum yields of the title Schiff bases with the donating group are increased, and the highest fluorescence quantum yield is up to 0.703. - Highlights: → Nine novel Schiff bases have been designed and synthesized. → Introduction of the donating electron groups causes various grade red shifts of the fluorescence characteristic emission peak and the UV characteristic absorption peak of the synthesized Schiff bases. → Introduction of the donating electron groups causes the fluorescence quantum yields to be increased considerably. →Introduction of the accepting electron groups causes the fluorescence intensity and quantum yield of the synthesized Schiff bases to be reduced. → Fluorescence quantum yield of o-hydroxyl-substituted Schiff base is up to 0.703; this Schiff base is expected to be used as hole transport optical material.

  12. Efficacy of Intense-pulsed Light Therapy with Topical Benzoyl Peroxide 5% versus Benzoyl Peroxide 5% Alone in Mild-to-moderate Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Gholami, Maryam; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Faghihi, Gita; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a disease of pilosebaceous unit with multifactorial pathogenesis and threats patients' social functioning. There is a growing research to find faster, more effective, and easy to use treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of benzoyl peroxide 5% (BP) with and without concomitant intense-pulsed light (IPL) therapy in mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. In this controlled trial, 58 eligible patients with mild-to-moderate acne and Fitzpatrick skin phototype III and IV were randomly allocated to two groups. All patients were asked to use a thin layer of BP every night. The IPL therapy was administered at the end of first, 2 nd , and 3 rd months. Acne Global Severity Scale (AGSS), Acne Severity Index (ASI), and total lesion counting (TLC) along with patient satisfaction were recorded. Patients were also examined 1 month after the final therapeutic visit. The IPL group showed greater reduction in AGSS ( P < 0.001) and TLC ( P = 0.005) than the control group. However, the difference in ASI was not significant ( P = 0.12). Patients in IPL groups were more satisfied than control group ( P < 0.001). Adding IPL to BP can result better response to BP alone. In acne treatment, combination therapy such as IPL and other topical agents should be kept in mind.

  13. Comparative evaluation of retinoic acid, benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin lotion in acne vulgarils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety three patients suffering from acne vulgaris were treated with 0.05% retinoic acid (23 patients, 10% benzyoyl peroxide (24 patients, 2% erythromycin lotin (25 patients and 50% glycerine in methylated spirit (21 patients used as a control, for a period of 6 weeks. The patients were evaluated at 2 weeks and 6 weeks by spot counting of the lesions and diagrammatic representations. Good to excellent results were obtained in 69.6% of patients of erythromycin lotion. Retinoic acid was more effective in reducing noninflammatory lesions (75.2% whereas inflammatory lesions showed better response (73.6% with erythromycin lotion and benzoyl peroxide was almost equally effective in both types of lesions.

  14. Identification of Minor Benzoylated 4-Phenylcoumarins from a Mammea neurophylla Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Tai Dang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Through dereplication analysis, seven known Mammea coumarins were identified in a fraction obtained from Mammea neurophylla dichloromethane bark extract selected for its ability to prevent advanced glycation end-product (AGE formation. Among them, a careful examination of the NMR dataset of pedilanthocoumarin B led to a structural revision. Inspection of LC-DAD-MSn chromatograms allowed us to predict the presence of four new compounds, which were further isolated. Using spectroscopic methods (1H-, 13C- and 2D-NMR, HRMS, UV, these compounds were identified as new benzoyl substituted 4-phenylcoumarins (iso-pedilanthocoumarin B and neurophyllol C and 4-(1-acetoxypropylcoumarins cyclo F (ochrocarpins H and I.

  15. Synergistic extraction of trivalent lanthanoids with 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone and various sulphoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Chakravortty, V.; Reddy, M.L.P.; Ramamohan, T.R.

    1999-01-01

    Synergistic extraction of trivalent lanthanoids Nd, Tb and Tm with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (HPBI) and dioctyl sulphoxide (DOSO), bis-2-ethylhexyl sulphoxide (B2EHSO) or diphenyl sulphoxide (DPhSO) in xylene from perchlorate solution was investigated. Lanthanoids were found to be extracted as Ln(PBI) 3 with HPBI alone. In the presence of sulphoxides, Nd(III) was found to be extracted as Nd(PBI) 3 . S and Nd(PBI) 3 . 2 S (where S = sulphoxide). On the other hand, Tb(III) and Tm(III) were extracted as Tb(PBI) 3 . S and Tm(PBI) 3 . S respectively. The equilibrium constants of the synergistic species were found to increase monotonically with decreasing ionic radii of these metal ions. The addition of a sulphoxide to the metal chelate system not only enhances the extraction efficiency but also improves the selectivities among these trivalent lanthanoids. (orig.)

  16. A novel surfactant S-benzoyl-N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate synthesis and its flotation performance to galena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xin; Hu, Yuan; Zhong, Hong, E-mail: zhongh@csu.edu.cn; Wang, Shuai, E-mail: wangshuai@csu.edu.cn; Liu, Guangyi; Zhao, Gang

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel surfactant BEDTC was first introduced as galena flotation collector. • BEDTC exhibited superior collecting power to galena against sphalerite. • BEDTC has two active centers to mineral surfaces. • BEDTC molecules formed two distinct adsorption geometries on galena surfaces. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel dithiocarbamate compound, S-benzoyl-N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (BEDTC), was synthesized via one-pot reaction of diethylamine, carbon disulfide, sodium hydroxide and benzoyl chloride using abundant carbon disulfide as a solvent. Its flotation performance and adsorption mechanism on the galena was first investigated by flotation tests, adsorption quantity measurements, FTIR spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The flotation results illustrated that BEDTC exhibited stronger collecting power than the conventional sulphide collectors such as sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (SEDTC) and sodium isobutyl xanthate (SIBX) and superior selectivity for galena against sphalerite. The adsorption data demonstrated that the adsorption affinity of BEDTC to galena was stronger than that of SEDTC and SIBX, and the preferable pH range for BEDTC adsorption on galena surfaces was 6–10. The results of FTIR spectra and XPS indicated that the interaction of BEDTC with galena may be dominated by the chemical adsorption, which was further confirmed by DFT calculation. BEDTC probably acted as a bidentate ligand, bonding with lead through the thiol sulfur and carbonyl oxygen atoms to form two distinct adsorption geometries, one with the same Pb atom to form a six-membered ring complex, and the other with two different Pb atoms to form a ''bullet'' shape complex.

  17. Supra-molecular hydrogen-bonding patterns in the N(9)-H protonated and N(7)-H tautomeric form of an N(6) -benzoyl-adenine salt: N (6)-benzoyl-adeninium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Ammasai; Jeeva Jasmine, Nithianantham; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-02-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H10N5O(+)·NO3 (-), the adenine unit has an N (9)-protonated N(7)-H tautomeric form with non-protonated N(1) and N(3) atoms. The dihedral angle between the adenine ring system and the phenyl ring is 51.10 (10)°. The typical intra-molecular N(7)-H⋯O hydrogen bond with an S(7) graph-set motif is also present. The benzoyl-adeninium cations also form base pairs through N-H⋯O and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the Watson-Crick face of the adenine ring and the C and O atoms of the benzoyl ring of an adjacent cation, forming a supra-molecular ribbon with R 2 (2)(9) rings. Benzoyl-adeninum cations are also bridged by one of the oxygen atoms of the nitrate anion, which acts as a double acceptor, forming a pair of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to generate a second ribbon motif. These ribbons together with π-π stacking inter-actions between the phenyl ring and the five- and six-membered adenine rings of adjacent mol-ecules generate a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

  18. FORMULA ESTABLISHMENT OF COLORLESS Pb(II COMPLEX WITH N-BENZOYL-N-PHENYL HYDROXYLAMINE (BPA USING ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay B Sarode

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method for determination of stoichiometry of colorless complexes by using atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique in continuous variation method and slope ratio method was described here. This method can be used in same manner as that of mole ratio method and slope ratio method. In this method atomic absorption spectroscopy was used instead of UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique is superior to UV-Vis spectrophotometry as it can be applied to colorless soluble complexes. Pb(II and n-benzoyl-n-phenyl hydroxylamine react to form colorless complex at pH 6.5, which can be easily determined by this method. It was found that Pb(II forms 1:2 complex with n-benzoyl-n-phenyl hydroxylamine and is quantitatively extracted back to aqueous solution for AAS analysis.

  19. Sucrose derivatives and the selective benzoylation of the secondary hydroxyl groups of 6,1',6'-tri-O-tritylsucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, C.W.; Koekemoer, J.M.; Marais, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The preparation and 500 MHz 1 H-n.m.r. spectra of a number of sucrose derivatives are described. The assignment of the individual proton resonances in these compounds contributed to the identification of the mono- and dibenzoates obtained by benzoylation of 6,1',6'-tri-O-tritylsucrose following regioselective activation of the secondary hydroxyl groups by reaction with dibutyltin oxide or bis(tributyltin) oxide

  20. Synthesis characterization and toxicity of lanthanide complexes with schiff bases derived from S-benzoyl dithiocarbazate and aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqi, K S; Tabassum, S; Zaidi, S A.A.; Kureshy, R I; Khan, N H [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1989-12-01

    New O:N:S and N:S donor ligands namely, S-benzoyl-N-(o-hydroxybenzaldehyde) dithiocarbazate, S-benzoyl-N-(N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde ) dithiocarbazate, S-benzoyl-N(N-thiophene-2-aldehyde) dithiocarbazate and their complexes with La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), Yb(III), and Lu(III) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, NMR and electronic spectroscopy. The nephelauxetic effect(1-{beta}overlined), bonding parameter, {beta}overlined, bsup(1/2) and Sinha covalency parameter {delta}, have been calculated. Their positive values indicate covalent nature of metal-ligand bond which is also supported by their molar conductances measured in nitrobenzene. Magnetic moment values exhibit paramagnetic nature of the complexes. Log K,{Delta}G, {Delta}H and {Delta}S values have also been ca lculated. Toxicity of the compounds has been evaluated against cockroaches and fungi(Aspergillus flavus and A. niger). The LD{sub 50} and % inhibition values demonstrate greater efficacy of the complexes than that of the free bases. (author). 4 tabs., 12 refs.

  1. Synthesis characterization and toxicity of lanthanide complexes with schiff bases derived from S-benzoyl dithiocarbazate and aldehydes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, K.S.; Tabassum, S.; Zaidi, S.A.A.; Kureshy, R.I.; Khan, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    New O:N:S and N:S donor ligands namely, S-benzoyl-N-(o-hydroxybenzaldehyde) dithiocarbazate, S-benzoyl-N-(N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde ) dithiocarbazate, S-benzoyl-N(N-thiophene-2-aldehyde) dithiocarbazate and their complexes with La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), Yb(III), and Lu(III) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, NMR and electronic spectroscopy. The nephelauxetic effect(1-βoverlined), bonding parameter, βoverlined, bsup(1/2) and Sinha covalency parameter δ, have been calculated. Their positive values indicate covalent nature of metal-ligand bond which is also supported by their molar conductances measured in nitrobenzene. Magnetic moment values exhibit paramagnetic nature of the complexes. Log K,ΔG, ΔH and ΔS values have also been ca lculated. Toxicity of the compounds has been evaluated against cockroaches and fungi(Aspergillus flavus and A. niger). The LD 50 and % inhibition values demonstrate greater efficacy of the complexes than that of the free bases. (author). 4 tabs., 12 refs

  2. Purification of benzoyl-mercapto-acetyl-tri-glycine and ethyl cysteinate dimer complemented with biological evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, A.; Ramos, B.; Herrera, J.

    1999-01-01

    Purification of benzoyl-mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG3) and ethyl cysteinate dimer (L,L-ECD) has been conducted through fractionated recrystallization of its impurities and isomers; biological behavior of the main isomers has been evaluated through biological distribution in mice. Chemical purity of synthesized MAG3 is 69,9%; after purification, 98, 12% is obtained from the compound with adequate biological distribution; fusion points range between 194 and 196 o C before and after purification; recrystallization yields is 12%. Radiochemical purity of testing lot is 98%. In biological evaluations conducted in mice, injection dose percentages for the purest one, after 5 minutes, is 31,20% in kidneys and 1,14% in the liver. Chemical purity of synthesized ECD is 80,29%; after purification, 98,76% is obtained from the isomer with adequate biological activity; fusion points range between 195 and 197 o C; yield percentage in recrystallization is 29%. radiochemical purity of testing lot is 97%; in biological evaluations conducted in mice, injection dose percentages for the purest one, after 5 minutes, is 1,37% in the brain, 25,70% in the liver and 13,40% in kidneys

  3. Simple and fast fluorescence detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by N-methoxy rhodamine-6G spirolactam based on consecutive chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Shi Wen; Li Zhao; Ma Huimin; Liu Yang; Zhang Jinghua; Liu Qingjun

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple and fast method for fluorescence detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by N-methoxy rhodamine-6G spirolactam (1) is proposed based on consecutive chemical reactions. Highlights: ► Benzoyl peroxide can oxidize Fe 2+ into Fe 3+ . ► Fe 3+ selectively induces the opening of rhodamine spirolactam ring. ► The two reactions led to the development of a new fluorescent method for benzoyl peroxide. ► The method is simple and fast, and is used to detect benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour. - Abstract: Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a brightener is often added to wheat flour, and excessive use of this food additive is receiving increasing concern. Herein, a simple and fast method for fluorescence detection of BPO is proposed based on consecutive chemical reactions. In this approach, BPO first oxidizes Fe 2+ into Fe 3+ and the resulting Fe 3+ then induces the opening of the spirolactam ring of a new rhodamine derivative, N-methoxy rhodamine-6G spirolactam, switching on fluorescence of the detection system. More importantly, the fluorescence response of the reaction system to BPO is rather rapid and sensitive, with a detection limit of 6 mg kg −1 (k = 3), which makes it to be of great potential use in food safety analysis. The applicability of the proposed method has been successfully demonstrated on the determination of BPO in wheat flour samples.

  4. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of topical clindamycin and 5% benzoyl peroxide with nadifloxacin cream and 5% benzoyl peroxide gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris and assessment of the effects of these treatments on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan Kırkağaç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disase of the pilosebaceous unit. Topical antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatment are used for mild and moderate acne. Clindamycin is frequently used for acne treatment, altough nadifloxacin is a relatively new agent. There are few studies evaluating nadifloxacin efficacy. It's impact on quality of life has not been determined previously. In this study, it is aimed to compare the effect of these two agents, and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on quality of life. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with mild-moderate acne vulgaris were divided in two groups of 40 people that had no difference in terms of age, gender and acne severity. The combination of topical clindamycin and 5% benzoyl peroxide gel twice a day was given to group 1 for 12 weeks. The combination of nadifloxacin cream and 5% benzoyl peroxide gel twice a day was given to group 2 for 12 weeks. The number of the inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions were recorded at baseline and on weeks 2, 4, 8, 12 and side effects were recorded and evaluated. Global improvement was evaluated separately by patients and doctor after the treatment. Before and after the treatment, the quality of life of the patients were evaluated with Skindex-29. Results: Both treatment group regimens were significantly effective on inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions and were well tolerated by patients in terms of side effects. It was also observed that there was statistically significant recovery after treatment in terms of clinical severity and quality of life. There was not any statistically significant difference between two treatment methods in terms of effectiveness, side effect and quality of life. Conclusion: Nadifloxacin and 5% benzoyl peroxide combination is effective in the treatment and improvement of quality of life in acne patients.

  5. Mechanisms of DNA damage by the tumor promoter and progressor benzoyl peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swauger, J.E.; Dolan, P.M.; Zweier, J.L.; Kensler, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BzPO), a tumor promoter and progressor in mouse skin, produces strand breaks in DNA of exposed cells. Previously we have reported that the metabolism of BzPO in keratinocytes proceeds via the initial cleavage of the peroxide bond, yielding benzoyloxyl radicals which, in turn, can fragment to form phenyl radicals and carbon dioxide. Benzoic acid, the product of hydrogen abstraction by the benzoyloxyl radical, is the major stable metabolite of BzPO produced by keratinocytes. In the present study we have examined the capacity of BzPO to generate strand scissions in φX-174 plasmid DNA. DNA damage was dose-dependent over a concentration range of 10-1000 μM BzPO and was dependent on the presence of copper but not other transition state metals. By contrast, benzoic acid did not produce DNA damage in this system. The inclusion of spin trapping agents (PBN, DBNBS), radical scavenging agents (Nal, GSH), or the copper chelator o-phenanthroline in incubations was found to significantly reduce the extent of DNA damage. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy studies suggested that the primary radical trapped was the benzoyloxyl radical, implying a role for this radical in the generation of the observed DNA damage. Collectively these observations suggest BzPO may be activated to DNA damaging intermediates in keratinocytes via metal-catalyzed cleavage of the peroxide bond resulting in the formation of the benzoyloxyl radical. Covalent modification of DNA was not observed when [ 14 C]BzPO was incubated with calf thymus DNA in the presence of copper. Overall, these results suggest that BzPO induces DNA damage via benzoyloxyl radical mediated proton abstraction from the DNA strand and the adduct formation with DNA is unlikely to occur

  6. Determination of molybdenum in various materials by normal-phase liquid chromatography using N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagur, Gracia; Sanchez-Vinas, Mercedes; Gazquez, Domingo

    1995-01-01

    A normal-phase liquid chromatographic method for the selective determination of molybdenum with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine is described. The molybdenum(VI) complex was preconcentrated by extraction into chloroform and injected onto a nitrile column for chromatography. The mobile phase was a 0.075 M solution of reagent in chloroform (stabilized with amylene). The detection limit for molybdenum by the proposed method was 0.88 ng for a phase volume ratio of 20:1 (aqueous to organic). Molybdenum has been determined in several samples with satisfactory accuracy and precision

  7. Palladium(II)-catalyzed ortho-C-H arylation/alkylation of N-benzoyl α-amino ester derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misal Castro, Luis C; Chatani, Naoto

    2014-04-14

    The palladium-catalyzed arylation/alkylation of ortho-C-H bonds in N-benzoyl α-amino ester derivatives is described. In such a system both the NH-amido and the CO2R groups in the α-amino ester moieties play a role in successful C-H activation/C-C bond formation using iodoaryl coupling partners. A wide variety of functional groups and electron-rich/deficient iodoarenes are tolerated. The yields obtained range from 20 to 95%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Extractive properties of benzohydroxamic and N-benzoyl-benzohydroxamic acids as analytical reagents towards six transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Rafie Hamid

    1999-06-01

    Two hydroxamic acids were prepared: benzohydroxamic and N-benzoyl benzohydroxamic acids. The former was prepared by coupling the free hydrox amine with benzoyl chloride with the ratio 1:1 in alkaline medium, where as the latter by the same procedure with the ratio 1:2 respectively, they were identified by their melting points, elemental analysis of their nitrogen contents. infra-red spectrophotometry, as well as their nitrogen using elevation of boiling point and the titration method to determine their molecular weights. The two hydroxamic acids were used as analytical reagents for the extraction of the metals Cr(vi), Fe(III), Ti(iv), Co(II) and U(vi). Benzohydroxamic acid has a maximum extraction 99.55% for Cr.(vi) 3M H 2 SO 4 , of 90.16% for Ti(iv) at pH 2.0,of 80.56% for Co(II) at pH 8.0 and 98.01% for U(vi) at pH 6.0. N-benzoyl benzohydroxamic acid has a maximum extraction of 96.45% for Cr(vi) at 3M H 2 So 4 , of 90.82% for Fe(III) at pH 4.0, of 97.02% for V(v) at 3M H 2 So 4 , of 83.56% for Ti(iv) at pH 2.0, of 89.82% for Co(II) at pH 8.0 and of 97.16% for U(vi) at pH 6.0. at the same pH of maximum extraction using heavy matrix, synthetic sea-water, benzohydroxamic acid has maximum values of 91.08%, of 77.99%, of 91.39%, of 87.50 and of 93.17% for Cr(vi), Fe(III), V(v), Ti(iv), Co9II) and U(vi) respectively whereas n-benzoyl benzohydroxamic acid has maximum values of 86.17%, of 77.78%, of 89.61%, of 75.66%, of 79.63% and of 91.18% for Cr(vi), Fe(III), V(v), Ti(iv), Co(II) and U(vi) respectively. The ratio of metal to ligand was determined utilizing the continuous variation method. It was 1 :2, 1: 1, 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1: 2 and 1 : 2 with respect to Cr(vi), fe(III), Ti(iv), Co(II) and U(vi) respectively.(Author)

  9. Sugar microanalysis by HPLC with benzoylation: improvement via introduction of a C-8 cartridge and a high efficiency ODS column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Michiko; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2007-07-01

    An HPLC protocol for sugar microanalysis based on the formation of ultraviolet-absorbing benzoyl chloride derivatives was improved. Here, samples were prepared with a C-8 cartridge and analyzed with a high efficiency ODS column, in which porous spherical silica particles 3 microm in diameter were packed. These devices allowed us to simultaneously quantify multiple sugars and sugar alcohols up to 10 ng/ml and to provide satisfactory separations of some sugars, such as fructose and myo-inositol and sorbitol and mannitol. This protocol, which does not require special apparatuses, should become a powerful tool in sugar research.

  10. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and biological activity of copper(ii and nickel(ii complexes with l-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorides of copper(II and nickel(ll react with 1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole to give complexes of the type [M(LnCln(H20∙Cln (M = Cu or Ni; L = (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole; n=O, 1 or 2. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectra. These studies suggest that all the complexes possess an octahedral stereochemistry. The antibacterial activity of (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole and their complexes was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp.

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Amino Acid-(N'-Benzoyl Hydrazide and Amino Acid-(N'-Nicotinoyl Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine N. Khattab

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling reaction of benzoic acid and nicotinic acid hydrazides with N- protected L-amino acids including valine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and tyrosine is reported. The target compounds, N-Boc-amino acid-(N`-benzoyl- and N- Boc-amino acid-(N`-nicotinoyl hydrazides 5a-5e and 6a-6e were prepared in very high yields and purity using N-[(dimethylamino-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl- methylene]-N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide (HATU as coupling reagent. The antimicrobial activity of the Cu and Cd complexes of the designed compounds was tested. The products were deprotected affording the corresponding amino acid-(N`-benzoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (7a-7e and amino acid-(N`- nicotinoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (8a-8e. These compounds and their Cu and Cd complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Several compounds showed comparable activity to that of ampicillin against S. aureus and E. coli.

  12. Substitution Effects and Linear Free Energy Relationships During Reduction of 4- Benzoyl-n-(4-substituted Benzyl)pyridinium Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same reductions of 1-X's, respectively. Importantly, the nitro group of 2-NO2 undergoes reduction before the 2nd-e reduction of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system. These results suggest that the redox potentials of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system can be course-tuned via p-benzoyl substitution and fine-tuned via para-benzyl substitution. Introducing the recently derived substituent constant of the -NO2(sup)- group (sigma para-NO2(sup)- = -0.97) yields an excellent correlation for the 3rd-e reduction of 2- NO2 (corresponding to the reduction of the carbonyl group) with the 2nd-e reduction of the other 2-X's, and confirms the electron donating properties of -NO2(sup)-.

  13. A New Benzoyl Compound Isolated from the Endophytic Fungi of Kandis Gajah (Garcinia griffithii and Asam Kandis (Garcinia cowa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfita Elfita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia griffithii and Garcinia cowa belong to the genus Garcinia. The genus Garcinia has been known to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as xanthones, benzophenones, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and other phenolic derivatives. Previous investigations of endophytic fungi from G. griffithii revealed the presence of three compounds not found in the host. In order to the continue the phytochemical work on endophytic fungi of G. griffithii, the constituent of the endophytic fungi of G. griffithii was re-examined. In this study, a benzoyl compound similar to that found in the endophytic fungus of G. cowa was observed. The same benzoyl compound was also isolated from the endophytic fungus Acremonium sp of G. griffithii and Aspergillus sp of G. cowa with cultivation of eight weeks in static conditions at room temperature. The culture medium was partitioned using ethyl acetate and evaporated to obtain the concentrated extract. Isolation of compounds was performed using the chromatography method. The chemical structure was proposed on the basis of spectroscopic data, including ultraviolet (UV, infrared (IR, mass spectrometry (MS, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR, heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC, heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC, and correlation spectroscopy (COSY.

  14. Randomized, Observer-blind, Split-face Compatibility Study with Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%/Benzoyl Peroxide 3.75% gel and Facial Foundation Makeup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Neal; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Cosmetic compatibility in the treatment of acne is an important issue significantly impacting quality of life, but often overlooked, as dermatologists commonly recommended avoidance of cosmetic foundations when treating adult female patients. Fixed combinations of clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide are widely used in the treatment of acne, but little is known about the impact of their concomitant use with facial foundation. To assess the compatibility of clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel with foundation makeup for up to six hours after application. Twenty-nine female subjects applied makeup to their face after randomly applying clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel to one side of the face. Investigator and subject self- assessment included facial skin attributes, facial tolerability, and cosmetic compatibility post-application and at Hour 6; as well as cutaneous tolerability. No statistical difference was noted between the treated and untreated side of the face in terms of coverage, blotchiness, appearance, skin tone, or visual smoothness. Tolerability was excellent, with no erythema, edema, dryness, and peeling post-makeup application. For both the treated and untreated side, there was a slight lack of improvement in cosmetic appearance six hours post-makeup application. Clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel was shown to have excellent cosmetic compatibility with facial foundation.

  15. Correlations Between retention indices and molecular structure of aliphatic alcohols and of their benzoyl derivatives on phenyl substituted polysiloxane stationary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pias, J. B.; Gasco, L.

    1976-01-01

    The retention indices of aliphatic alcohols of carbon number up to C g , and of their benzoyl derivatives up to C 7 , were determined in columns packed with Chromo sorb G (AW-DMCS-HP) coated previously with 5% methyl, and methyl phenyl polysiloxanes with increasing polarity (SE-30, 0V-3, 0V-7, 0V-11, 0V-17 and OV-25). Correlations between retention indices and chain length for 1-alcohols, 2-alcohols, 3-alcohols, 1 , on -3-alcohols, 2-methyl-1-alcohols and for their corresponding benzoyl derivatives were calculated at 100, 120 and 140 degree centigree. In alcohols, a -CH 2 - group increases I approximately 100 units, and in their benzoyl derivatives from 80 to 100 units. Dispersion indices Δl , and positional and structural increments δI, were evaluated for -OH and benzoyl groups in terms of phase polarity and chain length. Effects of chain length, chain branching and double bond location on retention parameters were also studied. (Author) 23 refs

  16. Synthesis of benzoyl-mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine C6H5COSCH2CO(NHCH2CO)3OH (Bz-MAG3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ktaifani, M.; Nakawa, M. A.; Nahmo, A.; Allaf, W.

    2006-11-01

    Benzo-mercaptoacetylglycylglcylglycine (Bz-MAG3) was prepared by three subsequent steps starting from benzoyl chloride. The obtained product was fully characterized by its multi-nuclear NMR and IR spectroscopy. The purity of the product was confirmed by HPLC. (author)

  17. Contribution to the study of the chemical effects of the (n, γ) reaction on copper N-benzoyl N-phenyl hydroxylaminate and copper N-benzoyl N-(o) Tolyl hydroxylaminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of some factors such as pre-heating and pre-irradiation with gamma rays on the retention and thermal annealing of copper N-benzoyl N-phenyl hydroxylaminate and of copper N-benzolyl N-(o) tolyl hydroxylaminate is studied. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by determination of the melting-point, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, infra-red and visible range absoption spectrometry-thermogravimetric analysis were examined and the stability of the compounds was checked against heating and gamma irradiation from a 60 Co source. Some experiments using the Szilard-Chalmers effect were carried out by irradiating the compound in the IEA-R 1 nuclear reactor and calculating its specific activities. (M.J.C.) [pt

  18. Synthesis of new derivatives of 1-(3-aminophenyl-4-benzoyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAHMI KASIMOGULLAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 1-(3-Aminophenyl-4-benzoyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (1 was synthesized according to the literature. 2-(3-Aminophenyl-2,6-dihydro-3,4-diphenyl-7H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazin-7-one (5 was obtained by the cyclocondensation reaction of 1 with hydrazine hydrate. New pyrazole derivatives of compounds 1 and 5 were synthesized by their reaction with β-diketones, β-ketoesters, β-naphthol, phenol and various other reagents. The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and mass spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis.

  19. Extraction of hafnium by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyralozone from aqueous-alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Prihoda, J.

    1975-01-01

    Extraction of hafnium by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (HL) in benzene, toluene, chloroform and tetrachloromethane from aqueous-alcoholic solutions of the formal acidity of 2M-HClO 4 was studied. Methyl, ethyl, n- and isopropyl, tert-butyl and allyl alcohol as well as ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and propylene glycol were used as organic components of the mixed aqueous-organic phase. Their presence in some cases resulted in a synergic increase in the distribution ratio of hafnium. The increase is interpreted using the results of a slope analysis and measurements of the alcohol distribution and the relative permittivity of the organic phase. It is suggested that HfL 4 molecules were solvated by alcohol molecules in the organic phase. At high alcohol concentration synergism changed into antagonism. This was caused by changes in the distribution of HL and its interaction with the alcohol in the organic phase. (author)

  20. Anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid) via benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-CoA in a denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmeyer, C; Koch, J; Fuchs, G

    1992-06-01

    The enzymes catalyzing the initial reactions in the anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid) were studied with a denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. anaerobically grown with 2-aminobenzoate and nitrate as the sole carbon and energy sources. Cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate are simultaneously adapted to growth with benzoate, whereas cells grown on benzoate degrade 2-aminobenzoate several times less efficiently than benzoate. Evidence for a new reductive pathway of aromatic metabolism and for four enzymes catalyzing the initial steps is presented. The organism contains 2-aminobenzoate-coenzyme A ligase (2-aminobenzoate-CoA ligase), which forms 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA. 2-Aminobenzoyl-CoA is then reductively deaminated to benzoyl-CoA by an oxygen-sensitive enzyme, 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA reductase (deaminating), which requires a low potential reductant [Ti(III)]. The specific activity is 15 nmol of 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA reduced min-1 mg-1 of protein at an optimal pH of 7. The two enzymes are induced by the substrate under anaerobic conditions only. Benzoyl-CoA is further converted in vitro by reduction with Ti(III) to six products; the same products are formed when benzoyl-CoA or 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA is incubated under reducing conditions. Two of them were identified preliminarily. One product is cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-CoA, the other is trans-2-hydroxycyclohexane-carboxyl-CoA. The complex transformation of benzoyl-CoA is ascribed to at least two enzymes, benzoyl-CoA reductase (aromatic ring reducing) and cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-CoA hydratase. The reduction of benzoyl-CoA to alicyclic compounds is catalyzed by extracts from cells grown anaerobically on either 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate at almost the same rate (10 to 15 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein). In contrast, extracts from cells grown anaerobically on acetate or grown aerobically on benzoate or 2-aminobenzoate are inactive. This suggests a sequential induction of the enzymes.

  1. Synthesis and Bioactivity of N-Benzoyl-N'-[5-(2'-substituted phenyl-2-furoyl] Semicarbazide Derivatives

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    Zining Cui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to find novel chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs with good activity, benzoylphenylurea, a typical kind of CSIs, was chosen as the lead compound and 15 novel derivatives containing furan moieties were designed by converting the urea linkage of benzoylphenylureas into a semicarbazide and changing the aniline part into furoyl groups. The title compounds were synthesized by the reaction of substituted benzoyl isocyanates with 5-(substituted phenyl-2-furoyl hydrazine, and the structures were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses (compound E2. The bioassay results indicated that the title compounds exhibit good insecticidal activity, especially towards Plutella xylostella L., but had lower fungicidal activity. Inspiringly, the title compounds possessed obvious anticancer activity against human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60, and some of the title compounds also had activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Bel-7402, human gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823, and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (KB. The results indicated that the linkage in the lead compounds was important to the bioactivity and spectra. The modification on the urea linkage is an effective strategy to discover new pesticide and drug candidates.

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase by 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine: protection by the hydrolyzed reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Incubation of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase with 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine (FSO 2 BzAdo) at pH 8.0 and 25 0 C results in the loss of enzyme activity, which is not restored by the addition of β-mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol. The FSO 2 BzAdo concentration dependence of the inactivation kinetics is described by a mechanism that includes the equilibrium binding of the reagent to the enzyme prior to a first-order inactivation reaction in addition to effects of reagent hydrolysis. The hydrolysis of the reagent has two effects on the observed kinetics. The first effect is deviation from pseudo-first-order kinetic behavior due to depletion of the reagent. The second effect is the novel protection of the enzyme from inactivation due to binding of the sulfonate hydrolysis product. Determinations of the reaction stoichiometry with 3 H-labeled FSO 2 BzAdo show that the inactivation is associated with the covalent incorporation of 1.08 mol of reagent/mol of enzyme subunit. Ligand protection experiments show that ATP, AMP, dAMP, NADH, 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate, and the sulfonate hydrolysis product of FSO 2 BzAdo provide protection from inactivation. The protection obtained with ATMP is not dependent on Mg 2+ . The results are consistent with modification by FSO 2 BzAdo of a single adenine nucleotide binding site per enzyme subunit

  3. Synthesis, PASS-Predication and in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Benzyl 4-O-benzoyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mahbubul Matin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl α-l-rhamnopyranoside 4, obtained by both conventional and microwave assisted glycosidation techniques, was subjected to 2,3-O-isopropylidene protection to yield compound 5 which on benzoylation and subsequent deprotection of isopropylidene group gave the desired 4-O-benzoylrhamnopyranoside 7 in reasonable yield. Di-O-acetyl derivative of benzoate 7 was prepared to get newer rhamnopyranoside. The structure activity relationship (SAR of the designed compounds was performed along with the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS training set. Experimental studies based on antimicrobial activities verified the predictions obtained by the PASS software. Protected rhamnopyranosides 5 and 6 exhibited slight distortion from regular 1C4 conformation, probably due to the fusion of pyranose and isopropylidene ring. Synthesized rhamnopyranosides 4–8 were employed as test chemicals for in vitro antimicrobial evaluation against eight human pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Antimicrobial and SAR study showed that the rhamnopyranosides were prone against fungal organisms as compared to that of the bacterial pathogens. Interestingly, PASS prediction of the rhamnopyranoside derivatives 4–8 were 0.49 < Pa < 0.60 (where Pa is probability ‘to be active’ as antibacterial and 0.65 < Pa < 0.73 as antifungal activities, which showed significant agreement with experimental data, suggesting rhamnopyranoside derivatives 4–8 were more active against pathogenic fungi as compared to human pathogenic bacteria thus, there is a more than 50% chance that the rhamnopyranoside derivative structures 4–8 have not been reported with antimicrobial activity, making it a possible valuable lead compound.

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase by 5'-(p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl))adenosine: protection by the hydrolyzed reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettigrew, D.W.

    1987-03-24

    Incubation of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase with 5'-(p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl)adenosine (FSO/sub 2/BzAdo) at pH 8.0 and 25/sup 0/C results in the loss of enzyme activity, which is not restored by the addition of ..beta..-mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol. The FSO/sub 2/BzAdo concentration dependence of the inactivation kinetics is described by a mechanism that includes the equilibrium binding of the reagent to the enzyme prior to a first-order inactivation reaction in addition to effects of reagent hydrolysis. The hydrolysis of the reagent has two effects on the observed kinetics. The first effect is deviation from pseudo-first-order kinetic behavior due to depletion of the reagent. The second effect is the novel protection of the enzyme from inactivation due to binding of the sulfonate hydrolysis product. Determinations of the reaction stoichiometry with /sup 3/H-labeled FSO/sub 2/BzAdo show that the inactivation is associated with the covalent incorporation of 1.08 mol of reagent/mol of enzyme subunit. Ligand protection experiments show that ATP, AMP, dAMP, NADH, 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate, and the sulfonate hydrolysis product of FSO/sub 2/BzAdo provide protection from inactivation. The protection obtained with ATMP is not dependent on Mg/sup 2 +/. The results are consistent with modification by FSO/sub 2/BzAdo of a single adenine nucleotide binding site per enzyme subunit.

  5. Quantum-chemical evaluation of the lability of π-electronic systems in N-benzoyl derivatives of phosphorus and sulfur imines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.P.; Pen'kovskii, V.V.; Boldeskul, I.E.

    1986-01-01

    The charges on atoms, the bond indices, their components, and the energies of the highest occupied π orbitals of four N-benzoyl derivatives of phosphorus and sulfur imines have been calculated by the CNDO/2 method in an spd basis. According to the results obtained, the π system of a bridging sulfur-nitrogen group is more labile than a phosphorus-nitrogen group, in agreement with the experimental evaluations of the transmission of the electronic effects of substituents in these systems. An interpretation of this lability has been given

  6. Sub-group Analyses from a Trial of a Fixed Combination of Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2% and Benzoyl Peroxide 3.75% Gel for the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotzer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is commonplace and can be difficult to manage. Providing an effective and well-tolerated treatment may lead to improved adherence, increased patient satisfaction, and improved clinical outcomes. Methods: A review of efficacy, safety, and cutaneous tolerability of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel in 498 patients with moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris enrolled in a multicenter Phase III study randomized to receive active or vehicle once daily for 12 weeks, including the most recent post-hoc analyses. Results: Significantly superior reductions in lesion counts were observed with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel from Week 4, with median percent reductions in inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions from baseline of 68.4 and 57.9 percent, respectively (bothpacne vulgaris patients treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel achieved ≥2-grade improvement from baseline in their Evaluator’s Global Severity Score, and almost a third of the adolescent acne vulgaris patients (32.4%) achieved at least a marked improvement in their acne vulgaris as early as Week 2. In adult female acne overall treatments success was achieved in 52.7 percent of patients treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel. Overall, and in the specific subpopulations, clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel was well-tolerated with a similar adverse event profile to vehicle. Limitations: Post-hoc analyses from a single clinical trial with demographic imbalances that could potentially confound the results. Conclusion: Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel appears to be effective in treating acne across various clinically relevant sub-groups. PMID:26705445

  7. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel group study to compare relative efficacies of the topical gels 3% erythromycin/5% benzoyl peroxide and 0.025% tretinoin/erythromycin 4% in the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Lynde, Charles W; Kunynetz, Rod A W; Amin, Smita; Choi, Ken; Goldstein, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Combination treatments for acne vulgaris, such as Benzamycin (3% erythromycin/5% benzoyl peroxide) and Stievamycin (0.025% tretinoin/erythromycin 4%), reduce bacterial growth, which contributes to the inflammatory lesions typical of adolescent acne, and also decrease the epidermal cell compaction which may form the characteristic noninflammatory comedone. Both agents contain erythromycin to reduce the growth of Propionibacterium acnes in skin. Benzoyl peroxide has antibiotic activity as well as anticomedogenic properties. Tretinoin may increase the turnover of epidermal cells and loosen the cells compacted to form comedones. A combination preparation containing the two antibiotics may reduce the development of resistance; the combination preparation containing tretinoin and erythromycin will have an antibiotic effect as well as acting on differentiation. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study compared the effectiveness of 3% erythromycin/5% benzoyl peroxide and 0.025% tretinoin/erythromycin 4%, each applied twice daily in patients with moderate acne vulgaris. Overall physician and patient ratings of severity of acne symptoms were performed at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. At baseline the two treatment groups had similar disease severity. The number of papules, pustules, and comedones was reduced in both treatment groups at week 12, and the reductions were not significantly different between the two comparators. Global physician rating of improvement was significantly higher in the 3% erythromycin/5% benzoyl peroxide group compared with the 0.025% tretinoin/erythromycin 4% group; however, there was no significant difference in global patient ratings between the two treatment groups. An aggregate score was produced, for both physician rating and patient rating, by adding up individual symptom severity ratings. Compared with 0.025% tretinoin/erythromycin 4%, 3% erythromycin/5% benzoyl peroxide provided significantly greater reduction

  8. Formulation and evaluation of a topical niosomal gel containing a combination of benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin for antiacne activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankush; Singh, Sima; Kotla, Niranjan G; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone at least once in their lifetime. The structure of the stratum corneum is often compared with a brick wall, with corneocytes surrounded by the mortar of the intercellular lipid lamellae. One of the best options for successful drug delivery to the affected area of skin is the use of elastic vesicles (niosomes) which can be transported through the skin through channel-like structures. In this study, a combination of tretinoin (keratolytic agent) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) (a potent antibacterial) was given by using niosomes as promising carriers for the effective treatment of acne by acting on a pathogenic site. In this section, niosomal gel formulation encapsulated drugs have been evaluated for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, for their predetermined characteristics; and finally the stability of the niosome gel was tested at different temperature conditions for understanding of the storage conditions required for maintaining the quality of formulation attributes. The prepared niosome was found to be in the range of 531 nm with a zeta potential of −43 mV; the entrapment efficiencies of tretinoin (TRA) and BPO niosomes were found to be 96.25%±0.56% and 98.75%±1.25%, respectively. The permeated amount of TRA and BPO from the niosomal gel after 24 hours was calculated as 6.25±0.14 μg/cm2 and 5.04±0.014 μg/cm2, respectively. A comparative drug retention study in Wistar rat skin using cream, an alcoholic solution, and a niosomal gel showed 11.54 μg, 2.68 μg, and 15.54 μg amounts of TRA and 68.85 μg, 59.98 μg, and 143.78 μg amounts of BPO were retained in the layers of skin, respectively. In vivo studies of the niosomal gel and antiacne cream of TRA and BPO showed that the niosomal gel was more efficacious than the antiacne cream because niosomal gels with a 4.16-fold lower dose of BPO provided the same therapeutic index at targeted sites in comparison to the antiacne cream. PMID

  9. Formulation and evaluation of a topical niosomal gel containing a combination of benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin for antiacne activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankush Gupta,1,* Sima Singh,1,* Niranjan G Kotla,1 Thomas J Webster2,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone at least once in their lifetime. The structure of the stratum corneum is often compared with a brick wall, with corneocytes surrounded by the mortar of the intercellular lipid lamellae. One of the best options for successful drug delivery to the affected area of skin is the use of elastic vesicles (niosomes which can be transported through the skin through channel-like structures. In this study, a combination of tretinoin (keratolytic agent and benzoyl peroxide (BPO (a potent antibacterial was given by using niosomes as promising carriers for the effective treatment of acne by acting on a pathogenic site. In this section, niosomal gel formulation encapsulated drugs have been evaluated for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, for their predetermined characteristics; and finally the stability of the niosome gel was tested at different temperature conditions for understanding of the storage conditions required for maintaining the quality of formulation attributes. The prepared niosome was found to be in the range of 531 nm with a zeta potential of -43 mV; the entrapment efficiencies of tretinoin (TRA and BPO niosomes were found to be 96.25%±0.56% and 98.75%±1.25%, respectively. The permeated amount of TRA and BPO from the niosomal gel after 24 hours was calculated as 6.25±0.14 µg/cm2 and 5.04±0.014 µg/cm2, respectively. A comparative drug retention study in Wistar rat skin using cream, an alcoholic solution, and a niosomal gel showed 11.54 µg, 2.68 µg, and 15.54 µg

  10. Formulation and evaluation of a topical niosomal gel containing a combination of benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin for antiacne activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankush; Singh, Sima; Kotla, Niranjan G; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone at least once in their lifetime. The structure of the stratum corneum is often compared with a brick wall, with corneocytes surrounded by the mortar of the intercellular lipid lamellae. One of the best options for successful drug delivery to the affected area of skin is the use of elastic vesicles (niosomes) which can be transported through the skin through channel-like structures. In this study, a combination of tretinoin (keratolytic agent) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) (a potent antibacterial) was given by using niosomes as promising carriers for the effective treatment of acne by acting on a pathogenic site. In this section, niosomal gel formulation encapsulated drugs have been evaluated for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, for their predetermined characteristics; and finally the stability of the niosome gel was tested at different temperature conditions for understanding of the storage conditions required for maintaining the quality of formulation attributes. The prepared niosome was found to be in the range of 531 nm with a zeta potential of -43 mV; the entrapment efficiencies of tretinoin (TRA) and BPO niosomes were found to be 96.25%±0.56% and 98.75%±1.25%, respectively. The permeated amount of TRA and BPO from the niosomal gel after 24 hours was calculated as 6.25±0.14 μg/cm(2) and 5.04±0.014 μg/cm(2), respectively. A comparative drug retention study in Wistar rat skin using cream, an alcoholic solution, and a niosomal gel showed 11.54 μg, 2.68 μg, and 15.54 μg amounts of TRA and 68.85 μg, 59.98 μg, and 143.78 μg amounts of BPO were retained in the layers of skin, respectively. In vivo studies of the niosomal gel and antiacne cream of TRA and BPO showed that the niosomal gel was more efficacious than the antiacne cream because niosomal gels with a 4.16-fold lower dose of BPO provided the same therapeutic index at targeted sites in comparison to the antiacne cream.

  11. Reaction of 11 C-benzoyl chlorides with metalloid reagents: 11 C-labeling of benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, and phenyl ketones from [11 C]CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslin, Sara; Dahl, Kenneth; Nordeman, Patrik

    2018-01-26

    In this article, we describe the carbon-11 ( 11 C, t 1/2  = 20.4 minutes) labeling of benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, and ketones using an efficient 2-step synthesis in which 11 C-carbon monoxide is used in an initial palladium-mediated reaction to produce 11 C-benzoyl chloride as a key intermediate. In the second step, the obtained 11 C-benzoyl chloride is further treated with a metalloid reagent to furnish the final 11 C-labeled product. Benzyl alcohols were obtained in moderated to high non-isolated radiochemical yields (RCY, 35%-90%) with lithium aluminum hydride or lithium aluminum deuteride as metalloid reagent. Changing the metalloid reagent to either tributyltin hydride or sodium borohydride, allowed for the reliable syntheses of 11 C-benzaldehydes in RCYs ranging from 58% to 95%. Finally, sodium tetraphenylborate were utilized to obtain 11 C-phenyl ketones in high RCYs (77%-95%). The developed method provides a new and efficient route to 3 different classes of compounds starting from aryl iodides or aryl bromides. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Synthesis, screening and QSAR studies of 3-benzoyl-2-oxo/thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-pyrimidine analogues as antibacterial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh L. Sawant

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to synthesize several 3-benzoyl-5-acyl-6-methyl-4-substituted-2-oxo/thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines, evaluate them for their antibacterial activity and to establish correlation between the activity and physicochemical properties. 5-Acyl-6-methyl-4-substituted-2-oxo/thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines (A were synthesized by cyclocondensation reaction between appropriate aldehyde, acetoacetate and urea/thiourea in presence of aluminium chloride and hydrochloric acid which upon treatment with benzoyl chloride in presence of pyridine in benzene furnish the title compounds (1-28. The structures of all title compounds have been confirmed on the basis of their analytical, IR and NMR spectral data. The title compounds have been tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The compounds were divided into training and test sets. A quantitative structure activity relationship study was made using various descriptors. Several statistical expressions were developed using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The best quantitative structure activity relationship model was further cross validated. The study revealed that total positive partial charge (PC+ and total polar negative Van der Waals surface area (Q_VSA_PNEG contributes negatively where as contribution of Van der Waals surface area to molar refractivity (SMR_VSA7 contributes positively to the antibacterial activity. The compounds with improved antibacterial potential can be successfully designed with selected quantitative structure activity relationship model.

  13. Correlations Between retention indices and molecular structure of aliphatic alcohols and of their benzoyl derivatives on phenyl substituted polysiloxane stationary phases; Cromatografia en fase gaseosa sobre metilfenilpolisiloxanos. Estructura molecular y parametros de retencion para alcoholes y sus derivados benzoilados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pias, J B; Gasco, L

    1976-07-01

    The retention indices of aliphatic alcohols of carbon number up to C{sub g}, and of their benzoyl derivatives up to C{sub 7}, were determined in columns packed with Chromo sorb G (AW-DMCS-HP) coated previously with 5% methyl, and methyl phenyl polysiloxanes with increasing polarity (SE-30, 0V-3, 0V-7, 0V-11, 0V-17 and OV-25). Correlations between retention indices and chain length for 1-alcohols, 2-alcohols, 3-alcohols, 1 , on -3-alcohols, 2-methyl-1-alcohols and for their corresponding benzoyl derivatives were calculated at 100, 120 and 140 degree centigree. In alcohols, a -CH{sub 2}- group increases I approximately 100 units, and in their benzoyl derivatives from 80 to 100 units. Dispersion indices {delta}l , and positional and structural increments {delta}I, were evaluated for -OH and benzoyl groups in terms of phase polarity and chain length. Effects of chain length, chain branching and double bond location on retention parameters were also studied. (Author) 23 refs.

  14. Characterization of the residues modified when F1 - ATPases are inactivated by 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzofurazan and 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]-1,N6-ethenoadenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verburg, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Inactivation of the F 1 -ATPases isolated from spinach chloroplasts (CF 1 ) and from the plasma membrane of the thermophilic bacterium, PS3 (TF 1 ) with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzofurazan (Nbf-Cl) results in modification of Tyr-β-328 and Tyr-β-307, respectively. These residues are homologous to Tyr-β-311 of the F 1 -ATPase isolated from beef heart mitochondria, previously identified as the residue derivatized during inactivation of that enzyme with Nbf-Cl. Interestingly, an intramolecular migration of the Nbf- moiety from the tyrosine residue to a nearby lysine residue, observed when MF 1 and TF 1 which had been inactivated with Nbf-Cl are incubated at alkaline pH, was not observed when CF 1 was treated in the same manner. CF 1 differs from other ATPases in that it contains ADP, tightly bound at a single catalytic site. It is possible that this tightly bound ADP prevents migration of the Nbf moiety. The characteristics of inactivation of MF 1 with the fluorosulfonyl benzoyl derivatives of adenosine (FSBA) and inosine (FSBI) have been described in the literature. Inactivation of MF 1 with FSBA results in the mutually exclusive modification of Tyr-368 or His-427 in all three copies of the β subunit. These residues comprise part of the noncatalytic nucleotide binding site. Inactivation of MF 1 with FSBI results in modification of Tyr-β-345 in a single catalytic site. The fluorosulfonyl benzoyl derivative of 1,N 6 -ethenoadenosine (FSBεA) has been prepared, and the characteristics and selectivity of modification of MF 1 with this reagent are presented. FSBεA binds reversibly to MF 1 with an apparent dissociation constant of 250 μM before covalent modification. The residue in MF 1 that reacts with FSBεA exhibits an apparent pK a of 8.9

  15. Studies on Synthesis of Some Novel Heterocyclic Chalcone, Pyrazoline, Pyrimidine - 2 - One, Pyrimidine - 2 - Thione, para-Acetanilide Sulphonyl and Benzoyl Derivatives and their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh N. Mistry

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available 1, 2 - Dichloro benzene on chlorosulphonation by chlorosulphonic acid gives 1, 2 - [dichloro] - benzene sulphonyl chloride which on condensation with p –amino acetophenone gives 1-[acetyl] - 1’ , 2’ - [dichloro] - dibenz sulphonamide derivative. This derivative undergo condensation with 2,4- dichloro benzaldehyde gives 1- [3” - (sub. phenyl - 2” - propene - 1” - one] - 1’ , 2’ - [dichloro] - dibenz sulphonamide derivative which on reaction with 99% hydrazine hydrate and glacial acetic acid gives 1-[acetyl]-3- [1’ , 2’ - (dichloro - dibenz sulphonamide] -5 - [2” , 4” - dichloro phenyl] - 2 - pyrazoline derivative. This derivative reacts with various substituted aldehydes to give corresponding substituted chalcone derivatives [1(a-j]. Now, these chalcone derivatives [1(a-j] on condensation with urea gives corresponding substituted pyrimidine - 2 - one derivatives [2(a-j] and on condensation with thio-urea gives corresponding substituted pyrimidine- 2 -thione derivatives [3(a-j]. Further, these chalcone derivatives [1(a-j] on reaction with 99% hydrazine hydrate gives 1 - [1’ - (H - 5’ - (sub. phenyl - 2’ - pyrazoline]- 3 - [1” , 2” - (dichloro - dibenz sulphonamide] - 5 - [2’’’ , 4’’’ - dichloro phenyl]-2- pyrazoline derivatives [4(a-j] as an intermediate compounds, which on condensation with p-acetanilide sulphonyl chloride gives corresponding substituted p - acetanilide sulphonyl derivatives [5(a-j] and on condensation with benzoyl chloride gives corresponding substituted benzoyl derivatives [6(a-j]. Structure elucidation of synthesised compounds has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, I.R. spectral studies and 1H N.M.R. spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesised compounds has been studied against the cultures “Staphylococcus aureus”, “Escherichia coli” and “Candela albicans”.

  16. Determination of the Tautomeric Equilibria of Pyridoyl Benzoyl -Diketones in the Liquid and Solid State through the use of Deuterium Isotope Effects on 1H and 13C NMR Chemical Shifts and Spin Coupling Constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Borisov, Eugeny V.; Lindon, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The tautomeric equilibria for 2-pyridoyl-, 3-pyridoyl-, and 4-pyridoyl-benzoyl methane have been investigated using deuterium isotope effects on 1H and 13C chemical shifts both in the liquid and the solid state. Equilibria are established both in the liquid and the solid state. In addition......, in the solution state the 2-bond and 3-bond J(1H–13C) coupling constants have been used to confirm the equilibrium positions. The isotope effects due to deuteriation at the OH position are shown to be superior to chemical shift in determination of equilibrium positions of these almost symmetrical -pyridoyl......-benzoyl methanes. The assignments of the NMR spectra are supported by calculations of the chemical shifts at the DFT level. The equilibrium positions are shown to be different in the liquid and the solid state. In the liquid state the 4-pyridoyl derivative is at the B-form (C-1 is OH), whereas the 2-and 3-pyridoyl...

  17. Acid- and base-catalysis in the mononuclear rearrangement of some (Z)-arylhydrazones of 5-amino-3-benzoyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole in toluene: effect of substituents on the course of reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Francesca; Frenna, Vincenzo; Ghelfi, Franco; Marullo, Salvatore; Spinelli, Domenico

    2011-04-15

    The reaction rates for the rearrangement of eleven (Z)-arylhydrazones of 5-amino-3-benzoyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole 3a-k into the relevant (2-aryl-5-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)ureas 4a-k in the presence of trichloroacetic acid or of piperidine have been determined in toluene at 313.1 K. The results have been related to the effect of the aryl substituent by using Hammett and/or Ingold-Yukawa-Tsuno correlations and have been compared with those previously collected in a protic polar solvent (dioxane/water) as well as with those on the analogous rearrangement of the corresponding (Z)-arylhydrazones of 3-benzoyl-5-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole 1a-k in benzene. Some light can thus be shed on the general differences of chemical reactivity between protic polar (or dipolar aprotic) and apolar solvents.

  18. OxymaPure/DIC: An Efficient Reagent for the Synthesis of a Novel Series of 4-[2-(2-Acetylaminophenyl-2-oxo-acetylamino] Benzoyl Amino Acid Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman El-Faham

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OxymaPure (ethyl 2-cyano-2-(hydroxyiminoacetate was tested as an additive for use in the carbodiimide (DIC approach for the synthesis of a novel series of α-ketoamide derivatives (4-[2-(2-acetylaminophenyl-2-oxo-acetylamino]benzoyl amino acid ester derivatives. OxymaPure showed clear superiority to HOBt/DIC or carbodiimide alone in terms of purity and yield. The title compounds were synthesized via the ring opening of N-acylisatin. First, N-acetylisatin was reacted with 4-aminobenzoic acid under conventional heating as well as microwave irradiation to afford 4-(2-(2-acetamidophenyl-2-oxoacetamidobenzoic acid. This α-ketoamide was coupled to different amino acid esters using OxymaPure/DIC as a coupling reagent to afford 4-[2-(2-acetylaminophenyl-2-oxo-acetylamino]benzoyl amino acid ester derivatives in excellent yield and purity. The synthesized compounds were characterized using FT-IR, NMR, and elemental analysis.

