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Sample records for benzoyl radicals

  1. Investigation of the formation of benzoyl peroxide, benzoic anhydride, and other potential aerosol products from gas-phase reactions of benzoylperoxy radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Christen M.; Ziemann, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products of the reaction of benzaldehyde with Cl atoms and with OH radicals in air in the absence of NOx were investigated in an environmental chamber in order to better understand the possible role of organic peroxy radical self-reactions in SOA formation. SOA products and authentic standards were analyzed using mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography, and results show that the yields of benzoyl peroxide (C6H5C(O)OO(O)CC6H5) and benzoic anhydride (C6H5C(O)O(O)CC6H5), two potential products from the gas-phase self-reaction of benzoylperoxy radicals (C6H5C(O)OO·), were less than 0.1%. This is in contrast to results of recent studies that have shown that the gas-phase self-reactions of β-nitrooxyperoxy radicals formed from reactions of isoprene with NO3 radicals form dialkyl peroxides that contribute significantly to gas-phase and SOA products. Such reactions have also been proposed to explain the gas-phase formation of extremely low volatility dimers from autooxidation of terpenes. The results obtained here indicate that, at least for benzoylperoxy radicals, the self-reactions form only benzoyloxy radicals. Analyses of SOA composition and volatility were inconclusive, but it appears that the SOA may consist primarily of oligomers formed through heterogeneous/multiphase reactions possibly involving some combination of phenol, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and peroxybenzoic acid.

  2. Clindamycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benzoyl peroxide works by killing the bacteria that cause acne. ... E-Mycin, Erythrocin) and other topical medications for acne. Your doctor ... colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in the lining of the ...

  3. 2-Benzoyl-4-chloroaniline thiosemicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katlen C. T. Bandeira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H13ClN4S, obtained from a reaction of 2-benzoyl-4-chloroaniline with thiosemicarbazide in ethanol, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 81.31 (13°. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by three N—H...S hydrogen bonds, forming centrosymmetric rings with set-graph motif R22(8 and R22(18, and resulting in the formation of a two-dimensional network lying parallel to (010.

  4. [Lavoisier and radicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Lavoisier and his co-workers (Guyton de Morveau, Bertholet, Fourcroy) considered that acids were constituted of oxygen and of something else that they called radicals. These radicals were known in some cases, i.e. nitrogen for nitrous acid, carbon for carbonic acid, phosphorus for phosphoric acid. In the case of sulfur, the sulfuric radical could be associated with different quantities of oxigen leading to sulfuric or sulfurous acids. In other cases radicals remained unknown at the time i.e. muriatic radical for muriatic acid, or benzoyl radical for benzoic acid. It is interesting to notice that Lavoisier evoked the case of compound radicals constituted of different substances such as carbon and hydrogen.

  5. Benzoyl peroxide increases UVA-induced plasma membrane damage and lipid oxidation in murine leukemia L1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbotson, S H; Lambert, C R; Moran, M N; Lynch, M C; Kochevar, I E

    1998-01-01

    Ultraviolet A radiation induces oxidative stress and cell damage. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether ultraviolet A-induced cell injury was amplified by the presence of a non-ultraviolet A absorbing molecule capable of generating free radicals. Benzoyl peroxide was used as a lipid soluble potential radical-generating agent. Plasma membrane permeability assessed by trypan blue uptake was used to measure cell damage in murine leukemia L1210 cells. Cells were irradiated with a pulsed Nd/YAG laser at 355 nm using 0-160 J per cm2. The ratio of the fluence-response slope in the presence of 40 microM benzoyl peroxide to that of irradiated controls was 4.3 +/- 2.6. Benzoyl peroxide alone or benzoyl peroxide added after irradiation did not cause increased trypan blue uptake. The ratio of the fluence-response slopes in the presence of 40 microM benzoyl peroxide to that of irradiated controls was 4.7 +/- 1.4 when cells were irradiated (0-43 J per cm2) with a xenon lamp, filtered to remove wavelengths butylated hydroxytoluene, vitamin E, and trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E derivative. Lipid oxidation, assessed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was significantly increased in samples irradiated with ultraviolet A in the presence of benzoyl peroxide at fluences >34 J per cm2. The increased trypan blue uptake and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene. These results suggest that agents not absorbing ultraviolet A radiation may enhance ultraviolet A-initiated oxidative stress in cells. PMID:9424093

  6. Theoretical Studies on Thermal Decomposition of Benzoyl Peroxide in Ground State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-ke; YANG Si-ya; LIN Xue-fei; MA Si-yu; LI Zong-he

    2003-01-01

    Systematic studies of the thermal decomposition mechanism of benzoyl peroxide(BPO) in ground state, leading to various intermediates, products and the potential energy surface(PES) of possible dissociation reactions were made computationally. The structures of the transition states and the activation energies for all the paths causing the formation of the reaction products mentioned above were calculated by the AM1 semi-empirical method. This method is shown to to be one predict correctly the preferred pathway for the title reaction. It has been found that in ground state, the thermal decomposition of benzoyl peroxide has two kinds of paths. The first pathway PhC(O)O-OC(O)Ph→PhC(O)O*→Ph*+CO2 produces finally phenyl radicals and carbon dioxide. And the second pathway PhC(O)OO-C(O)Ph→PhC(O)OO*+PhC(O)*→PhC(O)*+O2→Ph*+CO+O2, via which the reaction takes place only in two steps, produces oxygen and PhC(O)* radicals, and the further thermal dissociation of PhC(O)* is quite difficult because of the high activation energy in ground state. The calculated activation energies and reaction enthalpies are in good agreement with the experimental values. The research results also show that also the thermal dissociation process of the two bonds or the three bonds for the benzoyl peroxide doesn′t take place in ground state.

  7. Synthesis and Structure Elucidation of Benzoylated Deoxyfluoropyranosides

    OpenAIRE

    Esmurziev, Aslan M.; Simic, Nebojsa; Hoff, Bard Helge; Sundby, Eirik

    2010-01-01

    Benzoylated deoxyfluoropyranosides have been synthesized, starting with protected, unprotected, or fluorinated precursors. Fluorination of eight derivatives was compared using DAST and Deoxo-Fluor as reagents. Deoxo-Fluor was found to be especially useful in the fluorination of methyl 2,3,4-O-tribenzoyl -D-mannopyranoside and -D-glucopyranoside, resulting in better yields and avoiding the 1,6-methoxy migration experienced with DAST for one derivative. The two reagents gave comparable yields i...

  8. Antimicrobial and antioxidant screening of N¢-substituted sulphonyl and benzoyl derivatives of 4-Pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Sabahat; Akhtar, Shamim; Asghar, Nadia; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Mushtaq, Nousheen; Kamil, Arfa; Zafar, Shaista; Arif, Mohammad; Saify, Zafar Saeed

    2015-11-01

    In this research program, the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of six N'-substituted sulfonyl and benzoyl derivatives of lead molecule PCH were reported. Out of these compounds, sulphonyl derivatives 2,3 and benzoyl derivative 5 showed moderate to good activity against different strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. thruingiensis and S. pyogenes, S. fecalis and E. coli ATCC 8739. Moreover, upon antifungal screening, the compound, N¢-[(2,4,6-trimethylbenzene) sulfonyl]pyridine-4-carbohydrazide possessed good antifungal activity against Candida species, a causative agent of systemic fungal infections. Antioxidant study demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in DPPH assay for sulphonyl derivative 2 indicating its potential as antioxidant while the other derivatives expressed low level of radical scavenging property. PMID:26639506

  9. Synthesis of 1-Benzoyl-3-aryl-4-hydroxy-4-phenylimidazolidin-2-thiones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾润生; 邹建平; 穆学军; 沈琪

    2003-01-01

    l-Benzoyl-3-aryl-4-hydroxy-4-phenylimidazolidin-2-thiones can be synthesized readily from the cyclization of 1-benzoyl-3-arylthioureas with bromine-acetophenone in the presence of excess triethylamiqe.

  10. Microwave-assisted facile and rapid Friedel-Crafts benzoylation of arenes catalysed by bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phoung Hoang; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pham, Thuy Than;

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activity of metal triflates was investigated in Friedel–Crafts benzoylation under microwave irradiation. Friedel–Crafts benzoylation with benzoyl chloride of a variety of arenes containing electron-rich and electron-poor rings using bismuth triflate under microwave irradiation is...

  11. Improved Convenient Synthesis of Benzoyl Metronidazole: A Nitroimidazole Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-zhong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved, cost-effective, and one-pot method for the synthesis of benzoyl metronidazole was achieved by using N,N′-carbonyldiimidazole as a coupling reagent. Moreover, the byproduct imidazole as the catalyst promoted the reaction. The procedures are simple and suitable to large-scale manufactures.

  12. Formulation and characterization of benzoyl peroxide gellified emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Naresh Kumar; Bharti, Pratibha; Mahant, Sheefali; Rao, Rekha

    2012-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating a gellified emulsion of benzoyl peroxide, an anti-acne agent. The formulations were prepared using four different vegetable oils, viz. almond oil, jojoba oil, sesame oil, and wheat germ oil, owing to their emollient properties. The idea was to overcome the skin irritation and dryness caused by benzoyl peroxide, making the formulation more tolerable. The gellified emulsions were characterized for their homogeneity, rheology, spreadability, drug content, and stability. In vitro permeation studies were performed to check the drug permeation through rat skin. The formulations were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their acute skin irritation potential. The results were compared with those obtained for the marketed formulation. Later, the histopathological examination of the skin treated with various formulations was carried out. Formulation F3 was found to have caused a very mild dysplastic change to the epidermis. On the other hand, the marketed formulation led to the greatest dysplastic change. Hence, it was concluded that formulation F3, containing sesame oil (6%w/w), was the optimized formulation. It exhibited the maximum drug release and anti-microbial activity, in addition to the least skin irritation potential.

  13. Rapid detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by using Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Dhakal, Sagar; Xu, Tianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Benzoyl peroxide is a common flour additive that improves the whiteness of flour and the storage properties of flour products. However, benzoyl peroxide adversely affects the nutritional content of flour, and excess consumption causes nausea, dizziness, other poisoning, and serious liver damage. This study was focus on detection of the benzoyl peroxide added in wheat flour. A Raman scattering spectroscopy system was used to acquire spectral signal from sample data and identify benzoyl peroxide based on Raman spectral peak position. The optical devices consisted of Raman spectrometer and CCD camera, 785 nm laser module, optical fiber, prober, and a translation stage to develop a real-time, nondestructive detection system. Pure flour, pure benzoyl peroxide and different concentrations of benzoyl peroxide mixed with flour were prepared as three sets samples to measure the Raman spectrum. These samples were placed in the same type of petri dish to maintain a fixed distance between the Raman CCD and petri dish during spectral collection. The mixed samples were worked by pretreatment of homogenization and collected multiple sets of data of each mixture. The exposure time of this experiment was set at 0.5s. The Savitzky Golay (S-G) algorithm and polynomial curve-fitting method was applied to remove the fluorescence background from the Raman spectrum. The Raman spectral peaks at 619 cm-1, 848 cm-1, 890 cm-1, 1001 cm-1, 1234 cm-1, 1603cm-1, 1777cm-1 were identified as the Raman fingerprint of benzoyl peroxide. Based on the relationship between the Raman intensity of the most prominent peak at around 1001 cm-1 and log values of benzoyl peroxide concentrations, the chemical concentration prediction model was developed. This research demonstrated that Raman detection system could effectively and rapidly identify benzoyl peroxide adulteration in wheat flour. The experimental result is promising and the system with further modification can be applicable for more products in near

  14. Regioselective Benzoylation of Diols and Carbohydrates by Catalytic Amounts of Organobase

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    Yuchao Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel metal-free organobase-catalyzed regioselective benzoylation of diols and carbohydrates has been developed. Treatment of diol and carbohydrate substrates with 1.1 equiv. of 1-benzoylimidazole and 0.2 equiv. of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU in MeCN under mild conditions resulted in highly regioselective benzoylation for the primary hydroxyl group. Importantly, compared to most commonly used protecting bulky groups for primary hydroxyl groups, the benzoyl protective group offers a new protection strategy.

  15. Precursor-Directed Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Cinnamoyl, Dihydrocinnamoyl, and Benzoyl Anthranilates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymerick Eudes

    Full Text Available Biological synthesis of pharmaceuticals and biochemicals offers an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional chemical synthesis. These alternative methods require the design of metabolic pathways and the identification of enzymes exhibiting adequate activities. Cinnamoyl, dihydrocinnamoyl, and benzoyl anthranilates are natural metabolites which possess beneficial activities for human health, and the search is expanding for novel derivatives that might have enhanced biological activity. For example, biosynthesis in Dianthus caryophyllus is catalyzed by hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/ benzoyltransferase (HCBT, which couples hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs and benzoyl-CoAs to anthranilate. We recently demonstrated the potential of using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the biological production of a few cinnamoyl anthranilates by heterologous co-expression of 4-coumaroyl:CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana (4CL5 and HCBT. Here we report that, by exploiting the substrate flexibility of both 4CL5 and HCBT, we achieved rapid biosynthesis of more than 160 cinnamoyl, dihydrocinnamoyl, and benzoyl anthranilates in yeast upon feeding with both natural and non-natural cinnamates, dihydrocinnamates, benzoates, and anthranilates. Our results demonstrate the use of enzyme promiscuity in biological synthesis to achieve high chemical diversity within a defined class of molecules. This work also points to the potential for the combinatorial biosynthesis of diverse and valuable cinnamoylated, dihydrocinnamoylated, and benzoylated products by using the versatile biological enzyme 4CL5 along with characterized cinnamoyl-CoA- and benzoyl-CoA-utilizing transferases.

  16. Precursor-Directed Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Cinnamoyl, Dihydrocinnamoyl, and Benzoyl Anthranilates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Wang, George; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D.; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of pharmaceuticals and biochemicals offers an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional chemical synthesis. These alternative methods require the design of metabolic pathways and the identification of enzymes exhibiting adequate activities. Cinnamoyl, dihydrocinnamoyl, and benzoyl anthranilates are natural metabolites which possess beneficial activities for human health, and the search is expanding for novel derivatives that might have enhanced biological activity. For example, biosynthesis in Dianthus caryophyllus is catalyzed by hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/ benzoyltransferase (HCBT), which couples hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs and benzoyl-CoAs to anthranilate. We recently demonstrated the potential of using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for the biological production of a few cinnamoyl anthranilates by heterologous co-expression of 4-coumaroyl:CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana (4CL5) and HCBT. Here we report that, by exploiting the substrate flexibility of both 4CL5 and HCBT, we achieved rapid biosynthesis of more than 160 cinnamoyl, dihydrocinnamoyl, and benzoyl anthranilates in yeast upon feeding with both natural and non-natural cinnamates, dihydrocinnamates, benzoates, and anthranilates. Our results demonstrate the use of enzyme promiscuity in biological synthesis to achieve high chemical diversity within a defined class of molecules. This work also points to the potential for the combinatorial biosynthesis of diverse and valuable cinnamoylated, dihydrocinnamoylated, and benzoylated products by using the versatile biological enzyme 4CL5 along with characterized cinnamoyl-CoA- and benzoyl-CoA-utilizing transferases. PMID:26430899

  17. Precursor-Directed Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Cinnamoyl, Dihydrocinnamoyl, and Benzoyl Anthranilates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Wang, George; Baidoo, Edward E K; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of pharmaceuticals and biochemicals offers an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional chemical synthesis. These alternative methods require the design of metabolic pathways and the identification of enzymes exhibiting adequate activities. Cinnamoyl, dihydrocinnamoyl, and benzoyl anthranilates are natural metabolites which possess beneficial activities for human health, and the search is expanding for novel derivatives that might have enhanced biological activity. For example, biosynthesis in Dianthus caryophyllus is catalyzed by hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/ benzoyltransferase (HCBT), which couples hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs and benzoyl-CoAs to anthranilate. We recently demonstrated the potential of using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for the biological production of a few cinnamoyl anthranilates by heterologous co-expression of 4-coumaroyl:CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana (4CL5) and HCBT. Here we report that, by exploiting the substrate flexibility of both 4CL5 and HCBT, we achieved rapid biosynthesis of more than 160 cinnamoyl, dihydrocinnamoyl, and benzoyl anthranilates in yeast upon feeding with both natural and non-natural cinnamates, dihydrocinnamates, benzoates, and anthranilates. Our results demonstrate the use of enzyme promiscuity in biological synthesis to achieve high chemical diversity within a defined class of molecules. This work also points to the potential for the combinatorial biosynthesis of diverse and valuable cinnamoylated, dihydrocinnamoylated, and benzoylated products by using the versatile biological enzyme 4CL5 along with characterized cinnamoyl-CoA- and benzoyl-CoA-utilizing transferases.

  18. A 6% Benzoyl Peroxide Foaming Cloth Cleanser Used in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: Aesthetic Characteristics, Patient Preference Considerations, and Impact on Compliance with Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the product attributes of a new benzoyl peroxide-containing foaming cloth cleanser and to compare the overall patient satisfaction of this product with two currently available benzoyl peroxide acne products (6% benzoyl peroxide cleanser and 4% benzoyl peroxide wash). Design: This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting: Two clinical trial sites. Participants: Male and female subjects (N=193) aged 17 to 30 years with a history of acne vulgar...

  19. A facile BPO-mediated ortho-hydroxylation and benzoylation of N-alkyl anilines for synthesis of 2-benzamidophenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jing; Quan, Xue-Jing; Ren, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Yao-Yu; Guan, Zheng-Hui

    2014-06-20

    A facile benzoyl peroxide (BPO) mediated ortho-hydroxylation and benzoylation of N-alkyl anilines for the synthesis of 2-benzamidophenols has been developed. The reaction tolerates a wide range of functional groups and is a good method for the straightforward synthesis of valuable 2-benzamidophenols in good yields under mild conditions.

  20. Peroxo complexes of uranium(VI) with N-benzoyl urea and related ligands: synthesis, characterization and antifungal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peroxouranium(VI) complexes containing N-benzoyl urea and related ligands having composition (UO(O2)L-L(NO3)2).H2O (where L-L=N-benzoyl urea (NBU), N-benzoyl thiourea (NBT). N-benzoyl hydrazine (NBHz) and N-benzoyl hydroxylamine (NBHA)) are reported. The synthesized complexes have been characterized by various physico-chemical techniques, viz, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurements, infra red, electronic, mass spectral and TGA/DTA studies. These studies revealed that the synthesized complexes are non-electrolytic and diamagnetic in nature. The ligands are bound to metal in a bidentate mode. Thermal analysis results provide conclusive evidence for the presence of water molecule in the complexes. Mass spectra confirm the molecular mass of the complexes. Antifungal activity of complexes revealed enhanced activity of complexes as compared to corresponding ligands. (author)

  1. Radical Evil

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    Carlos Manrique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an aporia in Kant’s analysis of evil: he defines radical evilas an invisible disposition of the will, but he also demands an inferential connection between visible evil actions and this invisible disposition. This inference,however, undermines the radical invisibility of radical evil according to Kant’s own definition of the latter. Noting how this invisibility of moral worth is a distinctive feature of Kant’s approach to the moral problem, the paper then asks why, in the Groundwork, he nonetheless forecloses a question about evil that seems to be consistent with this approach. It is argued that to account for this aporia and this foreclosure, one has to interrogate the way in which the category of religion orients Kant’s incipient philosophy of history in Die Religion.

  2. Nucleophilic Benzoylation Using a Mandelic Acid Dioxolanone as a Synthetic Equivalent of the Benzoyl Carbanion. Oxidative Decarboxylation of α-Hydroxyacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Pedro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of alkyl aryl ketones using a mandelic acid dioxolanone as a synthetic equivalent (Umpolung of the benzoyl carbanion is reported. The methodology involves alkylation of the mandelic acid dioxolanone, hydrolysis of the dioxolanone moiety in the alkylated products and oxidative decarboxylation of the resulting α-hydroxyacids. The last step is carried out in a catalytic aerobic way using a Co (III complex in the presence of pivalaldehyde under very mild conditions.

  3. Radical-scavenging Activity of Natural Methoxyphenols vs. Synthetic Ones using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Yokoe

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activities of the synthetic antioxidants 2-allyl-4-X-phenol (X=NO2, Cl, Br, OCH3, COCH3, CH3, t-(CH33, C6H5 and 2,4-dimethoxyphenol, and the natural antioxidants eugenol and isoeugenol, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC by measuring their anti-1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical activity and the induction period for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and benzoyl peroxide (BPO. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol and 2,4-dimethoxy-phenol scavenged not only oxygen-centered radicals (PhCOO. derived from BPO, but also carbon-centered radicals (R. derived from the AIBN and DPPH radical much more efficiently, in comparison with eugenol and isoeugenol. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol may be useful for its lower prooxidative activity.

  4. Investigation of the decomposition reaction and dust explosion characteristics of crystalline benzoyl peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, K.-T. [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan 33509, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ktlu@ndu.edu.tw; Chen, T.-C. [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan 33509, Taiwan (China); Hu, K.-H. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    The benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is widely used in the chemical industry. Many catastrophes have been caused by its thermal instability or reactive incompatibility in storage or thermal decomposition reaction. Thus, its hazard characteristics have to be clearly identified. First of all, the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) is used to measure the heat of decomposition reaction, which can contribute to understanding the reaction characteristics of benzoyl peroxide. The accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) is used to measure the rates of temperature and pressure rises of decomposition reaction, and then the kinetics parameters are estimated. Furthermore, the MIKE 3 apparatus and the 20-l-Apparatus are used to measure and analyze the dust explosion characteristics of benzoyl peroxide under room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Finally, Semenov's thermal explosion theory is applied to investigate the critical runaway condition and the stability criterion of decomposition reaction, and to build the relationship of critical temperature, convective heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer surface area and ambient temperature. These results contribute to improving the safety in the reaction, transportation and storage processes of benzoyl peroxide.

  5. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-promoted oxidative trifluoromethylation of tertiary amines with trimethyl(trifluoromethyl)silane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lingling; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2010-09-14

    The benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-promoted oxidative functionalization of tertiary amines under transition-metal-free reaction conditions was developed. Various 1-trifluoromethylated tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives were prepared by employing this method. It constitutes the first example of direct trifluoromethylation of tertiary amines.

  6. Benzoyl peroxide-induced damage to DNA and its components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazlewood, C; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    , sugars, nucleosides, nucleotides, RNA, and DNA have been examined and the intermediate species have been identified in many cases. Comparison of these data with those obtained with Ph. alone has allowed the reactions of PhCO2. and Ph. to be distinguished. Evidence has been obtained which is consistent...... of base adducts, though the exact identity of the species detected in these cases could not be determined due to the complexity of the spectra. Hydrogen abstraction at the sugar-phosphate backbone is also believed to occur with these substrates as strand breakage is observed; the extent of the latter...... is dependent on the radical flux and the attacking species, with PhCO2. appearing to be a much more effective inducer of fragmentation than Ph. The nature of the species detected with all the substrates examined, with the exception of the isolated sugars where essentially random attack by both radicals...

  7. The Crystal Structure of N-Benzoyl-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-thiourea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN Liang; ZHANG You-ming; WEI Tai-bao

    2004-01-01

    Thiourea compounds are excellent agents of bioactive substance. A number of biological activities are associated with substituted thiourea derivatives. A survey of literature reveals that some work has been reported on benzoylthiourea, which has found plenty of applications as a facile and simple ligand in determination of trances of the transition metal and as an available starting material in preparation of a wide variety of metal complexes. In recent years,N-benzoyl-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-thiourea has attracted considerable attention as selective reagents for the liquid-liquid extraction and preconcentration of platinum group metals and its antifungle activity.As a part of our works in studying coordination behaviours of N-benzoyl-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-thiourea and its bioactivity, in view of these observations and in continuation of our previous works on it, the present work was reported on the crystal structure of N-benzoyl-N'-( 2-hydroxyethyl)-thiourea.The crystals structure in the monoclinic system and space group of P21/c of N-benzoyl-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)- thiourea (C10H12N2O2S) was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, a = 17.083 (3) A, b = 4.5490 (10) A, c = 14.279 (3)A, a = 90.00°, a = 102.44(3)°, a = 90.00 °, Ⅴ = 1083.6 (4)A3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.375 Mg/m3, i (Mo Ka)= 0.280 mm-1, F(000) =472. The final R and u R are 0.0399 and 0.0881 for 783 observed reflections [Ⅰ>26(Ⅰ)].Fig. 1 shows the molecular crystal structure of N-benzoyl-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)thiourea indicating that the carbonyl and thiocarbonyl moieties are pointing in approximate opposite directions. The six atoms in the ring structure hydrogen bonded are almost in one plane. The N(2)-H proton pendant arm extends to the carbonyl oxygen atom, forms hydrogen bond between them.The existence of hydrogen bond in benzoyl-thiourea molecular six-membered ring structure has significant implications on coordination properties, suggest the possibility of intramolecular hydrogen bond

  8. Radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare oncological and functional outcomes between robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) during the initial phase with RALP at a large university hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patient and tumour...... surgery and at follow-up and they were asked to report their use of pads/diapers. Potency was defined as an IIEF-5 score of at least 17 with or without phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Patients using up to one pad daily for security reasons only were considered continent. Positive surgical margins, blood...... loss and functional outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS: Overall, 453 patients were treated with RRP and 585 with RALP. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, the type of surgery did not affect surgical margins (p = 0.96) or potency at 12 months (p = 0.7). Patients who had undergone...

  9. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Three-Step Acne System Containing a Solubilized Benzoyl Peroxide Lotion versus a Benzoyl Peroxide/Clindamycin Combination Product: An Investigator-Blind, Randomized, Parallel-Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Lawrence J.; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2008-01-01

    A brand three-step acne treatment system containing a solubilized 5% benzoyl lotion and a designated cleanser and moisturizer was compared with a brand benzoyl peroxide 5%/clindamycin 1% gel in subjects with acne vulgaris. The single-center, four-week study was investigator-blinded and randomized. The three-step acne treatment system proved to be comparable in efficacy and tolerability.

  10. Roaming Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Joel M.; Shepler, Benjamin C.

    2011-05-01

    Roaming is a recently verified unusual pathway to molecular products from unimolecular dissociation of an energized molecule. Here we present the evidence for this pathway for H2CO and CH3CHO. Theoretical analysis shows that this path visits the plateau region of the potential energy surface near dissociation to radical products. It is not clear whether roaming is a distinct isolated pathway, in addition to the conventional one via the well-known molecular saddle-point transition state. Evidence is presented to suggest that the two pathways may originate from a single, but highly complicated, dividing surface. Other examples of unusual reaction dynamics are also reviewed.

  11. Profile of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 3.75% aqueous gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen TA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuyet A Nguyen,1,2 Lawrence F Eichenfield1,31Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Dermatology, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, CA, 2Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, 3Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Acne vulgaris is a common and chronic skin disease, and is a frequent source of morbidity for affected patients. Treatment of acne vulgaris is often difficult due to the multifactorial nature of this disease. Combination therapy, such as that containing clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide, has become the standard of care. Several fixed formulations of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide of varying concentrations are available and have been used with considerable success. The major limitation is irritation and dryness from higher concentrations of benzoyl peroxide, and a combination providing optimal efficacy and tolerability has yet to be determined. Recently, a clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide 3.75% fixed combination formulation was developed. Studies have suggested that this formulation may be a safe and effective treatment regimen for patients with acne vulgaris. Here, we provide a brief review of acne pathogenesis, benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin, and profile a new Clindamycin-BP 3.75% fixed combination gel for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris. Keywords: acne vulgaris, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin

  12. Synthesis and characterization of bio-based polyurethane from benzoylated cashewnut husk tannins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A J Sunija; S Siva Ilango; K P Vinod Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Benzoylated tannin prepared by benzoylation of cashewnut husk tannin, was treated with hexame-thylenediisocyanate in the presence of 1,4-butanediol as an extender to prepare thermosetting polyurethane. The sample was characterized using FT–IR and 13C NMR spectra. Thermal, morphological, physico-chemical and electrical properties were also investigated. Polyurethane obtained was sensitive to moisture but had very good solvent resistance. Results show that g of the sample is 260 °C and thermal decomposition begins at 280 °C. The dielectric constant varies randomly with temperature. The conductivity of the sample was found to increase with increase in temperature but shows random variation at 90 and 150 °C

  13. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Benzoyl Hydrazines Containing Pyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫涛; 于淑晶; 刘鹏飞; 刘卓; 王宝雷; 熊丽霞; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign compounds with high biological activity, low toxicity and low resistance, 8 novel benzoyl hydrazines containing pyrazole were designed and synthesized. All compounds were characterized by I H NMR spectra and HRMS. The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicated that most of title compounds exhibited certain insecticidal activities against M),thimna separata Walker at 200 mg L-1 but excellent fungicidal activities against six fungus at 50 mg L-1, which were better than the control.

  14. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of novel 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazole derivatives targeting tubulin polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianjun; Li, Chien-Ming; Wang, Jin; Ahn, Sunjoo; Wang, Zhao; Lu, Yan; Dalton, James T.; Miller, Duane D.; Li, Wei

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported the discovery of 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazoles (ABI-I) as potent antiproliferative agents for melanoma. To further understand the structural requirements for the potency of ABI analogs, gain insight in the structure-activity relationships (SAR), and investigate metabolic stability for these compounds, we report extensive SAR studies on the ABI-I scaffold. Compared with the previous set of ABI-I analogs, the newly synthesized ABI-II analogs have lower potency in general, b...

  15. Benzoylation of anisole catalyzed by Ga/SBA-15 supported on carbon nanofibers composite

    OpenAIRE

    EL BERRICHI, F. Z.; Pham-Huu, C.; CHERIF, L.; Louis, B; M. J.; Ledoux

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber composite (C-NFC) shows several advantages compared to the conventional supports which are usually employed in catalysis such as alumina, silica or activated charcoal. In this present work we have developed a new hybrid catalyst consisting of SBA-15 supported on C-NFC for the benzoylation reaction. The structured materials allow an important improvement of the reaction hydrodynamics and favor the mass transfer between the active phase and the reactants, especially in the liqu...

  16. Analysis of benzoyl-peroxide and formaldehyde as dental allergens by FT-SPR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bako, J.; Kelemen, M.; Hegedus, Cs

    2013-12-01

    In parallel with the appearance of new dental materials the number of induced allergic diseases increases. Based on this fact more sensitive detection of allergens is major importance. The Fourier-Transform Surface Plasmon Resonance (FT-SPR) is a sensitive, broadly applicable real-time method for analysing thin layers of materials on gold surfaces. FT-SPR measurement is performed at a fixed angel of incident light, and reflectivity is measured over a range of wavelength in the near infrared. In our study the formaldehyde and benzoyl-peroxide were examined as members of the most common dental allergens by FT-SPR spectroscopy. The aim of this work was the investigation of the suitability of this method for the direct detection of these materials. Different concentrations of formaldehyde and benzoyl-peroxide solutions were measured from this purpose. The individual spectra were measured for all of the solutions, and calibration curves were calculated for the materials for the possibility of the determination of an unknown concentration. In addition, series measurements were performed whereby the association and dissociation properties of formaldehyde or benzoyl-peroxide were described. The results of the experiments proved that the method capable to measure directly these materials and can provide appropriate calibration curves for determination of unknown concentrations.

  17. Organotin(IV) complexes with 2-acetylpyridine benzoyl hydrazones: antimicrobial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despaigne, Angel A.R.; Vieira, Lorena F.; Mendes, Isolda C.; Costa, Fernanda B. da; Beraldo, Heloisa, E-mail: hberaldo@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Speziali, Nivaldo L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Reaction of n-butyltin trichloride, [Bu{sup n}SnCl{sub 3}], and phenyltin trichloride, [PhSnCl{sub 3}], with 2-acetylpyridine benzoyl hydrazone (H2AcPh), 2-acetylpyridine para-chloro-benzoyl hydrazone (H2AcpClPh) and 2-acetylpyridine para-nitro-benzoyl hydrazone (H2AcpNO{sub 2}Ph) gave [Bu{sup n}Sn(2AcPh)Cl{sub 2}] (1), [Bu{sup n}Sn(2AcpClPh)Cl{sub 2}] (2), [Bu{sup n}Sn(2AcpNO{sub 2}Ph)Cl{sub 2}] (3), [PhSn(2AcPh)Cl{sub 2}] (4), [PhSn(2AcpClPh)Cl{sub 2}] (5) and [PhSn(2AcpNO{sub 2}Ph)Cl{sub 2}] (6) as products. Among the hydrazones H2AcpClPh proved to be the most active against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Upon coordination the antibacterial activity of both tin and the hydrazones significantly increases. Complexes 2 and 5 revealed to be the most active as antimicrobial agents. (author)

  18. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ADHESIVE PROPERTIES OF DI-AND TRI-HYDROXY BENZOYL CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamad Taghi Taghizadeh; Ali Bahadori

    2013-01-01

    Modified chitosans with 3,4-di-hydroxy benzoyl groups (CS-DHBA) and 3,4,5-tri-hydroxy benzoyl groups (CSTHBA) were synthesized and their nanoparticles were prepared via ionic crosslinking by tripolyphosphate (TPP).The chemical structure and degree of substitution (DS) of di-and tri-hydroxy benzoyl chitosans are determined by FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopy.The morphology of particles,size distribution and zeta potential of nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS),respectively.The mean diameters of particles of CS-DHBA and CS-THBA nanoparticles were 144 nm and 112 nm,respectively.It was found that the particles size decreased slightly with decreasing the degree of substitution and increasing degree of deacetylation (DD),due to increasing of ionic crosslinking of ammonium ions and polyanions of tripolyphosphate.The TEM photographs of CS-DHBA show that these particles are spherical in shape,but the particles of CS-THBA show some aggregation.In addition,the solubility and the mechanical properties of the prepared modified chitosans and their nanoparticles were evaluated for bio-adhesive and biomedical application.The results of solubility tests indicated that,the CS-DHBA and CS-THBA have higher solubility at pH > 7 comparing to CS.Also the CS-DHBA,CS-THBA and their nanoparticles showed a significant adhesive capacity and enhanced tensile strength and tensile modulus.

  19. Efficacy and safety of topical nadifloxacin and benzoyl peroxide versus clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide in acne vulgaris: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Choudhury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Topical therapy with comedolytics and antibiotics are often advocated for mild and moderate severity acne vulgaris. Nadifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone with anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity and additional anti-inflammatory activity, is approved for use in acne. This randomized controlled assessor blind trial compared the clinical effectiveness and safety of eight weeks therapy of nadifloxacin 1% versus clindamycin 1% as add-on therapy to benzoyl peroxide (2.5% in mild to moderate grade acne. Materials and Methods : The efficacy parameters were changes in the total, inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts, Investigator Global Assessment (IGA, and Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI scales from baseline to study end (eight weeks. All treatment emergent dermatological adverse events were evaluated for safety assessment. Results : Out of 84 randomized subjects (43-nadifloxacin arm and (41-clindamycin 42 in nadifloxacin group, 37 in clindamycin group completed the study. Reduction from baseline of total, inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts were highly significant in both the groups (P<0.0001, but between group differences were not significant. Significant improvement in CADI and IGA scales were noted in both groups. Between-group comparison showed no significant differences. The safety and tolerability profile of both regimens were good and statistically comparable. Conclusions: Topical nadifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone is effective, tolerable, and safe for mild o moderate facial acne. Its clinical effectiveness is comparable to clindamycin when used as add-on therapy to benzoyl peroxide.

  20. Ignorance Radicalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Somodi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. I criticize Michael Devitt's linguistic---as opposed to Chomsky's psychological---conception of linguistics on the one hand, and I modify his related view on linguistic intuitions on the other. I argue that Devitt's argument for the linguistic conception is in conflict with one of the main theses of that very conception, according to which linguistics should be about physical sentence tokens of a given language rather than about the psychologically real competence of native speakers. The basis of this conflict is that Devitt's view on language, as I will show, inherits too much from the criticized Chomskian view. This is also the basis of Devitt's strange claim that it is the linguist, and not the ordinary speaker, whose linguistic intuition should have an evidential role in linguistics. I will argue for the opposite by sketching a view on language that is more appropriate to the linguistic conception. That is, in criticizing Devitt, I am not defending the Chomskian approach. My aim is to radicalize Devitt's claims.

  1. Intramolecular Homolytic Substitution with Amidyl Radicals: A Free-Radical Synthesis of Ebselen and Related Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mei C.; Schiesser, Carl H.

    1997-05-16

    Irradiation of a water-cooled benzene solution of pyridine-2-thioneoxycarbonyl (PTOC) imidate esters 9 derived from N-butyl-2-(benzylseleno)benzamide (6, R = Bu), 2-(benzylseleno)-N-hexylbenzamide (6, R = Hex), N-benzyl-2-(benzylseleno)benzamide (6, R = Bn), and 2-(benzylseleno)-N-cyclohexylbenzamide (6, R = c-Hex) with a 250-W low-pressure mercury lamp affords the corresponding 1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones (1) in yields of 81-91% (R = primary alkyl) and 45% (R = c-Hex). Presumably, these transformations involve formation of amidyl radicals 2 which undergo subsequent intramolecular homolytic substitution at the selenium atom with expulsion of a benzyl radical. PTOC imidate esters derived from 2-(benzylseleno)benzanilide (6, R = Ph) and 2-(benzylseleno)-N-tert-butylbenzamide (6, R = t-Bu) were unable to be prepared in this manner. 1,2-Benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones (1, R = Ph, Hex, i-Pr, t-Bu) could also be prepared in 76-85% yield by reaction of the corresponding 2,2'-diselenobis(benzamide) (15) with benzoyl or tert-butyl peroxide. The mechanisms of these transformations are discussed.