  19. Dapsone gel 5% in combination with adapalene gel 0.1%, benzoyl peroxide gel 4% or moisturizer for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Alan B; Shalita, Alan; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Abramovits, William; Lucky, Anne; Garrett, Steven

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of dapsone gel 5% in the treatment of acne when used in combination with adapalene gel 0.1%, benzoyl peroxide gel 4% or moisturizer. This was a twelve-week, randomized, double-blind study. Patients aged 12 years and older (n=301) applied dapsone gel twice daily and were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to one of three additional treatments, applied once daily. By week 12, dapsone gel combined with any of the three additional treatments reduced the mean number of inflammatory lesions. However, the authors did not detect a significant difference in the reduction of inflammatory lesions when dapsone was used in combination with adapalene gel or with benzoyl peroxide gel compared to the dapsone plus moisturizer combination group (P=0.052 for both versus moisturizer combination). Patients treated with dapsone gel combined with adapalene showed a significantly better response in reduction in non-inflammatory and total acne lesion count than those who received the moisturizer combination. Local adverse reactions in all three treatment groups were minimal and generally mild in severity. Dapsone gel in combination with adapalene gel or benzoyl peroxide gel is safe and well tolerated for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  20. Diverse Cd(II) compounds based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands: Structures and photoluminescent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ning; Guo, Wei-Ying; Song, Hui-Hua; Yu, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Five new Cd(II) coordination polymers with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (H_2bzgluO) and different N-donor ligands, [Cd(bzgluO)(2,2′-bipy)(H_2O)]_n (1), [Cd(bzgluO)(2,4′-bipy)_2(H_2O)·3H_2O]_n (2), [Cd(bzgluO)(phen)·H_2O]_n (3), [Cd(bzgluO)(4,4′-bipy)(H_2O)]_n (4), [Cd(bzgluO)(bpp)(H_2O)·2H_2O]_n (5) were synthesized (2,2′-bipy=2,2′-bipyridine, 2,4′-bipy=2,4′-bipyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4′-bipy=4,4′-bipyridine, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane). Compounds 1–2 exhibit a 1D single-chain structure. Compound 1 generates a 2D supramolecular structure via π–π stacking and hydrogen bonding, 3D architecture of compound 2 is formed by hydrogen bonding. Compound 3 features a 1D double-chain structure, which are linked by π–π interactions into a 2D supramolecular layer. Compounds 4-5 display a 2D network structure. Neighboring layers of 4 are extended into a 3D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding. The structural diversity of these compounds is attributed to the effect of ancillary N-donor ligands and coordination modes of H_2bzgluO. Luminescent properties of 1–5 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism of compounds 1, 2 and 5 were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Five new Cd(II) metal coordination compounds with H_2bzgluO and different N-donor ligands were synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 present 1D structures, compounds 4 and 5 display 2D networks. Results indicate that auxiliary ligands and coordination modes of H_2bzgluO play an important role in governing the formation of final frameworks, and the hydrogen-bonding and π–π stacking interactions contribute the formation of the diverse supramolecular architectures. Furthermore, the different crystal structures influence the emission spectra significantly. - Highlights: • It is rarely reported that complexes prepared with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid. • Each complex displays diverse structures and different supramolecular

  1. Systemic exposure to benzoic acid and hippuric acid following topical application of clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel in Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Hiroko; Takahashi, Naoki; Saenz, Alessandra Alio; Wakamatsu, Akira; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakahara, Norie; Hasegawa, Setsuo

    2015-01-01

    Clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel (CLDM/BPO3%) is a topical product for the treatment of acne vulgaris. In this study, plasma and urine concentrations of benzoic acid (BA) and hippuric acid (HA) were analyzed to estimate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of BPO after application of CLDM/BPO3% twice-daily for 7 days in Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Seven-day repeated application of CLDM/BPO3% appears to be safe in this patient population. Concentrations of plasma and urine BA were below the limit of quantification before and after repeated application in most of the 12 adult male patients. Mean difference in Cmax and AUC0-last for plasma HA indicated increased exposures after repeated application, but with wide 90% confidence intervals. Mean Ae0-12 for urine HA was similar before and after repeated application. Repeated application of CLDM/BPO3% is thus unlikely to result in accumulation of BA and HA. The study suggests negligible systemic exposure to BPO metabolites from CLDM/BPO3% after 7-day repeated application in male patients with acne vulgaris. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of 5-benzoyl-4-phenyl-2-methylthio-1H-pyrimidine with theoretical calculations using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnkaya, Ersin; Dinçer, Muharrem; Şahan, Emine; Yıldırım, İsmail

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we will report a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the molecular structure and spectroscopic parameters (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR) of 5-benzoyl-4-phenyl-2-methylthio-1H-pyrimidine. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with Z = 2. The molecular geometry was also optimized using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets in ground state and compared with the experimental data. All the assignments of the theoretical frequencies were performed by potential energy distributions using VEDA 4 program. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecules has been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with electrostatic potential (ESP). Also, non-linear optical properties of the title compound were performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The theoretical results showed an excellent agreement with the experimental values.

  3. Determination of rhenium content in molybdenite by ICP-MS after separation of the major matrix by solvent extraction with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxalamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhong, Li-feng; Tu, Xiang-lin; Liang, Xi-rong; Xu, Ji-feng

    2010-05-15

    A simple and rapid analytical method for determining the concentration of rhenium in molybdenite for Re-Os dating was developed. The method used isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) after the removal of major matrix elements (e.g., Mo, Fe, and W) from Re by solvent extraction with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) in chloroform solution. The effect on extraction efficiency of parameters such as pH (HCl concentration), BPHA concentration, and extraction time were also assessed. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the validity of the separation method was accessed by measuring (187)Re/(185)Re values for a molybdenite reference material (JDC). The obtained values were in good agreement with previously measured values of the Re standard. The proposed method was applied to replicate Re-Os dating of JDC and seven samples of molybdenite from the Yuanzhuding large Cu-Mo porphyry deposit. The results demonstrate good precision and accuracy for the proposed method. The advantages of the method (i.e., simplicity, efficiency, short analysis time, and low cost) make it suitable for routine analysis.

  4. Insight into the theoretical and experimental studies of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone N(4)-methyl-N(4)- phenylthiosemicarbazone - A potential NLO material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, K. G.; Aravindakshan, K. K.; Safna Hussan, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The synthesis, geometrical parameters, spectroscopic studies, optimised molecular structure, vibrational analysis, Mullikan population analysis, MEP, NBO, frontier molecular orbitals and NLO effects of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone N-(4)-methyl-N-(4)-phenylthiosemicarbazone, C25H23N5OS (L1) have been communicated in this paper. A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to explore the structure and properties of the compound. For computational studies, Gaussian 09 program was used. Starting geometry of molecule was taken from X-ray refinement data and has been optimized by using DFT (B3LYP) method with the 6-31+G (d, p) basis sets. NBO analysis gave insight into the strongly delocalized structure, responsible for the nonlinearity and hence the stability of the molecule. Frontier molecular orbitals have been defined to forecast the global reactivity descriptors of L1. The computed first-order hyperpolarizability (β) of the compound is 2 times higher than that of urea and this account for its nonlinear optical property. Simultaneously, a molecular docking study of the compound was performed using GLIDE Program. For this, three biological enzymes, histone deacetylase, ribonucleotide reductase and DNA methyl transferase, were selected as receptor molecules.

  5. The Melting Behavior and Thermal Stability of Green Poly(L-lactic acid) with N, N, N, N'-Tetra(benzoyl) Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid Dihydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Qiang Xu, Q.; Ren, L.; Zhao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal properties of green poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with N, N, N, N'-tetra(benzoyl) ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid dihydrazide (NA) at different conditions were investigated. The melting behavior of PLLA/NA sample after isothermal crystallization at 100 degree C showed that the low-temperature melting peak shifted to high temperature with increasing of crystallization time. However, the high-temperature melting peak did not show any change. Meantime, the melting enthalpy of cold crystallization was higher than that of hot crystallization, and the difference between cold crystallization and hot crystallization increased from 0.31 J/g to 0.89 J/g with increasing of crystallization time. Heating or cooling rate affected the melting behavior of PLLA, the low-temperature and high-temperature melting peak shifted to low temperature with increasing of rate, and the ratio of melting peak area between low-temperature melting peak and high-temperature melting peak decreased. Thermal stability of PLLA/NA indicated that PLLA/NA only exhibited one decomposition stage as decomposition of PLLA. (author)

  6. Diverse Cd(II) compounds based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands: Structures and photoluminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning; Guo, Wei-Ying; Song, Hui-Hua, E-mail: songhuihua@mail.hebtu.edu.cn; Yu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: haitaoyu@mail.hebtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Five new Cd(II) coordination polymers with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (H{sub 2}bzgluO) and different N-donor ligands, [Cd(bzgluO)(2,2′-bipy)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(bzgluO)(2,4′-bipy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)·3H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (2), [Cd(bzgluO)(phen)·H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (3), [Cd(bzgluO)(4,4′-bipy)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4), [Cd(bzgluO)(bpp)(H{sub 2}O)·2H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (5) were synthesized (2,2′-bipy=2,2′-bipyridine, 2,4′-bipy=2,4′-bipyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4′-bipy=4,4′-bipyridine, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane). Compounds 1–2 exhibit a 1D single-chain structure. Compound 1 generates a 2D supramolecular structure via π–π stacking and hydrogen bonding, 3D architecture of compound 2 is formed by hydrogen bonding. Compound 3 features a 1D double-chain structure, which are linked by π–π interactions into a 2D supramolecular layer. Compounds 4-5 display a 2D network structure. Neighboring layers of 4 are extended into a 3D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding. The structural diversity of these compounds is attributed to the effect of ancillary N-donor ligands and coordination modes of H{sub 2}bzgluO. Luminescent properties of 1–5 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism of compounds 1, 2 and 5 were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Five new Cd(II) metal coordination compounds with H{sub 2}bzgluO and different N-donor ligands were synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 present 1D structures, compounds 4 and 5 display 2D networks. Results indicate that auxiliary ligands and coordination modes of H{sub 2}bzgluO play an important role in governing the formation of final frameworks, and the hydrogen-bonding and π–π stacking interactions contribute the formation of the diverse supramolecular architectures. Furthermore, the different crystal structures influence the emission spectra significantly. - Highlights: • It is rarely reported that complexes prepared with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid

  7. Diverse Cd(II) compounds based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands: Structures and photoluminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Guo, Wei-Ying; Song, Hui-Hua; Yu, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Five new Cd(II) coordination polymers with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (H2bzgluO) and different N-donor ligands, [Cd(bzgluO)(2,2‧-bipy)(H2O)]n (1), [Cd(bzgluO)(2,4‧-bipy)2(H2O)·3H2O]n (2), [Cd(bzgluO)(phen)·H2O]n (3), [Cd(bzgluO)(4,4‧-bipy)(H2O)]n (4), [Cd(bzgluO)(bpp)(H2O)·2H2O]n (5) were synthesized (2,2‧-bipy=2,2‧-bipyridine, 2,4‧-bipy=2,4‧-bipyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4‧-bipy=4,4‧-bipyridine, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane). Compounds 1-2 exhibit a 1D single-chain structure. Compound 1 generates a 2D supramolecular structure via π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding, 3D architecture of compound 2 is formed by hydrogen bonding. Compound 3 features a 1D double-chain structure, which are linked by π-π interactions into a 2D supramolecular layer. Compounds 4-5 display a 2D network structure. Neighboring layers of 4 are extended into a 3D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding. The structural diversity of these compounds is attributed to the effect of ancillary N-donor ligands and coordination modes of H2bzgluO. Luminescent properties of 1-5 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism of compounds 1, 2 and 5 were investigated.

  8. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of silver(I) complexes based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands with different flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Jie; Feng, Qi; Song, Hui-Hua

    2016-05-01

    By changing the N-donor ancillary ligand, three novel silver (I) complexes {[Ag(HbzgluO) (4,4‧-bipy)]·H2O}n (1), {[Ag2(HbzgluO)2 (bpe)2]·2H2O}n (2) and {[Ag(HbzgluO)(bpp)]·2H2O}n (3) (H2bzgluO = N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid, 4,4‧-bipy = 4,4ˊ-bipyridine, bpe = 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane, bpp = 1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane) were synthesized. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). In this study, the N-donor ligands are changed from rigidity (4,4‧-bipy), quasi-flexibility (bpe) to flexibility (bpp), the structures of complexes also change. Complex 1 features a 1D chain structure which is further linked together to construct a 2D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 is a 1D double-chains configuration which eventually forms a 3D supramolecular network via hydrogen bonding interactions. Whereas, complex 3 exhibits a 2D pleated grid structure which is linked by hydrogen bonding interactions into a 3D supramolecular network. The present observations demonstrate that the modulation of coordination polymers with different structures can accomplish by changing the spacer length of N-donor ligands. In addition, the solid-state circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that compound 2 exhibited negative cotton effect which originated from the chiral ligands H2bzgluO and the solid-state fluorescence spectra of the three complexes demonstrated the auxiliary ligands have influence on the photoluminescence properties of the complexes.

  9. Synthesis of N-benzoyl-[α-14C]-N'-phenyl-2,6-diaminobenzoic acid and N-benzoyl-N'-phenyl-[3'-3H]-2,6-diaminobenzoic acid, and their absorption, excretion, and distribution in rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Shigeo; Kuroki, Michitake; Kasuya, Yasuji; Suzuki, Kenji.

    1975-01-01

    N-benzoyl-N'-phenyl-2, 6-diaminobenzoic acid (F-1) is a new anti-inflammatory agent. Two isotopically labeled compounds of F-1 ( 3 H-F-1 and 14 C-F-1) were synthesized and their absorption and distribution were investigated in rats and guinea pigs. When 3 H-F-1 was orally administered to rats and guinea pigs, about 20% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine and approximately 70% of it was excreted in the feces during 7 days after 3 H-F-1 administration. A higher concentration of 3 H-F-1 in the blood was observed in rats than in guinea pigs. The maximum blood concentration of 3 H-activity appeared one hour after the oral administration of 3 H-F-1 to rats, while in guinea pigs in appeared three hours later. These facts are in good agreement with the difference in the anti-inflammatory effect between rats and guinea pigs. The highest concentration of 3 H-activity in various organs, such as liver, adrenal, kidney, and lung, was found three hours after the oral administration of 3 H-F-1. (auth.)

  10. Supra-molecular architecture in a co-crystal of the N(7)-H tautomeric form of N (6)-benzoyl-adenine with adipic acid (1/0.5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinton Darious, Robert; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-06-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title co-crystal, C12H9N5O·0.5C6H10O4, consists of one mol-ecule of N (6)-benzoyl-adenine (BA) and one half-mol-ecule of adipic acid (AA), the other half being generated by inversion symmetry. The dihedral angle between the adenine and phenyl ring planes is 26.71 (7)°. The N (6)-benzoyl-adenine mol-ecule crystallizes in the N(7)-H tautomeric form with three non-protonated N atoms. This tautomeric form is stabilized by intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl (C=O) group and the N(7)-H hydrogen atom on the Hoogsteen face of the purine ring, forming an S(7) ring motif. The two carboxyl groups of adipic acid inter-act with the Watson-Crick face of the BA mol-ecules through O-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating an R 2 (2)(8) ring motif. The latter units are linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (10-5). A weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is also present, linking adipic acid mol-ecules in neighbouring layers, enclosing R (2) 2(10) ring motifs and forming a three-dimensional structure. C=O⋯π and C-H⋯π inter-actions are also present in the structure.

  11. Fixed-Dose Combination Gel of Adapalene and Benzoyl Peroxide plus Doxycycline 100 mg versus Oral Isotretinoin for the Treatment of Severe Acne: Efficacy and Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Pete; Meckfessel, Matthew H; Preston, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease with a high prevalence. Left untreated or inadequately treated, acne vulgaris can lead to psychological and physical scarring, as well as to unnecessary medical expenses. Oral isotretinoin is an effective treatment for severe resistant nodular and conglobate acne vulgaris. A regimen consisting of a fixed-dose combination of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide gel, 0.1%/2.5% (A-BPO) with oral doxycycline 100 mg (A-BPO/D) has been demonstrated to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients with severe acne and may be an alternative to oral isotretinoin for some patients with severe acne. The objective of this analysis was to compare the relative efficacy and associated costs of A-BPO/D versus oral isotretinoin. In this analysis, comparisons of relative efficacy were made using previously published studies involving similar patient populations with severe acne that warrant the use of oral isotretinoin. The pricing for oral doxycycline and oral isotretinoin was estimated based on the maximum allowable cost from 9 states, and the pricing for A-BPO was calculated as the range between the average wholesale price and the wholesale acquisition cost. For this analysis, 2 treatment models were generated to compare costs: (1) a basic treatment model that examined the costs of an initial regimen of either A-BPO/D or oral isotretinoin without considering probable outcomes, and (2) a long-term model that factored in likely treatment outcomes and subsequent treatments into associated costs. The basic treatment model assumed that patients would be prescribed a single regimen of A-BPO/D for 12 weeks or oral isotretinoin for 20 weeks. The long-term model considered the probability of each treatment successfully managing patients' acne, as well as likely additional regimens of A-BPO monotherapy or an additional regimen of oral isotretinoin. As a result of different treatment durations, the costs for each treatment were normalized to weekly cost of

  12. The clinical impact of vehicle technology using a patented formulation of benzoyl peroxide 5%/clindamycin 1% gel: comparative assessments of skin tolerability and evaluation of combination use with a topical retinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Tanghetti, Emil

    2006-02-01

    A major challenge encountered in clinical practice in patients with acne vulgaris is irritation related to topical medications used for treatment. Advances in vehicle technology have improved formulations containing active ingredients known to produce irritation in some patients, such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and topical retinoids. Clinical studies, including combination therapy studies have demonstrated that certain additives, such as silicates and specific humectants, reduce irritation by maintaining barrier integrity. A patented gel formulation of BP 5%/clindamycin phosphate 1% (clindamycin) containing dimethicone and glycerin has been studied both as a monotherapy and in combination with topical retinoid use. This article evaluates specific vehicle additives included in this gel formulation and explains their role in reducing irritation. Data from clinical trials utilizing this technology in acne management are also reviewed.

  13. Solvent extraction of lanthanide ions with 1-Phenyl-3-Methyl-4-Benzoyl-Pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP), 2. Extraction of Erbium(III), Ytterbium(III) and Lutetium(III) by HPMBP from aqueous-methanol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakis-Sulikowska, D.M.; Kuznik, B.; Malinowska, A.

    1990-01-01

    The solvent extraction of lanthanides(III)(Ln = Er, Yb, Lu) by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HL) in carbon tetrachloride from aqueous-methanol phase was investigated. The equilibrium constants for the extraction from aqueous-50 % (ν/ν) methanol phase (K ex ), two-phase stability constants of the complexes LnL 3 (β 3 * ) and stability constants of complexes LnL 2+ , LnL 2 + , LnL 3 (β n )(Ln = Yb, Lu) were calculated. It was confirmed that the addition of methanol to the aqueous phase causes a synergistic effect. The influence of methanol on the dissociation constant of HPMBP (K a ) and the distribution constant of HPMBP (p HL ) between carbon tetrachloride and water-methanol solutions was investigated. (Authors)

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy investigation using ab initio and density functional theory analysis on the structure of 3-(6-benzoyl-2-oxobenzo[ d]oxazol-3(2 H)-yl)propanoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hakan; Algül, Öztekin; Önkol, Tijen

    2008-08-01

    The molecular structure, vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of the 3-(6-benzoyl-2-oxobenzo[ d]oxazol-3(2 H)-yl)propanoic acid were calculated by the HF and DFT methods using 6-31G(d) basis set. The FT-infrared spectra have been measured for the title compound in the solid state. We obtained 11 stable conformers for the title compound, however the Conformer 1 is approximately 3.88 kcal/mol more stable than the Conformer 11. The comparison of the theoretical and experimental geometry of the title compound shows that the X-ray parameters fairly well reproduce the geometry of the Conformer 1. The harmonic vibrations computed of this compound by the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method are in a good agreement with the observed IR spectral data. Theoretical vibrational spectra of the title compound were interpreted by means of PEDs using VEDA 4 program.

  15. Solvent extraction of Zr(IV) and Nb(V) with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4benzoyl-pyrazole-5-one and tri-iso-octylamine from different mineral acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.Y.; Nwabue, F.I.; Ahmed, S.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of Zr(IV) and Nb(V) from aqueous solutions of mineral acids with 1% 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazole-5-one and 5% tri-iso-octylamine solutions in chloroform has been investigated respectively. The mechanism of extraction and the composition of the extracted species have been suggested and the effect of complexing and salting-out agents also determined. Separation factors of various metals with respect to niobium have been estimated and separation from zirconium and many other elements has been achieved. Procedures are recommended for the separation of 95 Nb from 95 Zr- 95 Nb mixture as well as from the fission products. (orig.) [de

  16. (3-Benzoyl-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-olato-κ2O,Obis[2-(2-pyridylphenyl-κ2C1,N]iridium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijun Luo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ir(C11H8N2(C17H19O2], has an octahedral coordination geometry around the IrIII atom, retaining the cis-C,C,trans–N,N chelate disposition of the two 2-phenylpyridine ligands. The chelate rings are nearly mutually perpendicular [the interplanar angles range from 85.48 (17 to 89.17 (19°]. The two 2-(2-pyridylphenyl ligands are approximately planar, with the plane of the phenyl ring being inclined to that of the pyridine ring by 2.3 (3 and 5.1 (3° in the two ligands. The interplanar angle between the phenyl ring in 3-benzoyl-camphor and the IrO2C3 chelate ring is 35.5 (2°.

  17. An aqueous gel fixed combination of clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and benzoyl peroxide 3.75% for the once-daily treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, David M; Rich, Phoebe; Cook-Bolden, Fran E; Korotzer, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a fixed combination clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and benzoyl peroxide 3.75% (clindamycin-BP 3.75%) aqueous gel in moderate to severe acne vulgaris. A total of 498 patients, 12-40 years of age, were randomized to receive clindamycin-BP 3.75% or vehicle in a double-blind, controlled 12-week, 2-arm study evaluating safety and efficacy using inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts, Evaluator Global Severity Scores (EGSS) and subject self-assessment (SSA). In addition, patients completed a patient satisfaction survey (PSS), acne-specific QoL questionnaire, and assessed their facial skin for shininess/oiliness. Clindamycin-BP 3.75% demonstrated statistical superiority to vehicle in reducing both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions and acne severity. Clindamycin-BP 3.75% showed greater efficacy relative to vehicle in assessments of skin oiliness, SSA and PSS. No substantive differences were seen in cutaneous tolerability among treatment groups and no patients discontinued treatment with Clindamycin-BP 3.75% because of adverse events. Data from controlled studies may differ from clinical practice. It is not possible to determine the contributions from the individual active ingredients. Clindamycin-BP 3.75% provides statistically significant greater efficacy than vehicle with a favorable safety and tolerability profile.

  18. Synthetic protease substrate n-benzoyl-L-argininyl-p-nitroanilide activates specific binding of [3H]estradiol to a protein in rat pancreas: relationship of structure to activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.

    1984-01-01

    N-benzoyl-L-argininyl-p-nitroanilide (BAN), a synthetic substrate for trypsin-like proteolytic enzymes, is a potent activator of [ 3 H]estradiol-binding to a protein present in rat pancreas. When partially purified, this protein is almost devoid of [ 3 H]estradiol-binding activity in the absence of an endogenous accessory factor. BAN can mimic the natural coligand in this steroid binding reaction. The effect of BAN is specific since a number of derivatives of this substance are inactive or may even inhibit steroid binding. It is unlikely that BAN exerts this stimulatory action indirectly, possibly by preventing proteolytic inactivation of the [ 3 H]estradiol-binding protein, since preincubation of the protein in the absence of BAN resulted neither in reduced rate, nor extent, of steroid binding following BAN addition. Also, a number of protease inhibitors had no effect on the binding reaction. Of those inhibitors tested, only antipain significantly enhanced binding of [ 3 H]estradiol, but only about 20 percent as effectively as BAN. 13 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  19. (2-Benzoyl-1-phenylethenolato-κ2O,O′bis[2-(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylphenyl-κC1]iridium(III dichloromethane disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav I. Bezzubov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present here synthesis and crystal structure of a neutral IrIII complex, [Ir(C19H13N22(C15H11O2]·2CH2Cl2 or [Ir(C^N2O^O]·2CH2Cl2, where C^N is 1,2-diphenyl-1H-benzimidazole and O^O is 2-benzoyl-1-phenylethenolate. The coordination sphere of the IrIII atom, located on a twofold rotation axis, is that of a slighlty distorted C2N2O2 octahedron, with the N atoms in a trans configuration. In the crystal, complex molecules assemble through weak C—H...π interactions in the range 2.699 (3–2.892 (3 Å. The solvent CH2Cl2 molecules reside in channels aligned along the a axis and are connected to the complex molecules by C—H...O interactions.

  20. Twelve-week, multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative phase II/III study of benzoyl peroxide gel in patients with acne vulgaris: A secondary publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Makoto; Sato, Shinichi; Furukawa, Fukumi; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Igarashi, Atsuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nagare, Toshitaka; Katsuramaki, Tsuneo

    2017-07-01

    A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative, multicenter study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gel, administrated once daily for 12 weeks to Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Efficacy was evaluated by counting all inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events, local skin tolerability scores and laboratory test values. All 609 subjects were randomly assigned to receive the study products (2.5% and 5% BPO and placebo), and 607 subjects were included in the full analysis set, 544 in the per protocol set and 609 in the safety analyses. The median rates of reduction from baseline to the last evaluation of the inflammatory lesion counts, the primary end-point, in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 72.7% and 75.0%, respectively, and were significantly higher than that in the placebo group (41.7%). No deaths or other serious adverse events were observed. The incidences of adverse events in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 56.4% and 58.8%, respectively; a higher incidence than in the placebo group, but there was no obvious difference between the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups. All adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Most adverse events did not lead to study product discontinuation. The results suggested that both 2.5% and 5% BPO are useful for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Open-label, randomized, multicenter, phase III study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of benzoyl peroxide gel in long-term use in patients with acne vulgaris: A secondary publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Makoto; Nagare, Toshitaka; Katsuramaki, Tsuneo

    2017-06-01

    An open-label, randomized, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of long-term use of 2.5% and 5% benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gels administrated once daily for 52 weeks to Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. The efficacy of the study drugs was evaluated by counting inflammatory lesions and non-inflammatory lesions. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events, local skin tolerability scores and laboratory test values. In total, 458 subjects were included in the efficacy and safety analyses. The total lesion count, the efficacy end-point, was similarly changed both in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups over the course of the study. The median rates of reduction from baseline to week 12 were approximately 65%. Thereafter, the counts were maintained at a reduced level without increasing until week 52. The median rates at week 52 were approximately 80%. Similar trends were observed for inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts. Bacteriological evaluation indicated similar distribution of the minimum inhibitory concentration of each of the antibacterial drugs against Propionibacterium acnes between the values at baseline and at week 52, suggesting that long-term use did not result in changes in the drug sensitivity. The incidence of adverse events was 84.0% in the 2.5% BPO group and 87.2% in the 5% BPO group. Many of the adverse events occurred within the first month and were mild or moderate in severity and transient. The results suggest that both 2.5% and 5% BPO gels are effective and safe for long-term treatment of patients with acne vulgaris. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

  3. Formation of a dinuclear copper(II) complex through the cleavage of CN bond of 1-benzoyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shardin, Rosidah; Pui, Law Kung; Yamin, Bohari M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Kassim, Mohammad B. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    A simple mononuclear octahedral copper(II) complex was attempted from the reaction of three moles of 1-benzoyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole and one mole of copper(II) perchlorate hexahydrate in methanol. However, the product of the reaction was confirmed to be a dinuclear copper(II) complex with μ-(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato) and 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole ligands attached to each of the Cu(II) centre atom. The copper(II) ion assisted the cleavage of the C{sub benzoyl}N bond afforded a 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole molecule. Deprotonation of the 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole gave a 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato, which subsequently reacted with the Cu(II) ion to give the (3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato)(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole)Cu(II) product moiety. The structure of the dinuclear complex was confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The complex crystallized in a monoclinic crystal system with P2(1)/n space group and cell dimensions of a = 12.2029(8) Å, b = 11.4010(7) Å, c = 14.4052(9) Å and β = 102.414(2)°. The compound was further characterized by mass spectrometry, CHN elemental analysis, infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy and the results concurred with the x-ray structure. The presence of d-d transition at 671 nm (ε = 116 dm{sup 3} mol{sup −1} cm{sup −1}) supports the presence of Cu(II) centres.

  4. Prevention and Reduction of Atrophic Acne Scars with Adapalene 0.3%/Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel in Subjects with Moderate or Severe Facial Acne: Results of a 6-Month Randomized, Vehicle-Controlled Trial Using Intra-Individual Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréno, Brigitte; Bissonnette, Robert; Gagné-Henley, Angélique; Barankin, Benjamin; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Tan, Jerry

    2018-04-01

    Very few clinical trials have investigated the effect of topical acne treatment on scarring. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of adapalene 0.3%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel (A0.3/BPO2.5) in atrophic acne scar formation in patients with acne. In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, vehicle-controlled study, subjects with moderate or severe facial acne (Investigator's Global Assessment [IGA] score 3 or 4; ≥ 25 inflammatory lesions; ten or more atrophic acne scars) applied A0.3/BPO2.5 or vehicle daily per half face for 24 weeks. Subjects with acne requiring systemic treatment were excluded. Assessments included investigator atrophic acne scar count, Scar Global Assessment (SGA), acne lesion count, IGA, skin roughness and skin texture, subject self-assessment of clinical acne-related scars and satisfaction questionnaire, tolerability, and safety. Included subjects (n = 67) had mainly moderate acne (92.5% IGA 3); mean scores at baseline were approximately 40 acne lesions and 12 scars per half face. By week 24, the change from baseline in total scar count was - 15.5% for A0.3/BPO2.5 versus  + 14.4% for vehicle (approximately 30% difference), with a mean of 9.5 scars versus 13.3 per half face, respectively (p vehicle (p vehicle (p vehicle side, most commonly skin irritation (14.9 vs. 6%, respectively). Topical A0.3/BPO2.5 prevented and reduced atrophic scar formation. Scar count increased with vehicle (+ 14.4%) but decreased with A0.3/BPO2.5 (- 15.5%) over 24 weeks. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02735421.

  5. Benzoyl peroxide-induced damage to DNA and its components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazlewood, C; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    of base adducts, though the exact identity of the species detected in these cases could not be determined due to the complexity of the spectra. Hydrogen abstraction at the sugar-phosphate backbone is also believed to occur with these substrates as strand breakage is observed; the extent of the latter...

  6. Protonation constant of salicylidene (N-benzoyl)glycyl hydrazone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ductance, magnetic susceptibility, electronic, IR, ESR, XRD (powder) and NMR studies have been car ... IR and NMR spectra suggest the tri- .... and dried at room temperature. ..... IR and NMR data can be seen on the web version of this paper.

  7. 35Cl NQR spectra of complexes of tetrachlorostannane with substituted benzoyl chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feshin, V.P.; Dogushin, G.V.; Lazarev, I.M.; Voronkov, M.G.; Feshina, E.V.

    1987-01-01

    35 Cl NQR spectra of mixtures of SnCl 4 with 2-, 3- and 4-XC 6 H 4 COCl were obtained. The electronic and steric structure of the complexes obtained was established. Their formation and structure depend on the nature of substituents X. Complexes with a trigonal-bipyramidal structure are formed with the participation of the carbonyl oxygen atom of the ligand as an electron-donor-center, and complexes with trans-octahedral structure, with the participation of the sulfur atom of the X = CH 3 S substituent

  8. Photocarcinogenesis and toxicity of benzoyl peroxide in hairless mice after simulated solar radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    with UV radiation. BPO can promote skin tumorigenesis in a mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis model. As acne vulgaris is frequently localized on sun-exposed areas, we investigated whether BPO or BPO-clin accelerates photocarcinogenesis in combination with simulated solar radiation (SSR) in 12 groups of 25...

  9. 2-[2-Benzoyl-3,3-bis(methylsulfanylprop-2-enylidene]malononitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Nirmala

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H12N2OS2, is an example of a push–pull butadiene in which the electron-releasing methylsulfanyl groups and electron-withdrawing nitrile groups on either end of the butadiene chain enhance the conjugation in the system. Short intramolecular C—H...S interactions are observed. In the crystal structure, an O...C short contact of 2.917 (3 Å is observed.

  10. Photocarcinogenesis and toxicity of benzoyl peroxide in hairless mice after simulated solar radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    hairless female C3.Cg/TifBomTac-immunocompetent mice. BPO or BPO-clin was applied topically to the back five times each week, followed by SSR three times each week (2, 3, or 4 standard erythema doses) 3-4 h later, for 365 days or until death. Generally BPO and BPO-clin did not accelerate the time to first...

  11. 12-Benzoyl-2-methylnaphtho[2,3-b]indolizine-6,11-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H15NO3, the fused naphthaquinone–pyrrole unit is approximately planar, the naphthaquinone ring system making a dihedral angle of 2.91 (10° with the pyrrole ring. The plane of the pyrrole ring makes a dihedral angle 61.64 (14° with that of the benzene ring of the benzoylmethylene group. The crystal structure is stablized by intramolecular C—H...O interactions.

  12. Benzoyl-m-nitro-acetanilide as a gravimetric reagent for cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, P.K.; Das, J.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium (14-23 mg) has been quantitatively precipitated with benzyol-m-nitroacetanilide and the highly insoluble yellow-coloured bis complex has been dried at 110 0 for weighing. The conversion factor is 0.1656. The relative standard deviation is +- 0.14%. Separation from Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , Pb 2+ , Mg 2+ , Al 3+ , In 3+ and Cr 3+ was possible using sodium or magnesium-EDATA as the masking agent. Thermogravimetric studies indicated the complex to be stable upto 410 0 . (author)

  13. synthesis, screening and qsar studies of 3-benzoyl-2-oxo/thioxo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    divided into training and test sets. ... attention owing to their diverse range of biological properties such as calcium channel modulator [1] ... QSAR studies of antimicrobial activity represent an emerging and exceptionally important topic in the ...

  14. Formulation and evaluation of a topical niosomal gel containing a combination of benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin for antiacne activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ankush; Singh, Sima; Kotla, Niranjan G; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Ankush Gupta,1,* Sima Singh,1,* Niranjan G Kotla,1 Thomas J Webster2,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happ...

  15. 75 FR 9767 - Classification of Benzoyl Peroxide as Safe and Effective and Revision of Labeling to Drug Facts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... develop carcinogenicity study protocols (Refs. 11 through 14). In 2001, CHPA submitted a mouse and a rat... rule proposed that this labeling appear in the patient package insert. In the 1995 proposed rule, we... redness, burning, itching, peeling, or possibly swelling. Irritation may be reduced by using the product...

  16. Rapid determination and chemical change tracking of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by multi-step IR macro-fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Sun, Su-Qin; Gu, Dong-Chen; He, Helen; Xu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Chang

    2016-02-01

    BPO is often added to wheat flour as flour improver, but its excessive use and edibility are receiving increasing concern. A multi-step IR macro-fingerprinting was employed to identify BPO in wheat flour and unveil its changes during storage. BPO contained in wheat flour (treatment of BPO in wheat flour based on 2DCOS-IR and spectral subtraction analysis, it was found that BPO in wheat flour not only decomposed into benzoic acid and benzoate, but also produced other deleterious substances, e.g., benzene. This study offers a promising method with minimum pretreatment and time-saving to identify BPO in wheat flour and its chemical products during storage in a holistic manner.

  17. High activity of iron containing metal-organic-framework in acylation of p-xylene with benzoyl chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurfiřtová, Lenka; Seo, Y.; K.; Hwang, Y. K.; Chang, J.; S.; Čejka, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 1 (2012), s. 85-90 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acylation * p-xylene * zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2012

  18. Benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin/UVA is more effective than fluticasone/UVA in progressive macular hypomelanosis: a randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Relyveld, Germaine N.; Kingswijk, Melanie M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Menke, Henk E.; Bos, Jan D.; Westerhof, Wiete

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no effective treatment for progressive macular hypomelanosis. Recent findings indicate that Propionibacterium acnes may play a role in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy with anti-inflammatory therapy in patients with

  19. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Copper in Some Real, Environmental, Biological, Food and Soil Samples Using Salicylaldehyde Benzoyl Hydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamaluddin Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A very simple, ultra-sensitive, highly selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts copper(II has been developed. Salicylaldehy debenzoyl hydrazone (SAL-BH has been proposed as a new analytical reagent for the direct non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II. SAL-BH reacts with copper in a slightly acidic (0.0001-0.005 M H2SO4 in 40% 1,4-dioxane media with copper(II to give a highly absorbent greenish yellow chelate with a molar ratio 1:1(CuII: SAL-BH The reaction is instantaneous and the maximum absorption was obtained at 404 nm and remains stable for 72 h. The average molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 1.4×105 L mol-1 cm-1 and 5.0 ng cm-2 of copper(II, respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.01 – 18 mg L-1 of CuII. The detection limit and quantification limit of the reaction system were found to be 1 ng mL-1 and 10 µg L-1, respectively. A large excess of over 50 cations, anions and complexing agents (e.g., tartrate, oxalate, citrate, phosphate, thiocyanate etc. do not interfere in the determination. The method is highly selective for copper and was successfully used for the determination of copper in several standard reference materials (steels and alloys as well as in some environmental waters (portable and polluted, biological (human blood and urine, food and soil samples and solutions containing both copper(I and copper(II as well as some complex synthetic mixtures. The results of the proposed method for biological and food samples were comparable with AAS and were found to be in good agreement. The method has high precision and accuracy (s = ± 0.01 for 0.5 mg L-1.

  20. New 4′-substituted benzoyl-β-D glycoside from the fruit pulp of Terminalia belerica with antiplatelet and antioxidant potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaseem Ahmad Ansari

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Mass spectra and 1H NMR confirmed the isolated compound structure which was supported by 13C NMR and IR spectra. Tb-01could be promising for future applications in the treatment of blood clots, pulmonary embolism, and other related diseases.

  1. Chiral Recognition in Molecular and Macromolecular Pairs of(S)- and (R)- 1-Cyano-2-Methylpropyl 4’((4-(8-Vinyloxyoctyloxy)Benzoyl) Biphenyl-4-Carboxylate Enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-30

    above please provide a graphical abstract of the paper ar, return it to the Editorial Office as soon as possible. 4oeg0 o F-99S or TS A& I DTI•’ I J. u1...TCLSICAON 2.LIMITATION OF ABSTRAC •F oFPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT . unclass ified Graphical Abstracts for Perkin Txans. 1 Example TITLE GRAPHICAL ... ABSTRACT AUTHORS’ N AMES Template (S)-II Chiral recognition in molecular and . -- macromolecular pairs of (S)- and -- (R)-i-cyano-2-methyipropyl 4’-{[4

  2. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure determination of N-p-methylphenyl-4-benzoyl-3,4-diphenyl-2-azetidinone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kabak, M.; Senöz, H.; Elmali, A.; Adar, V.; Svoboda, I.; Dušek, Michal; Fejfarová, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 7 (2010), s. 1220-1222 ISSN 1063-7745 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : molecular structure * carbon * azetidione Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.644, year: 2010

  3. A comparative evaluation of synergistic extraction behaviour of hexavalent uranium with thenoyl tri-fluoro-acetone (HTTA) and 1-phenyl, 3-methyl, 4-benzoyl pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP) using mono-functional and bi-functional neutral donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, S.A.; Lohithakshan, K.V.; Mithapara, P.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Synergistic extraction of hexavalent uranium was studied using acidic extractants HTTA/HPMBP with two different bifunctional neutral donors, DHDECMP and CMPO, from HNO 3 medium at various fixed temperatures. The equilibrium constants for the organic phase addition reaction (log K s ) were correlated with the basicity (K h ) of the neutral donors. The data reported earlier for monofunctional neutral donors (DPSO, TBP, TOPO) were used for the comparison. A linear correlation between log K s and log K h was observed for U(VI)/HTTA/S (S = neutral donor) system. However, in U(VI)/HPMBP/S system, the observed log K s values for bifunctional neutral donors were much lower than those expected from linear correlation. This was attributed to the different mechanisms operative in the synergistic extraction i.e. substitution in the former vs. addition in the latter. These conclusions are also supported by the thermodynamic data obtained in the present studies. Nevertheless, it is seen that bifunctional neutral donors act only as monofunctional with both HTTA and HPMBP. (orig.)

  4. CCDC 929468: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : ((eta^5^-1-(2-((4-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl)amino)ethyl)-2,3,4,5-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl))-dichloro-triphenylphosphine-rhodium chloroform solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Jantke, Dominik; Marziale, Alexander N.; Reiner, Thomas; Kraus, Florian; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Raba, Andreas; Eppinger, Jö rg

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  5. Crystal Structures and Characterizations of Bis(1-benzoyl methyl-benzotriazole-N3)dichoro Metal(II) Complex:[MCl2-(C6H4N3CH2COPh)2] [M=Zn(II), Co(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN,Fang-Fang(建方方); SUN,Ping-Ping(孙萍萍); XIAO,Hai-Lian(肖海连); JIAO,Kui(焦奎)

    2004-01-01

    The structures of [MCl2(C6H4N3CH2COPh)2] [M=Zn(II) (1), Co(II) (2)] have been determined by X-ray crystallography. They were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, electronic spectrum and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. They all crystallize in the triclinic system, space group Pī, with lattice parameters a=0.9449(2) nm, b=1.1291(2) nm, c=1.3637(3) nm, α=111.70(3)°, β=94.33(3)°, γ=90.97(3), Z=2 for compound 1; a=0.9437(2) nm, b=1.1277(2) nm, c=1.3650(3) nm, α=111.76(3)°, β=94.50(3)°, γ=90.80(3)°, Z=2 for compound 2. The metal ions are all coordinated by two Cl- anions and two nitrogen atoms of 1-benzoylmethyl-benzotriazole ligands, forming the distorted tetrahedral geometry. The Zn-Cl and Zn-N bond lengths are 0.2209(2), 0.2210(2) nm and 0.2059(4), 0.2067(4) nm, respectively. The Co-Cl and Co-N bond lengths are 0.2215(2), 0.2222(2) nm and 0.2028(5), 0.2045(5) nm, respectively. The thermogravimetric (TG) data indicate that they are nearly similar in TG curve, and there are not structural transitions in the two compounds. They all have a high thermal stability. But, there is little difference in DTG (differential thermogravimetric) curves of those two compounds. Elemental analysis, electronic and IR spectra are in agreement with the structural data.

  6. The use of iodotrimethylsilane in nucleosidation procedure.

    OpenAIRE

    Tocik, Z; Earl, R A; Beránek, J

    1980-01-01

    1-O-Acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-beta-D-ribofuranose (I) was reacted with iodotrimethylsilane (II) and the product, the glycosyl iodide, was coupled with silylated uracil to afford 1-(2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)uracil (III; 89%), with silyated cytosine to afford, on subsequent acetylation, 1-(2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-beta-0D-ribofuranosyl)-4-acetamido-2-(1H)-pyrimidinone (IVb; 81%), and with chloromercuri-N-benzoyl-adenine to afford Va and on subsequent debenzoylation, adenosine (Vb; 4...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of bio-based polyurethane from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benzoylated tannin prepared by benzoylation of cashewnut husk tannin, was treated with hexame-thylenediisocyanate in the presence of 1,4-butanediol as an extender to prepare thermosetting polyurethane. The sample was characterized using FT–IR and 13C NMR spectra. Thermal, morphological, physico-chemical and ...

  8. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetic property of the complex is also remarkably enhanced compared to that of the diamagnetic 2-benzoyl pyridine which may be suitable for applications in devices. FTIR and Raman spectra of the ligand, 2-benzoyl pyridine and the synthesized complex are recorded at room temperature, which not only confirm the ...

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tant way to access α-aminonitriles.1 α-Aminonitriles are very useful building blocks ... found that benzoyl chloride could efficiently promote. K4[Fe(CN)6] to release ... (2a) as sole product in 91% yield only using benzoyl chloride as a promoter.

  10. The Nature of the Micellar Stern Region As Studied by Reaction Kinetics. 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, Niklaas J.; Serena, Paola; Blandamer, Michael J.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of rate-retarding effects of cationic micelles on the water-catalyzed hydrolyses of a series of para-substituted 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazoles (1a-f) and 1-benzoyl-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole (2) has been studied using kinetic methods. A comparison is drawn between medium effects in the micellar

  11. Nucleation, Melting Behaviour and Mechanical Properties of Poly(L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anew category of nucleating agent for poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was developed. An organic nucleating agent; N,N'-bis(benzoyl) suberic acid dihydrazide (NA) was synthesized from benzoyl hydrazine and suberoyl chloride which was deprived from suberic acid via acylation. The nucleation, melting behaviour and ...

  12. Novel N-benzoyltyramines of Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae); Novas N-benzoiltiraminas de Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Cristovam do Nascimento; Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Malaquias, Karla da Silva; Lima, Murilo Marinho de Castro; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar, E-mail: dmfs@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical studies of the leaves and fruits have led to the identification of the known amides (E)-N-methyl-cinnamamide, N-benzoyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-geranyl tyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl)-geranyl tyramine, in addition to the new N-{l_brace}2-[4-(butoxyl-3-one)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxylanal)phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-{l_brace}2-[4-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butoxyloic) phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}benzamide, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-epoxy)-geranyltyramine, N-benzoyl-O-(4-acetoxyl-6,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine and N-benzoyl-O-(6-acetoxyl-4,7-dihydroxy)-geranyltyramine. The isolated compounds clearly point to Swinglea phytochemical affinities with other Aurantioideae species. (author)

  13. The hydrolysis of C12 primary alkyl sulfates in concentrated aqueous solutions. Part 2. Influence of alkyl structure on hydrolytic reactivity in concentrated aqueous mixtures of sodium primary alkyl sulfates : 1-benzoyl-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole as a probe o

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethell, Donald; Fessey, Roger E.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Roberts, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of the hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of three sodium C12-alkyl sulfates (SXS), sodium 2-methylundecyl sulfate (SMS), sodium cycloundecylmethyl sulfate (SCS) and sodium 2-pentylheptyl sulfate (SPS), has been investigated at concentrations up to 70% and compared with the behaviour of

  14. Solvent extraction of uranium(VI) with benzoylacetanilide and its nitro derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Gautam Kumar; Das, Jyotirmoy

    1984-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of uranium(VI) chelates of benzoylacetanilide and four of its mononitro derivatives, viz., benzoyl-o-nitroacetanilide, benzoyl-m-nitroacetanilide, benzoyl-p-nitro-acetanilide and p-nitrobenzoylacetanilide from aqueous solution into carbon tetrachloride has been studied. The extractions have also been carried out in the presence of pyridine, α-picoline, β-picoline and γ-picoline. The extraction constants, and the two phase formation constants of the chelates and adducts have been determined. The effects of the nitro substituent in benzoylacetanilide and formation of syngergistic adducts have been discussed. (author)

  15. Study on polarities of methylphenylpolysiloxanes in gas chromatography; Estudio sobre las polaridades de metilfenilpolisiloxanos en cromatografia de gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pias Barbeira, J B; Gasco Sanchez, L

    1975-07-01

    When studying the correlations between molecular structure and retention parameters in alcohols, alcohol benzoyl derivatives and carbonyl 2,4-dinitrophe nyl hydrazones some anomalies probably due to polarities of methylphenylpolysiloxane stationary phases have been observed. (Author) 31 refs.

  16. Sensitive radiometric assay for enkephalin convertase and other carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stack, G.; Fricker, L.D.; Snyder, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive radiometric assay for carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes has been developed using enkephalin convertase, an enkephalin synthesizing carboxypeptidase. The assay is based on the differential solubility of 3 H-labeled substrate and product in chloroform. The substrates 3 H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Arg or 3 H-benzoyl-Phe-Leu-Arg are poorly soluble in chloroform due to the charged arginine. The products of carboxypeptidase B-like activity on these substrates, 3 H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala or 3 H-benzoyl Phe-Leu partition quantitatively into chloroform, allowing rapid separation of product from substrate. This assay is approximately 100 times more sensitive than a similar fluorometric assay utilizing dansyl-Phe-Ala-Arg as a substrate

  17. Sensitive radiometric assay for enkephalin convertase and other carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stack, G.; Fricker, L.D.; Snyder, S.H.

    1984-01-09

    A sensitive radiometric assay for carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes has been developed using enkephalin convertase, an enkephalin synthesizing carboxypeptidase. The assay is based on the differential solubility of /sup 3/H-labeled substrate and product in chloroform. The substrates /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Arg or /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Leu-Arg are poorly soluble in chloroform due to the charged arginine. The products of carboxypeptidase B-like activity on these substrates, /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala or /sup 3/H-benzoyl Phe-Leu partition quantitatively into chloroform, allowing rapid separation of product from substrate. This assay is approximately 100 times more sensitive than a similar fluorometric assay utilizing dansyl-Phe-Ala-Arg as a substrate.

  18. 2-[(1-Benzamido-2-methoxy-2-oxoethylamino]benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Anouar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The carboxylic α,α-diaminoester 2-[(1-benzamido-2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl amino]benzoic acid is obtained by N-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate N-benzoylated with 2-aminobenzoic acid.

  19. Studies on the Synthesis of Etodolac Derivatives as Potential Anti-inflammatory Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Chung, Y.S. [Department of Chemistry, Chungbuk Natiojal University (Korea); Jang, H.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National Polytechnic University (Korea); Ryu, S.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Dae Bul University (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    For the synthesis of new anti-inflammatory agents as indol derivatives, we have synthesized a-benzoyl-1-ethyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydro-8-ethyl-9-(N-benzoyl)pyrano[3,4-b]indole-= 1-acetic acid methyl ester. It was a new method for a-substituted etodolac carboxylic acid. The synthetic process was composed of four steps, and 7-ethylindole and oxalyl chloride were used as starting materials. The third step, cyclization was carried out by addition of borontrifluoride diethyl etherate in 66% yield. The step of reduction and cyclization were simplified successfully. The final product, a-benzoyl-1-ethyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano[3,4-b]indole-1-acetate (etodollic acid methyl ester) and benzoyl chloride. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Study on polarities of methylphenylpolysiloxanes in gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pias Barbeira, J. B.; Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1975-01-01

    When studying the correlations between molecular structure and retention parameters in alcohols, alcohol benzoyl derivatives and carbonyl 2,4-dinitrophe nyl hydrazones some anomalies probably due to polarities of methylphenylpolysiloxane stationary phases have been observed. (Author) 31 refs

  1. Temperature influence and reset voltage study of bipolar resistive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    which is typical for electronic transportation in a Cu metal. It is indicated ... the defects in the oxide (Choi et al 2005; Waser 2009). Researchers ... and ethanol as starting materials while benzoyl acetone ..... the temperature dependence of Roff.

  2. On interaction of lanthanide ions with cyclic β-diketones and diantipyryllkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimenko, G.I.; Ul'yanova, T.M.; Vitkun, R.A.; Tishchenko, M.A.; Poluehktov, N.S.

    1985-01-01

    Spectrophotometric and luminescence methods have been used to study neodymium, holmium, erbium and europium complexing with diantipyrylalkanes and cyclic β-diketones (2-acetyl-, 2-benzoyl-1,3-indandiones and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5). Different-ligand complexes of 1:1:3 composition are stated to be formed. Molar coefficients of extinction and constants of stability as well as oscillator strengths of supersensitive transitions are determined. Correlations of the determined values are discussed

  3. Lanthanide nitrates as Lewis acids in the one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, Juliana A.; Faustino, Wagner M., E-mail: julianadqf@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Zampieri, Davila de S.; Moran, Paulo J.S.; Rodrigues, Jose A.R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sa, Gilberto F. de [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In this work we report the use of lanthanide nitrates [Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}] acting as catalyst in direct one pot synthesis of 3-benzoyl- and 3-acetyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives from ketones, nitriles and nitric acid. This is the first example of one-pot synthesis of benzoyl- and acetyl 1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives preparation using acetophenones derivates with electron-donator groups. (author)

  4. Search for new radioprotective agents. Part 34. Synthesis of Bunte's salts and isothicarbamides of aromatic derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulecki, J.; Kalinowska-Torz, J.; Senczuk, L.; Skwarski, D.

    1977-01-01

    In exchange reactions involving sodium thiosulphate and the respective halogen derivatives, the following Bunte's salts hitherto undescribed in the available literature were obtained: sodium salt of 4-methyl-benzyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /1/, sodium salt of 4-metoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /1/, sodum salt of 4 metoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /3/, sodium salt of 4-ethoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /5/, sodum salt of 2-methoxy-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /7/, sodium salt of 4-ethoxy-phenly-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /8/, sodium salt of 4-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /9/, sodium salt of 3-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /10/, and sodium salt of 4-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-ethylene-thiosulphuric acid /11/. In exchange reactions involving thiourea and the respective halogenderivatives, the following isothiocarbamides were obtained: 4-methyl-benzoyl-methylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /2/, 4-methoxy-benzoyl-methylene-isotchiocarbamide hydrochloride /4/, 4-ethoxy-benzoyl-methylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /6/, 4-methosy-phenyl-carbamyl-ethylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /12/. (author)

  5. Scoparic acid A, a beta-glucuronidase inhibitor from Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kawasaki, M; Okamura, K; Tamada, Y; Morita, N; Tezuka, Y; Kikuchi, T; Miwa, Y; Taga, T

    1992-12-01

    The 70% EtOH extract of Scoparia dulcis showed inhibitory activity against beta-glucuronidase from bovine liver. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active extract led to the isolation of three labdane-type diterpene acids, scoparic acid A [1] [6-benzoyl-12-hydroxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-18-oic acid], scoparic acid B [2] [6-benzoyl-14,15-dinor-13-oxo-8(17)-labden-18-oic acid], and scoparic acid C [3] [6-benzoyl-15-nor-14-oxo-8(17)-labden-18-oic acid], the structures of which were established by spectral means, including X-ray analysis. Scoparic acid A was found to be a potent beta-glucuronidase inhibitor.

  6. N-(2-Chlorophenyl-2-methylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound (N2CP2MBA, C14H12ClNO, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds are trans to each other. Furthermore, the conformation of the N—H bond is syn to the ortho-chloro group in the aniline ring and the C=O bond is syn to the ortho-methyl substituent in the benzoyl ring, similar to what is observed in 2-chloro-N-(2-chlorophenylbenzamide and 2-methyl-N-phenylbenzamide. The amide group makes almost the same dihedral angles of 41.2 (14 and 42.2 (13° with the aniline and benzoyl rings, respectively, while the dihedral angle between the benzoyl and aniline rings is only 7.4 (3°. The molecules in N2CP2MBA are packed into chains through N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. 2-Chloro-N-(3-chlorophenylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the the title compound, C13H9Cl2NO, the N—H and C=O groups are mutually trans. Furthermore, the conformation of the C=O group is syn to the ortho-chloro group in the benzoyl ring, while the N—H bond is anti to the meta-chloro group in the aniline ring. The amide group forms dihedral angles of 89.11 (19 and 22.58 (37°, respectively, with the benzoyl and aniline rings, while the benzoyl and aniline rings form a dihedral angle of 69.74 (14°. The molecules are linked into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Fries rearrangement of naphthyl benzoates; Ansoku kosan naphthyl no fries ten`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, J.; Haraguchi, Y.; Iwaki, T.; Yamana, Sasaki, H. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-10

    When 1-naphthyl benzoate (1{alpha}) was boiled with anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in chlorobenzene, 2-benzoyl-l-naphthol(2) and 4-benzoyl-l-naphthol(3) were obtained as the rearrangement products. A product 1-benzoyl-2-naphthol (4) was given from 2-naphthyl benzoate (1{beta}) under the same reaction conditions. It seems that 2 and 3 are formed via intramolecular pathway from 1{alpha}. Other ester 1{beta} may proceed via both inter- and intramolecular pathways to give 4. Retro-Fries rearrangement of 2 and 3 to 1{alpha} took place in the presence of AlCl3 in boiling chlorobenzene. The compound 4 `however` was almost recovered the reaction of 4 with AlCl3 in chlorobenzene at refluxed temperature. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Chemical Constituents from Stem Bark and Roots of Clausena anisata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Dongo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on the stem bark and roots of the tropical shrub Clausena anisata led to the isolation and characterization three carbazole alkaloids: girinimbine, murrayamine-A and ekeberginine; two peptide derivatives: aurantiamide acetate and N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninyl-N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninate; and a mixture of two phytosterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS.