  2. Biosynthesis of benzoylformic acid from benzoyl cyanide with a new bacterial isolate of Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Cai; Pan, Xue-He; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1 with high nitrilase activity could effectively hydrolyze benzoyl cyanide into benzoylformic acid. After the culture optimization, the preferred carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and inducer were glucose (10 g/L), a composite of peptone (10 g/L) plus yeast extract (2.5 g/L), and ε-caprolactam (2.0 mM), respectively. After the reaction optimization, the optimum reaction temperature, reaction pH, organic cosolvent, and metal ion were 30 °C, 7.0, ethanol (2%, v/v), and Ca(2+) (0.1 mM), respectively. At biotransformation of 120-mM benzoyl cyanide for 24 h, the yield of benzoylformic acid reached 91.8%. Moreover, the microbial nitrilase from Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1 could hydrolyze various nitriles, and it significantly exhibited high nitrilase activity against benzoyl cyanide, 3-cyanopyridine, and α-cyclohexyl-mandelonitrile. PMID:24504691

  3. 2-Benzoyl-4-chloro­aniline thio­semi­carbazone

    OpenAIRE

    Katlen C. T. Bandeira; Leandro Bresolin; Lehmann, Ueslei Z.; Priscilla J. Zambiazi; Adriano Bof de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H13ClN4S, obtained from a reaction of 2-benzoyl-4-chloro­aniline with thio­semicarbazide in ethanol, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 81.31 (13)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked by three N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming centrosymmetric rings with set-graph motif R 2 2(8) and R 2 2(18), and resulting in the formation of a two-dimensional network lying parallel to (010).

  4. Solvent extraction of lanthanide ions with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of Er(3), Yb(3) and Lu(3) by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5(HPMBP or HL) in carbon tetrachloride has been studied as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase and the concentration of the extractant in the organic phase. The equation for the extraction reaction has been suggested as: Ln3++3HL(0) rightleftdblarrow LnL3(0)+3H+(Ln3+ = Er, Yb, Lu). The extraction equilibrium constants (Kex) and two-phase stability constants (β3x) for the LnL3 complexes have been evaluated. (Author)

  5. Auto oxidation of plutonium with 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone as an extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of Pu (III) using 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (HPBI) was investigated in the presence of several reducing agents. It was observed that Pu (IV) was the dominating species extracted even though the aqueous phase comprised exclusively of Pu (III) initially. While aqueous reducing agents such as hydrazinium nitrate, hydroxyl ammonium nitrate, di-ethyl hydroxyl amine had no effect in suppressing the oxidation of Pu (III); organophilic t-butyl hydroquinone was found to be an effective holding reductant. The observed rate constants for the oxidation reaction were calculated and were found to be independent on the hydrogen ion concentration. (author)

  6. Photocarcinogenesis and toxicity of benzoyl peroxide in hairless mice after simulated solar radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    Topical benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gel has long been used to treat acne vulgaris and has recently been combined with clindamycin (BPO-clin). No skin malignancies have been reported after clinical use of BPO, but there has been concern about the possible carcinogenicity of BPO alone and in combination...... with UV radiation. BPO can promote skin tumorigenesis in a mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis model. As acne vulgaris is frequently localized on sun-exposed areas, we investigated whether BPO or BPO-clin accelerates photocarcinogenesis in combination with simulated solar radiation (SSR) in 12 groups of 25...

  7. Novel antimicrobial superporous cross-linked chitosan/pyromellitimide benzoyl thiourea hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nadia A; Abd El-Ghany, Nahed A; Fahmy, Mona M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, chitosan (CS) was cross-linked with different amounts of pyromellitimide benzoyl thiourea moieties. The structure of the cross-linked CS was confirmed by elemental analyses, FTIR and (1)H- NMR spectroscopy. The cross-linking process proceeds via reacting of the amino groups of CS with the isothiocyanate groups of the N,N'-bis [4-(isothiocyanate carbonyl)phenyl] pyromellitimide cross-linker. The amount of the cross-linker was varied with respect to CS to produce four new pyromellitimide benzoyl thiourea cross-linked CS (PIBTU-CS) hydrogels designated as PIBTU-CS-1, PIBTU-CS-2, PIBTU-CS-3, and PIBTU-CS-4 of increasing cross-linking degree percent of 11, 22, 44 and 88%, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy observation indicates the extremely porous structure of the hydrogels. XRD results showed that the crystallinity of CS was decreased upon cross-linking. The four hydrogels exhibit a higher antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae as Gram positive bacteria and against Escherichia coli as Gram negative bacteria and higher antifungal activity on Aspergillus fumigatus, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Geotricum candidum than that of the parent CS as shown from their higher inhibition zone diameters and their lower MIC values. The swell ability of the hydrogel as well as their antimicrobial activity increased with increasing cross-linking density.

  8. Design, synthesis, and anti-melanogenic effects of (E-2-benzoyl-3-(substituted phenylacrylonitriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun HY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hwi Young Yun,1 Do Hyun Kim,1 Sujin Son,1 Sultan Ullah,1 Seong Jin Kim,1 Yeon-Jeong Kim,2 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Pusoon Chun,2 Hyung Ryong Moon1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, 2College of Pharmacy, Inje University, Gimhae, Republic of Korea Background: Tyrosinase is the most prominent target for inhibitors of hyperpigmentation because it plays a critical role in melaninogenesis. Although many tyrosinase inhibitors have been identified, from both natural and synthetic sources, there remains a considerable demand for novel tyrosinase inhibitors that are safer and more effective. Methods: (E-2-Benzoyl-3-(substituted phenylacrylonitriles (BPA analogs with a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold were designed and synthesized as potential tyrosinase inhibitors. We evaluated their effects on cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in murine B16F10 melanoma cells and their ability to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. Results: BPA analogs exhibited inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase. In particular, BPA13 significantly suppressed melanin biosynthesis and inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A docking study revealed that BPA13 had higher binding affinity for tyrosinase than kojic acid. Conclusion: BPA13, which possesses a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold, is a potential candidate skin-whitening agent and treatment for diseases associated with hyperpigmentation. Keywords: (E-2-benzoyl-3-(substituted phenylacrylonitriles, melanogenesis, tyrosinase inhibitor

  9. A novel surfactant S-benzoyl-N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate synthesis and its flotation performance to galena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Hu, Yuan; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Guangyi; Zhao, Gang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel dithiocarbamate compound, S-benzoyl-N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (BEDTC), was synthesized via one-pot reaction of diethylamine, carbon disulfide, sodium hydroxide and benzoyl chloride using abundant carbon disulfide as a solvent. Its flotation performance and adsorption mechanism on the galena was first investigated by flotation tests, adsorption quantity measurements, FTIR spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The flotation results illustrated that BEDTC exhibited stronger collecting power than the conventional sulphide collectors such as sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (SEDTC) and sodium isobutyl xanthate (SIBX) and superior selectivity for galena against sphalerite. The adsorption data demonstrated that the adsorption affinity of BEDTC to galena was stronger than that of SEDTC and SIBX, and the preferable pH range for BEDTC adsorption on galena surfaces was 6-10. The results of FTIR spectra and XPS indicated that the interaction of BEDTC with galena may be dominated by the chemical adsorption, which was further confirmed by DFT calculation. BEDTC probably acted as a bidentate ligand, bonding with lead through the thiol sulfur and carbonyl oxygen atoms to form two distinct adsorption geometries, one with the same Pb atom to form a six-membered ring complex, and the other with two different Pb atoms to form a "bullet" shape complex.

  10. n-Benzoyl-n-phenylhydroxylamine impregnated Amberlite XAD-4 beads for selective removal of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramouleeswaran, S.; Ramkumar, Jayshree, E-mail: jrk@barc.gov.in

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • XAD-4 was impregnated with a commonly used gravimetric agent n-benzoyl-n-phenylhydroxylamine. • Sorbent characterized by different techniques to understand the pore filling of XAD-4. • Sorption of Th was fast (30 min) and unaffected by initial solution pH. • Selectivity achieved by tuning the conditions of the mixture solution. - Abstract: n-Benzoyl-n-phenylhydroxylamine impregnated Amberlite XAD-4 beads were used for the removal of Th(IV) from a mixture of ions. The impregnated XAD was characterized using different techniques like weight and colour change, IR spectra, surface area and pore size measurements to confirm the presence of n-BPHA within the macroreticular resin structure. The experimental conditions were optimized to make the separation fast and selective. It was seen that the maximum sorption was achieved in the pH range of 3–7.5 and uptake was nearly complete within half an hour. The results obtained in the present study were subjected to extensive modelling in order to get a complete understanding of the sorption process. It is seen that the maximum uptake was calculated to be 500 mg/g and has very fast kinetics it was seen that the process is chemisorption. It was further deduced from the modelling that the overall sorption process was controlled dominantly by external mass transfer. Considering the simplicity this procedure, the present study has a possible application for the removal of thorium from different mixtures.

  11. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-01

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group.

  12. Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activities of new N-benzoyl-N'-phenyl-N'-sulfenylureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranfeng; Zhang, Yonglin; Chen, Li; Li, Yongqiang; Li, Qingshan; Song, Haibin; Huang, Runqiu; Bi, Fuchun; Wang, Qingmin

    2009-05-13

    A series of new N'-alkylaminothio, N'-arylaminothio (or dithio), and N',N'-thio (or dithio) derivatives of N-benzoyl-N'-phenylureas were designed and synthesized as insect-growth regulators with sulfur dichloride or disulfur dichloride as the original reactant. The new compounds were identified by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonancee (NMR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis [or high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)], and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The X-ray results demonstrated that there exist N-S-N or N-S-S-N bonds in these new compounds. In comparison to the parent N-benzoyl-N'-phenylureas, these derivatives displayed better solubility. The insecticidal activities of the target compounds were evaluated. The results of bioassays showed that compounds 1-24 retained the larvicidal activities of the corresponding benzoylphenylureas (BPUs) and some compounds exhibited better larvicidal activities against oriental armyworm and mosquitoes than the parent BPUs. The larvicidal activities of the selected target compounds 1 and 24 against diamondback moth were better than that of the corresponding parent compounds E and triflumuron. PMID:19326865

  13. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-01

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group. PMID:21831997

  14. Effect on serum sex hormone levels, immune index of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid on acne vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Jie Sun; The authorsi-heng Yu; Yun-hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect on serum sex hormone levels, immune index of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid on acne vulgaris.Methods: 185 patients with acne vulgaris included in the study the authorsre divided into the observation group (85 cases) and the control group (80 cases), the observation group was given the treatment of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid, and the control group was treated with benzoyl peroxide. To observe the change of hormones (T, FSH, LH, E2) and immune indexes (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C4, IL-2, sIL-2R) after 1 month of treatment.Results: After treatment, IgG, C3, C4, IL-2 of the observation group the authorsre significantly different than those before trteatment(P0.05); After treatment, IgG, C3, C4, IL-2 level of two groups the authorsre statistically significant (P<0.05).Where the authorsre no significant difference on sex hormones betthe authorsen the two groups before and after treatment.Conclusion:Benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid has certain effects on immune function for the patients with acne vulgaris, and may be related to therapeutic effect, but no obvious effect on sex hormone.

  15. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - ...

  16. DFT MODELING OF BENZOYL PEROXIDE ADSORPTION ON α-Cr2O3 (0001) SURFACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Frank; Stashans, Arvids

    2016-04-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) has been used to investigate possible adsorption configurations of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) molecule on the chromium oxide (α-Cr2O3) (0001) surface. Two configurations are found to lead to the molecular adsorption with corresponding adsorption energies being equal to -0.16 and -0.48eV, respectively. Our work describes in detail atomic displacements for both crystalline surface and adsorbate as well as discusses electronic and magnetic properties of the system. The most favorable adsorption case is found when the chemical bond between one of the molecular oxygens and one of the surface Cr atoms has been formed.

  17. Identification of Minor Benzoylated 4-Phenylcoumarins from a Mammea neurophylla Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Tai Dang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Through dereplication analysis, seven known Mammea coumarins were identified in a fraction obtained from Mammea neurophylla dichloromethane bark extract selected for its ability to prevent advanced glycation end-product (AGE formation. Among them, a careful examination of the NMR dataset of pedilanthocoumarin B led to a structural revision. Inspection of LC-DAD-MSn chromatograms allowed us to predict the presence of four new compounds, which were further isolated. Using spectroscopic methods (1H-, 13C- and 2D-NMR, HRMS, UV, these compounds were identified as new benzoyl substituted 4-phenylcoumarins (iso-pedilanthocoumarin B and neurophyllol C and 4-(1-acetoxypropylcoumarins cyclo F (ochrocarpins H and I.

  18. ADSORPTION OF 4-METHYLANILINE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY BENZOYL- CONTAINING POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-cheng Zhang; Hai-suo Wu; Zheng-hao Fei

    2005-01-01

    New polymeric adsorbents (ZH-02, ZH-03) containing benzoyl group for adsorbing and removing 4-methylaniline from its aqueous solutions were prepared. Studies on the isotherms and the comparison of desorption conditions evidenced through the adsorption of 4-methylaniline in water onto ZH-02 and ZH-03, namely that there are chemisorption's transitions at a proper higher temperature. Mini-column adsorption studies of 4-methylaniline on XAD-4, ZH-02 and ZH-03 at 288 K show that the breakthrough capacities are 2.39, 2.99 and 3.19 mmol/g and the total capacities are 3.45, 3.92 and 4.35 mmol/g, respectively.

  19. Comparative evaluation of retinoic acid, benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin lotion in acne vulgarils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety three patients suffering from acne vulgaris were treated with 0.05% retinoic acid (23 patients, 10% benzyoyl peroxide (24 patients, 2% erythromycin lotin (25 patients and 50% glycerine in methylated spirit (21 patients used as a control, for a period of 6 weeks. The patients were evaluated at 2 weeks and 6 weeks by spot counting of the lesions and diagrammatic representations. Good to excellent results were obtained in 69.6% of patients of erythromycin lotion. Retinoic acid was more effective in reducing noninflammatory lesions (75.2% whereas inflammatory lesions showed better response (73.6% with erythromycin lotion and benzoyl peroxide was almost equally effective in both types of lesions.

  20. Photocarcinogenesis and toxicity of benzoyl peroxide in hairless mice after simulated solar radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    Topical benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gel has long been used to treat acne vulgaris and has recently been combined with clindamycin (BPO-clin). No skin malignancies have been reported after clinical use of BPO, but there has been concern about the possible carcinogenicity of BPO alone and in combination...... with UV radiation. BPO can promote skin tumorigenesis in a mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis model. As acne vulgaris is frequently localized on sun-exposed areas, we investigated whether BPO or BPO-clin accelerates photocarcinogenesis in combination with simulated solar radiation (SSR) in 12 groups of 25...... hairless female C3.Cg/TifBomTac-immunocompetent mice. BPO or BPO-clin was applied topically to the back five times each week, followed by SSR three times each week (2, 3, or 4 standard erythema doses) 3-4 h later, for 365 days or until death. Generally BPO and BPO-clin did not accelerate the time to first...

  1. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW

    2003-01-01

    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  2. Controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in presence of mesoporous silica supported TiCl4 heterogeneous catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Semsarzadeh; S Amiri; M Azadeh

    2012-10-01

    The heterogeneous TiCl4 catalysts supported on mesoporous mobile composition of matter (MCM-41) and mesoporous silicone particles synthesized from block copolymer of PPG–PEG–PPG (SPB) complexed with dimethyl formamide (DMF) ligand were used in a controlled free radical reaction with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator in bulk polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc). In this polymerization process, mesoporous particle of SPB increased the reactivity of TiCl4 catalyst with DMF ligand. The active site formed on the surface and the pores of the catalyst produced specific sequences of VAc on the chain with different thermal and microstructural properties and crystallinity.

  3. The biosynthesis of phytoalexins in Dianthus caryophyllus L. cell cultures: induction of benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, K; Matern, U

    1989-11-15

    It has been shown that cell cultures of Dianthus caryophyllus L. c.v. Eleganz accumulate N-benzoyl-4-methoxyanthranilic acid, previously identified as the phytoalexin methoxydianthramide B, in response to treatment either with a crude elicitor isolated from the cell walls of Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea or with a commercial yeast extract. Cell-free extracts from the induced cells efficiently catalyzed the N-benzoylation of anthranilate in the presence of benzoyl-CoA. The partially purified transferase was shown to be specific for anthranilate with almost no activity toward 4-hydroxyanthranilate, whereas acyl donors other than benzoyl-CoA such as salicyloyl-, cinnamoyl-, or 4-coumaroyl-CoA were also accepted. Elicitor treatment of the cells additionally induced an S-adenosyl-L-methionine:N-benzoyl-4-hydroxyanthranilate 4-O-methyltransferase activity. We propose, therefore, that methoxydianthramide B is derived from N-benzoylanthranilic acid via N-benzoyl-4-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Dark-grown cells contained little N-benzoyltransferase activity (approx 8 mu kat/kg), which increased roughly ninefold within 6 h following the addition of the elicitor. In addition, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity of the cells increased about twofold under these conditions to a maximum (approx 40 mu kat/kg) at 5 h. The rapid induction of both enzyme activities suggests that the shikimate pathway is of crucial importance in the disease resistance response of carnation cells.

  4. Laparoscopic Radical Trachelectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Rendón, Gabriel J.; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Pareja, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The standard treatment for patients with early-stage cervical cancer has been radical hysterectomy. However, for women interested in future fertility, radical trachelectomy is now considered a safe and feasible option. The use of minimally invasive surgical techniques to perform this procedure has recently been reported. Case Description: We report the first case of a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy performed in a developing country. The patient is a nulligravid, 30-y-old fem...

  5. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Fergany, Amr

    2012-01-01

    Objective Laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to open radical cystectomy (ORC). This review focuses on patient selection criteria, technical aspects and postoperative outcomes of LRC. Methods Material for the review was obtained by a PubMed search over the last 10 years, using the keywords ‘laparoscopic radical cystectomy’ and ‘laparoscopic bladder cancer’ in human subjects. Results Twenty-two publications selected for relevance and content we...

  6. The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide: comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-06-01

    Fish or vegetable oils were fed during the promotion stage of a mouse skin carcinogenesis model in order to investigate the effects of dietary fat on tumor development. Two weeks after initiation with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, SENCAR mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following semipurified diets containing 10% total fat and varying the type of fat: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% corn oil (CO); 1% menhaden oil (MO)/7.5% CT/1.5% CO; 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO; 8.5% MO/1.5% CO; or 10% CO. Promotion with twice-weekly applications of 40 mg benzoyl peroxide was begun 2 weeks later and continued for 52 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups. Papilloma latency, incidence and yield differed among the diet groups with the group fed the 8.5% CT/1.5% CO diet having the shortest latency and highest papilloma incidence and number. In addition, carcinoma latency and incidence was assessed and the first carcinoma appeared in the group fed 8.5% CT/1.5% CO after 20 weeks of benzoyl peroxide treatment; this group yielded the highest carcinoma incidence throughout the study. In comparison, the group fed the 10% CO diet had the longest latency period, and among the lowest papilloma and carcinoma incidence and fewest tumors. In parallel studies, ornithine decarboxylase activity, vascular permeability and hyperplasia were elevated in the epidermis of benzoyl peroxide-treated mice but the extent of the response did not correlate with the different rates of tumor formation observed among the diet groups. These data indicate that dietary fat modulates tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide in this skin carcinogenesis model with the predominantly saturated fat diet producing the highest rates of papilloma and carcinogen formation and the polyunsaturated fat diet the lowest.

  7. The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide: comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-06-01

    Fish or vegetable oils were fed during the promotion stage of a mouse skin carcinogenesis model in order to investigate the effects of dietary fat on tumor development. Two weeks after initiation with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, SENCAR mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following semipurified diets containing 10% total fat and varying the type of fat: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% corn oil (CO); 1% menhaden oil (MO)/7.5% CT/1.5% CO; 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO; 8.5% MO/1.5% CO; or 10% CO. Promotion with twice-weekly applications of 40 mg benzoyl peroxide was begun 2 weeks later and continued for 52 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups. Papilloma latency, incidence and yield differed among the diet groups with the group fed the 8.5% CT/1.5% CO diet having the shortest latency and highest papilloma incidence and number. In addition, carcinoma latency and incidence was assessed and the first carcinoma appeared in the group fed 8.5% CT/1.5% CO after 20 weeks of benzoyl peroxide treatment; this group yielded the highest carcinoma incidence throughout the study. In comparison, the group fed the 10% CO diet had the longest latency period, and among the lowest papilloma and carcinoma incidence and fewest tumors. In parallel studies, ornithine decarboxylase activity, vascular permeability and hyperplasia were elevated in the epidermis of benzoyl peroxide-treated mice but the extent of the response did not correlate with the different rates of tumor formation observed among the diet groups. These data indicate that dietary fat modulates tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide in this skin carcinogenesis model with the predominantly saturated fat diet producing the highest rates of papilloma and carcinogen formation and the polyunsaturated fat diet the lowest. PMID:1904320

  8. EFIKASI LARVASIDA BERBAHAN AKTIF BENZOYL PHENIL UREA SEBAGAI INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR TERHADAP LARVA Culex quinquefasciatus DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Alfiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of an insect growth regulator (IGRbenzoyl phenil urea against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, laboratory scale trial. The researchused seven concentrations of IGR, were evaluated 0,5 ; 1 ; 2 ; 2,5 ; 3 and 5 ppm and untreatedcontrol, using 4 replications (20 larvae each. The result showed that 0,5 ppm of the benzoylphenil urea could kill more 90% of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae in 5 days, while concentrations 1; 2 ; 2,5 and 3 ppm in 4 days, and concentration 5 ppm in 3 days. The result was also revealedthat LC50 and LC90 0,57 and 23,2 ppm. Mosquito larvae mortalities were showed statisticallydifferent among concentrations (p < 0,05.Key words : Efficacy, benzoyl phenil urea, Culex quinquefasciatus Penelitian untuk mengetahui efikasi insect growth regulator (IGR benzoyl phenil ureaterhadap larva Culex quinquefasciatus telah dilakukan. Penelitian menggunakan 7 konsentrasipengujian yaitu 0,5 ppm, 1 ppm, 2 ppm, 2,5 ppm, 3 ppm, 5 ppm dan kontrol. Setiap konsentrasimenggunakan 4 kali pengulangan. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa larvasida benzoyl phenil ureamembunuh lebih dari 90% larva Cx. quinquefasciatus dengan konsentrasi 0,5 ppm dalam 5 hari,konsentrasi 1 ; 2 ; 2,5 dan 3 ppm dalam waktu 4 hari dan konsentrasi 5 ppm dalam waktu 3 hari.Konsentrasi yang diperlukan untuk membunuh 50% (LC50 dan 90% (LC90 larva uji adalah 0,57ppm dan 23,2 ppm. Uji analisis varian memberikan hasil bahwa ada perbedaan bermaknakematian larva antar konsentrasi pada taraf nyata 5%.Kata kunci : Efikasi, benzoyl phenil urea, Culex quinquefasciatus

  9. Multicenter study to evaluate efficacy and irritation potential of benzoyl peroxide 4% cream in hydrophase base (Brevoxyl in acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawleshwarkar S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this multicenter, open, non-comparative study, the efficacy and irritation potential of 4% benzoyl peroxide cream in hydrophase base (Brevoxyl was evaluated for the treatment of acne vulgaris. All evaluable patients (n=567 received treatment with 4% benzoyl peroxide cream in hydrophase base for six weeks. The investigators evaluated the patients at baseline and at 1,2,4 & 6 weeks. Patients also rated their improvement and adverse effects. Doctor′s assessment showed that at the end of 6′h week 85.6% had good to very good effect of the treatment. The profile of side effects observed by doctors revealed that 53.8% of total patients did not have any irritation whereas only 11.6% had moderate to severe irritation. 53.8% of patients did not report any irritation: 41.4% had some irritation whereas only 4.8% patients reported troublesome irritation. A satisfactory response was reported as ear;y as two weeks and most of the patients had a very satisfactory response after six weeks and were willing to continue the treatment. This supports the theory that the hydrophase formulation in ′Brevoxyl helped to enhance efficacy and decrease the irritation associated with use of benzoyl peroxide.

  10. Development and in-vitro characterization of fish oil oleogels containing benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid as keratolytic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, K; Tan, C M; Zulfakar, M H

    2014-03-01

    Topical keratolytic agents such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) are one of the common treatments for inflammatory skin diseases. However, the amount of drug delivery through the skin is limited due to the stratum corneum. The purposes of this study were to investigate the ability of fish oil to act as penetration enhancer for topical keratolytic agents and to determine the suitable gelator for formulating stable fish oil oleogels. 2 types of gelling agents, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (Span 60), were used to formulate oleogels. To investigate the efficacy of fish oil oleogel permeation, commercial hydrogels of benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) were used as control, and comparative analysis was performed using Franz diffusion cell. Stability of oleogels was determined by physical assessments at 20°C and 40°C storage. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) fish oil oleogels containing beeswax were considered as better formulations in terms of drug permeation and cumulative drug release. All the results were found to be statistically significant (pskin and stability.

  11. Physiology of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals imply that every atom, molecule, ion, group of atoms, or molecules with one or several non-paired electrons in outer orbital. Among these are: nitrogenoxide (NO•, superoxide-anion-radical (O2•-, hydroxyl radical (OH•, peroxyl radical (ROO•, alcoxyl radical (RO• and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2•. However, reactive oxygen species also include components without non-paired electrons in outer orbital (so-called reactive non-radical agents, such as: singlet oxygen (1O2, peroxynitrite (ONOO-, hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2, hypochloric acid (eg. HOCl and ozone (O3. High concentrations of free radicals lead to the development of oxidative stress which is a precondition for numerous pathological effects. However, low and moderate concentrations of these matter, which occur quite normally during cell metabolic activity, play multiple significant roles in many reactions. Some of these are: regulation of signal pathways within the cell and between cells, the role of chemoattractors and leukocyte activators, the role in phagocytosis, participation in maintaining, changes in the position and shape of the cell, assisting the cell during adaption and recovery from damage (e.g.caused by physical effort, the role in normal cell growth, programmed cell death (apoptosis and cell ageing, in the synthesis of essential biological compounds and energy production, as well as the contribution to the regulation of the vascular tone, actually, tissue vascularization.

  12. Orgasm after radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, M; VanDriel, MF; Schultz, WCMW; Mensink, HJA

    1996-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability to obtain and the quality of orgasm after radical prostatectomy, Patients and methods The orgasms experienced after undergoing radical prostatectomy were evaluated in 20 men (median age 65 years, range 56-76) using a semi-structured interview and a self-administered

  13. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 2-Benzoyl Pyridine Thiosemicarbazato Palladium(Ⅱ)Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽华; 王守兴; 段春迎; 游效曾

    2001-01-01

    The title complex,2-benzoyl pyridine thiosemicarbazato palladium(Ⅱ)chloride [C13H11N4SPdCl,Mr=379.17],crystallizes in monoclinic,space group C2/c with a=12.1061(5),b=21.877(3),c=11.4832(6)A,β=108.29(9)°,V=2887.7(4)A3,Z=8,Dc=1.827g/cm3; μ=1.608cm-1 and F(000)=1568.R=0.0281 and wR=0.0684 for 1446 reflections with I > 2σ(Ⅰ).X-ray crystal structure analysis revealed that the coordination geometry of Pd atom is a distorted square plane with two Pd- N bonds,one Pd - S bond and one Pd - Cl bond.The Schiff-base ligand loses a proton from its tautomeric thiol form and coordinates to the Pd atom via the mercapto sulfur and theβ-nitrogen atoms.

  14. Polymeric micellar nanocarriers of benzoyl peroxide as potential follicular targeting approach for acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Emine; Özhan, Gül; Özsoy, Yıldız; Güngör, Sevgi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize polymeric nano-sized micellar carriers of the anti-acne compound benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and to examine the ability of these carriers to deposit into hair follicles with the objective of improving skin delivery of BPO. BPO loaded polymeric micelles composed of Pluronic(®) F127 were prepared by the thin film hydration method and characterized in terms of size, loading capacity, morphology and physical stability. The optimized micelle formulation was then selected for skin delivery studies. The penetration of BPO loaded micellar carriers into skin and skin appendages across full thickness porcine skin was examined in vitro. Confocal microscopy images confirmed the penetration of Nile Red into hair follicles, which was loaded into micellar carriers as a model fluorescent compound. The relative safety of the polymeric micelles was evaluated with the MTT viability test using mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The results indicated that nano-sized polymeric micelles of BPO composed of Pluronic(®) F127 offer a potential approach to enhance skin delivery of BPO and that targeting of micelles into hair follicles may be an effective and safe acne treatment. PMID:27434156

  15. Polymeric micellar nanocarriers of benzoyl peroxide as potential follicular targeting approach for acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Emine; Özhan, Gül; Özsoy, Yıldız; Güngör, Sevgi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize polymeric nano-sized micellar carriers of the anti-acne compound benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and to examine the ability of these carriers to deposit into hair follicles with the objective of improving skin delivery of BPO. BPO loaded polymeric micelles composed of Pluronic(®) F127 were prepared by the thin film hydration method and characterized in terms of size, loading capacity, morphology and physical stability. The optimized micelle formulation was then selected for skin delivery studies. The penetration of BPO loaded micellar carriers into skin and skin appendages across full thickness porcine skin was examined in vitro. Confocal microscopy images confirmed the penetration of Nile Red into hair follicles, which was loaded into micellar carriers as a model fluorescent compound. The relative safety of the polymeric micelles was evaluated with the MTT viability test using mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The results indicated that nano-sized polymeric micelles of BPO composed of Pluronic(®) F127 offer a potential approach to enhance skin delivery of BPO and that targeting of micelles into hair follicles may be an effective and safe acne treatment.

  16. Bioavailability of Clindamycin From a New Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%-Benzoyl Peroxide 3% Combination Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry M; Jasper, Stacy; Alió Sáenz, Alessandra B

    2013-01-01

    A new topical fixed-dose combination product containing clindamycin (1%, formulated as 1.2% clindamycin phosphate, CLNP 1.2%) with low strength (3%) benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in a methylparaben-free gel vehicle (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF) has been developed for the treatment of acne. The objective of this study was to determine the relative bioavailability of clindamycin and clindamycin sulfoxide from CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF compared with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-BPO 5% in a methylparaben-preserved gel vehicle (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MP) and clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-BPO 5% in a methylparaben-free gel vehicle (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MPF), and to determine whether exposure is affected by BPO concentration (3% vs. 5%) when applied topically. Seventy-two subjects with moderate-severe acne were randomized to receive CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF, CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MP, or CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MPF in a 5-day, open-label, and parallel-group study. Cmax and AUC values for clindamycin were highest for CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MP, followed by CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF and CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MPF, but differences were not statistically significant. Systemic exposure to clindamycin and clindamycin sulfoxide was low and comparable between the formulations. Results indicate that differences in BPO concentration do not influence clindamycin bioavailability.

  17. [Detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yong; Li, Gang; Liu, Hai-xue; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju; Wu, Xiao-rong

    2011-12-01

    Adding benzoyl peroxide (BPO) into wheat flour was prohibited by the relevant government departments since May 1, 2011. And it is of great importance to detect BPO additive amount in wheat flour quickly and accurately. Part of BPO which was added into wheat flour will be deoxidized into benzoic acid, and this make it complex to detect the original BPO additive amount. The objective of the present research is to investigate the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for measurement of BPO original adding amount in wheat flour. A total of 133 wheat flour samples were prepared by adding different content of BPO into pure wheat flour. Spectra data were obtained by NIR spectrometer and then denoised by wavelet transform. Ninety seven samples were taken as calibration set and other 36 samples as prediction set. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to establish the calibration model between BPO original adding contents and the spectra data. The determination coefficient of model for the calibration set is 0.8901, and root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) is 40.85 mg x kg(-1). The determination coefficient for the prediction set is 0.8865, and root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) is 44.69 mg x kg(-1). The result indicates that it is feasible to detect the BPO adding contents in wheat flour by NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique and this technique has the potential to measure some other additives in food.

  18. Purification of benzoyl-mercapto-acetyl-tri-glycine and ethyl cysteinate dimer complemented with biological evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of benzoyl-mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG3) and ethyl cysteinate dimer (L,L-ECD) has been conducted through fractionated recrystallization of its impurities and isomers; biological behavior of the main isomers has been evaluated through biological distribution in mice. Chemical purity of synthesized MAG3 is 69,9%; after purification, 98, 12% is obtained from the compound with adequate biological distribution; fusion points range between 194 and 196oC before and after purification; recrystallization yields is 12%. Radiochemical purity of testing lot is 98%. In biological evaluations conducted in mice, injection dose percentages for the purest one, after 5 minutes, is 31,20% in kidneys and 1,14% in the liver. Chemical purity of synthesized ECD is 80,29%; after purification, 98,76% is obtained from the isomer with adequate biological activity; fusion points range between 195 and 197oC; yield percentage in recrystallization is 29%. radiochemical purity of testing lot is 97%; in biological evaluations conducted in mice, injection dose percentages for the purest one, after 5 minutes, is 1,37% in the brain, 25,70% in the liver and 13,40% in kidneys

  19. A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraingkrai Ponhong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of benzoyl peroxide (BPO in wheat flour samples was developed. The detection principle is based on BPO reacted with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS to obtain a blue-green colored product that was detected at 415 nm by spectrophotometry. The effect of factors influencing the color reaction was investigated. Under the selected conditions, the linear range for quantification of BPO was observed between 0.2–1.0 mg L−1 with r2 = 0.998. The limit of detection (LOD was 0.025 mg L−1. The developed method obtained superior precision (relative standard deviation < 2% using 11 repeatability at 0.2 mg L−1, 0.6 mg L−1, and 0.8 mg L−1. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to determine BPO in wheat flour samples.

  20. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Solodova, S L; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-29

    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  1. Simple and fast fluorescence detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by N-methoxy rhodamine-6G spirolactam based on consecutive chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A simple and fast method for fluorescence detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by N-methoxy rhodamine-6G spirolactam (1) is proposed based on consecutive chemical reactions. Highlights: ► Benzoyl peroxide can oxidize Fe2+ into Fe3+. ► Fe3+ selectively induces the opening of rhodamine spirolactam ring. ► The two reactions led to the development of a new fluorescent method for benzoyl peroxide. ► The method is simple and fast, and is used to detect benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour. - Abstract: Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a brightener is often added to wheat flour, and excessive use of this food additive is receiving increasing concern. Herein, a simple and fast method for fluorescence detection of BPO is proposed based on consecutive chemical reactions. In this approach, BPO first oxidizes Fe2+ into Fe3+ and the resulting Fe3+ then induces the opening of the spirolactam ring of a new rhodamine derivative, N-methoxy rhodamine-6G spirolactam, switching on fluorescence of the detection system. More importantly, the fluorescence response of the reaction system to BPO is rather rapid and sensitive, with a detection limit of 6 mg kg−1 (k = 3), which makes it to be of great potential use in food safety analysis. The applicability of the proposed method has been successfully demonstrated on the determination of BPO in wheat flour samples.

  2. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of topical clindamycin and 5% benzoyl peroxide with nadifloxacin cream and 5% benzoyl peroxide gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris and assessment of the effects of these treatments on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan Kırkağaç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disase of the pilosebaceous unit. Topical antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatment are used for mild and moderate acne. Clindamycin is frequently used for acne treatment, altough nadifloxacin is a relatively new agent. There are few studies evaluating nadifloxacin efficacy. It's impact on quality of life has not been determined previously. In this study, it is aimed to compare the effect of these two agents, and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on quality of life. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with mild-moderate acne vulgaris were divided in two groups of 40 people that had no difference in terms of age, gender and acne severity. The combination of topical clindamycin and 5% benzoyl peroxide gel twice a day was given to group 1 for 12 weeks. The combination of nadifloxacin cream and 5% benzoyl peroxide gel twice a day was given to group 2 for 12 weeks. The number of the inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions were recorded at baseline and on weeks 2, 4, 8, 12 and side effects were recorded and evaluated. Global improvement was evaluated separately by patients and doctor after the treatment. Before and after the treatment, the quality of life of the patients were evaluated with Skindex-29. Results: Both treatment group regimens were significantly effective on inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions and were well tolerated by patients in terms of side effects. It was also observed that there was statistically significant recovery after treatment in terms of clinical severity and quality of life. There was not any statistically significant difference between two treatment methods in terms of effectiveness, side effect and quality of life. Conclusion: Nadifloxacin and 5% benzoyl peroxide combination is effective in the treatment and improvement of quality of life in acne patients.

  3. Radical cystectomy in eldery

    OpenAIRE

    Bančević Vladimir; Aleksić Predrag; Milović Novak; Spasić Aleksandar; Kovačević Božidar; Toševski Perica; Čampara Zoran; Milošević Radovan; Cerović Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Radical cystectomy is the method of choice for the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer. This major surgery is associated with many complications, especially in older patients. The aim of this study was to analyze preoperative comorbidity, and intraoperative and postoperative complicatons in patients older than 75 years. Methods. This clinical, retrospective study included 46 patients over 75 years, who underwent radical cystectomy. I...

  4. Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Căpîlna, Mihai Emil; Ioanid, Nicolae; Scripcariu, Viorel; Gavrilescu, Madalina Mihaela; Szabo, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Objective Abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) is one of the fertility-sparing procedures in women with early-stage cervical cancer. The published results of ART, in comparison with vaginal radical trachelectomy, so far are limited. Materials and Methods This retrospective study comprises all cases of female patients referred to ART with early-stage cervical cancer from 2 gynecologic oncology centers in Romania. Results A total of 29 women were referred for ART, but subsequently, fertility c...