  10. Nitrolysis of the CN Single Bond and Related Chemistry of Nitro and Nitroso Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    oxime of be 4,5-diphenyl-l-triphenylmethoxy-l,23- triazole (11). It was benzoyl cyanide (Scheme 6), for which radical intermediates hydrolysed by...S-Pnitroxide (a radical scavenger) or benzoyl peroxide (a radical *PhC CCN)- NO2 Ag PhCON--CPh suc)I I source). A partial extension of the overall...two anomethylenenitronate anion. (Attempts to prepare the pathways for fragmentation of the ester (3) (C,.H,0 N.O,): one ketenimine (15) by a

  11. (4bS,8aS-1-Isopropyl-4b,8,8-trimethyl-4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9,10-octahydrophenanthren-2-yl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouane Oubabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C27H34O2, was hemisynthesized through direct benzoylation of the naturally occurring meroterpene totarol. The central fused six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation, whereas the terminal six-membered ring displays a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the fused benzene ring and the benzoyl benzene ring is 73.05 (14°. The S,S chirality of the molecule is consistent with the synthetic pathway, and confirmed by the refinement of the Flack parameter.

  12. Hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as an eco-friendly cyanide source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Li, Rongzhi; Zheng, Huanhuan; Wen, Fei; Li, Hongbo; Yin, Junjun; Yang, Jingya

    2013-01-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly method for hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines via one-pot two-step procedure using potassium hexacyanoferrate)II) as cyanide source, benzoyl chloride as a promoter, and potassium carbonate as a base is described. This protocol has the features of using nontoxic, nonvolatile and inexpensive cyanide source, high yield, and simple work-up procedure. (author)

  13. 76 FR 78259 - Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ....ftc.gov/os/publiccomments.shtm . As a matter of discretion, the Commission tries to remove individuals... clindamycin, an antibiotic, and benzoyl peroxide, an antimicrobial. Valeant owns the only Abbreviated New Drug... time consuming. Developing and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the manufacture...

  14. Reactive compatibilization of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate/starch blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, P.; Hristova - Bogaerds, D.G.; Schmit, P.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Lemstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The dispersion of starch as a filler in hydrophobic ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) rubber is an issue. To obtain a fine dispersion of starch in EVA rubber, EVA/starch blends were prepared by reactive extrusion in the pres- ence of maleic anhydride (MA), benzoyl peroxide (BPO), and glycerol. MA,

  15. Ability of m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid to induce the ornithine decarboxylase marker of skin tumor promotion and inhibition of this response by gallotannins, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, and their monomeric units in mouse epidermis in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilan Chen; Elisabeth M. Perchellet; Xiao Mei Gao; Steven W. Newell; richard W. Hemingway; Vittorio Bottari; Jean-Pierre Perchellet

    1995-01-01

    m-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid (CPBA) was tested for its ability to induce the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) marker of skin tumor promotion. In contrast to benzoyl peroxide, dicumyl peroxide, and 2-butanol peroxide, 5 mg of CPBA applied twice at a 72-h interval induce ODC activity at least as much as 3 ug of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). ODC induction peaks...

  16. TEENAGERS (10 - 20 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    naked eye, but the skin looks greasy. Microcomedones ... The main focus of therapy is to reduce the formation of microcomedones in the sebaceous ... agent or a topical or oral antibiotic. Benzoyl ..... as the skin is generally very dry. Extensive ...

  17. Tailoring the morphology and properties of poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/starch blends via reactive compatibilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, P.; Hristova - Bogaerds, D.G.; Schmit, P.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Lemstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/starch (PLA/EVA/starch) ternary blends were prepared by multi-step melt processing (reactive extrusion) in the presence of maleic anhydride (MA), benzoyl peroxide and glycerol. The effects of MA and glycerol concentration on the morphology and

  18. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (VII) and its alcoholic solution gave a red coloration with ferric chloride. (yield 42 per cent). (Found: C, 647; H, 46; CH, Os requires C, 65.0;. H, 4.5 per cent). The sodium bicarbonate solution, on acidification, gave an acid which is described below. Hydrolysis of methyl 2:4-dihydroxy-3-benzoyl-5-acetylbenzoate to 2:4-.

  19. Synthesis of acrylic prepolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Dahlan bin Haji Mohd; Mohamad Hilmi bin Mahmood.

    1988-04-01

    An acrylic prepolymer was synthesized from glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylic acid (AA). Butyl acetate (BAc), benzoyl peroxide (BzO), 4-methoxyphenol (MPh) and triethylamine (TEA) were used as solvent, initiator, inhibitor and catalyst respectively. Observations of the synthesis leading to the formation of acrylic prepolymer are described. (author)

  20. P SETT2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. P SETT2,. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 pp 60. Magnetic measurements, Raman and infrared spectra of metal–ligand complex derived from CoCl 2 · 6H 2 O and 2-benzoyl pyridine · S DATTA A S MAHAPATRA P SETT2, ...

  1. p k chakrabarti

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. P K CHAKRABARTI. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 pp 60. Magnetic measurements, Raman and infrared spectra of metal–ligand complex derived from CoCl 2 · 6H 2 O and 2-benzoyl pyridine · S DATTA A S MAHAPATRA P SETT2 ...

  2. s datta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S DATTA. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 pp 60. Magnetic measurements, Raman and infrared spectra of metal–ligand complex derived from CoCl 2 · 6H 2 O and 2-benzoyl pyridine · S DATTA A S MAHAPATRA P SETT2, ...

  3. a s mahapatra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. A S MAHAPATRA. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 pp 60. Magnetic measurements, Raman and infrared spectra of metal–ligand complex derived from CoCl 2 · 6H 2 O and 2-benzoyl pyridine · S DATTA A S MAHAPATRA P SETT2, ...

  4. p k mallick

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. P K MALLICK. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 pp 60. Magnetic measurements, Raman and infrared spectra of metal–ligand complex derived from CoCl 2 · 6H 2 O and 2-benzoyl pyridine · S DATTA A S MAHAPATRA P SETT2, ...

  5. m ghosh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. M GHOSH. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 pp 60. Magnetic measurements, Raman and infrared spectra of metal–ligand complex derived from CoCl 2 · 6H 2 O and 2-benzoyl pyridine · S DATTA A S MAHAPATRA P SETT2, ...

  6. STEREOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF HYDRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS .2. KINETIC MEDIUM EFFECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GALEMA, SA; BLANDAMER, MJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1992-01-01

    Rate constants for the hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions of carbohydrates have been measured as a function of molality and nature of added mono- and disaccharides. The kinetic medium effects induced by the carbohydrates originate from hydration sphere overlap

  7. Hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as an eco-friendly cyanide source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng; Li, Rongzhi; Zheng, Huanhuan; Wen, Fei; Li, Hongbo; Yin, Junjun; Yang, Jingya, E-mail: lizheng@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials for Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Gansu (China)

    2013-11-15

    An efficient and eco-friendly method for hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines via one-pot two-step procedure using potassium hexacyanoferrate)II) as cyanide source, benzoyl chloride as a promoter, and potassium carbonate as a base is described. This protocol has the features of using nontoxic, nonvolatile and inexpensive cyanide source, high yield, and simple work-up procedure. (author)

  8. 21 CFR 133.102 - Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties as the cheese produced when the procedure... purified calcium chloride in a quantity not more than 0.02 percent (calculated as anhydrous calcium... benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate; but the weight of the...

  9. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in paragraph (b) of this section is used. It... purified calcium chloride in a quantity not more than 0.02 percent, calculated as anhydrous calcium... of benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate; but the weight of...

  10. Supporting Information Isolation, characterization and X-ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    distillation. Calcium hydroxide and benzoyl chloride were obtained from Samir Tech. Chem. Pvt. Ltd. All the chemicals used were of AR grade. Solvents used in this study were purified following the standard procedures. 1.2 Physical measurements. The elemental analysis was obtained from Flash Elemental Analyzer-1112.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and applications of polymer-metal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. 4-Acryloxy acetophenone was prepared and subjected to suspension polymerization with divinyl- benzene as a cross-linking agent. The resulting network polymer was ligated with benzoyl hydrazone. The functional polymer was treated with metal ions [Cu(II), Fe(II)]. The polymer-metal complexes obtained.

  12. Methyl 2-Benzamido-2-(1H-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Anouar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic carboxylic α-aminoester methyl 2-benzamido-2-(1H-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate is obtained by O-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate N-benzoylated with 1H-benzimidazol-1-ylmethanol.

  13. An unexpected trimethylstannylpyrrole from a stannylated derivative of tosylmethyl isocyanide (TosMIC) and chalcone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meetsma, A.; Dijkstra, H.P.; ten Have, Ronald; vanLeusen, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, tert-butyl 3-benzoyl-4-phenyl-2- (trimethylstannyl)pyrrole-N-carboxylate, [Sn(CH3)(3)(C22H20NO3)], is one of the first in which the stannyl group is attached to a C atom of the pyrrole ring, There appears to be an intramolecular interaction between the Sn atom

  14. X-ray investigations of sulfur-containing fungicides. II. Intramolecular forces governing the conformation of four novel alpha-phenylazo- and alpha-phenylhydrazono-beta-ketosulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf , W M

    2001-02-01

    The crystal and molecular structures of four novel beta-ketosulfones, phenyl benzoyl(phenylhydrazono)methyl sulfone (I), phenyl benzoyl(4-nitrophenylhydrazono)methyl sulfone (II), (benzoyl)(phenyl)(phenylazo)methyl phenyl sulfone (III) and (benzoyl)(phenyl)(3-chlorophenylazo)methyl 4-tolyl sulfone (IV), have been investigated using X-ray analysis and density functional theory supplemented by ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations. The conformations of (I) and (II) are stabilized by strong intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds formed between the sulfonyl and the alpha-hydrazono moieties. The following increase of a positive charge on the S atoms is compensated via pi-conjugation and stereoelectronic back-donation from the nearby beta-carbonyl group. Compounds (III) and (IV) adopt a strongly distorted propeller shape with pivotal tetrahedral C1 atoms. Distortion mostly follows from the approximate coplanarity of the alpha-azophenyl and alpha-phenyl moieties opposite each other. The main stereoelectronic interactions involve the donation of electron density from the alpha-azo N2 towards the sulfonyl S and the beta-carbonyl C2 atoms.

  15. Hydrophosphorylation of alkynes with phosphinous acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifant'ev, E.E.; Solovetskaya, L.A.; Magdeeva, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    A feature of the homolytic hydrophosphorylation of alkynes, as compared with alkenes, is more ready addition of phosphinous acids in presence of benzoyl peroxides. A difference was found in the hydrophosphorylation of acetylenes with dibutylphosphinous acid and with diarylphosphinous acids: the latter tend to form diaddition products

  16. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  17. Cyclic diarylheptanoids as inhibitors of NO production from Acer nikoense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Jun; Motegi, Yusuke; Nakata, Asami; Hosoya, Takahiro; Morita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We prepared a series of acerogenins A and B derivatives as inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro. Our results suggested that an ester group at a hydroxyl at C-2 improved inhibitory effects without cytotoxicity. A benzoyl ester derivative of acerogenin C showed the most potent inhibitory activity of NO production from lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

  18. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  19. Iridoid glucosides of Paederota bonarota and the relationships between Paederota and Veronica. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Pierce, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In a chemical investigation of the water soluble compounds in Paederota bonarota five known iridoid glucosides were isolated together with a compound with an 8,9-double bond, namely bonarotoside (10-O-benzoyl arborescosidic acid). The known iridoid glucosides were aucubin, catalpol and the 6-O-es...

  20. Redox Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in the Fluorous Triphasic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Zhen CHEN; Yun Peng BAI; Zhao Long LI

    2006-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) was polymerized by using of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA) as an redox initiator in fluorous triphasic system at room temperature.The polymerization was occurred in both initiator layer and monomer layer in a U-tube. It was found that PMMA obtained from the initiator layer with relatively narrow polydispersity.(PDI =1.38)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil based polyurethane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of castor oil based polyurethane/polyacrylo- nitrile (PU/PAN: 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80) were synthesized by condensation reaction of castor oil with methylene diisocyanate and acrylonitrile, employing benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ethylene glycol ...

  2. hydrazines and their nickel(II) complexes: Syntheses, structures and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Narendra Babu

    Abstract. The Schiff bases N-(acyl)-N -(ferrocenylidene)hydrazines (HFcah (1) and HFcbh (2), where acyl = acetyl in 1 and benzoyl in 2 and H represents the dissociable amide proton) were synthesized in high yields (74 and 81%) by condensation reactions of equimolar amounts of ferrocene-carboxaldehyde and the ...

  3. Synthesis of α-Amino Acids via Asymmetric Phase Transfer-Catalyzed Alkylation of Achiral Nickel(II) Complexes of Glycine-Derived Schiff Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokon, Yuri N.; Bespalova, Natalia B.; Churkina, Tatiana D.; Císařová, Ivana; Ezernitskaya, Marina G.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Hrdina, Radim; Kagan, Henri B.; Kočovský, Pavel; Kochetkov, Konstantin A.; Larionov, Oleg V.; Lyssenko, Konstantin A.; North, Michael; Polášek, Miroslav; Peregudov, Alexander S.; Prisyazhnyuk, Vladimir V.; Vyskočil, Štěpán

    2003-01-01

    Achiral, diamagnetic Ni(II) complexes 1 and 3 have been synthesized from Ni(II) salts and the Schiff bases, generated from glycine and PBP and PBA, respectively, in MeONa/MeOH solutions. The requisite carbonyl-derivatizing agents pyridine-2-carboxylic acid(2-benzoyl-phenyl)-amide (PBP) and

  4. Polymer synthesis in ionic liquids : towards a green industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Sanchez, C.A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    The screening of six ionic liqs. used as reaction media in free radical polymn. of Me methacrylate and styrene was performed. AIBN was used as initiator for the polymn. of Me methacrylate and benzoyl peroxide in the case of styrene. Soly. of the used ionic liqs. in these monomers and water was also

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2008-10-31

    2Depatrment of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Azad University, Khorasan Branch, Mashad,. Iran. (Received October 31, 2008; revised April 19, 2009). ABSTRACT. Keggin type of heteropolyacids as green reusable and efficient catalyst was used in the synthesis of benzoyl hydrazones from reaction of benzoic acid ...

  6. A novel dinuclear Ru(II) complex having a bridging ligand of a rigid and extended structure. Incorporation of an anthraquinone unit and efficient emission quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, L.; Choi, Chang-Shik; Araki, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Dinuclear Ru(II) complex having extended conjugation within the bridging ligand was prepared by coupling of the Ru(II) polypyridyl complex having a benzoyl-substituted phenazine unit with diaminoanthraquinone in one step, in which emission from the excited Ru(II) center was efficiently quenched through the anthraquinone unit. (author)

  7. Drug: D07829 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erinary medicine ... CAS: 35367-38-5 PubChem: 96024526 ChEBI: 34703 ChEMBL: CHEMBL49338 LigandBox: D07829 NIKKAJI: J1.888K ... ... D07829 Drug Diflubenzuron ... C14H9ClF2N2O2 D07829.gif ... Same as: C14427 ... Benzoyl phenylurea derivative vet

  8. Drug: D08150 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08150 Drug Lufenuron (INN); Program [veterinary] (TN) ... C17H8Cl2F8N2O3 D08150.gif ... ... Same as: C18434 ... Benzoyl phenylurea derivative veterinary medicine ... CAS: 103055-07-8 PubChem: 96024840 ChEBI: 39384 ChEMBL: CHEMBL1364906 LigandBox: D08150 NIKKAJI: J481.190I ...

  9. Trichomonas infection in pregnancy does it affect perinatal outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomonas infection in pregnancy does it affect perinatal outcome? S.M. Ross, A. van Middelkoop. Abstract. Antenatal patients free of Trichomonas vaginalis vaginal infection were compared with infected patients, half of whom were treated and half left untreated. The treated group was given. benzoyl metronidazole 50 ml ...

  10. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyol modified castor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of glycerol modified castor oil polyurethane (GC–PU) and poly[2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate] (PHEMA) were synthesized using benzoyl peroxide as initiator and N,N-methylene bis acrylamide as crosslinker. GC–PU/PHEMA interpenetrating polymer networks were obtained by ...

  11. Some thiocyanato complexes of cadmium(II) with substituted pyridines and imidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, B P; Ramana Rao, D V [Regional Engineering Coll., Rourkela (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1979-05-01

    The complexes formed by cadmium(II) thiocyanate with 3-acetyl-, 3-bromo-, 3-methyl-, 4-acetyl-, 4-cyano-, 4-benzoyl pyridines, isoquinoline, 3,5-lutidine and imidazole, 2-methyl imidazole, 2-methyl benzimidazoles have been characterised through elemental analysis and molar conductance data. On the basis of infra-red spectroscopic studies, probable structures are discussed.

  12. General-base catalysed hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution of activated amides in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, NJ; Blandamer, MJ; Engberts, JBFN; Buurma, Niklaas J.

    The reactivity of 1-benzoyl-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole (1a) was studied in the presence of a range of weak bases in aqueous solution. A change in mechanism is observed from general-base catalysed hydrolysis to nucleophilic substitution and general-base catalysed nucleophilic substitution. A slight

  13. Homologation of hexopyranosides: use of differential Overhauser nuclear effect, and homo- and heteronuclear correlations of chemical shift for characterization of the 1,6-anhydro-4-O-benzoyl-2,3-didesoky-3-C-trifluoroacetamidomethyl-{beta}-D-m = ethyl ribopyranoside (16a); Homologacao de hexopiranosideos: utilizacao de efeito nuclear overhauser diferencial e de correlacoes homo e heteronuclear de deslocamentos quimicos para a caracterizacao do 1,6-anidro-4-O-benzoil-2,3-didesoxi-3-C- trifluoroacetamidometil-{beta}-D-ribo piranosideo de metila (16a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, J D; Silva, L.G. Fonseca e; Oliveira, A Braga de; Alves, R Jose [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lukacs, G [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Chimie des Substances Naturelles

    1992-12-31

    The discovery of ramified sugars as various antibiotics constituents, leads to the development of various preparation technologies. In the framework of hexa pyranose analogues synthesis, the 1,6-anhydride -16a was one of the byproducts obtained in the attempt of bromide -16 derivative transformation in the iodate -6-1 derivative. The bromide -16 derivative was treated with 2 equivalents of Bu{sub 4} N I during 24 hours, acetonitrile reflux. 3 parts of 2 Bu{sub 4} N I equivalents were added each 24 hours. A unique pure substance was obtained from the formed products mixture, which the structural determination was proposed in accordance with: 1) disappearing of the C-13 signal and the two protons from the anomeric methoxy group, and 2) registering of the molecular ion with m/z 359D, corresponding to the loss of 94D (Br + C H{sub 3}), from the -16 (M{sup +}., m/z 453D). The 1,6-anhydride -16a structure was confirmed by experiments on homo- and heteronuclear correlations of chemical shifts (COSY H-H and COSY C-H), and by spectroscopy using the differential Overhauser nuclear effect. The spectrum obtained by C-H correlation identified the singlet at 5.65 ppm as due to the H-1 ([C-1 x H-1]) 2 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kristen M; Ditre, Chérie M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s) for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne? Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients. Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of child-bearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral. PMID:21691566

  15. Role of P2X7 on steroid synthesis in murine luteal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP regulates different cellular functions through activating purinergic receptors as a signalling molecule or neurotransmitter. P2X7 is highly expressed in murine small luteal cells. In this study, murine luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with P2X7 agonists – ATP and 2′(3′-O-(4-benzoyl-benzoyl-adenosine 50-triphosphate (BzATP and with P2X7 antagonist – brilliant blue G (BBG. We found that ATP and BzATP increased the production of progesterone and had no influence on the production of estradiol. BBG reversed the effect of BzATP and ATP. Further studies demonstrated that ATP and BzATP promoted the expression of CYP11A. These results revealed that P2X7 receptor activation is involved in the steroid synthesis in corpus luteum.

  16. Extraction of hafnium with chelating agents from aqueous-alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Prihoda, J.

    1975-01-01

    The extraction was studied of hafnium into solutions of N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone and di-n-butylphosphoric acid in benzene, toluene, chloroform and tetrachloromethane from aqueous alcoholic solutions with a formal acidity of 2M-HClO 4 . Methyl-, ethyl-, n- and isopropyl- and tert-butyl alcohol were used as organic components in the mixed aqueous-organic phase. In the extraction into N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine the presence of the alcohols resulted in synergic effects analogous to the previously described extraction by substituted benzoylpyrazolone. With the other two extractants, the effect of the alcohols was antagonistic, due to the interaction of alcohol or water with the reagent in the organic phase, and to the decrease in the reagent distribution constant. (author)

  17. Structure of 1,5-Anhydro-D-Fructose: X-ray Analysis of Crystalline Acetylated Dimeric Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundt, Inge; Andersen, Søren Møller; Marcussen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Acetylation of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose under acidic conditions gave two crystalline acetylated dimeric forms, which by X-ray analysis were shown to be diastereomeric spiroketals formed between C-2 and C-2´/C-3´. The structures of the compounds differed only at the configuration at C-2. Acetylation...... or benzoylation of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose in pyridine yielded 3,6-di-O-acetyl-1,5-anhydro-4-deoxy-D-glycero-hex-3-enos-2-ulopyra -nose or crystalline 1,5-anhydro-3,6-di-O-benzoyl-4-deoxy-D-glycero-hex-3-enos-2-ulo-py ranose....

  18. Synthesis and Antibiotic Activity of Mebendazole Derivatives of Pharmacological Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Rathore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole is a well known anti-helimintic and belongs to the benzimidazole group of medicines. In order to achieve better medicinal results, i.e. enhanced activity and low toxicity, structural modifications are made in the existing drugs. Some 5-benzoyl-N-[1-(alkoxyphthalimido benzimidazol-2-yl] carbamic acid methyl ester (3a-c and 5-benzoyl-N-[1-(2,3-bis oxyphthalimido∕oxysuccinimido propyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamic acid methyl ester (7a-b have been synthesized from two different routes. Structures of the compounds have been established on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral studies. All the synthesized compounds (3a-c and (7a-b were assayed in vitro for antimicrobial activity against mebendazole (itself and standard [ciprofloxacin (antibacterial and fluconazole (antifungal].

  19. Stereochemistry of nitrogenous heterocycles. 61. Synthesis and configuration of an eighth isomer of 2-methyl-4-hydroxydecahydroquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, G.S.; Voronenko, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Reduction of 1-benzoyl-2α-methyl-4-oxo-cis-decahydroquinoline with dodium borohydride and sodium in alcohol has given 1-benzoyl-2α-methyl-4β-hydroxy-cis-decahydroquinoline, which exists in the steroidal conformation with diaxial α, α'-substituents in the piperidine ring and with an equatorial hydroxy-group. Debenzoylation of this has given the last of the eight theoretically possible isomers of 2-methyl-4-hydroxydecahydroquinoline, namely 2α-methyl-4β-hydroxy-cis-decahydroquinoline, which exists in the nonsteroidal conformation with an axial hydroxy-group. IR spectra were obtained on a UR-20 spectrometer in KBr disks, and PMR spectra on a BS487 instrument (80 MHz), internal standard HMDS

  20. 4-Methyl-N-(2-methylbenzoylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H15NO3S, the conformation of the N—H bond in the C—SO2—NH—C(O segment is anti to the C=O bond. Further, the conformation of the C=O bond is syn to the ortho-methyl group in the benzoyl ring. The dihedral angle between the sulfonyl benzene ring and the —SO2—NH—C—O segment is 87.1 (1° and that between the sulfonyl and the benzoyl benzene rings is 58.2 (1°. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O(S hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers.

  1. Selective biocatalytic acylation studies on 5′-O-(4,4′-Dimethoxytrityl)-2′,3′-Secouridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sunil K.; Reddy, L. Chandrashekhar; Srivastava, Smriti

    2012-01-01

    Lipozyme® TL IM (Theremomyces lanuginosus lipase immobilized on silica) in toluene catalyzes the acylation of the 2( )'-OH over the 3( )'-OH group in 5( )'-O-(4,4( )'-dimethoxytrityl)-2( )',3( )'-secouridine (5( )'-O-DMT-2( )',3( )'-secouridine) in a highly selective fashion in moderate to almost...... quantitative yields. The turn over during benzoyl transfer reactions mediated by vinyl benzoate or benzoic anhydride was faster than in acyl transfer reactions with vinyl acetate or C(1) to C(5) acid anhydrides; except in the case of butanoic anhydride. The 2( )'-O-benzoyl-5( )'-O-DMT-2( )',3( )'-secouridine...

  2. 4-Bromo-N-(di-n-propyl­carbamothioyl)­benzamide

    OpenAIRE

    Binzet, Gün; Flörke, Ulrich; Külcü, Nevzat; Arslan, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of the title compound, C14H19BrN2OS, involves the reaction of 4-bromo­benzoyl chloride with potassium thio­cyanate in acetone followed by condensation of the resulting 4-bromo­benzoyl isothio­cyanate with di-n-propyl­amine. Typical thio­urea carbonyl and thio­carbonyl double bonds, as well as shortened C—N bonds, are observed in the title compound. The short C—N bond lengths in the centre of the mol­ecule reveal the effects of resonance in this part of the mol­ecule. The asymmet...

  3. Synthesis, characterization, antioxidant and brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of novel 3-benzothioyl-1-(3-hydroxy-3-phenyl -3-propyl)-1-methylthiourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Mohammad; Ullah, Abid; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2017-07-01

    In the present research work novel ephedrine based thiourea derivative, 3-benzothioyl-1-(3-hydroxy-3-phenyl -3-propyl)-1-methylthiourea 4is synthesized and then characterized elemental analyzed via various techniques i.e., Proton NMR, carbon13 NMR and fatherly confirmed via X-ray crystallography. Compound 4 was then screened for their possible antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials. Benzoyl chloride was treated with an equimolar potassium thiocyanate in acetone to achieve benzoyl isothiocyantes. It was then treated with an equimolar (1R, 2S)-(-)-Ephedrine to obtain the 3-benzothioyl-1-(3-hydroxy-3-phenyl-3-propyl)-1-methyl thiourea4. It was then screened for antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials. The compound 4 showed excellent antioxidant activity almost comparable to ascorbic acid (standard) and have significant cytotoxic activity with LC 50 value 05±0.58 ppm.

  4. Improved resistance of chemically-modified nanocellulose against thermally-induced depolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, Melissa B; Nakatsubo, Fumiaki; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-15

    The study demonstrated the improvement in the resistance of nanocellulose against thermally-induced depolymerization by esterification with benzoyl (BNZ) and pivaloyl (PIV). The change in the degree of polymerization (DP) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) after thermal treatment in nitrogen and in air was investigated using viscometry and gel permeation chromatography. BNZ and PIV nanocellulose esters without α-hydrogens gave higher DP and narrower MWD than pure bacterial cellulose; and the acetyl and myristoyl esters, which possess α-hydrogens. Results also showed that when depolymerization is suppressed, thermal discoloration is also reduced. Resistance against depolymerization inhibits the formation of reducing ends which can be active sites for thermal discoloration. Finally, the findings suggest that benzoylation and pivaloylation can be an excellent modification technique to improve the thermal stability of nanocellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. α-aminoacetophenones as photobase generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisatoshi Kura; Hidetaka Oka

    1999-01-01

    It was demonstrated that α-aminoacetophenones such as Irgacure 907 and Irgacure 369 work effectively as photobase generators in epoxy-based compositions. Upon irradiation they accelerate the thermal reaction of phenol novolac epoxy resins with polyacrylates having carboxylic acid groups despite of their high latency before irradiation. Irgacure 369 is much more active than Irgacure 907 due to the more reactive amine generated. We believe that conformational and steric effects contribute to the latency of the amine moiety. The bulky benzoyl group of the aminoacetophenone moiety shields the amino nitrogen from acidic species present in the composition. Upon irradiation, the benzoyl part is cleaved and the active tertiary amine base is liberated

  6. Erythema-directed digital photography for the enhanced evaluation of topical treatments for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, G; Dall'Oglio, F; Tedeschi, A; Lacarrubba, F

    2018-01-31

    Erythema-directed digital photography is a novel method for evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of topical acne treatments. Here, we describe three case reports in which erythema-directed digital photography was used to evaluate acne before and after up to 12 weeks of treatment with clindamycin 1%/tretinoin 0.025% (Clin-RA). Erythema-directed digital photography was used to evaluate acne in three patients with mild-to-moderate facial acne, two of whom had refused to continue previous topical acne treatment (benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 5%) due to persistent irritation. Acne lesions and erythema were evaluated using standard clinical photography and erythema-directed digital photography (VISIA-CR ™ system) before and after 8-12 weeks of treatment with Clin-RA. Erythema-directed digital photography revealed background erythema from previous topical acne treatments that was not evident from standard clinical photographs and allowed a better visualization of both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. In all patients, there was a clear improvement in background erythema and a reduction in acne lesions following treatment with Clin-RA. This study has demonstrated for the first time that erythema-directed digital photography can enhance the evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of topical acne treatments. These cases show that Clin-RA was associated with improved efficacy and tolerability vs previous treatments with topical monotherapy (benzoyl peroxide 5%) or a topical fixed-dose combination (clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 5%). © 2018 The Authors. Skin Research and Technology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Synthesis and comparative antibacterial studies of some benzylidene monosaccharide benzoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Matin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some 4,6-O-benzylidene protected 2,3-di-O-benzoates of methyl a-D-glucopyranoside and methyl a-D-mannopyranoside were prepared. All the compounds (1-7 were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity study against ten human pathogenic bacteria. The study revealed that the benzoylated mannopyranosides (5-7 are more prone towards antibacterial functionalities than that of the glucopyranosides (2-3.

  8. Vapour pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of a series of the ferrocene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Krol, Olesya V.; Varushchenko, Raisa M.; Chelovskaya, Nelly V.

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of the ferrocene, ferrocene-methanol, benzyl-ferrocene, and benzoyl-ferrocene have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of sublimation Δ cr g H m and of vaporization Δ l g H m have been determined from the temperature dependence of the vapour pressure. The molar enthalpies of fusion of these compounds were measured by d.s.c. The measured data sets of vaporization, sublimation, and fusion enthalpies were checked for internal consistency

  9. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of Ginseng saponin by ultraviolet derivatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besso, H.; Saruwatari, Y.; Futamura, K.; Kunihiro, K.; Fuwa, T.; Tanaka, O.

    1979-01-01

    Ginsenoides Rb 1 , b 2 , c, d, e and g 1 quantitatively reacted with benzoyl chloride in pyridine to afford the respective derivatives having strong UV absorption. The UV-derivatized saponins were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the saponin-contents of the various Ginseng varieties were determined. It is possible to distinguish white Ginseng from the root hairs of Ginseng by the pattern analysis of HPLC. (orig.) [de

  10. A Solid Binding Matrix/Mimic Receptor-Based Sensor System for Trace Level Determination of Iron Using Potential Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel, Ayman H.; Moreira, Felismina T. C.; Silva, Tamara I.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron(II)-(1,10-phenanthroline) complex imprinted membrane was prepared by ionic imprinting technology. In the first step, Fe(II) established a coordination linkage with 1,10-phenanthroline and functional monomer 2-vinylpyridine (2-VP). Next, the complex was copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinker in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator. Potentiometric chemical sensors were designed by dispersing the iron(II)-imprinted polymer particles in 2...

  11. (11-Methylpyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepin-6-yl(phenylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Shi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H15N3O, the diazepine ring adopts a boat conformation. The dihedral angle between pyridine and benzene rings is 55.2 (1°. The benzoyl phenyl ring forms dihedral angles of 49.4 (1 and 75.9 (1°, respectively, with the pyridine and benzene rings. In the crystal, molecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers by pairs of C—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  12. Two polymorphs of trans-[3-(3-nitrophenyloxiran-2-yl](phenylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred H. Greenberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H11NO4, crystallizes in two polymorphic forms, centrosymmetric monoclinic and chiral orthorhombic. The geometry of the molecules in the two polymorphs is slightly different, possibly due to intermolecular interactions. There are no classical hydrogen bonding in these two structures. However, a number of C—H...O intermolecular interactions, involving both O atoms of the nitro as well the benzoyl groups, stabilize the crystal structures.

  13. N-2,4-Dichlorobenzoyl phosphoric triamides: Synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    J (PNCH) for enantiotopic and diastereotopic benzylic. CH2 protons in compounds 7 and 8. The spectroscopic data of newly synthesized compounds were com- pared with those related N-benzoyl derivatives. The structures of compounds 5, 8 and 10 (2,4-Cl2-. C6H3C(O)NHP(O)[NCH2CH(CH3)2]2) have been determined ...

  14. Characterization of TPS/PHBV blends prepared in the presence of maleated PHBV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Natalia F.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2011-01-01

    Maleated derivatives of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were obtained in an internal mixer in the presence of maleic anhydride and benzoyl peroxide, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. Extruded blends of cornstarch and PHBV were prepared with and without the addition of maleated PHBV. Although the X-ray diffractograms had revealed decreased crystallinity, the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy indicated that the addition of the maleated derivatives led to a partial compatibilization. (author)

  15. Polymerization of aniline in an organic peroxide system by the inverted emulsion process

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Palle Swapna; Sathyanarayana, DN; Palaniappan, S

    2002-01-01

    An inverted emulsion process for the synthesis of the emeraldine salt of polyaniline using a novel oxidizing agent, namely benzoyl peroxide, is described. The polymerization is carried out in a nonpolar solvent in the presence of a functionalized protonic acid (sulfosalicylic acid) as the dopant and an emulsifier (sodium lauryl sulfate). The influence of synthesis conditions such as the duration of the reaction, temperature, concentration of the reactants, etc., on the properties of polyanili...

  16. Exploiting the CNC side chain in heterocyclic rearrangements: synthesis of 4(5)-acylamino-imidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccionello, Antonio Palumbo; Buscemi, Silvestre; Vivona, Nicolò; Pace, Andrea

    2010-08-06

    A new variation on the Boulton-Katritzky reaction is reported, namely, involving use of a CNC side chain. A novel Montmorillonite-K10 catalyzed nonreductive transamination of a 3-benzoyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole afforded a 3-(alpha-aminobenzyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole, which was condensed with benzaldehydes to afford the corresponding imines. In the presence of strong base, these imines underwent Boulton-Katritzky-type rearrangement to afford novel 4(5)-acylaminoimidazoles.

  17. Dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from the seeds of Euonymus hamiltonianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir A. Tantry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Celastraceae family produce various dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids. Two dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquitepene pyridine alkaloids (1,2 apart from four known compounds euojaponin C (3, wilforine (4, austronine (5 and O9-benzoyl-O9-deacetylevonine (6, were isolated from the ripe seeds of Euonymus hamiltonianus. Their chemical structures were elucidated mainly by analysis of NMR and MS spectral data. All compounds were evaluated for insecticidal activity.

  18. 14C-labeling of isomeric perfluoroalkyl carboxanilide mixtures via electrofluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, R.P.; Terando, N.H.; Berard, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Electrofluorination of benzoyl chloride-ring-UL- 14 C produced an isomer mixture of cyclic C 6 F 11 carbonyl fluorides, principally 1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-undecafluorocyclohexane-ring-UL- 14 C carbonyl fluoride, which was derivatized with 2-bromo-4-nitroaniline and triethyl amine. The resultant carboxanilide mixture is designated as EL-499 labeled with 14 C in the perfluoro alkyl ring for use in metabolic studies. (author)

  19. Síntesis del 3-p-metoxibenzoil-4-hidroxi-6-p-metoxifenil-2H-piran-2-ona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Ortiz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the study of conditions to prepare p-methoxybenzoylacetic acid methyl ester fromp-methoxyacetophenone andmethyl carbonate using sodium hydride in refluxing ethyl ether, the desired product was obtained with 82% yield. Moreover, a slight variation in reaction conditions, such as solvent and temperature, the 3-p-methoxy benzoyl-4-hydroxi-6-p-methoxyphenyl-2H-pyran-2-one was obtained as an unexpected major product.

  20. Separation and determination of impurities in paracetamol, codeine and pitophenone in the presence of fenpiverinium in combined suppository dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Jiří; Hanzlík, Pavel; Jedlička, Aleš; Coufal, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A new HPLC method for separation and determination of impurities in paracetamol, codeine phosphate hemihydrate and pitophenone hydrochloride in the presence of fenpiverinium bromide in combined suppository dosage form was developed and validated. The separation of paracetamol and its impurities 4-aminophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 4-chloracetanilid; codeine and its impurities methylcodeine, morphine, codeine dimer and 10-hydroxycodeine; pitophenone and its impurities 2-[4-[2-(1-piperidinyl)ethoxy]benzoyl] benzoic acid, 2-[4-[2-(1-piperidinyl)ethoxy]benzoyl]benzoic acid 2-(1-piperidinyl)-ethyl ester, methyl ester of 2-(4-hydroxybenzoyl) benzoic acid and fenpiverinium was achieved by using ion-pair reversed phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. Validation parameters such as the precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and robustness were verified for all the mentioned impurities of codeine phosphate hemihydrate and 4-aminophenol and 2-[4-[2-(1-piperidinyl)ethoxy]benzoyl] benzoic acid as the main degradation products of paracetamol and pitophenone hydrochloride, respectively. The described method was found to be useful for analysis of the stability samples and therefore suitable for routine purity testing of the drug product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectrophotometric study of some metal ions using some Schiff's bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnager, Nawal Mohomed Ibrahim

    2000-05-01

    In this work two schiff bases namely N,N Bis(benzoyl acetone)-o-phenylene diamine (NNBBPD) and N,N Bis(benzoyl acetone)-isopropylene diamine (NNBBAID) were prepared by direct coupling of benzoyl acetone with o-phenylene and isopropylene diamine respectively. The two reagents were identified by IR spectra, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and determination of the percentage of nitrogen contents (N%). It is found that the two reagents form coloured chelates with Fe (II), Fe (III), Cu (II), U (VI), Ni (II) and Co (II). The two reagents were used for the determination of Fe (II), Fe (III) and U (VI). The formulate of these metal ion complexes were obtained using continuous variations, mole ratio and slope ratio methods. Effect of two micelles, namely sodium n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and hexadecyl pyridinum broinide monohydrate (HPB) on metal ion complexes were studied. It is found that both of them increase the solubility and the absorbances of the metal ion complexes with variable effects of the absorption maxima. Calibration curves for Fe (II), Fe (II) and U (VI) were obtained in optimum conditions of pH and micelles solutions. (Author)

  2. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Novel Quinoxalinone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Ammar

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 4-benzoyl-1,2-phenylenediamine with sodium pyruvate in acetic acid furnished two products which were identified as 6-benzoyl and 7-benzoyl-3-methyl-2(1Hquinoxalinones (1a,b. Fusion of 1a with aromatic aldehydes furnished the styryl derivatives 2a-c. Alkylation of 1a,b with dimethyl sulphate or ethyl chloroacetate produced the N-alkyl derivatives 3a,b and 4a,b. Hydrazinolysis of the ester derivative 4a with hydrazine hydrate afforded the hydrazide derivative 5 which underwent condensation with aldehydes to give the corresponding hydrazone derivatives 6a,b. In addition, chlorination of 1a with thionyl chloride afforded the 2-chloro derivative 7 which was subjected to reaction with sodium azide and n-butylamine to yield the corresponding tetrazolo (8 and n-butylamino (9 derivatives, respectively. The structures of the compounds prepared were confirmed by analytical and spectral data. Also, some of the synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity.

  3. Persistent and heritable structural damage induced in heterochromatic DNA from rat liver by N-nitrosodimethylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, E.J.; Stewart, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis, by benzoylated DEAE-cellulose chromatography, has been made of structural change in eu- and heterochromatic DNA from rat liver following administration of the carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine. Either hepatic DNA was prelabeled with [ 3 H]thymidine administered 2-3 weeks before injection of the carcinogen or the labeled precursor was given during regenerative hyperplasia in rats treated earlier with N-nitrosodimethylamine. Following phenol extraction of either whole liver homogenate or nuclease-fractionated eu- and heterochromatin, carcinogen-modified DNA was examined by stepwise or caffeine gradient elution from benzoylated DEAE-cellulose. In whole DNA, nitrosamine-induced single-stranded character was maximal 4-24 h after treatment, declining rapidly thereafter; gradient elution of these DNA preparations also provided short-term evidence of structural change. Caffeine gradient chromatography suggested short-term nitrosamine-induced structural change in euchromatic DNA, while increased binding of heterochromatic DNA was evident for up to 3 months after carcinogen treatment. Preparations of newly synthesized heterochromatic DNA from animals subjected to hepatectomy up to 2 months after carcinogen treatment provided evidence of heritable structural damage. Carcinogen-induced binding of heterochromatic DNA to benzoylated DEAE-cellulose was indicative of specific structural lesions whose affinity equalled that of single-stranded DNA up to 1.0 kilobase in length. The data suggest that structural lesions in heterochromatin, which may be a consequence of incomplete repair, are preferentially degraded by endogenous nuclease(s)

  4. Studies on Synthesis of Some Novel Heterocyclic Azlactone Derivatives and Imidazolinone Derivatives and their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh N. Mistry

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available p - Methyl benzoic acid on reaction with phosphorus pentachloride gives p - methyl benzoyl chloride derivative which on condensation with glycine gives p - methyl benzoyl glycine derivative. Now, this p - methyl benzoyl glycine derivative on condensation with various substituted aldehydes gives corresponding substituted 4 - [aryl methylidine] - 2 - [p - methyl phenyl] - oxazole - 5 - one derivatives [1(a-j]. Further, these derivatives [1(a-j] on condensation with 4 , 4’ - diamino diphenyl sulphone gives corresponding substituted imidazolinone - dibenzsulphone derivatives [2(a-j], on condensation with 4 , 4’ - diamino diphenyl methane gives corresponding substituted imidazolinone - dibenzmethane derivatives [3(a-j], on condensation with 4,4’- diamino benzanilide gives corresponding substituted imidazolinone - benzanilide derivatives [4(a-j] and on condensation with 2 - amino pyridine gives corresponding substituted imidazolinone - pyridine derivatives [5(a-j] respectively. Structure elucidation of synthesised compounds has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, I.R. spectral studies and 1H N.M.R. spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesised compounds has been studied against the cultures “Staphylococcus aureus”, “Escherichia coli” and “Candela albicans”.

  5. Docking Simulation of the Binding Interactions of Saxitoxin Analogs Produced by the Marine Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum to the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M. Durán-Riveroll

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its analogs are paralytic alkaloid neurotoxins that block the voltage-gated sodium channel pore (Nav, impeding passage of Na+ ions into the intracellular space, and thereby preventing the action potential in the peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle. The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces an array of such toxins, including the recently discovered benzoyl analogs, for which the mammalian toxicities are essentially unknown. We subjected STX and its analogs to a theoretical docking simulation based upon two alternative tri-dimensional models of the Nav1.4 to find a relationship between the binding properties and the known mammalian toxicity of selected STX analogs. We inferred hypothetical toxicities for the benzoyl analogs from the modeled values. We demonstrate that these toxins exhibit different binding modes with similar free binding energies and that these alternative binding modes are equally probable. We propose that the principal binding that governs ligand recognition is mediated by electrostatic interactions. Our simulation constitutes the first in silico modeling study on benzoyl-type paralytic toxins and provides an approach towards a better understanding of the mode of action of STX and its analogs.

  6. Docking Simulation of the Binding Interactions of Saxitoxin Analogs Produced by the Marine Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum to the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Riveroll, Lorena M; Cembella, Allan D; Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Correa-Basurto, José

    2016-05-06

    Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs are paralytic alkaloid neurotoxins that block the voltage-gated sodium channel pore (Nav), impeding passage of Na⁺ ions into the intracellular space, and thereby preventing the action potential in the peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle. The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces an array of such toxins, including the recently discovered benzoyl analogs, for which the mammalian toxicities are essentially unknown. We subjected STX and its analogs to a theoretical docking simulation based upon two alternative tri-dimensional models of the Nav1.4 to find a relationship between the binding properties and the known mammalian toxicity of selected STX analogs. We inferred hypothetical toxicities for the benzoyl analogs from the modeled values. We demonstrate that these toxins exhibit different binding modes with similar free binding energies and that these alternative binding modes are equally probable. We propose that the principal binding that governs ligand recognition is mediated by electrostatic interactions. Our simulation constitutes the first in silico modeling study on benzoyl-type paralytic toxins and provides an approach towards a better understanding of the mode of action of STX and its analogs.

  7. A sacrificial millipede altruistically protects its swarm using a drone blood enzyme, mandelonitrile oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Dadashipour, Mohammad; Ina, Atsutoshi; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Morita, Masashi; Ichiki, Yayoi; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2016-06-06

    Soldiers of some eusocial insects exhibit an altruistic self-destructive defense behavior in emergency situations when attacked by large enemies. The swarm-forming invasive millipede, Chamberlinius hualienensis, which is not classified as eusocial animal, exudes irritant chemicals such as benzoyl cyanide as a defensive secretion. Although it has been thought that this defensive chemical was converted from mandelonitrile, identification of the biocatalyst has remained unidentified for 40 years. Here, we identify the novel blood enzyme, mandelonitrile oxidase (ChuaMOX), which stoichiometrically catalyzes oxygen consumption and synthesis of benzoyl cyanide and hydrogen peroxide from mandelonitrile. Interestingly the enzymatic activity is suppressed at a blood pH of 7, and the enzyme is segregated by membranes of defensive sacs from mandelonitrile which has a pH of 4.6, the optimum pH for ChuaMOX activity. In addition, strong body muscle contractions are necessary for de novo synthesis of benzoyl cyanide. We propose that, to protect its swarm, the sacrificial millipede also applies a self-destructive defense strategy-the endogenous rupturing of the defensive sacs to mix ChuaMOX and mandelonitrile at an optimum pH. Further study of defensive systems in primitive arthropods will pave the way to elucidate the evolution of altruistic defenses in the animal kingdom.

  8. Excited state hydrogen bonding fluorescent probe: Role of structure and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Debarati, E-mail: debaratidey07@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Vidyasagar College, 39 Sankar Ghosh Lane, Kolkata 700006 (India); Sarangi, Manas Kumar [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Ray, Angana; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay [Computational Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Maity, Dilip Kumar [Department of Chemistry, University College of Science and Technology, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2016-05-15

    An environment sensitive fluorescent probe, 11-benzoyl-dibenzo[a,c]phenazine (BDBPZ), has been synthesized and characterized that acts via excited state hydrogen bonding (ESHB). On interaction with hydrogen bond donating solvents the fluorescence intensity of BDBPZ increases abruptly with a concomitant bathochromic shift. The extent of fluorescence increment and the red-shift of λ{sub max} depend on hydrogen bond donating ability of the solvent associated. ESHB restricts the free rotation of the benzoyl group and hence blocks the non-radiative deactivation pathway. BDBPZ forms an exciplex with organic amine in nonpolar medium that readily disappears on increasing the polarity of the solvent. In polar environment the fluorescence of both the free molecule and excited state hydrogen bonded species are quenched on addition of amine unlike its parent dibenzo[a,c]phenazine (DBPZ), that remains very much inaccessible towards the solvent as well as quencher molecules due to its structure. This newly synthesized derivative BDBPZ is much more interactive due to the benzoyl group that is flanked outside the skeletal aromatic rings of DBPZ, which helps to sense the environment properly and thus shows better ESHB capacity than DBPZ.

  9. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney KM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristen M Whitney1, Chérie M Ditre21Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Skin Enhancement Center and Cosmetic Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USADate of preparation: 30th November 2010Conflicts of interest: None declaredClinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne?Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients.Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of childbearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral.Keywords: acne vulgaris, benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics, light and laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, photopneumatic therapy, chemical peels

  10. Structural comparison of complexes of methotrexate analogues with Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase by two-dimensional 1H NMR at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, S.J.; Birdsall, B.; Feeney, J.; Searle, M.S.; Roberts, G.C.K.; Cheung, H.T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods to examine complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase and methotrexate (MTX) analogues having structural modifications of the benzoyl ring and also the glutamic acid moiety. Assignments of the 1 H signals in the spectra of the various complexes were made by comparison of their 2D spectra with those complexes containing methotrexate where we have previously assigned resonances from 32 of the 162 amino acid residues. In the complexes formed with the dihalomethotrexate analogues, the glutamic acid and pteridine ring moieties were shown to bind to the enzyme in a manner similar to that found in the methotrexate-enzyme complex. Perturbations in 1 H chemical shifts of protons in Phe-49, Leu-54, and Leu-27 and the methotrexate H7 and NMe protons were observed in the different complexes and were accounted for by changes in orientation of the benzoyl ring in the various complexes. Binding of oxidized or reduced coenzyme to the binary complexes did not result in different shifts for Leu-27, Leu-54, or Leu-19 protons, and thus, the orientation of the benzoyl ring of the methotrexate analogues is not perturbed greatly by the presence of either oxidized or reduced coenzyme. In the complex with the γ-monoamide analog, the 1 H signals of assigned residues in the protein had almost identical shifts with the corresponding protons in the methotrexate-enzyme complex for all residues except His-28 and, to a lesser extent, Leu-27. This indicates that while the His-28 interaction with the MTX γ-CO 2 - is no longer present in this complex with the γ-amide, there has not been a major change in the overall structure of the two complexes. This behavior contrasts to that of the α-amide complex where 1 H signals from protons in several amino acid residues are different compared with their values in the complex formed with methotrexate

  11. Synthesis, characterization, molecular docking and in vitro antimalarial properties of new carboxamides bearing sulphonamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, D I; Okoro, U C; Ukoha, P O; Okafor, S; Ibezim, A; Kumar, N M

    2017-07-28

    Sulphonamides and carboxamides have shown large number of pharmacological properties against different types of diseases among which is malaria. Twenty four new carboxamide derivatives bearing benzenesulphonamoyl alkanamides were synthesized and investigated for their in silico and in vitro antimalarial and antioxidant properties. The substituted benzenesulphonyl chlorides (1a-c) were treated with various amino acids (2a-h) to obtain the benzenesulphonamoyl alkanamides (3a-x) which were subsequently treated with benzoyl chloride to obtain the N-benzoylated derivatives (5a-f, i-n and q-v). Further reactions of the N-benzoylated derivatives or proline derivatives with 4-aminoacetophenone (6) using boric acid as a catalyst gave the sulphonamide carboxamide derivatives (7a-x) in excellent yields. The in vitro antimalarial studies showed that all synthesized compounds had antimalarial property. Compound 7k, 7c, 7l, 7s, and 7j had mean MIC value of 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.06 and 0.08 μM respectively comparable with chloroquine 0.06 μM. Compound 7c was the most potent antioxidant agent with IC 50 value of 0.045 mM comparable with 0.34 mM for ascorbic acid. In addition to the successful synthesis of the target molecules using boric acid catalysis, the compounds were found to have antimalarial and antioxidant activities comparable with known antimalarial and antioxidant drugs. The class of compounds reported herein have the potential of reducing oxidative stress arising from malaria parasite and chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of malaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Purification and characterization of an extracellular trypsin-like protease of Fusarium oxysporum var. lini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Andrade, Milton Hercules Guerra; Rodrigues, Roberta Dias; Castro, Ieso Miranda

    2002-01-01

    An alkaline serineprotease, capable of hydrolyzing Nalpha-benzoyl- dl arginine p-nitroanilide, was secreted by Fusarium oxysporum var. lini grown in the presence of gelatin as the sole nitrogen and carbon source. The protease was purified 65-fold to electrophoretic homogenity from the culture supernatant in a three-step procedure comprising QSepharose chromatography, affinity chromatography, and FPLC on a MonoQ column. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified protein indicated an estimated molecular mass of 41 kDa. The protease had optimum activity at a reaction temperature of 45 degrees C and showed a rapid decrease of activity at 48 degrees C. The optimum pH was around 8.0. Characterization of the protease showed that Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations increased the activity, which was not inhibited by EDTA or 1,10-phenanthroline. The enzyme activity on Nalpha-benzoyl-DL arginine p-nitroanilide was inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, p-aminobenzamidine dihydrochloride, aprotinin, 3-4 dichloroisocoumarin, and N-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone. The enzyme is also inhibited by substrate concentrations higher than 2.5 x 10(-4)M. The protease had a Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.16 mM and a V(max) of 0.60 mumol released product.min(-1).mg(-1) enzyme when assayed in a non-inhibiting substrate concentration. The activity on Nalpha-benzoyl- dl arginine p-nitroanilide was competitively inhibited by p-aminobenzamidine dihydrochoride. A K(i) value of 0.04 mM was obtained.

  13. Structural studies of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Silvio; Oliveira, Shana M.; Rodrigues, Manoel T.; Bastos, Rodrigo M.; Ferrari, Jailton; de Oliveira, Cecília M. A.; Kato, Lucília; Napolitano, Hamilton B.; Vencato, Ivo; Lariucci, Carlito

    2005-10-01

    Reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine with acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, benzoyl isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, maleic anhydride and methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid afforded a series of new antipyrine derivatives. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 29737, and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was evaluated and the minimal inhibitory concentration determined. Modest activity was found only to the maleamic acid obtained from the reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine and maleic anhydride. 1H NMR investigation of this maleamic acid showed that it is slowly converted to the corresponding toxic maleimide. The structures of three derivatives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  14. Efficient synthesis of glycosylated phenazine natural products and analogs with DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jane B.; Petersen, Lars; Jensen, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by the occurrence and function of phenazines in natural products, new glycosylated analogs were designed and synthesized. DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors were used in an efficient and easily-handled glycosylation protocol compatible with combinatorial chemistry....... Benzoylated D-glucose, D-galactose and L-quinovose DISAL glycosyl donors were synthesized in high yields and used under mild conditions to glycosylate methyl saphenate and 2-hydroxyphenazine. The glycosides were screened for biological activity and one compound showed inhibitory activity towards topoisomerase...

  15. Conformationally superarmed S-ethyl glycosyl donors as effective building blocks for chemoselective oligosaccharide synthesis in one pot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Mithila D.; Yasomanee, Jagodige P.; Rath, Nigam P.

    2017-01-01

    A new series of superarmed glycosyl donors has been investigated. It was demonstrated that the S-ethyl leaving group allows for high reactivity, which is much higher than that of equally equipped S-phenyl glycosyl donors that were previously investigated by our groups. The superarmed S......-ethyl glycosyl donors equipped with a 2-O-benzoyl group gave complete β-stereoselectivity. Utility of the new glycosyl donors has been demonstrated in a one-pot one-addition oligosaccharide synthesis with all of the reaction components present from the beginning...

  16. 4-Methyl-N-(4-nitrobenzoylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Suchetan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In title compound, C14H12N2O5S, the dihedral angle between the sulfonyl benzene ring and the —SO2—NH—C—O segment is 81.5 (2° and that between the sulfonyl and the benzoyl benzene rings is 89.8 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains along the b axis via intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds. C—H...O interactions are also observed.

  17. Preparation of permselective membranes by means of radiation induced grafting. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation modified polymers for biomedical and biochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.K.

    1982-09-01

    Styrene grafting to cellulose acetate membrane was studied to prepare a cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membrane with improved dimensional stability. The combination of cross-linking agents such as divinylbenzene or trimethyl propane triacrylate was found to increase the percentage of grafting. For the grafting of styrene:4-vinylpyridine:benzoyl peroxide mixture to cellulose acetate, the activation energy was determined to be 21.8 Kcal/mole over the range of 55-80 deg. C. The initial rate of grafting in % per hour was proportional to 0.76 power of dose intensities

  18. Synthesis of 3-aminopropyl β-(1 → 6)-d-glucotetraoside and its biotinylated derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashunsky, Dmitry V; Karelin, Alexander A; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2018-01-02

    3-Aminopropyl β-(1 → 6)-d-glucotetraoside has been synthesized from 3-benzyloxycarbonylaminopropanol and 6-O-acetyl-2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-d-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate by successive attachment of one monosaccharide unit in total yield of 22%. Free aminopropyl glycoside was converted into a biotin derivative that can be used for controlled immobilization of the oligosaccharide on streptavidin-coated ELISA plates and for tracing carbohydrate binding molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recyclable Polymer-Supported Terpyridine–Palladium Complex for the Tandem Aminocarbonylation of Aryl Iodides to Primary Amides in Water Using NaN3 as Ammonia Equivalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimasa Suzuka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary aromatic amides are valuable compounds, which are generally prepared via Beckmann rearrangement of oximes and the hydration of nitriles in organic solvents. We investigated the environmentally friendly catalytic aminocarbonylation in water. Thus, a novel heterogeneous transition-metal catalyst, a polymer-supported terpyridine–palladium(II complex, was prepared and found to promote azidocarbonylation of aryl iodides with NaN3 and to reduce the generated benzoyl azides in water under CO gas to yield primary aryl amides with high to excellent yield in a one-pot reaction. The catalyst was recovered and reused several times with no loss of catalytic activity.

  20. Structure and properties of poly(benzyl acrylate) synthesized under microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberti, Tamara G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Estudio de Compuestos Organicos (LADECOR), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Schiavoni, M. Mercedes [Laboratorio de Estudio de Compuestos Organicos (LADECOR), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Cortizo, M. Susana [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: gcortizo@inifta.unlp.edu.ar

    2008-05-15

    Benzyl acrylate was polymerized under microwave irradiation using radical initiation (benzoyl peroxide, BP). The effect of the concentration of BP and power irradiation on the conversion, average molecular weights and the polydispersity index (M{sub w}/M{sub n}) were investigated. The {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectra analysis showed tendency to syndiotacticity and branched polymers were obtained at high conversion of reactions. A significant enhancement of the rates of polymerization and similar thermodynamic behavior, as compared with those obtained under thermal conditions was found.

  1. Test Excavations at Painted Rock Reservoir: Sites AZ Z:1:7, AZ Z:1:8, and AZ S:16:36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    were dehydrated, trimmed to 12-mm squares, and 77 78 placed in catalyzed (0.05-percent benzoyl peroxide), deinhibited acrylic monomer (50-percent methyl ...refrigeration for 72 hours in partially polymerized ethyl- methyl methacrylate. The methacrylate was polymerized at 50 degrees C and 50 p.s.i. nitrogen...pollen types from fill of Feature 10, AZ Z:l:8 Pollen Type Percent Pinus spp. 0.5 Cheno-Am 92.0 Gramineae 2.0 Ambrosia spp. 0.5 Malvaceae 0.5 Zea spp. 2.0

  2. /sup 99m/Tc-labelled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, G.; Maini, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the last 15 years many compounds labelled with /sup 99m/Tc have been proposed for use in cholescintigraphy. A short chronological list includes: toluidine blue, penicillamine, tetracycline, dihydrothioctic acid, mercaptoisubutyric acid, pyridoxals, pyridoxylideneaminates, carboxyl-hydroxyquinoline, substituted acetanilide iminodiacetates (so called IDAs), ethylenediamine-N, N-diacetate derivatives (such as sulfonyl-EDDA and benzoyl-EDDA), and orthoiodohippurate analogues. Among all these compounds the IDAs have been those most extensively used for basic and clinical research. A large series of IDA derivatives has been developed, and the properties of 33 of them have recently been tested

  3. Bacteriostatic enterochelin-specific immunoglobulin from normal human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.; Yancey, R.J.; Lankford, C.E.; Earhart, C.F.

    1980-02-01

    Heat-inactivated normal human serum produces iron-reversible bacteriostasis of a number of microorganisms. This inhibitory effect was abolished by adsorption of serum with ultraviolet-killed cells of species that produce the siderophore enterochelin. Bacteriostasis also was alleviated by asorption of serum with 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine, a degradation product of enterochelin, bound to the insoluble matrix AH-Sepharose 4B. Our results indicate that enterochelin-specific immunoglobulins exist in normal human serum. These immunoglobulins may act synergistically with transferrin to effect bacteriostasis of enterochelin-producing pathogens.

  4. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-11-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Graft copolymerization of a series of alkyl acrylates and alkyl methacrylates onto polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurakowska-Orszagh, J.; Soerjosoeharto, K.; Busz, W.; Oldziejewski, J.

    1977-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of a series of alkyl acrylates and alkyl methacrylates into polyethylene of Polish production was investigated, using benzoyl peroxide as the initiator as well as preirradiation technique, namely ionizing radiation from a 60 Co γ-source. The effect of α-carbon methyl substituent of methacrylates as well as the influence of the length of alkyl chains in the ester groups of both series of monomers into the grafting process was observed. The ungrafted and some of the grafted polyethylene film obtained was studied by infrared spectrophotometry. (author)

  6. Photochemistry of modified proteins benzophenone-containing bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, P.S.; Glover, G.I.; Wilkinson, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of exploratory and mechanistic studies of the photochemistry of poly-p-benzoyl-acetimido-bovine serum albumin, a modified protein containing photoreactive and photosensitizing groups, are reported. Specifically described are recent findings concerning (1) the synthesis and characterization of a modified bovine serum albumin that contains benzophenone-like moieties, (2) the photochemistry of this modified protein which appeared to involve photoreductive coupling of the benzophenone chromophores to the protein backbone, and (3) triplet energy transfer from modified bovine serum albumin to small molecule acceptors resulting in quenching of the photoreaction. (author)

  7. N-(2,6-Dichlorophenyl-4-methylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinola Z. Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H11Cl2NO, the two aromatic rings are nearly orthogonal to each other [dihedral angle 79.7 (1°], while the central amide core –NH—C(=O– is nearly coplanar with the benzoyl ring [N—C—C—C torsion angles = −5.5 (3 and 1772. (2°]. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(4 chains propagating in [001].

  8. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Different Shrimp Species for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Myat Thaw; Oo Aung; Aung Myint; Bisswanger, Hans

    2004-06-01

    This study is part of the project on the ''Quality Assurance of Different Shrimp Species for Export''. Local shrimp samples were collected from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and various private enterprises. Contents of biogenic amines were determined by using benzoyl chloride derivatization method with HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). Based on the biogenic amines, quality index of shrimps were correlated with freshness index so that the grade of shrimp samples can be classified as excellent, good, and acceptable. All sizes of shrimps such as extra large, large, medium were found to excceptable respectively

  9. Diastereoselective synthesis of trans-2,3-dihydrofuro[3,2-c]coumarins by MgO nanoparticles under ultrasonic irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Safaei-Ghomi; Pouria Babaei; Hossein Shahbazi-Alavi; Safura Zahedi

    2017-01-01

    MgO nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the diastereoselective preparation of trans-2-benzoyl-3-(aryl)-2H-furo[3,2-c]chromen-4(3H)-ones by the multi-component reaction of 2,4â²-dibromoacetophenone, pyridine, benzaldehydes and 4-hydroxycoumarin under ultrasonic irradiation. This interesting result revealed that the pyridiniumylide assisted tandem three-component coupling reaction is highly diastereoselective. Atom economy, wide range of products, high catalytic activity, ...

  10. Luminescent properties of europium different-ligand complexes with cyclic. beta. -diketones and diantipyrylalkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ul' yanova, T M; Gerasimenko, G N; Tishchenko, M A; Vitkun, R A [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Odessa. Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst.

    1983-03-01

    Using luminescence method different-ligand complexing of europium ions with diantipyrylalkanes and cyclic ..beta..-diketones: 2-acetyl- and 2-benzoyl-1.3-indandions, has been studied. The optimum conditions of the formation of different-ligand complexes and the ratio of components in it are determined. Effect of alien lanthanides and diantipyrylmethane derivatives on the luminescence intensity of europium complexes is clarified. A correlation between the ratio of the luminescence intensity bands of europium complexes and the values of oscillator strengths of supersensitive transitions of neodymium and erbium absorption bands is established.

  11. Determination of pKa values of benzoxa-, benzothia- and benzoselena-zolinone derivatives by capillary electrophoresis. Comparison with potentiometric titration and spectrometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, C; Duhal, N; Lacroix-Callens, B; Vaccher, C; Bonte, J P; Goossens, J F

    2007-07-01

    Acidity constants of benzoxa-, benzothia- and benzoselena-zolinone derivatives were determined by capillary electrophoresis, potentiometry and spectrophotometry experiments. These three analytical techniques gave pK(a) results that were in good agreement. A convenient, accurate and precise method for the determination of pK(a) was developed to measure changes in acidity constants induced by heteroatom or 6-benzoyl substituted derivatives. pK(a) values were determined simultaneously for two compounds characterized by different electrophoretic mobility (micro(e)) and pK(a) value and in the presence of an analogous neutral marker.

  12. Terpenoids from Tripterygium doianum (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Duan, Hongquan; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Goto, Satoru

    2002-09-01

    The extract of Tripterygium doianum (Celastraceae) afforded three triterpenoids [3beta-acetoxy-11-ursen-13alpha,30-olide, 25-chloro-24-hydroxytirucall-7-en-3-one and tirucall-7-en-3,24-dione], two sesquiterpenoids [5alpha-acetoxy-1beta,8alpha-bis-cinnamoyl-4alpha-hydroxydihydroagarofuran and 5alpha-acetoxy-1beta-benzoyl-8alpha-cinnamoyl-4alpha-hydroxydihydroagarofuran] and nine known triterpenoids. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic studies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CERTAIN 2,3,4,5-TETRAHYDROPYRIDAZINONE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav ALANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, six new derivatives of PYridazinone were synthesized and evaluate their anti-bacterial activity. The experimental work involves the synthesis of benzoyl propionic acid (a, then 6-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro pyridazin-3-one (b which was then condensed with various, aldehydes to form respective derivatives, AH the synthesized compounds were identified by IR, 1HNMR and antimicrobial activity was performed on the compounds synthesized against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737, Staphylococcus epidermidis (MTCC 3615, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424 and Escherichia coli (MTCC 1687

  14. A New Flavonoid Glycoside from Salix denticulata Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Bamola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new flavonoid glycoside (1 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Salix denticulata (Salicaceae together with five known compounds, β-sitosterol, 2,6-dihydroxy- 4-methoxy acetophenone, eugenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-β-D-(3’-benzoyl salicyl alcohol and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6-glucopyranoside. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 2’,5-dihydroxy-3’-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by means of chemical and spectral data including 2D NMR studies.

  15. Multicomponent Synthesis of Isoindolinone Frameworks via RhIII -Catalysed in situ Directing Group-Assisted Tandem Oxidative Olefination/Michael Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Xi; Liu, Jian-Biao; Shen, Jun; Chen, Qun; He, Ming-Yang

    2018-04-04

    A Rh III -catalysed three-component synthesis of isoindolinone frameworks via direct assembly of benzoyl chlorides, o-aminophenols and activated alkenes has been developed. The process involves in situ generation of o-aminophenol (OAP)-based bidentate directing group (DG), Rh III -catalysed tandem ortho C-H olefination and subsequent cyclization via aza-Michael addition. This protocol exhibits good chemoselectivity and functional group tolerance. Computational studies showed that the presence of hydroxyl group on the N-aryl ring could enhance the chemoselectivity of the reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A study of the initiator concentration’s effect on styrene-divinylbenzene polymerization with iron particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara M. da Conceição

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preparation of magnetic copolymer obtained from suspension polymerization of styrene (Sty and divinylbenzene (DVB in the presence of iron particles treated and not treated with oleic acid. The magnetic copolymers were characterized according to their morphology, particle size distribution and magnetic properties. The results show that incorporation of iron particles significantly changed the particles’ morphology. All samples presented higher saturation magnetization than the values reported in the literature and the particle size distribution was more monodisperse when the polymerization was conducted with 5%wt of benzoyl peroxide (BPO.

  17. Synthesis of thiadiazolobenzamide via cyclization of thioxothiourea and its Ni and Pd complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhami Forogh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the new compound, N-(3-methyl-4- oxo[1,3,4]thiadiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl benzamide, could be obtained via two different reactions: 1 reaction of 4-amino-6-Methyl-3- (Methylsulfanyl-1,2,4-triazin-5-one with benzoyl isothiocyanate under removal of methylmercaptane, 2 reaction of 4-amino-6-Methyl-3-thioxo- 1,2,4-triazin-5-one with benzoyl isothiocyanate under elimination of hydrogen sulfide. In both reactions a new bond between sulfur and nitrogen atoms was formed and a five-membered ring was created. The oxo thiadiazolo benzamide was characterized by IR-, 1HNMR- and 13CNMR spectroscopy as well as by Mass spectrometry. X-ray crystallography was used to shed light on the structure of this new compound. Two new complexes could be generated by coordination of oxo thiadiazolo benzamide to Pd(II and Ni(II ions. These complexes have been analyzed by IR-, 1HNMR- and 13CNMR spectroscopy, conductometry and Thermal gravimetry (TGA. Theoretical QM Calculation GIAO has also been applied to predict the structure of the Pd complex.

  18. P2X7 receptor-mediated calcium dynamics in HEK293 cells: experimental characterization and modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Garbo, A; Alloisio, S; Nobile, M

    2012-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) induces ionotropic Ca 2+  signalling in different cell types. It plays an important role in the immune response and in the nervous system. Here, the mechanisms underlying intracellular Ca 2+  variations evoked by 3′-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (BzATP), a potent agonist of the P2X7R, in transfected HEK293 cells, are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We propose a minimal model of P2X7R that is capable of reproducing, qualitatively and quantitatively, the experimental data. This approach was also adopted for the P2X7R variant, which lacks the entire C-terminus tail (trP2X7R). Then we introduce a biophysical model describing the Ca 2+  dynamics in HEK293. Our model gives an account of the ionotropic Ca 2+  influx evoked by BzATP on the basis of the kinetics model of P2X7R. To explain the complex Ca 2+  responses evoked by BzATP, the model predicted that an impairment in Ca 2+  extrusion flux through the plasma membrane is a key factor for Ca 2+ homeostasis in HEK293 cells. (paper)

  19. P2X7 receptor-mediated calcium dynamics in HEK293 cells: experimental characterization and modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Garbo, A.; Alloisio, S.; Nobile, M.

    2012-04-01

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) induces ionotropic Ca2 + signalling in different cell types. It plays an important role in the immune response and in the nervous system. Here, the mechanisms underlying intracellular Ca2 + variations evoked by 3‧-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (BzATP), a potent agonist of the P2X7R, in transfected HEK293 cells, are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We propose a minimal model of P2X7R that is capable of reproducing, qualitatively and quantitatively, the experimental data. This approach was also adopted for the P2X7R variant, which lacks the entire C-terminus tail (trP2X7R). Then we introduce a biophysical model describing the Ca2 + dynamics in HEK293. Our model gives an account of the ionotropic Ca2 + influx evoked by BzATP on the basis of the kinetics model of P2X7R. To explain the complex Ca2 + responses evoked by BzATP, the model predicted that an impairment in Ca2 + extrusion flux through the plasma membrane is a key factor for Ca2 + homeostasis in HEK293 cells.

  20. Structural, thermal and photo-physical data of azo-aromatic TEMPO derivatives before and after their grafting to polyolefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cicogna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The data reported in this paper are complementary to the characterization of 4-(phenylazo-benzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (AzO-TEMPO and of the 4-(2-thienylazo-benzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (ThiO-TEMPO before and after their grafting to two polyethylene matrices (a copolymer ethylene/α-olefin (co-EO and a high density polyethylene (HDPE. Particularly the data reported in this paper confirm the structure (FT-IR analysis, the thermal (TGA and EPR and the photo-physical (UV–vis properties of the RO-TEMPO derivatives before and after their grafting. Herein, the FT-IR spectrum and TGA thermogram of ThiO-TEMPO were compared with those of AzO-TEMPO. Moreover, the superimposition of UV–vis spectra collected during the irradiation under 366 or 254 nm emitting lamp of AzO-TEMPO and ThiO-TEMPO in acetonitrile solution are reported. Finally, a complete DSC characterization of the functionalized POs is shown.DOI of original article: 〈http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2015.11.018〉 [1

  1. Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Antimycotic Evaluation of Some 3-Acyl Imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gómez-García

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of 3-benzoyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, obtained from N-heteroarylformamidines in good yields, was tested in silico and in vitro for binding and inhibition of seven Candida species (Candida albicans (ATCC 10231, Candida dubliniensis (CD36, Candida glabrata (CBS138, Candida guilliermondii (ATCC 6260, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei (ATCC 6358 and Candida tropicalis (MYA-3404. To predict binding mode and energy, each compound was docked in the active site of the lanosterol 14α-demethylase enzyme (CYP51, essential for fungal growth of Candida species. Antimycotic activity was evaluated as the 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 for the test compounds and two reference drugs, ketoconazole and fluconazole. All test compounds had a better binding energy (range: −6.11 to −9.43 kcal/mol than that found for the reference drugs (range: 48.93 to −6.16 kcal/mol. In general, the test compounds showed greater inhibitory activity of yeast growth than the reference drugs. Compounds 4j and 4f were the most active, indicating an important role in biological activity for the benzene ring with electron-withdrawing substituents. These compounds show the best MIC50 against C. guilliermondii and C. glabrata, respectively. The current findings suggest that the 3-benzoyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives, herein synthesized by an accessible methodology, are potential antifungal drugs.

  2. A P212121 polymorph of (+-clusianone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Jin Khoo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C33H42O4 [systematic name: (1S,5S,7R-3-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-8,8-dimethyl-1,5,7-tris(3-methylbut-2-enylbicyclo[3.3.1]nona-3-ene-2,9-dione], has a central bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,9-trione surrounded by tetraprenylated and benzoyl groups. The compound was recrystallized several times in methanol using both a slow evaporation method and with a crystal-seeding technique. This subsequently produced diffraction-quality crystals which crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P212121, in contrast to a previous report of a structure determination in the Pna21 space group [McCandlish et al. (1976. Acta Cryst. B32, 1793–1801]. The title compound has a melting point of 365–366 K, and a specific rotation [α]20 value of +51.94°. A strong intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is noted. In the crystal, molecules are assembled in the ab plane by weak C—H...O interactions.

  3. MICELLE-MEDIATED EXTRACTION AS A TOOL FOR SEPARATION AND PRECONCENTRATION IN COPPER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmadia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A cloud point extraction method was presented for preconcentration of copper in various samples. After complexation with 4-Amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazoline-5-one (ADPP or N-Benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPA  in water, analyte ions are quantitatively extracted to the phase rich in Triton X-114 after centrifugation. 2.0 mol L-1 HNO3 solution in methanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The adopted concentrations for ADPP, Triton X-114, HNO3 and parameters such as bath temperature, centrifuge rate and time were optimized. Detection limits (3SDb/m of 1.3 and 1.9 ng mL-1 for ADPP and BPA along with enrichment factors of 30 and 38 for ADPP and BPA were achieved. The high efficiency of cloud point extraction to carry out the determination of analyte in complex matrices was demonstrated. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of biological, industrial, natural and wastewater, soil and blood samples.   Keywords: 4-Amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazoline-5-one (ADPP, N-Benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPA ,   Cloud Point Extraction, Triton X-114, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

  4. Carboxy terminated rubber based on natural rubber grafted with acid anhydrides and its adhesion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinpituksa, P; Kongkalai, P; Kaesaman, A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical modification of natural rubber by grafting of various polar functional molecules is an essential method, improving the versatility of rubber in applications. This research investigated the preparation of natural rubber-graft-citraconic anhydride (NR-g-CCA), natural rubber-graft-itaconic anhydride (NR-g-ICA), and natural rubber-graft-maleic anhydride (NR-g-MA), with the anhydrides grafted to natural rubber in toluene using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. Variations of monomer content, initiator content, temperature and reaction time of the grafting copolymerization were investigated. The maximum degrees of grafting were 1.06% for NR-g-CCA, 4.66% for NR-g-ICA, and 5.03% for NR-g-MA, reached using 10 phr citraconic anhydride, 10 phr of itaconic anhydride, or 8 phr of maleic anhydride, 3 phr benzoyl peroxide, at 85, 80 and 80°C for 2, 2 and 3 hrs, respectively. Solvent-based wood adhesives were formulated from these copolymers with various contents of wood resin in the range 10-40 phr. The maximal 289 N/in cleavage peel and 245.7 KPa shear strength for NR-g-MA (5.03% grafting) were obtained at 40 phr wood resin

  5. Blockade of human P2X7 receptor function with a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, G; Chessell, I P; Michel, A D; Collo, G; Salazzo, M; Herren, S; Gretener, D; Grahames, C; Kaur, R; Kosco-Vilbois, M H; Humphrey, P P

    1998-11-15

    A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific for the human P2X7 receptor was generated in mice. As assessed by flow cytometry, the MoAb labeled human blood-derived macrophage cells natively expressing P2X7 receptors and cells transfected with human P2X7 but not other P2X receptor types. The MoAb was used to immunoprecipitate the human P2X7 receptor protein, and in immunohistochemical studies on human lymphoid tissue, P2X7 receptor labeling was observed within discrete areas of the marginal zone of human tonsil sections. The antibody also acted as a selective antagonist of human P2X7 receptors in several functional studies. Thus, whole cell currents, elicited by the brief application of 2',3'-(4-benzoyl)-benzoyl-ATP in cells expressing human P2X7, were reduced in amplitude by the presence of the MoAb. Furthermore, preincubation of human monocytic THP-1 cells with the MoAb antagonized the ability of P2X7 agonists to induce the release of interleukin-1beta.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Processable Polyaniline Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, Salma; Bilal, Salma; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most promising candidates for possible technological applications. PANI has potential applications in batteries, anion exchanger, tissue engineering, inhibition of steel corrosion, fuel cell, sensors and so on. However, its insolubility in common organic solvents limits its range of applications. In the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize soluble polyaniline salt via inverse polymerization pathway using benzoyl peroxide as oxidant and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as dopant as well as a surfactant. A mixture of chloroform and 2-butanol was used as dispersion medium for the first time. The influence of synthesis parameters such as concentration of aniline, benzoyl peroxide and DBSA on the yield and other properties of the resulting PANI salt was studied. The synthesized PANI salt was found to be completely soluble in DMSO, DMF, chloroform and in a mixture of toluene and 2-propanol. The synthesized polymer salt was also characterized with cyclic voltam-metry, SEM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. TGA was used to analyze the thermal properties of synthesized polymer. The extent of doping of the PANI salt was determined from UV-Vis spectra and TGA analysis. The activation energy for the degradation of the polymer was calculated with the help of TGA.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of completely soluble polyaniline salts via inverse emulsion polymerization using a mixture of chloroform and 2- butanol as a dispersing medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, S.; Bilal, S.

    2011-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most promising candidates for possible technological applications. PANI has potential applications in batteries, anion exchanger, tissue engineering, inhibition of steel corrosion, fuel cell, sensors and so on. However, its insolubility in common organic solvents limits its range of applications. In the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize soluble polyaniline salt via inverse polymerization pathway using benzoyl peroxide as oxidant and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as dopant as well as a surfactant. A mixture of chloroform and 2-butanol was used as dispersion medium for the first time. The influence of synthesis parameters such as concentration of aniline, benzoyl peroxide and DBSA on the yield and other properties of the resulting PANI salt was studied. The synthesized PANI salt was found to be completely soluble in DMSO, DMF, chloroform and in a mixture of toluene and 2-propanol. The synthesized polymer salt was also characterized with cyclic voltammetry, SEM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. TGA was used to analyze the thermal properties of synthesized polymer. The extent of doping of the PANI salt was determined from UV-Vis spectra and TGA analysis. The activation energy for the degradation of the polymer was calculated with the help of TGA. (author)

  8. Somatostatine analogs marked with 99m-TC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenaus, E; Crudo, J; Edreira, M; Castiglia, S.G. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the biological and radiochemical behaviour of two somatostatin analogues, the RC-160 and Tyr 3 Octreotide(TOC) peptides when labeling with 99m Tc by an indirect method using S-Benzoyl- mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG3) and hydrazino nicotinamide (HYNIC) as chelating agents. The synthesis of RC160 with S-Benzoyl MAG3 and TOC with HYNIC, for labeling with 99m Tc are also described. The conjugates were prepared on a small scale and labeled with the radionuclide using tricine as coligands for HYNIC conjugates. Chromatographic studies were performed using an HPLC system and radiochemical purities higher than 75% and 95% were obtained respectively. Biodistributions studies in normal Wistar rats were performed and results were correlated with chromatographic and protein binding properties. Lower lipophilicity of the labeled conjugates resulted in a higher renal excretion. HYNIC-TOC complex showed promising results when labeling with 99m Tc using tricine as coligand although higher stability should be found for ternary coligands compared to tricine (Au)

  9. Policing starter unit selection of the enterocin type II polyketide synthase by the type II thioesterase EncL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzis, John A; Cheng, Qian; Meluzzi, Dario; Xiang, Longkuan; Izumikawa, Miho; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Moore, Bradley S

    2011-11-15

    Enterocin is an atypical type II polyketide synthase (PKS) product from the marine actinomycete 'Streptomyces maritimus'. The enterocin biosynthesis gene cluster (enc) codes for proteins involved in the assembly and attachment of the rare benzoate primer that initiates polyketide assembly with the addition of seven malonate molecules and culminates in a Favorskii-like rearrangement of the linear poly-β-ketone to give its distinctive non-aromatic, caged core structure. Fundamental to enterocin biosynthesis, which utilizes a single acyl carrier protein (ACP), EncC, for both priming with benzoate and elongating with malonate, involves maintaining the correct balance of acyl-EncC substrates for efficient polyketide assembly. Here, we report the characterization of EncL as a type II thioesterase that functions to edit starter unit (mis)priming of EncC. We performed a series of in vivo mutational studies, heterologous expression experiments, in vitro reconstitution studies, and Fourier-transform mass spectrometry-monitored competitive enzyme assays that together support the proposed selective hydrolase activity of EncL toward misprimed acetyl-ACP over benzoyl-ACP to facilitate benzoyl priming of the enterocin PKS complex. While this system resembles the R1128 PKS that also utilizes an editing thioesterase (ZhuC) to purge acetate molecules from its initiation module ACP in favor of alkylacyl groups, the enterocin system is distinct in its usage of a single ACP for both priming and elongating reactions with different substrates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new potentiometric electrode incorporating functionalized β-cyclodextrins for diclofenac determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenik, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the preparation of diclofenac-selective membrane electrodes incorporating β-cyclodextrins: (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin, and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-benzoyl)-β-cyclodextrin. Several plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes of different compositions were tested with the best electrode being the one incorporating heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-benzoyl)-β-cyclodextrin with the membrane plasticized with 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether. The electrode is characterized by a near-Nernstian response slope of -60.0 mV decade(-1) over the linear range of 5.0×10(-5)-1.0×10(-2) mol L(-1) and a limit of detection of 1.4×10(-5) mol L(-1). The proposed electrode can easily discriminate diclofenac ions from several inorganic and organic interferents and some common drug excipients. The electrode has a response time of 10s and can be used within a pH range of 6.2-8.5 over 10 months without any considerable deterioration. The electrical properties of the membrane electrode were studied by impedance spectroscopy. The notable advantages of the diclofenac-selective electrode include its high sensitivity, selectivity, cost-effectiveness, and comfortable application in drug and urine analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Discovery and evaluation of a series of 3-acylindole imidazopyridine platelet-activating factor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, M L; Davidsen, S K; Heyman, H R; Garland, R B; Sheppard, G S; Florjancic, A S; Xu, L; Carrera, G M; Steinman, D H; Trautmann, J A; Albert, D H; Magoc, T J; Tapang, P; Rhein, D A; Conway, R G; Luo, G; Denissen, J F; Marsh, K C; Morgan, D W; Summers, J B

    1998-01-01

    Studies conducted with the goal of discovering a second-generation platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist have identified a novel class of potent and orally active antagonists which have high aqueous solubility and long duration of action in animal models. The compounds arose from the combination of the lipophilic indole portion of Abbott's first-generation PAF antagonist ABT-299 (2) with the methylimidazopyridine heterocycle moiety of British Biotechnology's BB-882 (1) and possess the positive attributes of both of these clinical candidates. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies indicated that modification of the indole and benzoyl spacer of lead compound 7b gave analogues that were more potent, longer-lived, and bioavailable and resulted in the identification of 1-(N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-4-ethynyl-3-[3-fluoro-4-[(1H-2-methylimidazo[4,5-c] pyrid-1-yl)methyl]benzoyl]indole hydrochloride (ABT-491, 22 m.HCl) which has been evaluated extensively and is currently in clinical development.

  12. Heteropoly acid encapsulated into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for Friedel–Crafts acylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar, Muhammad; Jiang, Sai; Ji, Shengfu, E-mail: jisf@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    A new strategy has been developed for the encapsulation of the phosphotungstic heteropoly acid (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} denoted as PTA) into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage and the PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts with different PTA content were prepared. The structure of the catalysts was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, FT-IR, ICP-AES and TG. The catalytic activity and recovery properties of the catalysts for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride were evaluated. The results showed that 14.6–31.7 wt% PTA were encapsulated in the ZIF-67 cage. The PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts had good catalytic activity for Friedel-Crafts acylation. The conversion of anisole can reach ~100% and the selectivity of the production can reach ~94% over 26.5 wt% PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalyst under the reaction condition of 120 °C and 6 h. After reaction, the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by the centrifugation. The recovered catalyst can be reused five times and the selectivity can be kept over 90%. - Graphical abstract: The PTA@ZIF-67 catalysts with different PTA content were prepared by encapsulating the PTA into ZIF-67 cage and the as-synthesized catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity for the Friedel–Craft acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride.

  13. An Efficient Synthesis of 1-Alkyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolones from 2-Halobenzoic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yoon Ju; Choi, Jin Sun; Lee, Jae In

    2013-01-01

    The present method offers an efficient synthesis of 1-alkyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolones from 2-haloben-zoic acids. It has the advantages with respect to (i) synthesis of 2 equiv of alkynones 5 from 1 equiv of 4,6-pyrimidyl di(2-halobenzoates) 3, (ii) synthesis of versatile 1-alkyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolones in high overall yields, and (iii) use of readily available and cheap starting materials. Therefore, this method could be utilized as a practical synthesis of 1-alkyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolones. Several methods have been developed to synthesize 1-alkyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolones from 2'-substituted acetophenones, anilines, and 2-halobenzoyl chlorides as starting materials. The reaction of N-methylisatoic anhydride with the lithium enolate of an 4'-methoxyacetophenone afforded the 1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone in a short sequence, but the yield was low. N-(2-Acetylphenyl)benzamides, prepared by Friedel-Crafts acylation of N-phenyl benzamides with acetyl chloride or benzoylation of 2'-aminoacetophenones with benzoyl chlorides,8 were cyclized with potassium t-butoxide to yield 2-aryl-4-quinolones, which were further alkylated with alkyl iodides to give 1-alkyl-2-aryl-4-quinolones

  14. Synthesis, formulation of nucleo-equipment and biological studies of the 99m Tc-MAG3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes H, L.; Lezama C, J.; Ferro F, G.

    1991-10-01

    Technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyl glycylglycylglycine ( 99m Tc-MAG 3 ) is introduced to replace o-iodohippurate (OIH) for renal function studies. In this paper we present the synthesis, labelling and biological evaluation of 99m Tc- MAG 3 prepared in our laboratory. The precursor s-benzoyl-mercaptoacetyl glycyl glycylglycine (Bz-MAG 3 ) was synthesized by condensation of glycylglycylglycine with chloroacetyl chloride to obtain chloroacetyl glycylglycylglycine and this product was condensate with sodium thiobenzoate. The Bz-MAG 3 was characterized by IR and NMR. The labelling with 99m Tc was carried out at pH 9.0 using stannous chloride as a reducing agent with heating to boiling for 15 min. The benzoyl group is lost in this step, forming 99m Tc-MAG 3 complex with radiochemical purity of 99%. The biodistribution properties were evaluated in mice and a rapid renal extraction was apparent at the 10 minutes value (51.65% of the injected dose). The radiotracer was administered to 5 patients showing a good biological behavior. Based on these results, the 99m Tc-MAG 3 is expected to have widespread clinical utility in Mexico. (Author)

  15. Synthesis, formulation of nucleo-equipment and biological studies of the {sup 99m} Tc-MAG{sub 3}; Sintesis, formulacion de nucleo-equipos y estudios biologicos de la {sup 99m} Tc-MAG{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes H, L; Lezama C, J; Ferro F, G

    1991-10-15

    Technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyl glycylglycylglycine ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}) is introduced to replace o-iodohippurate (OIH) for renal function studies. In this paper we present the synthesis, labelling and biological evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc- MAG{sub 3} prepared in our laboratory. The precursor s-benzoyl-mercaptoacetyl glycyl glycylglycine (Bz-MAG{sub 3} ) was synthesized by condensation of glycylglycylglycine with chloroacetyl chloride to obtain chloroacetyl glycylglycylglycine and this product was condensate with sodium thiobenzoate. The Bz-MAG{sub 3} was characterized by IR and NMR. The labelling with {sup 99m}Tc was carried out at pH 9.0 using stannous chloride as a reducing agent with heating to boiling for 15 min. The benzoyl group is lost in this step, forming {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} complex with radiochemical purity of 99%. The biodistribution properties were evaluated in mice and a rapid renal extraction was apparent at the 10 minutes value (51.65% of the injected dose). The radiotracer was administered to 5 patients showing a good biological behavior. Based on these results, the {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} is expected to have widespread clinical utility in Mexico. (Author)

  16. An Efficient Synthesis of 1-Alkyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolones from 2-Halobenzoic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yoon Ju; Choi, Jin Sun; Lee, Jae In [Duksung Women' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The present method offers an efficient synthesis of 1-alkyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolones from 2-haloben-zoic acids. It has the advantages with respect to (i) synthesis of 2 equiv of alkynones 5 from 1 equiv of 4,6-pyrimidyl di(2-halobenzoates) 3, (ii) synthesis of versatile 1-alkyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolones in high overall yields, and (iii) use of readily available and cheap starting materials. Therefore, this method could be utilized as a practical synthesis of 1-alkyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolones. Several methods have been developed to synthesize 1-alkyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolones from 2'-substituted acetophenones, anilines, and 2-halobenzoyl chlorides as starting materials. The reaction of N-methylisatoic anhydride with the lithium enolate of an 4'-methoxyacetophenone afforded the 1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone in a short sequence, but the yield was low. N-(2-Acetylphenyl)benzamides, prepared by Friedel-Crafts acylation of N-phenyl benzamides with acetyl chloride or benzoylation of 2'-aminoacetophenones with benzoyl chlorides,8 were cyclized with potassium t-butoxide to yield 2-aryl-4-quinolones, which were further alkylated with alkyl iodides to give 1-alkyl-2-aryl-4-quinolones.

  17. Exciplex and excimer molecular probes: detection of conformational flip in a myo-inositol chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirvel, Manikandan; Arsic, Biljana; Freeman, Sally; Bichenkova, Elena V

    2008-06-07

    2-O-tert-Butyldimethylsilyl-4,6-bis-O-pyrenoyl-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoformate (6) and 2-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-4-O-[4-(dimethylamino)benzoyl]-6-O-pyrenoyl-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoacetate (10) adopt conformationally restricted unstable chairs with five axial substituents. In the symmetrical diester 6, the two pi-stacked pyrenoyl groups are electron acceptor-donor partners, giving a strong intramolecular excimer emission. In the mixed ester 10, the pyrenoyl group is the electron acceptor and the 4-(dimethylamino)benzoyl ester is the electron donor, giving a strong intramolecular exciplex emission. The conformation of the mixed ester 10 was assessed using 1H NMR spectroscopy (1H-NOESY) and computational studies. which showed the minimum inter-centroid distance between the two aromatic systems to be approximately 3.9 A. Upon addition of acid, the orthoformate/orthoacetate trigger in 6 and 10 was cleaved, which caused a switch of the conformation of the myo-inositol ring to the more stable penta-equatorial chair, leading to separation of the aromatic ester groups and loss of excimer and exciplex fluorescence, respectively. This study provides proof of principle for the development of novel fluorescent molecular probes.

  18. Analisis sifat fisika pemanfaatan pati tandan kosong sawit dan limbah plastik LDPE sebagai bahan pembuatan plastik biodegradabel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Rachmi Hidayani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to overcome the issue of plastic packaging waste that accumulates in nature because synthetic polymers cannot be easily unraveled by bacteria. Biodegradable plastics were produced by mixing waste of plastics of the low density polyethylene (LDPE with starch of empty palm fruit bunches, modified with the addition of maleic anhydride as a crosslinking agent. To produce biodegradable plastics, different compositions of LDPE waste, starch of empty palm fruit bunch, maleic anhydride, and benzoyl peroxide were used, namely (90: 10: 1: 1, (80: 20: 1: 1, (70: 30: 1: 1, and (60: 40: 1: 1. Research stages consisted of extraction of starch from palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB; preparation of biodegradable plastic powder with the reflux method and xylene solvents; and making of biodegradable plastics using the press molding method. Based on the results of characterization, it was revealed that the optimum condition was generated by biodegradable plastics with the composition of LDPE waste, starch of empty palm bunches, maleic anhydride, and benzoyl peroxide was equal to 60: 40: 1: 1, which generated the tensile strength value of 6.9410 N/m2, the elongation at break of 3.1875%, the the melting point temperature of 103oC, and the decomposition temperature of 384oC. Besides, the thermal gravimetric test generated a residue of 12.6% and results of the analysis on morphological properties suggested that the starch distributed evenly.

  19. [99mTc]MAG3-mannosyl-dextran: a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical for sentinel node detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, David R.; Wallace, Anne M.; Hoh, Carl K.

    2001-01-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled benzoyl-mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl-glycine-mannosyl-dextran ([ 99m Tc]MAG 3 -mannosyl-dextran) is a receptor-binding radiotracer that binds to mannose-binding protein, a receptor expressed by reticuloendothelial tissue. This agent is composed of a 10.5-kilodalton molecule of dextran and multiple units of mannose, and benzoyl-mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl-glycine (BzMAG 3 ). The tetraflorophenol-activated ester of BzMAG 3 and the imidate of thiomannose were used to covalently attach BzMAG 3 and mannose to an amino-terminated conjugate of dextran. This yielded a 19-kilodalton macromolecule consisting of 3 BzMAG 3 and 21 mannose units per dextran. Dynamic light scattering was used to measure a mean diameter of 5.5 nanometers for BzMAG 3 -mannosyl-dextran and 0.28 microns for filtered Tc-99m sulfur colloid. A preliminary sentinel node detection study employing right fore and hind footpad injections of [ 99m Tc]MAG 3 -mannosyl-dextran and left fore and hind footpad injections of filtered Tc-99m sulfur colloid demonstrated greater sentinel lymph node uptake by the receptor-binding agent

  20. Synthesis of specifically 2H-labeled reserpines, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acids, and syringic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.W.; Fischer, D.L.; Pachta, J.M.; Althaus, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    3,4,5-Trimethoxy- 2 H 9 -, 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethoxy- 2 H 6 , and 4-hydroxyl-3,5-dimethoxy- 2 H 6 -benzoic acids were prepared from n-propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (n-propyl gallate) by means of appropriate alkylation-hydrolysis sequences employing iodomethane- 2 H 3 or dimethyl- 2 H 6 -sulfate as the deuterium source. 4-Methoxy- 2 H 3 -3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid was similarly prepared from ethyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate. The labeled trimethoxybenzoic acids were converted to the corresponding 2 H-labeled reserpines by condensation of the acid chlorides with methyl reserpate in pyridine according to the classical procedure. The labeled reserpine analog methyl 18-0-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy- 2 H 6 )benzoyl reserpate was likewise prepared from 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy- 2 H 6 -benzoic acid via the intermediate methyl 18-0-(4-ethoxycarbonyloxy-3,5-dimethoxy- 2 H 6 -benzoyl)reserpate (syrosingopine- 2 H 6 ). The isotopic purity of each compound exceeded 99 atom percent 2 H. (author)

  1. 4-Bromo-N-(di-n-propyl-carbamothioyl)-benzamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzet, Gün; Flörke, Ulrich; Külcü, Nevzat; Arslan, Hakan

    2009-02-04

    The synthesis of the title compound, C(14)H(19)BrN(2)OS, involves the reaction of 4-bromo-benzoyl chloride with potassium thio-cyanate in acetone followed by condensation of the resulting 4-bromo-benzoyl isothio-cyanate with di-n-propyl-amine. Typical thio-urea carbonyl and thio-carbonyl double bonds, as well as shortened C-N bonds, are observed in the title compound. The short C-N bond lengths in the centre of the mol-ecule reveal the effects of resonance in this part of the mol-ecule. The asymmetric unit of the title compound contains two crystallographically independent mol-ecules, A and B. There is very little difference between the bond lengths and angles of these mol-ecules. In mol-ecule B, one di-n-propyl group is twisted in a -anti-periplanar conformation with C-C-C-H = -179.1 (3)° and the other adopts a -synclinal conformation with C-C-C-H = -56.7 (4)°; in mol-ecule A the two di-n-propyl groups are twisted in + and -anti-periplanar conformations, with C-C-C-H = -179.9 (3) and 178.2 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked into dimeric pairs via pairs of N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds.

  2. An update on the management of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonette Keri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Jonette Keri1,2, Michael Shiman11Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Service, Miami VA Hospital, FL, USAAbstract: Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that can affect individuals from childhood to adulthood, most often occurring in the teenage years. Acne can have a significant physical, emotional, and social impact on an individual. Many different treatment options are available for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Commonly used topical treatments include benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, sulfur and sodium sulfacetamide, azelaic acid, and retinoids. Systemic treatment is frequently used and includes the use of systemic antibiotics, oral contraceptives, antiandrogens, and retinoids. Other treatment modalities exist such as the use of superficial chemical peels as well as using laser and light devices for the treatment of acne. With the multitude of treatment options and the rapidly expanding newer technologies available to clinicians, it is important to review and be aware of the current literature and studies regarding the treatment of acne vulgaris.Keywords: acne vulgaris, treatment, benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, lasers

  3. Epoxyethylglycyl peptides as inhibitors of oligosaccharyltransferase: double-labelling of the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bause, E; Wesemann, M; Bartoschek, A; Breuer, W

    1997-02-15

    Pig liver oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) is inactivated irreversibly by a hexapeptide in which threonine has been substituted by epoxyethylglycine in the Asn-Xaa-Thr glycosylation triplet. Incubation of the enzyme in the presence of Dol-PP-linked [14C]oligosaccharides and the N-3,5-dinitrobenzoylated epoxy derivative leads to the double-labelling of two subunits (48 and 66 kDa) of the oligomeric OST complex, both of which are involved in the catalytic activity. Labelling of both subunits was blocked competitively by the acceptor peptide N-benzoyl-Asu-Gly-Thr-NHCH3 and by the OST inhibitor N-benzoyl-alpha,gamma-diaminobutyric acid-Gly-Thr-NHCH3, but not by an analogue derived from the epoxy-inhibitor by replacing asparagine with glutamine. Our data clearly show that double-labelling is an active-site-directed modification, involving inhibitor glycosylation at asparagine and covalent attachment of the glycosylated inhibitor, via the epoxy group, to the enzyme. Double-labelling of OST can occur as the result of either a consecutive or a syn-catalytic reaction sequence. The latter mechanism, during the course of which OST catalyses its own 'suicide' inactivation, is more likely, as suggested by indirect experimental evidence. The syn-catalytic mechanism corresponds with our current view of the functional role of the acceptor site Thr/Ser acting as a hydrogen-bond acceptor, not a donor, during transglycosylation.

  4. The anaerobic phototrophic metabolism of 3-chlorobenzoate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, V S

    1992-10-09

    The degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds by anaerobic bacteria is now known to be an important mechanism of bioremediation. In an experimental study, a mixed phototrophic culture was found to metabolize 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of benzoate following adaptation on a benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate medium for 7 weeks. The dominant bacterial isolate was identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Radioisotopic studies showed [sup 14]C-3-chlorobenzoate was converted by the isolate to [sup 14]CO[sub 2] and cell biomass in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a cosubstrate red light. Cyclohexane carboxylate was able to replace the cosubstrate, benzoate. The isolate also metabolized 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of pimelic acid, sodium acetate, and sodium succinate; however, the metabolic rate was reduced. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and high pressure liquid chromatography indicated the intracellular presence of 3-chlorobenzoate and benzoyl-CoA. Cell-free extracts produced benzoate and benzoyl-CoA. A probable route of 3-chlorobenzoate metabolism via dehalogenation followed by steps similar to the benzoate reductive ring fission pathway is suggested. Comparison of kinetic coefficients showed a higher affinity of the isolate for benzoate. Isolates from representative samples of various freshwater and wastewater ecosystems indicated widespread ecological distribution of R. palustris and the common occurrence of the 3-chlorobenzoate metabolic phenotype. R. palustris was found to grow in mixed anaerobic cultures and retained its 3-chlorobenzoate degradation property. 91 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Immobilization of trypsin on sub-micron skeletal polymer monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Chunhe [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi Li, E-mail: qili@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu Wenbin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Fuyi [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang Gengliang [College of Pharmacy, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2011-04-29

    A new kind of immobilized trypsin reactor based on sub-micron skeletal polymer monolith has been developed. Covalent immobilization of trypsin on this support was performed using the epoxide functional groups in either a one- or a multi-step reaction. The proteolytic activity of the immobilized trypsin was measured by monitoring the formation of N-{alpha}-benzoyl-L-arginine (BA) which is the digestion product of a substrate N-{alpha}-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE). Results showed that the digestion speed was about 300 times faster than that performed in free solution. The performance of such an enzyme reactor was further demonstrated by digesting protein myoglobin. It has been found that the protein digestion could be achieved in 88 s at 30 deg. C, which is comparable to 24 h digestion in solution at 37 {sup o}C. Furthermore, the immobilized trypsin exhibits increased stability even after continuous use compared to that in free solution. The present monolithic enzyme-reactor provides a promising platform for the proteomic research.

  6. Development of rapid multistep carbon-11 radiosynthesis of the myeloperoxidase inhibitor AZD3241 to assess brain exposure by PET microdosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnström, Peter; Bergman, Linda; Varnäs, Katarina; Malmquist, Jonas; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The myeloperoxidase inhibitor AZD3241 has been selected as a candidate drug currently being developed to delay progression in patients with neurodegenerative brain disorders. Part of the decision tree for translation of AZD3241 into clinical studies included the need for assessment of brain exposure in non-human primates by PET microdosing. For that purpose a rapid multistep method for 11 C-labeling of AZD3241 was developed. Methods: AZD3241 was labeled in the thio-carbonyl position starting from [ 11 C]potassium cyanide in a 4-step procedure using microwave assisted heating. In the first step [ 11 C]potassium cyanide was converted to [ 11 C]potassium thiocyanate followed by reaction with benzoyl chloride to yield benzoyl [ 11 C]isothiocyanate. The benzoyl [ 11 C]isothiocyanate was subsequently reacted with the precursor ethyl 3-(2-isopropoxyethylamino)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate and the formed intermediate underwent a base catalyzed cyclization to obtain [ 11 C]AZD3241 in the final step. To assess [ 11 C]AZD3241 brain exposure PET measurements were performed in three cynomolgus monkeys. Results: [ 11 C]AZD3241 was produced in good and reproducible radiochemical yield 710 ± 294 MBq (mean ± SD, n = 7). Total time of synthesis was 60 min from end of bombardment. The specific radioactivity was 9 ± 4 GBq/μmol and the radiochemical purity was > 98%. Following iv administration of [ 11 C]AZD3241 there was a rapid presence of radioactivity in brain in each of the three monkeys. The distribution of [ 11 C]AZD3241 to brain was fast and a C max of 1.9 to 2.6% of the injected radioactivity was observed within 1.5 min. [ 11 C]AZD3241 was homogeneously distributed in brain. Conclusion: The MPO inhibitor AZD3241 was successfully labeled with carbon-11 in a challenging 4-step procedure in good radiochemical yield allowing PET microdosing studies in cynomolgus monkey. [ 11 C]AZD3241 rapidly entered brain and confirmed adequate brain exposure to support translation

  7. Identification of lactose ureide, a urea derivative of lactose, in milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, K; Sasaki, A; Oritani, T; Hosono, A

    2011-12-01

    With the widespread consumption of milk, the complete characterization of the constituents of milk and milk products is important in terms of functionality and safety. In this study, a novel nonreducing carbohydrate was separated from powdered skim milk and was identified using electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (m/z 385.1[M + H(+)]), ¹H, ¹³C, ¹H¹H-correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The carbohydrate was identified as a lactose derivative of urea, N-carbamoyl-o-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranosylamine (lactose ureide, LU). For the HPLC analysis of LU in milk and milk products, benzoylated LU, hepta-o-benzoyl lactose ureide (melting point 137-139°C; m/z 1,113 [M + H⁺]; wavelength of maximum absorption, λ(max), 229 nm; molar extinction coefficient, ε, 8.1037 × 10⁷), was used as a standard. The crude nonreducing carbohydrate fraction from raw milk, thermally processed milk, and milk products such as powdered milks were directly benzoylated and subjected to HPLC analysis using an octadecylsilyl column to determine the quantity of LU. The content of LU in 10% solutions of powdered skim milk and powdered infant formula (5.0±1.1 and 4.9±1.5 mg/L, respectively) were almost 3-fold higher than that of UHT milk (1.6±0.5 mg/L) and higher than that of low-temperature, long-time-processed (pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min) milk (1.2±0.3 mg/L) and the fresh raw milk sample (0.3±0.1 mg/L). A time-course of the LU content in raw milk during heating at 110°C revealed that LU increased with time. From these results, it is likely that LU is formed by the Maillard-type reaction between the lactose and urea in milk and milk products. Because the concentration of LU in milk increased with the degree of processing heat treatment, it could serve as an indicator of the thermal deterioration of milk. Although it is known that the human intestine is unable to digest LU, the gastrointestinal bacteria

  8. Divergence of substrate specificity and function in the Escherichia coli hotdog-fold thioesterase paralogs YdiI and YbdB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John A; Chen, Danqi; Allen, Karen N; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2014-07-29

    The work described in this paper, and its companion paper (Wu, R., Latham, J. A., Chen, D., Farelli, J., Zhao, H., Matthews, K. Allen, K. N., and Dunaway-Mariano, D. (2014) Structure and Catalysis in the Escherichia coli Hotdog-fold Thioesterase Paralogs YdiI and YbdB. Biochemistry, DOI: 10.1021/bi500334v), focuses on the evolution of a pair of paralogous hotdog-fold superfamily thioesterases of E. coli, YbdB and YdiI, which share a high level of sequence identity but perform different biological functions (viz., proofreader of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-holoEntB in the enterobactin biosynthetic pathway and catalyst of the 1,4-dihydoxynapthoyl-CoA hydrolysis step in the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway, respectively). In vitro substrate activity screening of a library of thioester metabolites showed that YbdB displays high activity with benzoyl-holoEntB and benzoyl-CoA substrates, marginal activity with acyl-CoA thioesters, and no activity with 1,4-dihydoxynapthoyl-CoA. YdiI, on the other hand, showed a high level of activity with its physiological substrate, significant activity toward a wide range of acyl-CoA thioesters, and minimal activity toward benzoyl-holoEntB. These results were interpreted as evidence for substrate promiscuity that facilitates YbdB and YdiI evolvability, and divergence in substrate preference, which correlates with their assumed biological function. YdiI support of the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway was confirmed by demonstrating reduced anaerobic growth of the E. coli ydiI-knockout mutant (vs wild-type E. coli) on glucose in the presence of the electron acceptor fumarate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that a small biological range exists for YbdB orthologs (i.e., limited to Enterobacteriales) relative to that of YdiI orthologs. The divergence in YbdB and YdiI substrate specificity detailed in this paper set the stage for their structural analyses reported in the companion paper.

  9. 6-Oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-coenzyme A hydrolases from obligately anaerobic bacteria: characterization and identification of its gene as a functional marker for aromatic compounds degrading anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntze, Kevin; Shinoda, Yoshifumi; Moutakki, Housna; McInerney, Michael J; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Boll, Matthias

    2008-06-01

    In anaerobic bacteria, most aromatic growth substrates are channelled into the benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) degradation pathway where the aromatic ring is dearomatized and cleaved into an aliphatic thiol ester. The initial step of this pathway is catalysed by dearomatizing benzoyl-CoA reductases yielding the two electron-reduction product, cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbonyl-CoA, to which water is subsequently added by a hydratase. The next two steps have so far only been studied in facultative anaerobes and comprise the oxidation of the 6-hydroxyl-group to 6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA (6-OCH-CoA), the addition of water and hydrolytic ring cleavage yielding 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. In this work, two benzoate-induced genes from the obligately anaerobic bacteria, Geobacter metallireducens (bamA(Geo)) and Syntrophus aciditrophicus (bamA(Syn)), were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized as 6-OCH-CoA hydrolases. Both enzymes consisted of a single 43 kDa subunit. Some properties of the enzymes are presented and compared with homologues from facultative anaerobes. An alignment of the nucleotide sequences of bamA(Geo) and bamA(Syn) with the corresponding genes from facultative anaerobes identified highly conserved DNA regions, which enabled the discrimination of genes coding for 6-OCH-CoA hydrolases from those coding for related enzymes. A degenerate oligonucleotide primer pair was deduced from conserved regions and applied in polymerase chain reaction reactions. Using these primers, the expected DNA fragment of the 6-OCH-CoA hydrolase genes was specifically amplified from the DNA of nearly all known facultative and obligate anaerobes that use aromatic growth substrates. The only exception was the aromatic compound-degrading Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which uniquely uses a modified benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway. Using the oligonucleotide primers, the expected DNA fragment was also amplified in a toluene-degrading and a m

  10. Radical Initiated Hydrosilylation on Silicon Nanocrystal Surfaces: An Evaluation of Functional Group Tolerance and Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Gonzalez, Christina M; Purkait, Tapas K; Iqbal, Muhammad; Meldrum, Al; Veinot, Jonathan G C

    2015-09-29

    Hydrosilylation is among the most common methods used for modifying silicon surface chemistry. It provides a wide range of surface functionalities and effective passivation of surface sites. Herein, we report a systematic study of radical initiated hydrosilylation of silicon nanocrystal (SiNC) surfaces using two common radical initiators (i.e., 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) and benzoyl peroxide). Compared to other widely applied hydrosilylation methods (e.g., thermal, photochemical, and catalytic), the radical initiator based approach is particle size independent, requires comparatively low reaction temperatures, and yields monolayer surface passivation after short reaction times. The effects of differing functional groups (i.e., alkene, alkyne, carboxylic acid, and ester) on the radical initiated hydrosilylation are also explored. The results indicate functionalization occurs and results in the formation of monolayer passivated surfaces.

  11. Nano Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} clinoptilolite and H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} as efficient catalysts for solvent-free synthesis of 5(4H)-isoxazolone under microwave irradiation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fozooni, Samieh, E-mail: samieh.fozooni@uk.ac.ir, E-mail: s_fozooni@yahoo.com [Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Mining Engineering Department. Zarand High Education Center; Hosseinzadeh, Nasrin Gholam; Akhgar, Mohammad Reza [Islamic Azad University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Department of Chemistry; Hamidian, Hooshang [Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Department of Chemistry

    2013-10-15

    A quick and solvent-free approach involving the exposure of neat reactants to microwave irradiation in conjunction with the use of clinoptilolite, H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle catalysts is described. In this work, condensation of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium acetate, acetoacetic or benzoyl acetic ethyl ester and appropriate aldehydes by employing catalysts gave 5(4H)-isoxazolone only in one step. Catalyst amount, temperature effects and catalysts reusability were monitored. Among the catalysts, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles had better performance than other catalysts from viewpoint of yield and reaction time. The present protocol offers several advantages, such as short reaction time, reasonable yield, mild reaction condition and recycling catalysts with a very easy workup. (author)

  12. Novel dimer based descriptors with solvational computation for QSAR study of oxadiazoylbenzoyl-ureas as novel insect-growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng; Cheng, Jiagao; Li, Zhong; Xu, Xiaoyong; Qian, Xuhong

    2010-02-01

    Molecular aggregation state of bioactive compounds plays a key role in its bio-interactive procedure. In this article, based on the structure information of dimers, the simplest model of molecular aggregation state, and combined with solvational computation, total four descriptors (DeltaV, MR2, DeltaE(1), and DeltaE(2)) were calculated for QSAR study of a novel insect-growth regulator, N-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-N'-benzoyl urea. Two QSAR models were constructed with r(2) = 0.671, q(2) = 0.516 and r(2) = 0.816, q(2) = 0.695, respectively. It implicates that the bioactivity may strongly depend on the characters of molecular aggregation state, especially on the dimeric transport ability from oil phase to water phase. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  14. Radical-scavenging Activity of Natural Methoxyphenols vs. Synthetic Ones using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activities of the synthetic antioxidants 2-allyl-4-X-phenol (X=NO2, Cl, Br, OCH3, COCH3, CH3, t-(CH33, C6H5 and 2,4-dimethoxyphenol, and the natural antioxidants eugenol and isoeugenol, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC by measuring their anti-1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical activity and the induction period for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and benzoyl peroxide (BPO. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol and 2,4-dimethoxy-phenol scavenged not only oxygen-centered radicals (PhCOO. derived from BPO, but also carbon-centered radicals (R. derived from the AIBN and DPPH radical much more efficiently, in comparison with eugenol and isoeugenol. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol may be useful for its lower prooxidative activity.