  5. Efficacy of the addition of salicylic acid to clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide combination for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Sevgi; Fetil, Emel; Yücel, Filiz; Gül, Eylem; Güneş, Ali T

    2012-05-01

    Clindamycin phosphate (CDP), benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and salicylic acid (SA) are known to be effective acne therapy agents depending on their anti-inflammatory and comedolytic properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the addition of SA treatment to CDP and BPO (SA and CDP + BPO) and compare it with CDP + BPO in patients with mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris. Forty-nine patients were enrolled in a 12 week prospective, single-blind, randomized, comparative clinical study. Efficacy was assessed by lesion counts, global improvement, quality of life index and measurements of skin barrier functions. Local side effects were also evaluated. Both combinations were effective in reducing total lesion (TL), inflammatory lesion (IL) and non-inflammatory lesion (NIL) counts. There were statistically significant differences between treatment groups for reductions in NIL counts beyond 2 weeks, IL counts and TL counts throughout the all study weeks, and global improvement scores evaluated by patients and investigator at the end of the study in favor of SA and CDP + BPO treatment when compared to CDP + BPO treatment. Both combinations significantly decreased stratum corneum hydration, although skin sebum values decreased with SA and CDP + BPO treatment. These combinations were also well tolerated except significantly higher frequency of mild to moderate transient dryness in patients applied SA and CDP + BPO. The addition of SA to CDP + BPO treatment demonstrated significantly better and faster results in terms of reductions in acne lesion counts and well tolerated except for higher frequency of mild to moderate transient dryness.

  6. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and biological activity of copper(ii and nickel(ii complexes with l-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorides of copper(II and nickel(ll react with 1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole to give complexes of the type [M(LnCln(H20∙Cln (M = Cu or Ni; L = (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole; n=O, 1 or 2. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectra. These studies suggest that all the complexes possess an octahedral stereochemistry. The antibacterial activity of (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole and their complexes was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp.

  7. Structures of N- (2,3,4,6-Tetra- O-acetyl-β- D-glycosyl) thiocar-bamic Benzoyl Hydrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Shu-Sheng(张书圣); LIN,Jie-Hua(林洁华); JIAN,Fang-Fang(建方方); JIAO,Kui(焦奎)

    2002-01-01

    The crystal structure of N-( 2, 3 , 4 , 6-tetra-O-acetyl- β- D-glycosyl)-thiocarbamic benzoyl hydrazine ( C22 H27 N3O9S) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The hexopyranosyl ring adopts a chair conformation. All the ring substituents are in the equatorial positions. The acetoxyl-methyl group is in synclinal conformation. The S atom is in synperiplanar conformation while the benzoyl hydrazine moiety is anti-periplanar. The thiocarbamic moiety is almost coplanar with the benzoyl hydrazine group. There are two intramolecular hydrogen bonds and one intermolecular hydrogen bond for each molecule in the crystal structure. The molecules form a network structure through intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  8. Free Radical Reactions in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses reactions of free radicals that determine the chemistry of many fresh, processed, and stored foods. Focuses on reactions involving ascorbic acid, myoglobin, and palmitate radicals as representative radicals derived from a vitamin, metallo-protein, and saturated lipid. Basic concepts related to free radical structure, formation, and…

  9. Extractive properties of benzohydroxamic and N-benzoyl-benzohydroxamic acids as analytical reagents towards six transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hydroxamic acids were prepared: benzohydroxamic and N-benzoyl benzohydroxamic acids. The former was prepared by coupling the free hydrox amine with benzoyl chloride with the ratio 1:1 in alkaline medium, where as the latter by the same procedure with the ratio 1:2 respectively, they were identified by their melting points, elemental analysis of their nitrogen contents. infra-red spectrophotometry, as well as their nitrogen using elevation of boiling point and the titration method to determine their molecular weights. The two hydroxamic acids were used as analytical reagents for the extraction of the metals Cr(vi), Fe(III), Ti(iv), Co(II) and U(vi). Benzohydroxamic acid has a maximum extraction 99.55% for Cr.(vi) 3M H2SO4, of 90.16% for Ti(iv) at pH 2.0,of 80.56% for Co(II) at pH 8.0 and 98.01% for U(vi) at pH 6.0. N-benzoyl benzohydroxamic acid has a maximum extraction of 96.45% for Cr(vi) at 3M H2So4, of 90.82% for Fe(III) at pH 4.0, of 97.02% for V(v) at 3M H2So4, of 83.56% for Ti(iv) at pH 2.0, of 89.82% for Co(II) at pH 8.0 and of 97.16% for U(vi) at pH 6.0. at the same pH of maximum extraction using heavy matrix, synthetic sea-water, benzohydroxamic acid has maximum values of 91.08%, of 77.99%, of 91.39%, of 87.50 and of 93.17% for Cr(vi), Fe(III), V(v), Ti(iv), Co9II) and U(vi) respectively whereas n-benzoyl benzohydroxamic acid has maximum values of 86.17%, of 77.78%, of 89.61%, of 75.66%, of 79.63% and of 91.18% for Cr(vi), Fe(III), V(v), Ti(iv), Co(II) and U(vi) respectively. The ratio of metal to ligand was determined utilizing the continuous variation method. It was 1 :2, 1: 1, 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1: 2 and 1 : 2 with respect to Cr(vi), fe(III), Ti(iv), Co(II) and U(vi) respectively.(Author)

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Some Transition Metal Complexes of N-Benzoyl-N′-2-thiophenethiocarbohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Mn(II, Fe(II, Ni(II, and Cu(II complexes of N-benzoyl -N′-2-thiophenethiocarbohydrazide (H2 BTTH have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, infrared, NMR, electronic, and ESR spectral studies. The complexes were found to have compositions [Mn(H BTTH2], [Ni(BTTH(H2O2], [Cu(BTTH], and [Fe(H BTTH2EtOH]. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of H2 BTTH and its metal complexes have been screened against several bacteria and fungi.

  11. An efficient combination of Zr-MOF and microwave irradiation in catalytic Lewis acid Friedel-Crafts benzoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Tan L H; Dao, Thong Q; Tran, Hai N; Tran, Phuong H; Le, Thach N

    2016-05-01

    A zirconium-based metal-organic framework, an effective heterogeneous catalyst, has been developed for the Friedel-Crafts benzoylation of aromatic compounds under microwave irradiation. Constructed by a Zr(iv) cluster and a linker 1,4-bis(2-[4-carboxyphenyl]ethynyl)benzene (H2CPEB), the MOF, possessing large pores and high chemical stability, was appropriate for the enhancement of Lewis acid activity under microwave irradiation. The reaction studies demonstrated that the material could give high yields for a few minutes and maintain its reactivity and structure over several cycles. PMID:27064371

  12. Evaluation of two forms of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl p-aminobenzoic acid in pancreatic function testing of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, C F; Orfely, C

    1989-01-01

    Plasma para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) concentrations were compared in 12 dogs after oral administration of either a powdered suspension or a solution of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-PABA. Peak PABA plasma concentrations were significantly higher at 30, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the solution (P less than 0.05). As the solution may now be used as a clinical test, interpretation of the results by comparison with normal absorption curves obtained after administration of the suspension could contribute to a failure to diagnose canine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. PMID:2784215

  13. Thermodynamic parameters for the extraction of some lanthanides with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 and trioctylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synergistic extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with a mixture of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 and trioctylamine diluted in C6H6, CHCl3 and CCl4 at 288 K, 298 K, 308 K and 318 K has been investigated. The values of the equilibrium constants as well as of ΔH0, ΔS0 and ΔG0 have been calculated. The thermodynamic parameters indicate that the adduct formed becomes stable on the account of the enthalpy change which exceeds the antistabilizing effect of the entropy factor. A comparison is made to the extraction of the same elements with thenoyltrifluoroacetone. (Author)

  14. Influence of the temperature on the extraction of some lanthanides with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5(HPMBP) diluted in CHCl3, C6H6, and CCl4 at 288 K, 298 K, 308 K, and 318 K has been investigated. A compound of the type Me(PMBP)3HPMBP is formed in the organic phase. The values of the thermodynamic constants as well as of the parameters ΔH0, ΔS0 and ΔG0 have been determined. (Author)

  15. Extraction of trace thorium from hydrochloric acid media by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei-Fan; YUAN Shuang-Gui; XU Yan-Bing; XIAO Yong-Hou; XIONG Bing

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the solvent extraction of trace thorium from hydrochloric acid media by1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP) using a radioactive tracer technique. The percent extraction ofthorium was studied as a function of acidity, PMBP concentration and equilibrium time. The back-extraction behaviorof thorium from the organic phase was also tested. Separation of thorium was performed from fission products pro-duced in 14 MeV neutron bombardment of natural uranium by employing the PMBP extraction procedure. Thegamma-ray spectra of the separated thorium fractions show that thorium can be separated from most of fission prod-ucts and a large amount of uranium.

  16. STUDIES ON RADICAL POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE INITIATED WITH ORGANIC PEROXIDE-AMINE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; SHUI Li; FENG Xinde

    1984-01-01

    Radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated with various diacyl peroxideamine systems was studied. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and lauroyl peroxide (LPO) were used as diacyl peroxide component, N,N-dimethyl aniline (DMA) and its para substituted derivatives, i.e., N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT), p-hydroxymethyl-N,N-dimethyl aniline (HDMA), p-nitro-N,N-dimethyl aniline (NDMA) and p-dimethylamino benzaldehyde (DMAB) were used as amine components. It was found that the peroxide-DMT systems give higher rates of bulk polymerization Rp of MMA than the organic hydroperoxide-DMT systems with the following descending order BPO-DMT>LPO-DMT>CHP (cumene hydroperoxide)-DMT>TBH (tert-butyl hydroperoxide)-DMT.The aromatic tertiary amines possess obvious structural effect on the Rp values in the diacyl peroxideamine system. The overall activation energy of MMA polymerization was determined and the kinetics of polymerization of MMA initiated with BPO-DMT system was investigated.

  17. Structure and Biological Activities of 3-Phenyl-2-[1-benzoyl-1-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)] Methenyl Thiazolidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; JIAN Fang-fang; QIN Yong-qi; YU Guan-ping; JIAO Kui

    2004-01-01

    The title compound 3-phenyl-2-[1-benzoyl-1-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)]methenyl thiazolidine was synthesized from acetophenone, triazole, phenylthioisocyanate and 1,2-dibromo-ethane by several step reactions. Its structure was identified by means of 1H NMR, MS and IR spectrometries. The single crystal structure of 3-phenyl-2-[1-benzoyl-1-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)]methenyl thiazolidine was determined by X-ray diffraction. The preliminary bioassays have shown that the title compound exhibits the weak activities of fungicide and plant growth regulator.

  18. Sexuality Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Serefoglu, Ege C; Albersen, Maarten;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radical prostatectomies can result in urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Traditionally, these issues have been studied separately, and the sexual problem that has received the most focus has been erectile dysfunction. AIM: To summarize the literature on sexually related side...... effects and their consequences after radical prostatectomy and focus on the occurrence and management of problems beyond erectile dysfunction. METHODS: The literature on sexuality after radical prostatectomy was reviewed through a Medline search. Original research using quantitative and qualitative...... methodologies was considered. Priority was given to studies exploring aspects of sexuality other than erectile function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence, predictive factors, and management of post-prostatectomy sexual problems beyond erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: Most patients will develop urinary...

  19. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  20. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt acetoacetonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh; Sahar Amiri

    2012-03-01

    The polymerization of vinyl acetate with the complex catalyst of cobalt acetoacetonate [Co (acac)2] and DMF ligand with benzoyl peroxide initiator has been successfully carried out in bulk and in solution. The bulk polymerization has been used in a new route consisting of a one-step polymer formation in a fine capillary tube. In this process, the high rate of propagation was used to carry out the reaction in a microcapillary tube. Under 60°C, the colour-free reaction without solid catalyst impurity was 95% complete within a few hours. The high molecular weight of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) with its relatively low molecular distribution without unreacted monomer provided a new method in microprocessing of the controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in a one-step polymerization process. PVAc polymerization systems showed induction time, which was reduced in this reaction with using complex of DMF/ Co(acac)2. The kinetics of the reaction with a smaller degree of branching from this catalyst indicated that the electronegativity of the transition metal and diffusion of the homogeneous catalyst with DMF are important factors of fast polymerization in the bulk. Thermal properties of the polymer indicated a lower glass transition state. The easily reformed or stretched microsolid polymer demonstrated 20% crystallinity.

  1. Synthesis, Structure and Noncovalent Interactions of Palladium(Ⅱ) Complexes with N-Benzoyl-β-phenylalaninate Dianion and Aromatic Diimine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Yao-Feng(陈耀峰); GONG,Yu-Qiu(龚钰秋); ZHANG,Hua-Song(张华松)

    2002-01-01

    Two palladiun(Ⅱ) complexes, [Pd(bipy)(BzPhe-N,O) ] and [Pd(phen) (BzPhe-N,O) ] @4H2O were synthesized by reactions between Pd(bipy)Cl2 and BzPheH2 ( N-benzoyl- β-phenylalanine), Pd(phen) Cla and BzPheH2 in water at pH ~ 9, with their structrues determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The Pd atom is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms of bipy (or phen), the deprotonated amido type nitrogen atom and one of the carboxylic oxygens of BzPhe (BzPhe = N-benzoyl-β-phenylalaninate dianion). In the complex [Pd(phen)(BzPhe-N,O)]@ 4H2O, the side chain of phenvlalanine is located above and approximately parallels to the coordination plane. Both the aromic-aromatic stacking interaction between the phenyl ring of phenylalanine and phen, and the metal ion-aromatic interaction between the phenyi ring of phenylalanine and Pd(Ⅱ) were observed. [Pd(bipy)(BzPhe-N,O) ] has the phenylalanyl side chain oriented outwards from the coordination plane, which is mainly due to the interaction between the carbonyl oxygen atom of the amido group and the phenyl ring of phenylalanine. The reason for the different orientation of phenylalanyl side chain in the complexes was suggested.

  2. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Amino Acid-(N'-Benzoyl Hydrazide and Amino Acid-(N'-Nicotinoyl Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine N. Khattab

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling reaction of benzoic acid and nicotinic acid hydrazides with N- protected L-amino acids including valine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and tyrosine is reported. The target compounds, N-Boc-amino acid-(N`-benzoyl- and N- Boc-amino acid-(N`-nicotinoyl hydrazides 5a-5e and 6a-6e were prepared in very high yields and purity using N-[(dimethylamino-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl- methylene]-N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide (HATU as coupling reagent. The antimicrobial activity of the Cu and Cd complexes of the designed compounds was tested. The products were deprotected affording the corresponding amino acid-(N`-benzoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (7a-7e and amino acid-(N`- nicotinoyl hydrazide hydrochloride salts (8a-8e. These compounds and their Cu and Cd complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Several compounds showed comparable activity to that of ampicillin against S. aureus and E. coli.

  3. Substitution Effects and Linear Free Energy Relationships During Reduction of 4- Benzoyl-n-(4-substituted Benzyl)pyridinium Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same reductions of 1-X's, respectively. Importantly, the nitro group of 2-NO2 undergoes reduction before the 2nd-e reduction of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system. These results suggest that the redox potentials of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system can be course-tuned via p-benzoyl substitution and fine-tuned via para-benzyl substitution. Introducing the recently derived substituent constant of the -NO2(sup)- group (sigma para-NO2(sup)- = -0.97) yields an excellent correlation for the 3rd-e reduction of 2- NO2 (corresponding to the reduction of the carbonyl group) with the 2nd-e reduction of the other 2-X's, and confirms the electron donating properties of -NO2(sup)-.

  4. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Violent Radicalization in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    When, why, and how do people living in a democracy become radicalized to the point of being willing to use or directly support the use of terrorist violence against fellow citizens? This question has been at the center of academic and public debate over the past years as terrorist attacks...

  6. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    and their families. Existing literature and ways of thinking about the social psychological process of radicalization will be reviewed, such as social identity theory and transformative learning theory, and a theoretical framework based on a focus on belonging, recognition and the sense of community will be proposed...

  7. Radical School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Beatrice, Ed.; Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive examination of the nature of the school crisis and the ways in which radical thinkers and educators are dealing with it. Excerpts from the writings of Jonathan Kozol, John Holt, Kenneth Clark, and others are concerned with the realities of education in ghettos and suburbs. Paul Goodman, Marshall McLuhan, Sylvia…

  8. Radical Financial Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Shiller

    2004-01-01

    Radical financial innovation is the development of new institutions and methods that permit risk management to be extended far beyond its former realm, covering important new classes of risks. This paper compares past such innovation with potential future innovation, looking at the process that produced past success and the possibilities for future financial innovation.

  9. On Radical Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟良锴

    2015-01-01

    <正>All men are created equal.For centuries,human have been struggling for their rights.Women,as a special social force,are fighting vigorously for their equal rights with men.According to an introduction to feminism,there are three main types of feminism:socialist,reformist and radical(Feminism 101).In order

  10. Free radical transfer in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the present study of free-radical transfer in polymers pulse radiolysis and product studies have been carried out in aqueous solutions using thus far only the water-soluble polymers polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol. When OH radicals, generated in the radiolysis of N2O-saturated aqueous solutions, react with polymers the lifetime of the polymer radical thus created very much depends on the number of radicals per polymer chain. When there are a large number of radicals per chain their bimolecular decay may be faster than the corresponding (diffusion controlled) decay of monomeric radicals, but when the macromolecule contains only few or even just one radical their lifetime is considerably prolonged. Highly charged polymers such as polyacrylic acid at high pH attain a rod-like conformation which again favors a long lifetime of the radicals. Under such conditions, radical transfer reactions can occur. For example, in polyacrylic acid OH radicals generate two kinds of radicals side by side. The radical in β-position to the carboxylate group converts into the thermodynamically more stable α-radicals by an H-transfer reaction as can be followed by spectrophotometry. Besides radical transfer reactions β-fragmentation reactions occur causing chain scission. Such reactions can be followed in a pulse radiolysis experiment by conductometry, because counter ions are released upon chain scission. Such a process is especially effective in the case of polymethacrylic acid, where it results in a chain depolymerization. An intramolecular H-abstraction is also observed in the γ-radiolysis of polyacrylic acid with the corresponding peroxyl radicals. This causes a chain reaction to occur. The resulting hydroperoxides are unstable and decarboxylate given rise to acetylacetone-like products. In polyvinyl alcohol the peroxyl radicals in α-position to the alcohol function undergo HO2-elimination. This prevents a scission of the polymer chain in the

  11. Correlations Between retention indices and molecular structure of aliphatic alcohols and of their benzoyl derivatives on phenyl substituted polysiloxane stationary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention indices of aliphatic alcohols of carbon number up to Cg, and of their benzoyl derivatives up to C7, were determined in columns packed with Chromo sorb G (AW-DMCS-HP) coated previously with 5% methyl, and methyl phenyl polysiloxanes with increasing polarity (SE-30, 0V-3, 0V-7, 0V-11, 0V-17 and OV-25). Correlations between retention indices and chain length for 1-alcohols, 2-alcohols, 3-alcohols, 1 , on -3-alcohols, 2-methyl-1-alcohols and for their corresponding benzoyl derivatives were calculated at 100, 120 and 140 degree centigree. In alcohols, a -CH2- group increases I approximately 100 units, and in their benzoyl derivatives from 80 to 100 units. Dispersion indices Δl , and positional and structural increments δI, were evaluated for -OH and benzoyl groups in terms of phase polarity and chain length. Effects of chain length, chain branching and double bond location on retention parameters were also studied. (Author) 23 refs

  12. Benzoylation of Ergosterol through Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution and Subsequent Formation of Ergosterol Benzoate Endoperoxide by Reaction with Singlet Oxygen Generated by Photosensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslaniec, Mary C.; Sanford, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen have been a major focus of research in medicine. The effect of singlet oxygen on sterols within biological membranes is becoming increasingly more important. Ergosterol, a vitamin D precursor, is one such sterol. The benzoylation of ergosterol and subsequent reaction with singlet oxygen to form an…

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CLINICAL EFFICACY AND SIDE EFFECTS OF ADAPALENE 0.1% GEL AND BENZOYL PEROXIDE 2.5% GEL AS MONOTHERAPIES AND COMBINATION THERAPY IN FACIAL ACNE: INDIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A fixed dose combination gel with adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% has been developed for the once daily treatment of acne vulgaris .This fixed combination was approved by U.S FDA in December 2008. This study was done in the Department of Dermatology, KIMS, Bangalore to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of topical adapalene 0.1%–benzoyl peroxide 2.5% combination gel as compared to topical adapalene 0.1% gel and 2.5% benzoyl peroxide gel (monotherapies in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few studies conducted in India. It was an open label study. Participants received either adapalene 0.1% gel, benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel or adapalene 0.1% – benzoyl peroxide 2.5% combination gel for 12 weeks. Follow up was done at the end of 1,2,4,8 and 12 weeks. Evaluation included lesion count and adverse events. Participants included males and females aged between 18-38 years with grade 2 or 3 facial acne vulgaris as per investigators global assessment of acne scale. A total of 62 participants were recruited out of which 23 were males and 39 were females.88.71% participants completed the study. The study revealed that combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel was more effective in the treatment of facial acne as compared to adapalene 0.1% gel and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel (topical monotherapies. The safety of combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel was comparable with adapalene 0.1% gel and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel monotherapies.

  14. Simple and fast fluorescence detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by N-methoxy rhodamine-6G spirolactam based on consecutive chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wei; Shi Wen; Li Zhao [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ma Huimin, E-mail: mahm@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu Yang; Zhang Jinghua; Liu Qingjun [Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing 100089 (China)

    2011-12-05

    Graphical abstract: A simple and fast method for fluorescence detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by N-methoxy rhodamine-6G spirolactam (1) is proposed based on consecutive chemical reactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benzoyl peroxide can oxidize Fe{sup 2+} into Fe{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 3+} selectively induces the opening of rhodamine spirolactam ring. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two reactions led to the development of a new fluorescent method for benzoyl peroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is simple and fast, and is used to detect benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour. - Abstract: Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a brightener is often added to wheat flour, and excessive use of this food additive is receiving increasing concern. Herein, a simple and fast method for fluorescence detection of BPO is proposed based on consecutive chemical reactions. In this approach, BPO first oxidizes Fe{sup 2+} into Fe{sup 3+} and the resulting Fe{sup 3+} then induces the opening of the spirolactam ring of a new rhodamine derivative, N-methoxy rhodamine-6G spirolactam, switching on fluorescence of the detection system. More importantly, the fluorescence response of the reaction system to BPO is rather rapid and sensitive, with a detection limit of 6 mg kg{sup -1} (k = 3), which makes it to be of great potential use in food safety analysis. The applicability of the proposed method has been successfully demonstrated on the determination of BPO in wheat flour samples.

  15. Radical substitution with azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Marinescu, Lavinia Georgeta; Bols, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    and the substrate. A primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect was found for the azidonation of benzyl ethers both with TMSN3-PhI(OAc)2 and with IN3. Also a Hammett free energy relationship study of this reaction showed good correlation with sigma+ constants giving with rho-values of -0.47 for TMSN3-PhI(OAc)2 and -0.......39 for IN3. On this basis a radical mechanism of the reaction was proposed....

  16. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  17. [Radical prostatectomy - pro robotic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillitzer, R

    2012-05-01

    Anatomical radical prostatectomy was introduced in the early 1980s by Walsh and Donker. Elucidation of key anatomical structures led to a significant reduction in the morbidity of this procedure. The strive to achieve similar oncological and functional results to this gold standard open procedure but with further reduction of morbidity through a minimally invasive access led to the establishment of laparoscopic prostatectomy. However, this procedure is complex and difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The technical advantages of robotically assisted surgery coupled with the intuitive handling of the device led to increased precision and shortening of the learning curve. These main advantages, together with a massive internet presence and aggressive marketing, have resulted in a rapid dissemination of robotic radical prostatectomy and an increasing patient demand. However, superiority of robotic radical prostatectomy in comparison to the other surgical therapeutic options has not yet been proven on a scientific basis. Currently robotic-assisted surgery is an established technique and future technical improvements will certainly further define its role in urological surgery. In the end this technical innovation will have to be balanced against the very high purchase and running costs, which remain the main limitation of this technology.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and applications of polymer-metal chelates derived from poly[((4-acryloxy acetophenone)-divinylbenzene)] benzoyl hydrazone resins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thammisetty Ravi Sankar; K Kesavulu; Peddakotla Venkata Ramana

    2014-05-01

    4-Acryloxy acetophenone was prepared and subjected to suspension polymerization with divinylbenzene as a cross-linking agent. The resulting network polymer was ligated with benzoyl hydrazone. The functional polymer was treated with metal ions [Cu(II), Fe(II)]. The polymer-metal complexes obtained were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, solid state 13C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), thermogravimetric and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The maximum uptake efficiency for the metal ions was determined. The reusability of the polymer ligand was tested and it was shown that even after four cycles, the efficiency of the uptake was not altered.

  19. Joint theoretical experimental investigation of the electron spin resonance spectra of nitroxyl radicals: application to intermediates in in situ nitroxide mediated polymerization (in situ NMP) of vinyl monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarycz, Natalia; Botek, Edith; Champagne, Benoît; Sciannaméa, Valérie; Jérôme, Christine; Detrembleur, Christophe

    2008-08-28

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to address the structure of nitroxide intermediates in controlled radical polymerization. In a preliminary step, the reliability of different theoretical methods has been substantiated by comparing calculated hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) to experimental data for a set of linear and cyclic alkylnitroxyl radicals. Considering this tested approach, the nature of different nitroxides has been predicted or confirmed for (a) the reaction of C-phenyl- N- tert-butylnitrone and AIBN, (b) N- tert-butyl-alpha-isopropylnitrone and benzoyl peroxide, (c) tert-butyl methacrylate polymerization in the presence of sodium nitrite as mediator, and (d) for the reaction of a nitroso compound with AIBN. Values of HFCC experimentally determined have been confirmed by DFT calculations.

  20. Do tutorials on application method enhance adapalene-benzoyl peroxide combination gel tolerability in the treatment of acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Park, Seon Yong; Yoon, Ji Young; Min, Seonguk; Suh, Dae Hun

    2015-11-01

    Fixed-dose combination adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel (A-BPO) has rarely been studied for Asian acne patients, while they have complained of local irritations more often when applying individual components. In this study, we compared A-BPO gel with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in terms of efficacy and tolerability in Korean patients first, and assessed the clinical benefit of a dermatological tutorial on application technique in reducing irritations for A-BPO. This study was conducted as a single-blind controlled split-face trial for a 12-week period. Each half facial side of 85 patients was randomly assigned to either A-BPO or BPO. Success rate, lesion counts and safety profiles were evaluated (analysis I). During initial assignment, all patients were further randomized to either dermatological tutorial (DT) or non-tutorial (NT) subgroups depending on the presence of dermatologists' tutorials for application methods to their A-BPO sides. Clinical data of the A-BPO side was compared between two subgroups (analysis II). As a result, A-BPO gel outperformed BPO, demonstrating better efficacy in success rates and lesion counts as early as 1 week. However, A-BPO proved significantly less tolerable compared with both BPO and previous A-BPO data from Caucasians. Bioengineering measurements further confirmed clinical data (analysis I). The DT subgroup achieved much better tolerability with comparable therapeutic efficacies compared with the NT subgroup (analysis II). In conclusion, A-BPO demonstrated higher efficacies in acne compared with BPO in Korean patients, while skin irritation levels were notable concurrently. Dermatologists' education for application methods would significantly decrease these side-effects, maintaining superior efficacy levels.

  1. Catalysis of Radical Reactions: A Radical Chemistry Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Armido; Curran, Dennis P

    2016-01-01

    The area of catalysis of radical reactions has recently flourished. Various reaction conditions have been discovered and explained in terms of catalytic cycles. These cycles rarely stand alone as unique paths from substrates to products. Instead, most radical reactions have innate chains which form products without any catalyst. How do we know if a species added in "catalytic amounts" is a catalyst, an initiator, or something else? Herein we critically address both catalyst-free and catalytic radical reactions through the lens of radical chemistry. Basic principles of kinetics and thermodynamics are used to address problems of initiation, propagation, and inhibition of radical chains. The catalysis of radical reactions differs from other areas of catalysis. Whereas efficient innate chain reactions are difficult to catalyze because individual steps are fast, both inefficient chain processes and non-chain processes afford diverse opportunities for catalysis, as illustrated with selected examples.

  2. A New, Once-daily, Optimized, Fixed Combination of Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2% and Low-concentration Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel for the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of acne with combination therapy is commonplace with treatment aimed at sustained efficacy with minimal side effects, maximum adherence, and the avoidance of bacterial resistance. Combinations containing clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide have been shown to be effective, but the irritation caused by the concentration of benzoyl peroxide 5% in the more commonly used, fixed combinations can be limiting. In addition, surfactants, preservatives, and high levels of organic solvents, in...

  3. Bursectomy at radical gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuneyt; Kayaalp

    2015-01-01

    Radical gastrectomy with extended lymph node dissec tion and prophylactic resection of the omentum, peri toneum over the posterior lesser sac, pancreas and/o spleen was advocated at the beginning of the 1960 s in Japan. In time, prophylactic routine resections of the pancreas and/or spleen were abandoned because of the high incidence of postoperative complications. However omentectomy and bursectomy continued to be standard parts of traditional radical gastrectomy. The bursaomentalis was thought to be a natural barrier against invasion of cancer cells into the posterior part of the stomach. The theoretical rationale for bursectomy was to reduce the risk of peritoneal recurrences by eliminating the peritoneum over the lesser sac, which might include free cancer cells or micrometastases. Over time, the indication for bursectomy was gradually reduced to only patients with posterior gastric wall tumors penetrating the serosa. Despite its theoretical advantages, its benefit for recurrence or survival has not been proven yet. The possible reasons for this inconsistency are discussed in this review. In conclusion, the value of bursectomy in the treatment of gastric cancer is still under debate and large-scale randomized studies are necessary. Until clear evidence of patient benefit is obtained, its routine use cannot be recommended.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of N-ferrocenylmethyl amino acid benzene carboxamide derivatives and N-ferrocenyl benzoyl amino alkane derivatives as anti-cancer agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of ferrocenyl-bioconjugates. A series of N-(ferrocenylmethylamino acid)-fluorinated-benzene carboxamide derivatives and a series of N-(ferrocenyl)-benzoyl-aminoalkane derivatives have been synthesised, structurally characterised and biologically evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity on various cancer cell lines, principally, the (estrogen receptor positive) MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The anti-c...

  5. Investigating The Molecular Formation Ppoperties of 2-Acetylamino-6-Benzoyl-4-Chlorophenol Using The Semi Emprical Molecular Orbital Methods (PM3, AM1, MNDO)

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma BAYSEN

    2004-01-01

    In this study in order to the geometry optimization of the 2-acetylamino-6-benzoyl-4-chlorophenol crystal, which is used for forming analgesic and antienflamatuar medicine and of which crystal structure was determined using x-ray diffraction method, PM3, AM1 and MNDO semi emprical molecular orbital methods found in the HyperChem program were used. By the geometry optimization geometric parameters of the molecules having the minimum energy were found.These values which were theoretically obtai...

  6. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1-BENZOYL-1H-PYRAZOLO [4,3-C]QUINOLIN-4(5H-ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankar Murugesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-benzoyl-1H-pyrazolo [4,3-C]quinolin-4(5H-one, carrying appropriate substituents at the Quinoline ring have been synthesized in good yields via the condensation of 4-chloro-3-formylquinolin-2[1H]ones with benzohydrazide using triethylamine as a base. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities.

  7. Benzoyl Peroxide Formulated Polycarbophil/Carbopol 934P Hydrogel with Selective Antimicrobial Activity, Potentially Beneficial for Treatment and Prevention of Bacterial Vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqi Xu; Cavera, Veronica L.; Rogers, Michael A.; Qingrong Huang; Konstantin Zubovskiy; Michael L. Chikindas

    2013-01-01

    The human vagina is colonized by a variety of indigenous microflora; in healthy individuals the predominant bacterial genus is Lactobacillus while those with bacterial vaginosis (BV) carry a variety of anaerobic representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) encapsulated in a hydrogel against Gardnerella vaginalis, one of the causative agents of BV, as well as indicating its safety for healthy human lactobacilli. ...

  8. Palladium(ii)-catalyzed C-C and C-O bond formation for the synthesis of C1-benzoyl isoquinolines from isoquinoline N-oxides and nitroalkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiu-Ling; Li, Wei-Ze; Wang, Ying-Chun; Ren, Qiu; Wang, Heng-Shan; Pan, Ying-Ming

    2016-08-01

    C1-Benzoyl isoquinolines can be generated via a palladium(ii)-catalyzed C-C and C-O coupling of isoquinoline N-oxides with aromatic nitroalkenes. The reaction proceeds through remote C-H bond activation and subsequent intramolecular oxygen atom transfer (OAT). In this reaction, the N-O bond was designed as a directing group in the C-H bond activation as well as the source of an oxygen atom. PMID:27443150

  9. A radical publishing collective: the Journal of Radical Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Barron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: the Journal of Radical Librarianship is a new open-access journal publishing scholarly work in the field of radical librarianship. The focus on critical approaches to librarianship and anti-marketisation of information is reflected not only in our subject matter but in our publishing model, our licensing model, and our organisational practices. We hope to […

  10. Radical cystectomy in eldery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bančević Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Radical cystectomy is the method of choice for the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer. This major surgery is associated with many complications, especially in older patients. The aim of this study was to analyze preoperative comorbidity, and intraoperative and postoperative complicatons in patients older than 75 years. Methods. This clinical, retrospective study included 46 patients over 75 years, who underwent radical cystectomy. Indications for surgery, and complications during and after the surgery were followed up. Results. Preoperatively, anemia caused by hematuria was registered in 76% of the patients. In 52% of the patients urine derivation was performed by ileal conduit, in 35% by ureterocutaneostomy and in 13% orthotopic ileal neobladder was created. The average duration of surgery was 190 (120-300 min. A total of 76% of the patients were treated by blood supstitution intraoperatively, average 630 (310-1230 mL. Concerning pathological stage of transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder, 26% of the patients had T2, 4% T3a, 52% T3b, and 14% T4a stage. In one case, planocellular carcinoma was diagnosed by patohistological examination, and in 2 cases prostate carcinoma was incidentally found. The average duration of hospitalization was 16 (8-35 days. Conclusion. The main reason for cystectomy in patients over 70 and 80 years was gross hematuria caused by bladder cancer, with consecutive anemia which could not be solved using endoscopic treatment or blood supstitution. As expected, a prolonged stay in hospital after cystectomy, and a higher rate of complications were recorded in this population.

  11. 糠醛苯甲酰腙的合成及生物活性研究%Synthesis and Bioactivities of Furfural Benzoyl Hydrazone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水清; 赵春

    2011-01-01

    Furfural benzoyl hydrazone was synthesized using furfural, methyl benzoate and hydrazine hydrate as and its chemical structure was confirmed by elemental analysis and infrared spectrum. The bioactivities of furfural benzoyl hydrazone a-gainst Pieris rapae larvae was also tested in lab. The results showed that furfural benzoyl hydrazone had strong contact toxici-ty, stomach toxicity and weak antifeeding activity.%以糠醛、苯甲酸甲酯、水合肼为原料,合成了糠醛苯甲酰腙.经元素分析、红外光谱对目标化合物进行了结构表征.研究了糠醛苯甲酰腙对菜粉蝶(Pieris rapae L.)的生物活性,结果表明,糠醛苯甲酰腙对菜粉蝶具有较强的触杀活性和胃毒活性,而拒食作用较弱.

  12. Muoniated acyl and thioacyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, Iain [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Brodovitch, Jean-Claude [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Ghandi, Khashayar [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Percival, Paul W. [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada)]. E-mail: percival@sfu.ca

    2006-03-31

    The product of the reaction of muonium with tert-butylisocyanate was previously assigned as the muoniated tert-butylaminyl radical (I. McKenzie, J.-C. Brodovitch, K. Ghandi, S. Kecman, P. W. Percival, Physica B 326 (2003) 76). This assignment is incorrect since the muon and {sup 14}N hyperfine-coupling constants (hfcc) of this radical would have the opposite sign, which is in conflict with the experimental results. The radical is now reassigned as the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical, based on the similarities between the experimental muon and {sup 14}N hfcc and hfcc calculated at the UB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)//UB3LYP/EPR-III level. The large zero-point energy in the N-Mu bond results in the dissociation barrier of the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical being above the combined energy of the reactants, in contrast to the N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical where the dissociation barrier lies below the combined energy of the reactants. The reaction of muonium with tert-butylisothiocyanate produced both conformers of the muoniated N-tert-butylthiocarbamoyl radical and their assignment was based on the similarities between the experimental and calculated muon hfcc. These are the first acyl and thioacyl radicals to be directly detected by muon spin spectroscopy.

  13. Topical therapy for acne in women: is there a role for clindamycin phosphate-benzoyl peroxide gel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2014-10-01

    Acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women is commonly encountered in clinical dermatology practice. This patient subset often experiences psychosocial effects that differ in some ways from those experienced by adolescent females with AV, as they were not expecting to have to deal with this disorder beyond their adolescent years. Most of the emphasis on therapy for adult women with AV has focused on use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and/or oral spironolactone, with little to no evaluation or discussion of topical agents in this patient group. This article provides an overview of AV in adult women and presents the results of a subanalysis of data from female patients who were treated in phase 3 studies with clindamycin phosphate (CP) 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide (BP) 2.5% gel once daily for facial AV. The subanalysis compared outcomes in females younger than 25 years and in those 25 years and older. Overall, the data showed that therapeutic outcomes were comparable between the 2 groups. PMID:25372252

  14. Synthesis, PASS-Predication and in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Benzyl 4-O-benzoyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Mohammed Mahbubul; Nath, Amit R; Saad, Omar; Bhuiyan, Mohammad M H; Kadir, Farkaad A; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Alhadi, Abeer A; Ali, Md Eaqub; Yehye, Wageeh A

    2016-01-01

    Benzyl α-l-rhamnopyranoside 4, obtained by both conventional and microwave assisted glycosidation techniques, was subjected to 2,3-O-isopropylidene protection to yield compound 5 which on benzoylation and subsequent deprotection of isopropylidene group gave the desired 4-O-benzoylrhamnopyranoside 7 in reasonable yield. Di-O-acetyl derivative of benzoate 7 was prepared to get newer rhamnopyranoside. The structure activity relationship (SAR) of the designed compounds was performed along with the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) training set. Experimental studies based on antimicrobial activities verified the predictions obtained by the PASS software. Protected rhamnopyranosides 5 and 6 exhibited slight distortion from regular ¹C₄ conformation, probably due to the fusion of pyranose and isopropylidene ring. Synthesized rhamnopyranosides 4-8 were employed as test chemicals for in vitro antimicrobial evaluation against eight human pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Antimicrobial and SAR study showed that the rhamnopyranosides were prone against fungal organisms as compared to that of the bacterial pathogens. Interestingly, PASS prediction of the rhamnopyranoside derivatives 4-8 were 0.49 active') as antibacterial and 0.65 antifungal activities, which showed significant agreement with experimental data, suggesting rhamnopyranoside derivatives 4-8 were more active against pathogenic fungi as compared to human pathogenic bacteria thus, there is a more than 50% chance that the rhamnopyranoside derivative structures 4-8 have not been reported with antimicrobial activity, making it a possible valuable lead compound. PMID:27618893

  15. Characterization of some amino acid derivatives of benzoyl isothiocyanate: Crystal structures and theoretical prediction of their reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odame, Felix; Hosten, Eric C.; Betz, Richard; Lobb, Kevin; Tshentu, Zenixole R.