  15. Initiation of MMA polymerization by iniferters based on dithiocarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve modified dithiocarbamates and a thiuramdisulfide used for the initiation of methyl methacrylate (MMA polymerization were synthesized in this study. The polymerization of MMA was followed by determine the yield and molar mass of the obtained PMMA as a function of polymerization time. Four of the synthesized dithiocarbamates S-benzyl-N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamate, S-allyl-N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamate S-benzyl-N,N-diisobutyldithiocarbamate and S-benzoyl-N,N-diisobutyldithiocarbamate, as well as N,N,N',N'-tetrabenzylthiuramdisulfide acted as iniferters. They were active as the initiators of the photo and/or thermally initiated radical polymerization of MMA in bulk and inert solvents (benzene and toluene. S Benzyl - N,N - dibenzyldithiocarbamate can be successfully used for the initiation of MMA polymerization in a polar solvent such as dimethylacetamide.

  16. [Total analysis of organic rubber additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Xuan; Robert, Shanks; You, Ye-Ming

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, after middle pressure chromatograph separation using both positive phase and reversed-phase conditions, the organic additives in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified by infrared spectrometer. At the same time, by using solid phase extraction column to maintain the main component-fuel oil in organic additves to avoid its interfering with minor compounds, other organic additves were separated and analysed by GC/Ms. In addition, the remaining active compound such as benzoyl peroxide was identified by CC/Ms, through analyzing acetone extract directly. Using the above mentioned techniques, soften agents (fuel oil, plant oil and phthalte), curing agent (benzoylperoxide), vulcanizing accelerators (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, ethyl thiuram and butyl thiuram), and antiagers (2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and styrenated phenol) in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified. Although the technique was established in ethylene-propylene rubber system, it can be used in other rubber system.

  17. Development and Characterization of Polymer Eco-Composites Based on Natural Rubber Reinforced with Natural Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelescu, Maria-Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Craciun, Gabriela; Chirila, Corina

    2017-07-11

    Natural rubber composites filled with short natural fibers (flax and sawdust) were prepared by blending procedure and the elastomer cross-linking was carried out using benzoyl peroxide. The microbial degradation of composites was carried out by incubating with Aspergillus niger recognized for the ability to grow and degrade a broad range of substrates. The extent of biodegradation was evaluated by weight loss and cross-linking degree study of composites after 2 months incubation in pure shake culture conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) have proved to be precious and valuable instruments for morphological as well as structural characterization of the composites before and after incubation with Aspergillus niger .

  18. Thermodynamics of synergistic extraction of hexavalent plutonium with HPMBP and neutral donors: monodentate versus bidentate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohithakshan, K.V.; Mithapara, P.D.; Pai, S.A.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    Synergistic extraction of hexavalent plutonium was studied from HNO 3 medium (0.05 M) with 1-phnyl, 3-methyl, 4-benzoyl, pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP) and different monodentate neutral donors viz. diphenyl sulphoxide (DPSO), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) using benzene as a diluent. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) evaluated by performing the experiments at various fixed temperatures (288 K to 318 K) were compared with those reported previously for the bidentate neutral donors (DBDECMP, DHDECMP and CMPO). The net enthalpy changes were negative and comparable. The monodentate neutral donors, however, showed a larger decrease in the entropy values. Further, the negative values of enthalpy and entropy changes indicated that the organic adduct formation is an addition reaction as reported ealier for the bidentate donors. (orig.)

  19. The vanadium content of human dental enamel and its relationship to caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Vrbic, V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the determination of vanadium in dental enamel based on neutron activation analysis is described. After rapid dissolution of the irradiated sample in perchloric acid, 52 V is quickly separated by solvent extraction from mixed perchloric-hydrochloric medium with N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxylamine (BPHA) reagent in toluene in 95% yield. The technique was applied to samples from a low caries area of Dalmatia, Zemunik (DMFT 5), in the same region. No significant differences in vanadium content were found between the two areas, nor between deciduous and permanent teeth. The levels in other areas of Yugoslavia were found to be similar, with a mean concentration of 3.7 +- 1.5 ngxg -1 for 37 samples, with a nearly normal distribution; a few impacted teeth gave lower values. The method can also be adapted to the analysis of bone and biological materials generally. (author)

  20. A simple in situ visual and tristimulus colorimetric method for the determination of diphosgene in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR PITSCHMANN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple visual and tristimulus colorimetric method (three-dimensional system CIE–L*a*b* for the determination of trace amounts of diphosgene in air has been developed. The method is based on the suction of diphosgene vapors through a modified cotton fabric filter fixed in a special adapter. Prior to analysis, the filter is saturated with a chromogenic reagent based on 4-(p-nitrobenzylpyridine. The optimal composition of the reagent is 2 g of 4-(p-nitrobenzylpyridine and 4 g of N-phenylbenzylamine in 100 ml of a 50:50 ethanol–glycerol mixture. The intensity of the formed red coloration of the filter is evaluated visually or by a tristimulus colorimeter (LMG 173, Lange, Germany. The detection limit is 0.01 mg m-3. Acetyl chloride and benzoyl chloride react in 150 and 50 times higher concentrations, respecttively. The method is suitable for mobile field analysis.

  1. The Determination of Uranium and Trace Metal Impurities in Yellow Cake Sample by Chemical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Rodthongkom, Chouvana

    1999-01-01

    The purity of uranium cake is very critical in nuclear-grade uranium (UO 2 ) and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production. The major element in yellow cake is uranium and trace metal impurities. The objective of this study is to determine uranium and 25 trace metal impurities; Aluminum, Barium, Bismuth, Calcium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Iithium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Niobium, Nickel, Lead, Antimony, Tin, Strontium, Titanium, Vanadium, Zinc and Zirconium, Uranium is determined by Potassium dichromate titration, after solvent extraction with Cupferon in Chloroform, Trace metal impurities are determined by solvent extraction with Tributyl Phosphate in Carbon-tetrachloride ( for first 23 elements) and N-Benzoyl-N-Phenylhydroxylamine in Chloroform ( for last 2 elements), then analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) compared with Inductively Couple Plasma Spectrophotometers (ICP). The accuracy and precision are studied with standard uranium octaoxide

  2. Determination of {sup 126}Sn half-life from ICP-MS and gamma spectrometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienvenu, P.; Arnal, N.; Comte, J. [CEA Cadarache DEN/DEC/SA3C/LARC, Paul Lez Durance (France); Ferreux, L.; Lepy, M.C.; Be, M.M. [CEA Saclay LIST LNE/LNHB, Gif sur Yvette (France); Andreoletti, G. [AREVA Cogema SL/UP2-800, Beaumont Hague (France)

    2009-07-01

    A new value of {sup 126}Sn half-life was determined by combination of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma spectrometry measurements on purified sample solutions collected from nuclear fuel reprocessing. {sup 126}Sn was isolated through dissolution of fission product precipitates and liquid-liquid extraction with N-benzoyl-N-phenyl-hydroxylamine (BPHA). The abundance of {sup 126}Sn atoms together with the absence of interfering species in the analysed solutions made it possible to measure both mass concentration and nuclide activity with high precision and accuracy. This led to a {sup 126}Sn half-life value of 1.980 (57) x 10{sup 5} a. (orig.)

  3. MOLECULAR VALIDATED MODEL FOR ADSORPTION OF PROTONATED DYE ON LDH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Braga

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrotalcite-like compounds are anionic clays of scientific and technological interest for their use as ion exchange materials, catalysts and modified electrodes. Surface phenomenon are important for all these applications. Although conventional analytical methods have enabled progress in understanding the behavior of anionic clays in solution, an evaluation at the atomic scale of the dynamics of their ionic interactions has never been performed. Molecular simulation has become an extremely useful tool to provide this perspective. Our purpose is to validate a simplified model for the adsorption of 5-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-benzenesulfonic acid (MBSA, a prototype molecule of anionic dyes, onto a hydrotalcite surface. Monte Carlo simulations were performed in the canonical ensemble with MBSA ions and a pore model of hydrotalcite using UFF and ClayFF force fields. The proposed molecular model has allowed us to reproduce experimental data of atomic force microscopy. Influences of protonation during the adsorption process are also presented.

  4. Synthesis of 3-aminopropyl glycosides of linear β-(1 → 3)-D-glucooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashunsky, Dmitry V; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Grachev, Alexey A; Chizhov, Alexander O; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2016-01-01

    3-Aminopropyl glycosides of a series of linear β-(1 → 3)-linked D-glucooligosaccharides containing from 3 to 13 monosaccharide units were efficiently prepared. The synthetic scheme featured highly regioselective glycosylation of 4,6-O-benzylidene-protected 2,3-diol glycosyl acceptors with a disaccharide thioglycoside donor bearing chloroacetyl groups at O-2' and -3' as a temporary protection of the diol system. Iteration of the deprotection and glycosylation steps afforded the series of the title oligoglucosides differing in length by two monosaccharide units. A novel procedure for selective removal of acetyl groups in the presence of benzoyl ones consisting in a brief treatment with a large excess of hydrazine hydrate has been proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acylation of lithiated trimethylsilyl malonates and esters applied to the synthesis of molecules of biological interest, labelled with carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorichon, Liliane

    1978-01-01

    This research thesis first reports an attempt to generalise the method of acylation of lithiated trimethylsilyl (TMS) malonates by introduction of new organic functions into the radical. This leads to the synthesis of some alkaloids such as nicotine and contine. The author also shows that fat acids can be labelled with carbon 14 in any position of the carbon chain. Thus, acylation of these malonates have been performed by using different acid chlorides. Then, the author reports attempts to simplify this method by using α-lithiated trimethylsilyl esters instead of malonates. He reports attempts of acylation of TMS isobutyrate, TMS proprionate and TMS acetate, by using different radioactive acid chlorides (benzoyl chloride, nicotinoyl chloride, lauryl chloride, and oleyl chloride). The author finally shows that both methods are equivalent by synthesising muscalure from TMS butylmalonate as well as from TMS hexanoate

  6. Effects of plant phenols of performance of southern armyworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, R L; Peterson, S S

    1988-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of two classes of phenols on performance of penultimate instar southern armyworms, Spodoptera eridania. One class consisted of phenols containing a catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene) moiety and included chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, and rhamnetin. A second group consisted of the phenolic glycoside salicin and its derivatives salicortin and tremulacin. The compounds were painted onto lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves and fed to larvae for the duration of the fifth instar. Chlorogenic acid and rhamnetin had no deleterious effects; rutin and quercetin caused some mortality and rutin reduced growth rates by decreasing consumption and digestion efficiency. Results showed that ortho-dihydroxybenzene groups may be necessary, but are not sufficient for biological activity. Salicin did not affect larvae; salicortin and tremulacin reduced growth rates primarily by decreasing consumption. These two compounds also caused degenerative lesions in midgut tissues. The presence of a benzoyl ester group in tremulacin accentuates its toxicity, relative to that of salicortin.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of new polyketones and copolyketones based on Difurfurylidenecyclopentanone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muaikel, Nayef S.; El-Emary, Talaat I.; Aly, Kamal I.

    2006-01-01

    A new interesting class of polyketones and copolyketones were synthesized via Friedel-Crafts reaction through the polymerization of the monomer 1 with different diacid chlorides. The model compound 3 was synthesized by reacting 1 with benzoyl chloride and characterized by H-NMR, IR and elemental analyses. The poly- and copolyketones were insoluble in most organic solvents but easily soluble in protic solvents. The thermal properties of these poly- and copolyketones were evaluated and correlated to their structural units by TGA and DSC measurements, and had inherent viscosities 0.19-0.56 dlg. The crystallinity of some polymers were tested by X-ray analyses; also the morphological properties of selected examples of poly- and copolyketones were detected by SEM. (author)

  8. Identification of potent orally active factor Xa inhibitors based on conjugation strategy and application of predictable fragment recommender system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tsukasa; Koga, Yuji; Iwatsuki, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Fukushi

    2015-01-15

    Anticoagulant agents have emerged as a promising class of therapeutic drugs for the treatment and prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. We investigated a series of novel orally active factor Xa inhibitors designed using our previously reported conjugation strategy to boost oral anticoagulant effect. Structural optimization of anthranilamide derivative 3 as a lead compound with installation of phenolic hydroxyl group and extensive exploration of the P1 binding element led to the identification of 5-chloro-N-(5-chloro-2-pyridyl)-3-hydroxy-2-{[4-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)benzoyl]amino}benzamide (33, AS1468240) as a potent factor Xa inhibitor with significant oral anticoagulant activity. We also reported a newly developed Free-Wilson-like fragment recommender system based on the integration of R-group decomposition with collaborative filtering for the structural optimization process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Properties of chymotrypsin bound covalently to dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlateva, T P; Krysteva, M; Balajthy, Z; Elödi, P

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic properties dextran-chymotrypsin conjugate were studied by means of low molecular weight substrates. It was found that KM, kcat and kcat/KM of dextran chymotrypsin for the hydrolysis of benzoyl-L-tyrosine-ethyl-ester did not differ substantially from those of the free enzyme. However, the data found for kcat of dextran-chymotrypsin and free chymotrypsin assayed for the hydrolysis of three tripeptidyl-p-nitroanilide D-Arg-Val-Trp-pNA, D-Arg-Val-Tyr-pNA, Z-Phe-Pro-Phe-pNA, were definitely different. The inhibition of the modified chymotrypsin with soybean trypsin inhibitor was found to be less pronounced than that with the free enzyme. The effect of potassium and magnesium salts on the inactivation of both enzymes was also studied. The effect of dextran matrix on the catalytic properties and the conformational stability of modified chymotrypsin is discussed.

  10. Method for processing powdery radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Toshihide; Nakayama, Yasuyuki.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive wastes with ease and safety at a high reaction speed but with no boiling by impregnating the radioactive wastes with chlorostyrene. Method: Beads-like dried ion exchange resin, powdery ion exchange resin, filter sludges, concentrated dried waste liquor or the like are mixed or impregnated with a chlorostyrene monomer dissolving therein a polymerization initiator such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and benzoyl peroxide. Mixed or impregnated products are polymerized to solid after a predetermined of time through curing reaction to produce solidified radioactive wastes. Since inflammable materials are used, this process has a high safety. About 70% wastes can be incorporated. The solidified products have a strength as high as 300 - 400 kg/cm 3 and are suitable to ocean disposal. The products have a greater radioactive resistance than other plastic solidification products. (Seki, T.)

  11. Hidradenitis suppurativa: Inside and out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Patil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, disabling, suppurative disease characterized by deep tender subcutaneous nodules; complicated by fibrosis and extensive sinuses affecting primarily the apocrine gland bearing areas. It affects all races in early 20s with greater prevalence seen in women (3 to 5:1. The estimated disease prevalence is 1 - 4 %. The disease is speculated to be caused by follicular structural abnormalities with associated risk factors as smoking, obesity, positive family history and shaving. Certain co-morbidities can also be seen such as inflammatory bowel disease, spondyloarthropathies, epithelial tumors, pyoderma gangrenosum etc. Treatment modalities include counseling of the patient to lose weight if obese, to wear loose clothes, stop smoking and maintain good hygiene. Topical antibiotics, like 1% clindamycin, have shown to give good results along with benzoyl peroxide wash. Orally cocktail of antibiotics can be given, though biologicals remain the best treatment option. Surgical excision can be done in later stages and in recalcitrant cases.

  12. Dynamic mechanical analysis and crystalline analysis of hemp fiber reinforced cellulose filled epoxy composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanivel, Anand; Duruvasalu, Rajesh; Iyyanar, Saranraj; Velumayil, Ramesh, E-mail: p.anand@ymail.com [Mechanical Engineering, Vel Tech Dr RR. & Dr. SR University, Avadi, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Veerabathiran, Anbumalar [Mechanical Engineering, Velammal College of Engineering & Technology, Madurai, TN (India)

    2017-07-01

    The Dynamic mechanical behavior of chemically treated and untreated hemp fiber reinforced composites was investigated. The morphology of the composites was studied to understand the interaction between the filler and polymer. A series of dynamic mechanical tests were performed by varying the fiber loading and test frequencies over a range of testing temperatures. It was found that the storage modulus (E') recorded above the glass transition temperature (Tg) decrease with increasing temperature. The loss modulus (E”) and damping peaks (Tan δ) values were found to be reduced with increasing matrix loading and temperature. Morphological changes and crystallinity of Composites were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD techniques. The composites with Alkali and Benzoyl treated fibers has attributed enhanced DMA Results. In case of XRD studies, the composites with treated fibers with higher filler content show enhanced crystallinity. (author)

  13. Mapping Substance P Binding Sites on the Neurokinin-1 Receptor Using Genetic Incorporation of a Photoreactive Amino Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Louise; Park, Minyoung; Huber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    that the binding site for SP includes multiple domains in the N-terminal (Nt) segment and the second extracellular loop (ECLII) of NK1. To map precisely the NK1 residues that interact with SP, we applied a novel receptor-based targeted photocross-linking approach. We used amber codon suppression to introduce...... the photoreactive unnatural amino acid p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine (BzF) at 11 selected individual positions in the Nt tail (residues 11-21) and 23 positions in the ECLII (residues 170(C-10)-193(C+13)) of NK1. The 34 NK1 variants were expressed in mammalian HEK293 cells and retained the ability to interact...

  14. Improved Synthesis of β-D-6-Methylpurine Riboside and Antitumor Effects of the β-D- and α-D-Anomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sufrin

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available 6-Methylpurine-β-D-riboside (β-D-MPR has been synthesized by coupling6-methylpurine and 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-D-ribose using conditions that producethe β-D-anomer exclusively. The in vitro antitumor effects of β-D-MPR and 6-methyl-purine-α-D-riboside (α-D-MPR in five human tumor cell lines showed that β-D-MPR washighly active (IC50 values ranging from 6 to 34 nM. α-D-MPR, although less active than β-D-MPR, also exhibited significant antitumor effects (IC50 values ranging from 1.47 to 4.83"µ"M.

  15. Polymer concrete composites for the production of high strength pipe and linings in high temperature corrosive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Fontana, J.; Kukacka, L.

    High temperature corrosive resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites are described. They comprise about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder polymerized in situ from a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of about 40 to 70% by weight of styrene, about 25 to 45% by weight acrylonitrile and about 2.5 to 7.5% by weight acrylamide or methacrylamide and about 1 to 10% by weight of a crosslinking agent. This agent is selected from the group consisting of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene; and about 80 to 88% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, and optionally Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or carbon black or mica. A free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other organic peroxides and combinations thereof to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of said inorganic filler.

  16. Spectroscopic studies of an europium(III) tris-β-diketonate complex bearing a pyrazolylpyridine ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira dos Santos, Antonio; Coelho, Ana C.; Almeida Paz, Filipe A.; Rocha, Joao; Goncalves, Isabel S.; Carlos, Luis D.

    2008-01-01

    A new europium(III) complex, Eu(BTA) 3 (ethyl[3-(2-pyridyl)-1-pyrazolyl]acetate) (where BTA: 1-benzoyl-3,3,3-trifluoroacetonate), was synthesised by simple ligand exchange with the solvent adduct Eu(BTA) 3 (H 2 O) 2 . The compound was characterised by elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, FTIR, FT Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies. A significant increase of the 5 D 0 lifetime of the complex, relative to the value found for the water-coordinated adduct (from 0.657 ± 0.001 to 0.835 ± 0.002 ms), and a larger contribution of the ligand levels to the excitation spectrum indicate a better photoluminescence performance for the former complex

  17. Development of maleated starches using an internal mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fernanda T.G.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2009-01-01

    Novel maleated starches (MSt) were prepared by chemical modification of cornstarch with maleic anhydride (MA), using an internal mixer as a reactor. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was chosen as initiator. Physico-chemical parameters were determined for the process carried out at different MA contents, under the same reaction conditions. Processing was carried out at 50 deg C, 30 rpm for 8 min.Torque developed during processing was given by the digital display of the rheometer, and the total specific mechanical energy (SME) input was estimated. FTIR measurements confirmed the successful incorporation of MA into the starch backbone. In addition, WAXS diffraction analyses revealed disruption of the crystalline structure of native starch for the products. Such reactions promoted by MA reduced the crystallinity of the products. The results indicated that the MA content had a significant effect on the characteristics of the processed starch samples. (author)

  18. Activity of capryloyl collagenic acid against bacteria involved in acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourniat, J; Bourlioux, P

    1989-12-01

    Synopsis Capryloyl collagenic acid (Lipacide C8Co) has similar bacteriostatic activity in vitro to that of benzoyl peroxide towards the bacteria found in acne lesions (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes) (MIC between 1 and 4 mg ml(-1) for C8Co, and between 0.5 and 5 mg ml(-1) for benzoyl peroxide). The presence of Emulgine M8 did not affect the bacteriostatic activity of C8Co. A 4% w/v solution of C8Co (incorporating Emulgine M8) fulfilled the criteria for an antiseptic preparation as laid down by the French Pharmacopoeia (10th Edition), and had a spectrum 5 bactericidal activity according to the French Standard AFNOR NF T 72-151. The excellent cutaneous tolerance of capryloyl collagenic acid would indicate that an aqueous solution might be of value for topical treatment of the bacterial component of acne. Résumé Activité antibactérienne de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique vis à vis des bactéries impliquées dans l'etiologie de l'acné L'acide capryloyl-collagénique (Lipacide C8Co) et le peroxyde de benzoyle présentent une activité bactériostatique in-vitroéquivalente vis à vis des espèces bactériennes retrouvées au niveau des lésions acnéiques (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis et Propionibacterium acnes) (CMI comprise entre 1 et 4 mg ml(-1) pour le lipoaminoacide, et 0,5 et 5 mg ml(-1) pour le peroxyde de benzoyle). La mise en solution aqueuse de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique en présence d'Emulgine M8 ne modifie pas son activité bactériostatique. Une telle solution, à 4% m/V d'acide capryloyl-collagénique et 5% m/V d'Emulgine M8, satisfait à l'essai d'activité des préparations antiseptiques décrit à la Pharmacopée Française (Xème Ed.) (concentration minimale antiseptique: 10% v/V, pour un temps de contact de 5 min à 32 degrees C entre les germes tests et la solution diluée en eau distillée), et posséde une activité bactéricide antiseptique spectre 5 conforme à la norme AFNOR NF T

  19. A Solid Binding Matrix/Mimic Receptor-Based Sensor System for Trace Level Determination of Iron Using Potential Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman H. Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II-(1,10-phenanthroline complex imprinted membrane was prepared by ionic imprinting technology. In the first step, Fe(II established a coordination linkage with 1,10-phenanthroline and functional monomer 2-vinylpyridine (2-VP. Next, the complex was copolymerized with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as a crosslinker in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO as an initiator. Potentiometric chemical sensors were designed by dispersing the iron(II-imprinted polymer particles in 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE plasticizer and then embedded in poly vinyl chloride (PVC matrix. The sensors showed a Nernstian response for [Fe(phen3]2+ with limit of detection 3.15 ng mL−1 and a Nernstian slope of 35.7 mV per decade.

  20. An investigation of nitrile transforming enzymes in the chemo-enzymatic synthesis of the taxol sidechain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Birgit; Veselá, Alicja B; Perry, Justin J B; Black, Gary W; Zhang, Meng; Martínková, Ludmila; Klempier, Norbert

    2015-07-28

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is an antimicrotubule agent widely used in the treatment of cancer. Taxol is prepared in a semisynthetic route by coupling the N-benzoyl-(2R,3S)-3-phenylisoserine sidechain to the baccatin III core structure. Precursors of the taxol sidechain have previously been prepared in chemoenzymatic approaches using acylases, lipases, and reductases, mostly featuring the enantioselective, enzymatic step early in the reaction pathway. Here, nitrile hydrolysing enzymes, namely nitrile hydratases and nitrilases, are investigated for the enzymatic hydrolysis of two different sidechain precursors. Both sidechain precursors, an openchain α-hydroxy-β-amino nitrile and a cyanodihydrooxazole, are suitable for coupling to baccatin III directly after the enzymatic step. An extensive set of nitrilases and nitrile hydratases was screened towards their activity and selectivity in the hydrolysis of two taxol sidechain precursors and their epimers. A number of nitrilases and nitrile hydratases converted both sidechain precursors and their epimers.

  1. Kinetic studies of the solvent extraction of metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.Y.; Nwabue, F.I.; Okafo, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    The rate of forward extraction of Zr(IV) from 2M sulphuric acid into 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazole-5-one (HPsub (z)) dissolved in chloroform and backward extraction of the tetrakis-chelate, Zr(Pz) 4 have been measured under various conditions. The rate of forward reaction is proportional to [Zr 4+ ], [HPsub(z)] 2 and [H + ] -2 , while that of back extraction to [Zr(Pz) 4 ]sub(org), [HPsub(z)] -2 sub(org) and [H + ] 2 . The rate determining step in the forward extraction is established to be the formation of the second complex between the dissociated form of HPz, Pz - and the Zr(H 2 O) 2 SO 4 Pz + species in the aqueous phase while it is the reverse in the backward extraction. The velocity constants for both rate controlling steps have been determined and the extraction constant agrees with the value obtained from the equilibrium data. (author)

  2. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Kukacka, L.; Fontana, J.

    High temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10 to 30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture is described. It consists essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures thereof. About 70 to 90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, carbon black or mixtures thereof. Optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobyutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides are used to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  3. Inhibition of trypsin by condensed tannins and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2007-09-05

    Phenolic compounds are abundant vegetable secondary metabolites in the human diet. The ability of procyanidin oligomers and wine polyphenols to inhibit trypsin activity was studied using a versatile and reliable in vitro method. The hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate N-benzoyl-d,l-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BApNA) by trypsin was followed by spectrophotometry in the presence and absence of condensed tannins and wine. A clear relationship between the degree of polymerization of procyanidins and enzymatic inhibition was observed. Trypsin activity inhibition was also detected in several types of wine. In general, the inhibition increased with the concentration of phenolic compounds in wines. These results may be relevant when considering these compounds as antinutritional factors, thereby contributing to a reduced absorption of nutrients.

  4. Synthesis of phosphorothioates using thiophosphate salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjadian Fatemeh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reactions of O,O'-dialkyl thiophosphoric acids with alkyl halides, in the presence of a base, provide a direct synthetic route to phosphorothioates via O,O'-dialkyl thiophosphate anion formation. Studies on the reaction of ambident nucleophile ammonium O,O'-diethyl thiophosphate with benzyl halides and tosylate in different solvents show that only S-alkylation is obtained. Reaction of this ambident nucleophile with benzoyl chloride (a hard electrophile, gave the O-acylation product. A simple, efficient, and general method has been developed for the synthesis of phosphorothioates through a one-pot reaction of alkyl halides with the mixture of diethyl phosphite in the presence of triethylamine/sulfur/and acidic alumina under solvent-free conditions using microwave irradiation.

  5. Development and Characterization of Polymer Eco-Composites Based on Natural Rubber Reinforced with Natural Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Daniela Stelescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber composites filled with short natural fibers (flax and sawdust were prepared by blending procedure and the elastomer cross-linking was carried out using benzoyl peroxide. The microbial degradation of composites was carried out by incubating with Aspergillus niger recognized for the ability to grow and degrade a broad range of substrates. The extent of biodegradation was evaluated by weight loss and cross-linking degree study of composites after 2 months incubation in pure shake culture conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR have proved to be precious and valuable instruments for morphological as well as structural characterization of the composites before and after incubation with Aspergillus niger.

  6. The mechanism of energy transfer from poly-p-benzoylphenylacetimido-bovine serum albumin to small-molecule quenchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, P.S.; Glover, G.I.; Wilkinson, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    Results of a quantitative photochemical study of poly-p-benzoyl-phenylacetimido-bovine serum albumin in the presence of small-molecule triplet quenchers are reported. The efficiency of quenching by organic salts containing low triplet energy chromophores has been shown to be qualitatively dependent on their predicted association constants to the modified protein. In addition, quenching was inhibited by salts of organic acids which possess high binding affinities for the protein but do not contain chromophores of low triplet energy. Quantitative treatment of the quenching and inhibition data yielded results which strongly support the operation of an 'affinity controlled' mechanism for triplet energy transfer from the benzophenone moieties of the modified-bovine serum albumin to quenchers such as α-naphthylacetate and trans-cinnamate. (author)

  7. 99mTc labelled peptide for imaging of peripheral receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Mishra, P.; Chuttani, K.; Sharma, R.K.; Lazar Mathew, T.

    2001-01-01

    Conjugates of somatostatin analogues, RC-160 with different bifunctional chelators to label with 99m Tc, were synthesized. Conjugates with hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and compounds (benzoyl MAG-3 and CITC-DTPA) were prepared on a small scale with high purity and evaluated as different types of chelators on RC-160. Stability studies performed under physiological conditions showed high stability. Peptide conjugates could be labelled at high specific activities (307inCi/umol) with 99m Tc and different transchelator were used for the HYNIC conjugates. The resulting radiolabelled with ( 99m Tc and 1251) complexes were highly stable and showed binding affinity to somatostatin receptors in the nanomolar range. The radioconjugates were administered to rabbits and mice in order to study their in vivo stability, biokinetics and biodistribution. (author)

  8. Scopadulciol, an inhibitor of gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase from Scoparia dulcis, and its structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Asano, S; Mizutani, M; Takeguchi, N; Kojima, T; Okamura, K; Morita, N

    1991-01-01

    A new tetracyclic diterpenoid, scopadulciol [3], together with 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone, glutinol, and acacetin, was isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of Scoparia dulcis collected in Taiwan. Its structure was elucidated to be 6 beta-benzoyl-12-methyl-13-oxo-9(12)a,9(12)b-dihomo-18-podocarpanol on the basis of spectral data. It mildly inhibited hog gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase. Examination of the inhibitory activities of derivatives of scopadulcic acid B [2], including 3, revealed that methylation of the carboxyl group and introduction of an acetyl group or oxime at C-13 or C-18 markedly enhanced the inhibitory activity, while debenzoylation reduced the activity. Among the 30 compounds tested, compound 12, a methyl ester of scopadulcic acid B [2], showed the most potent activity.

  9. Mechanistic studies on the phosphoramidite coupling reaction in oligonucleotide synthesis. I. Evidence for nudeophilic catalysis by tetrazole and rate variations with the phosphorus substituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Bjarne H.; Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto

    1987-01-01

    , and that dialkylammonium tetrazolide salts are inhibitors. These and other facts are evidence that the reactions are subjected to nucleophilic catalysis by tetrazole, in addition to acid catalysis. The rate variations with phosphorus substituents of 1a-h are NEt 2 > NRr12 > N(CH 2CH 2)O > NMePh, and OMe > OCH 2CH 2CN......Tetrazole catalyzed reactions of a series of phosphoramidites, 5′ -O- DMTdT-3′-O-P(OR 1)NRNR22 (1a-h), with 3′ O-SiBu tPh 2-6-N-benzoyl-dA (2a) in acetonitrite solution have been studied. It is found that the coupling rate depends very much on whether tetrazole is added before or after 2a...

  10. Synthesis of Pyrroloquinones via a CAN Mediated Oxidative Free Radical Reaction of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds with Aminoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrroloquinone ring systems are important structural units present in many biologically active molecules including a number of marine alkaloids. For example, they are found in a series of marine metabolites, such as tsitsikammamines, zyzzyanones, wakayin, and terreusinone. Several of these alkaloids have exhibited antimicrobial, antimalarial, antifungal, antitumor, and photoprotecting activities. Synthesis of pyrroloquinone unit is the key step in the synthesis of many of these important organic molecules. Here, we present a ceric (IV ammonium nitrate (CAN mediated oxidative free radical cyclization reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with aminoquinones as a facile methodology for making various substituted pyrroloquinones. 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds used in this study are ethyl acetoacetate, acetylacetone, benzoyl acetone, and N,N-dimethyl acetoacetamide. The aminoquinones used in this study are 2-(benzylaminonaphthalene-1,4-dione and 6-(benzylamino-1-tosyl-1H-indole-4,7-dione. The yields of the synthesized pyrroloquinones ranged from 23–91%.

  11. 2-Methyl-N-(4-methylbenzoylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C15H15NO3S, contains two independent molecules. The conformations of the N—C bonds in the C—SO2—NH—C(O segments have gauche torsions with respect to the SO bonds. Further, the molecules are twisted at the S atoms with torsion angles of −53.1 (2 and 61.2 (2° in the two molecules. The dihedral angles between the sulfonyl benzene rings and the —SO2—NH—C—O segments are 86.0 (1 and 87.9 (1°. Furthermore, the dihedral angles between the sulfonyl and the benzoyl benzene rings are 88.1 (1 and 83.5 (1° in the two molecules. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O(S hydrogen bonds.

  12. 4-Chloro-N-(2-chlorobenzoylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, C13H9Cl2NO3S, the conformation of the N—H bond in the C—SO2—NH—C(O segment is anti to the C=O bond. The molecule is twisted at the S atom with a torsion angle of 65.7 (2°. The dihedral angle between the sulfonyl benzene ring and the —SO2—NH—C—O segment is 88.5 (1°, and that between the sulfonyl and the benzoyl benzene rings is 58.0 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers.

  13. Waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resin obtained by miniemulsion polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Murillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Four waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resins (HBRAA were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization from a hyperbranched alkyd resin (HBR, methyl methacrylate (MMA, butyl acrylate (BA and acrylic acid (AA, by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO and ammonium persulfate (AP as initiators. The reaction between HBR and acrylic monomers was evidenced by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The conversion percentage, glass transition temperature (Tg, content of acrylic polymer (determined by soxhlet extraction and molecular weight increased with the content of acrylic monomers used in the synthesis. The main structure formed during the synthesis was the HBRAA. The analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS showed that the particle size distribution of HBRAA2, HBRAA3 and HBRAA4 resins were mainly monomodal. The film properties (gloss, flexibility, adhesion and drying time of the HBRAA were good.

  14. Radiation-induced copolymerization of styrene/n-butyl acrylate in the presence of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haibo [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng Jing [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: jpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhai Maolin; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qiao Jinliang [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); SINOPEC Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Beijing 100013 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Styrene (St)/n-butyl acrylate (BA) copolymers were prepared by two-stage polymerization: St/BA was pre-polymerized to a viscous state by bulk polymerization with initiation by benzoyl peroxide (BPO) followed by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray radiation curing. The resultant copolymers had higher molecular weight and narrower molecular weight distribution than conventional methods. After incorporation of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (UFSBR) with a particle size of 100 nm in the monomer, the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of St-BA copolymer increased at low rubber content. Both the St-BA copolymer and the St-BA copolymer/UFSBR composites had good transparency at BA content below 40%.

  15. Approaches to α-amino acids via rearrangement to electron-deficient nitrogen: Beckmann and Hofmann rearrangements of appropriate carboxyl-protected substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosale Chandrasekhar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The titled approaches were effected with various 2-substituted benzoylacetic acid oximes 3 (Beckmann and 2-substituted malonamic acids 9 (Hofmann, their carboxyl groups being masked as a 2,4,10-trioxaadamantane unit (an orthoacetate. The oxime mesylates have been rearranged with basic Al2O3 in refluxing CHCl3, and the malonamic acids with phenyliodoso acetate and KOH/MeOH. Both routes are characterized by excellent overall yields. Structure confirmation of final products was conducted with X-ray diffraction in selected cases. The final N-benzoyl and N-(methoxycarbonyl products are α-amino acids with both carboxyl and amino protection; hence, they are of great interest in peptide synthesis.

  16. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)/kaolinite nanocomposites via in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xin; Li Yanfeng; Zhang Bo; Cheng Qiong; Zhang Shujiang

    2008-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol)/kaolinite intercalated nanocomposites (Kao-PVA) were prepared via in situ intercalation radical polymerization. Vinyl acetate (VAc) was intercalated into kaolinite by a displacement method using dimethyl sulfoxide/kaolinite (Kao-DMSO) as the intermediate. Then, PVAc/kaolinite (Kao-PVAc) was obtained via radical polymerization with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator. Last, PVAc/kaolinite was saponified via direct-hydrolysis with NaOH solution in order to obtain PVA/kaolinite nanocomposites, which was characterized by Fourier-Transformation spectroscopy (FTIR), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results of the obtained PVA/kaolinite suggested that the thermal properties had an obvious improvement

  17. Chemical Constituents with Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 mRNA Expression Inhibitory Activity from Dried Immature Morus alba Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pel, Pisey; Chae, Hee-Sung; Nhoek, Piseth; Kim, Young-Mi; Chin, Young-Won

    2017-07-05

    Phytochemical investigation for a chloroform-soluble extract of dried Morus alba fruits, selected by proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mRNA expression monitoring assay in HepG2 cells, led to the isolation of a new benzofuran, isomoracin D (1), and a naturally occurring compound, N-(N-benzoyl-l-phenylalanyl)-l-phenylalanol (2), along with 13 known compounds (3-15). All of the structures were established by NMR spectroscopic data as well as MS analysis. Of the isolates, moracin C (7) was found to inhibit PCSK9 mRNA expression with an IC 50 value of 16.8 μM in the HepG2 cells.

  18. [Complex formation between alpha-chymotrypsin and block copolymers based on ethylene and propylene oxide, induced by high pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topchieva, I N; Sorokina, E M; Kurganov, B I; Zhulin, V M; Makarova, Z G

    1996-06-01

    A new method of formation of non-covalent adducts based on an amphiphilic diblock copolymer of ethylene and propylene oxides with molecular mass of 2 kDa and alpha-chymotrypsin (ChT) under high pressure, has been developed. The composition of the complexes corresponds to seven polymer molecules per one ChT molecule in the pressure range of 1.1 to 400 MPa. The complexes fully retain the catalytic activity. Kinetic constants (Km and kcat) for enzymatic hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester catalyzed by the complexes are identical with the corresponding values for native ChT. Analysis of kinetics of thermal inactivation of the complexes revealed that the constant of the rate of the slow inactivation step is markedly lower than for ChT.

  19. STUDIES ON RADICAL POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE INITIATED WITH ORGANIC PEROXIDE-AMINE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; SHUI Li; FENG Xinde

    1984-01-01

    Radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated with various diacyl peroxideamine systems was studied. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and lauroyl peroxide (LPO) were used as diacyl peroxide component, N,N-dimethyl aniline (DMA) and its para substituted derivatives, i.e., N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT), p-hydroxymethyl-N,N-dimethyl aniline (HDMA), p-nitro-N,N-dimethyl aniline (NDMA) and p-dimethylamino benzaldehyde (DMAB) were used as amine components. It was found that the peroxide-DMT systems give higher rates of bulk polymerization Rp of MMA than the organic hydroperoxide-DMT systems with the following descending order BPO-DMT>LPO-DMT>CHP (cumene hydroperoxide)-DMT>TBH (tert-butyl hydroperoxide)-DMT.The aromatic tertiary amines possess obvious structural effect on the Rp values in the diacyl peroxideamine system. The overall activation energy of MMA polymerization was determined and the kinetics of polymerization of MMA initiated with BPO-DMT system was investigated.

  20. Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Sterol Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangsawad Ratanaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP was prepared by bulk polymerization in acetone using acrylamide as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker, stigmasterol as a template and benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The obtained MIPs were characterized using a scanning electron microscope and a fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. Performance in sterol adsorption of MIPs prepared under various conditions was investigated using a model solution of phytosterols in heptane, comparing with a nonimprinted polymer (NIP. Statistical analysis revealed that the amounts of crosslinker and template strongly affected the performance of MIP while the amount of solvent slightly affected the performance of MIP. MIP synthesized under the optimal condition had adsorption capacity of 1.28 mgsterols/gads which were 1.13 times of NIP.

  1. The investigation of the reactions of some pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids with various diamines and diols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Kasımoğulları

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some new derivatives were synthesized of 4-benzoyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (1 and 4-(ethoxycarbonyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (2 that they were pyrazole carboxylic acid derivatives. Firstly, 1 and 2 reacted with SOCl2 to transform them into acyl chlorides (3, 4. Then various bis-carboxamide derivatives (5–8 were obtained from the reaction of 3 and 4 with various diamines and also a ;#946;-hydroxy ester (9 derivative was obtained from the reaction of 3 with ethylene glycol. The structures of synthesized compounds were elucidated with using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis methods.

  2. Radiation curing of mixture of diallylphthalate prepolymer and vinyl monomer, 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoda, Masao; Yagi, Toshiaki; Yoshizawa, Iwao; Okugawa, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Preparation of Wood-Polymer Composite (WPC) piled plywood for flooring, was attempted by electron beam irradiation of American Hemlock veneer, impregnated with low molecular weight diallylphthalate prepolymer (DAPsub(p).L)/vinyl monomer mixtures, in comparison with that by thermal curing reported previously. For the improvement of the mechanical properties of WPC piled plywood, 5-15 parts of low molecular weight polyvinylacetate (PVAc) was added to DAPsub(p).L/methyl acrylate/hydroxyethyl acrylate/benzoyl peroxide (50/40/10/2) mixture. The addition of PVAc did not give much influence to the degree of impregnation in the veneer and to the curability by electron beam irradiation. As to the resistance to hot and cold cycle test, WPC piled plywood, prepared by the resin containing 5 parts of PVAc gave the best results. As a general conclusion, due to the superior mechanical properties, the WPC piled plywood processed by electron beam irradiation is suitable for flooring use. (author)

  3. Diastereoselective synthesis of trans-2,3-dihydrofuro[3,2-c]coumarins by MgO nanoparticles under ultrasonic irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Safaei-Ghomi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MgO nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the diastereoselective preparation of trans-2-benzoyl-3-(aryl-2H-furo[3,2-c]chromen-4(3H-ones by the multi-component reaction of 2,4′-dibromoacetophenone, pyridine, benzaldehydes and 4-hydroxycoumarin under ultrasonic irradiation. This interesting result revealed that the pyridiniumylide assisted tandem three-component coupling reaction is highly diastereoselective. Atom economy, wide range of products, high catalytic activity, excellent yields in short reaction times, diastereoselective synthesis and environmental benignity are some of the important features of this protocol. Keywords: Furo[3,2-c]coumarins, Ultrasonic irradiation, MgO nanoparticles, Diastereoselective, One-pot syntheses

  4. 3-Methyl-N-(2-methylphenylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of the title compound, C15H15NO, involves an intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond. The central amide group –NH—C(=O– is twisted by 37.95 (12° out of the meta-substituted benzoyl ring and by 37.88 (12° out of the ortho-substituted aniline ring. The two benzene rings are inclined to one another at only 4.2 (1° having an interplanar spacing of ca 0.90 Å. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which link the molecules into chains running along the b axis. A weak intermolecular C—H...π interaction is also present.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorine-18 labelled compounds for imaging of bacterial infections with pet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, S.; Gunawan, J.; Freytag, C.; Burchert, W.

    2006-01-01

    Syntheses of no carrier added (n.c.a.) 6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-1-cyclopropyl-4-oxo-7-[4-[ 18 F]fluoro-phenacyl -1-piperacinyl]-chinolincarboxylic acid ([ 18 F]COPCA) and n.c.a. 4-[ 18 F]fluoro-benzoyl-ubiquicidin 29-41 ([ 18 F]UBI 29-41) are described. [ 18 F]COPCA was synthesised within 120 min with a radiochemical yield of 9-12%. [ 18 F]UBI 29-41 was synthesised within 150 min with a radiochemical yield of 15-20%. Both compounds had a specific activity of more than 35 GBq/μ mol. The biological activity was verified by measuring its binding to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Specific binding was found for [ 18 F]UBI 29-41 (12-17%), whereas no specific binding for [ 18 F]COPCA was found

  6. Fractionation separation of human plasma proteins using HPLC with a homemade iron porphyrin based monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Doudou; Zhao, Yu; Lan, Dandan; Pang, Xiaomin; Bai, Ligai; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Hongyuan

    2017-11-15

    In this work a polymer monolithic column was fabricated within the confines of a stainless steel column (50×4.6mm i.d.) via radical polymerization by using iron porphyrin and butyl methacrylate as co-monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking agent, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol and N, N-dimethylformamide as tri-porogens, benzoyl peroxide and N,N-dimethylaniline as initiators. The resulting monolithic column was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption BET surface area, and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Results showed that the homemade monolith occupied relatively uniform pore structure, low back pressure, and enhanced selectivity for proteins in complex bio-samples. The present work described a simple and efficient method for "fractionation separation" of human plasma proteins, and it is a promising separation method for complex bio-samples in proteomic research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved method for HPLC analysis of polyamines, agmatine and aromatic monoamines in plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.; Weinstein, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucas carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues.

  8. Simple and Efficient One-Pot Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization and Crystal Structure of Methyl 5-(4-Chlorobenzoyloxy-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A facile one-pot synthesis of methyl 5-(4-chlorobenzoyloxy-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate (4 is described. The title compound was efficiently synthesized by the reaction of phenyl hydrazine, dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate and 4-chlorobenzoyl chloride in dichloromethane under reflux in good yield. The structure of the target compound was deduced by modern spectroscopic and analytical techniques and unequivocally confirmed by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal of the title compound belongs to orthorhombic system, space group P 21 21 21 with cell parameters a = 6.6491(3 Å, b = 7.9627(6 Å, c = 30.621(5 Å, α = β = γ = 90° and Z = 4. The crystal packing of the compound (4 is stabilized by an offset π-stacking between the planar benzoyl-substituted diazole moieties.

  9. Dynamic mechanical analysis and crystalline analysis of hemp fiber reinforced cellulose filled epoxy composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Palanivel

    Full Text Available Abstract The Dynamic mechanical behavior of chemically treated and untreated hemp fiber reinforced composites was investigated. The morphology of the composites was studied to understand the interaction between the filler and polymer. A series of dynamic mechanical tests were performed by varying the fiber loading and test frequencies over a range of testing temperatures. It was found that the storage modulus (E’ recorded above the glass transition temperature (Tg decrease with increasing temperature. The loss modulus (E” and damping peaks (Tan δ values were found to be reduced with increasing matrix loading and temperature. Morphological changes and crystallinity of Composites were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM and XRD techniques. The composites with Alkali and Benzoyl treated fibers has attributed enhanced DMA Results. In case of XRD studies, the composites with treated fibers with higher filler content show enhanced crystallinity.

  10. Hydrolysis of mixed monomolecular films of triglyceride/lecithin by pancreatic lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, G; Verger, R

    1979-10-25

    The main purpose of this study was to describe the influence of lecithin upon lipolysis of mixed monomolecular films of trioctanoylglycerol/didodecanoylphosphatidycholine by pancreatic lipase in order to mimic some physiological situations. The quantity of enzyme adsorbed to the interface was simultaneously determined using 5-thio-2-nitro[14C]benzoyl lipase. Lipolytic activity was enhanced 3- to 4-fold in the presence of colipase, an effect which is attributed to increased enzyme turnover number. When a pure triglyceride film was progressively diluted with lecithin, the minimum specific activity of lipase exhibited a bell-shaped curve: a mixed film containing only 20% trioctanoylglycerol was hydrolyzed at the same rate as a monolayer of pure triglyceride.

  11. A new spermidine macrocyclic alkaloid isolated from Gymnosporia arenicola leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gustavo; Martinho, Ana; Soengas, Raquel González; Duarte, Ana Paula; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-10-01

    The isolation and structural elucidation of a macrocyclic alkaloid, characterized by the presence of a 13-membered macrolactam ring containing a spermidine unit N-linked to a benzoyl group is hereby reported. The structure of this previously unknown spermidine alkaloid isolated from Gymnosporia arenicola (Celastraceae) leaves has been elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy (including bidimensional analysis) and further characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry and polarimetry. A route for the biosynthesis of this new bioactive macrocycle is proposed and the cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated against two ATCC cell lines - one normal-derived (MCF10A) and one cancer-derived cell line (MCF7) - using the MTT assay. The alkaloid revealed to be non-cytotoxic against both cell lines. The IC50 values from the cells were also determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unexpected Behavior of Enaminones: Interesting New Routes to 1,6-Naphthyridines, 2-Oxopyrrolidines and Pyrano[4,3,2-de][1,6]naphthyridines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Meier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of enaminones 1a–d with 2-aminoprop-1-ene-1,1,3-tricarbonitrile (2 in the presence of AcOH/NH4OAc afforded 7-amino-5-oxo-5,6-dihydro-1,6-naphthyridine-8-carbonitrile derivatives 9a–d. On the other hand, 2-aminopyrano[4,3,2-de] [1,6]naphthyridine-3-carbonitriles 20a–c,e were the only obtained products from the reactions of 1a–d with 2 in the presence of AcOH/NaOAc, while 1d afforded [3,5-bis-(4-chloro-benzoyl-phenyl]-(4-chloro-phenyl-methanone 21 under the same condition. The reaction of 2 with diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate in the presence of AcOH/NH4OAc afforded (4-cyano-5-dicyanomethylene-2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-yl-acetic acid ethyl ester 15B.

  13. The synthesis of the 2H, 3H, and 14C-isotopomers of 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine hydrochloride, an anti-tumor compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, W.J.; Mabry, T.E.; Jones, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    The 2 H, 3 H, and 14 C-isotopomers of 2'-deoxy-2', 2'-difluorocytidine hydrochloride (gemcitabine hydrochloride) have been synthesized in two radiochemical steps from the reaction of bis-trimethylsilylcytosine-[2- 14 C] and 3,5-O-bis-benzoyl-1-O-methanesulfonyl-2-deoxy-2,2-difluororibose. A mixture of anomers of 3',5'-dibenzoyl-2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine or its 14 C-isotopomer were obtained which were readily separated by crystallization from ethyl acetate. Deprotection using methanolic ammonia yielded the target compound. The 2 H and 3 H-isotopomers were prepared by deuterium (or tritium) gas hydrogenolysis of 5-iodo-2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine. (author)

  14. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial study of tripodal tris-(N-benzoylthioureido)ethylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adan, Dalina; Yamin, Bohari [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Leng, Ong Wei; Ibrahim, Nazlina [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    A new tripodal tris-(N-benzoylthiouredoethyl)amine has been successfully synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic technique such as FTIR, ESI MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. The microanalysis data is in a good agreement with the expected molecular formula. The {sup 1}H NMR chemical shift for both amide and thioamide proton are at lower field than their normal value indicates the presence of the hydrogen bond between the carbonyl oxygen atom and thioamide hydrogen. This is possible when the benzoyl group adopt a trans configuration againts thione group along the C-N bond. The compound has been tested for antibacterial activity against three selected bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomanas aeroginosa but there is no significant activities observed.

  15. Directed evolution of a thermostable l-aminoacylase biocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Brenda M.; Taylor, Ian N.; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    Enzymes from extreme environments possess highly desirable traits of activity and stability for application under process conditions. One such example is l-aminoacylase (E.C. 3.5.1.14) from Thermococcus litoralis (TliACY), which catalyzes the enantioselective amide hydrolysis of N-protected l......-amino acids, useful for resolving racemic mixtures in the preparation of chiral intermediates. Variants of this enzyme with improved activity and altered substrate preference are highly desirable. We have created a structural homology model of the enzyme and applied various two different directed evolution....... The substrate preference of wild type decreases with increasingly branched and sterically hindered substrates. However, the mutant S100T/M106K disrupted this simple trend by selectively improving the substrate preference for N-benzoyl valine, with a >30-fold shift in the ratio of kcat values for N...

  16. Waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resin obtained by mini emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Edwin, E-mail: edwinalbertomurillo@gmail.com [Grupo de Investigacion en Materiales Polimericos (GIMAPOL), Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, San Jose de Cucuta (Colombia); Lopez, Betty [Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle, Medellin (Colombia)

    2016-10-15

    Four waterborne hyper branched alkyd-acrylic resins (HBRAA) were synthesized by mini emulsion polymerization from a hyper branched alkyd resin (HBR), methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and acrylic acid (AA), by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ammonium persulfate (AP) as initiators. The reaction between HBR and acrylic monomers was evidenced by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The conversion percentage, glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), content of acrylic polymer (determined by soxhlet extraction) and molecular weight increased with the content of acrylic monomers used in the synthesis. The main structure formed during the synthesis was the HBRAA. The analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that the particle size distribution of HBRAA2, HBRAA3 and HBRAA4 resins were mainly mono modal. The film properties (gloss, flexibility, adhesion and drying time) of the HBRAA were good. (author)

  17. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monoester-type aconitic alkaloids and its application in the pharmacokinetic study of benzoylhypaconine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can-Can; Xu, Yun-Hui; Yuan, Shuai; Xu, Yu; Hua, Mo-Li

    2018-04-01

    A new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for quantitative determination of monoester-type aconitic alkaloids was developed. The antibodies derived from the immunogen of benzoylmesaconine (BM) could be electively affined to benzoylaconitine-type alkaloids with an ester bond (14-benzoyl-), especially to benzoylhypaconine (BH, 140.02% of cross-reactivity). The effective working range of BH was 1 ng/ml to 5 μg/ml; the lower limit of detection and the quantification were 0.35 and 0.97 ng/ml, respectively. The values of CV for intra-day and inter-day assays and recovery ratios were in acceptable ranges. The results of stability experiments were also satisfactory. This validated method was employed for pharmacokinetic study of BH in rats and the bioavailability orally administered was estimated to be 16.3%.

  18. Retaining in-gel zymographic activity of cysteine proteases via a cysteine-supplemented running buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vootukuri Reddy, Sreekanth; Philpott, Mike P; Trigiante, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Zymography is a powerful technique to separate and identify different enzymatic activities on a standard acrylamide gel. For oxidation prone enzymes such as cysteine proteases however, the oxidizing species generated by electrolysis of the gel running buffer may result in partial or complete inactivation, thus compromising the final readout. This can be only partially remedied by subsequent treatment of the gel with reducing agents. We demonstrate the generation of reactive oxidizing species during electrophoresis and discovered that supplementation of the gel running buffer with a minimum of 5 mM cysteine prevents enzyme inactivation and allows retention of proteolytic activity as measured by zymography on model substrate N α-benzoyl-l-arginine p-nitroanilide, without at the same time altering the mobilities of the gel proteins. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Cancer Cell Cytotoxicities of 1-(4-Substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Yarim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 1-(4-substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine derivatives 5ag was designed by a nucleophilic substitution reaction of 1-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine with various benzoyl chlorides and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was demonstrated on cancer cell lines from liver (HUH7, FOCUS, MAHLAVU, HEPG2, HEP3B, breast (MCF7, BT20, T47D, CAMA-1, colon (HCT-116, gastric (KATO-3 and endometrial (MFE-296 cancer cell lines. Time-dependent cytotoxicity analysis of compound 5a indicated the long-term in situ stability of this compound. All compounds showed significant cell growth inhibitory activity on the selected cancer cell lines.

  20. Synergistic extraction behaviour of americium from simulated acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Veeraraghavan, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of americium has been investigated with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (PBI) and oxodonors viz. tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and di-n-butyl octanamide (DBOA) using dodecane as the diluent from 1-6 M HNO 3 media. It is observed that D Am remains unaltered with PBI concentration (in the range 0.06-0.1 M) at 1.47 M TBP in the entire range of HNO 3 concentration. PBI and TBP in combination appears more promising compared to other synergistic systems. The possibility of using this mixture for americium removal from high level liquid waste solution has been explored. Extraction studies indicated that prior removal of uranium by 20% TBP in dodecane is helpful in the quantitative recovery of americium in three contacts. Effect of lanthanides on D Am is found to be marginal. (orig.)

  1. Phosphorescence white organic light-emitting diodes with single emitting layer based on isoquinolinefluorene-carbazole containing host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja Ryong; Lee, Seok Jae; Hyung, Gun Woo; Kim, Bo Young; Shin, Hyun Su; Lee, Kum Hee; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Kwan

    2013-03-01

    We have demonstrated a stable phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) using an orange emitter, Bis(5-benzoyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)pyridinato-C,N) iridium(III)acetylacetonate [(Bz4Fppy)2Ir(III)acac] doped into a newly synthesized blue host material, 2-(carbazol-9-yl)-7-(isoquinolin-1-yl)-9,9-diethylfluorene (CzFliq). When 1 wt.% (Bz4Fppy)2Ir(III)acac was doped into emitting layer, it was realized an improved EL performance and a pure white color in the OLED. The optimum WOLED showed maximum values as a luminous efficiency of 10.14 cd/A, a power efficiency of 10.24 Im/W, a peak external quantum efficiency 4.07%, and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39) at 8 V.

  2. Direct site-directed photocoupling of proteins onto surfaces coated with β-cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Städe, Lars W; Wimmer, Reinhard; Stensballe, Allan

    2010-01-01

    . Insertion of pBpa was verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. A molecular dynamic simulation, with water as solvent, showed high solvent accessibility of the pBpa benzophenone group in N27pBpa-cutinase mutant. The formation of an inclusion......A method called Dock'n'Flash was developed to offer site-specific capture and direct UVA-induced photocoupling of recombinant proteins. The method involves the tagging of recombinant proteins with photoreactive p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (pBpa) by genetic engineering. The photoreactive pBpa tag...... is used for affinity capture of the recombinant protein by beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), which provides hydrogen atoms to be abstracted in the photocoupling process. To exemplify the method, a recombinant, folded, and active N27pBpa mutant of cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi was produced in E. coli...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of kaolin with polystyrene via in-situ polymerization and their application on polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Songfang; Qiu, Shangchang; Zheng, Yuying; Cheng, Lei; Guo, Yong

    2011-01-01

    To improve both the mechanical and thermal properties of kaolin/polypropylene (PP) composites, kaolin was modified by using 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propylmethacrylate (YDH-570) as a coupling agent to form polymerizable particle. Styrene was radically polymerized through the immobilized vinyl using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, particle size distribution, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) well demonstrated that the kaolin-polystyrene particles were successfully synthesized via in-situ polymerization. While the modified kaolin and raw kaolin were introduced into the PP matrix, it could be concluded that modified kaolin/PP composites have better mechanical and thermal properties than raw kaolin/PP composites, and these improvements were attributed to the desirable dispersion of kaolin in PP matrix.

  4. Radiosynthesis of F-18 labeled cytidine analog 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-l-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine ([{sup 18}F]FIAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.-Y.; Chan, P.-C.; Chang, W.-T. [Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong Street, Sector 2, Bei-tou, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Liu, R.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine and National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Alauddin, Mian M. [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imagiing, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas (United States); Wang, H-E. [Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong Street, Sector 2, Bei-tou, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hewang@ym.edu.tw

    2009-07-15

    We reported the synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-5-iodo-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodo-cytosine ([{sup 18}F]FIAC) with 15-20% radiochemical yield (decay corrected) in 3.5 h. 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-{alpha}-D-arabinofuranose was prepared following literature procedures with some modifications (yield>70%). The {sup 18}F-fluorosugar was converted to 1-bromo-{sup 18}F-fluorosugar, and then coupled with 5-iodocytocine silyl ether. A mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) were employed to achieve optimum radiochemical yield and acceptable {beta}-anomer selectivity ({alpha}/{beta}=1/3). After hydrolyzed with sodium methoxide, the crude product was purified using HPLC to afford the {beta}-[{sup 18}F]FIAC with high radiochemical purity ({>=}98%)

  5. Radiosynthesis of F-18 labeled cytidine analog 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-l-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine ([18F]FIAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-Y.; Chan, P.-C.; Chang, W.-T.; Liu, R.-S.; Alauddin, Mian M.; Wang, H-E.

    2009-01-01

    We reported the synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-iodo-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodo-cytosine ([ 18 F]FIAC) with 15-20% radiochemical yield (decay corrected) in 3.5 h. 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-α-D-arabinofuranose was prepared following literature procedures with some modifications (yield>70%). The 18 F-fluorosugar was converted to 1-bromo- 18 F-fluorosugar, and then coupled with 5-iodocytocine silyl ether. A mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) were employed to achieve optimum radiochemical yield and acceptable β-anomer selectivity (α/β=1/3). After hydrolyzed with sodium methoxide, the crude product was purified using HPLC to afford the β-[ 18 F]FIAC with high radiochemical purity (≥98%).

  6. Introduction to crystal structure determination methods using x-ray diffraction: application to some rare earth complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.A. de.

    1986-01-01

    This work is composed by a theoretical introduction studying crystal concept, interaction between X-ray and crystal medium, and methods for determining small molecular structures applied in solution of crystal structures of praseodymium, neodymium and europium complexes with perrhenate and trans - 1,4 - dithiane - 1,4 - dioxide, (TDTD), which general formula is [ Ln (H sub(2) O) sub(4) (η-TDTD) (η'Re O sub(4)) (μ-η sup(2)-TDTD)] sub(n) (Re O sub(4)) sub(2n). nTDTD, where, Ln = Eu, Pr, Nd and methyl-2,6-anhydrous-3-azido-4-0-benzoyl-3-deoxy-α-D-iodo pyranoside. The structure of C sub(14) H sub(15) N sub(3) O sub(5) organic complex was determined using direct methods. (M.C.K.)

  7. Vanadium content of human dental enamel and its relationship to caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, A R [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia); Vrbic, V [Ljubljana Univ. (Yugoslavia)

    1979-01-01

    A method for the determination of vanadium in dental enamel based on neutron activation analysis is described. After rapid dissolution of the irradiated sample in perchloric acid, /sup 52/V is quickly separated by solvent extraction from mixed perchloric-hydrochloric medium with N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxylamine (BPHA) reagent in toluene in 95% yield. The technique was applied to samples from a low caries area of Dalmatia, Zemunik (DMFT < 2), and a normal area, Novigrad (DMFT > 5), in the same region. No significant differences in vanadium content were found between the two areas, nor between deciduous and permanent teeth. The levels in other areas of Yugoslavia were found to be similar, with a mean concentration of 3.7 +- 1.5 ngxg/sup -1/ for 37 samples, with a nearly normal distribution; a few impacted teeth gave lower values. The method can also be adapted to the analysis of bone and biological materials generally.

  8. Crystal structure of 4-meth-oxy-N-(piperidine-1-carbono-thio-yl)benzamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhud, Khairi; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Ahmad, Musa; Heng, Lee Yook; Kassim, Mohammad B

    2017-10-01

    In the title compound, C 14 H 18 N 2 O 2 S, the piperidine ring has a chair conformation. Its mean plane is twisted with respect to the 4-meth-oxy-benzoyl ring, with a dihedral angle of 63.0 (3)°. The central N-C(=S)-N(H)-C(=O) bridge is twisted with an N-C-N-C torsion angle of 74.8 (6)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the c -axis direction. Adjacent chains are linked by C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming layers parallel to the ac plane. The layers are linked by offset π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.927 (3) Å], forming a supra-molecular three-dimensional structure.

  9. Antibodies directed to drug epitopes to investigate the structure of drug-protein photoadducts. Recognition of a common photobound substructure in tiaprofenic acid/ketoprofen cross-photoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, A; Hernández, D; Miranda, M A; Pérez-Prieto, J; Morera, I M; Castell, J V

    2001-11-01

    Drug-induced photoallergy is an immune adverse reaction to the combined effect of drugs and light. From the mechanistic point of view, it first involves covalent binding of drug to protein resulting in the formation of a photoantigen. Hence, determination of the structures of drug-protein photoadducts is of great relevance to understand the molecular basis of photoallergy and cross-immunoreactivity among drugs. Looking for new strategies to investigate the covalent photobinding of drugs to proteins, we generated highly specific antibodies to drug chemical substructures. The availability of such antibodies has allowed us to discriminate between the different modes by which tiaprofenic acid (TPA), suprofen (SUP), and ketoprofen (KTP) photobind to proteins. The finding that the vast majority of the TPA photoadduct can be accounted for by means of antibody anti-benzoyl strongly supports the view that the drug binds preferentially via the thiophene ring, leaving the benzene ring more accessible. By contrast, selective recognition of SUP-protein photoadducts by antibody anti-thenoyl evidences a preferential coupling via the benzene ring leaving the thiophene moiety more distant from the protein matrix. In the case of KTP, photoadducts are exclusively recognized by antibody anti-benzoyl, indicating that the benzene ring is again more accessible. As a result of this research, we have been able to identify a common substructure that is present in TPA-albumin and KTP-albumin photoadducts. This is remarkable since, at a first sight, the greatest structural similarities can be found between TPA and SUP as they share the same benzoylthiophene chromophore. These findings can explain the previously reported observations of cross-reactivity to KTP (or TPA) in patients photosensitized to TPA (or KTP).

  10. Synthesis of (Z)-3,7-anhydro-1,2-dideoxy-2-deuterio-D-gluco-oct-2- enitol, a prochiral substrate for probing the catalytic functioning of of glucosylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, W; Lehmann, J; Brewer, C F; Hehre, E J

    1988-12-01

    Synthesis of the title compound provides a prochiral, glycosyl-donor substrate well suited for use as a probe of the catalytic functioning of D-glucosyl-mobilizing enzymes, because the full stereochemistry of enzymic reactions at its double bond may be unambiguously determined by examining the reaction products. The starting material for the synthesis was 2,6-anhydro-D-glycero-D-gulo-heptonic acid, from which 3,7-anhydro-4,5,6,8-tetra-O-benzyl-1-deoxy-D-glycero-D-gulo-2- octulose was prepared in eight steps. Reduction with lithium aluminum deuteride, and conversion of the resulting diastereomeric alcohols into (Z)-3,7-anhydro-4,5,6,8-tetra-O-benzyl-1,2-dideoxy-2-deuterio-D- gluco-oct-2-enitol (11) and 3,7-anhydro-4,5,6,8-tetra-O-benzyl-1,2-dideoxy-2-deuterio-D- glycero-D-gulo-oct-1-enitol (16), was carried out. By-products were 3,7-anhydro-2-O-benzoyl-4,5,6,8-tetra-O-benzyl-1,2-dideoxy-2-deuterio -D-erythro-L-galacto-octitol and 3,7-anhydro-2-O-benzoyl-4,5,6,8-tetra-O-benzyl-1,2-dideoxy-2-deuterio -D-erythro-L-talo-octitol, which could, like compound 16, be recycled. On debenzylation the oct-2-enitol 11 yielded (Z)-3,7-anhydro-1,2-dideoxy-2-deuterio-D-gluco-oct-2-enitol.

  11. Covalent functionalization of graphene with reactive intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyeung; Yan, Mingdi

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a material made exclusively of sp(2) carbon atoms with its π electrons delocalized over the entire 2D network, is somewhat chemically inert. Covalent functionalization can enhance graphene's properties including opening its band gap, tuning conductivity, and improving solubility and stability. Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene typically requires reactive species that can form covalent adducts with the sp(2) carbon structures in graphene. In this Account, we describe graphene functionalization reactions using reactive intermediates of radicals, nitrenes, carbenes, and arynes. These reactive species covalently modify graphene through free radical addition, CH insertion, or cycloaddition reactions. Free radical additions are among the most common reaction, and these radicals can be generated from diazonium salts and benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer from graphene to aryl diazonium ion or photoactivation of benzoyl peroxide yields aryl radicals that subsequently add to graphene to form covalent adducts. Nitrenes, electron-deficient species generated by thermal or photochemical activation of organic azides, can functionalize graphene very efficiently. Because perfluorophenyl nitrenes show enhanced bimolecular reactions compared with alkyl or phenyl nitrenes, perfluorophenyl azides are especially effective. Carbenes are used less frequently than nitrenes, but they undergo CH insertion and C═C cycloaddition reactions with graphene. In addition, arynes can serve as a dienophile in a Diels-Alder type reaction with graphene. Further study is needed to understand and exploit the chemistry of graphene. The generation of highly reactive intermediates in these reactions leads to side products that complicate the product composition and analysis. Fundamental questions remain about the reactivity and regioselectivity of graphene. The differences in the basal plane and the undercoordinated edges of graphene and the zigzag versus arm-chair configurations

  12. An easily regenerable enzyme reactor prepared from polymerized high internal phase emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Guihua; Wu, Zhenwei; Huang, Yipeng; Wei, Meiping; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale high-efficient enzyme reactor based on polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith (polyHIPE) was prepared. First, a porous cross-linked polyHIPE monolith was prepared by in-situ thermal polymerization of a high internal phase emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene and polyglutaraldehyde. The enzyme of TPCK-Trypsin was then immobilized on the monolithic polyHIPE. The performance of the resultant enzyme reactor was assessed according to the conversion ability of N_α-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester to N_α-benzoyl-L-arginine, and the protein digestibility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome (Cyt-C). The results showed that the prepared enzyme reactor exhibited high enzyme immobilization efficiency and fast and easy-control protein digestibility. BSA and Cyt-C could be digested in 10 min with sequence coverage of 59% and 78%, respectively. The peptides and residual protein could be easily rinsed out from reactor and the reactor could be regenerated easily with 4 M HCl without any structure destruction. Properties of multiple interconnected chambers with good permeability, fast digestion facility and easily reproducibility indicated that the polyHIPE enzyme reactor was a good selector potentially applied in proteomics and catalysis areas. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of preparation of hypercrosslinking polyHIPE immobilized enzyme reactor for on-column protein digestion. - Highlights: • A reactor was prepared and used for enzyme immobilization and continuous on-column protein digestion. • The new polyHIPE IMER was quite suit for protein digestion with good properties. • On-column digestion revealed that the IMER was easy regenerated by HCl without any structure destruction.

  13. Synthesis and spectroscopic examination of various substituted 1,3-dibenzoylmethane, active agents for UVA/UVB photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubaud, Jean-Claude; Bombarda, Isabelle; Decome, Laetitia; Wallet, Jean-Claude; Gaydou, Emile M

    2008-08-21

    We describe the synthesis of eighteen variously substituted 1,3- dibenzoylmethane (1,3-DBM) and their change in absorption spectra depending of the nature of donor or acceptor substituents on one or the two aromatic moieties. These compounds were prepared in two steps starting from the corresponding acetophenones, phenol and benzoyl chlorides. The phenyl benzoate was obtained by condensation of benzoyl chloride with phenol in a classical way. Stirring of the phenyl benzoate and acetophenone in DMSO with powdered sodium hydroxide for a few minutes gave the dibenzoylmethane in yields depending on substituents on the phenyl rings. Changes in absorption of UVA/UVB sunlight of these molecules were observed according to the nature and the position of substituents on the phenyl rings. Molecules 2b (1-phenyl-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanedione), 2d (1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-phenyl-l,3-propanedione), 2e (1-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-phenyl-l,3-propanedione) and 2f (1-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-phenyl-l,3-propanedione) were the most interesting for cosmetic applications because even after irradiation, they preserve their absorptive in UVA range and also in UVB range The other compounds are too photounstable and so can lose their protective effects. These results showed the lack of phototoxicity of these compounds and the possibility to use them as solar filters. Therefore, variously di- or tri methoxy 1,3-DBM are interesting molecules in term of photoprotection and open new prospects for UVA photostable filters.

  14. Kininase enzymes of cat eye tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.W.; Anderson, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Eye tissues contain kininase activities, including an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-like activity. The authors have begun further to characterize the ACE-like activity and to examine for another reputed kininase, carboxypeptidase N (CPN). Homogenates of tissues of 6 cat eyes and paired plasmas were assayed for ACE using 3 acyl-tripeptide substrates, 3 H-benzoylated F-A-P, F-G-P and A-G-P (respectively, BFAP, BFGP and BAGP). CPN was assayed using 3 H-benzoyl-A-R. All eye tissues and fluids contained ACE- and CPN-like activities. The ACE activity was clearly owing to ACE: relative values of Kc/Km for BFAP, BFGP and BAGP were those for pure ACE (2.213, 1.751 and 1.0); reactivities with inhibitors were as expected (Ki for captopril, MK 422 and RAC-X-65: 2.7, 0.62 and 0.31 nM). EDTA inhibited both ACE and CPN (I 50 's: 43 and 47 μM). CPN activity was inhibited by 2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropionate (Ki 2.4 nM). However, distributions of the two enzymes differed markedly. Virtually all tissues contained ACE at specific activities higher than that of plasma. Specific activities appeared to be a function of tissue vascularity (for choroid, ciliary body, iris, retina and plasma: 7.31, 2.57, 1.98, 1.53 and 0.21 pmol/mg protein). Only iris contained more CPN that did plasma (23.0 v. 7.21 pmol/mg protein). The tissue distribution of ACE is that expected for an endothelial-associated enzyme. Plasma may be the major source of CPN in eye tissues other than iris

  15. Chemically linked metal-matrix nanocomposites of boron nitride nanosheets and silver as thermal interface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabandi, N.; Yegin, C.; Feng, X.; King, C.; Oh, J. K.; Scholar, E. A.; Narumanchi, S.; Akbulut, M.

    2018-03-01

    Herein, novel hybrid nanocomposite thermal interface materials (TIMs) relying on the chemical linkage of silver, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs), and organic ligands are reported. These TIMs were prepared using a co-electrodeposition/chemisorption approach where the electrolytic reduction of silver ions into silver nano-/micro-crystals was coupled with the conjugation of ligand-coated nanosheets onto silver crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the bond strength of silver/nanosheet links on the thermal, mechanical, and structural properties is investigated using a combination of techniques including laser flash analysis, phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectance, nanoindentation, and electron microscopy. The internal nanostructure was found to be strongly dependent on the linker chemistry. While the chemical grafting of 4-cyano-benzoyl chloride (CBC) and 2-mercapto-5-benzimidazole carboxylic acid (MBCA) on BNNSs led to the uniform distribution of functionalized-nanosheets in the silver crystal matrix, the physical binding of 4-bromo-benzoyl chloride linkers on nanosheets caused the aggregation and phase separation. The thermal conductivity was 236-258 W m-1 K and 306-321 W m-1 K for physically and chemically conjugated TIMs, respectively, while their hardness varied from 400-495 MPa and from 240 to 360 MPa, respectively. The corresponding ratio of thermal conductivity to hardness, which is a critical parameter controlling the performance of TIMs, was ultrahigh for the chemically conjugated TIMs: 1.3 × 10-6 m2 K-1 s for MBCA-BNNS and 8.5 × 10-7 m2 K-1 s for CBC-BNNS. We anticipate that these materials can satisfy some of the emerging thermal management needs arising from the improved performance and efficiency, miniaturization, and/or high throughput of electronic devices, energy storage devices, energy conversion systems, light-emitting diodes, and telecommunication components.

  16. IL-2 labeled with 99mTechnetium by an indirect method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocco, R.; Obenaus, Esteban; Rabiller, Graciela; Castiglia, Silvia G. de

    2003-01-01

    IL-2 and the other cytokines labeled with 99m Tc are an interesting option to early diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and monitoring with nuclear medicine images. The aim of this study was to obtain by indirect method IL-2 labeled with 99m Technetium using Benzoyl MAG3 chelating agent, for in vivo diagnosis of lymphocytic infiltration. IL-2 is a small, relatively fragile protein, and it is essential to retain its receptor binding capacity after labeling. Two different methods of labeling have been proven: Pre-conjugation labeling method: we used NHS- Hynic as a chelator agent and labeled this conjugated protein with 99m Tc using tricine as coligand. Albumin was used as a model for the conjugation and labeling steps. The albumin was labeled by this method with a good labeling efficiency but the IL-2 protein could not be labeled with this approach. Post- conjugation labeling method: we used the bifunctional chelating agent, benzoyl MAG3, this ligand is first labeled with 99m Tc and then is conjugated to the protein. The N 3 S Logan complex was incubated for 30 minutes and then measured by RP- HPLC. An active ester of the labeled Logan was formed and was incubated with Il-2 at room temperature and basic pH to promote the conjugation between the active ester and the protein. The labeling efficiency was determined by RP-HPLC using a C 18 column. The albumin protein was also labeled by this method and the radiochemical purity was measured by RP- HPLC using a GPC column and the labeling efficiency was 80%. The next objectives are to explore different strategies for purifying the 99m Tc-IL-2 and to evaluate the capacity of IL-2 to bind to its receptor after labeling. (author)

  17. Photoisomerization of Ethyl 2–(3–Acylselenoureidothiophene– 3–carboxylates and Their Benzoanalogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Marek

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis, isomerisation and structure elucidation of the title compounds 1–6 and its isomers 7–12 by FTIR, 1H, 13C, 15N, 77Se NMR spectroscopy is reported. Ethyl 2–(3–acylselenoureidothiophene–3–carboxylates and their benzoanalogues (where acyl is benzoyl and pivaloyl were prepared by addition of ethyl 2–aminothiophene–3–carboxylates and ethyl 2–aminobenzoate on benzoyl– or pivaloylisoselenocyanate in acetone solution. An isomerization of 1–6 to the corresponding 3–acylisoselenoureas 7–12 was obtained. The isomerisation proceeds either by irradiation with light (340–400 nm or in the case of benzoylderivatives 1, 3, 5 by treatment with acetic acid. On the other hand the acid action in the pivaloyl set inhibited this isomerisation and evoked the retroisomerisation reaction of 8, 10, 12 to 2, 4, 6. Thermal analyses showed that isomerisation can be initiated also by heating. These changes proceed in the solid phase as an exothermic process at an elevated temperature but always below the temperature of melting. The structure 2 was supported by X–ray analysis. Molecular design of 2 and 8 was modeled during application of ab initio quantum chemistry calculation.

  18. An easily regenerable enzyme reactor prepared from polymerized high internal phase emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Guihua, E-mail: guihuaruan@hotmail.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guangxi 541004 (China); Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Pollution Control and Water Safety in Karst Area, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Wu, Zhenwei; Huang, Yipeng; Wei, Meiping; Su, Rihui [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guangxi 541004 (China); Du, Fuyou, E-mail: dufu2005@126.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guangxi 541004 (China); Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Pollution Control and Water Safety in Karst Area, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-04-22

    A large-scale high-efficient enzyme reactor based on polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith (polyHIPE) was prepared. First, a porous cross-linked polyHIPE monolith was prepared by in-situ thermal polymerization of a high internal phase emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene and polyglutaraldehyde. The enzyme of TPCK-Trypsin was then immobilized on the monolithic polyHIPE. The performance of the resultant enzyme reactor was assessed according to the conversion ability of N{sub α}-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester to N{sub α}-benzoyl-L-arginine, and the protein digestibility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome (Cyt-C). The results showed that the prepared enzyme reactor exhibited high enzyme immobilization efficiency and fast and easy-control protein digestibility. BSA and Cyt-C could be digested in 10 min with sequence coverage of 59% and 78%, respectively. The peptides and residual protein could be easily rinsed out from reactor and the reactor could be regenerated easily with 4 M HCl without any structure destruction. Properties of multiple interconnected chambers with good permeability, fast digestion facility and easily reproducibility indicated that the polyHIPE enzyme reactor was a good selector potentially applied in proteomics and catalysis areas. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of preparation of hypercrosslinking polyHIPE immobilized enzyme reactor for on-column protein digestion. - Highlights: • A reactor was prepared and used for enzyme immobilization and continuous on-column protein digestion. • The new polyHIPE IMER was quite suit for protein digestion with good properties. • On-column digestion revealed that the IMER was easy regenerated by HCl without any structure destruction.

  19. Somatostatin analogues labelled with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenaus, E.; Crudo, J.; Edreira, M.; Viaggi, M.; De Castiglia, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the biological and radiochemical behaviour of two somatostatin analogues, the RC-160 and Tyr3Octreotide(TOC) peptides when labelling with 99m Tc by two methods: direct and indirect using S-benzoyl- mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) as chelating agents. RC-160 was labelled with 125I (30% labelling yield) in order to examine its receptor specificity and to study the biodistribution in normal animals. A total binding of 30% and a non specific binding lower than 10% was obtained. On the other hand, the RC-160 was labelled with 99m Tc by a direct method (70% labelling yield), using sodium ascorbate and dithionite in order to reduce the peptide and 99m Tc, respectively. The synthesis of RC-160 with S-benzoyl MAG-3 and TOC with HYNIC, for labelling with 99m Tc are also described. The conjugates were prepared on a small scale and labelled with the radionuclide using tricine as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. Chromatographic studies were performed using HPLC system and radiochemical purities higher than 75% and 95% were obtained respectively. Biodistributions studies in normal Wistar rats were performed and results were correlated with chromatographic and protein binding properties. Lower lipophilicity of the labelled conjugates resulted in a higher renal excretion. HYNIC-TOC complex showed promising results when labelling with 99m Tc using tricine as co-ligand although higher stability should be found for ternary co-ligands compared to tricine. (author)

  20. 99mTc labelled peptides for imaging of peripheral receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustanser, J.; Anjum, A.

    2001-01-01

    Several peptides are being used as radiopharmaceuticals for receptor imaging scintigraphy. The peptide receptors are found in the tumours of various sites in the human body. Somatostatin is one of those, which is expressed by a variety of tumours say in brain cortex, medullary carcinoma of thyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas and gut. Therefore neuropeptides based on somatostatin analogues are labelled with different radionuclide, 123 I and 111 In. Efforts are underway to label RC-160 (an analogue of somatostatin) with 99m Tc because of its favourable radiation dosimetry, short half-life, low price, high count rate and better diagnostic efficacy. In this project various methods of labelling RC-160 with different radionuclides 125 I and 99m Tc have been studied in detail. Radioiodination of RC-160 was tried with 125 I using the iodogen method as directed and then with Chloramine T method. Labelling of RC-160 peptide with 99m Tc was done using two different aspects. Direct labelling with 99m Tc and indirect labelling with 99m Tc using double chelating agents. Radiochemical quality control was carried out applying instant thin layer chromatography using ITLC-SG strips in 85% of methanol. Later the HPLC analysis was used for its evaluation. To label RC-160 with 99m Tc the approach of direct labelling was attempted first. 46% labelling could be achieved with 95% of radiochemical purity. The biodistribution of 99m Tc-RC-160 complex in rats has also been studied to determine uptake in various sites of somatostatin receptors. Eventually, attempt was made to synthesize biomolecule by conjugating Boc protected RC-160 with benzoyl MAG-3. As a result 80% of Boc-RC-160 went under conjugation with benzoyl MAG-3. (author)

  1. Acylphloroglucinol Derivatives from the South African Helichrysum niveum and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga K. Popoola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of aerial parts of Helichrysum niveum (H. niveum using different chromatographic methods including semi-preparative HPLC afforded three new (1–3 and six known (4–10 acylphloroglucinols alongside a known dialcohol triterpene (11. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized accordingly as 1-benzoyl-3 (3-methylbut-2-enylacetate-phloroglucinol (helinivene A, 1, 1-benzoyl-3 (2S-hydroxyl-3-methylbut-3-enyl-phloroglucinol (helinivene B, 2, 8-(2-methylpropanone-3S,5,7-trihydroxyl-2,2-dimethoxychromane (helinivene C, 3, 1-(2-methylbutanone-4-O-prenyl-phloroglucinol (4, 1-(2-methylpropanone-4-O-prennyl-phloroglucinol (5, 1-(butanone-3-prenyl-phloroglucinol (6, 1-(2-methylbutanone-3-prenyl-phloroglucinol (7, 1-butanone-3-(3-methylbut-2-enylacetate-phloroglucinol (8, 1-(2-methylpropanone-3-prenylphloroglucinol (9, caespitate (10, and 3β-24-dihydroxyterexer-14-ene (11. Excellent total antioxidant capacities were demonstrated by helinivenes A and B (1 and 2 when measured as oxygen radicals absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, trolox equivalent absorbance capacity (TEAC and including the inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 5.12 ± 0.90; 3.55 ± 1.92 µg/mL, while anti-tyrosinase activity at IC50 = 35.63 ± 4.67 and 26.72 ± 5.05 µg/mL were also observed for 1 and 2, respectively. This is the first chemical and in vitro biological study on H. niveum. These findings underpin new perspectives for the exploitation of these natural phenolic compounds in applications such as in the natural cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical sectors.

  2. Acylphloroglucinol Derivatives from the South African Helichrysum niveum and Their Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Olugbenga K; Marnewick, Jeanine L; Rautenbach, Fanie; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2015-09-18

    Phytochemical investigation of aerial parts of Helichrysum niveum (H. niveum) using different chromatographic methods including semi-preparative HPLC afforded three new (1-3) and six known (4-10) acylphloroglucinols alongside a known dialcohol triterpene (11). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized accordingly as 1-benzoyl-3 (3-methylbut-2-enylacetate)-phloroglucinol (helinivene A, 1), 1-benzoyl-3 (2S-hydroxyl-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-phloroglucinol (helinivene B, 2), 8-(2-methylpropanone)-3S,5,7-trihydroxyl-2,2-dimethoxychromane (helinivene C, 3), 1-(2-methylbutanone)-4-O-prenyl-phloroglucinol (4), 1-(2-methylpropanone)-4-O-prennyl-phloroglucinol (5), 1-(butanone)-3-prenyl-phloroglucinol (6), 1-(2-methylbutanone)-3-prenyl-phloroglucinol (7), 1-butanone-3-(3-methylbut-2-enylacetate)-phloroglucinol (8), 1-(2-methylpropanone)-3-prenylphloroglucinol (9), caespitate (10), and 3β-24-dihydroxyterexer-14-ene (11). Excellent total antioxidant capacities were demonstrated by helinivenes A and B (1 and 2) when measured as oxygen radicals absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric-ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent absorbance capacity (TEAC) and including the inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 5.12 ± 0.90; 3.55 ± 1.92) µg/mL, while anti-tyrosinase activity at IC50 = 35.63 ± 4.67 and 26.72 ± 5.05 µg/mL were also observed for 1 and 2, respectively. This is the first chemical and in vitro biological study on H. niveum. These findings underpin new perspectives for the exploitation of these natural phenolic compounds in applications such as in the natural cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical sectors.

  3. 125I-labeled crosslinking reagent that is hydrophilic, photoactivatable, and cleavable through an azo linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, J.B.; Blobel, G.

    1984-01-01

    A radioactive crosslinking reagent, N-[4-(p-azido-m-[ 125 I]iodophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropyl-N'-oxysulfosuccinimide ester, has been synthesized. The reagent is photoactivatable, water-soluble, cleavable through an azo linkage, and labeled with 125 I at the carrier-free specific activity of 2000 Ci/mmol. Any protein derivatized with the reagent is thus converted into an 125 I-labeled photoaffinity probe. Crosslinks are formed following photolysis with 366-nm light, and cleavage by sodium dithionite results in the donation of radioactivity to the distal partner in crosslinked complexes. The newly labeled proteins are then analyzed by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The compound was prepared by iodination of N-[4-(p-aminophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropionic acid using carrier-free Na 125 I and chloramine-T, followed by azide formation and conversion to the water-soluble sulfosuccinimide ester. As a model system, protein A-Sepharose was derivatized with the reagent under subdued light. Each derivatized protein A molecule contained only one crosslinker. The derivatized protein A-Sepharose was then photolyzed in the presence of human serum and subsequently treated with sodium dithionite. Analysis of the serum by gel electrophoresis revealed that 1.1% of the radioactive label originally present on the protein A-Sepharose was transferred to the heavy chain of IgG, which was the most intensely labeled protein in the gel. The next most intensely labeled protein was IgG light chain, which incorporated radioactivity that was lower by a factor of 3.6 than that of the heavy chain. 36 references, 3 figures

  4. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    naphthalene), W-cofactor-containing enzymes for reductive dearomatization of benzoyl-CoA (class II benzoyl-CoA reductase) in obligate anaerobes and addition of water to acetylene, fermentative formation of cyclohexanecarboxylate from benzoate, and methanogenic degradation of hydrocarbons. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Synthesis, surface group modification of 3D MnV2O6 nanostructures and adsorption effect on Rhodamine B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wanqun; Shi, Lei; Tang, Kaibin; Liu, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of urchin-like MnV 2 O 6 with oxygen-containing surface groups. ► Mn 0.5 V 2 O 5 ·nH 2 O as an intermediate product holds the key to the final products. ► 3D architectures of MnV 2 O 6 with oxygen-containing surface groups as sorbent. ► The sorbent shows a good adsorption ability. -- Abstract: Highly uniform 3D MnV 2 O 6 nanostructures modified by oxygen functional groups (-COO-) were successfully prepared in large quantities by an approach involving preparation of vanadyl ethylene glycolate as the precursor. The growth and self-assembly of MnV 2 O 6 nanobelts and nanorods could be readily tuned by additive species and quantities, which brought different morphologies and sizes to the final products. With a focus on the regulation of structure, the formation process of 3D architectures of MnV 2 O 6 by self-assembly of nanobelts was followed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The consecutive processes of vanadyl ethylene glycolate and benzoyl peroxide assisted formation of layered structure Mn 0.5 V 2 O 5 ·nH 2 O, growth of aligned MnV 2 O 6 nanobelts, and oriented assembly were proposed for the growth mechanism. The band gap vs. different morphology was also studied. Optical characterization of these MnV 2 O 6 with different morphologies showed direct bandgap energies at 1.8–1.95 eV. The adsorption properties of 3D MnV 2 O 6 nanostructures synthesized under different conditions were investigated through the removal test of Rhodamine B in aqueous water, and the 3D nanostructures synthesized with 30 g L −1 benzoyl peroxide showed good adsorption capability of Rhodamine B.

  6. Photochemical reductions of benzil and benzoin in the presence of triethylamine and TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Woo; Kim, Eun Kyung [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh Park, Kwang Hee [Chungnam National Univ., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    This paper reports the photochemical reduction of benzil 1 to benzoin 2 and the reduction of 2 to hydrobenzoin 4 in deoxygenated solvents in the presence of triethylamine (TEA) and/or TiO{sub 2}. Without TEA or TiO{sub 2}, the photolysis of 1 resulted in very low yield of 2. The presence of TEA or TiO{sub 2} increased the rate of disappearance of 1 and the yield of 2, which were further increased considerably by the presence of water. The photoreduction of 1 to 2 proceeds through an electron transfer to 1 from TEA or hole-scavenged excited TiO{sub 2} followed by protonation. In the reaction medium of 88:7:2:3 CH{sub 3}CN/CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O/TEA with 2.5 mg/mL of TiO{sub 2}, the yield of 2 was as high as 85% at 50% conversion of 1. The photolysis of 2 in homogeneous media resulted in photo-cleavage to benzoyl and hydroxybenzyl radicals, which are mostly converted to benzaldehyde. The reduction product 4 is formed in low yield through the dimerization of hydroxybenzyl radicals. The addition of TEA increased the conversion rate of 2 and the yield of 4 significantly. This was attributed to the scavenging effect of TEA for benzoyl radical to produce N,N-diethylbenzamide and the photoreduction of benzaldehyde in the presence of TEA. The ratio of ({+-}) and meso isomers of 4 obtained from the photochemical reaction is about 1.1. This ratio is the same as that from the photochemical reduction of benzaldehyde in the presence of TEA. In the TiO{sub 2}-sensitized photochemical reduction of 2, meso-4 was obtained in moderate yield. The reduction of 2 to 4 proceeds through two consecutive electron/proton transfer processes on the surface of the photocatalyst without involvement of {alpha}-cleavage. The radical 11 initially formed from 2 by one electron/proton process can also combine with hydroxy methyl radical, which is generated after hole trapping of excited TiO{sub 2} by methanol, to product 1,2-diphenylpropenone after dehydration reaction.

  7. Photochemical reductions of benzil and benzoin in the presence of triethylamine and TiO2 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joon Woo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Koh Park, Kwang Hee

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the photochemical reduction of benzil 1 to benzoin 2 and the reduction of 2 to hydrobenzoin 4 in deoxygenated solvents in the presence of triethylamine (TEA) and/or TiO 2 . Without TEA or TiO 2 , the photolysis of 1 resulted in very low yield of 2. The presence of TEA or TiO 2 increased the rate of disappearance of 1 and the yield of 2, which were further increased considerably by the presence of water. The photoreduction of 1 to 2 proceeds through an electron transfer to 1 from TEA or hole-scavenged excited TiO 2 followed by protonation. In the reaction medium of 88:7:2:3 CH 3 CN/CH 3 OH/H 2 O/TEA with 2.5 mg/mL of TiO 2 , the yield of 2 was as high as 85% at 50% conversion of 1. The photolysis of 2 in homogeneous media resulted in photo-cleavage to benzoyl and hydroxybenzyl radicals, which are mostly converted to benzaldehyde. The reduction product 4 is formed in low yield through the dimerization of hydroxybenzyl radicals. The addition of TEA increased the conversion rate of 2 and the yield of 4 significantly. This was attributed to the scavenging effect of TEA for benzoyl radical to produce N,N-diethylbenzamide and the photoreduction of benzaldehyde in the presence of TEA. The ratio of (±) and meso isomers of 4 obtained from the photochemical reaction is about 1.1. This ratio is the same as that from the photochemical reduction of benzaldehyde in the presence of TEA. In the TiO 2 -sensitized photochemical reduction of 2, meso-4 was obtained in moderate yield. The reduction of 2 to 4 proceeds through two consecutive electron/proton transfer processes on the surface of the photocatalyst without involvement of α-cleavage. The radical 11 initially formed from 2 by one electron/proton process can also combine with hydroxy methyl radical, which is generated after hole trapping of excited TiO 2 by methanol, to product 1,2-diphenylpropenone after dehydration reaction

  8. Synthesis, surface group modification of 3D MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanostructures and adsorption effect on Rhodamine B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wanqun, E-mail: wqz@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Micro-scale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Chemical Experimental Teaching Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Lei, E-mail: shil@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Micro-scale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Tang, Kaibin; Liu, Zhongping [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Micro-scale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of urchin-like MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} with oxygen-containing surface groups. ► Mn{sub 0.5}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·nH{sub 2}O as an intermediate product holds the key to the final products. ► 3D architectures of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} with oxygen-containing surface groups as sorbent. ► The sorbent shows a good adsorption ability. -- Abstract: Highly uniform 3D MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanostructures modified by oxygen functional groups (-COO-) were successfully prepared in large quantities by an approach involving preparation of vanadyl ethylene glycolate as the precursor. The growth and self-assembly of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanobelts and nanorods could be readily tuned by additive species and quantities, which brought different morphologies and sizes to the final products. With a focus on the regulation of structure, the formation process of 3D architectures of MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} by self-assembly of nanobelts was followed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The consecutive processes of vanadyl ethylene glycolate and benzoyl peroxide assisted formation of layered structure Mn{sub 0.5}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·nH{sub 2}O, growth of aligned MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanobelts, and oriented assembly were proposed for the growth mechanism. The band gap vs. different morphology was also studied. Optical characterization of these MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} with different morphologies showed direct bandgap energies at 1.8–1.95 eV. The adsorption properties of 3D MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanostructures synthesized under different conditions were investigated through the removal test of Rhodamine B in aqueous water, and the 3D nanostructures synthesized with 30 g L{sup −1} benzoyl peroxide showed good adsorption capability of Rhodamine B.

  9. Short communication: The influence of solids concentration and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and flavor of sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, M G; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effect of bleaching conditions and bleaching agent on flavor and functional properties of whey protein ingredients. Solids concentration at bleaching significantly affected bleaching efficacy and flavor effects of different bleaching agents. It is not known if these parameters influence quality of sweet whey powder (SWP). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of solids concentration and bleaching agent on the flavor and bleaching efficacy of SWP. Colored cheddar whey was manufactured, fat separated, and pasteurized. Subsequently, the whey (6.7% solids) was bleached, concentrated using reverse osmosis (RO) to 14% solids, and then spray dried, or whey was concentrated before bleaching and then spray dried. Bleaching treatments included a control (no bleaching, 50 °C, 60 min), hydrogen peroxide (HP; 250 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), lactoperoxidase (20 mg/kg of HP, 50 °C, 30 min), and external peroxidase (MaxiBright, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands; 2 dairy bleaching units/mL, 50 °C, 30 min). The experiment was repeated in triplicate. Sensory properties and volatile compounds of SWP were evaluated by a trained panel and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Bleaching efficacy (norbixin destruction) and benzoic acid were measured by HPLC. Differences in bleaching efficacy, sensory and volatile compound profiles, and benzoic acid were observed with different bleaching agents, consistent with previous studies. Solids concentration affected bleaching efficacy of HP, but not other bleaching agents. The SWP from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase following RO had increased cardboard and fatty flavors and higher concentrations of lipid oxidation compounds compared with SWP from whey bleached before RO. The SWP bleached with benzoyl peroxide after RO contained less benzoic acid than SWP from whey bleached before RO. These results indicate that

  10. Effects of luminal flow and nucleotides on [Ca(2+)](i) in rabbit cortical collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Craig B; Leite, Maurilo; Rohatgi, Rajeev; Satlin, Lisa M

    2002-09-01

    Nucleotide binding to purinergic P2 receptors contributes to the regulation of a variety of physiological functions in renal epithelial cells. Whereas P2 receptors have been functionally identified at the basolateral membrane of the cortical collecting duct (CCD), a final regulatory site of urinary Na(+), K(+), and acid-base excretion, controversy exists as to whether apical purinoceptors exist in this segment. Nor has the distribution of receptor subtypes present on the unique cell populations that constitute Ca(2+) the CCD been established. To examine this, we measured nucleotide-induced changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in fura 2-loaded rabbit CCDs microperfused in vitro. Resting [Ca(2+)](i) did not differ between principal and intercalated cells, averaging approximately 120 nM. An acute increase in tubular fluid flow rate, associated with a 20% increase in tubular diameter, led to increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in both cell types. Luminal perfusion of 100 microM UTP or ATP-gamma-S, in the absence of change in flow rate, caused a rapid and transient approximately fourfold increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in both cell types (P < 0.05). Luminal suramin, a nonspecific P2 receptor antagonist, blocked the nucleotide- but not flow-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients. Luminal perfusion with a P2X (alpha,beta-methylene-ATP), P2X(7) (benzoyl-benzoyl-ATP), P2Y(1) (2-methylthio-ATP), or P2Y(4)/P2Y(6) (UDP) receptor agonist had no effect on [Ca(2+)](i). The nucleotide-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients were inhibited by the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, thapsigargin, which depletes internal Ca(2+) stores, luminal perfusion with a Ca(2+)-free perfusate, or the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine. These results suggest that luminal nucleotides activate apical P2Y(2) receptors in the CCD via pathways that require both internal Ca(2+) mobilization and extracellular Ca(2+) entry. The flow-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i) is

  11. Genomic and microarray analysis of aromatics degradation in Geobacter metallireducens and comparison to a Geobacter isolate from a contaminated field site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jizhong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Groundwater and subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species that couple oxidation of these compounds to reduction of Fe(III-oxides. Geobacter metallireducens metabolizes many aromatic compounds, but the enzymes involved are not well known. Results The complete G. metallireducens genome contained a 300 kb island predicted to encode enzymes for the degradation of phenol, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoate. Toluene degradation genes were encoded in a separate region. None of these genes was found in closely related species that cannot degrade aromatic compounds. Abundant transposons and phage-like genes in the island suggest mobility, but nucleotide composition and lack of synteny with other species do not suggest a recent transfer. The inferred degradation pathways are similar to those in species that anaerobically oxidize aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. In these pathways the aromatic compounds are converted to benzoyl-CoA and then to 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. However, in G. metallireducens there were no genes for the energetically-expensive dearomatizing enzyme. Whole-genome changes in transcript levels were identified in cells oxidizing benzoate. These supported the predicted pathway, identified induced fatty-acid oxidation genes, and identified an apparent shift in the TCA cycle to a putative ATP-yielding succinyl-CoA synthase. Paralogs to several genes in the pathway were also induced, as were several putative molybdo-proteins. Comparison of the aromatics degradation pathway genes to the genome of an isolate from a contaminated field site showed very similar content, and suggested this strain degrades many of the same compounds. This strain also lacked a classical dearomatizing enzyme, but contained two copies of an eight-gene cluster encoding redox proteins that was 30-fold

  12. Modification of a Phenolic Resin with Epoxy- and Methacrylate-Functionalized Silica Sols to Improve the Ablation Resistance of Their Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized silica sols were obtained by the hydrolytic condensation of (γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPMS, (γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPMS and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS. Three different sols were obtained: MPS (derived from MPMS and TEOS, GPS-MPS (derived from GPMS, MPMS and TEOS, and GPSD (derived from GPMS, TEOS and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, DGEBA. These silica sols were mixed with a phenolic resin (PR. Ethylenediamine was used as a hardener for epoxy-functionalized sols and benzoyl peroxide was used as an initiator of the free-radical polymerization of methacrylate-functionalized silica sols. Glass fiber-reinforced composites were obtained from the neat PR and MPS-PR, GPS-MPS-PR and GPSD-PR. The resulting composites were evaluated as ablation resistant materials in an acetylene-oxygen flame. A large increase in the ablation resistance was observed when the PR was modified by the functionalized silica sols. The ablation resistance of the composites decreased as follows: GPSD-PR > MPS-PR > GPS-MPS-PR > PR.

  13. ATP-Dependent C–F Bond Cleavage Allows the Complete Degradation of 4-Fluoroaromatics without Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Tiedt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Complete biodegradation of the abundant and persistent fluoroaromatics requires enzymatic cleavage of an arylic C–F bond, probably the most stable single bond of a biodegradable organic molecule. While in aerobic microorganisms defluorination of fluoroaromatics is initiated by oxygenases, arylic C–F bond cleavage has never been observed in the absence of oxygen. Here, an oxygen-independent enzymatic aryl fluoride bond cleavage is described during the complete degradation of 4-fluorobenzoate or 4-fluorotoluene to CO2 and HF in the denitrifying Thauera aromatica: the ATP-dependent defluorination of 4-fluorobenzoyl-coenzyme A (4-F-BzCoA to benzoyl-coenzyme A (BzCoA and HF, catalyzed by class I BzCoA reductase (BCR. Adaptation to growth with the fluoroaromatics was accomplished by the downregulation of a promiscuous benzoate-CoA ligase and the concomitant upregulation of 4-F-BzCoA-defluorinating/dearomatizing BCR on the transcriptional level. We propose an unprecedented mechanism for reductive arylic C–F bond cleavage via a Birch reduction-like mechanism resulting in a formal nucleophilic aromatic substitution. In the proposed anionic 4-fluorodienoyl-CoA transition state, fluoride elimination to BzCoA is favored over protonation to a fluorinated cyclic dienoyl-CoA.

  14. Effects of (monomer - crosslinker – initiator) composition during non imprinted polymers synthesis for catechin retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triadhi, U.; Zulfikar, M. A.; Setiyanto, H.; Amran, M. B.

    2018-05-01

    MISPE (molecularly imprinted Solid Phase Extraction) is a separation technique using a solid adsorbent as a principle of MI (molecularly imprinted). Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as a monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinker, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator and acetonitrile (ACN) as a porogen. Catechin will be used as the template. Thermal and microwave methods were employed in the synthesis method. When analyzed using FTIR spectra, it was found that there were no significant differences between NIP (non-imprinted polymer) resulting from thermal method and that resulting from microwave method. Preparation of polymers by microwave method required 4 mins at 60-65 °C, significantly less than thermal method, that took 60 minutes at the same temperature. The variations of mole ratios of the monomer, the crosslinker, and the initiator were also performed. Based on the FTIR spectra, intensity of some peaks were changed due to the decreases of concentration. The optimum composition for NIP synthesis was MAA: EGDMA: BPO ratio of 5:30:0.5 (in mmole). The TGA curve showed that the NIP sythesized using microwave method experienced mass loss of around 98.50% at 604.8 °C.

  15. Tandem mass spectrometry of nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide releasing aspirins: a hint into activity behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Chiavarino, Barbara; Guglielmo, Stefano; Lilla, Valentina; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is the most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. However, due to its action on cyclooxygenase and its acid nature, aspirin is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. In an effort to minimize these side effects, NO-donor and H2S-donor ASA co-drugs have been designed and tested. Their mass spectrometric behavior is now analyzed and reported. Positive ions were obtained by electrospray ionization involving protonation or alkali metal attachment. Their dissociation processes have been studied by collision induced dissociation in a triple quadrupole instrument. High mass accuracy measurements have been recorded on a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. The protonated molecules dissociate by an exclusive or largely prevailing path leading to acetyloxy-substituted benzoyl cation, namely an ASA unit. The process is reminiscent of the enzymatic hydrolysis, releasing intact ASA to a large extent. Only at higher collision energy does the formal ketene loss disrupt the ASA moiety. The gas phase chemistry of protonated ASA-releasing drugs develops along elementary dissociation steps analogous to the reactive processes in complex biological environments. This notion may provide a tool for preliminary testing of new compounds.

  16. Novel Phenolic Inhibitors of Small/Intermediate-Conductance Ca(2+)-Activated K(+) Channels, KCa3.1 and KCa2.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivan-Viguera, Aida; Valero, Marta Sofía; Murillo, María Divina

    2013-01-01

    -inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with known cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and/or cytostatic activities. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In electrophysiological experiments, we identified the natural phenols, caffeic acid (EC50 1.3 µM) and resveratrol (EC50 10 µM) as KCa3.1 inhibitors with moderate potency....... The phenols, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and hydroxytyrosol had weak or no blocking effects. Out of the NSAIDs, flufenamic acid was moderately potent (EC50 1.6 µM), followed by mesalamine (EC50≥10 µM). The synthetic fluoro-trivanillic ester, 13b ([3,5-bis[(3-fluoro-4-hydroxy-benzoyl)oxymethyl]phenyl]methyl 3.......3 activation. CONCLUSIONSSIGNIFICANCE: We identified the natural phenols, caffeic acid and resveratrol, the NSAID, flufenamic acid, and the polyphenol 13b as novel KCa3.1 inhibitors. The high potency of 13b with pan-activity on KCa3.1/KCa2 channels makes 13b a new pharmacological tool to manipulate...

  17. Determination of vanadium in Syrian commercial and raffinate phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merey, R.

    2002-04-01

    This study presents two methods for vanadium determination in Syrian commercial phosphoric acid. The vanadium (V) in the oxidized commercial phosphoric acid by ammonium persulfate solution is extracted from 5-M hydrochloride acid medium using N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxyl amine (BPHA) in chloroform as an extracting solution. The first method, the extract vanadium as VOL 2 Cl is changed to V 2 O 3 L 4 complex by the addition of benzimidazole in 1-butanol to the violet organic layer. The absorbance is then measured at 440 nm (the molar absorptivity was found to be 3865 M -1 cm -1 ), where Beer law is applicable up to 36-μg ml -1 . the accuracy, precision and detection limit were found to be 3.7%, 77 ppb and 37 ppb, respectively. the second method, the organic layer is heated to evaporate chloroform, the residue is digested using 20% ammonium persulfate and 2-M sulfuric acid solutions. The vanadium concentration is measured spectrophotometrically by oxidizing gallic acid with persulfate (S 2 O 8 2- ) anion in phosphoric acid medium, where the vanadium (V) acts as a catalyst in the oxidation reaction. This method has a high sensitivity (∼10 -12 ) with accuracy and precision 5% and 0.621 ppb, respectively. Also Beer law at λ m ax=415 nm (ε=∼2 x 10 6 M -1 ) is applicable in the range 2.58-33.3 ppb. (author)

  18. Differential down-regulation of aquaporin-2 in rat kidney zones by peripheral nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonism and vasopressin type-2 receptor antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen S; Windfeld, Søren

    2007-01-01

    ) of the vasopressin type-2 receptor antagonist 5-dimethylamine-1-[4-(2-methylbenzoylamino)benzoyl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzapine (OPC31260) (32 nmol/kg/min). ZP120 decreased the aquaporin-2 protein level in the rat cortex/outer stripe of outer medulla and decreased apical plasma membrane localization of aquaporin-2......We previously showed that aquaresis induced by the peripherally acting nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonist ZP120 is associated with a decreased protein level of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in whole-kidney homogenates. We now examined the effects of Ac-RYYRWKKKKKKK-NH(2) (ZP120) (1 nmol/kg/min i.v. for 4...... h) on renal regional expression (cortex/outer stripe of outer medulla, inner stripe of outer medulla, and inner medulla) and subcellular localization of aquaporin-2. Responses to ZP120 were compared to the effects of an equi-aquaretic dose ( approximately 40% inhibition of distal water reabsorption...

  19. Synthesis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities of some new 4,6-dimethoxy-5-(heterocyclesbenzofuran starting from naturally occurring visnagin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. El-Sawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel 3-(4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-yl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde (3 and 3-chloro-3-(4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-ylpropenal (4 were prepared via Vilsmeier–Haack reaction of 1-(4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-ylethanone (1 and its hydrazone derivative 2. Reaction of compound 4 with some hydrazine derivatives, namely hydrazine hydrate, phenylhydrazine and benzylhydrazine hydrochloride led to the formation of pyrazole derivatives 5–8, respectively. On the other hand, reaction of compound 4 with thiourea, urea or guanidine gave the pyrimidine derivatives 9–11, respectively. Reaction of amino compound 11 with acetic anhydride, benzoyl chloride and benzenesulphonyl chloride yielded N-substituted pyrimidine derivatives 12–14, respectively. Reaction of diazonium salt of compound 11 with sodium azide afforded azidopyrimidine derivative 15, which upon reaction with ethyl acetoacetate gave 1,2,3-triazole derivative 16. Acid catalyzed reaction of 11 with p-nitrobenzaldehyde gave Schiff base 17, which cyclized upon reaction with thioglycolic acid or chloroacetyl chloride to give thiazolidin-4-one 18 and azetidin-2-one 19, respectively. The newly synthesized compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities. Depending on the obtained results, the newly synthesized compounds possess significant anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities.

  20. A combined experimental and theoretical study of the thermal [3+2] cycloaddition of carbonyl ylides with activated alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza-Reguig, Samira; Bentabed-Ababsa, Ghenia; Domingo, Luis R.; Ríos-Gutiérrez, Mar; Philippot, Stéphanie; Fontanay, Stéphane; Duval, Raphaël E.; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Bach, Stéphane; Roisnel, Thierry; Mongin, Florence

    2018-04-01

    4-Benzoyl-3,5-diaryltetrahydrofuran-2,2-dicarbonitriles were first synthesized from 2,2-dicyano-3-aryloxiranes and chalcones at toluene reflux; the 4,5-cis products proved to be predominantly formed and were isolated. Whereas shortened reaction times were observed by using microwave irradiation or catalytic cuprous chloride, no significant stereoselectivity change was in general noticed. Reacting 2,2-dicyano-3-aryloxiranes with 2-cyclopentenone next afforded 3-aryl-4-oxohexahydro-1H-cyclopenta[c]furan-1,1-dicarbonitriles, and the endo stereoisomers were isolated. That no stereoselectivity change was noticed in the presence of cuprous chloride rather suggests an impact of the salt on the epoxide ring opening. Finally, treatment of 2,2-dicyano-3-aryloxiranes by 2-morpholinoacrylonitrile yielded 3-cyano-3-morpholino-5-phenyltetrahydrofuran-2,2-dicarbonitriles from which the preponderant trans isomers were isolated. Importantly, the molecular mechanism of the domino reaction between 2,2-dicyano-3-phenyloxirane and 2-cyclopentenone was studied. The rate-determining thermal ring opening of the oxirane is followed by a non-concerted pseudoradical-type reaction of the carbonyl ylide with 2-cyclopentenone. Using the bond evolution theory also allowed the regioselectivity of this non-polar reaction to be explained.