    2015-11-01

    The reaction of benzoyl isothiocyanate with L-serine, L-proline, D-methionine and L-alanine gave 2-[(benzoylcarbamothioyl)amino]-3-hydroxypropanoic acid (I), 1-(benzoylcarbamothioyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (II), 2-[(benzoylcarbamothioyl)amino]-4-(methylsulfanyl)butanoic acid (III) and 2-[(benzoylcarbamothioyl)amino]propanoic acid (IV), respectively. The compounds have been characterized by IR, NMR, microanalyses and mass spectrometry. The crystal structures of all the compounds have also been discussed. Compound II showed rotamers in solution. DFT calculations of the frontier orbitals of the compounds have been carried out to ascertain the groups that contribute to the HOMO and LUMO, and to study their contribution to the reactivity of these compounds. The calculations indicated that the carboxylic acid group in these compounds is unreactive hence making the conversion to benzimidazoles via cyclization on the carboxylic acids impractical. This has been further confirmed by the reaction of compounds I-IV, respectively, with o-phenylene diamine which was unsuccessful but gave compound V.

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity of benzoyl peroxide against Propionibacterium acnes assessed by a novel susceptibility testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kazuaki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Nakajima, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Umehara, Masatoshi; Gotoh, Naomasa; Hayashi, Naoki; Iyoda, Takako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Satoru; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO), a therapeutic agent for acne vulgaris, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes using a novel broth microdilution testing that improved BPO solubility. We searched for a suitable culture medium to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BPO against P. acnes and finally found the Gifu anaerobic medium (GAM) broth supplemented with 0.1(v/v)% glycerol and 2(v/v)% Tween 80, in which BPO dissolved up to 1250 μg/mL and P. acnes grew well. The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of BPO against 44 clinical isolates of P. acnes collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris were determined by our testing method using the supplemented GAM broth. The MICs of BPO were 128 or 256 μg/mL against all isolates of P. acnes regardless of susceptibility to nadifloxacin or clindamycin. The MBCs of BPO were also 128 or 256 μg/mL against the same isolates. Moreover, BPO at the MIC showed a rapid bactericidal activity against P. acnes ATCC11827 in time-kill assay. In conclusion, we could develop a novel assay for the MIC and MBC determinations of BPO against P. acnes, which is reliable and reproducible as a broth microdilution testing and the present results suggest that BPO has a potent bactericidal activity against P. acnes.

  17. Protonation constant of salicylidene (N-benzoyl)glycyl hydrazone and its coordination behaviour towards some bivalent metal ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Lonibala; T R Rao; R K Babita Devia

    2006-07-01

    Protonation constant of an unsymmetrical Schiff base, salicylidene(N-benzoyl)glycyl hydrazone (SalBzGH), and formation constants of its complexes have been determined potentiometrically at different temperatures in aqueous dioxane medium. Complexes of SalBzGH with VO(IV), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) have been prepared. Elemental analyses, pH-metric, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, electronic, IR, ESR, XRD (powder) and NMR studies have been carried out to study the coordination behaviour of SalBzGH toward these metal ions. pH-metric and 1H NMR studies show the presence of two dissociable protons in the ligand. IR and NMR spectra suggest the tridentate nature of the ligand, coordinating as a uninegative species in the Mn(II) complex and as a dinegative species in all the other complexes. Presence of two different conformers of the ligand at room temperature and stabilization of a single conformer upon complex formation have been established from 1H NMR spectra of the metal-free ligand, Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes recorded at 296 K. Electronic and ESR spectra indicate highly distorted tetragonal geometry for VO(IV) and Cu(II) complexes. XRD powder patterns of the Zn(II) complexes are indexed for an orthorhombic crystal system.

  18. Synthesis and Bioactivity of N-Benzoyl-N'-[5-(2'-substituted phenyl-2-furoyl] Semicarbazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zining Cui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to find novel chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs with good activity, benzoylphenylurea, a typical kind of CSIs, was chosen as the lead compound and 15 novel derivatives containing furan moieties were designed by converting the urea linkage of benzoylphenylureas into a semicarbazide and changing the aniline part into furoyl groups. The title compounds were synthesized by the reaction of substituted benzoyl isocyanates with 5-(substituted phenyl-2-furoyl hydrazine, and the structures were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses (compound E2. The bioassay results indicated that the title compounds exhibit good insecticidal activity, especially towards Plutella xylostella L., but had lower fungicidal activity. Inspiringly, the title compounds possessed obvious anticancer activity against human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60, and some of the title compounds also had activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Bel-7402, human gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823, and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (KB. The results indicated that the linkage in the lead compounds was important to the bioactivity and spectra. The modification on the urea linkage is an effective strategy to discover new pesticide and drug candidates.

  19. Guest Editorial: Processes of Radicalization and De-Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Della Porta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of radicalization and de-radicalization, understood as processes leading towards the increased or decreased use of political violence, is central to the question of how political violence emerges, how it can be prevented, and how it can be contained. The focus section of this issue of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence addresses radicalization and de-radicalization, seeking to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the processes, dynamics, and mechanisms involved and taking an interdisciplinary approach to overcome the fragmentation into separate disciplines and focus areas. Contributions by Pénélope Larzillière, Felix Heiduk, Bill Kissane, Hank Johnston, Christian Davenport and Cyanne Loyle, Veronique Dudouet, and Lasse Lindekilde address repressive settings, legitimacy, institutional aspects, organizational outcomes, and dynamics in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America.

  20. Radical-Scavenging Activity of Dietary Phytophenols in Combination with co-Antioxidants Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activity of dietary phytophenols has been investigated by many researches due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer property but the radical-scavenging effect of 2-phytophenol and the phytophenol:co-antioxidants, vitamin C and thiol combination under nearly anaerobic conditions still remains unknown. The radical-scavenging activity for seventeen phytophenols and for six synthetic phenols (positive controls was investigated using the induction period method in the polymerization of methyl methacrylates (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of benzoyl peroxide (BPO by monitoring differential scanning calorimetery (DSC. The kinh for the phytophenols was likely with the range 0.5 × 103 M−1s−1−2.2 × 103 M−1s−1, whereas that for synthetic phenols, hydroquinone and galvinoxyl, was with the range 7 × 103 M−1s−1−8 × 103 M−1s−1. Also, the additive scavenging effect of the (−-epigallocatechin (EGC:(−-epicatechin (EC and the (+-catechin:epicatechin (EC combination was observed at 1:1 molar ratio, whereas that of the EC:quercetin combination showed the cancel (prooxidative effect. Furthermore, the EGC:ASDB (L-ascorbyl 2,6-dibutylate or 2-ME (2-mercaptoethanol combination showed the prooxidative effect. Such enhancement of prooxidation in the combination may increase their toxic effects due to their cooxidation. Also, the synergic, additive or cancel effects of the flavonoid:vitamins E combination on the induction period in the BPO (a PhCOO* radical and 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, an R* radical systems are discussed.

  1. Improved Mechanical Performance Fracture Properties and Reliability of Radical-Cured Thermosets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redline, Erica Marie; Bolintineanu, Dan; Lane, J. Matthew; Stevens, Mark J.; Alam, Todd M.; Celina, Mathias C.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to alter polymerization chemistry to improve network homogeneity in free-radical crosslinked systems. It was hypothesized that a reduction in heterogeneity of the network would lead to improved mechanical performance. Experiments and simulations were carried out to investigate the connection between polymerization chemistry, network structure and mechanical properties. Experiments were conducted on two different monomer systems - the first is a single monomer system, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), and the second is a two-monomer system consisting of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) in a ratio of 70/30 BisGMA/TEGDMA by weight. The methacrylate systems were crosslinked using traditional radical polymeriza- tion (TRP) with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) or benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator; TRP systems were used as the control. The monomers were also cross-linked using activator regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP) as a type of controlled radical polymerization (CRP). FTIR and DSC were used to monitor reac- tion kinetics of the systems. The networks were analyzed using NMR, DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). These techniques were employed in an attempt to quantify differences between the traditional and controlled radical polymerizations. While a quantitative methodology for characterizing net- work morphology was not established, SAXS and AFM have shown some promising initial results. Additionally, differences in mechanical behavior were observed between traditional and controlled radical polymerized thermosets in the BisGMA/TEGDMA system but not in the UDMA materials; this finding may be the result of network ductility variations between the two materials. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations employing a novel model of the CRP reaction were carried out for

  2. Redox Properties of Free Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, P.

    1981-01-01

    Describes pulse radiolysis as a useful means in studing one-electron redox potentials. This method allows the production of radicals and the determination of their concentration and rates of reaction. (CS)

  3. Ecoporn, Irrationalities and Radical Environmentalism

    OpenAIRE

    Măntescu, Liviu

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the ‘irrationalities’ of deep ecology activism in the context of radical environmentalism by using the empirical example of ecoporn. Fuck For Forest is an environmental Non-Governmental Organisation which undertakes fund-raising for re-forestation and forest protection by means of pornography. Following twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork, this study presents first research results on a radical environmental project which does not promote democratic and established pro...

  4. The efficacy, safety and tolerability of adapalene versus benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild acne vulgaris; a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeinejad, S H; Fouladi, R F

    2013-09-01

    Topical treatments, such as adapalene and benzoyl peroxide (BPO), are popular in mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. This study aimed to compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of adapalene and BPO in mild acne vulgaris. In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, 60 patients with mild acne vulgaris received either topical adapalene 0.1% gel or topical BPO 2.5% gel on their face once daily for two months. The changes of acne lesion count (efficacy), any adverse effect (safety), and the patients' overall satisfaction (tolerability) were compared after 3 months of follow-up. In both groups the mean number of noninflammatory, inflammatory and total lesions decreased significantly from baseline (10.77±5.54, 9.73±5.09, and 20.50±7.54, respectively in adapalene group; 11.50±5.92, 8.43±5.45, and 19.93±9.01, respectively in BPO group) to the third month (1.70±1.68, 0.33±0.66, and 0.50±0.78, respectively in adapalene group; 4.23±4.14, 0.33±0.71, and 4.13±4.44, respectively in BPO group; PBPO receivers only at first month (P=0.001), the mean number of noninflammatory and total lesions was significantly lower in adapalene group at second (P= 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) and third (P=0.02 and BPO group, P=0.54). The patients' overall satisfaction was good-excellent in 93.3% of adapalene receivers vs. 73.3% in BPO group (P=0.08). Both topical adapalene 0.1% and BPO 2.5% gels seem safe and effective in mild acne vulgaris, with a marginal tendency toward the former.

  5. The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adapalene versus benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild acne vulgaris: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeinejad, S H; Fouladi, R F

    2013-07-01

    Topical treatments, such as adapalene and benzoyl peroxide (BPO), are popular in mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. This study aimed to compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of adapalene and BPO in mild acne vulgaris. In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, 60 patients with mild acne vulgaris received either topical adapalene 0.1% gel or topical BPO 2.5% gel on their face once daily for two months. The changes of acne lesion count (efficacy), any adverse effect (safety), and the patients' overall satisfaction (tolerability) were compared after 3 months of follow-up. In both groups the mean number of noninflammatory, inflammatory and total lesions decreased significantly from baseline (10.77±5.54, 9.73±5.09, and 20.50±7.54, respectively in adapalene group; 11.50±5.92, 8.43±5.45, and 19.93±9.01, respectively in BPO group) to the third month (1.70±1.68, 0.33±0.66, and 0.50±0.78, respectively in adapalene group; 4.23±4.14, 0.33±0.71, and 4.13±4.44, respectively in BPO group; PBPO receivers only at first month (P =0.001), the mean number of noninflammatory and total lesions was significantly lower in adapalene group at second (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) and third (P =0.02 and BPO group, p=0.54). The patients' overall satisfaction was good to excellent in 93.3% of adapalene receivers vs. 73.3% in BPO group (P=0.08). Both topical adapalene 0.1% and BPO 2.5% gels seem safe and effective in mild acne vulgaris, with a marginal tendency toward the former.

  6. Synthesis, PASS-Predication and in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Benzyl 4-O-benzoyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mahbubul Matin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl α-l-rhamnopyranoside 4, obtained by both conventional and microwave assisted glycosidation techniques, was subjected to 2,3-O-isopropylidene protection to yield compound 5 which on benzoylation and subsequent deprotection of isopropylidene group gave the desired 4-O-benzoylrhamnopyranoside 7 in reasonable yield. Di-O-acetyl derivative of benzoate 7 was prepared to get newer rhamnopyranoside. The structure activity relationship (SAR of the designed compounds was performed along with the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS training set. Experimental studies based on antimicrobial activities verified the predictions obtained by the PASS software. Protected rhamnopyranosides 5 and 6 exhibited slight distortion from regular 1C4 conformation, probably due to the fusion of pyranose and isopropylidene ring. Synthesized rhamnopyranosides 4–8 were employed as test chemicals for in vitro antimicrobial evaluation against eight human pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Antimicrobial and SAR study showed that the rhamnopyranosides were prone against fungal organisms as compared to that of the bacterial pathogens. Interestingly, PASS prediction of the rhamnopyranoside derivatives 4–8 were 0.49 < Pa < 0.60 (where Pa is probability ‘to be active’ as antibacterial and 0.65 < Pa < 0.73 as antifungal activities, which showed significant agreement with experimental data, suggesting rhamnopyranoside derivatives 4–8 were more active against pathogenic fungi as compared to human pathogenic bacteria thus, there is a more than 50% chance that the rhamnopyranoside derivative structures 4–8 have not been reported with antimicrobial activity, making it a possible valuable lead compound.

  7. Extraction-spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in stainless steel and nickel-base alloys with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, rapid, and accurate extraction-spectrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of vanadium in stainless steel and Ni-base alloys. The procedure is as follows: Take 0.5 g of sample into a beaker and add 20 ml of aqua regia, then heat and dissolve it. Furthermore add 5 ml of perchloric acid, and heat until the sample is dissolved, and add 14 ml of sulfuric acid (1 + 1) and 5 ml of phosphoric acid. Continue heating untill fumes of sulfuric acid generate from it. Thereafter, transfer it with use of water into a polyethylene separating funnel, add 10 ml of hydrofluoric acid (46%) and dilute to 50 ml with water. Then, add 4 ml of iron (II) ammonium sulfate solution (10%) and mix it thoroughly. Allow to stand for two or three min, and add 10 ml of ammonium peroxy-sulfate solution (45%) and mix it thoroughly again. By this procedure vanadium is oxidized to vanadium (V) without any oxidation of chromium (III). Allow to stand for about five minutes. Then add exactly 20 ml of N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine chloroform solution (0.1%) and shake it vigorously for two min. Then, determine vanadium by measuring absorbance at the wavelength of 530 nm against a chloroform reference. The interference of chromium can be eliminated by reduction to Cr (III) with iron (II) ammonium sulfate, while manganese and molybdenum do not interfere at 530 nm. In the determination of 100 μg vanadium, the following amounts of foreign ions are tolerated: Fe (III) and Ni 1 g, Cr (III) 500 mg, Al 200 mg, Mo (VI) 100 mg, Mn, Co (II), Ti (IV) and Nb (V) 50 mg, Si 20 mg, Cu 10 mg, Ta (V) and W (VI) 5 mg. (author)

  8. Synthesis, PASS-Predication and in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Benzyl 4-O-benzoyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Mohammed Mahbubul; Nath, Amit R.; Saad, Omar; Bhuiyan, Mohammad M. H.; Kadir, Farkaad A.; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Alhadi, Abeer A.; Ali, Md. Eaqub; Yehye, Wageeh A.

    2016-01-01

    Benzyl α-l-rhamnopyranoside 4, obtained by both conventional and microwave assisted glycosidation techniques, was subjected to 2,3-O-isopropylidene protection to yield compound 5 which on benzoylation and subsequent deprotection of isopropylidene group gave the desired 4-O-benzoylrhamnopyranoside 7 in reasonable yield. Di-O-acetyl derivative of benzoate 7 was prepared to get newer rhamnopyranoside. The structure activity relationship (SAR) of the designed compounds was performed along with the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) training set. Experimental studies based on antimicrobial activities verified the predictions obtained by the PASS software. Protected rhamnopyranosides 5 and 6 exhibited slight distortion from regular 1C4 conformation, probably due to the fusion of pyranose and isopropylidene ring. Synthesized rhamnopyranosides 4–8 were employed as test chemicals for in vitro antimicrobial evaluation against eight human pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Antimicrobial and SAR study showed that the rhamnopyranosides were prone against fungal organisms as compared to that of the bacterial pathogens. Interestingly, PASS prediction of the rhamnopyranoside derivatives 4–8 were 0.49 < Pa < 0.60 (where Pa is probability ‘to be active’) as antibacterial and 0.65 < Pa < 0.73 as antifungal activities, which showed significant agreement with experimental data, suggesting rhamnopyranoside derivatives 4–8 were more active against pathogenic fungi as compared to human pathogenic bacteria thus, there is a more than 50% chance that the rhamnopyranoside derivative structures 4–8 have not been reported with antimicrobial activity, making it a possible valuable lead compound. PMID:27618893

  9. The games radicals play : special issue on free radicals and radical ions

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, John C; Ffrancon Williams

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry and Physics have aptly been described as “most excellent children of Intellect and Art” [1]. Both these “children” engage with many playthings, and molecules rank as one of their first favorites, especially radicals, which are amongst the most lively and exciting. Checking out radicals dancing to the music of entropy round their potential energy ballrooms is surely both entertaining and enlightening. Radicals’ old favorite convolutions are noteworthy, but the new styles, modes and a...

  10. Para-(benzoyl)-phenylalanine as a potential inhibitor against LpxC of Leptospira spp.: homology modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Dibyabhaba; Priyadarshini, Vani; Munikumar, Manne; Swargam, Sandeep; Umamaheswari, Amineni; Bitla, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen is the main cause of human leptospirosis. Lipid A is a highly immunoreactive endotoxic center of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that anchors LPS into the outer membrane of Leptospira. Discovery of compounds inhibiting lipid-A biosynthetic pathway would be promising for dissolving the structural integrity of membrane leading to cell lysis and death of Leptospira. LpxC, a unique enzyme of lipid-A biosynthetic pathway was identified as common drug target of Leptospira. Herein, homology modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to discover potential inhibitors of LpxC. A reliable tertiary structure of LpxC in complex with inhibitor BB-78485 was constructed in Modeller 9v8. A data-set of BB-78485 structural analogs were docked with LpxC in Maestro v9.2 virtual screening workflow, which implements three stage Glide docking protocol. Twelve lead molecules with better XP Gscore compared to BB-78485 were proposed as potential inhibitors of LpxC. Para-(benzoyl)-phenylalanine - that showed lowest XP Gscore (-10.35 kcal/mol) - was predicted to have best binding affinity towards LpxC. MD simulations were performed for LpxC and para-(benzoyl)-phenylalanine docking complex in Desmond v3.0. Trajectory analysis showed the docking complex and inter-molecular interactions was stable throughout the entire production part of MD simulations. The results indicate para-(benzoyl)-phenylalanine as a potent drug molecule against leptospirosis. An animated Interactive 3D Complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:10.

  11. STUDY ON BENZOYL PEROXIDE RAPID TEST STRIP%过氧化苯甲酰快速检测试纸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢岩黎; 李雪琴; 何保山; 王芬; 杨杰; 魏嘉

    2011-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide has strong oxidation ability, and can react with potassium iodide to generate benzoic acid and iodine. Therefore, the rapid test strip can be prepared according to the principle of the color reaction of starch and iodide. A cellulose acetate membrane was used as the color layer, then was soaked in a color reagent mixture solution containing 0.4% gelatinized starch solution, 10% KI and 4% Na2CO3 for 5 minutes, and was dried under vacuum to obtain the test strip. A standard colourimetric card consisted often color blocks, and could show significant color order in the range of benzoyl peroxide 0 to 228 mg/L. The lowest detection limit of benzoyl peroxide in the flour was 36 mg/kg, and the relative error was 11.76% to 16.89%.%过氧化苯甲酰具有强氧化性,与碘化钾反应生成苯甲酸和碘,根据碘与淀粉反应呈蓝色的原理研究制作快速检测试纸.将醋酸纤维素膜作为显色层,浸入由0.4%的糊化淀粉溶液、10%KI和4%的Na2CO3组成的混合显色剂,浸泡5 min后,真空干燥制备出检测试纸;标准比色卡由10个色块组成,过氧化苯甲酰质量浓度在0~228 mg/L范围内色阶明显,对面粉中过氧化苯甲酰最低检出限为36 mg/kg,相对误差范围为11.76%~16.89%.

  12. Crystalline bipyridinium radical complexes and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Barnes, Jonathan C.; Li, Hao; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Basuray, Ashish Neil; Sampath, Srinivasan

    2015-09-01

    Described herein are methods of generating 4,4'-bipyridinium radical cations (BIPY.sup..cndot.+), and methods for utilizing the radical-radical interactions between two or more BIPY.sup..cndot.+ radical cations that ensue for the creation of novel materials for applications in nanotechnology. Synthetic methodologies, crystallographic engineering techniques, methods of physical characterization, and end uses are described.

  13. N-(4-Substituted-benzoyl)-N'-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)ureas as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase: Synthesis and evaluation by kinetic, crystallographic, and molecular modelling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Nagy; Nora Felfoeldi; Balint Konya; Praly, Jean-Pierre; Tibor Docsa; Pal Gergely; Chrysina, Evangelia D.; Tiraidis, Costas; Kosmopoulou, Magda N.; Alexacou, Kyra-Melinda; Konstantakaki, Maria; Leonidas, Demetres D.; Zographos, Spyros E.; Oikonomakos, Nikos G.; Kozmon, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    N-(4-Substituted-benzoyl)-N'-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)ureas (substituents: Me, Ph, Cl, OH, OMe, NO2, NH2, COOH, and COOMe) were synthesised by ZnCl2 catalysed acylation of O-peracetylated beta-D-glucopyranosyl urea as well as in reactions of O-peracetylated or O-unprotected glucopyranosylamines and acyl-isocyanates. O-deprotections were carried out by base or acid catalysed transesterifications where necessary. Kinetic studies revealed that most of these compounds were low micromolar inhibitors...

  14. THE STRUCTURE OF 3,5-DI-O-BENZOYL-1,2-DIDEOXY-1-PHENYL-BETA-D-RIBOFURANOSE, C25H22O5

    OpenAIRE

    GUNNING, J.; Neidle, S; MILLICAN, T.; Eaton, M; MOCK, G.; Mann, J.

    1985-01-01

    Mr=402.4, orthorhombic, P212~2 l, a= 4-946 (1), b= 15.887 (2), c=26.555 (2)A, V= 2086.7 (5) A 3, Z = 4, D x = 1.28 gcm -a, Cu Ka, 2 = 1.5418/k, B = 6.868 cm -1, F(000) = 848, T= 293 K, final R =0.054 for 648 observed reflections. The molecule is propeller shaped. The benzoyl groups act as protecting groups and the phenyl group is a base substitute. The crystal structure does not involve any intermolecular stacking interactions between the phenyl groups. The molecule...

  15. Potentiometric studies on the chelation behaviour of ω-benzoyl-2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methyl-acetophenone (BHMMA) with lanthanons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chelation behaviour of complexes of La(3), Pr(3), Nd(3), Sm(3), Y(3), Tb(3), Dy(3), Ho(3) with ω-benzoyl-2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methyl-acetophenone has been studied potentiometrically in 75% (v/v) aqueous alcohol medium at various ionic strengths. The method of Bjerrum and Calvin, as modified by Irving and Rossotti, has been used to find values of n-bar and pL. The stability constants and the values of Smin have been calculated. The order of stability constants was found to be: La < Pr < Nd < Sm < Y < Tb < Dy < Ho. (Author)

  16. 光度法测定小麦粉中过氧化苯甲酰研究%Spectrophotometric Determination of Flour Benzoyl Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田林双; 于伟; 吴存兵; 顾鹏程; 周琳琨; 邱琳

    2013-01-01

    基于过氧化苯甲酰的氧化性,将Fe2+氧化成Fe3+,生成的Fe3+与硫氰酸盐在酸性乙醇介质中发生显色反应,建立小麦粉违禁添加剂过氧化苯甲酰检测新方法.对该方法进行试验条件研究,包括光谱吸收曲线、反应介质、酸含量、反应温度、反应时间、Fe2浓度、KSCN浓度、共存干扰物质等因素对检测结果的影响.最佳试验条件下,过氧化苯甲酰线性范围0.1~15 mg/L,相关系数R2=0.999 4,505 nm处表观摩尔吸光系数ε =2.136 5×104 L·mol-1·cm-1,检出限0.025 mg/L.利用该方法对市售小麦粉样品进行测定,回收率在97.2%~104.4%之间.%A new method for benzoyl peroxide detection was proposed.It was based on the principle that benzoyl peroxide oxidize ferrous iron to ferric ion,then color reaction between ferric ion and thiocyanate in ethanol and acid system can be quantified.Experimental conditions of the benzoyl peroxide detection method including absorption curve,reaction medium,acid content,reaction temperature,reaction time,ferrous iron content,thiocyanate content and interfering substances were studied in the research.Under the optimum conditions,the linear range of benzoyl peroxide concentration was 0.1 ~ 15 mg/L,with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.999 4 and a lower detection limit of 0.025 mg/L.The apparent molar adsorptivity of the coordination complex was 2.136 5 × 104 L · mol-1 · cm-1The recovery was at the range of 97.2% to 104.4% by this method to detect commercial flour samples.

  17. Peroxy radical partitioning during the AMMA radical intercomparison exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured onboard two scientific aircrafts during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign in summer 2006. This paper reports results from the flight on 16 August 2006 during which measurements of HO2 by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy at low pressure (LIF-FAGE and total peroxy radicals (RO2*=HO2+ΣRO2, R= organic chain by two similar instruments based on the peroxy radical chemical amplification (PerCA technique were subject of a blind intercomparison. The German DLR-Falcon and the British FAAM-BAe-146 flew wing tip to wing tip for about 30 min making concurrent measurements on 2 horizontal level runs at 697 and 485 hPa over the same geographical area in Burkina Faso. A full set of supporting measurements comprising photolysis frequencies, and relevant trace gases like CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and a wider range of VOCs were collected simultaneously.

    Results are discussed on the basis of the characteristics and limitations of the different instruments used. Generally, no data bias are identified and the RO2* data available agree quite reasonably within the instrumental errors. The [RO2*]/[HO2] ratios, which vary between 1:1 and 3:1, as well as the peroxy radical variability, concur with variations in photolysis rates and in other potential radical precursors. Model results provide additional information about dominant radical formation and loss processes.

  18. Ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and iridium complexes of osazones (osazones = bis-arylhydrazones of glyoxal): radical versus nonradical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sarat Chandra; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2014-03-01

    Phenyl osazone (L(NHPh)H2), phenyl osazone anion radical (L(NHPh)H2(•-)), benzoyl osazone (L(NHCOPh)H2), benzoyl osazone anion radical (L(NHCOPh)H2(•-)), benzoyl osazone monoanion (L(NCOPh)HMe(-)), and anilido osazone (L(NHCONHPh)HMe) complexes of ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, and iridium of the types trans-[Os(L(NHPh)H2)(PPh3)2Br2] (3), trans-[Ir(L(NHPh)H2(•-))(PPh3)2Cl2] (4), trans-[Ru(L(NHCOPh)H2)(PPh3)2Cl2] (5), trans-[Os(L(NHCOPh)H2)(PPh3)2Br2] (6), trans- [Rh(L(NHCOPh)H2(•-))(PPh3)2Cl2] (7), trans-[Rh(L(NHCOPh)HMe(-))(PPh3)2Cl]PF6 ([8]PF6), and trans-[Ru(L(NHCONHPh)HMe)(PPh3)2Cl]Cl ([9]Cl) have been isolated and compared (osazones = bis-arylhydrazones of glyoxal). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses and IR, mass, and (1)H NMR spectra; in addition, single-crystal X-ray structure determinations of 5, 6, [8]PF6, and [9]Cl have been carried out. EPR spectra of 4 and 7 reveal that in the solid state they are osazone anion radical complexes (4, gav = 1.989; 7, 2.028 (Δg = 0.103)), while in solution the contribution of the M(II) ions is greater (4, gav = 2.052 (Δg = 0.189); 7, gav = 2.102 (Δg = 0.238)). Mulliken spin densities on L(NHPh)H2 and L(NHCOPh)H2 obtained from unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) calculations on trans-[Ir(L(NHPh)H2)(PMe3)2Cl2] (4(Me)) and trans-[Rh(L(NHCOPh)H2)(PMe3)2Cl2] (7(Me)) in the gas phase with doublet spin states authenticated the existence of L(NHPh)H2(•-) and L(NHCOPh)H2(•-) anion radicals in 4 and 7 coordinated to iridium(III) and rhodium(III) ions. DFT calculations on trans-[Os(L(NHPh)H2)(PMe3)2Br2] (3(Me)), trans-[Os(L(NHCOPh)H2)(PMe3)2Br2] (6(Me)), and trans-[Ru(L(NHCONHPh)HMe(-))(PMe3)2Cl] [9(Me)](+) with singlet spin states established that the closed-shell singlet state (CSS) solutions of 3, 5, 6, and [9]Cl are stable. The lower value of M(III)/M(II) reduction potentials and lower energy absorption bands corroborate the higher extent of mixing of d orbitals with the π* orbital

  19. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  20. Radical formation by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuter, W.

    1982-09-01

    Certain reduced heavy metal ions can convert oxygen to a ''reactive oxygen species'' by donation of an electron. The reactive oxygen then attacks structures susceptible to oxidation, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, and peroxidizes them in a radical reaction. This process is inhibited by the presence of vitamin E and by other means. Peroxidized lipids decay forming free radicals in the process which themselves can peroxidise neighbouring lipids in a radical chain reaction. This decay is, moreover, catalysed by reduced heavy metal ions but on the other hand retarded by selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase. Radical formation by heavy metals is considerably involved in (i) the production of parenteral iron poisoning of the piglet (ii) haemolytic crisis occurring in ruminants through chronic copper poisoning (iii) the production of lead poisoning in ruminants and other animals. These types of poisonings are made worse by a deficiency of vitamin E and/or selenium. Factors which increase the bio-availability of the free heavy metal ion or reduce the redox potential thereof can aid radical formation as well as factors which lead to a reduction of the heavy metal ion e.g. cysteine, ascorbic acid or glucose.

  1. Identification of 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]- cyclohexane-1,3-dione metabolites in urine of patients suffering from tyrosinemia type I with the use of 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczeciński, Przemysław; Lamparska, Diana; Gryff-Keller, Adam; Gradowska, Wanda

    2008-01-01

    Organic extracts of six urine samples from children treated with nitisinone, a medicine against tyrosinemia type I, were investigated by (1)H and (19)F NMR spectroscopy. The presence of unchanged 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC), 6-hydroxy-2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC-OH) and 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (NTFA) as well as a few other unidentified compounds containing CF(3) group was documented. PMID:19039335

  2. Identification of 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-cyclohexane-1,3-dione metabolites in urine of patients suffering from tyrosinemia type I with the use of 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic extracts of six urine samples from children treated with nitisinone, a medicine against tyrosinemia type I, were investigated by 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy. The presence of unchanged 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC), 6-hydroxy-2-[2-nitro- 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC-OH) and 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (NTFA) as well as a few other unidentified compounds containing CF3 group was documented. (authors)

  3. NMR and DFT Calculation Study on Structures of 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC) and Its Two Metabolites Isolated from Urine of Patients Suffering from Tyrosinemia Type I.

    OpenAIRE

    Gryff-Keller, Adam; Szczeciński, Przemysław; Kraska-Dziadecka, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract 2-[2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC) is an active component of nitisinone, a medicine against tyrosinemia type I. Using 1H, 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy it has been found that in urine of patients treated with nitisinone two compounds possessing CF3 group are always present. They have been isolated by TLC technique and identified as 4-hydroxy-2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione and 5-hydroxy-2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethy...

  4. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  5. MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF 3-(2-BENZOYL-6-HYDROXY-3-METHYL BENZO[b] FURAN-5-YL-5-(ARYL-4, 5-DIHYDRO-1H-PYRAZOLE CARBOTHIOAMIDES AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY Mikrowellen unterstützte Synthese von 3 - (2-Benzoyl-6-HYDROXY-3-METHYL Benzo [b] furan-5-yl -5 - (ARYL -4, 5-DIHYDRO-1H-pyrazol CARBOTHIOAMIDES UND ihre antibakterielle Aktivität

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok D, Sudershan K,Khalilullah M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 3-(2-Benzoyl-6-hydroxy-3-methyl benzo[b] furan-5-yl-5-(aryl-4, 5-dihydro-1Hpyrazole carbothioamides have been prepared by the reaction of (E-1-(2-Benzoyl-6-hydroxy-3- methylbenzo[b]furan-5-yl-3-aryl-2-propen-1-ones with thiosemicarbazide in the presence of sodium hydroxide under microwave irradiation. The structures of newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis, IR,1H-NMR,13C-NMR and mass spectral data. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity.

  6. Vaginal radical trachelectomy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Marie

    2008-11-01

    The vaginal radical trachelectomy has emerged as a valuable fertility-preserving treatment option for young women with early-stage disease. Cancer-related infertility is associated with feelings of depression, grief, stress, and sexual dysfunction. Data have shown that the overall oncological outcome is safe and that the obstetrical outcome is promising. In this article, we analyze the data on the vaginal radical trachelectomy published over the last 10 years in the context of what we have learned, what issues remain unclear, and what the future holds.

  7. Radical democratic politics and feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Labrin, Soledad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article I present a reflection around the radical democratic project proposed by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau. Specifically, I examine the application of the project in the context of the “new social movements” and especially, of feminist movement. I state the need of drawing attention to universalism and essentialism as the main obstacles to generate a collective proposal without margins. Nevertheless, doubts remind about the possibility of building up a feminism tailored by the radical democratic project, in a stage in which the political action of such a movement is characterized by categories that are closed and crystallized

  8. N-(4-Substituted-benzoyl)-N'-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)ureas as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase: Synthesis and evaluation by kinetic, crystallographic, and molecular modelling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Veronika; Felföldi, Nóra; Kónya, Bálint; Praly, Jean-Pierre; Docsa, Tibor; Gergely, Pál; Chrysina, Evangelia D; Tiraidis, Costas; Kosmopoulou, Magda N; Alexacou, Kyra-Melinda; Konstantakaki, Maria; Leonidas, Demetres D; Zographos, Spyros E; Oikonomakos, Nikos G; Kozmon, Stanislav; Tvaroška, Igor; Somsák, László

    2012-03-01

    N-(4-Substituted-benzoyl)-N'-(β-d-glucopyranosyl) ureas (substituents: Me, Ph, Cl, OH, OMe, NO(2), NH(2), COOH, and COOMe) were synthesised by ZnCl(2) catalysed acylation of O-peracetylated β-d-glucopyranosyl urea as well as in reactions of O-peracetylated or O-unprotected glucopyranosylamines and acyl-isocyanates. O-deprotections were carried out by base or acid catalysed transesterifications where necessary. Kinetic studies revealed that most of these compounds were low micromolar inhibitors of rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase b (RMGPb). The best inhibitor was the 4-methylbenzoyl compound (K(i)=2.3μM). Crystallographic analyses of complexes of several of the compounds with RMGPb showed that the analogues exploited, together with water molecules, the available space at the β-pocket subsite and induced a more extended shift of the 280s loop compared to RMGPb in complex with the unsubstituted benzoyl urea. The results suggest the key role of the water molecules in ligand binding and structure-based ligand design. Molecular docking study of selected inhibitors was done to show the ability of the binding affinity prediction. The binding affinity of the highest scored docked poses was calculated and correlated with experimentally measured K(i) values. Results show that correlation is high with the R-squared (R(2)) coefficient over 0.9. PMID:22325154

  9. Formulation and evaluation of a topical niosomal gel containing a combination of benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin for antiacne activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankush; Singh, Sima; Kotla, Niranjan G; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone at least once in their lifetime. The structure of the stratum corneum is often compared with a brick wall, with corneocytes surrounded by the mortar of the intercellular lipid lamellae. One of the best options for successful drug delivery to the affected area of skin is the use of elastic vesicles (niosomes) which can be transported through the skin through channel-like structures. In this study, a combination of tretinoin (keratolytic agent) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) (a potent antibacterial) was given by using niosomes as promising carriers for the effective treatment of acne by acting on a pathogenic site. In this section, niosomal gel formulation encapsulated drugs have been evaluated for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, for their predetermined characteristics; and finally the stability of the niosome gel was tested at different temperature conditions for understanding of the storage conditions required for maintaining the quality of formulation attributes. The prepared niosome was found to be in the range of 531 nm with a zeta potential of -43 mV; the entrapment efficiencies of tretinoin (TRA) and BPO niosomes were found to be 96.25%±0.56% and 98.75%±1.25%, respectively. The permeated amount of TRA and BPO from the niosomal gel after 24 hours was calculated as 6.25±0.14 μg/cm(2) and 5.04±0.014 μg/cm(2), respectively. A comparative drug retention study in Wistar rat skin using cream, an alcoholic solution, and a niosomal gel showed 11.54 μg, 2.68 μg, and 15.54 μg amounts of TRA and 68.85 μg, 59.98 μg, and 143.78 μg amounts of BPO were retained in the layers of skin, respectively. In vivo studies of the niosomal gel and antiacne cream of TRA and BPO showed that the niosomal gel was more efficacious than the antiacne cream because niosomal gels with a 4.16-fold lower dose of BPO provided the same therapeutic index at targeted sites in comparison to the antiacne cream.

  10. Formulation and evaluation of a topical niosomal gel containing a combination of benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin for antiacne activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankush Gupta,1,* Sima Singh,1,* Niranjan G Kotla,1 Thomas J Webster2,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone at least once in their lifetime. The structure of the stratum corneum is often compared with a brick wall, with corneocytes surrounded by the mortar of the intercellular lipid lamellae. One of the best options for successful drug delivery to the affected area of skin is the use of elastic vesicles (niosomes which can be transported through the skin through channel-like structures. In this study, a combination of tretinoin (keratolytic agent and benzoyl peroxide (BPO (a potent antibacterial was given by using niosomes as promising carriers for the effective treatment of acne by acting on a pathogenic site. In this section, niosomal gel formulation encapsulated drugs have been evaluated for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, for their predetermined characteristics; and finally the stability of the niosome gel was tested at different temperature conditions for understanding of the storage conditions required for maintaining the quality of formulation attributes. The prepared niosome was found to be in the range of 531 nm with a zeta potential of -43 mV; the entrapment efficiencies of tretinoin (TRA and BPO niosomes were found to be 96.25%±0.56% and 98.75%±1.25%, respectively. The permeated amount of TRA and BPO from the niosomal gel after 24 hours was calculated as 6.25±0.14 µg/cm2 and 5.04±0.014 µg/cm2, respectively. A comparative drug retention study in Wistar rat skin using cream, an alcoholic solution, and a niosomal gel showed 11.54 µg, 2.68 µg, and 15.54 µg

  11. Detecting Social Polarization and Radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock;

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel system to detect social polarization and to estimate the chances of violent radicalization associated with it. The required processes for such a system are indicated; it is also analyzed how existing technologies can be integrated into the proposed system to fulfill the...

  12. Kinetics of nitroxyl radical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute rate-constants for the reaction of the nitroxyl free radicals TAN and TMPN with radiation-chemically-formed radicals and ions have been determined. k(TAN + X) (in M-1 sec-1) = 4.0 x 109 (for X =OH), 2.9 x 1010(esub(aq)-), 8.0 x 109 (H), 7.2 x 108 (CH2OH), 4.0 x 108 (CH3CHOH), 4.3 x 108 ((CH3)2COH), 2.8 x 108 (CH2(CH3)2COH), 5.9 x 107 (glucose radical), 4.0 x 108 (c-C5H9), and k(TMPN + X) = 3.4 x 109 (OH), 7.8 x 109 (esub(aq)-), 4.9 x 109 (H), 4.4 x 108 (CH2OH), 4.9 x 108 (CH3CHOH), 3.6 x 108 ((CH3)2COH), 1.5 x 108 (CH2(CH3)2COH), 4.9 x 107 (glucose radical), 4.3 x 108 (c-C5H9). Direct measurements by means of a pulse-radiolysis conductivity technique were based on the formation and destruction of charged species in these reactions within certain pH ranges. It is indicated that the radiosensitizing nitroxyles undergo both redox and addition reactions. (author)

  13. Remembering Dutch-Moluccan radicalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    This article examines memory politics in relation to radical actions of young Dutch-Moluccans, more specifically a train hijacking in 1977 at the village of De Punt in the Netherlands. The article examines how these historical events were remembered in the drama-documentary television film, De Punt...

  14. Wild radical square zero algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that a radical square zero algebra is wild, if and only if it is of Corner's type, and it is strictly wild if and only if it is Endo-wild. This gives a negative answer to a problem posed by Simson.

  15. Exploring the Theories of Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskaliūnaitė Asta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the London bombings in July 2005, the concern of terrorism scholars and policy makers has turned to “home-grown” terrorism and potential for political violence from within the states. “Radicalization” became a new buzz word. This article follows a number of reviews of the literature on radicalization and offers another angle for looking at this research. First, it discusses the term “radicalization” and suggests the use of the following definition of radicalization as a process by which a person adopts belief systems which justify the use of violence to effect social change and comes to actively support as well as employ violent means for political purposes. Next, it proposes to see the theories of radicalization focusing on the individual and the two dimensions of his/her motivation: whether that motivation is internal or external and whether it is due to personal choice or either internal (due to some psychological traits or external compulsion. Though not all theories fall neatly within these categories, they make it possible to make comparisons of contributions from a variety of different areas thus reflecting on the interdisciplinary nature of the study of terrorism in general and radicalization as a part of it.

  16. Determination of the Tautomeric Equilibria of Pyridoyl Benzoyl -Diketones in the Liquid and Solid State through the use of Deuterium Isotope Effects on 1H and 13C NMR Chemical Shifts and Spin Coupling Constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Borisov, Eugeny V.; Lindon, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The tautomeric equilibria for 2-pyridoyl-, 3-pyridoyl-, and 4-pyridoyl-benzoyl methane have been investigated using deuterium isotope effects on 1H and 13C chemical shifts both in the liquid and the solid state. Equilibria are established both in the liquid and the solid state. In addition, in th...

  17. Kinetics of hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solution as a function of temperature near the temperature of maximum density, and the isochoric controversy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandamer, MJ; Buurma, NJ; Engberts, JBFN; Reis, JCR; Buurma, Niklaas J.; Reis, João C.R.

    2003-01-01

    At temperatures above and below the temperature of maximum density, TMD, for water at ambient pressure, pairs of temperatures exist at which the molar volumes of water are equal. First-order rate constants for the pH-independent hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solution at pairs of

  18. KINETICS OF HYDROLYSIS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION OF 1-BENZOYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE - THE ROLE OF PAIRWISE AND TRIPLET GIBBS ENERGY INTERACTION PARAMETERS IN DESCRIBING THE EFFECTS OF ADDED SALTS AND ADDED ALCOHOLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOORDMAN, WH; BLOKZIJL, W; ENGBERTS, JBF; BLANDAMER, MJ

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient-pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic-data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  19. Kinetics of hydrolysis in aqueous solution of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole; the role of pairwise and triplet Gibbs energy interaction parameters in describing the effects of added salts and added alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, Wouter H.; Blokzijl, Wilfried; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Blandamer, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  20. From Radical Translation to Radical Interpretation and Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Zilhão

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Quine and Davidson put forth programs of empirical semantics satisfying the conditions that characterize the so-called “standpoint of interpretation.” Quine’s less ambitious program of radical translation rests upon two buttresses: causality and empathy. Davidson’s more ambitious program of radical interpretation replaces causality with truth and empathy with rationality. Although the replacement of causality with intersubjective truth seems to me to be a fully justified move, I nevertheless contend that it is more realistic to develop the work of interpretation drawing upon Quine’s less ambitious requirement of empathy than upon Davidson’s view of human agency as rational agency. In order to substantiate this contention, I present an argument to the effect that Davidson’s characterization of human agency as rational is not compatible with his other requirement that truth should pro-vide the essential link connecting speech with environment and action.

  1. Reaction between protein radicals and other biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østdal, Henrik; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Andersen, Henrik J

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigates the reactivity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) radicals towards different biomolecules (urate, linoleic acid, and a polypeptide, poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr)). The BSA radical was formed at room temperature through a direct protein-to-protein radical transfer from H(2)O(2......)-activated immobilized horseradish peroxidase (im-HRP). Subsequently, each of the three different biomolecules was separately added to the BSA radicals, after removal of im-HRP by centrifugation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy showed that all three biomolecules quenched the BSA radicals....... Subsequent analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of urate upon reaction with the BSA radical, while the BSA radical in the presence of poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr) resulted in increased formation of the characteristic protein oxidation product, dityrosine. Reaction between the BSA radical and a linoleic acid...

  2. Electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    Most plasma environments contain populations of short-lived species such as radicals, the chemistry of which can have significant effects on the overall chemistry of the system. However, few experimental measurements of the kinetics of electron attachment to radicals exist due to the inherent difficulties of working with transient species. Calculations from first principles have been attempted, but are arduous and, because electron attachment is so sensitive to the specifics of the potential surface, their accuracy has not been established. Electron attachment to small fluorocarbon radicals is particularly important, as the data are needed for predictive modeling of plasma etching of semiconductor materials, a key process in the industrial fabrication of microelectronics. We have recently developed a novel flowing afterglow technique to measure several types of otherwise difficult to study plasma processes, including thermal electron attachment to radicals. Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry (VENDAMS) exploits dissociative electron attachment in a weakly ionized plasma as a radical source. Here, we apply VENDAMS to a series of halofluorocarbon precursors in order to measure the kinetics of thermal electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals. Results are presented for CF2, CF3, C2F5,C2F3,1-C3F7, 2-C3F7, and C3F5 from 300 K to 900 K. Both the magnitude and the temperature dependences of rate coefficients as well as product branching between associative and dissociative attachment are highly system specific; however, thermal attachment to all species is inefficient, never exceeding 5% of the collision rate. The data are analyzed using a recently developed kinetic modeling approach, which uses extended Vogt-Wannier theory as a starting point, accounts for dynamic effects such as coupling between the electron and nuclear motions through empirically validated functional forms, and finally uses statistical theory to determine the fate of

  3. Radical carbonylations using a continuous microflow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Fukuyama

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radical-based carbonylation reactions of alkyl halides were conducted in a microflow reactor under pressurized carbon monoxide gas. Good to excellent yields of carbonylated products were obtained via radical formylation, carbonylative cyclization and three-component coupling reactions, using tributyltin hydride or TTMSS as a radical mediator.

  4. Oxygen free radicals in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Biemond (Pieter)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractCurrent knowledge strongly suggests that oxygen free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Additional information about the mechanism of free radical attack is necessary in order to find out if interaction with the mechanism of free radical damage can be used in the treatment

  5. DNA binding hydroxyl radical probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Vicky J.; Konigsfeld, Katie M.; Aguilera, Joe A. [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0610 (United States); Milligan, Jamie R., E-mail: jmilligan@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0610 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different chromophores, which produce fluorescent products when hydroxylated. Of these, the coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. We have therefore examined its behavior when linked to a cationic peptide ligand designed to bind strongly to DNA. - Highlights: > Examined four aromatic groups as a means to detect hydroxyl radicals by fluorescence. > Coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. > Characterized its reactivity when linked to a hexa-arginine peptide.

  6. Free radicals and Dupuytren's contracture.

    OpenAIRE

    Murrell, G. A.; Francis, M. J.; Bromley, L.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of substrate expressed as hypoxanthine capable of reacting with xanthine oxidase to release superoxide free radicals (O2-) was measured in control and Dupuytren's contracture palmar fascia. In Dupuytren's contracture palmar fascia the concentration of hypoxanthine was six times that of control and was greatest in "nodular" areas. Xanthine oxidase activity was also detected in Dupuytren's contracture palmar fascia. These results suggest a greater potential for hypoxanthine-xa...

  7. Geoscientists and the Radical Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Addressing the great challenges facing society requires industry, government, and academia to work together. I call this overlap space, where compromises are made and real solutions determined, the Radical Middle. Radical because it can appear at times as if the loudest and most publicly influential voices lie outside of the actual solution space, content to provoke but not problem-solve. One key area where geoscientists can play a lead role in the Radical Middle is in the overlap between energy, the environment, and the economy. Globally, fossil fuels still represent 85% of the aggregate energy mix. As existing conventional oil and natural-gas reservoir production continues to slowly decline, unconventional reservoirs, led today by shale and other more expensive resources, will represent a growing part of the oil and gas production mix. Many of these unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracturing. The positive economic impact of hydraulic fracturing and associated natural gas and oil production on the United States economy is well documented and undeniable. Yet there are environmental concerns about fracking, and some states and nations have imposed moratoria. This energy-environment-economy space is ideal for leadership from the geosciences. Another such overlap space is the potential for geoscience leadership in relations with China, whose economy and global presence continue to expand. Although China is building major hydropower and natural-gas power plants, as well as nuclear reactors, coal is still king—with the associated environmental impacts. Carbon sequestration—onshore in brine and to enhance oil recovery, as well as offshore—could prove viable. It is vital that educated and objective geoscientists from industry, government, and academia leave their corners and work together in the Radical Middle to educate the public and develop and deliver balanced, economically sensible energy and environmental strategies.

  8. Mixed-ligand chelate extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 and dihexyl-n, n-diethylcarbamoylmethyl phosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed-ligand chelate extraction of trivalent lanthanides such as La, Eu and Lu and a trivalent actinide, Am into xylene with mixtures of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP) and dihexyl-N, N-diathylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (CMP) has been studied by tracer techniques. These trivalent metal ions are found to be extracted from 0.01 mol/dm3 chloroacetate buffer solutions as M(PMBP)3 x HPMBP type self adducts with HPMBP alone and in the presence of CMP as M(PMBP)3 x CMP (where M= La, Eu, Lu and Am) into the organic phase. The equilibrium constants of the above species are deduced by non-linear regression analysis. The synergistic constants of trivalent lanthanides do not increase monotonically with atomic number but have a maximum at Eu and that of Am was found to lie between that of La and Eu. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Synthesis, Structure Characterization, and Cu2+ Recognition of 3-{[3-(Phenylsulfonamido)benzoyl]methylidene}-3,4-dihydroquinoxaline-2(1H)-one

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Aryl diketo acid derivatives are one of the most promising HIV-1 integrase(IN) inhibitors. With a view to substitute the critical diketo acid pharmacophore with the diketo benzimidazole unit, the coupling reaction of compound 4 with o -phenylenediamine was carried out. However, the reaction product, compound 5, was confirmed to be 3-{[3-(phenylsulfonamido)benzoyl]methylidene}-3,4-dihydroquinoxaline-2(1H)-one rather than the2-benzimidazole derivative by using X-ray diffraction. Owing to its low solubility in water, the evaluation of the anti-HIV IN activity of the synthesized compound 5 could not be carried out. Consequently, the ion-binding properties of compound 5 in the absence of HIV-1 IN were investigated with UV-Vis spectroscopy in organic solvents. The results show that such a compound can selectively recognize Cu2+ .

  10. SYNTHESIS, COMPUTATIONAL STUDY AND PRELIMINARY PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 2-[4-(2-CHLOROBENZYL/BENZOYL SUBSTITUTED PIPERAZIN-1-YL]-N-PHENYLACETAMIDE: POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomar Amita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl and benzoyl substituted acetamides have been synthesized and evaluated as potential antipsychotic agents. The target compounds (4a-b were prepared by reaction of substituted anilines with chloroacetylchloride which further treated with 2-chlorobenzyl or 2-chlorobenzoyl piperazine in presence of potassium carbonate and potassium iodide as catalyst in acetonitrile. The structures of the target compounds (4a-b were characterized on the basis of their M.P., TLC, IR and 1H-NMR data. Computational studies of target compounds (4a-b were carried out by using software programs. The target compounds showed good similarity with respect to standard drugs. The target compounds (4a-b showed inhibition of 5-HTP induced head twitches behavior and low induction of catalepsy in mice.

  11. LETTING GO: DE-RADICALIZATION IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the causes of how terrorist organizations are formed and how counter terrorism measures can be more effective is immense. What is novel in terrorism literature is de-radicalization in terrorist organizations. This paper hopes to shed light on the de-radicalization process in terrorist organizations based in Egypt. In order to achieve that goal, the first part of the paper will deal with the de-radicalization process. The second part will briefly describe the major radical terrorist organizations that are effective in Egypt. The last part will combine the two parts and bring in suggestions on the de-radicalization process itself. Terrorism and de-radicalization are complicated threats to nearly all societies. Therefore, it is important to go beyond security and intelligence approaches and take proactive measures. It is best to view what is de-radicalization and how it can be achieved.

  12. Oxidative stress, free radicals and protein peroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebicki, Janusz M

    2016-04-01

    Primary free radicals generated under oxidative stress in cells and tissues produce a cascade of reactive secondary radicals, which attack biomolecules with efficiency determined by the reaction rate constants and target concentration. Proteins are prominent targets because they constitute the bulk of the organic content of cells and tissues and react readily with many of the secondary radicals. The reactions commonly lead to the formation of carbon-centered radicals, which generally convert in vivo to peroxyl radicals and finally to semistable hydroperoxides. All of these intermediates can initiate biological damage. This article outlines the advantages of the application of ionizing radiations to studies of radicals, with particular reference to the generation of desired radicals, studies of the kinetics of their reactions and correlating the results with events in biological systems. In one such application, formation of protein hydroperoxides in irradiated cells was inhibited by the intracellular ascorbate and glutathione.

  13. Online radicalization: the net or the netizen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi Richard Omotoyinbo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Radicalization has gained some unusual prominence in the academic circles; maintaining a generic existence not only in the political sector. And with the advent of the Information Communication Technology (ICT, radicalization has begun to have some virtual dimension even in the remotest of human communities. This study seeks to mobilize a universal awareness on the collective urgency to oppose Online Radicalization (a radicalization that happens through the internet due to its propensity to engendering conflicts. It also aims at identifying the principal cause of online radicalization and steer a clear course for a practical reversal in the systems of online radicalization.Design/methodology/approach - The study is divided into three primary parts. The general notion of radicalization is the focus of the first part; which is further analysed into the levels of online radicalization with its accompanying developments and segments. The second part utilizes analytic and historical method to pinpoint the principal cause of online radicalization amidst the suspected causal factors (the Net and the Netizen. The final part analytically focuses on the Netizen (a user/citizen of the internet as the primary cause of online radicalization, and how the global community can bring about a corresponding change in the Net by the application of some measures on the Netizen.Findings - By virtue of the analytic plus historical methods employed by this study; it was initially identified that radicalization is basically having two versions which are online and offline. Further emphasis on the online version reveals that its existence is only made possible by the availability of the internet (the Net. Since the Net is a global phenomenon online radicalization is considered to be worldwide: a menace of globalization. However, the study later indicated that the Net is a facilitator and a cause of online radicalization. A view was deduced that the Netizen is

  14. Radical conservatism and Danish imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    on the basis of a close reading of their imperialist program in the pamphlet Danmark Udslettes! from 1918. Rige had been a vague term for the larger Danish polity that originated in a pre-national conceptualization of the polity as a realm. The article suggests that rige-as-realm was translated by the radical...... to signify the ambition of being a great power, the spiritual elevation of the nation through the transcendence of the decaying liberal modernity. The program addressed the tension between a conservative political attitude and modernity and thus signified a kind of reactionary modernism, which rejected...

  15. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  16. Laser spectroscopy of hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The author reports the application of supersonic jet flash pyrolysis to the specific preparation of a range of organic radicals, biradicals, and carbenes in a skimmed molecular beam. Each species was produced cleanly and specifically, with little or no secondary reactions by the thermal dissociation of appropriately designed and synthesized organic precursors. Photoelectron spectra of the three isomeric C{sub 3}H{sub 2} carbenes, ortho-benzyne, and the {alpha},3-dehydrotoluene biradical, were used to establish adiabatic ionization potentials for use in thermochemical determinations.

  17. Free radical kinetics of irradiated durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, M.; Polat, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the present work, a detailed ESR investigation of characteristic features and kinetic behaviors at three different temperatures of free radicals produced in a species of durum wheat cultivated in Turkey and irradiated at doses of up to 5 kGy by a γ source, is reported. Unirradiated wheat samples exhibit a weak, single-line ESR signal originating from a radical of unknown structure called radical III in this work. Irradiation produces two more radicals identified as hydroxyalkyl (I) and aldehydalkyl (II) radicals beside radical III. The radicals (I, II and III) follow complicated kinetics. Species I and II initially decay very fast after the irradiation followed by slower decay. Radical half-life times depend on whether they were induced in the crystalline or amorphous fractions of the wheat starch. Activation energy values of the radicals were found to follow the order Ea(III)> Ea(II)> Ea(I). ESR parameters of the radical species were determined by simulating experimental spectra recorded following the irradiation. Room temperature dose-response curves and variations of different spectral parameters between 120 and 390 K were also studied.

  18. Radical constructivism: Between realism and solipsism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alberto

    2002-11-01

    This paper criticizes radical constructivism of the Glasersfeld type, pointing out some contradictions between the declared radical principles and their theoretical and practical development. These contradictions manifest themselves in a frequent oscillation between solipsism and realism, despite constructivist claims to be an anti-realist theory. The paper also points out the contradiction between the relativism of the radical constructivist principles and the constructivist exclusion of other epistemological or educational paradigms. It also disputes the originality and importance of the radical constructivist paradigm, suggesting the idea of an isomorphism between radical constructivist theory and contemplative realism. In addition, some pedagogical and scientific methodological aspects of the radical constructivist model are examined. Although radical constructivism claims to be a rational theory and advocates deductive thinking, it is argued that there is no logical deductive connection between the radical principles of constructivism and the radical constructivist ideas about scientific research and learning. The paper suggests the possibility of an ideological substratum in the construction and hegemonic success of subjective constructivism and, finally, briefly advances an alternative realist model to epistemological and educational radical constructivism.

  19. Detection of a secondary muoniated radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollum, Brett M.; Brodovitch, Jean-Claude [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Clyburne, Jason A.C. [Department of Chemistry, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Percival, Paul W., E-mail: percival@sfu.c [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); West, Robert [Organosilicon Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Muoniated free radicals are formed by addition of muonium to unsaturated molecules. Successful detection by transverse-field muon spin rotation (muSR) usually requires pure or highly concentrated samples and a muonium reaction rate in excess of 10{sup 9} M{sup -1}s{sup -1} to ensure that the muon spin polarization is coherently transferred to the radical. For this reason muoniated radicals reported to date are all the primary radical products of Mu reaction. Thus, it was expected that Mu addition to a silylene would result in detection of a silyl radical. However, the muon hyperfine constant determined by experiment is much smaller than the value predicted by density functional calculations. Instead, it is consistent with a disilanyl radical, the secondary radical formed by reaction of the initially formed silyl radical with a second silylene molecule. From an analysis of the signal amplitude it was deduced that the second-order rate constant for reaction of the muoniated silyl radical with the parent silylene is 5.7x10{sup 8} M{sup -1}s{sup -1}. This work represents the first example of direct detection of a secondary radical product by transverse-field muSR.

  20. Radical Reactions and Its Synthetic Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takeaki Naito

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Strategies involving radical reactions have become preeminent tools in organic synthesis. Free radical-mediated cyclization has developed as a powerful method for preparing various types of cyclic compounds via carbon-carbon bond-forming processes. In order to develop effective and convenient methods for the synthesis of biologically active cyclic amines, we have focused our efforts on radical reactions using aldehydes, ketones,and C-C multiple bonds as a radical precursor and/or an oxime ether, hydrazone, and nitrone as a radical acceptor. In this lecture, I would like to talk on radical addition-cyclization of oxime ether and its application to the synthesis of martinellines.

  1. Radicalization In Pakistan And The Spread Of Radical Islam In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahir ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is pertinent to mention that radicalism is not intrinsic to Islam and radical interpretations of the religion or for that matter may occur within any way of life and religion Saikal 2003 and yet the question remains as to why Muslims in certain geographical regions have more radical approaches towards their religion and also that what are the causes of such radicalization. Becoming a radical Muslim is not even a matter of a day nor is it a sudden process. There are several reasons behind making a person radical peaceful angry smiling or tolerant. For knowing the reason behind radicalization or radicals persons one has to understand the causes. Tracing these causes is one of the ways to eliminate such behavior. The first step in the elimination of the radical sentiments in a person is to develop peace in his personality Fair Malhotra amp Shapiro 2010. The chapter which has been addressed here is going to shed light on the roots and symptoms of the radicalism. There will be a brief discussion on how the roots of radicalism can be traced and can be eliminated. The assessment and discussion will be conducted on the parameters of the economy media politics and theology from social cultural point of view. According to the analysis of Ahrari 2000 political factor is one of the major and direct factors which have resulted in causing of the radicalism. These factors however intertwine with one another. Radical actions cannot take place only because of the political factors.

  2. Involvement of free radicals in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos-Arrabal, Sandra; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; León, Josefa; Román-Marinetto, Elisa; del Mar Salinas-Asensio, María; Calvente, Irene; Núñez, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have recently shown an increased interest in free radicals and their role in the tumor microenvironment. Free radicals are molecules with high instability and reactivity due to the presence of an odd number of electrons in the outermost orbit of their atoms. Free radicals include reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are key players in the initiation and progression of tumor cells and enhance their metastatic potential. In fact, they are now considered a hallmark of cancer. ...

  3. Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. (Upton, NY); Lloyd, Judith (Westbury, NY); Zheng, Jun (Stony Brook, NY)

    2007-10-23

    A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

  4. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare L

    2004-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress...... and via enzymatic reactions. Over the last 15 years this technique has also found increasing use in detecting and identifying radicals formed on biological macromolecules as a result of either radical reactions or enzymatic processes. Though the EPR signals that result from the trapping of large, slowly...

  5. Near-Ring Radicals and Class Pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Godloza; N.J.Groenewald; W.A.Olivier

    2005-01-01

    For near-ring ideal mappings p1 and p2, we investigate radical theoretical properties of and the relationship among the class pairs (p1: p2), (Sp2: Sp1) and (Rp2:Rp1). Conditions on p1 and p2 are given for a general class pair to form a radical class of various types. These types include the Plotkin and KA-radical varieties. A number of examples are shown to motivate the suitability of the theory of Hoehnke-radicals over KA-radicals when radical pairs of near-rings are studied. In particular, it is shown that (pc: P3) forms a KA-radical class, where Pc denotes the class of completely prime nearrings and P3 the class of 3-prime near-rings. This gives another near-ring generalization of the 2-primal ring concept. The theory of radical pairs are also used to show that in general the class of 3-semiprime near-rings is not the semisimple class of the 3-prime radical.

  6. An alternating copolymer of maleimide and atropic acid with narrow molecular weight distribution prepared by radical mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万德成; 黄兆华; 黄骏廉

    1999-01-01

    Three basic conditions for preparation of alternating copolymer with narrow molecular weight distribution were derived from the element kinetic equations of binary radical copolymerization. Using maleimide (MI) and atropie acid (ATA) as model monomer pairs and dioxane as the solvent the alternating copolymer with molecular weight distribution in the range of 1.09--1.20 was prepared successfully by charger transfer complex (CTC) mechanism in the presence of benzoyl peroxide at 85℃. The monomer reactivity ratioes r1(MI)=0.05±0.01 and r2(ATA)=0.03±0.02 were measured. The alternating eopolymerization was carried out through formation of a contact-type CTG and then alternating addition of MI and ATA monomers. The molecular weight of the copolymers is nearly independent of the feed ratio in a large range and the polymerization rate dropped with an increase in ATA in feed ratio.

  7. Radical-scavenging Activity of the Reaction Products of Isoeugenol with Thiol, Thiophenol, Mercaptothiazoline or Mercaptomethylimidazole Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction products in the presence of Lewis acid of isoeugenol (1 with ethanethiol, thiophenol, 2-mercaptothiazoline or 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (ISO-S1 – ISO-S-4 were obtained. The radical-scavenging activity of these compounds was investigated using the induction period method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and benzoyl peroxide (BPO and monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. For BPO, the stoichiometric factor (number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety, n declined in the order isoeugenol (1.8 > ISO-S-1 (1.6 > ISO-S-2 (1.2 > ISOS- 3 (0.9 > ISO-S-4 (0.3, whereas for AIBN, their n values were about 1, except for ISOS- 3 (0.6. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (kinh/kp for BPO declined in the order ISO-S-4 (56 > ISO-S-3 (15 > ISO-S-2 (11 >ISO-S-1 (9 > isoeugenol (8. Similarly, for AIBN the kinh/kp of the reaction products (33-57 was greater than that of isoeugenol (31. The reaction products of isoeugenol with a SH group showed greater inhibition rate constants (kinh than the parent compound isoeugenol.

  8. Benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase (dearomatizing), a key enzyme of anaerobic aromatic metabolism. ATP dependence of the reaction, purification and some properties of the enzyme from Thauera aromatica strain K172.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, M; Fuchs, G

    1995-12-15

    Anoxic metabolism of many aromatic compounds proceeds via the common intermediate benzoyl-CoA. Benzoyl-CoA is dearomatized by benzoyl-CoA reductase (dearomatizing) in a two-electron reduction step, possibly yielding cyclohex-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA. This process has to overcome a high activation energy and is considered a biological Birch reduction. The central, aromatic-ring-reducing enzyme was investigated for the first time in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica strain K172. A spectrophotometric assay was developed which was strictly dependent on MgATP, both with cell extract and with purified enzyme. The oxygen-sensitive new enzyme was purified 35-fold with 20% yield under anaerobic conditions in the presence of 0.25 mM dithionite. It had a native molecular mass of approximately 170 kDa and consisted of four subunits a,b,c,d of 48, 45, 38 and 32 kDa. The oligomer composition of the protein most likely is abcd. The ultraviolet/visible spectrum of the protein as isolated, but without dithionite, was characteristic for an iron-sulfur protein with an absorption maximum at 279 nm and a broad shoulder at 390 nm. The estimated molar absorption coefficient at 390 nm was 35,000 M-1 cm-1. Reduction of the enzyme by dithionite resulted in a decrease of absorbance at 390 nm, and the colour turned from greenish-brown to red-brown. The enzyme contained 10.8 +/- 1.5 mol Fe and 10.5 +/- 1.5 mol acid-labile sulfur/mol. Besides zinc (0.5 mol/mol protein) no other metals nor selenium could be detected in significant amounts. The enzyme preparation contained a flavin or flavin-like compound; the estimated content was 0.3 mol/mol enzyme. The enzyme reaction required MgATP and a strong reductant such as Ti(III). The reaction catalyzed is: benzoyl-CoA + 2 Ti(III) + n ATP-->non-aromatic acyl-CoA + 2 Ti(IV) + n ADP + n Pi. The estimated number n of ATP molecules hydrolyzed/two electrons transferred in benzoyl-CoA reduction is 2-4. In the absence of benzoyl-CoA the enzyme

  9. The Games Radicals Play: Special Issue on Free Radicals and Radical Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Walton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry and Physics have aptly been described as “most excellent children of Intellect and Art” [1]. Both these “children” engage with many playthings, and molecules rank as one of their first favorites, especially radicals, which are amongst the most lively and exciting. Checking out radicals dancing to the music of entropy round their potential energy ballrooms is surely both entertaining and enlightening. Radicals’ old favorite convolutions are noteworthy, but the new styles, modes and arrangements appearing on the scene are even more interesting. Some of these are ephemeral and enjoy only a brief appearance, others are retro-types reappearing in new guises, still others are genuinely new and “go viral” in the scientific world. This Special Issue of Molecules contains the observations and reflections of a select group of chemists and physicists fascinated by this spectacle. It contains an eclectic mix reflecting on new modes and advances as well as on permutations and combinations that revive mature themes. [...

  10. KINETICS OF NEUTRAL HYDROLYSIS OF 1-BENZOYL-3-PHENYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE IN HIGHLY AQUEOUS-MEDIA - ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF ADDED ETHANOL AND PROPAN-1-OL IN TERMS OF PAIRWISE GROUP-INTERACTION PARAMETERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BENAK, H; ENGBERTS, JBFN; BLANDAMER, MJ

    1992-01-01

    Over the range 288.15 less-than-or-equal-to T/K less-than-or-equal-to 333.15, the first-order rate constant for the neutral hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions (pH ca. 4) decreases when either ethanol or propan-1-ol is added. The kinetic data are analysed in terms of

  11. Inhibitory effects of chitosan on superoxide anion radicals and lipid free radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, the inhibitory effects of chitosan on superoxide anion radicals and linoleic acid lipid radicals were found. The inhibitory ratio E for these two kinds of radicals is in proportion to the concentration of chitosan. It was also observed that E for linoleic acid lipid radicals increased with the increase of the degree of deacetylation and decreased with the increase of the molecular weight of chitosan.

  12. Is Radical Innovation Management Misunderstood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jimmi Normann; Gertsen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This paper poses a critical view on radical innovation (RI) management research and practice. The study investigates how expected RI performance influences firms’ under- standing of their RI capability. RI performance is often based on output measures such as market shares or fiscal return....... On the contrary, RI capability building advocates for ex- ploration, learning, and accepting uncertainty. Hence, RI capability building often focuses on the processes of the firms, and not the outcome. Thus, it is argued that the RI capability- building and RI performance expectations are based on different...... managerial orientations. Coupling a discussion of the literature with case findings from four large international firms, this paper identifies a discrepancy between RI capability-building and RI perfor- mance within literature and practice. This is regarded to be a major contributing factor to RI program...

  13. Photoionisation of the tropyl radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin H. Fischer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a study on the photoionisation of the cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl radical, C7H7, using tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Tropyl is generated by flash pyrolysis from bitropyl. Ions and electrons are detected in coincidence, permitting us to record mass-selected photoelectron spectra. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of tropyl, corresponding to the X+ 1A1’ ← X 2E2” transition, reveals an ionisation energy of 6.23 ± 0.02 eV, in good agreement with Rydberg extrapolations, but slightly lower than the value derived from earlier photoelectron spectra. Several vibrations can be resolved and are reassigned to the C–C stretch mode ν16+ and to a combination of ν16+ with the ring breathing mode ν2+. Above 10.55 eV dissociative photoionisation of tropyl is observed, leading to the formation of C5H5+ and C2H2.

  14. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.

    2016-08-01

    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of narrow mental states; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without any reference external to her or him. I show that this fact imposes some severe restrictions to SIS to be incorporated into RC. In particular, I argue that only qualitative studies can comply with the requirement of narrowness. Nevertheless, I propose that quantitative works can be employed as sources of types in order to study token actual students. I use this type-token dichotomy to put forward an outline of a theory of the relation between school contents and mental contents. In this view, token mental contents regarding a given topic can be defined, and probed, only by resorting to typical school contents.

  15. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Supporting radical front end innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Gertsen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    ). Pharmaceutical innovation is unique, as it opposed to most other industries’ product development is science-driven and not customer-driven. In addition, the pharmaceutical FEI, as represented by research, lasts up to 5 years and the entire R&D process constitutes a period of 10-12 years, which is highly...... regulated by external authorities, e.g. The American Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The research aim of this paper is: to contribute to the field of FEI by studying how FEI can be actively supported within the industry specific context of the pharmaceutical industry, and through a conceptual discussion...... of FEI, pharmaceutical FEI and radical innovation. Based on this understanding, empirical research through exploratory and inductive case studies is analyzed. The value added and the contribution of this article to the existing FEI literature is in the study of the theoretical fields of research...

  17. Characterization and heterologous expression of hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase from elicited cell cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Reinhard, K; Schiltz, E; Matern, U

    1997-12-01

    Benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase catalyzes the first committed reaction of phytoalexin biosynthesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), and the product N-benzoylanthranilate is the precursor of several sets of dianthramides. The transferase activity is constitutively expressed in suspension-cultured carnation cells and can be rapidly induced by the addition of yeast extract. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from yeast-induced carnation cells and shown to consist of a single polypeptide chain of 53 kDa. Roughly 20% of the sequence was identified by micro-sequencing of tryptic peptides, and some of these sequences differed in a few amino acid residues only suggesting the presence of isoenzymes. A specific 0.8 kb cDNA probe was generated by RT-PCR, employing degenerated oligonucleotide primers complementary to two of the tryptic peptides and using poly(A)+ RNA from elicited carnation cells. Five distinct benzoyltransferase clones were isolated from a cDNA library, and three cDNAs, pchcbt1-3, were sequenced and shown to encode full-size N-benzoyltransferases. The translated peptide sequences revealed more than 95% identity among these three clones. The additional two clones harbored insert sequences mostly homologous with pchcbt 1 but differing in the 3'-flanking regions due to variable usage of poly(A) addition sites. The identity of the clones was confirmed by matching the translated polypeptides with the tryptic enzyme sequences as well as by the activity of the benzoyltransferase expressed in Escherichia coli. Therefore, carnation encodes a small family of anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase genes. In vitro, the benzoyltransferases exhibited narrow substrate specificity for anthranilate but accepted a variety of aromatic acyl-CoAs. Catalytic rates with cinnamoyl- or 4-coumaroyl-CoA exceeded those observed with benzoyl-CoA, although the corresponding dianthramides did not accumulate in vivo. Thus the cDNAs described represent also the first

  18. Victimology: A Consideration of the Radical Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, David O.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of a new radical model in criminology and a new subdisciplinary area of concern, victimology, with roots in Marx and Engels' original formulations. Argues that the radical understanding of victimization provides an important corrective to mainstream approaches and broadens the focus of the concept of victimization. (JAC)

  19. Localization versus delocalization in diamine radical cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Wiering, P.G.; Zwier, J.M.;

    1997-01-01

    The optical absorption spectrum of the radical cation of 1,4-diphenylpiperazine 2a shows a strong transition in the near-IR, and only a weak band at 445 nm, in the region where aniline radical cations normally absorb strongly. This indicates that the charge and spin are delocalized over the two...

  20. What Is Radical in School Geography Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the question of what "radical school geography" might look like in the present historical moment. It traces the history of a distinctive "radical" tradition in school geography, most prominently associated with the work of John Huckle, who argued for the importance of understanding the content and pedagogy of school…

  1. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  2. Resonance raman studies of phenylcyclopropane radical cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godbout, J.T.; Zuilhof, H.; Heim, G.; Gould, I.R.; Goodman, J.L.; Dinnocenzo, J.P.; Myers Kelley, A.