  1. Solvent extraction of uranium(VI), plutonium(VI) and americium(III) with HTTA/HPMBP using mono- and bi-functional neutral donors. Synergism and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, S.A.; Lohithakshan, K.V.; Mithapara, P.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Synergistic extraction of hexavalent uranium and plutonium as well as trivalent americium was studied in HNO 3 with thenoyl, trifluoro-acetone (HTTA)/1-phenyl, 3-methyl, 4-benzoyl pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP) in combination with neutral donors viz. DPSO, TBP, TOPO (mono-functional) and DBDECMP, DHDECMP, CMPO (bi-functional) with wide basicity range using benzene as diluent. A linear correlation was observed when the equilibrium constant log Ks for the organic phase synergistic reaction of both U(VI) and Pu(VI) with either of the chelating agents HTTA or HPMBP was plotted vs. the basicity (log Kh) of the donor (both mono- and bi-functional) indicating bi-functional donors also behave as mono-functional. This was supported by the thermodynamic data (ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 ) obtained for these systems. The organic phase adduct formation reactions were identified for the above systems from the thermodynamic data. In the Am(III) HTTA system log K s values of bi-functional donors were found to be very high and deviate from the linear plot (log K s vs. log K h ) obtained for mono-functional donors, indicating that they function as bi-functional for the Am(III)/HTTA) system studied. This was supported by high +ve ΔS 0 values obtained for this system. (author)

  2. Association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, M.M.; Salama, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Studies have supported the notion that subjects with periodontitis and patients with multiple tooth extractions as a result of chronic advanced periodontal disease (PDD) have a greater risk of developing Cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those who had little or no periodontal infection. Periodontitis may predispose affected patients to CVD by elevating systemic C-reactive protein level and pro-inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and accelerate development of cardiovascular diseases, Oral health variables including loss of teeth, positive plaque Benzoyl-D-L-Arginine- Naphthyl Amide test (BANA) scores, and compliant of xerostomia may by considered as risk indicators for CVD. Exact mechanism which links PDD and CVD has not been firmly established. The link between PDD and CVD may be attributed to bacteria entering blood stream and attaching to the fatty plaque in coronary artery and contributing to clot formation which can lead to heart attack. Inflammation caused by PDD increases the plaque build up. The association between the two disease entities is cause for concern. However, dental and medical practitioners should be aware of these findings to move intelligently to interact with inquiring patients with periodontitis. They should be urged to maintain medical surveillance of their cardiovascular status, and work on controlling or reducing all known risk factors associated with CVD, including periodontal infection. (author)

  3. The processing of CdSe/Polymer nanocomposites via solution organometallic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, P.K.; Singh, Narendra; Charan, Shobhit; Lonkar, Sunil P.; Reddy, A. Satyanarayana; Patil, Yogesh; Viswanath, A. Kasi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents in situ preparation of CdSe nanoparticles using poly(vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA] as matrices by use of organoselenium compound. Reaction of cadmium metal salt and 1,2,3-selenadiazole (the source of selenium) enabled formation of CdSe nanoparticles. Use of selenadiazole in the present work with polymer is first of its kind. The radical polymerization of methycrylate monomer with benzoyl peroxide followed by reaction of respective reagents have been successfully employed to synthesize CdSe/PMMA nanocomposite. Similarly, reaction between selenadiazole and cadmium metal salt in aq. PVA yielded polymer coated or mixed CdSe nanoparticles. The UV-vis absorption spectra showed blue shift of about 200 nm with respect to band-gap energy of bulk CdSe, due to size quantization effect in CdSe particles. An emission band was observed at 530 nm in photoluminescence spectrum (PL) of CdSe/PMMA. IR spectra indicated shifts in the values of the polymer functional group due to nanoparticles. X-ray measurement of CdSe/Polymer nano-composites showed broad pattern for cubic CdSe and particle size of CdSe was estimated to be <10 nm. TGA revealed gradual weight loss between 200 and 400 deg. C indicating increased thermal stability of the polymer

  4. HPMA-based polymeric micelles for curcumin solubilization and inhibition of cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naksuriya, Ornchuma; Shi, Yang; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Hennink, Wim E; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2015-08-01

    Curcumin (CM) has been reported as a potential anticancer agent. However, its pharmaceutical applications as therapeutic agent are hampered because of its poor aqueous solubility. The present study explores the advantages of polymeric micelles composed of block copolymers of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) modified with monolactate, dilactate and benzoyl side groups to enhance CM solubility and inhibitory activity against cancer cells. Amphiphilic block copolymers, ω-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-(N-(2-benzoyloxypropyl) methacrylamide) (PEG-HPMA-Bz) were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR and GPC. One polymer with a molecular weight of 28,000Da was used to formulate CM and compared with other aromatic substituted polymers. CM was loaded by a fast heating method (PEG-HPMA-DL and PEG-HPMA-Bz-L) and a nanoprecipitation method (PEG-HPMA-Bz). Physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxicity/cytocompatibility of the CM loaded polymeric micelles were evaluated. It was found that HPMA-based polymeric micelles significantly enhanced the solubility of CM. The PEG-HPMA-Bz micelles showed the best solubilization properties. CM loaded polymeric micelles showed sustained release of the loading CM for more than 20days. All of CM loaded polymeric micelles formulations showed a significantly potent cytotoxic effect against three cancer cell lines. HPMA-based polymeric micelles are therefore promising nanodelivery systems of CM for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[18F]-fluoro-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ([18F]-FIAU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Harry; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Cantorias, Melchor; Lewis, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    An improved synthesis of 2'-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ([ 18 F]-FIAU) has been developed. The method utilizes trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf) catalyzed coupling of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-D-arabinofuranose with 2,4-bis(trimethylsilyloxy)-5-iodouracil to yield the protected dibenzoyl-[ 18 F]-FIAU. Dibenzoyl-[ 18 F]-FIAU was deprotected with sodium methoxide to yield a mixture of α- and β-anomers in a ratio of 1:1, which were purified by HPLC. The procedure described in this article eliminates the need for HBr activation of the sugar prior to coupling with silylated iodouracil and is suitable for automation. The total reaction time was about 110 min, starting from [ 18 F]-fluoride. The average isolated yield of the required β-anomer was 10±6% (decay corrected) with average specific activity of 125 mCi/μmol.

  6. The Effect of H2SO4 Concentration on the Ionic Conductivity of Liquid PMMA Oligomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norashima Kamaluddin; Famiza Abdul Latif; Han, C.C.; Ruhani Ibrahim; Sharil Fadli Mohamad Zamri; Norashima Kamaluddin; Famiza Abdul Latif; Han, C.C.; Ruhani Ibrahim; Sharil Fadli Mohamad Zamri

    2015-01-01

    To date gel and film type polymer electrolytes have been widely synthesized due to their wide range of electrical properties. However these types of polymer electrolytes exhibit poor mechanical stability and poor electrode-electrolyte contact hence deprive the overall performance of a battery system. Therefore, in order to indulge the advantages of polymer as electrolyte, a new class of polymer electrolyte was synthesized and investigated. In this study, liquid poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrolyte was synthesized using the simplest free radical polymerization technique using benzoyl peroxide as the initiator. At this stage, it was found that this liquid PMMA oligomer (MW=3000 g/ mole) has a potential as electrolyte in electrochemical devices. It was found that an ionic conductivity of ∼10 -7 S/ cm at room temperature can be achieved when only small volume of high molarity of sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) was doped in the liquid PMMA oligomer. The properties of this liquid PMMA oligomer were further investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  7. Radical-scavenging Activity of the Reaction Products of Isoeugenol with Thiol, Thiophenol, Mercaptothiazoline or Mercaptomethylimidazole Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction products in the presence of Lewis acid of isoeugenol (1 with ethanethiol, thiophenol, 2-mercaptothiazoline or 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (ISO-S1 – ISO-S-4 were obtained. The radical-scavenging activity of these compounds was investigated using the induction period method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and benzoyl peroxide (BPO and monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. For BPO, the stoichiometric factor (number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety, n declined in the order isoeugenol (1.8 > ISO-S-1 (1.6 > ISO-S-2 (1.2 > ISOS- 3 (0.9 > ISO-S-4 (0.3, whereas for AIBN, their n values were about 1, except for ISOS- 3 (0.6. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (kinh/kp for BPO declined in the order ISO-S-4 (56 > ISO-S-3 (15 > ISO-S-2 (11 >ISO-S-1 (9 > isoeugenol (8. Similarly, for AIBN the kinh/kp of the reaction products (33-57 was greater than that of isoeugenol (31. The reaction products of isoeugenol with a SH group showed greater inhibition rate constants (kinh than the parent compound isoeugenol.

  8. ct-DNA Binding and Antibacterial Activity of Octahedral Titanium (IV Heteroleptic (Benzoylacetone and Hydroxamic Acids Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kaushal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five structurally related titanium (IV heteroleptic complexes, [TiCl2(bzac(L1–4] and [TiCl3(bzac(HL5]; bzac = benzoylacetonate; L1–5 = benzohydroximate (L1, salicylhydroximate (L2, acetohydroximate (L3, hydroxyurea (L4, and N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxylamine (L5, were used for the assessment of their antibacterial activities against ten pathogenic bacterial strains. The titanium (IV complexes (1–5 demonstrated significant level of antibacterial properties as measured using agar well diffusion method. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic technique was applied, to get a better insight into the nature of binding between titanium (IV complexes with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA. On the basis of the results of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, the interaction between ct-DNA and the titanium (IV complexes is likely to occur through the same mode. Results indicated that titanium (IV complex can bind to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA via an intercalative mode. The intrinsic binding constant (Kb was calculated by absorption spectra by using Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Further, Gibbs free energy was also calculated for all the complexes.

  9. Phytoalexins of the Pyrinae: Biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Chizzali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Pyrinae, a subtribe of the plant family Rosaceae. The Pyrinae correspond to the long-recognized Maloideae. Economically valuable species of the Pyrinae are apples and pears. Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed de novo in response to infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The inducible defense compounds were also produced in cell suspension cultures after treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. The antimicrobial activity of the phytoalexins was demonstrated. To date, 10 biphenyls and 17 dibenzofurans were isolated from 14 of the 30 Pyrinae genera. The most widely distributed compounds are the biphenyl aucuparin and the dibenzofuran γ-cotonefuran. The biosynthesis of the two classes of defense compounds is not well understood, despite the importance of the fruit crops. More recent studies have revealed simultaneous accumulation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans, suggesting sequential, rather than the previously proposed parallel, biosynthetic pathways. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia served as a model system for studying phytoalexin metabolism. The key enzyme that forms the carbon skeleton is biphenyl synthase. The starter substrate for this type-III polyketide synthase is benzoyl-CoA. In apples, biphenyl synthase is encoded by a gene family, members of which are differentially regulated. Metabolism of the phytoalexins may provide new tools for designing disease control strategies for fruit trees of the Pyrinae subtribe.

  10. γ-irradiation-induced mortality: protective effect of protease inhibitors in chickens and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, M.A.; Galton, J.E.; Troll, W.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Chickens (Gallus domesticus) were protected from the acute γ-irradiation-induced mortality (within 24 hours) by the proteolytic enzyme inhibitors, soy-bean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), lima bean inhibitor (LBTI), antipain, α-N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester HCl (BAEE), trasylol, and leupeptin. Several other enzyme inhibitors, p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester HCl (TAME), α-tosyl-lysyl-chloromethyl ketone HCl (TLCK) and epsilon-amino caproic acid (EACA), did not protect. EACA even increased the mortality caused by γ-irradiation. The pattern of protective enzyme inhibitors suggests involvement of a kallikrein-like enzyme. SBTI and antipain also protected against low range lethal γ-irradiation exposures, 690 R in BALB/c and 880 R in SJL/J mice. It is suggested that enhanced vascular permeability, which in chickens is known to be the cause of the irradiation mortality during the first 24 hours, may also contribute to the mortality in mice during the first week after irradiation. (author)

  11. Synthesis of sulfur-containing lubricant additives on the basis of fatty acid ethyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii S. Bodachivskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals an energy-, resource- and eco-friendly method for preparation of sulfur-containing lubricant additives via interaction of fatty acid ethyl esters of rapeseed oil with elemental sulfur. The structure of synthesized compounds under various reactants ratio (5–50 wt.% of sulfur, duration (30–240 min and temperature of the process (160–215°С was investigated using various analytical techniques. According to the established data, aside from addition to double bonds, the side reaction of hydrogen substitution at α-methylene groups near these bonds occurs and induces the formation of conjugated systems and chromophoric sulfur-rich derivatives. Also, we found that increase of process duration evokes growth of polysulfane chains, in contrast to the raise of temperature, which leads to the formation of sulfur-containing heterocycles and hydrogen sulfide, as a result of elimination. Influence of accelerators on sulfurization of fatty acid ethyl esters was also examined. The most effective among them are mixtures of zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate with zinc oxide or stearic acid, which soften synthesis conditions and doubly decrease duration of the high-temperature stage. In addition, sulfur-containing compositions of ethyl esters and α-olefins, vulcanized esters by benzoyl peroxide, nonylphenols and zinc dinonylphenyldithiophosphate were designed. The study identified that lithium lubricant with sulfurized vulcanized esters provides improved tribological properties, in comparison with base lubricant or lubricant with the non-modified product.

  12. Determination of organic peroxides by liquid chromatography with on-line post-column ultraviolet irradiation and peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mitsuhiro; Inoue, Keiyu; Thara, Ayuko; Kishikawa, Naoya; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2003-02-14

    A HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide with peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) detection following on-line UV irradiation. Organic peroxides [i.e., benzoyl peroxide (BP), tert.-butyl hydroperoxide (BHP), tert.-butyl perbenzoate (BPB), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP)] were UV irradiated (254 nm, 15 W) to generate hydrogen peroxide, which was determined by PO-CL detection. The conditions for UV irradiation and PO-CL detection were optimized by a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Generation of hydrogen peroxide from peroxides with on-line UV irradiation also was confirmed by the FIA system by incorporating an enzyme column reactor immobilized with catalase. The separation of four organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide by HPLC was accomplished isocratically on an ODS column within 30 min. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) were 1.1 microM for hydrogen peroxide, 6.8 microM for BP, 31.3 microM for BHP, 7.5 microM for BPB and 1.3 microM for CHP. The proposed method was applied to the determination of BP in wheat flour.

  13. Bioavailability of diuron, imazapic and isoxaflutole in soils of contrasting textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Miriam H; Oliveira, Rubem S; Constantin, Jamil; Alonso, Diego G; Tormena, Cássio A

    2009-11-01

    This research was aimed at understanding the dynamics of the herbicides diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea], imazapic [2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-5-methylnicotinic acid] and isoxaflutole [5-cyclopropyl-4-(2-methanesulfonyl-4-trifluoromethyl benzoyl)isoxazole] in two soils of different physico-chemical properties. To accomplish such intent, several greenhouse experiments were run. The bioavailability of diuron (0; 1.6 and 3.2 kg ha(-1)), imazapic (0; 98 and 122.5 g ha(-1)) and isoxaflutole (0; 35 and 70 g ha(-1)) was measured in samples from a sandy loam soil and a clay soil, by sowing a bioindicator (Brachiaria decumbens), at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days after herbicides application (DAA). Diuron was very stable in clay soil, providing control equal to or higher than 92% of bioindicator, up to 100 DAA, as assumed by biomass accumulation. No differential effect was observed in sandy loam soil, even when 2x labeled rate were applied. Imazapic provided a short bioavailability in relation to B. decumbens, independent of rates applied. The persistence of isoxaflutole was longer in clay soil (28 to 30 days).

  14. [Bacterial resistance in acne? A meta-analysis of the controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sánchez, Mariana; Rodríguez-Ayala, Ernesto; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Arellano-Mendoza, María Ivonne

    2016-01-01

    Acne is one of the dermatological pathologies with the highest incidence around the world. It is a multifactorial disease and its treatment can be complex. Propionibacterium acnes play a key role in the inflammation of this dermatosis. Topical antibiotics, including mainly erythromycin and clindamycin, have been used, but there is controversy over their use due to the widely documented bacterial resistance. For this reason a meta-analysis of the publications over the past 10 years is presented in order to confirm this hypothesis. A search was made of the publications over the past 10 years that included the results of antibiogams of patients with acne. MeSH type searches were performed with the terms "acne vulgaris", "Propionibacterium acnes", "topical administration", "treatment", "erythromycin", "clindamycin", "nadifloxacin", "antibacterial agent", "bacterial drug resistance" in PubMed, Ovid, EBSCO, Cochrane, ScienceDirect and ClinicalKey meta-searches. A total of 13 articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. The mean odds ratio (OR 1.24, 95% CI) of the articles showed a slight tendency toward resistance of Propionibacterium acnes. An increase in bacterial resistance to topical erythromycin and clindamycin can be confirmed, thus the use of these antibiotics is recommended in selective cases for short periods, and in combination with benzoyl peroxide for the best clinical outcome in patients with acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly efficient and simplified phosphorescence white organic light-emitting diodes based on synthesized deep-blue host and orange emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja Ryong; Lee, Seok Jae; Hyung, Gun Woo; Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Dong Hyung [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Young [Department of Green Energy and Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kum Hee [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The authors have demonstrated a highly efficient and stable phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED), which has been achieved by doping only one orange phosphorescent emitter, Bis(5-benzoyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)pyridinato-C,N)iridium(III) acetylacetonate into an appropriate deep blue phosphorescent host, 4,4'-bis(4-(triphenylsilyl)phenyl)-1,1'-binaphthyl as an emitting layer (EML). The WOLED has been achieved by effective confinement of triplet excitons to emit a warm white color. The optimized WOLED, with a simple structure as a hole transporting layer-EML-electron transporting layer, showed a maximum luminous efficiency of 22.38 cd/A, a maximum power efficiency of 12.01 lm/W, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 7.32%, and CIEx,y coordinates of (0.38,0.42) at 500 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. - Highlights: • Highly efficient phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) • Single emitting layer consists of synthesized deep blue host and orange emitter • The WOLED with high EL efficiencies due to efficient triplet exciton confinement.

  16. Synthesis, reactivity, and properties of N-fused porphyrin rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toganoh, Motoki; Ikeda, Shinya; Furuta, Hiroyuki

    2007-11-12

    The thermal reactions of N-fused tetraarylporphyrins or N-confused tetraarylporphyrins with Re2(CO)10 gave the rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes bearing N-fused porphyrinato ligands (4) in moderate to good yields. The rhenium complexes 4 are characterized by mass, IR, 1H, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and the structures of tetraphenylporphynato complex 4a and its nitro derivative 15 are determined by X-ray single crystal analysis. The rhenium complexes 4 show excellent stability against heat, light, acids, bases, and oxidants. The aromatic substitution reactions of 4 proceed without a loss of the center metal to give the nitro (15), formyl (16), benzoyl (17), and cyano derivatives (19), regioselectively. In the electrochemical measurements for 4, one reversible oxidation wave and two reversible reduction waves are observed. Their redox potentials imply narrow HOMO-LUMO band gaps of 4 and are consistent with their electronic absorption spectra, in which the absorption edges exceed 1000 nm. Theoretical study reveals that the HOMO and LUMO of the rhenium complexes are exclusively composed of the N-fused porphyrin skeleton. Protonation of 4 takes place at the 21-position regioselectively, reflecting the high coefficient of the C21 atom in the HOMO orbital. The skeletal rearrangement reaction from N-confused porphyrin Re(I) complex (8) to N-fused porphyrin Re(I) complex (4) is suggested from the mechanistic study as well as DFT calculations.

  17. Liquid Membranes as a Tool for Chemical Speciation of Metals in Natural Waters: Organic and Inorganic Complexes of Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, Cristina; Mendiguchía, Carolina; Moreno, Carlos

    2018-04-15

    The different species of nickel present in natural waters exhibit different transport behaviour through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs). This fact has been used to design and optimise a separation/pre-concentration system applicable to separate labile and non-labile nickel fractions. A hydrazone derivative-1,2-cyclohexanedione bis-benzoyl-hydrazone (1,2-CHBBH) dissolved in toluene/dimethyl formamide (2% DMF)-was used as a chemical carrier of nickel species, from an aqueous source solution (sample) to a receiving acidic solution. Both chemical and hydrodynamic conditions controlling the transport system were studied and optimised. Under optimum conditions, variations in the transport of nickel ions as a function of organic (humic acids) and inorganic (chloride ions) ligands were studied. Relationships between the permeability coefficient ( P ) or recovery efficiency (%R) and the concentrations of ligands and nickel species were analysed using Winhumic V software. A negative correlation between P and the concentration of organic nickel complexes was found, suggesting that only labile nickel species are transported through the liquid membrane, with non-labile complexes remaining in the water sample; allowing for their separation and subsequent quantification in natural waters.

  18. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odem, R.R.; Willand, J.L.; Polakoski, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm

  19. Analysis of serine proteases from marine sponges by 2-D zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff G; Schröder, Heinz C

    2007-02-01

    Proteolytic activities isolated from the marine demosponges Geodia cydonium and Suberites domuncula were analyzed by 2-D zymography, a technique that combines IEF and zymography. After purification, a 200 kDa proteolytically active protein band was obtained from G. cydonium when analyzed in gelatin copolymerized 1-D zymograms. The enzymatic activity was quantified using alpha-N-benzoyl-D-arginine p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) as a substrate and corresponded to a serine protease. The protease activity was resistant to urea and SDS. DTT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) did not significantly change the protease activity, but induced a shift in molecular mass of the proteolytic band to lower M(r) values as detected by zymography. Under mild denaturing conditions, lower M(r) bands (zymography, the protease from G. cydonium revealed a pI of 8.0 and an M(r) shift from 200 to 66 kDa. To contrast these results, a cytosolic sample from S. domuncula was analyzed. The proteolytic activity of this sponge after 2-D zymography corresponded to an M(r) of 40 kDa and a pI of 4.0. The biological function of both sponge proteases is not yet known. This study demonstrates that mild denaturing conditions required for IEF may alter the interpretation of the 2-D zymography, and care must be taken during sample preparation.

  20. The effect of pre-heating and pre-irradiation with gamma-rays on thermal annealing in-bis-[n-benzoil-n-(o) tolylhydroxylaminate] cooper (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, C.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1990-02-01

    The main purpose of this work was to make a contribution on the study of the chemical effects of the (N,γ) reaction on copper chelate. The influence of some factors such as pre-heating and pre-irradiation with gama-rays on the retention and thermal annealing of bis [N-benzoyl-N-(o)tolylhydroxylaminate] copper (II) was investigated. The complex was synthesized and later characterized by means of: determination of the melting-point, elemental analysis, infra-red and visible range absortion spectrophotometry. The compound was heated and also irradiated with gamma-rays in order to verify the effect of thermolysis on the retention. It seems that heat and gamma-radiaition can produce deffects which will lower the susceptibility of the compound to thermal annealling. On the basis on the model envolving electronic species some explanation of ours results were made and a mechanism was proposed for the retention and thermal annealing assuming the capture of free electrons and also the existence of holes. (author) [pt

  1. Relationship of a turbidity of an oral rinse with oral health and malodor in Vietnamese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy A V

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the relationship between the turbidity of mouth-rinse water and oral health conditions, including oral malodor, in patients with (n = 148) and without (n = 231) periodontitis was examined. The turbidity of 20 mL distilled water that the patients rinsed in their mouths 10 times was measured using a turbidimeter. Oral malodor was evaluated using an organoleptic test and Oral Chroma. Oral health conditions, including decayed teeth, periodontal status, oral hygiene status, proteolytic activity of the N-benzoyl-dl-arginine-2-napthilamide (BANA) test on the tongue coating, and salivary flow rate, were assessed. Turbidity showed significant correlations with oral malodor and all oral health parameters in the periodontitis group. In the non-periodontitis group, turbidity showed significant correlations with oral malodor and oral health parameters, including dental plaque, tongue coating, BANA test, and salivary flow rate. The regression analysis indicated that turbidity was significantly associated with methyl mercaptan and the BANA test in the periodontitis group, and with hydrogen sulfide, dental plaque, tongue coating, and salivary flow rate in the non-periodontitis group. The findings of the present study indicate that the turbidity of mouth-rinse water could be used as an indicator of oral health conditions, including oral malodor. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Functionalized 3-(benzofuran-2-yl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole scaffolds: A new class of antimicrobials and antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javarappa Rangaswamy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new class of functionalized 3-(benzofuran-2-yl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole scaffolds (4a–q was synthesized by a four step reaction in good yields. Initially, o-alkyl derivative of salicyaldehyde (1 readily furnished corresponding 2-acetyl benzofuran (2 on treatment with potassium tert-butoxide (t-BuOK in the presence of molecular sieves. Further, Claisen–Schmidt condensation reaction with 4-methoxy benzaldehyde and hydrazine hydrate followed by coupling of benzoyl chlorides afforded target compounds (4a–q. Representative of the synthesized compounds was characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass, elemental analysis and evaluated for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The results gathered are allowed to conclude that, all newly synthesized analogues exhibit a certain degree of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Among the analogues, compounds (4h and (4j showed an excellent antimicrobial activity in the well plate method. Meanwhile, compounds (4e–f, (4l and (4p showed good antioxidant activity, whereas compound (4g and (4q displayed dominant antioxidant efficacy compared to standard butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA.

  3. Heat Shock Response Associated with Hepatocarcinogenesis in a Murine Model of Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angileri, Francesca; Morrow, Geneviève; Roy, Vincent; Orejuela, Diana; Tanguay, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a metabolic liver disease caused by genetic defects of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme necessary to complete the breakdown of tyrosine. The severe hepatic dysfunction caused by the lack of this enzyme is prevented by the therapeutic use of NTBC (2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione). However despite the treatment, chronic hepatopathy and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still observed in some HT1 patients. Growing evidence show the important role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in many cellular processes and their involvement in pathological diseases including cancer. Their survival-promoting effect by modulation of the apoptotic machinery is often correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in a number of cancers. Here, we sought to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver dysfunction and tumor development in a murine model of HT1. Differential gene expression patterns in livers of mice under HT1 stress, induced by drug retrieval, have shown deregulation of stress and cell death resistance genes. Among them, genes coding for HSPB and HSPA members, and for anti-apoptotic BCL-2 related mitochondrial proteins were associated with the hepatocarcinogenetic process. Our data highlight the variation of stress pathways related to HT1 hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting the role of HSPs in rendering tyrosinemia-affected liver susceptible to the development of HCC

  4. Noninvasive investigation of exocrine pancreatic function: Feasibility of cine dynamic MRCP with a spatially selective inversion-recovery pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasokawa, Kazuya; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Akira; Hayashida, Minoru; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higaki, Atsushi; Noda, Yasufumi; Kido, Ayumu

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of noncontrast-enhanced cine dynamic magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with a spatially selective inversion-recovery (IR) pulse for evaluating exocrine pancreatic function in comparison with the N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (BT-PABA) test as a pancreatic exocrine function test. Twenty subjects with or without chronic pancreatitis were included. MRCP with a spatially selective IR pulse was repeated every 15 seconds for 5 minutes to acquire a total of 20 images (cine-dynamic MRCP). The median and mean frequency of the observation (the number of times) and the moving distance (mean secretion grading scores) of pancreatic juice inflow on cine-dynamic MRCP were compared with a BT-PABA test. The urinary PABA excretion rate (%) had significant positive correlations with both the mean secretion grade (r = 0.66, P = 0.002) and frequency of secretory inflow (r = 0.62, P = 0.004) in cine dynamic MRCP. Both the mean frequency of observations of pancreatic secretory inflow (1.4 ± 1.6 times vs. 14.3 ± 4.2 times, P Cine dynamic MRCP with a spatially selective IR pulse may have potential for estimating the pancreatic exocrine function noninvasively as a substitute for the BT-PABA test. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Urease from Helicobacter pylori is inactivated by sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wade, Kristina L.; Talalay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 280–340 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections. PMID:23583386

  6. An expedient synthesis of N-(1-(5-mercapto-4-((substituted benzylidene)amino)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-2-phenylethyl)benzamides as jack bean urease inhibitors and free radical scavengers: Kinetic mechanism and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Mehfooz, Haroon; Ashraf, Mohammad Haseeb; Abbas, Qamar; Hassan, Mubashir; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2017-11-01

    In this study, some new azomethine-triazole hybrids 5a-5l derived from N-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine were synthesized and characterized. The synthesized compounds showed first-rate, urease inhibition, and compounds 5c and 5e were found to be most effective inhibitors with 0.0137 ± 0.00082 μm and 0.0183 ± 0.00068 μm, respectively (thiourea 15.151 ± 1.27 μm). The kinetic mechanism of urease inhibition revealed the compounds 5c and 5e to be non-competitive inhibitors, whereas compounds 5d and 5j were found to be of mixed-type inhibitors. Docking studies also indicated better interaction patterns with urease enzyme. The results of enzyme inhibition, kinetic mechanism and molecular docking suggest that these compounds can serve as lead compounds in the design of more effective urease inhibitors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Studies on the mechanical properties of woven jute fabric reinforced poly(l-lactic acid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Arifuzzaman Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of ecofriendly biocomposites to replace non-biodegradable synthetic fiber composites is the main objective of this study. To highlight the biocomposites as a perfect replacement, the plain woven jute fabric (WJF reinforced poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA composites were prepared by the hot press molding method. The influence of woven structure and direction on the mechanical properties i.e. tensile, flexural and impact properties was investigated. The average tensile strength (TS, tensile modulus (TM, flexural strength (FS, flexural modulus (FM, and impact strength (IS of untreated woven jute composite (in warp direction were improved about 103%, 211%, 95.2%, 42.4% and 85.9%, respectively and strain at maximum tensile stress for composite samples was enhanced by 11.7%. It was also found that the strengths and modulus of composites in warp direction are higher than those in weft direction. WJF composites in warp and weft directions presented superior mechanical properties than non-woven jute fabric (NWJF composites. Chemical treatment of jute fabric through benzoylation showed a positive effect on the properties of composites. Morphological studies by SEM demonstrated that better adhesion between the treated fabric and PLLA was achieved.

  8. Synthesis and thermal behavior of new organometallic poly ketones and co-poly ketones based on diferrocenylidene piperidone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, K.I.

    2005-01-01

    A new interesting category of organometallic poly ketones and copolyketones were synthesized via Friedel - Crafts reaction through the polymerization of 2,6-[Bis (2-ferrocenyl )methylene] N-methylpiperidone (II) with different diacid chlorides. The model compound was synthesized by reacting the monomer (II) with benzoyl chloride and characterized by HNMR, IR and elemental analyses. The poly ketones and copolyketones were insoluble in most organic solvents but soluble easily in protic solvents. The thermal properties of these poly ketones and copolyketones were evaluated and correlated to their structural units by TGA and DSC measurements, and had inherent viscosity 0.34-0.52 dl g-1. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of one of the poly ketones, as selected example, Va and copolyketone VI were investigated above the temperature range (300-500 K) and showed that it followed an Arrhenius equation with activation energy 2.09 eV, also the morphological properties of selected examples of poly-and copolyketones were detected by SEM

  9. {2-[(4-Nitrobenzylideneamino]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophen-3-yl}(phenylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Kaur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H18N2O3S, disorder is found in the benzoyl group (A and B, as well as for four C atoms of the cyclohexene ring. Two orientations were modeled in a 0.583 (5:0.417 (5 ratio. The cyclohexene ring is in a distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angles between the mean plane of the thiophene ring and the 4-nitrobenzene and phenyl rings are 30.9 (8 and 64.8 (3 (A and 62.4 (7° (B. The mean planes of the 4-nitrobenzene and the phenyl rings are almost perpendicular to each other, with dihedral angles of 85.4 (1 (A and 83.9 (8° (B. An extensive array of weak C—H...O interactions consolidate molecules into a three-dimensional architecture, forming chains along [001] and [010] and layers parallel to (011.

  10. Evidence for the existence of a tyrosyl residue in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding site of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, T.; Nishino, T.

    1987-01-01

    Xanthine-NAD and NADH-methylene blue oxidoreductase activities of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase were inactivated by incubation with 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine (5'-FSBA), an active site directed reagent for nucleotide binding sites. The inactivation reaction displayed pseudo-first-order kinetics. A double-reciprocal plot of inactivation velocity vs. 5'-FSBA concentration showed that 5'-FSBA and enzyme formed a complex prior to inactivation. NAD protected the enzyme from inactivation by 5'-FSBA in a competitive fashion. The modified enzyme had the same xanthine-dichlorophenolindophenol and xanthine-O 2 oxidoreductase activities as the native enzyme, and on addition of xanthine to the modified enzyme, bleaching of the spectrum occurred in the visible region. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the enzyme by incubation with [ 14 C]-5'-FSBA was parallel to the loss of xanthine-NAD oxidoreductase activity, and the stoichiometry was 1 mol/mol of enzyme-bound FAD for complete inactivation. These results indicated that 5'-FSBA modified specifically the binding site for NAD of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase. The incorporated radioactivity was released slowly from 14 C-labeled enzyme by incubation with dithiothreitol with concomitant restoration of catalytic activity. The modified residue responsible for inactivation was identified as a tyrosine

  11. 13C Kinetic isotopic effect of polymerization on monomers with multiple bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, E.L.; Polyakov, V.B.; Makovetskij, K.L.; Golenko, T.G.; Galimov, Eh.M.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Organicheskoj Khimii; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii)

    1988-01-01

    13 C kinetic isotopic effect (KIE) of anionic and radical polymerization and metathesis reaction of monomers with multiple bonds are studied and correlation between the found KIE values of polymerization and the structure of transition state is established. 13 C KIE of polymerization reactions are investigated using monomers with natural content of the isotope. Polymerization was carried out using high-vacuum equipment: radical polymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) and vinyl acetate in benzene solution under the effect of benzoyl peroxide (60 deg C); anionic polymerization of MA, initiated by potassium butyl cellosolvolate, was realized in mass at 25 deg C; cyclopentene metathesis reaction was conducted in benzene under the effect of initiating system WCl 6 - (C 3 H 5 ) 2 Si(CH 3 ) 2 at -30 deg C; phenylacetylene polymers were prepared by polymerization in benzene solution at 20 deg C under the effect of WCl 6 . It is ascertained that 13 C KIE of radical and anionic polymerization of olefins and cycloolefin metathesis constitutes 2.0 -2.4%. Polymerization of compound with ternary bond is accompanied by a lower value of 13 C KIE (<1%), which is explained by double bond of reacting bond in transition state

  12. Technetium-99m somatostatin analogues: effect of labelling methods and peptide sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decristoforo, C.; Mather, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the preclinical evaluation of the somatostatin analogue RC160 labelled with technetium-99m using bifunctional chelators (BFCs) based on the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and N 3 S system is described and a comparison made with [Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (TOC). Conjugates of both peptides with HYNIC, and of RC160 with benzoyl-MAG 3 and an N 3 S-adipate derivative were prepared and radiolabelling performed at high specific activities using tricine, tricine/nicotinic acid and ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic adic (EDDA) as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. All conjugates and 99m Tc-labelled peptides showed preserved binding affinity for the somatostatin receptor (IC50, Kd 99m Tc-RC160 derivatives compared with 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (0.2%-3.5%ID/g vs 9.7%ID/g) and correlated well with the reduced internalisation rate for RC160 derivatives. Our results show that the selection of the labelling approach as well as the right choice of the peptide structure are crucial for labelling peptides with 99m Tc to achieve complexes with favourable biodistribution. Despite the relatively low tumour uptake compared with 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Tyr 3 ]-octreotide, 99m Tc-RC160 could play a role in imaging tumours that do not bind octreotide derivatives. (orig.)

  13. Spectral and computational features of the binding between riparins and human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Cintia Ramos; Caruso, Ícaro Putinhon; Gutierrez, Stanley Juan Chavez; Fossey, Marcelo Andres; Filho, José Maria Barbosa; Cornélio, Marinônio Lopes

    2018-02-01

    The green Brazilian bay leaf, a spice much prized in local cuisine (Aniba riparia, Lauraceae), contains chemical compounds presenting benzoyl-derivatives named riparins, which have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anxiolytic properties. However, it is unclear what kind of interaction riparins perform with any molecular target. As a profitable target, human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the principal extracellular proteins, with an exceptional capacity to interact with several molecules, and it also plays a crucial role in the transport, distribution, and metabolism of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. To outline the HSA-riparin interaction mechanism, spectroscopy and computational methods were synergistically applied. An evaluation through fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the emission, attributed to Trp 214, at 346 nm decreased with titrations of riparins. A static quenching mechanism was observed in the binding of riparins to HSA. Fluorescence experiments performed at 298, 308 and 318 K made it possible to conduct thermodynamic analysis indicating a spontaneous reaction in the complex formation (ΔG modulating the interaction between riparins and HSA. Site marker competitive experiments indicated Site I as being the most suitable, and the molecular modeling tools reinforced the experimental results detailing the participation of residues.

  14. Calculated Third Order Rate Constants for Interpreting the Mechanisms of Hydrolyses of Chloroformates, Carboxylic Acid Halides, Sulfonyl Chlorides and Phosphorochloridates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. William Bentley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolyses of acid derivatives (e.g., carboxylic acid chlorides and fluorides, fluoro- and chloroformates, sulfonyl chlorides, phosphorochloridates, anhydrides exhibit pseudo-first order kinetics. Reaction mechanisms vary from those involving a cationic intermediate (SN1 to concerted SN2 processes, and further to third order reactions, in which one solvent molecule acts as the attacking nucleophile and a second molecule acts as a general base catalyst. A unified framework is discussed, in which there are two reaction channels—an SN1-SN2 spectrum and an SN2-SN3 spectrum. Third order rate constants (k3 are calculated for solvolytic reactions in a wide range of compositions of acetone-water mixtures, and are shown to be either approximately constant or correlated with the Grunwald-Winstein Y parameter. These data and kinetic solvent isotope effects, provide the experimental evidence for the SN2-SN3 spectrum (e.g., for chloro- and fluoroformates, chloroacetyl chloride, p-nitrobenzoyl p-toluenesulfonate, sulfonyl chlorides. Deviations from linearity lead to U- or V-shaped plots, which assist in the identification of the point at which the reaction channel changes from SN2-SN3 to SN1-SN2 (e.g., for benzoyl chloride.

  15. Synergistic extraction of U, Th, Nd, Y by the binray system of AB species composed of PMBP-TOPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenqing; Din Yuwen; Yi Min; Chen Dingfong; Li Xingfu; Feng Xizhang; Sun Pengnian

    1986-01-01

    The present study is a detailed investigation of the synergistic extraction of uranium, thorium, neodymium and yttrium with binary system of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5(PMBP) and trioctyl-phosphine oxide (TOPO) by using a direct calorimetric titration method, together with Karl Fischer titration and solvent extraction. Calorimetric titration and temperature dependence studies of extraction method allow calculation of the enthalpy and entropy changes associated with the synergic reaction. From the magnitude and signs of the Δ S values, it is possible to decide whether synergism is associated with replacement of solvate water by adduct molecule TOPO with no change in coordination number or an expansion of the coordination sphere upon addition of adduct molecule but no replacement of water. Uranium, thorium, neodymium and yttrium have been shown to form UO 2 (PMBP) 2 (TOPO), Th(PMBP) 4 (TOPO), Nd(PMBP) 3 (TOPO) and Y(PMBP) 3 (TOPO) respectively. Water analysis is made by karl Fischer titration. The equilibrium constants, enthalpy, entropy and free energy changes for the addition reaction are determined. The data indicate that the main driving force of the synergistic effect is the substitution of coordinated water molecule by TOPO

  16. Study of the Effect of Grafted Antioxidant on the Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Ibrahim Al-Ghonamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The grafting of ADPEA onto natural rubber was executed with UV radiation. Benzoyl peroxide was used to initiate the free-radical grafting copolymerization. Natural rubber-graft-N-(4-aminodiphenylether acrylamide (NR-g-ADPEA was characterized with an IR technique. The paper aims interested to determine the crosslinking density by using the ultrasonic technique. The ultrasonic velocities of both longitudinal and shear waves were measured in thermoplastic discs of NBR vulcanizates as a function of aging time. Ultrasonic velocity measurements were taken at 2 MHz ultrasonic frequency using the pulse echo method. We studied the effect of aging on the mechanical properties, crosslinking density, and the swelling and extraction phenomena for acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR vulcanizates, which contained the prepared NR-g-ADPEA and a commercial antioxidant, N-isopropyl-−-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine. The prepared antioxidant enhanced both the mechanical properties of the NBR vulcanizates and the permanence of the ingredients in these vulcanizates.

  17. The improvement of the mechanical properties of PMMA denture base by Al2O3 particles with nitrile rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhareb, Ahmed Omran; Akil, Hazizan Md; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin

    2017-07-01

    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is mostly used for fabrication of denture base by heat-curing technique. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Al2O3 filler as toughening particles together with nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) particles as impact modifier were used to reinforce PMMA denture base materials on the impact strength (IS) and fracture toughness (KIC). PMMA powder was mixed with liquid methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent. The powder components are PMMA, benzoyl peroxide, NBR (5, 7.5 and 10 wt%), and Al2O3 filler (5 wt%) treated by silane. The liquid components are 90% of methyl methacrylate and 10 % ethylene glycol dimethacryate. FTIR analyses confirmed that the Al2O3 filler was successfully treated with silane as coupling agent. The morphology of fracture surfaces was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results shown that IS and KIC improved significantly when using treated the Al2O3 filler. IS has increased to 56% (8.26 KJ/m2) and 73% (2.77 MPa.m1/2) for KIC when treated Al2O3 filler compared to unreinforced PMMA matrix. Statistical analyses of data results were significantly improved (PNBR with treated Al2O3 filler compared to other the compositions.

  18. Investigation of photo-biodegradation of starch-filled polyethylene films under the environment conditions of Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeimian, F.; Khoylou, F.; Sheikh, N.; Akhavan, A.; Hassanpour, S.; Sohrabpour, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work biodegradable polymers have been formulated for packaging purposes and with a view to reduce the environmental accumulation of plastic waste. Degradation of the polymers under the specific weathering conditions of Tehran was studied. In this work low-density polyethylene was formulated with two wheat starch concentrations, maleic anhydride, glycerol as well as a pro-oxidant system of oleic acid, benzoyl peroxide and ferric stearate. The formulated master batches were mixed by using a laboratory two-roll mill at 190 d ig C prepared master batches were mixed with the commercial low-density polyethylene to prepare compounds 1 and 2 containing 1.2 and 6.4 percents wheat starch. The low-density polyethylene control films as well as the formulated compounds were compression moulded in a hot press at 130 d ig C films were subjected to three general conditions of atmospheric exposure, buried in soil and combined conditions of soil burial/ atmospheric exposure. The three environmental conditions impact upon the formulated and control films were investigated through tensile strength, elongation-at-break, carbonyl index, water absorption, weight loss as well as SEM analysis. The microbial investigation was followed by growing the Penicillium Asymmetrica, which had the main population in microbial flora of the soil, on formulated and control films. The studies revealed that the incorporation of this pro-oxidant system with the addition of 6.4% wheat starch enhance the degradation rate of commercial low-density polyethylene films to a significant degree

  19. Evaluation of six new /sup 99m/Tc-IDA agents for hepatobiliary imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chervu, L.R.; Joseph, J.A.; Chun, S.B.; Rolleston, R.E.; Synnes, E.I.; Thompson, L.M.; Aldis, A.E.; Rosenthall, L.

    1988-10-01

    IDA derivatives of three substituted benzothiazol, and two substituted chlorophenyl and one substituted pyrazoline compounds have been labeled with /sup 99m/Tc and screened with four rat models with hepatocellular dysfunction manifesting varying degrees of change of liver architecture and hepatocellular damage associated with an active parenchymal destruction, fatty metamorphosis and cirrhosis. Organ distribution studies at 1 h postinjection have been compared in normal and diseased animal models for each agent labeled with /sup 99m/Tc and with /sup 99m/Tc-Disofenin (Disida) and Lidofenin (Hida) and /sup 131/I-Rose Bengal. From the data obtained with the six new IDA derivatives, the distribution kinetics of /sup 99m/Tc-Arclophenin, (N-N'-2-benzoyl-4-chlorophenyl)carbamoylmethyl) imino diacetic acid (Phenida), are closely comparable to /sup 99m/Tc-Disofenin in all animal models. Crossover patient studies (n = 14) for clinical evaluation of /sup 99m/Tc-Arclophenin vs /sup 99m/Tc-Disofenin indicate the close similarity of the 2 agents with regard to blood pool retention, gross liver/heart ratios and liver washout, suggesting Arclophenin as a suitable agent for hepatobiliary function studies. The impaired hepatocellular animal models presented should serve for fast screening of hepatobiliary agents and enable comparison of a series of closely related compounds.

  20. Photolabeling of membranes from dog kidney with a benzophenone analog of bumetanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, M.; Forbush, B. III

    1986-01-01

    4-benzoyl-5-sulfamoyl-3-(3-thenyloxy) benzoic acid (BSTBA) is an effective loop diuretic, and a potential photoaffinity reagent for the Na,K,Cl co-transport system because of its benzophonone structure. The authors find that BSTBA blocks 3 H bumetanide binding to membranes from dog kidney outer medulla with affinity 3 H-BSTBA (prepared by catalytic exchange, purified by HPLC) and exposed to long wave ultraviolet light, radiolabel is incorporated into a ∼170K dalton protein. The labeled SDS gel band corresponds to a band which, on reexamination of unpublished gels, is seen to be enriched by sucrose gradient centrifugation in parallel with 3 H-bumetanide binding. Both binding and covalent incorporation of 3 H-BSTBA require the simultaneous presence of Na,K, and CL, are half maximal below 100 nM 3 H-BSTBA, and are completely blocked by 10 μM bumetanide. In contrast, the authors find that photolabeling of a 35K dalton band by 3 H-bumetanide is not completely prevented by 50 μM unlabeled bumentanide, suggesting that this low molecular weight protein may not be part of a transport system with high bumetanide affinity. These results provide strong evidence that the 170K dalton protein is at least part of the bumetanide sensitive Na,K,Cl-cotransport system

  1. Biotransformation of enoximone, a new cardiotonic agent, in man and laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.Y.; Lang, J.F.; Coutant, J.E.; Okerholm, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Enoximone, 1,3-dihydro-4-methyl-5-[4-(methylthio)benzoyl]-2H-imidazol-2-one is a new cardiotonic agent which is currently undergoing clinical evaluation in patients with congestive heart failure. Biotransformation of enoximone was studied in man, rat, monkey and dog by means of 14 C-labelled material, HPLC and GC/MS techniques. Metabolic conversions were qualitatively similar in all species. The parent compound was found to be extensively metabolized. Generally less than 1% of the dose was recovered as enoximone in urine. The sulfoxide was the major metabolite in all species, accounting for over 90% of the dose in the urine of the monkey and greater than 75% in man and the rat. The sulfone was present in trace quantities, except in the rats, where it accounted for 5-8% of the dose. A glycine conjugate of 4-methylthiobenzoic acid was also identified as a urinary metabolite; and the dog seems to favor this pathway more than the other 3 species; as it accounted for over 30% of the dose. The two stereoisomers of synthetic sulfoxide were separated by HPLC, and examination of urine from patients receiving enoximone therapy suggested that the metabolic conversion of enoximone to sulfoxide was stereospecific, as only one isomeric peak was observed in the HPLC system

  2. Investigation of the behaviour of solid acid catalysts for acylations and cyanisations of aromatics. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Wirkungsweise von festen sauren Katalysatoren bei Acylierungen und Cyanierungen von Aromaten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemnitz, E.

    2002-01-01

    The present state of the art in the field of FRIEDEL-CRAFTS-ACYLATIONS is characterized by the application of homogenous catalysts (at least stochiometric amounts) like AlCl{sub 3} or FeCl{sub 3}. Problems arising from this application are corrosions, difficult product separations from the catalyst and the origin of acid waste water. Hence, the aim of this project was the development of suitable solid catalysts which overcome the problems ascribed above. Sulfated zirconia (SZ) was found to be an excellent solid Br.o/nsted-acid to be used especially in their aerogel or cryogel form. Thus with this catalyst system, in the benzoylation of anisol nearly 100% conversion may be achieved. In this way it could be proved, that with SZ a solid Br.o/nsted-acid might be available which gives reasonable hope to substitute in a near future, at least for some reactions, the classical homogeneous catalysts and to overcome their problems in use. (orig.)

  3. Synthesis of Dipeptide Benzoylalanylglycine Methyl Ester and Corrosion Inhibitor Evaluation by Tafel Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurrahman, J.; Wahyuningrum, D.; Achmad, S.; Bundjali, B.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the major problems in petroleum mining and processing industry. The pipelines used to transport crude oil from reservoir to the processing installation were made from carbon steel that is susceptible towards corrosion. One of the best methods to prevent corrosion that occurred at the inner parts of carbon steel pipelines is to use organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the potent organic corrosion inhibitors is amino acids derivatives. In this study, dipeptide compound namely benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and benzoylalanylglycine have been synthesized. The structure elucidation of the products was performed by IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. The determination of corrosion inhibition activity utilized the Tafel method. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of glycine methyl ester, benzoyl alanine, dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine were 63.34 %, 35.86 %, 68.40 % and 27.72 %, respectively. These results showed that the formation of dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester, derived from carboxylic protected glycine and amine protected alanine, increased the corrosion inhibition activity due to the loss of acidity center in the structure of glycine and L-alanine that would induce the corrosive environment towards carbon steel. (author)

  4. Botanicals and anti-inflammatories: natural ingredients for rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Jason; Waldorf, Heidi; Berson, Diane

    2011-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by cutaneous hypersensitivity. There are many therapeutic options available for the treatment of rosacea, but none are curative. Since the pathogenesis of rosacea remains elusive, it is not surprising that no single treatment is paramount and that many patients find therapies unsatisfactory or even exacerbating. Treatments are prescribed to work in concert with each other in order to ameliorate the common clinical manifestations, which include: papules and pustules, telangiectasias, erythema, gland hypertrophy, and ocular disease. The most validated topical therapies include metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Many other topical therapies, such as calcineurin inhibitors, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, retinoids, topical corticosteroids, and permethrin have demonstrated varying degrees of success. Due to the inconsistent results of the aforementioned therapies patients are increasingly turning to alternative products containing natural ingredients or botanicals to ease inflammation and remit disease. Additional research is needed to elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the management of rosacea, but some important considerations regarding the natural ingredients with clinical data will be discussed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Organocatalytic aza-Michael/retro-aza-Michael reaction: pronounced chirality amplification in aza-Michael reaction and racemization via retro-aza-Michael reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong-Feng; Li, Li; Luo, Meng-Xian; Yang, Ke-Fang; Lai, Guo-Qiao; Jiang, Jian-Xiong; Xu, Li-Wen

    2011-05-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of an aza-Michael reaction of aniline and chalcone is presented. A series of Cinchona alkaloid-derived organocatalysts with different functional groups were prepared and used in the aza-Michael and retro-aza-Michael reaction. There was an interesting finding that a complete reversal of stereoselectivity when a benzoyl group was introduced to the cinchonine and cinchonidine. The chirality amplification vs. time proceeds in the quinine-derived organocatalyst containing silicon-based bulky group, QN-TBS, -catalyzed aza-Michael reaction under solvent-free conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated for the first time that racemization was occurred in suitable solvents under mild conditions due to retro-aza-Michael reaction of the Michael adduct of aniline with chalcone. These indicate the equilibrium of retro-aza-Michael reaction and aza-Michael reaction produce the happening of chirality amplification in aza-Michael reaction and racemization via retro-aza-Michael reaction under different conditions, which would be beneficial to the development of novel chiral catalysts for the aza-Michael reactions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Formation of a bioconjugate composed of hemin, smectite, and quaternary ammonium chloride that is soluble and active in hydrophobic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Masaru; Itoh, Tetsuji; Kodera, Yoh; Matsushima, Ayako; Hiroto, Misao; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Inada, Yuji

    2002-01-01

    Hemin (Fe(3+)) was adsorbed onto synthetic smectite (clay mineral) intercalated with a quaternary alkenylammonium compound, dioleyldimethylammonium chloride (DOA), to form a hemin-smectite-DOA conjugate. The hemin-smectite-DOA conjugate was soluble in organic solvents such as benzene and toluene to form a transparent colloidal solution with a light yellow color. Its absorption spectrum in benzene showed two bands, 600 and 568 nm, in the visible region and a sharp Soret band at 400 nm with the molar extinction coefficient of 7.5 x 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1). The formation of the conjugate of smectite and DOA was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis: the basal spacing, d(001), of hemin-smectite-DOA conjugate was 19 A which is an expansion of the interlayer space by 5 A based upon the basal spacing of smectite of 14 A. Hemin-smectite-DOA conjugate catalyzed the peroxidase-like reaction in organic solvents using benzoyl peroxide as the hydrogen acceptor and leucocrystal violet as the hydrogen donor. The temperature-dependent peroxidase-like activity of the conjugate was compared with peroxidase activity of horseradish peroxidase. The hemin-smectite-DOA conjugate exhibited higher activity as the temperature was increased from 30 to 70 degrees C, while horseradish peroxidase activity was reduced as the temperature was increased.

  7. [Application of microwave technology in extraction process of Guizhi Fuling capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-kuan; Zhou, Mao; Liu, Yuan; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, optimization of the conditions of microwave technique in extraction process of Guizhi Fuling capsule in the condition of a pilot scale was carried out. First of all, through the single factor experiment investigation of various factors, the overall impact tendency and range of each factor were determined. Secondly, L9 (3(4)) orthogonal test optimization was used, and the contents of gallic acid in liquid, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, benzoyl paeoniflorin, amygdalin of the liquid medicine were detected. The extraction rate and comprehensive evaluation were calculated with the extraction effect, as the judgment basis. Theoptimum extraction process of Guizhi Fuling capsule by microwave technology was as follows: the ratio of liquid to solid was 6: 1 added to drinking water, the microwave power was 6 kW, extraction time was 20 min for 3 times. The process of the three batch of amplification through verification, the results are stable, and compared with conventional water extraction has the advantages of energy saving, time saving, high efficiency advantages. The above results show the optimum extracting technology of high efficiency, stable and feasible.

  8. A Specific Hepatic Transfer RNA for Phosphoserine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Pekka H.; Bernfield, Merton R.

    1970-01-01

    Radioactive O-phosphoryl-L-serine was detected after alkaline deacylation of rat and rooster liver [3H]seryl-tRNA acylated in vitro with homologous synthetases. Ribonuclease treatment of this tRNA yielded a compound with the properties of phosphoseryl-adenosine. Benzoylated DEAE-cellulose chromatography of seryl-tRNA yielded four distinct peaks, only one of which contained phosphoserine. A unique fraction for phosphoserine was also found on chromatography of nonacylated tRNA. In ribosome binding studies, this fraction responded very slightly with poly(U,C), but not with any of the known serine trinucleotide codons. Substantial incorporation of [3H]-serine into protein from this tRNA species was observed in an aminoacyl-tRNA dependent polysomal system derived from chick oviducts. No phosphoserine was found in Escherichia coli or yeast seryl-tRNA acylated with homologous enzymes, nor in E. coli seryl-tRNA acylated with liver synthetase. In the absence of tRNA, free phosphoserine was not formed in reaction mixtures, which suggests that phosphoseryl-tRNA arises by phosphorylation of the unique seryl-tRNA species. These results demonstrate a discrete tRNASer species in rat and rooster liver containing phosphoserine and suggest that this tRNA is involved in ribosomal polypeptide synthesis. PMID:4943179

  9. Niobium Nb and tantalum Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for determining niobium and tantalum in various objects are described. Nb and Ta are separated with the aid of N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine by precipitating Nb(5) from a tartaric acid solution with subsequent precipitation of Ta from the filtrate. The gravimetric determination of Nb and Ta in steels is based on their quantitative separation from a diluted solution by way of hydrolysis with subsequent after-precipitation with phenylarsonic acid (in the absence of W). The gravimetric determination of Nb in the presence of W is carried out with the aid of Cupferron. To determine Nb in its carbide, Nb(5) reduced to Nb(3) is titrated with a solution of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 in the presence of phenyl-anthranilic acid. The photometric determination of Nb in tungsten-containing steels and in ores containing Ti, W, Mo and Cr is based on the rhodanide method. Nb is determined in alloys with Zr and Ti photometrically with the aid of 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcin and in alloyed steels with the aid of benzhydroxamic acid. The latter complex is extracted with chloroform. This method is used to determine Nb in rocks. The photometric determination of Ta in TiCl 4 is carried out with the aid of pyrogallol, in commercial niobium with the aid of methyl violet, and in steel with the aid of 4-(-pyridylazo)-resorcin. Also described is the polarographic determination of Nb in tantalum pentoxide

  10. Synthesis and reactions of triphenylphosphine-O-benzophenonimine and derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, Manahil Babiker

    1999-08-01

    O-Amino benzophenone and its para and meta isomers were prepared using Friedl-Craft benzoylation. Their azides were also prepared via their diazonium salts. The azide of o-amino benzophenone in its reduced form (o-benzylaniline) and its cyclic ketal were synthesised. All azides thus formed were reacted separately with triphenylphosphine to give the corresponding phosphinimines, the Wittig reagents nitrogen analog. The reactivity of the phosphorous bond. (P=N) in the different phosphoranes were studied by two types of reactions: (1) the Wittig type of reaction using benzaldehyde and its into derivatives with each of the above prepared phosphinimines. While triphenylphosphine-m-benzophenonimine (ii) and the triphenylphosphine benzophenonimine ethylene acetal (v) and it's reduced form triphenylphosphine-o-benzophenonimine (iv) react giving the corresponding schiffis bases. However, the ortho (i) and the para (iii) isomers failed to react. This lack of reactivity is presumably due to their great stability which came about through the extensive resonance that reduced the nucleophilicity of the nitrogen nucleophiles. (2) The phophinimines each was irradiated using Hanovia medium pressure UV lamp. Also the ortho and para isomers were not affected while others reacted giving the corresponding azo-compound and triphenylphosphine. they were separated and detected by chromatography.(Author)

  11. Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Unusual Coupling of Some Novel Pyrido[3,2-f][1,4]thiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Youssef

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available 3-Amino-3-thioxopropanamide (1 reacted with ethyl acetoacetate to form 6-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide (2, which reacted with α-haloketones 3 to produce 2,3-disubstituted-8-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H,5H-pyrido[3,2-f]-[1,4]thiazepin-5-ones 4a-c. Benzoylation of 4c led to the formation of the dibenzoate derivative 9. Compounds 4a-c could be prepared stepwise through the formation of S-alkylated derivatives 10a-c. Compounds 2, 4a-c, 9 and 10a-c were prepared using microwave as a source of heat, and gave better yields in shorter times than those achieved by traditional methods. Coupling of 4a-c with arenediazonium chlorides proceeded unusually to give the 6-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(arylazothieno[2,3-b]pyridin-3(2H-one ring contraction products 14. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were proven by spectral and chemical methods.