    2000-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of the radical cations of phenylcyclopropane and trans-1-phenyl-2-methylcyclopropane are reported. A near-UV pump pulse excites a photosensitizer which oxidizes the species of interest, and a visible probe pulse delayed by 35 ns obtains the spectrum of the radical ion. The tr

  3. Free Radical Mechanisms in Autoxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Michael G.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the use of steady-state radiation chemistry and pulse radiolysis for the generation of initial free radicals and formation of peroxy radicals in the autoxidation process. Provides information regarding the autoxidation process. Defines autoxidation reactions and antioxidant action. (CS)

  4. Place of Schauta's radical vaginal hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michel; Plante, Marie

    2011-04-01

    Women affected by early stage invasive cancer of the cervix are usually treated by surgery. Radical abdominal hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the most widely used technique. Because the morbidity of the abdominal approach can be important, the radical vaginal hysterectomy has gained acceptance in gynaecologic oncology. New instrumentation in laparoscopy also opens the possibility of treating cervical cancer by laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical hysterectomy and also total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy. Before these techniques become widely accepted, it has to be shown that safety and efficacy are comparable with the 'standard' abdominal approach. In this chapter, we review the technique of radical vaginal hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and evaluate results of published studies, comparing the abdominal, vaginal and laparoscopic approaches.

  5. Pilot study of radical hysterectomy versus radical trachelectomy on sexual distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Smith, Kelly B; Breckon, Erin; Plante, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Radical trachelectomy, which leaves the uterus intact, has emerged as a desirable surgical option for eligible women with early-stage cervical cancer who wish to preserve fertility. The available data suggest excellent obstetrical outcomes with radical trachelectomy, and no differences in sexual responding between radical trachelectomy and radical hysterectomy. There is a need to examine the effect of radical hysterectomy on sexual distress given that it is distinct from sexual function. Participants were 34 women diagnosed with early-stage cervical cancer. The authors report 1-month postsurgery data for 29 women (radical hysterectomy group: n = 17, M age = 41.8 years; radical trachelectomy group: n = 12, M age = 31.8 years), and 6-month follow-up data on 26 women. Whereas both groups experienced an increase in sex-related distress immediately after surgery, distress continued to increase 6 months after surgery for the radical hysterectomy group but decreased in the radical trachelectomy group. There were no between-group differences in mood, anxiety, or general measures of health. The decrease in sex-related distress in the radical trachelectomy but not in the radical hysterectomy group suggests that the preservation of fertility may have attenuated sex-related distress. Care providers should counsel women exploring surgical options for cervical cancer about potential sex distress-related sequelae.

  6. Interaction Study of 2,6-Bis[4-(4-amino-2-trifluoromethyl phenoxy)benzoyl] Pyridine with Human Immunoglobulin by Optical Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wenying; ZHANG Qiongmei; GAO Wenhua; DONG Yuming; YAO Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and BAFP (2,6-bis[4-(4-amino-2-trifluoromethyl phenoxy)benzoyl] pyridine was studied by fluorescence quenching, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and molecule modeling. The synchronous fluorescence spectra indicated the information on qualitative changes of the pro-tein secondary structure in the presence of BAFP in aqueous solution. The quantitative alterations of the protein sec-ondary structure were estimated by the evidences from FT-IR spectra with increases of α helices by about 2.6%-10.2%, increases of β-sheet structure by about 13.6%-27.7%, and reductions of β-turn structure by about 23.8%-30.3%. Molecular docking suggests that BAFP can strongly bind to HIgG. There are four hydrogen bond interac-tions between the drug and the residues Trp 170, Val 105, Met 139 and Asn 52. It was also considered that BAFP bound to HIgG mainly by a hydrophobic interaction, which is in good agreement with the results from the experi-mental thermodynamic parameters (the enthalpy change △Hθ and the entropy change △Sθ were calculated to be-6.70 kJ·mol-1 and 71.93 J·mol-1·K-1,respectively, according to the Van't Holf equation).

  7. Sensitive quantitation of polyamines in plant foods by ultrasound-assisted benzoylation and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with the aid of experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Edgar; Melo, Armindo; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2014-05-14

    A new method involving ultrasound-assisted benzoylation and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was optimized with the aid of chemometrics for the extraction, cleanup, and determination of polyamines in plant foods. Putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine were derivatized with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride and extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using acetonitrile and carbon tetrachloride as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively. Two-level full factorial design and central composite design were applied to select the most appropriate derivatization and extraction conditions. The developed method was linear in the 0.5-10.0 mg/L range, with a R(2) ≥ 0.9989. Intra- and interday precisions ranged from 0.8 to 6.9% and from 3.0 to 10.3%, respectively, and the limit of detection ranged between 0.018 and 0.042 μg/g of fresh weight. This method was applied to the analyses of six different types of plant foods, presenting recoveries between 81.7 and 114.2%. The method is inexpensive, versatile, simple, and sensitive. PMID:24773181

  8. Synergistic solvent extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinide by mixtures of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazalone-5 and neutral oxo-donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synergistic solvent extraction of trivalent lanthanides such as La, Eu and Lu and a trivalent actinide, Am, has been studied with mixtures of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazalone-5 (HPMBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulphoxide (B2EHSO) or octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in xylene. The extraction data have been analysed by both graphical and theoretical methods by taking into account aqueous phase speciation and all plausible complexes extracted into the organic phase. With HPMBP alone all the trivalent metal ions form M(PMBP)3 - HPMBP type self adducts. With B2EHSO as a neutral donor, the synergistic adduct species are M(PMBP)3 - B2EHSO and M(PMBP)3 - 2 B2EHSO (where M = La, Eu, Lu and Am), whereas with CMPO as a neutral donor the only complex extracted into the organic phase is M(PMBP)3 - CMPO. The synergistic extraction constants of the above species which were deduced by non-linear regression analysis are found to increase monotonically with decreasing ionic radii of these metal ions. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Enhanced solubility and antibacterial activity of lipophilic fluoro-substituted N-benzoyl-2-aminobenzothiazoles by complexation with β-cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, A; De Laurentis, N; Armenise, D; Carrieri, A; Defrenza, I; Rosato, A; Mandracchia, D; Tripodo, G; Salomone, A; Capriati, V; Franchini, C; Corbo, F

    2016-01-30

    Some lipophilic fluoro-substituted N-benzoyl-2-aminobenzothiazole antibacterial agents have been evaluated for their activity in the presence of cyclodextrins (CDs) containing aqueous solutions where CDs are adopted as solubilizing excipients for improving the poor water solubility of these compounds. For such purpose both the natural β-CD and one of FDA/EMA approved CDs for parenteral use (i.e. HP-β-CD) have been employed. The solubility rank order observed was accounted for by thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and FT-IR spectroscopy. The most promising compound was subjected to further NMR spectroscopic studies and molecular modelling simulations to verify the interactions between the guest molecule and the CD cavity. The assessment of the antibacterial activity of such compounds against selected Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains clearly showed that their antimicrobial effectiveness may, quite in all instances, be positively affected by complexation with β-CD and HP-β-CD. These results, which are in some ways in contrast with those already reported in the literature, are herein discussed on the basis of plausible mechanisms. Moreover, this investigation also reveals that the described methodology of complexing both lipophilic and hydrophilic antimicrobial agents with CDs may be an useful approach to enhance their effectiveness as well as a promising strategy to overcome even the microbial resistance problem. PMID:26611670

  10. Densities, Ultrasonic Speeds, Viscosities and Refractive Indices of Binary Mixtures of Benzene with Benzyl Alcohol,Benzonitrile, Benzoyl Chloride and Chlorobenzene at 303.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI,A.; PANDEY,J.D.; SONI,N.K.; NAIN,A.K.; LAL,B.; CHAND,D.

    2005-01-01

    Densities, p, ultrasonic speeds, u, viscosities, η, and refractive indices, n, of pure benzene, benzyl alcohol (BA),benzonitrile (BN), benzoyl chloride (BC), chlorobenzene (CB) and their thirty six binary mixtures, with benzene as common component, were measured at 303.15 K over the entire mole fraction range. From these experimental data the values of deviations in ultrasonic speed, Au, isentropic compressibility, Δks, excess acoustic impedance, ZE, deviation in viscosity, Δη, and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow, G*E, and partial molar isentropic compressibility, Kφ,2 of BA, BN, BC and CB in benzene were computed. The variation of these derived functions with composition of the mixtures suggested the increased cohesion (molecular order) in the solution and that interaction (A-B)>(A-A) or (B-B). Moreover, theoretical prediction of ultrasonic speed, viscosity and refractive index of all the four binary mixtures was made on the basis of empirical and semi-empirical relations by using the experimental values of the pure components. Comparison of theoretical results with the experimental values was made in order to assess the suitability of these relations in reproducing the experimental values of u, η and n. Also, molecular radii of pure liquids and the average molecular radii of binary mixtures were evaluated using the corresponding refractive indices of pure liquids and binary mixtures. The average molecular radii of binary mixtures were found to be additive with respect to mole fraction of the pure component.

  11. Recent advances in the use of adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% to treat patients with moderate to severe acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James

    2016-01-01

    The central role of inflammation in acne is now more clearly understood. Adapalene, a third-generation topical retinoid, down-regulates toll-like receptor 2 expression and inhibits activator protein-1 activity. In a fixed-dose combination, adapalene and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) act synergistically on inflammatory patterns through regulation of innate immunity. In addition to reducing inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions, adapalene/BPO helps prevent lesion and microcomedone formation. The combination of a topical retinoid and antimicrobial agent remains the preferred approach for almost all patients with acne. In cases of more severe disease, there is a clinical benefit in combining adapalene/BPO with an oral antibiotic for 12 weeks. Most recently, adapalene/BPO plus doxycycline 200 mg was found to be highly effective when compared with isotretinoin in the treatment of patients with severe acne with nodules. Long-term maintenance therapy is needed for most patients. Retinoids are the preferred agents, with BPO added in patients with more severe disease if needed. Adapalene is anticomedogenic, reduces comedones and has anti-inflammatory properties, while BPO is a unique antimicrobial agent not shown to induce microbial resistance after more than 50 years of use. Maintenance therapy for 6 months with adapalene/BPO prevents relapse among patients with severe acne and continues to reduce disease symptoms.

  12. Benzoyl peroxide formulated polycarbophil/carbopol 934P hydrogel with selective antimicrobial activity, potentially beneficial for treatment and prevention of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiqi; Cavera, Veronica L; Rogers, Michael A; Huang, Qingrong; Zubovskiy, Konstantin; Chikindas, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    The human vagina is colonized by a variety of indigenous microflora; in healthy individuals the predominant bacterial genus is Lactobacillus while those with bacterial vaginosis (BV) carry a variety of anaerobic representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) encapsulated in a hydrogel against Gardnerella vaginalis, one of the causative agents of BV, as well as indicating its safety for healthy human lactobacilli. Herein, it is shown that in well diffusion assays G. vaginalis is inhibited at 0.01% hydrogel-encapsulated BPO and that the tested Lactobacillus spp. can tolerate concentrations of BPO up to 2.5%. In direct contact assays (cells grown in a liquid culture containing hydrogel with 1% BPO or BPO particles), we demonstrated that hydrogels loaded with 1% BPO caused 6-log reduction of G. vaginalis. Conversely, three of the tested Lactobacillus spp. were not inhibited while L. acidophilus growth was slightly delayed. The rheological properties of the hydrogel formulation were probed using oscillation frequency sweep, oscillation shear stress sweep, and shear rate sweep. This shows the gel to be suitable for vaginal application and that the encapsulation of BPO did not alter rheological properties.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Potassium Hydro(benzoyl)(phthalyl)borate and Its Cobalt(Ⅱ), Nickel(Ⅱ), and Copper(Ⅱ) Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHARMA, Guruaribam, Shashikumar; SHEIKH, Rayees, Ahmad; SHREAZ, Sheikh; HASHMI, Athar, Adil; KHAN, Luqrnan, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    A new organoborate ligand, hydro(benzoyl)(phthalyl)borate has been synthesized as its potassium salt (KL) and M=Cu(Ⅱ)]. All compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, DTIR, 1H NMR, ESI MS, UV-Vis techniques, conductivity and magnetic data measurements. Spectroscopic results suggest a square planar geometry in the Cu(Ⅱ) complex, while the Co(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) complexes possess an octahedral geometry. Antibacterial activities (in vitro) of the ligand and its metal complexes were studied against two Gram positive (B. subtillis and B. magterium) and two Gram negative bacteria (E. Coli and S. boydi) at a single concentration (75 μg/mL) by using the Disc diffusion method. Antifungal activities (in vitro) were also checked for the compounds by using the same method against Candida albicans 10261, Penicillium sp. and Asperjillius niger., at a single concentration (50 μg/mL). The results showed that all the metal complexes, specially the nickel(Ⅱ) complex, have higher antibacterial and antifungal ac- tivities than the corresponding potassium salt.

  14. The photoprotective effects of 2-benzoyl-3-phenylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouawad, Joe; Saadeh, Fadi; Tabosh, Hayat Al; Haddadin, Makhluf J; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala

    2016-08-01

    With the increasing levels of atmospheric ozone depletion, there has been much concern about the causal effects of high levels of ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface on skin cancer. This has led to growing interest in identifying new active ingredients for use in commercial sunscreens. In our study, the chemical compound 2-benzoyl-3-phenylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide (BPQ) prepared by the Beirut reaction was tested for its ability to protect a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) against ultraviolet B radiation (280-315 nm). We show that BPQ exhibited strong absorbance in the UVB range, with an overall absorption spectrum very similar to that of Padimate-O, a well-known active ingredient used in commercial sunscreens. HaCaT cells, which were irradiated with UVB in the presence of multiple doses of BPQ, exhibited, in a dose-dependent fashion, a significantly higher viability and lower oxidative stress levels than cells irradiated in the absence of drug. Our results show that BPQ is a potential photoprotective drug that holds great promise for use as an active ingredient in commercial sunscreens. PMID:27377483

  15. Determination of rhenium content in molybdenite by ICP-MS after separation of the major matrix by solvent extraction with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxalamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhong, Li-feng; Tu, Xiang-lin; Liang, Xi-rong; Xu, Ji-feng

    2010-05-15

    A simple and rapid analytical method for determining the concentration of rhenium in molybdenite for Re-Os dating was developed. The method used isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) after the removal of major matrix elements (e.g., Mo, Fe, and W) from Re by solvent extraction with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) in chloroform solution. The effect on extraction efficiency of parameters such as pH (HCl concentration), BPHA concentration, and extraction time were also assessed. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the validity of the separation method was accessed by measuring (187)Re/(185)Re values for a molybdenite reference material (JDC). The obtained values were in good agreement with previously measured values of the Re standard. The proposed method was applied to replicate Re-Os dating of JDC and seven samples of molybdenite from the Yuanzhuding large Cu-Mo porphyry deposit. The results demonstrate good precision and accuracy for the proposed method. The advantages of the method (i.e., simplicity, efficiency, short analysis time, and low cost) make it suitable for routine analysis. PMID:20298878

  16. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Manganese(Ⅱ) Complex with 2-(4'-Chlorine-benzoyl)-benzoic Acid and 1,10-Phenanthroline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-Wei; LI Xiu-Mei; MENG Qing-Long; LIU Bo; GAO Guang-Gang

    2009-01-01

    A new metal-organic complex Mn2(cbba)4(phen)2 (Hcbba = 2-(4'-chlorine-benzoyl)-benzoic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) 1 has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses and IR spectroscopy. The compound crystallizes in orthorhombic, space group Pbcn with a = 12.154(5), b = 18.166(7), c =31.197(13) (A°), V = 6887(5) (A°)3, C80H48C14Mn2N4O12, Mr= 1508.90, Dc = 1.455 g/cm3, μ(MoKa) =0.591 mm-1, F(000) = 3080, Z = 4, the final R = 0.0408 and wR = 0.0873 for 4033 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). In the crystal structure, the manganese atom is six-coordinated with four carboxylate oxygen atoms from three different cbba ligands and two nitrogen atoms from phen ligands, showing a distorted octahedral geometry. Furthermore, it exhibits a 3D supramolecular network through π-π interactions.

  17. Customers as Partners in Radical Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2009-01-01

      Purpose- The main purpose of this paper is to investigate customer involvement and related challenges in radical service innovations in engineering consulting services Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a case study approach and so called rich descriptions to investigate customer...... involvement, roles and related challenges and conditions in radical service innovations.Findings- One main finding is that customers can engage in radical service innovations in engineering consultancy services and may play a decisive role. In doing this they most likely take on all the three user involvement...... in engineering consulting services on the base of an in depth case study of an engineering consultancy. Research paper...

  18. Radical pancreaticoduodenectomy for benign disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2008-01-01

    Whipple\\'s procedure is the treatment of choice for pancreatic and periampullary malignancies. Preoperative histological confirmation of malignancy is frequently unavailable and some patients will subsequently be found to have benign disease. Here, we review our experience with Whipple\\'s procedure for patients ultimately proven to have benign disease. The medical records of all patients who underwent Whipple\\'s procedure during a 15-year period (1987-2002) were reviewed; 112 patients underwent the procedure for suspected malignancy. In eight cases, the final histology was benign (7.1%). One additional patient was known to have benign disease at resection. The mean age was 50 years (range: 30-75). The major presenting features included jaundice (five), pain (two), gastric outlet obstruction (one), and recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one). Investigations included ultrasound (eight), computerised tomography (eight), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (seven; of these, four patients had a stent inserted and three patients had sampling for cytology), and endoscopic ultrasound (two). The pathological diagnosis included benign biliary stricture (two), chronic pancreatitis (two), choledochal cyst (one), inflammatory pseudotumour (one), cystic duodenal wall dysplasia (one), duodenal angiodysplasia (one), and granular cell neoplasm (one). There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included intra-abdominal collection (one), anastomotic leak (one), liver abscess (one), and myocardial infarction (one). All patients remain alive and well at mean follow-up of 41 months. Despite recent advances in diagnostic imaging, 8% of the patients undergoing Whipple\\'s procedure had benign disease. A range of unusual pathological entities can mimic malignancy. Accurate preoperative histological diagnosis may have allowed a less radical operation to be performed. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) may reduce the need for Whipple\\'s operation

  19. Radical Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Benign Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kavanagh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Whipple's procedure is the treatment of choice for pancreatic and periampullary malignancies. Preoperative histological confirmation of malignancy is frequently unavailable and some patients will subsequently be found to have benign disease. Here, we review our experience with Whipple's procedure for patients ultimately proven to have benign disease. The medical records of all patients who underwent Whipple's procedure during a 15-year period (1987–2002 were reviewed; 112 patients underwent the procedure for suspected malignancy. In eight cases, the final histology was benign (7.1%. One additional patient was known to have benign disease at resection. The mean age was 50 years (range: 30–75. The major presenting features included jaundice (five, pain (two, gastric outlet obstruction (one, and recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one. Investigations included ultrasound (eight, computerised tomography (eight, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (seven; of these, four patients had a stent inserted and three patients had sampling for cytology, and endoscopic ultrasound (two. The pathological diagnosis included benign biliary stricture (two, chronic pancreatitis (two, choledochal cyst (one, inflammatory pseudotumour (one, cystic duodenal wall dysplasia (one, duodenal angiodysplasia (one, and granular cell neoplasm (one. There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included intra-abdominal collection (one, anastomotic leak (one, liver abscess (one, and myocardial infarction (one. All patients remain alive and well at mean follow-up of 41 months. Despite recent advances in diagnostic imaging, 8% of the patients undergoing Whipple'’s procedure had benign disease. A range of unusual pathological entities can mimic malignancy. Accurate preoperative histological diagnosis may have allowed a less radical operation to be performed. Endoscopic ultrasound–guided fine needle aspirate (EUS-FNA may reduce the need for Whipple's operation in

  20. A Comparative Study of the Radical-scavenging Activity of the Phenolcarboxylic Acids Caffeic Acid, p-Coumaric Acid, Chlorogenic Acid and Ferulic Acid, With or Without 2-Mercaptoethanol, a Thiol, Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolcarboxylic acid antioxidants do not act in vivo as radical-scavengers in isolation, but rather together with GSH (glutathione, a coantioxidant, they constitute an intricate antioxidant network. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid with or without 2-mercaptoethanol (ME, as a substitute for GSH, was investigated by the induction period (IP method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a source of alkyl radicals, R. and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a source of peroxy radicals, PhCOO. using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Upon PhCOO. radical scavenging, the stoichiometric factors (n, number of free radical trapped by one mole of antioxidant for caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid were 2.4, 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9, whereas upon R. radical scavenging, the corresponding values were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Antioxidants with n values close to 2 suggest the stepwise formation of semiquinone radicals and quinones. By contrast, those with n values close to 1 suggest the formation of dimers after single-electron oxidation, possibly due to recombination of corresponding aryloxy radicals. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (kinh/kp declined in the order chlorogenic acid > p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid. The ratio of the observed IP for the phenolcarboxylic acid/2-mercapto-ethanol (ME mixture (1:1 molar ratio (A to the calculated IP (the simple sum of phenol acid antioxidant and ME (B was investigated. Upon R. scavenging, the caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid/ME mixture was A/B > 1, particularly the former was 1.2, suggesting a synergic effect. By contrast, upon PhCOO. scavenging, the corresponding mixture was A/B < 1, particularly the latter was 0.7, suggesting an antagonistic effect. Upon both radicals scavenging, the A/B for the ferulic acid or chlorogenic acid

  1. Radicalization and the Use of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of social media tools by individuals and organizations to radicalize individuals for political and social change has become increasingly popular as the Internet penetrates more of the world and mobile computing devices are more accessible. To establish a construct for radicalization,the power and reach of social media will be described so there is common understanding of what social media is and how it is utilized by various individuals and groups. The second section will answer the question of why social media applications are the perfect platform for the radical voice. Finally, the use of social media and its influence in radicalizing populations in Northern Africa and the Middle East during 2011 will be analyzed and recommendations proposed.

  2. Magnetic Trapping of Cold Methyl Radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yang; Djuricanin, Pavle; Zhou, Sida; Zhong, Wei; Mittertreiner, Tony; Carty, David; Momose, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated that a supersonic beam of methyl radicals (CH3) in the ground rotational state of both para and ortho species has been slowed down to a standstill with a magnetic molecular decelerator, and successfully captured spatially in an anti-Helmholtz magnetic trap for > 1 s. The translational temperature of the trapped CH3 radicals was about 200 mK. The methyl radical is a non-polar polyatomic molecule, which is predicted to be an ideal system for further cooling below 1 mK via sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms. In addition, it is a highly reactive intermediate that plays an important role in various processes in cold environments such as planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium. The demonstrated trapping capability of methyl radicals opens up various possibilities for realizing ultracold ensembles of molecules towards Bose-Einstein condensation of polyatomic molecules and investigations of reactions governed by quantum statistics.

  3. Rigid Ideals and Radicals of Ore Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan Yong Hong; Tai Keun Kwak; S. Tariq Rizvi

    2005-01-01

    For an endomorphism σ of a ring R, Krempa called σ a rigid endomorphism if aσ(a) = 0 implies a= 0 for a ∈ R. A ring R is called rigid if there exists a rigid endomorphism of R. In this paper, we extend the σ-rigid property of a ring R to an ideal of R. For a σ-ideal Ⅰ of a ring R, we call Ⅰ a σ-rigid ideal if aσ(a) ∈Ⅰ implies a ∈Ⅰ for a ∈ R. We characterize σ-rigid ideals and study related properties. The connections of the prime radical and the upper nil radical of R with the prime radical and the upper nil radical of the Ore extension R[x; σ, δ], respectively, are also investigated.

  4. Customers as Partners in Radical Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2009-01-01

    ongoing collaboration where creativity and trial and error are crucial. These needs require new ways of communicating and interacting between customer and consultants. Originality/value- This article is original because it generates new insights into conditions and challenges in radical innovations in......  Purpose- The main purpose of this paper is to investigate customer involvement and related challenges in radical service innovations in engineering consulting services Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a case study approach and so called rich descriptions to investigate customer...... involvement, roles and related challenges and conditions in radical service innovations.Findings- One main finding is that customers can engage in radical service innovations in engineering consultancy services and may play a decisive role. In doing this they most likely take on all the three user involvement...

  5. Neo-liberal Governing of 'Radicals'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The Danish government’s counter-radicalization Action Plan of 2009 had intended and unintended effects. Primarily targeting Danish Muslims, it employs neoliberal governmentality approaches of governance through individual support and response, information and knowledge, empowerment, surveillance ...

  6. Innovation Type, Radicalness, and the Adoption Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanpour, Fariborz

    1988-01-01

    Reviews studies on the impact of organizational factors on the adoption of innovations along three dimensions (innovation type, innovation radicalness, and stages of adoption), finding considerable agreement. Proposes a research agenda for future studies. (SR)

  7. Optimal pain management for radical prostatectomy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Grish P; Jaschinski, Thomas; Bonnet, Francis;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increase in the diagnosis of prostate cancer has increased the incidence of radical prostatectomy. However, the literature assessing pain therapy for this procedure has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, optimal pain therapy for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy remains ...... invasive surgical procedures. Finally, while we wait for appropriate procedure specific evidence from publication of adequate studies assessing optimal pain management after radical prostatectomy, we propose a basic analgesic guideline....... treatments studied improved pain relief and/or reduced opioid requirements. However, there were significant differences in the study designs and the variables evaluated, precluding quantitative analysis and consensus recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review reveals that there is a lack...... of evidence to develop an optimal pain management protocol in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Most studies assessed unimodal analgesic approaches rather than a multimodal technique. There is a need for more procedure-specific studies comparing pain and analgesic requirements for open and minimally...

  8. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    , and Aidarova. The second half of the book addresses the central concern of radical-local teaching and learning - how to relate educational practices to children's specific historical and cultural conditions. The experiment was conducted for an academic year in an afterschool programme in the East Harlem......Radical-Local Teaching and Learning presents a theoretical perspective for analyzing and planning educational programmes for schoolchildren. To realize both general societal interests and worthwhile personal development, the content of educational programmes for children must be grounded...... radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov...

  9. Fast beam studies of free radical photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumark, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The authors have developed a novel technique for studying the photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals. In these experiments, radicals are generated by laser photodetachment of a fast (6-8 keV) mass-selected negative ion beam. The resulting radicals are photodissociated with a second laser, and the photofragments are collected and detected with high efficiency using a microchannel plate detector. The overall process is: ABC{sup -} {yields} ABC + e{sup -} {yields} A + BC, AB + C. Two types of fragment detection schemes are used. To map out the photodissociation cross-section of the radical, the photodissociation laser is scanned and the total photofragment yield is measured as a function of wavelength. In other experiments, the photodissociation frequency is fixed and the photofragment masses, kinetic energy release, and scattering angle is determined for each photodissociation event.

  10. Catalytic Radical Domino Reactions in Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebren, Leanne J.; Devery, James J.; Stephenson, Corey R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic radical-based domino reactions represent important advances in synthetic organic chemistry. Their development benefits synthesis by providing atom- and step-economical methods to complex molecules. Intricate combinations of radical, cationic, anionic, oxidative/reductive, and transition metal mechanistic steps result in cyclizations, additions, fragmentations, ring-expansions, and rearrangements. This Perspective summarizes recent developments in the field of catalytic domino processes. PMID:24587964

  11. Project Radicalization: Why do "they" hate "us"?

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, Lasse; Foged, Mathias; Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of global terrorism is still not fully understood by the international community whether within the contingents of public decision-makers, security agencies and researchers. Radicalization as explanation and analytical tool for understanding terrorism has relatively recently gained new prominence. In this project the question of which discourses can be found in the scientific material within the research field of terrorism and radicalization is addressed. A sample of scientifi...

  12. Radicalization and the Use of Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Thompson

    2011-01-01

    The use of social media tools by individuals and organizations to radicalize individuals for political and social change has become increasingly popular as the Internet penetrates more of the world and mobile computing devices are more accessible. To establish a construct for radicalization,the power and reach of social media will be described so there is common understanding of what social media is and how it is utilized by various individuals and groups. The second section will answer the q...

  13. Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Pham-Huy, Lien Ai; He, Hua; Pham-Huy, Chuong

    2008-01-01

    Free radicals and oxidants play a dual role as both toxic and beneficial compounds, since they can be either harmful or helpful to the body. They are produced either from normal cell metabolisms in situ or from external sources (pollution, cigarette smoke, radiation, medication). When an overload of free radicals cannot gradually be destroyed, their accumulation in the body generates a phenomenon called oxidative stress. This process plays a major part in the development of chronic and degene...

  14. Radioprotective thermally generated free-radical dextrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piotr TOMASIK; Oskar MICHALSKI; Ewa BIDZINSKA; Antonina CEBULSKA-WASILEWSKA; Krystyna DYREK; Maciej FIEDOROWICZ; Pawel OLKO

    2008-01-01

    Effect of doses of the X-ray radiation from 0 to 400 Gy upon granular cornstarch and dextrins (British gums, BG) thermally generated from it at 230-300℃ was recognized with quantitative EPR and IR ab-sorption spectroscopy, molecular mass distribution in the depolymerization products, Scanning Elec-tron Microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. Fractal analysis of the profiles of molecular mass distribu-tion showed that the depolymerization involved debranching of amylopectin. Roasting of cornstarch produced BG which differed in concentration and EPR parameters of stable free radicals from BG generated by X-ray radiation. Two types of stable free radicals, with Gaussian and Lorentzian shapes of EPR signals, were recognized. The shapes of the signals and temperature dependence on free radical intensity indicated exchanging interactions of the antiferromagnetic type, causing partial quenching of the spins at -196℃ (77K). Upon X-ray irradiation, new radicals were generated, the number and stability of which strongly depended on the types of radicals present before irradiation. These radicals slowly ceased because of a repolymerization of BG on storage.

  15. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He–H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  16. Radicalization and Radical Catalysis of Biomass Sugars: Insights from First-principles Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions. PMID:27405843

  17. Radicalization and Radical Catalysis of Biomass Sugars: Insights from First-principles Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions.

  18. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of silver(I) complexes based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands with different flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Jie; Feng, Qi; Song, Hui-Hua

    2016-05-01

    By changing the N-donor ancillary ligand, three novel silver (I) complexes {[Ag(HbzgluO) (4,4‧-bipy)]·H2O}n (1), {[Ag2(HbzgluO)2 (bpe)2]·2H2O}n (2) and {[Ag(HbzgluO)(bpp)]·2H2O}n (3) (H2bzgluO = N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid, 4,4‧-bipy = 4,4ˊ-bipyridine, bpe = 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane, bpp = 1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane) were synthesized. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). In this study, the N-donor ligands are changed from rigidity (4,4‧-bipy), quasi-flexibility (bpe) to flexibility (bpp), the structures of complexes also change. Complex 1 features a 1D chain structure which is further linked together to construct a 2D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 is a 1D double-chains configuration which eventually forms a 3D supramolecular network via hydrogen bonding interactions. Whereas, complex 3 exhibits a 2D pleated grid structure which is linked by hydrogen bonding interactions into a 3D supramolecular network. The present observations demonstrate that the modulation of coordination polymers with different structures can accomplish by changing the spacer length of N-donor ligands. In addition, the solid-state circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that compound 2 exhibited negative cotton effect which originated from the chiral ligands H2bzgluO and the solid-state fluorescence spectra of the three complexes demonstrated the auxiliary ligands have influence on the photoluminescence properties of the complexes.

  19. Metal complexes of the nanosized ligand N-benzoyl-N‧-(p-amino phenyl) thiourea: Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and the metal uptake capacity of its ligating resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhusseiny, Amel F.; Eldissouky, Ali; Al-Hamza, Ahmed M.; Hassan, Hammed H. A. M.

    2015-11-01

    The new nanosized N-benzoyl-N‧-(p-amino phenyl) thiourea ligand H2L was synthesized by nanoprecipitation method. The [Cu (H2L)2 Cl]·2H2O, [Zn (H2L)2(OAc)2], [Cd (H2L)2Cl2] and [Hg (H2L)2Cl2] complexes were synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical methods. Results revealed that the ligand act as hypodentate and bonded to the metal ion via the sulfur atom forming mononuclear non-electrolyte diamagnetic complex. Magnetic moment results indicated a reduction of Cu (II) to Cu (I) during the coordination process. Thermal studies demonstrated variable stabilities of the complexes and [Zn (H2L)2(OAc)2] exhibited the highest thermal stability while [Hg (H2L)2Cl2] was volatile. The prepared compounds were screened against different pathogenic microorganisms. The ligand performed high antibacterial activity against certain bacterial strain compared to its complexes, and the standard bacteriocide in use. The ligand was successfully immobilized on modified Amberlite XAD-16 forming the hypodentate ligating resin PS-SO2-H2L. The new resin was characterized and the extent of metal adsorption reached maximum at pH 6.0 for Cu (II), Cd (II) and Ag (I), with an adsorption amount of 4.3, 4.0 and 3.7 mmol g-1 respectively. The nanosized H2L represents a new category of promising adsorbent that would have a practical impact on biological and water treatment applications.

  20. Radiosensitization by 2-benzoyl-3-phenyl-6,7-dichloroquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide under oxia and hypoxia in human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitizing effects of 2-benzoyl-3-phenyl-6,7-dichloroquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide (DCQ) and ionizing radiation (IR) were determined in four colon cancer cells and in FHs74Int normal intestinal cells. Cell cycle modulation, TUNEL assay, clonogenic survival and DNA damage were examined under oxia or hypoxia. Effects on apoptotic molecules and on p-Akt and Cox-2 protein expression were investigated. The four cell lines responded differently to DCQ+IR; HT-29 cells were most resistant. Combination treatment caused significant increases in preG1 (apoptosis) in HCT-116, while G2/M arrest occurred in DLD-1. DCQ potentiated IR effects more so under hypoxia than oxia. Pre-exposure of DLD-1 to hypoxia induced 30% apoptosis, and G2/M arrest in oxia. The survival rate was 50% lower in DCQ+IR than DCQ alone and this rate further decreased under hypoxia. FHs74Int normal intestinal cells were more resistant to DCQ+IR than cancer cells.Greater ssDNA damage occurred in DLD-1 exposed to DCQ+IR under hypoxia than oxia. In oxia, p-Akt protein expression increased upon IR exposure and drug pre-treatment inhibited this increase. In contrast, in hypoxia, exposure to IR reduced p-Akt protein and DCQ restored its expression to the untreated control. Apoptosis induced in hypoxic DLD-1 cells was independent of p53-p21 modulation but was associated with an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the inhibition of the Cox-2 protein. DCQ is a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer in DLD-1 human colon cancer cells

  1. Formation of a dinuclear copper(II) complex through the cleavage of CN bond of 1-benzoyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple mononuclear octahedral copper(II) complex was attempted from the reaction of three moles of 1-benzoyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole and one mole of copper(II) perchlorate hexahydrate in methanol. However, the product of the reaction was confirmed to be a dinuclear copper(II) complex with μ-(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato) and 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole ligands attached to each of the Cu(II) centre atom. The copper(II) ion assisted the cleavage of the CbenzoylN bond afforded a 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole molecule. Deprotonation of the 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole gave a 3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato, which subsequently reacted with the Cu(II) ion to give the (3-(pyridin-2-yl)-pyrazolato)(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole)Cu(II) product moiety. The structure of the dinuclear complex was confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The complex crystallized in a monoclinic crystal system with P2(1)/n space group and cell dimensions of a = 12.2029(8) Å, b = 11.4010(7) Å, c = 14.4052(9) Å and β = 102.414(2)°. The compound was further characterized by mass spectrometry, CHN elemental analysis, infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy and the results concurred with the x-ray structure. The presence of d-d transition at 671 nm (ε = 116 dm3 mol−1 cm−1) supports the presence of Cu(II) centres

  2. Multicenter study for efficacy and safety evaluation of a fixeddose combination gel with adapalen 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% (Epiduo® for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Brazilian population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittart, José Alexandre de Souza; da Costa, Adilson; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane; Follador, Ivonise; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; de Castro, Lia Cândida Miranda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The current options for the treatment of acne vulgaris present many mechanisms of action. For several times, dermatologists try topical agents combinations, looking for better results. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a topical, fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris in the Brazilian population. METHODS This is a multicenter, open-label and interventionist study. Patients applied 1.0 g of the fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel on the face, once daily at bedtime, during 12 weeks. Lesions were counted in all of the appointments, and the degree of acne severity, overall improvement, tolerability and safety were evaluated in each visit. RESULTS From 79 recruited patients, 73 concluded the study. There was significant, fast and progressive reduction of non-inflammatory, inflammatory and total number of lesions. At the end of the study, 75.3% of patients had a reduction of >50% in non-inflammatory lesions, 69.9% in inflammatory lesions and 78.1% in total number of lesions. Of the 73 patients, 71.2% had good to excellent response and 87.6% had satisfactory to good response. In the first week of treatment, erythema, burning, scaling and dryness of the skin were frequent complaints, but, from second week on, these signals and symptoms have reduced. CONCLUSION The fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel is effective, safe, well tolerated and apparently improves patient compliance with the treatment. PMID:27168522

  3. ESR study on carboxymethyl chitosan radicals in an aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Seiichi, E-mail: saiki.seiichi@jaea.go.j [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Hiroki, Akihiro; Morishita, Norio; Tamada, Masao [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Muroya, Yusa; Kudo, Hisaaki [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCTS) at a highly concentrated aqueous solution forms hydrogel by ionizing irradiation. To study on radiation-induced reaction mechanism of CMCTS in an aqueous solution, CMCTS radicals formed by reactions with OH radical were observed by ESR method. As a result of ESR spectral analysis, CMCTS radicals were identified as radicals on carboxymethyl groups.

  4. Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments.