  12. Experimental study of the thermal stability of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteney, P. J.; Colket, M. B.; Vranos, A.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal stability of two hydrocarbon fuels (premium diesel and regular diesel) was determined in a flow reactor under conditions representing operation of an aircraft gas turbine engine. Temperature was varied from 300 to 750 F (422 to 672 K) for fuel flows of 2.84 to 56.8 liters/hr (corresponding to 6.84 x 0.00010 to 1.63 x 0.010 kg/sec for regular diesel fuel and 6.55 x 0.00010 to 1.37 x 0.010 kg/sec for premium diesel fuel); test times varied between 1 and 8 hr. The rate of deposition was obtained through measurement of weight gained by metal discs fixed along the channel wall. The rate of deposit formation is best correlated by an Arrhenius expression. The sample discs in the flow reactor were varied among stainless steel, aluminum and brass; fuels were doped with quinoline, indole, and benzoyl perioxide to yield nitrogen or oxygen concentrations of approximately 1000 ppm. The most substantial change in rate was an increase in deposits for brass discs; other disc materials or the additives caused only small perturbations. Tests were also conducted in a static reactor at temperatures of 300 to 800 F for times of 30 min to 2 1/2 hr. Much smaller deposition was found, indicating the importance of fluid transport in the mechanism.

  13. Metal Chlorides Supported Solid Catalysts for F-C Acylations of Arenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 刘云龙; 穆曼曼; 陈立功

    2015-01-01

    A series of metal chlorides supported solid catalysts were prepared by simple wet impregnation method. Their catalytic performances for Friedel-Crafts acylation of toluene with benzoyl chloride were evaluated and the excellent results were obtained over FeCl3/SiO2. These catalysts were characterized by BET, NH3-TPD and FT-IR of pyridine adsorption to clarify the structure-activity relationship. It was found that FeCl3/SiO2 has larger pore size and pore volume than other catalysts, which increased the accessibility of the catalyst. In addition, FeCl3/SiO2 ex-hibited higher molar ratio of Lewis acid sites and Brφnsted acid sites, which might be another reason for the in-crease of toluene conversion. Furthermore, the reaction parameters, including temperature, time and molar ratio, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, 91.2%, conversion and 82.0%, selectivity were obtained. Mean-while, the generality of the catalyst was demonstrated by the acylations of alkyl substituted aromatics. Finally, the catalyst was reused for four runs with slight loss in catalytic activity, which attributed to the drain of the active component.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of PaaAC, the main component of the hydroxylase of the Escherichia coli phenylacetyl-coenzyme A oxygenase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, Andrey M.; Ajamian, Eunice; Zhang, Linhua; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2010-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the PaaAC complex is reported. This is the main component of the E. coliphenylacetyl-coenzyme A oxygenase complex. The Escherichia coli paa operon encodes enzymes of the phenylacetic acid-utilization pathway that metabolizes phenylacetate in the form of a coenzyme A (CoA) derivative. The phenylacetyl-coenzyme A oxygenase complex, which has been postulated to contain five components designated PaaABCDE, catalyzes ring hydroxylation of phenylacetyl-CoA. The PaaAC subcomplex shows low sequence similarity to other bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs) and forms a separate branch on the phylogenetic tree. PaaAC, which catalyzes the hydroxylation reaction, was purified and crystallized in the absence of a bound ligand as well as in complexes with CoA, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA and the true substrate phenylacetyl-CoA. Crystals of the ligand-free enzyme belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffracted to 2.65 Å resolution, whereas complexes with CoA and its derivatives crystallized in space group P4 1 2 1 2 and diffracted to ∼2.0 Å resolution. PaaAC represents the first crystallized BMM hydroxylase that utilizes a CoA-linked substrate

  15. Solid phase extraction of uranium(VI) onto benzoylthiourea-anchored activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongsheng; Liu Chunxia; Feng Miao; Chen Zhen; Li Shuqiong; Tian Gan; Wang Li; Huang Jingbo; Li Shoujian

    2010-01-01

    A new solid phase extractant selective for uranium(VI) based on benzoylthiourea anchored to activated carbon was developed via hydroxylation, amidation and reaction with benzoyl isothiocyanate in sequence. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and total element analysis proved that benzoylthiourea had been successfully grafted to the surface of the activated carbon, with a loading capacity of 1.2 mmol benzoylthiourea per gram of activated carbon. The parameters that affect the uranium(VI) sorption, such as contact time, solution pH, initial uranium(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature, have been investigated. Results have been analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm; the former was more suitable to describe the sorption process. The maximum sorption capacity (82 mg/g) for uranium(VI) was obtained at experimental conditions. The rate constant for the uranium sorption by the as-synthesized extractant was 0.441 min -1 from the first order rate equation. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 = -46.2 kJ/mol; ΔS 0 = -98.0 J/mol K; ΔG 0 = -17.5 kJ/mol) showed the adsorption of an exothermic process and spontaneous nature, respectively. Additional studies indicated that the benzoylthiourea-anchored activated carbon (BT-AC) selectively sorbed uranyl ions in the presence of competing ions, Na + , Co 2+ , Sr 2+ , Cs + and La 3+ .

  16. Solid phase extraction of uranium(VI) onto benzoylthiourea-anchored activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yongsheng; Liu Chunxia; Feng Miao; Chen Zhen; Li Shuqiong; Tian Gan; Wang Li; Huang Jingbo [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Lu, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan (China); Li Shoujian, E-mail: sjli000616@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Lu, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan (China)

    2010-04-15

    A new solid phase extractant selective for uranium(VI) based on benzoylthiourea anchored to activated carbon was developed via hydroxylation, amidation and reaction with benzoyl isothiocyanate in sequence. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and total element analysis proved that benzoylthiourea had been successfully grafted to the surface of the activated carbon, with a loading capacity of 1.2 mmol benzoylthiourea per gram of activated carbon. The parameters that affect the uranium(VI) sorption, such as contact time, solution pH, initial uranium(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature, have been investigated. Results have been analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm; the former was more suitable to describe the sorption process. The maximum sorption capacity (82 mg/g) for uranium(VI) was obtained at experimental conditions. The rate constant for the uranium sorption by the as-synthesized extractant was 0.441 min{sup -1} from the first order rate equation. Thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup 0} = -46.2 kJ/mol; {Delta}S{sup 0} = -98.0 J/mol K; {Delta}G{sup 0} = -17.5 kJ/mol) showed the adsorption of an exothermic process and spontaneous nature, respectively. Additional studies indicated that the benzoylthiourea-anchored activated carbon (BT-AC) selectively sorbed uranyl ions in the presence of competing ions, Na{sup +}, Co{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +} and La{sup 3+}.

  17. Steric and thermodynamic limits of design for the incorporation of large unnatural amino acids in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armen, Roger S; Schiller, Stefan M; Brooks, Charles L

    2010-06-01

    Orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs from archaea have been evolved to facilitate site specific in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in Escherichia coli. Using this approach, unnatural amino acids have been successfully incorporated with high translational efficiency and fidelity. In this study, CHARMM-based molecular docking and free energy calculations were used to evaluate rational design of specific protein-ligand interactions for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. A series of novel unnatural amino acid ligands were docked into the p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine tRNA synthetase, which revealed that the binding pocket of the enzyme does not provide sufficient space for significantly larger ligands. Specific binding site residues were mutated to alanine to create additional space to accommodate larger target ligands, and then mutations were introduced to improve binding free energy. This approach was used to redesign binding sites for several different target ligands, which were then tested against the standard 20 amino acids to verify target specificity. Only the synthetase designed to bind Man-alpha-O-Tyr was predicted to be sufficiently selective for the target ligand and also thermodynamically stable. Our study suggests that extensive redesign of the tRNA synthatase binding pocket for large bulky ligands may be quite thermodynamically unfavorable.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of radioiodinated N-2-(4-piperidyl)ethyl benzamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efange, S M.N.; Michelson, R H; Boudreau, R J; Thomas, J R [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Knusel, B; Hefti, F [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Hospitals; Tennison, J R [University of Southern Cailfornia, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Andrus Gerontology Center

    1993-05-01

    Three iodinated benzamides, 5-7, analogues of the potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor 1-benzyl-4-[N-[4'-(benzylsulfonyl) benzoyl-N-methylamino]ethyl]piperidine (2), were synthesized and evaluated as potential anticholinesterase agents. All three compounds were found to be three orders of magnitude less potent than the parent compound. However, receptor screening revealed that compounds 5-7 exhibit nanomolar affinity for the sigma binding site. Both [[sup 125]I]5 and [[sup 125]I]7 were synthesized and evaluated in rats. Following the intravenous administration of [[sup 125]I]5 into rats, 1.59% of the injected dose was found in the rat brain within 5 min. The level of radioactivity in the brain remained steady for 2 h, the duration of the study. In contrast, 0.42% of the injected dose was detected in the rat brain following the i.v. injection of [[sup 125]I]7. Coadministration of either [[sup 125]I]5 or [[sup 125]I]7 with 0.5 [mu]mol/kg of haloperidol resulted in a 56-73% reduction in the level of radioactivity in the rat brain, suggesting that these compounds bind to the sigma binding site in vivo. Planar imaging studies with [[sup 123]I]5 revealed significant accumulation of radioactivity within the monkey brain, with a half-life of 6 h. Compound [[sup 123]I]5 may be potentially useful for studying sigma receptor distribution in the human brain. (author).

  19. Influence of fibre treatments on mechanical properties of short Sansevieria cylindrica/polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, V.S.; Ravindran, D.; Manikandan, V.; Narayanasamy, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibre treatments were performed to improve interfacial bond between SCF and matrix. ► Mechanical properties of treated SCFP composites are greater than USCFP composites. ► PSCFP composites show maximum mechanical properties among treated SCFP composites. ► SEM analysis revealed that the wetting of PSCFs by the polyester resin was good. ► KMnO 4 treatment is ideal treatment for SCFs to get optimum mechanical properties. -- Abstract: In the present study, to improve the interfacial bond between Sansevieria cylindrica fibres (SCFs) and polyester matrix, chemical surface treatments have been performed on the fibres. Treatments including alkali, benzoyl peroxide, potassium permanganate and stearic acid were carried out to modify the fibre surface. Raw and each type of treated SCF samples were utilised separately for fabricating the composites. The mechanical properties of composites prepared from the chemically treated SCFs are found to be much better than those of the untreated ones. Potassium-permanganate-treated S. cylindrica fibre/polyester (PSCFP) composites showed optimum mechanical properties among the treated S. cylindrica fibre/polyester (SCFP) composites. The surface morphologies of fracture surfaces of composites were recorded using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal that interfacial bonding between potassium-permanganate-treated SCF (PSCF) and polyester matrix has significantly improved, suggesting that better dispersion of PSCF into the matrix has occurred upon potassium permanganate treatment of SCF.

  20. A simple point of care test can indicate the need for periodontal therapy to reduce the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in mothers attending antenatal clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Mervyn Sydney; Henkel, Ralf Reinhold; Africa, Charlene Wilma Joyce

    2017-12-01

    Although the association between periodontal disease (PD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained recognition amongst antenatal healthcare workers, not much has changed in practice to address it. This prospective study tested the hypothesis that BANA (N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide), a diagnostic test for PD, may inform obstetricians and other antenatal healthcare practitioners, of the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in mothers attending antenatal clinics. At first visit, the presence of suspected periodontopathogens was assessed by BANA testing of dental plaque from 443 mothers attending antenatal clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and an association later sought with pregnancy outcomes. The accuracy of BANA to predict adverse pregnancy outcomes was evaluated by the calculation of likelihood ratios. The study complied with the Declaration of Helsinki. Significant differences were found between pregnancy outcomes of BANA-negative and BANA-positive mothers (p periodontal therapy to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and could form part of the routine antenatal examination.

  1. Desenvolvimento de Modelos de Regressão Multivariada para a Quantificação de Benzoilmetronidazol na Presença de seus Produtos de Degradação por Espectroscopia no Infravermelho Próximo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Ricardo da Rosa de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Benzoyl metronidazole (BMZ is a drug with antiparasitic and antibacterial activity available in the form of pediatric suspensions. The BMZ main degradation products are metronidazole and benzoic acid, and there are no reports in the literature on the determination of BMZ in the presence of its degradation products using near infrared spectroscopy. Therefore, in this study a method for determining the content of BMZ pharmaceutical ingredient in the presence of its main degradation products by near infrared spectroscopy associated with multivariate calibration were to develop. Regression with variable selection methods such as partial least squares regression for interval (iPLS and partial least squares regression for synergism intervals (siPLS were applied in order to select spectral regions that produce models with smaller errors. The best model using the iPLS algorithm was obtained when the spectrum was divided into 12 sub-intervals and select a period 11 (RSEP% = 1.37. Once the spectrum has been divided into 16 intervals and combined subintervals 9, 13 and 18 yielded the best model for siPLS algorithm (RSEP = 1.30%. The proposed method can be considered selective; it allows determining the BMZ in the presence of its degradation products. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i4.741

  2. Biochemical Characterization of An Arginine-Specific Alkaline Trypsin from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin-Song; Li, Wei; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Xie, Min-Feng; Yang, Biao; Zhang, Rong-Xian; Li, Heng; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Xu, Zheng-Hong; Shi, Jin-Song

    2015-12-17

    In the present study, we isolated a trypsin-producing strain DMN6 from the leather waste and identified it as Bacillus licheniformis through a two-step screening strategy. The trypsin activity was increased up to 140 from 20 U/mL through culture optimization. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with a molecular mass of 44 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the specific activity of purified enzyme is 350 U/mg with Nα-Benzoyl-L-arginine ethylester as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH for the trypsin are 65 °C and pH 9.0, respectively. Also, the enzyme can be significantly activated by Ba(2+). This enzyme is relatively stable in alkaline environment and displays excellent activity at low temperatures. It could retain over 95% of enzyme activity after 180 min of incubation at 45 °C. The distinguished activity under low temperature and prominent stability enhance its catalytic potential. In the current work, the open reading frame was obtained with a length of 1371 nucleotides that encoded a protein of 456 amino acids. These data would warrant the B. licheniformis trypsin as a promising candidate for catalytic application in collagen preparation and leather bating through further protein engineering.

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of radioiodinated N-2-(4-piperidyl)ethyl benzamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efange, S.M.N.; Michelson, R.H.; Boudreau, R.J.; Thomas, J.R.; Knusel, B.; Hefti, F.; Tennison, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three iodinated benzamides, 5-7, analogues of the potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor 1-benzyl-4-[N-[4'-(benzylsulfonyl) benzoyl-N-methylamino]ethyl]piperidine (2), were synthesized and evaluated as potential anticholinesterase agents. All three compounds were found to be three orders of magnitude less potent than the parent compound. However, receptor screening revealed that compounds 5-7 exhibit nanomolar affinity for the sigma binding site. Both [ 125 I]5 and [ 125 I]7 were synthesized and evaluated in rats. Following the intravenous administration of [ 125 I]5 into rats, 1.59% of the injected dose was found in the rat brain within 5 min. The level of radioactivity in the brain remained steady for 2 h, the duration of the study. In contrast, 0.42% of the injected dose was detected in the rat brain following the i.v. injection of [ 125 I]7. Coadministration of either [ 125 I]5 or [ 125 I]7 with 0.5 μmol/kg of haloperidol resulted in a 56-73% reduction in the level of radioactivity in the rat brain, suggesting that these compounds bind to the sigma binding site in vivo. Planar imaging studies with [ 123 I]5 revealed significant accumulation of radioactivity within the monkey brain, with a half-life of 6 h. Compound [ 123 I]5 may be potentially useful for studying sigma receptor distribution in the human brain. (author)

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of radioiodinated N-2-(4-piperidyl)ethyl benzamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efange, S.M.N.; Michelson, R.H.; Boudreau, R.J.; Thomas, J.R. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Knusel, B.; Hefti, F. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Hospitals); Tennison, J.R. (University of Southern Cailfornia, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Andrus Gerontology Center)

    1993-05-01

    Three iodinated benzamides, 5-7, analogues of the potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor 1-benzyl-4-[N-[4'-(benzylsulfonyl) benzoyl-N-methylamino]ethyl]piperidine (2), were synthesized and evaluated as potential anticholinesterase agents. All three compounds were found to be three orders of magnitude less potent than the parent compound. However, receptor screening revealed that compounds 5-7 exhibit nanomolar affinity for the sigma binding site. Both [[sup 125]I]5 and [[sup 125]I]7 were synthesized and evaluated in rats. Following the intravenous administration of [[sup 125]I]5 into rats, 1.59% of the injected dose was found in the rat brain within 5 min. The level of radioactivity in the brain remained steady for 2 h, the duration of the study. In contrast, 0.42% of the injected dose was detected in the rat brain following the i.v. injection of [[sup 125]I]7. Coadministration of either [[sup 125]I]5 or [[sup 125]I]7 with 0.5 [mu]mol/kg of haloperidol resulted in a 56-73% reduction in the level of radioactivity in the rat brain, suggesting that these compounds bind to the sigma binding site in vivo. Planar imaging studies with [[sup 123]I]5 revealed significant accumulation of radioactivity within the monkey brain, with a half-life of 6 h. Compound [[sup 123]I]5 may be potentially useful for studying sigma receptor distribution in the human brain. (author).

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of radioiodinated N-2-(4-piperidyl)ethyl benzamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efange, S.M.N.; Michelson, R.H.; Boudreau, R.J.; Thomas, J.R.; Knusel, B.; Hefti, F.; Tennison, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three iodinated benzamides, 5-7, analogues of the potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor 1-benzyl-4[N-[4'-(benzylsulfonyl) benzoyl-N-methylamino]ethyl]piperidine were synthesized and evaluated as potential anticholinesterase agents. All three compounds were found to be three orders of magnitude less potent than the parent compound. However, receptor screening revealed that compounds 5-7 exhibit nanomolar affinity for the sigma binding site. Both [ 125 I]5 and [ 125 I]7 were synthesized and evaluated in rats. Following the intravenous administration of [ 125 I]5 into rats, 1.59% of the injected dose was found in the rat brain within 5 min. The level of radioactivity in the brain remained steady for 2 h, the duration of the study. In contrast, 0.42% of the injected dose was detected in the rat brain following the i.v. injection of [ 125 I]7. Coadministration of either [ 125 I]5 or [ 125 I]7 with 0.5 μmol/kg of haloperidol resulted in a 56-73% reduction in the level of radioactivity in the rat brain, suggesting that these compounds bind to the sigma binding site in vivo. Planar imaging studies with [ 123 I]5 revealed significant accumulation of radioactivity within the monkey brain, with a half-life of 6 h. Compound [ 123 I]5 may be potentially useful for studying sigma receptor distribution in the human brain. (Author)

  6. Inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} activity by BP-1 ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States); Thippegowda, P.B., E-mail: btprabha@uic.edu [Department of Pharmacology, (M/C 868), College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Kanum, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraj' s College, University of Mysore, Mysore (India)

    2009-09-18

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Inflamed synovitis is a hallmark of RA which is hypoxic in nature. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the key regulators of angiogenesis, is overexpressed in the pathogenesis of RA. VEGF expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), a master regulator of homeostasis which plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. In this study we show that synthetic benzophenone analogue, 2-benzoyl-phenoxy acetamide (BP-1) can act as a novel anti-arthritic agent in an experimental adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model by targeting VEGF and HIF-1{alpha}. BP-1 administered hypoxic endothelial cells and arthritic animals clearly showed down regulation of VEGF expression. Further, BP-1 inhibits nuclear translocation of HIF-1{alpha}, which in turn suppresses transcription of the VEGF gene. These results suggest a further possible clinical application of the BP-1 derivative as an anti-arthritic agent in association with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  7. The preparation, characterization and actuation behavior of polyaniline and cellulose blended electro-active paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Amalraj; Mahadeva, Suresha K; Kim, Jaehwan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports polyaniline and cellulose blended electro-active paper (EAPap) that can produce large bending displacement at ambient humidity conditions with long lifetime durability. A novel solution processable polyaniline-p-toluene sulfonate (PANI–PTSA) salt was prepared by an inverted emulsion polymerization technique using benzoyl peroxide and p-toluene sulfonic acid. Cellulose solution prepared by dissolving cotton with lithium chloride/N, N-dimethylacetamide was mixed with the PANI emaraldine salt solution and a cellulose–PANI blended film was obtained. The obtained cellulose–PANI film was characterized by ultraviolet–visible (UV–visible), x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and tensile test methods. A cellulose–PANI EAPap actuator was made by depositing very thin gold electrodes on both sides of the cellulose–PANI film. When the actuator performance of the cellulose–PANI EAPap was evaluated in terms of bending displacement with respect to the actuation frequencies, voltages and relative humidity levels, a large bending displacement was shown at ambient humidity conditions with long lifetime durability

  8. Heat Shock Response Associated with Hepatocarcinogenesis in a Murine Model of Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angileri, Francesca; Morrow, Geneviève; Roy, Vincent; Orejuela, Diana; Tanguay, Robert M., E-mail: robert.tanguay@ibis.ulaval.ca [Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Genetics, Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS) and PROTEO, 1030 avenue de la médecine, Université Laval, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2014-04-23

    Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a metabolic liver disease caused by genetic defects of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme necessary to complete the breakdown of tyrosine. The severe hepatic dysfunction caused by the lack of this enzyme is prevented by the therapeutic use of NTBC (2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione). However despite the treatment, chronic hepatopathy and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still observed in some HT1 patients. Growing evidence show the important role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in many cellular processes and their involvement in pathological diseases including cancer. Their survival-promoting effect by modulation of the apoptotic machinery is often correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in a number of cancers. Here, we sought to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver dysfunction and tumor development in a murine model of HT1. Differential gene expression patterns in livers of mice under HT1 stress, induced by drug retrieval, have shown deregulation of stress and cell death resistance genes. Among them, genes coding for HSPB and HSPA members, and for anti-apoptotic BCL-2 related mitochondrial proteins were associated with the hepatocarcinogenetic process. Our data highlight the variation of stress pathways related to HT1 hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting the role of HSPs in rendering tyrosinemia-affected liver susceptible to the development of HCC.

  9. Paralytic toxin profile of the marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham from the Mexican Pacific as revealed by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Durán-Riveroll, Lorena M; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E; López-Cortés, David J; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; Cembella, Allan; Krock, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) profiles of Gymnodinium catenatum Graham have been reported for several strains from the Pacific coast of Mexico cultured under different laboratory conditions, as well as from natural populations. Up to 15 saxitoxin analogues occurred and the quantity of each toxin depended on the growth phase and culture conditions. Previous analysis of toxin profiles of G. catenatum isolated from Mexico have been based on post-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD), a method prone to artefacts and non-specificity, leading to misinterpretation of toxin composition. We describe, for the first time, the complete toxin profile for several G. catenatum strains from diverse locations of the Pacific coast of Mexico. The new results confirmed previous reports on the dominance of the less potent sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1/2); significant differences, however, in the composition (e.g., absence of saxitoxin, gonyautoxin 2/3 and neosaxitoxin) were revealed in our confirmatory analysis. The LC-MS/MS analyses also indicated at least seven putative benzoyl toxin analogues and provided support for their existence. This new toxin profile shows a high similarity (> 80%) to the profiles reported from several regions around the world, suggesting low genetic variability among global populations.

  10. Pyridones as NNRTIs against HIV-1 mutants: 3D-QSAR and protein informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Utsab; Verma, Saroj; Jain, Surabhi; Katti, Setu B.; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S.

    2013-07-01

    CoMFA and CoMSIA based 3D-QSAR of HIV-1 RT wild and mutant (K103, Y181C, and Y188L) inhibitory activities of 4-benzyl/benzoyl pyridin-2-ones followed by protein informatics of corresponding non-nucleoside inhibitors' binding pockets from pdbs 2BAN, 3MED, 1JKH, and 2YNF were analysed to discover consensus features of the compounds for broad-spectrum activity. The CoMFA/CoMSIA models indicated that compounds with groups which lend steric-cum-electropositive fields in the vicinity of C5, hydrophobic field in the vicinity of C3 of pyridone region and steric field in aryl region produce broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 RT activity. Also, a linker rendering electronegative field between pyridone and aryl moieties is common requirement for the activities. The protein informatics showed considerable alteration in residues 181 and 188 characteristics on mutation. Also, mutants' isoelectric points shifted in acidic direction. The study offered fresh avenues for broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 agents through designing new molecules seeded with groups satisfying common molecular fields and concerns of mutating residues.

  11. Redox-Active Star Molecules Incorporating the 4-Benzoylpyridinium Cation - Implications for the Charge Transfer Along Branches vs. Across the Perimeter in Dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Yang, Jinua; Fabrizio,Even F.; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Oh, Woon Su; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimers are self-repeating globular branched star molecules, whose fractal structure continues to fascinate, challenge, and inspire. Functional dendrimers may incorporate redox centers, and potential applications include antennae molecules for light harvesting, sensors, mediators, and artificial biomolecules. We report the synthesis and redox properties of four star systems incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-alkylpyridinium cation; the redox potential varies along the branches but remains constant at fixed radii. Bulk electrolysis shows that at a semi-infinite time scale all redox centers are electrochemically accessible. However, voltammetric analysis (cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry) shows that on1y two of the three redox-active centers in the perimeter are electrochemically accessible during potential sweeps as slow as 20 mV/s and as fast as 10 V/s. On the contrary, both redox centers along branches are accessible electrochemically within the same time frame. These results are explained in terms of slow through-space charge transfer and the globular 3-D folding of the molecules and are discussed in terms of their implications on the design of efficient redox functional dendrimers.

  12. Cyclohex-1-ene carboxylic acids: synthesis and biological evaluation of novel inhibitors of human 5 alpha reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Eckhard; Salem, Ola I A; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2003-03-01

    In search of novel nonsteroidal mimics of steroidal inhibitors of 5 alpha reductase, 4-(2-phenylethyl)cyclohex-1-ene carboxylic acids 1-5 were synthesized with different substituents in para position of the phenyl ring (1: N, N-diisopropylcarbamoyl, 2: phenyl, 3: phenoxy, 4: benzoyl, and 5: benzyl). The principal synthetic approach for the desired compounds consisted of a Wittig olefination between 1, 4-dioxaspiro [4.5]-decane-8-carbaldehyde (4g and the appropriate phosphonium salts. The compounds were tested for inhibition of human 5 alpha reductase isozymes 1 and 2 using DU 145 cells and preparations from prostatic tissue, respectively. They turned out to be good inhibitors of the prostatic isozyme 2 with compound 1 being the most potent one (IC(50) = 760 nM). Isozyme 1 was only slightly inhibited. It is concluded that the novel structures are appropriate for being further optimized, aiming at the development of a novel drug for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  13. Corn gluten meal as a biodegradable matrix material in wood fibre reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beg, M.D.H.; Pickering, K.L.; Weal, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate corn gluten meal (CGM) as a biodegradable matrix material for wood fibre reinforced composites. CGM was used alone, as well as hybridized with polypropylene, and reinforced with radiata pine (Pinus Radiata) fibre using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to assess the composites. For composites from CGM and wood fibres, extrusion was carried out with the aid of the following plasticizers: octanoic acid, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and water. Windows of processability for the different plasticizers were obtained for all plasticizers. These were found to lie between 20 and 50 wt.% of plasticizer with a maximum of approximately 20% wood fibre reinforcement. The best mechanical properties were obtained with a matrix containing 10 wt.% octanoic acid and 30 wt.% water, which gave a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 18.7 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively. Hybrid matrix composites were compounded with a maleated polypropylene coupling agent and benzoyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. The highest tensile strength and Young's modulus obtained from hybrid matrix composites were 36.9 MPa and 5.8 GPa with 50 wt.% fibre

  14. Gravimetric determination of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) with substituted pyrazolones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.C.; Rao, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    4-Acylpyrazolones like 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP), 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-p-nitrobenzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMNP) and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(3,5 dinitrobenzoyl)-5-pyrazolone (PMDP) have been synthesized and developed as gravimetric reagents for the determination of U(VI) and Th(IV). Uranium(VI) is almost quantitatively precipitated with PMBP, PMNP, and PMDP at pH 2.20, 1.85 and 1.70 respectively. The pH values for the complete precipitation of thorium(IV) with PMBP, PMNP and PMDP are 2.90, 2.75 and 2.50 respectively. PMBP has proved to be an efficient ligand for gravimetric determination of U(VI) by direct weighing method after drying at 100 +- 10 deg C. The percentage relative error varies from 0.4 to 1.6 in the determination of U(VI) by this method. The effect of a number of interfering ions on the precipitation of U(VI) by PMBP has been reported. (author)

  15. Reduction of postreplication DNA repair in two Escherichia coli mutants with temperature-sensitive polymerase III activity: implications for the postreplication repair pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    Daughter strand gaps are secondary lesions caused by interrupted DNA synthesis in the proximity of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers. The relative roles of DNA recombination and de novo DNA synthesis in filling such gaps have not been clarified, although both are required for complete closure. In this study, the Escherichia coli E486 and E511 dnaE(Ts) mutants, in which DNA polymerase I but not DNA polymerase III is active at 43 0 C, were examined. Both mutants demonstrated reduced gap closure in comparison with the progenitor strain at the nonpermissive temperature. These results and those of previous studies support the hypothesis that both DNA polymerase I and DNA polymerase III contribute to gap closure, suggesting a cooperative effort in the repair of each gap. Benzoylated, naphthoylated diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography analysis for persistence of single-strand DNA in the absence of DNA polymerase III activity suggested that de novo DNA synthesis initiates the filling of daughter strand gaps

  16. Femtosecond Laser Direct Write Integration of Multi-Protein Patterns and 3D Microstructures into 3D Glass Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Serien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices and biochips offer miniaturized laboratories for the separation, reaction, and analysis of biochemical materials with high sensitivity and low reagent consumption. The integration of functional or biomimetic elements further functionalizes microfluidic devices for more complex biological studies. The recently proposed ship-in-a-bottle integration based on laser direct writing allows the construction of microcomponents made of photosensitive polymer inside closed microfluidic structures. Here, we expand this technology to integrate proteinaceous two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D microstructures with the aid of photo-induced cross-linking into glass microchannels. The concept is demonstrated with bovine serum albumin and enhanced green fluorescent protein, each mixed with photoinitiator (Sodium 4-[2-(4-Morpholino benzoyl-2-dimethylamino] butylbenzenesulfonate. Unlike the polymer integration, fabrication over the entire channel cross-section is challenging. Two proteins are integrated into the same channel to demonstrate multi-protein patterning. Using 50% w/w glycerol solvent instead of 100% water achieves almost the same fabrication resolution for in-channel fabrication as on-surface fabrication due to the improved refractive index matching, enabling the fabrication of 3D microstructures. A glycerol-water solvent also reduces the risk of drying samples. We believe this technology can integrate diverse proteins to contribute to the versatility of microfluidics.

  17. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF PHOTOINDUCED POLYMERIZATION BY α,α-DIMETHOXY-α-PHENYL ACETOPHENONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiuzhi; LI Miaozhen; CHANG Zhiying; WANG Erjian

    1993-01-01

    α,α- dimethoxy- α-phenyl acetophenone (DMPA) is an efficient and thermally stable photoinitiator.Here its spectral characteristics in the transient state were shown. The transient species were identified as a benzoyl radical and a dimethoxyl benzyl radical that played a primary initiation role in polymerization. The kinetics and mechanism of the bulk polymerization of MMA were investigated. The exponent of DMPA concentration and κp/κt1/2 value were found to be 0.5 and 0.066 mol-1/2l1/2 s-1/2 , respectively. The existence of oxygen led to obtain the polymer with higher molecular weight, which can be attributed to the occurrence of the subsequent polymerization induced by active polymer end group. In the photocrosslinking reaction, the dependence of DMPA content on initial rate has been found. A principal reason is that the sample contained higher percentage of DMPA has higher light-absorbed efficiency. In solid film, higher concentration of DMPA is permitted to be used because there is little excited state self-quenching effect in the rigid medium.

  18. A non-cytotoxic N-dehydroabietylamine derivative with potent antimalarial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadashiva, Maralinganadoddi P; Gowda, Raghavendra; Wu, Xianzhu; Inamdar, Gajanan S; Kuzu, Omer F; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Robertson, Gavin P; Gowda, D Channe

    2015-08-01

    Malaria caused by the Plasmodium parasites continues to be an enormous global health problem owing to wide spread drug resistance of parasites to many of the available antimalarial drugs. Therefore, development of new classes of antimalarial agents is essential to effectively treat malaria. In this study, the efficacy of naturally occurring diterpenoids, dehydroabietylamine and abietic acid, and their synthetic derivatives was assessed for antimalarial activity. Dehydroabietylamine and its N-trifluoroacetyl, N-tribromoacetyl, N-benzoyl, and N-benzyl derivatives showed excellent activity against P. falciparum parasites with IC50 values of 0.36 to 2.6 µM. Interestingly, N-dehydroabietylbenzamide showed potent antimalarial activity (IC50 0.36), and negligible cytotoxicity (IC50 >100 µM) to mammalian cells; thus, this compound can be an important antimalarial drug. In contrast, abietic acid was only marginally effective, exhibiting an IC50 value of ~82 µM. Several carboxylic group-derivatives of abietic acid were moderately active with IC50 values of ~8.2 to ~13.3 µM. These results suggest that a detailed understanding of the structure-activity relationship of abietane diterpenoids might provide strategies to exploit this class of compounds for malaria treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Membrane for the Removal of 2,4-Dinitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jelas Haron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs were prepared by bulk polymerization in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide, as the template, functional monomer, cross-linker, and initiator, respectively. The MIP membrane was prepared by hybridization of MIP particles with cellulose acetate (CA and polystyrene (PS after being ground and sieved. The prepared MIP membrane was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The parameters studied for the removal of 2,4-dinitrophenol included the effect of pH, sorption kinetics, and the selectivity of the MIP membrane. Maximum sorption of 2,4-nitrophenol by the fabricated CA membrane with MIP (CA-MIP and the PS membrane with MIP (PS-MIP was observed at pH 7.0 and pH 5.0, respectively. The sorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by CA-MIP and PS-MIP followed a pseudo–second-order kinetic model. For a selectivity study, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, and phenol were selected as potential interferences. The sorption capability of CA-MIP and PS-MIP towards 2,4-dinitrophenol was observed to be higher than that of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, or phenol.

  20. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers simazine as material potentiometric sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bow Yohandri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imprinting technology is a promising technique for creating recognition elements for selected compounds and has been successfully applied for synthesis of environmental pollutants such as simazine. Simazine is a pesticide ingredient that is commonly used in agriculture, which has devastating effects on the environment if used excessively. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP provides cavities to form a particular space generated by removing the template when the polymer has formed. In this study, MIP using simazine as template had been made by the cooling-heating method and used as a material potentiometric sensor for detecting simazine. A template (simazine was incorporated into a pre-polymerization solution that contains a methacrylic acid as functional monomer, an ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross linker, and benzoyl peroxide as initiator. Characterization was performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and fourier transforms infra-red (FTIR. The FTIR spectra of the MIP showed that the peaks of amine group decrease significantly, indicating that the simazine concentration decreases drastically. Characterization by SEM images showing the broadest pore size distribution with the highest number of pores in the MIP prepared under the heating time of 150 min. The MIPs therefore could be applied as a simazine sensor.

  1. Corn gluten meal as a biodegradable matrix material in wood fibre reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, M.D.H. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand); Pickering, K.L. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)]. E-mail: klp@waikato.ac.nz; Weal, S.J. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2005-12-05

    This study was undertaken to investigate corn gluten meal (CGM) as a biodegradable matrix material for wood fibre reinforced composites. CGM was used alone, as well as hybridized with polypropylene, and reinforced with radiata pine (Pinus Radiata) fibre using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to assess the composites. For composites from CGM and wood fibres, extrusion was carried out with the aid of the following plasticizers: octanoic acid, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and water. Windows of processability for the different plasticizers were obtained for all plasticizers. These were found to lie between 20 and 50 wt.% of plasticizer with a maximum of approximately 20% wood fibre reinforcement. The best mechanical properties were obtained with a matrix containing 10 wt.% octanoic acid and 30 wt.% water, which gave a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 18.7 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively. Hybrid matrix composites were compounded with a maleated polypropylene coupling agent and benzoyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. The highest tensile strength and Young's modulus obtained from hybrid matrix composites were 36.9 MPa and 5.8 GPa with 50 wt.% fibre.

  2. Hydrolytic Activation Kinetics of the Herbicide Benzobicyclon in Simulated Aquatic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katryn L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2016-06-22

    Herbicide resistance is a growing concern for weeds in California rice fields. Benzobicyclon (BZB; 3-(2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)-2-phenylthiobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-en-4-one) has proven successful against resistant rice field weeds in Asia. A pro-herbicide, BZB forms the active agent, benzobicyclon hydrolysate (BH), in water; however, the transformation kinetics are not understood for aquatic systems, particularly flooded California rice fields. A quantitative experiment was performed to assess the primary mechanism and kinetics of BZB hydrolysis to BH. Complete conversion to BH was observed for all treatments. Basic conditions (pH 9) enhanced the reaction, with half-lives ranging from 5 to 28 h. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) hindered transformation, which is consistent with other base-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions. BH was relatively hydrolytically stable, with 18% maximum loss after 5 days. Results indicate BZB is an efficient pro-herbicide under aqueous conditions such as those of a California rice field, although application may be best suited for fields with recirculating tailwater systems.

  3. Silica Aerogels Doped with Ru(II) Tris 1,l0-Phenanthro1ine)-Electron Acceptor Dyads: Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevebtusm Bucgikas; Rawashdeh, Abdel M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2005-01-01

    Complexes 1 and 2 were characterized in fluid and frozen solution and as dopants of silica aerogels. The intramolecular quenching efficiency of pendant 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium group (4BzPy) is solvent dependent: emission is quenched completely in acetonitrile but not in alcohols. On the other hand, N-benzyl-N'-methylviologen (BzMeV) quenches the emission in all solvents completely. The differences are traced electrochemically to a stronger solvation effect by the alcohol in the case of 1. In fiozen matrices or absorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both 1 and 2 are photoluminescent. The lack of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigidity. When doped aerogels are cooled to 77K, the emission shifts to the blue and its intensity increases in analogy to what is observed with Ru(II) complexes in media undergoing fluid-to-rigid transition. The photoluminescence of 1 and 2 from the aerogel is quenched by oxygen diffusing through the pores. In the presence of oxygen, aerogels doped with 1 can modulate their emission over a wider dynamic range than aerogels doped with 2, and both are more sensitive than aerogels doped with Ru(II) tris(1,l0- phenanthroline). In contrast to frozen solutions, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at 77K are still accessible, leading to more sensitive platforms for oxygen sensors than other ambient temperature configurations.

  4. Surface functionalization of Cu-Ni alloys via grafting of a bactericidal polymer for inhibiting biocorrosion by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in anaerobic seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S J; Liu, C K; Pehkonen, S O; Bai, R B; Neoh, K G; Ting, Y P; Kang, E T

    2009-01-01

    A novel surface modification technique was developed to provide a copper nickel alloy (M) surface with bactericidal and anticorrosion properties for inhibiting biocorrosion. 4-(chloromethyl)-phenyl tricholorosilane (CTS) was first coupled to the hydroxylated alloy surface to form a compact silane layer, as well as to confer the surface with chloromethyl functional groups. The latter allowed the coupling of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) to generate the M-CTS-4VP surface with biocidal functionality. Subsequent surface graft polymerization of 4VP, in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator, from the M-CTS-4VP surface produced the poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P(4VP)) grafted surface, or the M-CTS-P(4VP) surface. The pyridine nitrogen moieties on the M-CTS-P(4VP) surface were quaternized with hexylbromide to produce a high concentration of quaternary ammonium groups. Each surface functionalization step was ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurements. The alloy with surface-quaternized pyridinium cation groups (N+) exhibited good bactericidal efficiency in a Desulfovibrio desulfuricans-inoculated seawater-based modified Barr's medium, as indicated by viable cell counts and fluorescence microscopy (FM) images of the surface. The anticorrosion capability of the organic layers was verified by the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. In comparison, the pristine (surface hydroxylated) Cu-Ni alloy was found to be readily susceptible to biocorrosion under the same environment.

  5. "On-Water" Facile Synthesis of Novel Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridinones Possessing Anti-influenza Virus Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li-Yan; Liu, Teng; Yang, Jie; Yang, Yueli; Cai, Chun; Liu, Shuwen

    2017-07-10

    A facile and versatile "on-water" protocol for the synthesis of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridinones was developed by the unprecedented construction of two rings and five new bonds in one-pot. It was proved that water was an important promoter of the reaction and PEG2000 was found to improve the reaction in terms of yield. 32 Derivatives were newly synthesized and most of them were prepared in an hour. The scope and limitation indicated that electron withdrawing groups substituted on synthons, substituted benzoyl acetonitriles or aryl aldehydes, were helpful to construct the pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridinones. The reaction media PEG2000/H 2 O was successfully recycled and reused at least 5 times without any obvious decrease in yield. The anti-influenza activities of the derivatives were evaluated and the screening results highlighted two derivatives, which exhibited strong inhibitory activity against H5N1 pseudovirus. These positive bioassay results implied that the library of potential anti-influenza virus agent candidates could be rapidly prepared in an eco-friendly manner, and provided a new insight into drug discovery for medicinal chemists.

  6. Conformational polymorphism and aromaticity in crystalline dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, Jan; Eilmes, Julita; Oleksyn, Barbara J.; Stadnicka, Katarzyna

    2004-06-01

    The structures of two single crystal modifications, orange and yellow, of 7,16-dibenzoyl-6,8,15,17-tetramethyl-5,14-dihydrodibenzo [b,i][1,4,8,11]tetraazacyclotetradecine were determined in room and low temperatures. The aromaticity of the 14-membered macrocyclic ring system was studied with the use of HOMA index and compared to the values calculated for the structures found in the Cambridge Structural Database System. The nature of the polymorphism of the investigated molecules was elucidated. The molecules of the orange and yellow modifications differ in the mutual orientation of the benzoyl groups. The molecular conformation in the yellow crystals is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, C-H⋯OC, which do not occur in the orange modification. Weak, but numerous, intermolecular bonds of this type occur in both modifications, but in the orange polymorph a π-π interaction is also observed, while in the yellow modification a C-H⋯N intermolecular bond is formed.

  7. Fabrication of a novel hemin-based monolithic column and its application in separation of protein from complex bio-matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoya; Zhang, Doudou; Li, Xueying; Wang, Xixi; Bai, Ligai; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Hongyuan

    2017-05-10

    A novel polymer-based monolithic column was prepared via redox initiation system within the confines of a stainless steel column with 4.6mm i.d. In the processes, hemin and lauryl methacrylate were used as co-monomers; ethylene dimethacrylate as crosslinking agent; n-butyl alcohol, ethanediol, and N, N-dimethylformamide as tri-porogens; benzoyl peroxide and N, N-dimethyl aniline as redox initiation system. The resulting polymer-based monolithic columns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption instrument, and mercury intrusion porosimeter, respectively. The results illustrated that the improved monolith had relative uniform porous structure, good permeability, and low back pressure. Aromatic compounds were used to test the chromatographic behavior of the monolith, resulting in highest column efficiency of 19 880 plates per meter with reversed-phase mechanism. Furthermore, the homemade monolith was used as the stationary phase of high performance liquid chromatography to separate proteins from complex bio-matrix, including human plasma, egg white, and snailase. The results showed that the monolithic column occupied good separation ability with these complex bio-samples. Excellent specific character of the homemade hemin-based monolith was that it could simultaneously remove high-abundance proteins (including human serum albumin, immunoglobulin G, and human fibrinogen) from human plasma and separate other proteins to different fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and decomposition of a novel carboxylate precursor to indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Andras, Maria T.; Duraj, Stan A.; Clark, Eric B.; Hehemann, David G.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Fanwick, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    Reaction of metallic indium with benzoyl peroxide in 4-1 methylpyridine (4-Mepy) at 25 C produces an eight-coordinate mononuclear indium(III) benzoate, In(eta(sup 2)-O2CC6H5)3(4-Mepy)2 4H2O (I), in yields of up to 60 percent. The indium(III) benzoate was fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography; (I) exists in the crystalline state as discrete eight-coordinate molecules; the coordination sphere around the central indium atom is best described as pseudo-square pyramidal. Thermogravimetric analysis of (I) and X-ray diffraction powder studies on the resulting pyrolysate demonstrate that this new benzoate is an inorganic precursor to indium oxide. Decomposition of (I) occurs first by loss of 4-methylpyridine ligands (100 deg-200 deg C), then loss of benzoates with formation of In2O3 at 450 C. We discuss both use of carboxylates as precursors and our approach to their preparation.

  9. Dissipation of the Herbicide Benzobicyclon Hydrolysate in a Model California Rice Field Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katryn L; Gladfelder, Joshua J; Quigley, Lindsay L; Ball, David B; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2017-10-25

    The herbicide benzobicyclon (BZB; 3-(2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)-2-phenylthiobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-en-4-one) has recently been approved for use on California rice fields by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Hydrolysis of BZB rapidly forms the active compound, benzobicyclon hydrolysate (BH), whose fate is currently not well understood. A model California rice soil was used to determine BH soil dissipation. The pK a and aqueous solubility were also determined, as experimental values are not currently available. Sorption data indicate BH does not bind tightly, or irreversibly, with this soil. Flooding resulted in decreased BH loss, indicating anaerobic microbes are less likely to transform BH compared to aerobic microorganisms. Temperature increased dissipation, while autoclaving decreased BH loss. Overall, dissipation was slow regardless of treatment. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the exact routes of loss in soil, though BH is expected to dissipate slowly in flooded rice field soil.

  10. A Honey Trap for the Treatment of Acne: Manipulating the Follicular Microenvironment to Control Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Anne Eady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, as 40 years ago, we still rely on a limited number of antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide to treat inflammatory acne. An alternative way of suppressing the growth of Propionibacterium acnes is to target the environment in which it thrives. We conjecture that P. acnes colonises a relatively “extreme” habitat especially in relation to the availability of water and possibly related factors such as ionic strength and osmolarity. We hypothesise that the limiting “nutrient” within pilosebaceous follicles is water since native sebum as secreted by the sebaceous gland contains none. An aqueous component must be available within colonised follicles, and water may be a major factor determining which follicles can sustain microbial populations. One way of preventing microbial growth is to reduce the water activity ( of this component with a biocompatible solute of very high water solubility. For the method to work effectively, the solute must be small, easily diffusible, and minimally soluble in sebaceous lipids. Xylose and sucrose, which fulfil these criteria, are nonfermentable by P. acnes and have been used to reduce water activity and hence bacterial colonisation of wounds. A new follicularly targeted topical treatment for acne based on this approach should be well tolerated and highly effective.

  11. Cyclodextrin-insulin complex encapsulated polymethacrylic acid based nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Sharma, Chandra P

    2006-11-15

    Present investigation was aimed at developing an oral insulin delivery system based on hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin-insulin (HPbetaCD-I) complex encapsulated polymethacrylic acid-chitosan-polyether (polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol copolymer) (PMCP) nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were prepared by the free radical polymerization of methacrylic acid in presence of chitosan and polyether in a solvent/surfactant free medium. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiment was conducted with particles dispersed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and size distribution curve was observed in the range of 500-800 nm. HPbetaCD was used to prepare non-covalent inclusion complex with insulin and complex was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. HPbetaCD complexed insulin was encapsulated into PMCP nanoparticles by diffusion filling method and their in vitro release profile was evaluated at acidic/alkaline pH. PMCP nanoparticles displayed good insulin encapsulation efficiency and release profile was largely dependent on the pH of the medium. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) study demonstrated that insulin encapsulated inside the particles was biologically active. Trypsin inhibitory effect of PMCP nanoparticles was evaluated using N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) and casein as substrates. Mucoadhesive studies of PMCP nanoparticles were conducted using freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa and the particles were found fairly adhesive. From the preliminary studies, cyclodextrin complexed insulin encapsulated mucoadhesive nanoparticles appear to be a good candidate for oral insulin delivery.

  12. Liquid Membranes as a Tool for Chemical Speciation of Metals in Natural Waters: Organic and Inorganic Complexes of Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vergel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The different species of nickel present in natural waters exhibit different transport behaviour through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs. This fact has been used to design and optimise a separation/pre-concentration system applicable to separate labile and non-labile nickel fractions. A hydrazone derivative—1,2-cyclohexanedione bis-benzoyl-hydrazone (1,2-CHBBH dissolved in toluene/dimethyl formamide (2% DMF—was used as a chemical carrier of nickel species, from an aqueous source solution (sample to a receiving acidic solution. Both chemical and hydrodynamic conditions controlling the transport system were studied and optimised. Under optimum conditions, variations in the transport of nickel ions as a function of organic (humic acids and inorganic (chloride ions ligands were studied. Relationships between the permeability coefficient (P or recovery efficiency (%R and the concentrations of ligands and nickel species were analysed using Winhumic V software. A negative correlation between P and the concentration of organic nickel complexes was found, suggesting that only labile nickel species are transported through the liquid membrane, with non-labile complexes remaining in the water sample; allowing for their separation and subsequent quantification in natural waters.

  13. Regioselective aromatic substitution reactions of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes: synthesis and photochemical properties of substituted Ir(III) complexes that exhibit blue, green, and red color luminescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shin; Matsuo, Yasuki; Ogura, Shiori; Ohwada, Hiroki; Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Moromizato, Shinsuke; Shiro, Motoo; Kitamura, Masanori

    2011-02-07

    In this manuscript, the regioselective halogenation, nitration, formylation, and acylation of Ir(tpy)(3) and Ir(ppy)(3) (tpy = 2-(4'-tolyl)pyridine and ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and the subsequent conversions are described. During attempted bromination of the three methyl groups in fac-Ir(tpy)(3) using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO), three protons at the 5'-position (p-position with respect to the C-Ir bond) of phenyl rings in tpy units were substituted by Br, as confirmed by (1)H NMR spectra, mass spectra, and X-ray crystal structure analysis. It is suggested that such substitution reactions of Ir complexes proceed via an ionic mechanism rather than a radical mechanism. UV-vis and luminescence spectra of the substituted Ir(III) complexes are reported. The introduction of electron-withdrawing groups such as CN and CHO groups at the 5'-position of tpy induces a blue shift of luminescence emission to about 480 nm, and the introduction of electron-donating groups such as an amino group results in a red shift to about 600 nm. A reversible change of emission for the 5'-amino derivative of Ir(tpy)(3), Ir(atpy)(3), between red and green occurs upon protonation and deprotonation.

  14. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and application of a nanoporous ion-imprinted polymer for the separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of vanadium from food samples before determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Dehghanpoor Frashah, Shahab

    2016-04-01

    A vanadium ion-imprinted polymer was synthesized in the presence of V(V) and N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxyl amine using 4-vinyl pyridine as the monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross linker and 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) as the initiator. The imprinted V(V) ions were completely removed by leaching the polymer with 5 mol/L nitric acid, and the polymer structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ion-imprinted polymer was used as the sorbent in the development of the solid-phase extraction method for V(V) prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The maximum sorption capacity for V(V) ions was 26.7 mg/g at pH 4.0. Under the optimum conditions, for a sample volume of 150.0 mL, an enrichment factor of 289.0 and a detection limit of 6.4 ng/L were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in parsley, zucchini, black tea, rice, and water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Interaction of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H with an acylhydrazone inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qingguo; Menon, Lakshmi; Ilina, Tatiana; Miller, Lena G; Ahn, Jinwoo; Parniak, Michael A; Ishima, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is a bifunctional enzyme, having both DNA polymerase (RNA- and DNA-dependent) and ribonuclease H activities. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase has been an exceptionally important target for antiretroviral therapeutic development, and nearly half of the current clinically used antiretrovirals target reverse transcriptase DNA polymerase. However, no inhibitors of reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H are on the market or in preclinical development. Several drug-like small molecule inhibitors of reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H have been described, but little structural information is available about the interactions between reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H and inhibitors that exhibit antiviral activity. In this report, we describe NMR studies of the interaction of a new ribonuclease H inhibitor, BHMP07, with a catalytically active HIV-1 reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H domain fragment. We carried out solution NMR experiments to identify the interaction interface of BHMP07 with the ribonuclease H domain fragment. Chemical shift changes of backbone amide signals at different BHMP07 concentrations clearly demonstrate that BHMP07 mainly recognizes the substrate handle region in the ribonuclease H fragment. Using ribonuclease H inhibition assays and reverse transcriptase mutants, the binding specificity of BHMP07 was compared with another inhibitor, dihydroxy benzoyl naphthyl hydrazone. Our results provide a structural characterization of the ribonuclease H inhibitor interaction and are likely to be useful for further improvements of the inhibitors. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Trypsin from viscera of vermiculated sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, Weber, 1991: its purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba-Villalba, Ana Gloria; Ramírez-Suárez, Juan Carlos; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa Miriam; Sánchez, Guillermina García; Ruiz, Gisela Carvallo; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón

    2013-11-15

    Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus viscera trypsin was purified by fractionation with ammonium sulphate, gel filtration, affinity and ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose). Trypsin molecular weight was approximately 27.5kDa according to SDS-PAGE, shown a single band in zymography. It exhibited maximal activity at pH 9.5 and 40°C, using N-benzoyl-dl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) as substrate. Enzyme was effectively inhibited by phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) (100%), N-α-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) (85.4%), benzamidine (80.2%), and soybean trypsin inhibitor (75.6%) and partially inhibited by N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (10.3%), ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (8.7%) and pepstatin A (1.2%). Enzyme activity was slightly affected by metal ions (Fe(2+)>Hg(2+)>Mn(2+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Li(+)>Cu(2+)). Trypsin activity decreased continuously as NaCl concentration increased (0-30%). Km and kcat values were 0.13mM and 1.46s(-1), respectively. Results suggest the enzyme have a potential application where room processing temperatures (25-35°C) or high salt (30%) concentration are needed, such as in fish sauce production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of Cr(III-Morin Complex: Characterization and Antioxidant Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadeer K. Panhwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex formation between Cr(III and morin was carried out in methanol and confirmed by analytical characterization using UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, and TG-DTA. UV-Vis shows significant bathochromic shift in benzoyl upon coordination as well as IR well illustrates the peak shift of C=O group and formation of a O–Cr(III bond. Likewise, 1H NMR studies clarify that Cr(III metal ion replaces the 5OH proton hence; 5-hydroxy-4-keto site is employed by morin in chelation to form six-membered stable ring system out of three available chelating sites. In addition, TG-DTA denotes the presence of coordinated and crystalline water molecules. The melting point of the complex was found to be 389°C by DSC. In addition, Cr(III-morin complex was found to be a more potent antioxidant than morin as evaluated by DPPH• and FRAP methods.

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and pharmacological evaluation of oxazolone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 4-aryl methylidene-2-phenyl/methyl-5-(4H-oxazolone derivatives (2-7 have been synthesized using the reported method by condensation of aldehydes with N-benzoyl / N-acetyl glycine in the presence of zinc oxide as a catalyst and acetic anhydride at room temperature in ethanol. The compounds (2-6 are new derivatives. The structures of compounds were evaluated on the basis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, EIMS, FT-IR and elemental analysis. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial and urease inhibition activity. Antibacterial activity was tested by agar well diffusion method using Mueller Hinton Agar medium. Compound (2 showed excellent activity against S. aureus which has 16 mm (80% inhibition and above 24 mm (70% against S. typhi. The most active compound against E. coli was compound (6 having 20 mm (80% inhibition followed by compound (5 having above 18 mm (70% inhibition. Urease inhibition activity of all the compounds was determined by indophenol method. Compounds (3, 6 and (7 showed significant inhibition against Jacks bean urease.

  20. Polymeric reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, C.

    1979-01-01

    The system polymer-bound triphenyl phosphine/carbon tetrachloride was used for preparation of 14 C-labelled organic compounds. 7- 14 C-benzyl chloride, 7- 14 C-benzoyl chloride and 7- 14 C-N-butyl benzamide have been prepared in this way. The reaction conditions were optimized using inactive compounds. Using the results of this optimization, radiochemical yields of 90% could be obtained for the first time for the preparation of 14 C-labelled alkyl chlorides and carboxylic acid chlorides from the corresponding alcohols and acids on the carrier. Polymer-bound triphenylphosphine was further studied as a catalyst for Beckmann rearrangement on the example of the rearrangement of cyclohexanoneoxime into epsilon-caprolactam. Yields exceeding 90% could be obtained with polymer-bound triphenylphosphine. However, regeneration of the catalyst could only be achieved by the already known method using trichlorosilane, in part also with methyldichlorosilane. Other reducing agents were unsuccessful in regenerating the catalyst. (G.G.)