  5. Catalytic arylsulfonyl radical-triggered 1,5-enyne-bicyclizations and hydrosulfonylation of α,β-conjugates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1406678 (3f). For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic formats see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02343b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Shuai; Hao, Wen-Juan; Xu, Ge; Wu, Shuo; Miao, Jiao-Na; Wang, Shu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic bicyclization reaction of 1,5-enynes anchored by α,β-conjugates with arylsulfonyl radicals generated in situ from sulfonyl hydrazides has been established using TBAI (20 mol%) and Cu(OAc)2 (5 mol%) as co-catalysts under convenient conditions. In addition, the use of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the oxidant and pivalic acid (PivOH) as an additive was proven to be necessary for this reaction. The reactions occurred through 5-exo-dig/6-endo-trig bicyclizations and homolytic aromatic substitution (HAS) cascade mechanisms to give benzo[b]fluorens regioselectively. A similar catalytic process was developed for the synthesis of γ-ketosulfones. These reactions feature readily accessible starting materials and simple one-pot operation. PMID:26568814

  6. DFT and ENDOR Study of Bixin Radical Cations and Neutral Radicals on Silica-Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay-Agbozo, Sefadzi S; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Bowman, Michael K; Street, Shane; Kispert, Lowell D

    2015-06-18

    Bixin, a carotenoid found in annatto (Bixa orellana), is unique among natural carotenoids by being water-soluble. We stabilized free radicals from bixin on the surface of silica-alumina (Si-Al) and characterized them by pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). DFT calculations of unpaired electron spin distribution for various bixin radicals predict the EPR hyperfine couplings. Least-square fitting of experimental ENDOR spectra by spectra calculated from DFT hyperfine couplings characterized the radicals trapped on Si-Al. DFT predicts that the trans bixin radical cation is more stable than the cis bixin radical cation by 1.26 kcal/mol. This small energy difference is consistent with the 26% trans and 23% cis radical cations in the ENDOR spectrum. The remainder of the ENDOR spectrum is due to several neutral radicals formed by loss of a H(+) ion from the 9, 9', 13, or 13' methyl group, a common occurrence in all water-insoluble carotenoids previously studied. Although carboxyl groups of bixin strongly affect its solubility relative to other natural carotenoids, they do not alter properties of its free radicals based on DFT calculations and EPR measurements which remain similar to typical water-insoluble carotenoids. PMID:25333911

  7. How Radical is a Radical Innovation? An Outline for a Computational Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasmire, J.; Korhonen, J.M.; Nikolic, I.

    2012-01-01

    Radical innovations prompt significant subsequent technological development and exhibit novelty and “architectural” innovation, i.e. rearranging the way design elements are put together in a system. Thus, radical innovations often serve as the foundation for new technological systems, industries or

  8. Tuning the Reactivity of Radical through a Triplet Diradical Cu(II) Intermediate in Radical Oxidative Cross-Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liangliang; Yi, Hong; Zhu, Lei; Qi, Xiaotian; Jiang, Hanpeng; Liu, Chao; Feng, Yuqi; Lan, Yu; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-11-01

    Highly selective radical/radical cross-coupling is paid more attention in bond formations. However, due to their intrinsic active properties, radical species are apt to achieve homo-coupling instead of cross-coupling, which makes the selective cross-coupling as a great challenge and almost untouched. Herein a notable strategy to accomplish direct radical/radical oxidative cross-coupling has been demonstrated, that is metal tuning a transient radical to a persistent radical intermediate followed by coupling with another transient radical. Here, a transient nitrogen-centered radical is tuned to a persistent radical complex by copper catalyst, followed by coupling with a transient allylic carbon-centered radical. Firstly, nitrogen-centered radical generated from N-methoxybenzamide stabilized by copper catalyst was successfully observed by EPR. Then DFT calculations revealed that a triplet diradical Cu(II) complex formed from the chelation N-methoxybenzamide nitrogen-centered radical to Cu(II) is a persistent radical species. Moreover, conceivable nitrogen-centered radical Cu(II) complex was observed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Ultimately, various allylic amides derivatives were obtained in good yields by adopting this strategy, which might inspire a novel and promising landscape in radical chemistry.

  9. Modeling Radicalization Phenomena in Heterogeneous Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge; Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of radicalization is investigated within a mixed population composed of core and sensitive subpopulations. The latest includes first to third generation immigrants. Respective ways of life may be partially incompatible. In case of a conflict core agents behave as inflexible about the issue. In contrast, sensitive agents can decide either to live peacefully adjusting their way of life to the core one, or to oppose it with eventually joining violent activities. The interplay dynamics between peaceful and opponent sensitive agents is driven by pairwise interactions. These interactions occur both within the sensitive population and by mixing with core agents. The update process is monitored using a Lotka-Volterra-like Ordinary Differential Equation. Given an initial tiny minority of opponents that coexist with both inflexible and peaceful agents, we investigate implications on the emergence of radicalization. Opponents try to turn peaceful agents to opponents driving radicalization. However, inflexible core agents may step in to bring back opponents to a peaceful choice thus weakening the phenomenon. The required minimum individual core involvement to actually curb radicalization is calculated. It is found to be a function of both the majority or minority status of the sensitive subpopulation with respect to the core subpopulation and the degree of activeness of opponents. The results highlight the instrumental role core agents can have to hinder radicalization within the sensitive subpopulation. Some hints are outlined to favor novel public policies towards social integration. PMID:27166677

  10. Analysis of radicals induced in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed free radicals in γ-ray irradiated foods; black pepper, green coffee bean and ginseng. We also analyzed the decay behavior of radiation induced free radicals during storage of irradiated foods. The ESR spectrum of experimental irradiated foods consists of a sextet signal centered at g=2.0 and a singlet signal at the same g-value position and a singlet signal at g=4.0. The singlet signal at g=2.0 is originated from organic free radicals and its peak intensity showed the dependence of γ-ray irradiation dose levels. The signal intensity was decreased during storage. Only after 3 hours of radiation treatment the peak intensity was decreased fast and after that the intensity was decreased slowly. The relaxation times, T1 and T2, of radiation induced free radicals showed the variations before and after irradiation. During long time storage period it was shown that T1 was increased and T2 was decreased. By analysis of decay process using the simulation methods based on the theory of reaction speed, it is considered that at least two kinds of radicals were induced in irradiated foods during long time storage. (author)

  11. Modeling Radicalization Phenomena in Heterogeneous Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of radicalization is investigated within a mixed population composed of core and sensitive subpopulations. The latest includes first to third generation immigrants. Respective ways of life may be partially incompatible. In case of a conflict core agents behave as inflexible about the issue. In contrast, sensitive agents can decide either to live peacefully adjusting their way of life to the core one, or to oppose it with eventually joining violent activities. The interplay dynamics between peaceful and opponent sensitive agents is driven by pairwise interactions. These interactions occur both within the sensitive population and by mixing with core agents. The update process is monitored using a Lotka-Volterra-like Ordinary Differential Equation. Given an initial tiny minority of opponents that coexist with both inflexible and peaceful agents, we investigate implications on the emergence of radicalization. Opponents try to turn peaceful agents to opponents driving radicalization. However, inflexible core agents may step in to bring back opponents to a peaceful choice thus weakening the phenomenon. The required minimum individual core involvement to actually curb radicalization is calculated. It is found to be a function of both the majority or minority status of the sensitive subpopulation with respect to the core subpopulation and the degree of activeness of opponents. The results highlight the instrumental role core agents can have to hinder radicalization within the sensitive subpopulation. Some hints are outlined to favor novel public policies towards social integration. PMID:27166677

  12. Modeling Radicalization Phenomena in Heterogeneous Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Galam

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of radicalization is investigated within a mixed population composed of core and sensitive subpopulations. The latest includes first to third generation immigrants. Respective ways of life may be partially incompatible. In case of a conflict core agents behave as inflexible about the issue. In contrast, sensitive agents can decide either to live peacefully adjusting their way of life to the core one, or to oppose it with eventually joining violent activities. The interplay dynamics between peaceful and opponent sensitive agents is driven by pairwise interactions. These interactions occur both within the sensitive population and by mixing with core agents. The update process is monitored using a Lotka-Volterra-like Ordinary Differential Equation. Given an initial tiny minority of opponents that coexist with both inflexible and peaceful agents, we investigate implications on the emergence of radicalization. Opponents try to turn peaceful agents to opponents driving radicalization. However, inflexible core agents may step in to bring back opponents to a peaceful choice thus weakening the phenomenon. The required minimum individual core involvement to actually curb radicalization is calculated. It is found to be a function of both the majority or minority status of the sensitive subpopulation with respect to the core subpopulation and the degree of activeness of opponents. The results highlight the instrumental role core agents can have to hinder radicalization within the sensitive subpopulation. Some hints are outlined to favor novel public policies towards social integration.

  13. Formation of semiquinone radical anion and free radical scavenging reactions of plumbagin. A pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics and mechanism of scavenging of reducing free radicals by plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) are studied using pulse radiolysis technique. It scavenged superoxide radical, hydroxyethyl radical and hydrated electron with bimolecular rate constants of 8.9 × 107, 2.3 × 109 and 1.6 × 1010 M-1 s-1, respectively in aqueous-alcohol medium. Plumbagin also scavenged linoleic acid peroxyl radical and tyrosyl radical with bimolecular rate constants of 1.0 × 108 and 7.0 × 106 M-1 s-1, respectively. Further, redox properties of plumbagin and its transients are studied using standard redox couples and cyclic voltammetry. (author)

  14. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R.M. [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Getoff, Nikola [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2008-06-15

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  15. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R. M.; Getoff, Nikola

    2008-06-01

    Trans-resveratrol ( trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  16. Radiation chemistry of aromatic dimer radical cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    π-π Interactions of aromatic molecules are paid attention much in many fields, especially biology, chemistry, and applied physics, represented as protein, DNA, electron donor-accepter complexes, charge transfers, and self assembly molecules. Aromatic molecules including benzene rings are the simplest case to study the π-π interactions. To interpret the charge resonance (CR) structure in the dimer radical cations, spectroscopic and ESR methods have been carried out. The spectroscopic study on the dimer radical ion of molecules with two chromophores would be profitable to identify the electronic and configurational properties. In this article, dynamics of the dimer radical cation of benzenes, polystyrenes, and resist polymers is described on the basis of direct observation of CR band by the nanosecond pulse radiolysis and low temperature γ-radiolysis methods. (author)

  17. Exploring how lead users develop radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher; Gemuenden, Hans Georg; Hienerth, C.

    2008-01-01

    in order to transform their radically new solutions into functional prototypes and then to convince established manufacturers of the technological and market potential of their innovations. Using a comparative case study design in the high-tech field of medical equipment technology, we find that individual...... lead users as surgeons launch entrepreneurial activities and bridge periods in which established medical equipment manufacturers would not risk investing in radical innovations. By doing so, lead users create the conditions usually provided in manufacturer-initiated lead user projects, including...... the supply of diversified knowledge, the development and coordination of a network for further development of the innovation, and initial tests of technical or market feasibility. Our findings have implications for manufacturing firms that wish to design radical innovation projects with (individual) lead...

  18. Free Radicals in Adolescent Varicocele Testis

    OpenAIRE

    Carmelo Romeo; Giuseppe Santoro

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using “adolescent,” “varicocele,” “free radicals,” “oxidative...

  19. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...

  20. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  1. Radical Islamism and Migrant Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goli, Marco; Rezaei, Shahamak

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate for – or c......It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate...

  2. Elementary reaction allyl radical with oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Feng; KONG Fanao

    2003-01-01

    The elementary reaction between allyl radical with oxygen molecule wasexperimentally investigated. The allyl radical was produced via laser photolysis of C3H5Br in gaseous phase. Nascent vibrational excited products HCO, CO2, CH3CHO and HCOOH were recorded by the time- resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The product channels of C2H5+CO2, CH3CHO+HCO, and HCOOH + C2H3 have been identified. The vibrational populations of product CO2 are obtained by spectral simulation. A mechanism forming a series of three-membered ring-struc- ture intermediates is suggested.

  3. Glutathione--hydroxyl radical interaction: a theoretical study on radical recognition process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Fiser

    Full Text Available Non-reactive, comparative (2 × 1.2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to characterize the interactions between glutathione (GSH, host molecule and hydroxyl radical (OH(•, guest molecule. From this analysis, two distinct steps were identified in the recognition process of hydroxyl radical by glutathione: catching and steering, based on the interactions between the host-guest molecules. Over 78% of all interactions are related to the catching mechanism via complex formation between anionic carboxyl groups and the OH radical, hence both terminal residues of GSH serve as recognition sites. The glycine residue has an additional role in the recognition of OH radical, namely the steering. The flexibility of the Gly residue enables the formation of further interactions of other parts of glutathione (e.g. thiol, α- and β-carbons with the lone electron pair of the hydroxyl radical. Moreover, quantum chemical calculations were carried out on selected GSH/OH(• complexes and on appropriate GSH conformers to describe the energy profile of the recognition process. The relative enthalpy and the free energy changes of the radical recognition of the strongest complexes varied from -42.4 to -27.8 kJ/mol and from -21.3 to 9.8 kJ/mol, respectively. These complexes, containing two or more intermolecular interactions, would be the starting configurations for the hydrogen atom migration to quench the hydroxyl radical via different reaction channels.

  4. Synthesis of Some N-Alkoxycarbonyl-N″-benzoyl-benzamidrazones(p-toluamidrazones) and 1,3,5-Trisubstituted 1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives from N-Benzoylimidates and their Antimicrobial and Anticancer Screening Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEKIRCAN Olcay; KAHVECI Bahittin; OZGUMUS Osman Birol

    2007-01-01

    Some new N-alkoxycarbonyl-N″-benzoyl-benzamidrazones (p-toluamidrazones) 3a-3d,and 1,3,5-trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazole 4a-4h derivatives by starting from N-benzoylbenzimidates or N-benzoyl-p-toluimidates.The structures of compounds 3 and 4 were established on the basis of elemental analyses,IR,1H NMR,13C NMR and UV data.Antimicrobial experiments of the compounds performed by using agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods revealed that only compounds 3a-3d,4a and 4b showed inhibitory effect only on Candida albicans ATCC 60193.However,compound 4b had also specific antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.The other compounds showed neither antifungal nor antibacterial activities.Compounds 3a,4a and 4b have been screened on three human tumor cell lines,breast cancer (MCF7),non small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460),and CNS cancer (SF-268) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI),USA,which were found to exhibit low antiproliferative activity.

  5. Efficacy of combined therapy of oral minocycline and benzoyl peroxide for acne%口服米诺环素联合过氧化苯甲酰治疗痤疮疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新亮; 张守民

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨米诺环素联合外用过氧化苯甲酰治疗痤疮的疗效性,分析两者联合用药与单独口服米诺环素在治疗痤疮疗效方面的差异性,从而为痤疮临床治疗提供较好的方案.方法 将45名患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组接受米诺环素联合过氧化苯甲酰治疗,对照组接受米诺环素治疗,对治疗组和对照组不同疗程(用药后2、4、6、8周及1个月)治愈率的比较,作出评价.结果 治疗2周、4周后,米诺环素联合过氧化苯甲酰组总有效率明显高于单口服米诺环素组(P<0.05),6周、8周及1个月时两组无明显差异(P>0.05),说明米诺环素联合过氧化苯甲酰组起效快于单口服米诺环素组.结论 米诺环素联合过氧化苯甲酰较单独口服米诺环素起效快,明显缩短病程,较快减轻炎症反应,降低愈后遗留瘢痕的可能性.%Objective To explore the curative effect of combined therapy of oral minocycline and benzoyl peroxide for external use for acne, and to analyze the difference in the efficacy of acne treatment between the combined therapy and single oral minocycline treatment group, all these will provide us a better scheme for acne treatment. Methods Totally 45 patients were randomly divided into treatment and contrast groups. The treatment group accepted the therapy of minocycline combined with benzoyl peroxide, while the contrast group were treated with minocycline alone. Then an evaluation was made by comparing the curative ratio at different time point between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the group treated with minocycline combined with benzoyl peroxide was significantly higher than that of single oral minocycline group at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment, while the values at different time of 6 weeks,8 weeks and 1 month after treatment had no significant difference between two groups. It showed that treatment with oral minocycline and benzoyl peroxide for external use

  6. Discourses of postmodern epistemology: Radical impetus lost?

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Exhibiting a highly divisive agenda postmodernism has created profound chasms across scientific communities. In development studies its radical impetus has translated into the postdevelopment perspective which violently repudiates the modernist development project. This paper crystallises two distinct discourses of working upon the epistemological raw material of postmodernism: an exclusivist discourse, which reinforces the chasm by isolating postmodernism, and an inclusivist discourse, which...

  7. Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); S. Pavan (Sara)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the

  8. Radical Negativity: Music Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Peter

    2011-01-01

    According to Hedges (2010), the real enemies of the liberal class are radical thinkers such as Noam Chomsky and Ralph Nader, iconoclastic intellectuals who possess the moral autonomy to defy the power elite. While this author agrees with Hedges, he would take this argument even further. In this article, the author argues that the real enemy of…

  9. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...

  10. Radical recombinations in acetylene-air flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, P.J.Th.; Alkemade, C.T.J.

    1965-01-01

    In this paper an analysis is given of the behaviour of excess radical concentrations, H, OH and O as a function of height above the reaction zone in premixed acetylene-air flames at 2–200° to 2400°K and 1 atmosphere pressure. The intensity was measured of the Li resonance line which is related to th

  11. Designed metalloprotein stabilizes a semiquinone radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulas, Gözde; Lemmin, Thomas; Wu, Yibing; Gassner, George T; DeGrado, William F

    2016-04-01

    Enzymes use binding energy to stabilize their substrates in high-energy states that are otherwise inaccessible at ambient temperature. Here we show that a de novo designed Zn(II) metalloprotein stabilizes a chemically reactive organic radical that is otherwise unstable in aqueous media. The protein binds tightly to and stabilizes the radical semiquinone form of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol. Solution NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations show that the substrate binds in the active site pocket where it is stabilized by metal-ligand interactions as well as by burial of its hydrophobic groups. Spectrochemical redox titrations show that the protein stabilized the semiquinone by reducing the electrochemical midpoint potential for its formation via the one-electron oxidation of the catechol by approximately 400 mV (9 kcal mol(-1)). Therefore, the inherent chemical properties of the radical were changed drastically by harnessing its binding energy to the metalloprotein. This model sets the basis for designed enzymes with radical cofactors to tackle challenging chemistry. PMID:27001731

  12. Designed metalloprotein stabilizes a semiquinone radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulas, Gözde; Lemmin, Thomas; Wu, Yibing; Gassner, George T.; Degrado, William F.

    2016-04-01

    Enzymes use binding energy to stabilize their substrates in high-energy states that are otherwise inaccessible at ambient temperature. Here we show that a de novo designed Zn(II) metalloprotein stabilizes a chemically reactive organic radical that is otherwise unstable in aqueous media. The protein binds tightly to and stabilizes the radical semiquinone form of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol. Solution NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations show that the substrate binds in the active site pocket where it is stabilized by metal-ligand interactions as well as by burial of its hydrophobic groups. Spectrochemical redox titrations show that the protein stabilized the semiquinone by reducing the electrochemical midpoint potential for its formation via the one-electron oxidation of the catechol by approximately 400 mV (9 kcal mol-1). Therefore, the inherent chemical properties of the radical were changed drastically by harnessing its binding energy to the metalloprotein. This model sets the basis for designed enzymes with radical cofactors to tackle challenging chemistry.

  13. Ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the phenyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation dynamics of jet-cooled phenyl radicals (C6H5 and C6D5) are studied in the photolysis wavelength region of 215-268 nm using high-n Rydberg atom time-of-flight and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization techniques. The phenyl radicals are produced from 193-nm photolysis of chlorobenzene and bromobenzene precursors. The H-atom photofragment yield spectra have a broad peak centered around 235 nm and are in good agreement with the UV absorption spectra of phenyl. The H + C6H4 product translational energy distributions, P(ET)'s, peak near ∼7 kcal/mol, and the fraction of average translational energy in the total excess energy, T>, is in the range of 0.20-0.35 from 215 to 268 nm. The H-atom product angular distribution is isotropic. The dissociation rates are in the range of 107-108 s-1 with internal energy from 30 to 46 kcal/mol above the threshold of the lowest energy channel H +o-C6H4 (ortho-benzyne), comparable with the rates from the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory. The results from the fully deuterated phenyl radical are identical. The dissociation mechanism is consistent with production of H +o-C6H4, as the main channel from unimolecular decomposition of the ground electronic state phenyl radical following internal conversion of the electronically excited state.

  14. Support for radical left ideologies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Mark; Lubbers, Marcel; Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Jaspers, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines support for radical left ideologies in 32 European countries. It thus extends the relatively scant empirical research available in this field. The hypotheses tested are derived mainly from group-interest theory. Data are deployed from the 2002-2010 European Social Surveys (N=17

  15. Radical Change: Digital Age Literature and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresang, Eliza T.; McClelland, Kathryn

    1999-01-01

    Describes the concept of radical change, a theoretical construct that identifies and explains books with characteristics reflecting the types of interactivity, connectivity, and access that permeate the emerging digital society. Highlights innovative ways that authors, illustrators, and designers incorporate these features into books for…

  16. User involvement competence for radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    focuses on the involvement of such users that are in the position to play an active role as inventors and (co)-developers. A multiple case study analysis was conducted in the field of medical technology. Five radical innovation projects within four firms were selected including medical robots and computer...

  17. Radical Welfare State Retrenchment: A Comparative Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    as electoral suicide, but this changed in the 1980s when Margaret Thatcher's government began a series of cutbacks in the UK. During the 1990s, the New Zealand government announced the most radical social benefit cutbacks the country had ever seen. Examining these cases in detail, and contrasting them...

  18. Free Radicals in Superfluid Liquid Helium Nanodroplets: A Pyrolysis Source for the Production of Propargyl Radical

    CERN Document Server

    Küpper, J; Miller, R E; K\\"upper, Jochen; Merritt, Jeremy M.; Miller, Roger E.

    2002-01-01

    An effusive pyrolysis source is described for generating a continuous beam of radicals under conditions appropriate for the helium droplet pick-up method. Rotationally resolved spectra are reported for the $\

  19. THE RADICAL ONLINE: INDIVIDUAL RADICALIZATION PROCESSES AND THE ROLE OF THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koehler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines in detail the role of the Internet in individual radicalization processes of eight German former right-wing extremists. Applying Grounded Theory methodology the qualitative interviews were analyzed in several coding and re-coding phases. The findings are integrated into the existing literature afterwards. Besides well known factors, such as more effective communication, anonymity and better networking opportunities, this study found evidence that the Internet is a major driving factor to establish and foster the development of radical contrast societies (cf. Koehler, 2015 transmitting radical and violent ideologies and translating them into political activism. As a venue for information exchange, ideological development and training, the individual radicalization process was characteristically shaped or even made possible through the Internet. This paper also shows the high value of qualitative research regarding the topic in contrast to usually employed quantitative analysis of webpage content.

  20. Monolignol radical-radical coupling networks in western red cedar and Arabidopsis and their evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung K.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of a nine-member multigene dirigent family involved in control of monolignol radical-radical coupling in the ancient gymnosperm, western red cedar, suggested that a complex multidimensional network had evolved to regulate such processes in vascular plants. Accordingly, in this study, the corresponding promoter regions for each dirigent multigene member were obtained by genome-walking, with Arabidopsis being subsequently transformed to express each promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. It was found that each component gene of the proposed network is apparently differentially expressed in individual tissues, organs and cells at all stages of plant growth and development. The data so obtained thus further support the hypothesis that a sophisticated monolignol radical-radical coupling network exists in plants which has been highly conserved throughout vascular plant evolution.

  1. Charge transfer from 2-aminopurine radical cation and radical anion to nucleobases: A pulse radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj, P. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Mohan, H. [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mittal, J.P. [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Manoj, V.M. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Aravindakumar, C.T. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India)], E-mail: CT-Aravindakumar@rocketmail.com

    2007-01-08

    Pulse radiolysis study has been carried out to investigate the properties of the radical cation of 2-aminopurine (2AP) and the probable charge transfer from the radical cation and radical anion of 2AP to natural nucleobases in aqueous medium. The radical cation of 2AP was produced by the reaction of sulfate radical anion (SO{sub 4}{sup dot-}). The time resolved absorption spectra obtained by the reaction of SO{sub 4}{sup dot-} with 2AP at neutral pH have two distinct maxima at 380 and 470nm and is assigned to the formation of a neutral radical of the form 2AP-N{sup 2}(-H){sup dot} (k{sub 2}=4.7x10{sup 9}dm{sup 3}mol{sup -1}s{sup -1} at pH 7). This neutral radical is formed from the deprotonation reaction of a very short-lived radical cation of 2AP. The transient absorption spectra recorded at pH 10.2 have two distinct maxima at 400 and 480nm and is assigned to the formation of a nitrogen centered radical (2AP-N(9){sup dot}). As the hole transport from 2AP to guanine is a highly probable process, the reaction of SO{sub 4}{sup dot-} is carried out in the presence of guanosine, adenosine and inosine. The spectrum obtained in the presence of guanosine was significantly different from that in the absence and it showed prominent absorption maxima at 380 and 470nm, and a weak broad maximum centered around 625nm which match well with the reported spectrum of a neutral guanine radical (G(-H){sup dot}). The electron transfer reaction from the radical anion of 2AP to thymine (T), cytidine (Cyd) and uridine (Urd) was also investigated at neutral pH. Among the three pyrimidines, only the transient spectrum in the presence of T gave a significant difference from the spectral features of the electron adduct of 2AP, which showed a prominent absorption maximum at 340nm and this spectrum is similar to the electron adduct spectrum of T. The preferential reduction of thymine by 2AP{sup dot-} and the oxidation of guanosine by 2AP{sup dot+} clearly follow the oxidation

  2. Spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes in superfluid helium nanodroplets

    OpenAIRE

    Küpper, J.; Merritt, J.

    2007-01-01

    The spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes embedded in superfluid helium nano-droplets is reviewed. The collection of dopants inside individual droplets in the beam represents a micro-canonical ensemble, and as such each droplet may be considered an isolated cryo-reactor. The unique properties of the droplets, namely their low temperature (0.4 K) and fast cooling rates ( ~ 1016 K s-1)provides novel opportunities for the formation and high-resolution st...

  3. Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) - 2. Are Free Hydroxyl Radicals Generated in Aqueous Solutions?

    OpenAIRE

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2011-01-01

    A chemical spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical (.OH) in aqueous suspensions of 5% Cu(II)O/silica (3.9% Cu) particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP). The results indicate: 1) a significant differences in accumulated DMPO-OH adducts between EPFR containing particles and non-EPFR control sample...

  4. Role of oxygen free radicals in patients with acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byung Kyu; Chung, Jae Bock; Lee, Jin Heon; Suh, Jeong Hun; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Kim, Hyeyoung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kang, Jin Kyung

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The generation of oxygen free radicals has been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of oxygen free radicals in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  5. Self-Assembled Monolayers of a Multifunctional Organic Radical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Perruchas, Sandrine; Roques, Nans; Vidal-Gancedo, José; Veciana, Jaume; Rovira, Concepció; Basabe-Desmonts, Lourdes; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Crego-Calama, Mercedes; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2007-01-01

    A radical switch: Covalent and noncovalent interactions have been used to functionalize silicon oxide surfaces with polychlorotriphenylmethyl radicals, which are electroactive and can be reversibly reduced or oxidized to nonmagnetic and nonfluorescent species. Thus, the self-assembled monolayers beh

  6. Radical production from photosensitization of imidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral Arroyo, P.; Gonzalez, L.; Steimer, S.; Aellig, R.; Volkamer, R. M.; George, C.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Ammann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Reactions promoted by light are key in atmospheric chemistry. Some of them occur in the condensed phase of aerosols containing light absorbing organic compounds (George et al., 2015). This work explores the radical reactions initiated by near-UV light in mixtures of citric acid (CA) and imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) using NO as a probe molecule for HO2, by means of coated wall flow tube experiments. Citric acid may act as H atom or electron donor in condensed phase radical cycles. IC may act as a photosensitizer. The loss of NO was measured by a chemiluminescence detector. The dependence of the NO loss on the NO concentration, the IC/CA ratio in the film, relative humidity, light intensity, oxygen molar fraction were investigated as well as the HONO and NO2 yields. We also added halide salts to investigate the effect of a competing electron donor in the system and the output of halogens to the gas phase. We found a correlation between the loss of NO above the film and the molar ratio of IC/CA and the light intensity. The variation of the NO loss with oxygen corroborates a mechanism, in which the triplet excited state of IC is reduced by citric acid, to a reduced ketyl radical that transfers an electron to molecular oxygen, which in turn leads to production of HO2 radicals. Therefore, the NO loss in the gas phase is related to the production of HO2 radicals. Relative humidity had a strong impact on the HO2 output, which shows a maximum production rate at around 30%. The addition of halide ions (X- = Cl-, Br-, I-) increases the HO2 output at low concentration and decrease it at higher concentration when X2- radical ions likely scavenge HO2. We could preliminarily quantify for the first time the contribution of these processes to the oxidative capacity in the atmosphere and conclude that their role is significant for aerosol aging and potentially a significant source of halogen compounds to the gas phase.

  7. Inguinal hernia developed after radical retropubic surgery for prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Choon Sik; Jeong, Gyu Young; Kim, Seung Han; Lee, Dong Keun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this retrospective study, we aimed to compare the clinical characteristics of inguinal hernia developed after radical retropubic surgery for prostate cancer to the hernia without previous radical prostatectomy. Methods Twenty-three patients (group A) who had radical retropubic surgery for prostate cancer underwent laparoscopic or open tension-free inguinal hernia repair from March 2007 to February 2011. Nine hundred and forty patients (group B) without previous radical retropubic s...

  8. The Serbian Radical movement 1881-1903: A historical aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Protić Milan St.

    2005-01-01

    Focusing on the initial stage (until 1903) of the Serbian Radical movement the paper attempts to delineate and explicate the main phases of its political maturation. In its initial stage Serbian Radicalism passed through several significant phases. The earliest phase (1869-80) may be named the period of rudimentary Radicalism. The movement was unorganized and oscillated between the ideas of socialism, anarchism and peasant democracy. The year 1881 saw the founding of the Radical Party as the ...

  9. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, V.; Patil, A.; A Phatak; N Chandra

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress...

  10. Generation and propagation of radical reactions on proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    The oxidation of proteins by free radicals is thought to play a major role in many oxidative processes within cells and is implicated in a number of human diseases as well as ageing. This review summarises information on the formation of radicals on peptides and proteins and how radical damage may...

  11. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S.; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2016-04-26

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  12. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, R T; Fu, S; Stocker, R;

    1997-01-01

    Radical-mediated damage to proteins may be initiated by electron leakage, metal-ion-dependent reactions and autoxidation of lipids and sugars. The consequent protein oxidation is O2-dependent, and involves several propagating radicals, notably alkoxyl radicals. Its products include several catego...

  13. α-Carbonyl Radical Cyclizatio n in Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Intramolecular radical cyclization reactions are now used routinely to synthesize carbocyclic and heterocyclic structures. We have reported that α-carbonyl radicals 1, generated from the corresponding iodo ketones or enones, underwent intramolecular radical cyclization smoothly to afford products 2.1, 2,3

  14. 离心沉淀气相色谱法测定面粉中过氧化苯甲酰含量的研究%Determination of Benzoyl Peroxide in Wheat Flour by Gas Chromatography after Precipitation by Centrifugation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应兴华; 徐霞; 朱智伟; 闵捷; 朱敏; 翟远建

    2009-01-01

    An analytical method of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection after precipitated by centrifugation was established for determination of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour. The effects of different extraction time on the extraction efficiency and different calibration strategies for quantification were investigated, respectively. The benzoyl peroxide which was extracted from wheat flour with petroleum ether(60~90℃) was converted to benzoic acid in acidic condition, and then analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Recovery studies were performed at 0.06,0.18 and 0.30 g/kg fortification levels and the recoveries obtained ranging from 82.70% to 89.46% with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.77% to 6.93%. The method showed good linearity over the range assayed of 0.005~0.08 g/L and the detection limit was 2 mg/kg. The proposed method was suitable for determining benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour with high sensitivity, good accuracy and low-cost.%建立了离心沉淀,气相色谱氢火焰离子化检测器测定面粉中过氧化苯甲酰含量的方法.考察了不同提取时间和采用不同工作曲线对过氧化苯甲酰测定的影响.试样在石油醚中被冰乙酸还原成苯甲酸,经HP-5(30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 μm)毛细管气相色谱柱分离,氢火焰离子化检测器测定.方法的线性范围为0.005~0.08 g/L(r=0.9992),检出限(S/N=3)为2 mg/kg.在添标水平为0.06、0.18和0.30 g/kg时的平均回收率为82.70%~89.46%,相对标准偏差为3.77%~6.93%.该方法仪器设备简单,测定结果灵敏、准确,适合面粉中过氧化苯甲酰的测定.

  15. Drug efficiency of 18 % benzoyl propiconazole WG against rice sheath blight in field trials%18%苯甲·丙环唑WG防治水稻纹枯病的田间药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建成; 张世平

    2012-01-01

    A field trial of drug efficiency using 18% benzoyl propiconazole WG against rice sheath blight was carried out. The results showed that the control efficiency of 18% benzoyl propiconazole WG with the dosages of 30 g, 40 g and 50 g per 667 m^2 was 78.68%, 80.08% and 84.36%, respectively, in the fifteenth day after the second medication. The dosages of 50 g and 40 g had good control efficiency (84.36% and 80.08%, respectively) and had no bad effect on the growth of crops, safety after treating. It also had no harmfull effect on the other organism, insects and non-target organism. In the pro- duction practice, it was suggested that to control rice sheath blight by using 18% benzoyl propiconazole WG with dosages of 40-50 g per 667 m^2, the pesticide was applied at peak of rice tillering stage.%进行18%苯甲·丙环唑WG防治水稻纹枯病的药效试验,结果表明:每667m。使用18%苯甲·丙环唑WG30、40、50g第2次药后15d对水稻纹枯病的防效分别为78.68%、80.08%和84.36%;每667m。使用18%苯甲·丙环唑WG50g及40g的防效较高,且对作物生长无不良的影响,药后较安全,对其他生物、其他病虫害及其他非靶标生物均无影响。生产上建议每667m。使用18%苯甲·丙环唑WG40—50g(制剂量)防治水稻纹枯病,于水稻分蘖盛期施药。

  16. Radical radiotherapy for carcinoma of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of 58 patients with carcinoma of the vulva treated by radical radiotherapy between 1965 and 1982. The choice of treatment technique was influenced by site and extent of disease as well as the general condition of the patient. The crude 5-year survival was 26% (15/58). Local control was achieved in 40% of cases and was associated with tumour size of 4 cm or less. Radionecrosis occurred in nine cases but none of these required surgical intervention. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for carcinoma of the vulva. This report emphasizes that radical radiotherapy has a curative potential in those cases considered unsuitable for surgery and that the necrosis type and rate are within the limits of acceptable morbidity. (author)

  17. Freedom Now! Radical Jazz and Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Pluciński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Music is obviously not only an aesthetic phenomenon. It is embeddedin a dense network of social relations. However, its social involvementis rather ambiguous, particularly since the second half of the twentiethcentury. On the one hand, music is one of the main elements of culturalcapitalism and a part of the system of domination. On the other hand,music provokes, (coproduces or possibly strengthens and coexists witha number of counterdiscourses and social projects of counterhegemoniccharacter.The main objective of the paper is to examine relationships between both, revolutionary jazz and revolutionary social movements, namely the civil rights movement, but above all radical movements, especially black power movement. The crucial questions I am interested in are problems of selforganization, performative social practices, as well as alternatives elaborated by radical-oriented jazz circles in various social dimensions, for instance economic or symbolic.

  18. Regularities and Radicals in Near-rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.J. Groenewald

    2002-01-01

    Let F be a regularity for near-rings and F(R) the largest FR-regular ideal in R. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the concepts of maximal Fmodular ideals and F-primitive near-rings to characterize F(R) for any near-ring regularity F. Under certain conditions, F(R) is equal to the intersection of all the maximal F-modular ideals of R. As examples, we apply this to the different analogs of the Brown-McCoy radicals and also the Behrens radicals. In the last part of this paper, we show that for certain regularities, the class of F-primitive near-rings forms a special class.

  19. Radical radiotherapy for carcinoma of the vulva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slevin, N.J.; Pointon, R.C.S.

    1989-02-01

    A study was made of 58 patients with carcinoma of the vulva treated by radical radiotherapy between 1965 and 1982. The choice of treatment technique was influenced by site and extent of disease as well as the general condition of the patient. The crude 5-year survival was 26% (15/58). Local control was achieved in 40% of cases and was associated with tumour size of 4 cm or less. Radionecrosis occurred in nine cases but none of these required surgical intervention. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for carcinoma of the vulva. This report emphasizes that radical radiotherapy has a curative potential in those cases considered unsuitable for surgery and that the necrosis type and rate are within the limits of acceptable morbidity.

  20. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of radicals and clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, Taylor R.

    1999-12-16

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study free radicals and clusters. The low-lying {sup 2}{Sigma} and {sup 2}{Pi} states of C{sub 2n}H (n = 1--4) have been studied. The anion photoelectron spectra yielded electron affinities, term values, and vibrational frequencies for these combustion and astrophysically relevant species. Photoelectron angular distributions allowed the author to correctly assign the electronic symmetry of the ground and first excited states and to assess the degree of vibronic coupling in C{sub 2}H and C{sub 4}H. Other radicals studied include NCN and I{sub 3}. The author was able to observe the low-lying singlet and triplet states of NCN for the first time. Measurement of the electron affinity of I{sub 3} revealed that it has a bound ground state and attachment of an argon atom to this moiety enabled him to resolve the symmetric stretching progression.

  1. EPR study of free radicals in bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Mladenova, Ralitsa

    2004-05-01

    The features of the recorded EPR spectra of paramagnetic species formed in bread and rusk are reported. The appearance of free radicals in them is only connected with their thermal treatment since the starting materials (flour and grains) exhibit very weak EPR signal. The obtained EPR spectra are complex and indicate that: (i) the relative number of paramagnetic species depends on the temperature and treating time of the raw product; (ii) the g-values are strongly temperature dependent with a tendency to coincide at t≥220 °C. Because of the relatively low (150-220 °C) temperature of thermal treatment, the studied free radicals can be assumed to appear in the course of the browning (Maillard) reaction and not to the carbonization of the material.

  2. Editorial: RADICALISM AND POLITICS OF RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Radical Islamism has become the “sexiest” issue in the international scholarship of religion since the September 11 tragedy in 2001. It has been associated with a number of terrorist attacks not only in the West but also in Muslim countries. Every single of radical Islamism has caught the interest of not only scholars and policy makers but also general public. Interestingly, the general assumption that religion is the source of peace has been seriously challenged, not by non-religious communities, but by the violent practices of particular religious groups, however small they are. Indeed, there are certain groups striving for Islam but by using acts which could give awful image on Islam itself and against humanity.

  3. Lipid modification processes induced by thiyl radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljević, Branka; Bujak, Ivana Tartaro

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation by thiyl radicals (RS•) is believed to be responsible for some of the biological radiation damage. At the same time, RS• can cause isomerization of PUFA double bonds with the formation of trans isomers. The aim of this study was to better understand the competition between lipid peroxidation and geometrical isomerization processes in biomimetic model system of linoleic acid in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol using irradiation as a method for free radicals generation. In air-equilibrated conditions the propagation of lipid peroxidation was dominant up to the dose of 400 Gy, after which at higher doses up to 10 kGy the termination occurred with the predominance of geometrical isomerization. This study revealed that undesirable and permanent lipid modifications are possible at higher irradiation doses which should be considered in the planning of irradiation treatment of foods and feeds with high content of lipids and sulfur compounds.

  4. How Hume's Philosophy Informed Radical Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzolilli, Andrew E; Diller, James W

    2015-05-01

    The present paper analyzes consistencies between the philosophical systems of David Hume and B. F. Skinner, focusing on their conceptualization of causality and attitudes about scientific behavior. The ideas that Hume initially advanced were further developed in Skinner's writings and shaped the behavior-analytic approach to scientific behavior. Tracing Skinner's logical antecedents allows for additional historical and philosophical clarity when examining the development of radical behaviorism.

  5. The radical of a vertex operator algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, C.; Li, H.; Mason, G.; Montague, P

    1996-01-01

    The radical $J(V)$ of a vertex operator algebra $V$ is defined to be the subspace of $V$ consisting of vectors $v$ such that the zero mode $o(v)=0$ on $V$ where $o(v)=v_{wt v-1}$ if $v$ is homogeneous. We establish various facts about $o(v),$ including the determination of $J(V)$ which is shown to be essentially equal to $(L(0)+L(-1))V.$

  6. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS AFTER RADICAL CYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Mager

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy (RCE is associated with a considerable number of early postoperative complications as before. Based on 10 years’ experience, this paper demonstrates the frequency (33.9 % and types of early complications following RCE, as well as postoperative mortality (5.5 % and its resulting causes. Although postoperative mortality is relatively low today, the frequency of early postoperative complications remains high as before.

  7. EI igualitarismo radical de John Rawls

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Zepeda, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to offer an interpretation of the canonical statement of justice as fairness (A Theory of Justice) as a deeply egalitarian, even radical, argument. In order to do so, the categories of justice as fairness strongly related to the egalitarian and distributive meaning of the rawlsian liberal model and, specifically, those aimed to solve the problem of social justice, are accurately revised, namely, the fair equality of opportunity and the diff...

  8. The Electronic Dissertation: A less radical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Costopoulos

    1999-01-01

    Cornelius Holtorf's article in Internet Archaeology, Issue 6 (1999) is a strident call for a radical application of hypermedia techniques to archaeological publishing. Like Holtorf, I recently produced and submitted a Ph.D. dissertation on electronic medium entitled Simulation and Modelling for Anthropological Archaeology (Costopoulos, 1999). My experience of the process, however, was quite different from Holtorf's. While his work concentrates on the hypertextuality of electronic media, mine ...

  9. AQUEOUS STABLE FREE RADICAL POLYMERIZATION PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea R. Szkurhan; Michael K. Georges

    2004-01-01

    An overview of aqueous polymerizations, which include emulsion, miniemulsion and suspension polymerizations,under stable free radical polymerization (SFRP) conditions is presented. The success of miniemulsion and suspension SFRP polymerizations is contrasted with the difficulties associated with obtaining a stable emulsion polymerization. A recently developed unique microprecipitation technique is referenced as a means of making submicron sized particles that can be used to achieve a stable emulsion SFRP process.

  10. Radical correction of Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-qiang; WANG Zhong-gao; MENG Qing-you; SANG Hong-fei; QIAN Ai-min; DUAN Peng-fei; RONG Jian-jie

    2007-01-01

    Background Interventional therapy is widely accepted as the first choice for the treatment of the Budd-Chiari syndrome,but the use of radical correctional therapy should not be discarded. This study describes radical correction by controlling bleeding from distal end of pathological segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and discusses potential surgical errors and postoperative complications.Methods Of the 216 patients in the study, 78 were treated with simple membranectomy, 64 with dissection of the pathological segment of the IVC and vascular prosthesis or pericardial patch plasty, 60 with resection of the pathological segment of the IVC and orthotopic graft transplantation with vascular prosthesis, and 14 with resection of the occlusive main hepatic vein and its upper IVC, hepatic venous outflow plasty and vascular prosthesis orthotopic graft transplantation from the hepatic venous entrance to the IVC of right atrial ostium.Results Except 14 cases who were discharged after hepatic vein outflow plasty, four cases died postoperatively, and 198 patients were discharged without complications. The symptoms of 15 patients were relieved partially and 2 without any change. There were no deaths intraoperatively. Of the 112 cases who were followed up for 72 months, 13 suffered from a relapse.Conclusions Radical correction is a beneficial therapy in the treatment of Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  11. Radical induction theory of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jay Pravda

    2005-01-01

    To propose a new pathogenesis called Radical Induction to explain the genesis and progression of ulcerative colitis (UC). UC is an inflammatory bowel disease. Colonic inflammation in UC is mediated by a buildup of white blood cells (WBCs) within the colonic mucosal lining; however,to date there is no answer for why WBCs initially enter the colonic mucosa to begin with. A new pathogenesis termed "Radical Induction Theory" is proposed to explain this and states that excess un-neutralized hydrogen peroxide, produced within colonic epithelial cells as a result of aberrant cellular metabolism, diffuses through cell membranes to the extracellular space where it is converted to the highly damaging hydroxyl radical resulting in oxidative damage to structures comprising the colonic epithelial barrier. Once damaged, the barrier is unable to exclude highly immunogenic fecal bacterial antigens from invading the normally sterile submucosa. This antigenic exposure provokes an initial immune response of WBC infiltration into the colonic mucosa. Once present in the mucosa,WBCs are stimulated to secrete toxins by direct exposure to fecal bacteria leading to mucosal ulceration and bloody diarrhea characteristic of this disease.

  12. Removal of NOx by radical injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN He; GAO Xiang; LUO Zhongyang; CEN Kefa; PEI Meixiang; HUANG Zhen

    2004-01-01

    Removal of NOx ( DeNOx, NOx is the total of NO and NO2) from flue gas by radical injection has been investigated . The discharge characteristics were examined and the steady streamer corona was acquired by adjusting the nozzle gases properly. It was found that an increase in the voltage resulted in a decrease in the NO concentration and the concentration of the NO2 increased at low voltages but decreased as the voltage rose to a certain level. The DeNOx efficiency increased as the applied voltage rose and reached a maximum of 70% when the voltage approached the breakdown voltage. The hypothetical mechanism of NOx removal suggested that the radicals formed in the discharge process converted the NO and NO2 into acidic species. The Monte Carlo method was used to calculate the rate coefficients and the productivity of the radicals, and then the concentrations of both NO and NO2 and the DeNOx efficiencies were calculated with chemical kinetics. The calculated DeNOx efficiencies were comparable with the experimental DeNOx efficiencies at low voltages, but were lower at high voltages.

  13. [Free radicals and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szijártó, Attila

    2015-11-22

    The critical importance of the ischemic-reperfusive injury is well documented with regards to numerous organs and clinical conditions. Oxygen free radicals play a central role in the mediation of the injury, which dominantly influences the prevalence of postoperative complications, (long term) organ damage, and the potential manifestation of systemic reactions. The both anatomically and pathophysiologically unique ischemic-reperfusive injury of the liver, which is expressively vulnerable to free radicals, is of utmost importance in liver surgery. Several techniques (adaptive maneuvers, chemical agents) are known to ameliorate the reperfusive injury. Based on the prior research of the workgroup of the author, the aim of the current article is to overview the set of measures capable of attenuating ischemic-reperfusive injury (ischemic preconditioning, -perconditioning, administration of adenosine, -inosine, -levosimendan, and -poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase inhibitor), with special attention to the ischemic-reperfusive injury of the liver, as well as the special pathophysiological role of free radicals in mediating hepatic damage.

  14. Complications of Radical Cystectomy and Orthotopic Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy and orthotopic reconstruction significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in minimal invasive and robotic technology. In this review, we will discuss early and late complications, as well as describe efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality, with a focus on ileal orthotopic bladder substitute (OBS. We summarise efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality including enhanced recovery as well as early and late complications seen after radical cystectomy and OBS. Centralisation of complex cancer services in the UK has led to a fall in mortality and high volume institutions have a significantly lower rate of 30-day mortality compared to low volume institutions. Enhanced recovery pathways have resulted in shorter length of hospital stay and potentially a reduction in morbidity. Early complications of radical cystectomy occur as a direct result of the surgery itself while late complications, which can occur even after 10 years after surgery, are due to urinary diversion. OBS represents the ideal urinary diversion for patients without contraindications. However, all patients with OBS should have regular long term follow-up for oncological surveillance and to identify complications should they arise.

  15. Interaction of (4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate dioxygenase with the specific inhibitor 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavana, Michael; Moran, Graham R

    2003-09-01

    (4-Hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is a non-heme Fe(II) enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisate as part of the tyrosine catabolism pathway. Inhibition of HPPD by the triketone 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) is used to treat type I tyrosinemia, a rare but fatal defect in tyrosine catabolism. Although triketones have been used for many years as HPPD inhibitors for both medical and herbicidal purposes, the mechanism of inhibition is not well understood. The following work provides mechanistic insight into NTBC binding. The tautomeric population of NTBC in aqueous solution is dominated by a single enol as determined by NMR spectroscopy. NTBC preferentially binds to the complex of HPPD and FeII [HPPD.Fe(II)] as evidenced by a visible absorbance feature centered at 450 nm. The binding of NTBC to HPPD.Fe(II) was observed using a rapid mixing method and was shown to occur in two phases and comprise three steps. A hyperbolic dependence of the first observable process with NTBC concentration indicates a pre-equilibrium binding step followed by a limiting rate (K(1) = 1.25 +/- 0.08 mM, k(2) = 8.2 +/- 0.2 s(-1)), while the second phase (k(3) = 0.76 +/- 0.02 s(-1)) had no dependence on NTBC concentration. Neither K(1),k(2), nor k(3) was influenced by pH in the range of 6.0-8.0. Isotope effects on both k(2) and k(3) were observed when D(2)O is used as the solvent (for k(2), k(h)/k(d) = 1.3; for k(3), k(h)/k(d) = 3.2). It is therefore proposed that the bidentate association of NTBC with the active site metal ion (k(2)) precedes the Lewis acid-assisted conversion of the bound enol to the enolate (k(3)). Although the native enzyme without substrate reacts with molecular oxygen to form the oxidized holoenzyme, the HPPD.Fe(II).NTBC complex does not. When the complex is exposed to atmospheric oxygen, the absorbance feature associated with NTBC binding does not diminish over the course of 2

  16. Growing up Radical: Investigation of Benzyl-Like Radicals with Increasing Chain Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Joseph A.; Jawad, Khadija M.; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2015-06-01

    Combustion processes involve complex chemistry including pathways leading to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from small molecule precursors. Resonance stabilized radicals (RSRs) likely play an important role in the pathways to PAHs due to their unusual stability. Benzyl radical is a prototypical RSR that is stabilized by conjugation with the phenyl ring. Earlier work on α-methyl benzyl radical showed perturbations to the spectroscopy due to a hindered methyl rotor. If the alkyl chain is lengthened then multiple conformations become possible. This talk will discuss the jet-cooled spectroscopy of α-ethyl benzyl radical and α-propyl benzyl radical produced from the discharge of 1-phenyl propanol and 1-phenyl butanol respectively. Electronic spectra were obtained via resonant two-photon ionization, and IR spectra were obtained by resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy. Kidwell, N. M.; Reilly, N. J.; Nebgen, B.; Mehta-Hurt, D. N.; Hoehn, R. D.; Kokkin, D. L.; McCarthy, M. C.; Slipchenko, L. V.; Zwier, T. S. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2013, 117, 13465.

  17. Peroxy radical chemistry and OH radical production during the NO3-initiated oxidation of isoprene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Wennberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radical reactions (RO2 + RO2 from the NO3-initiated oxidation of isoprene are studied with both gas chromatography and a chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique that allows for more specific speciation of products than in previous studies of this system. We find high nitrate yields (>~80%, consistent with other studies. We further see evidence of significant hydroxyl radical (OH formation in this system, which we propose comes from RO2 + HO2 reactions with a yield of ~42–62%. An additional OH source is the second generation oxidation of the nitrooxyhydroperoxide, which produces OH and a dinitrooxyepoxide with a yield of ~35%. The branching ratio of the radical propagating, carbonyl- and alcohol-forming, and dimer-forming channels of the RO2 + RO2 reaction are found to be ~18–38%, ~59–77%, and ~3–4%, respectively. HO2 formation in this system is lower than has been previously assumed. Addition of RO2 to isoprene is suggested as a possible route to the formation of several isoprene dimer compounds (ROOR. The nitrooxy, allylic, and C5 peroxy radicals present in this system exhibit different behavior than the limited suite of peroxy radicals that have been studied to date.

  18. (3-Benzoyl-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-olato-κ2O,Obis[2-(2-pyridylphenyl-κ2C1,N]iridium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijun Luo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ir(C11H8N2(C17H19O2], has an octahedral coordination geometry around the IrIII atom, retaining the cis-C,C,trans–N,N chelate disposition of the two 2-phenylpyridine ligands. The chelate rings are nearly mutually perpendicular [the interplanar angles range from 85.48 (17 to 89.17 (19°]. The two 2-(2-pyridylphenyl ligands are approximately planar, with the plane of the phenyl ring being inclined to that of the pyridine ring by 2.3 (3 and 5.1 (3° in the two ligands. The interplanar angle between the phenyl ring in 3-benzoyl-camphor and the IrO2C3 chelate ring is 35.5 (2°.

  19. Bis(4-benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-olato-κ2O,O′(methanol-κOdioxidouranium(VI methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouarda Dehbi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [U(C17H13N2O22O2(CH3OH]·CH3OH, the UVI ion is coordinated by seven O atoms in a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry with two 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-benzoyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-olate groups with two O atoms in a bidentate chelating coordination mode and by three O atoms, one of which is from a methanol ligand. The crystal packing can be described by alternating layers of complex molecules along the a axis. The structure is stabilized by O—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions.

  20. Solvent extraction of lanthanide ions with 1-Phenyl-3-Methyl-4-Benzoyl-Pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP), 2. Extraction of Erbium(III), Ytterbium(III) and Lutetium(III) by HPMBP from aqueous-methanol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of lanthanides(III)(Ln = Er, Yb, Lu) by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HL) in carbon tetrachloride from aqueous-methanol phase was investigated. The equilibrium constants for the extraction from aqueous-50 % (ν/ν) methanol phase (Kex), two-phase stability constants of the complexes LnL3 (β3*) and stability constants of complexes LnL2+, LnL2+, LnL3(βn)(Ln = Yb, Lu) were calculated. It was confirmed that the addition of methanol to the aqueous phase causes a synergistic effect. The influence of methanol on the dissociation constant of HPMBP (Ka) and the distribution constant of HPMBP (pHL) between carbon tetrachloride and water-methanol solutions was investigated. (Authors)

  1. Solvent extraction of lanthanide ions with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP), III: extraction of gadolinium(III), terbium(III), dysprosium(III), holmium(III), and thulium(III) by HPMBP from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction behaviour of Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), and Tm(III) has been investigated using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP or HL) in carbon tetrachloride as the extractant. Depending on the concentration of HPMBP in the organic phase the chelates LnL3[Ln(III)=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm] and adducts LnL3.HL[Ln(III)=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho] were extracted. The extraction equilibrium constants (Kex3 or Kex4) for the formation of LnL3 or LnL3.HL and the two-phase stability constants of the chelates or adducts (β3x, β4x) have been evaluated. (authors)

  2. Studies on complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Ln(III) with 3-(α-benzoyl) benzylidenehydrazino-5, 6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis, acid-base equilibria and metal-ion chelating tendencies of 3-(α-benzoyl) benzylidenehydrazino-5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine (BHT) are reported. From potentiometric equilibrium measurements of hydrogen ion concentration at 30degC and ionic strength 0.10 M KNO3, in 75% (v/v) dioxane-water medium, the values of the stability constants of BHT with transition and lanthanide(III) ions have been evaluated. Probable structures of metal chelates are inferred from electronic absorption spectra and infrared examination of solid complexes. The use of BHT as analytical reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of copper, nickel and cobalt has also been discussed. (author). 4 tabs., 3 figs., 20 refs

  3. 超临界水中添加过氧化苯甲酰对聚丙烯降解的促进作用%An Investigation on Polypropylene Degradation in Supercritical Water Adding Benzoyl Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏磊; 吴学华; 刘秀茹; 陈丽英; 陈克宇; 洪时明

    2005-01-01

    The effect of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) on polypropylene (PP) degradation in supercritical water was investigated with the aim of developing a process for recycling of waste plastics. A series of experiments with and without BPO were carried out at temperatures of 653K and 673K under pressure about 26 MPa for 30, 75 and 120 min respectively. Products were analyzed by an Ostward-type viscometer, gas chromatography and spectrometry (GC/MS) etc. The results indicated that mean molecular weight of the samples decreased greatly along with the time elapsing or with the temperature increasing, and PP was decomposed to aliphatic and cycloparaffinic hydrocarbons but a few benzenoid hydrocarbons. By comparing the experiments with and without BPO, it was made clear that BPO is an effective additive on PP degradation in supercritical water.

  4. Covalently Bound Nitroxyl Radicals in an Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Barbara K.; Braunecker, Wade A.; Bobela, David C.; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Johnson, Justin C.

    2016-09-15

    A series of covalent organic framework (COF) structures is synthesized that possesses a tunable density of covalently bound nitroxyl radicals within the COF pores. The highest density of organic radicals produces an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal that suggests the majority of radicals strongly interact with other radicals, whereas for smaller loadings the EPR signals indicate the radicals are primarily isolated but with restricted motion. The dielectric loss as determined from microwave absorption of the framework structures compared with an amorphous control suggests that free motion of the radicals is inhibited when more than 25% of available sites are occupied. The ability to tune the mode of radical interactions and the subsequent effect on redox, electrical, and optical characteristics in a porous framework may lead to a class of structures with properties ideal for photoelectrochemistry or energy storage.

  5. Solid State Structure and Solution Thermodynamics of Three-Centered Hydrogen Bonds (O∙∙∙H∙∙∙O Using N-(2-Benzoyl-phenyl Oxalyl Derivatives as Model Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Z. Gómez-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intramolecular hydrogen bond (HB formation was analyzed in the model compounds N-(2-benzoylphenylacetamide, N-(2-benzoylphenyloxalamate and N1,N2-bis(2-benzoylphenyloxalamide. The formation of three-center hydrogen bonds in oxalyl derivatives was demonstrated in the solid state by the X-ray diffraction analysis of the geometric parameters associated with the molecular structures. The solvent effect on the chemical shift of H6 [δH6(DMSO-d6–δH6(CDCl3] and Δδ(ΝΗ/ΔT measurements, in DMSO-d6 as solvent, have been used to establish the energetics associated with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Two center intramolecular HB is not allowed in N-(2-benzoylphenylacetamide either in the solid state or in DMSO-d6 solution because of the unfavorable steric effects of the o-benzoyl group. The estimated ΔHº and ΔSº values for the hydrogen bonding disruption by DMSO-d6 of 28.3(0.1 kJ·mol−1 and 69.1(0.4 J·mol−1·K−1 for oxalamide, are in agreement with intramolecular three-center hydrogen bonding in solution. In the solid, the benzoyl group contributes to develop 1-D and 2-D crystal networks, through C–H∙∙∙A (A = O, π and dipolar C=O∙∙∙A (A = CO, π interactions, in oxalyl derivatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example where three-center hydrogen bond is claimed to overcome steric constraints.

  6. Even free radicals should follow some rules: a guide to free radical research terminology and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Henry Jay; Augusto, Ohara; Brigelius-Flohe, Regina; Dennery, Phyllis A; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Mann, Giovanni E; Radi, Rafael; Roberts, L Jackson; Vina, Jose; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals and oxidants are now implicated in physiological responses and in several diseases. Given the wide range of expertise of free radical researchers, application of the greater understanding of chemistry has not been uniformly applied to biological studies. We suggest that some widely used methodologies and terminologies hamper progress and need to be addressed. We make the case for abandonment and judicious use of several methods and terms and suggest practical and viable alternatives. These changes are suggested in four areas: use of fluorescent dyes to identify and quantify reactive species, methods for measurement of lipid peroxidation in complex biological systems, claims of antioxidants as radical scavengers, and use of the terms for reactive species.

  7. Radical hysterectomy with adjuvant radiotherapy versus radical radiotherapy for FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to compare treatment outcomes for Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIB cervical carcinoma patients receiving radical surgery followed by adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy versus radical radiotherapy. Medical records of FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer patients treated between July 2008 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 148 patients underwent radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (surgery-based group). These patients were compared with 290 patients that received radical radiotherapy alone (RT-based group). Recurrence rates, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), local control rates, and treatment-related complications were compared for these two groups. Similar rates of recurrence (16.89% vs. 12.41%, p = 0.200), PFS (log-rank, p = 0.211), OS (log-rank, p = 0.347), and local control rates (log-rank, p = 0.668) were observed for the surgery-based group and the RT-based group, respectively. Moreover, the incidence of acute grade 3–4 gastrointestinal reactions and late grade 3–4 lower limb lymphedema were significantly higher for the surgery-based group versus the RT-based group. Cox multivariate analyses found no significant difference in survival outcome between the two groups, and tumor diameter and histopathology were identified as significant prognostic factors for OS. Radical radiotherapy was associated with fewer treatment-related complications and achieved comparable survival outcomes for patients with FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer compared to radical hysterectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy

  8. Spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes in superfluid helium nano-droplets

    CERN Document Server

    K"upper, J; K\\"upper, Jochen; Merritt, Jeremy M.

    2006-01-01

    The spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes embedded in superfluid helium nano-droplets is reviewed. The collection of dopants inside individual droplets in the beam represents a micro-canonical ensemble, and as such each droplet may be considered an isolated cryo-reactor. The unique properties of the droplets, namely their low temperature (0.4 K) and fast cooling rates ($\\sim10^{16}$ K s$^{-1}$) provides novel opportunities for the formation and high-resolution studies of molecular complexes containing one or more free radicals. The production methods of radicals are discussed in light of their applicability for embedding the radicals in helium droplets. The spectroscopic studies performed to date on molecular radicals and on entrance / exit-channel complexes of radicals with stable molecules are detailed. The observed complexes provide new information on the potential energy surfaces of several fundamental chemical reactions and on the intermolecular interactions pres...

  9. Studies of radiation-produced radicals and radical ions. Progress report, September 1, 1982-August 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year, radiation chemical and solid-state ESR techniques were combined to generate and characterize novel radical ions. Observations have been made on a variety of metastable organometallic radical cations derived from Group IV B metal alkyls. Matrix interactions have been discovered between radical cations and the Freon solvent. The radical cation formed from ethylene oxide is the ring-opened 2-oxa-trimethylene cation with a symmetrical C/sub 2v/ planar structure. The CF3CCl2 radical was formed after γ irradiation of the CF3CCl3 (Freon) matrix. Very large long-range proton hyperfine couplings were found in radical cations of carbonyl compounds. The C8F8- ion was studied in MTHF glass, using ESR. Two new inorganic radicals, SF4- and SF4O-, were discovered

  10. Spectroscopy of free-base N-confused tetraphenylporphyrin radical anion and radical cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Elvin A; Manríquez Rocha, Juan; Wongwitwichote, Wongwit; Godínez Mora-Tovar, Luis Arturo; Modarelli, David A

    2011-06-23

    The radical anions and radical cations of the two tautomers (1e and 1i) of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl N-confused free-base porphyrin have been studied using a combination of cyclic voltammetry, steady state absorption spectroscopy, and computational chemistry. N-Confused porphyrins (NCPs), alternatively called 2-aza-21-carba-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrins or inverted porphyrins, are of great interest for their potential as building blocks in assemblies designed for artificial photosynthesis, and understanding the absorption spectra of the corresponding radical ions is paramount to future studies in multicomponent arrays where electron-transfer reactions are involved. NCP 1e was shown to oxidize at a potential of E(ox) 0.65 V vs Fc(+)|Fc in DMF and reduce at E(red) -1.42 V, while the corresponding values for 1i in toluene were E(ox) 0.60 V and E(red) -1.64 V. The geometries of these radical ions were computed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level in the gas phase and in solution using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). From these structures and that of H(2)TPP and its corresponding radical ions, the computed redox potentials for 1e and 1i were calculated using the Born-Haber cycle. While the computed reduction potentials and electron affinities were in excellent agreement with the experimental reduction potentials, the calculated oxidation potentials displayed a somewhat less ideal relationship with experiment. The absorption spectra of the four radical ions were also measured experimentally, with radical cations 1e(•+) and 1i(•+) displaying significant changes in the Soret and Q-band regions as well as new low energy absorption bands in the near-IR region. The changes in the absorption spectra of radical anions 1e(•-) and 1i(•-) were not as dramatic, with the changes occurring only in the Soret and Q-band regions. These results were favorably modeled using time-dependent density functional calculations at the TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d)//B3LYP/6-31G

  11. Mixed views about radical life extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Alvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies on public attitudes toward life extension technologies show a mix of ambivalence toward and support for extending the human lifespan (Partridge 2009; Dragojlovic 2013; Funk et al. 2013. Attitudes toward genetic modification of organisms and technological enhancements may be used to categorize individuals according to political or ideological orientation such as technoprogressive or conservative (Hughes 2010 and it could be easy to assume that these categories are related to more general categorizations related to culture, e.g. between Traditional and Secular-rational values in the World Values Survey (Ingelhart & Welzel 2010. This paper discusses how attitudes toward aspects of radical life extension may be related to cultural values as revealed in an online deliberative survey among university students conducted between January 2012 to January 2013. Survey results suggest that attitudes toward radical life extension tend to be mixed among groups categorized as Traditional, Secular-rational, Survivalist, and Self-expressionist. The study explored the relation between responses of 326 university students to 5 key questions on radical life extension (RLE and the cultural values they tend to favor as indicated by their response to 20 statements from the World Values Survey. Design and Method: The survey consisted of 3 stages: an online pre-discussion survey, face-to-face discussion, and post-discussion survey. After completing the 5 main survey questions in stage 1, participants were presented two additional questionnaires: one on cultural attitudes using 20 statements from the 2004-2008 World Values Survey (WVS and another on health attitudes with 12 statements from Dutta-Bergman’s 2004 study. In stage 2, participants were engaged in a face-to-face discussion in class focusing on their responses to the five key questions. After the discussion, they were invited to reconsider the choices and reasons they posted in stage

  12. RISE OF RADICALIZATION IN THE GLOBAL VILLAGE. ONLINE RADICALIZATION VS. IN-PERSON RADICALIZATION - IS THERE A DIFFERENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Dramac Jiries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the vicinity of open space, some authors have called the “dark web” the perfect “breeding grounds” for generating conditions for seeds of extremism to thrive and grow. The perceived anonymity and vast information databases found here present a perfect incubator for terrorist activity. Academics and policymakers alike are as well convinced that such an open space filled with recruiter masterminds is perfectly adept at embracing the unadoptable, unconventional, or socially unfit into terrorist or jihadi organizations. Nevertheless, regardless of organizations, modernization and adoption of new technological methods in which one can obtain ideas and information, many individuals are still and to a great extent, influenced by face-to-face interactions. Intimate environments of a religious institution, somewhat of a home-like feeling in community gathering center, can equally impact a person, as can the internet and its vast informational influence. For the reason of contributing to understand the radicalization in the Global Village, this article will examine differences in online and in-person radicalization and illustrate it with some examples and attempt to make a comparison between two different exposures to information and its effects on young individuals.

  13. Isoprene, sulphoxy radical-anions and acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Rudziński

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of isoprene coupled with autoxidation of SIV in aqueous solutions was studied experimentally and by chemical-kinetic modelling over broad range of solution acidities (pH=3–9 to complement the research on aqueous-phase and heterogeneous transformation of isoprene reported recently by many laboratories. Isoprene significantly slowed down the autoxidation in acidic and basic solutions, and accelerated it slightly in neutral solutions. Simultaneously, production of sulphate ions and formation of solution acidity were significantly reduced. Formation of sulphite and sulphate derivatives of isoprene – sulphurous acid mono-(2-methyl-4-oxo-but-2-enyl ester (m/z=162.9, sulphurous acid mono-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl ester (m/z=164.9, sulphuric acid mono-(2-methyl-4-oxo-but-2-enyl ester (m/z=178.9, sulphuric acid mono-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl ester (m/z=180.9 – was indicated by mass spectroscopic analysis of post-reaction mixtures. The results of experiments were explained by changes in a subtle quantitative balance of three superimposed processes whose rates depended in different manner on the acidity of reacting solutions – the scavenging of sulphoxy radicals by isoprene, the formation of sulphoxy radicals during further reactions of isoprene radicals, and the autoxidation of SIV itself. A chemical mechanism based on this idea was explored numerically to show good agreement with experimental data. Interaction of isoprene with sulphur(IV species and oxygen can possibly result in formation of new organosulphate components of atmospheric aerosols and waters, and influence distribution of reactive sulphur and oxygen species in isoprene-emitting organisms exposed to SIV pollutants.

  14. Key contributors: Ernst von Glasersfeld's radical constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2007-07-01

    This article reviews the significance of the contributions of Ernst von Glasersfeld to research in science education, especially through his theoretical contributions on radical constructivism. As a field shaper, Glasersfeld's subversive ideas catalyzed debate in the science education community and fuelled transformation of many facets including research methods, ways of thinking about teaching and learning, curriculum, and science teacher education. Perturbations emanating from the debates on constructivism forged new pathways that led to the development and use of many of the sociocultural frameworks employed by authors in Cultural Studies of Science Education.

  15. [URINARY DISCOMFORTS IN PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V

    2015-01-01

    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment.

  16. Autoethnographic Mother-Writing: Advocating Radical Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty Sotirin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In considering the similarities between "momoirs"--popular memoirs written by mothers about motherhood experiences--and evocative autoethnographic mother-writing, I argue that differentiating these two forms of intimate observation and personal narrative requires a rethinking of autoethnographic practice. Specifically, I draw on the work of Gilles Deleuze to advocate for a radical specificity in autoethnographic writing. Thinking the autoethnographic narrative in terms of specificities and differences encourages us to think creatively about personal experiences and cultural relations beyond what is shared and communicable.

  17. Radical Nature of C-Lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstis, Laura; Elder, Thomas; Crowley, Michael; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-10-03

    The recently discovered lignin composed of caffeoyl alcohol monolignols or C-lignin is particularly intriguing given its homogeneous, linear polymeric structure and exclusive benzodioxane linkage between monomers. By virtue of this simplified chemistry, the potential emerges for improved valorization strategies with C-lignin relative to other natural heterogeneous lignins. To better understand caffeoyl alcohol polymers, we characterize the thermodynamics of the radical recombination dimerization reactions forming the benzodioxane linkage and the bond dissociation into radical monolignol products. These properties are also predicted for the cross-coupling of caffeoyl alcohol with the natural monolignols, coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and p-coumaryl alcohol, in anticipation of polymers potentially enabled by genetic modification. The average BDEs for the C-lignin benzodioxane ..alpha..- and ..beta..-bonds are 56.5 and 63.4 kcal/mol, respectively, with similar enthalpies for heterodimers. The BDE of the ..alpha..-bond within the benzodioxane linkage is consistently greater than that of the ..beta..-bond in all dimers of each stereochemical arrangement, explained by the ability the ..alpha..-carbon radical generated to delocalize onto the adjacent phenyl ring. Relative thermodynamics of the heterodimers demonstrates that the substituents on the phenyl ring directly neighboring the bond coupling the monolignols more strongly impact the dimer bond strengths and product stability, compared to the substituents present on the terminal phenyl ring. Enthalpy comparisons furthermore demonstrate that the erythro stereochemical configurations of the benzodioxane bond are slightly less thermodynamically stable than the threo configurations. The overall differences in strength of bonds and reaction enthalpies between stereoisomers are generally found to be insignificant, supporting that postcoupling rearomatization is under kinetic control. Projecting the lowest

  18. Rehabilitation of erectile function following radical prostatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew R. McCullough

    2008-01-01

    The concept of muscle rehabilitation after nerve injury is not a novel idea and is practiced in many branches of medicine, including urology. Bladder rehabilitation after spinal cord injury is universally practiced. The erectile dysfunction (ED) experienced after radical prostatectomy (RP) is increasingly recognized as being primarily neurogenic followed by secondary penile smooth muscle (SM) changes. There is unfortunately no standard approach to penile rehabilitation after RP because controlled prospective human studies are not available. This article reviews the epidemiology, experimental pathophysiological models, rationale for penile rehabilitation, and currently published rehabilitation strategies.

  19. Superzoom. Italia y el compromiso radical

    OpenAIRE

    Parga Prado, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Italy: the new domestic landscape, la ambiciosa exposición que en 1972 tuvo lugar en el MoMA, supone la consagración y a la vez escenifica la muerte de lo que algunos críticos acababan de catalogar como Arquitectura Radical, término con el que intentaban unificar el trabajo de un heterogéneo y atomizado grupo de arquitectos, principalmente italianos, comprometidos con el replanteamiento total de la definición y objetivos de la disciplina. Se ponía fin así a un corto pero intenso periodo d...

  20. Resonance Raman study of benzyl radical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, F.W.; Bajdor, K.; Wilbrandt, R.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved resonance Raman spectra are obtained of benzyl radicals created by laser flash photolysis of benzylchloride and diphenylacetone in solution. The spectra are obtained in resonance with the intense 2 2A2-1 B-2(2) transition of benzyl. The strong Raman bands are assigned to totally...... symmetric a1 modes. The remaining observed bands are tentatively assigned to fundamental modes of b1, a2, and b2 symmetry, and to overtones and combinations. The resonance Raman spectra are found to be quite different from previous fluorescence spectra of benzyl, and the origins of these differences are...

  1. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  2. Lipid radicals: Properties and detection by spin trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsaturated lipids are rapidly oxidized to toxic products such as lipid hydroperoxides, especially when transition metals such as iron or copper are present. In a Fenton-type reaction Fe2+ converts lipid hydroperoxides to the very short-lived lipid alkoxyl radicals. The reaction was started upon the addition of Fe2+ to an aqueous linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LOOH) emulsion and the spin trap in the absence of oxygen. Even when high concentrations of spin traps were added to the incubation mixture, only secondary radical adducts were detected, probably due to the rapid rearrangement of the primary alkoxyl radicals. With the commercially available nitroso spin trap MNP we observed a slightly immobilized ESR spectrum with only one hydrogen splitting, indicating the trapping of a methinyl fragment of a lipid radical. With DMPO or 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DEPMPO) adducts were detected with carbon-centered lipid radical, with acyl radical, and with the hydroxyl radical. We also synthesized lipophilic derivatives of the spin trap DEPMPO in order to detect lipid radical species generated in the lipid phase. With all spin traps studied a lipid-derived carbon-centered radical was obtained in the anaerobic incubation system Fe2+/LOOH indicating the trapping of a lipid radical, possibly generated as a secondary reaction product of the primary lipid alkoxyl radical formed. Under aerobic conditions an SOD-insensitive oxygen-centered radical adduct was formed with DEPMPO and its lipophilic derivatives. The observed ESR parameters were similar to those of alkoxyl radical adducts, which were independently synthesized in model experiments using Fe3+-catalyzed nucleophilic addition of methanol or t-butanol to the respective spin trap. (author)

  3. Peroxyl radical reactions with carotenoids in microemulsions: Influence of microemulsion composition and the nature of peroxyl radical precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Agamey, Ali; McGarvey, David J

    2016-01-01

    The reactions of acetylperoxyl radicals with different carotenoids (7,7'-dihydro-β-carotene and ζ-carotene) in SDS and CTAC microemulsions of different compositions were investigated using laser flash photolysis (LFP) coupled with kinetic absorption spectroscopy. The primary objective of this study was to explore the influence of microemulsion composition and the type of surfactant used on the yields and kinetics of various transients formed from the reaction of acetylperoxyl radicals with carotenoids. Also, the influence of the site (hydrocarbon phases or aqueous phase) of generation of the peroxyl radical precursor was examined by using 4-acetyl-4-phenylpiperidine hydrochloride (APPHCl) and 1,1-diphenylacetone (11DPA) as water-soluble and lipid-soluble peroxyl radical precursors, respectively. LFP of peroxyl radical precursors with 7,7'-dihydro-β-carotene (77DH) in different microemulsions gives rise to the formation of three distinct transients namely addition radical (λmax=460 nm), near infrared transient1 (NIR, λmax=700 nm) and 7,7'-dihydro-β-carotene radical cation (77DH(•+), λmax=770 nm). In addition, for ζ-carotene (ZETA) two transients (near infrared transient1 (NIR1, λmax=660 nm) and ζ-carotene radical cation (ZETA(•+), λmax=730-740 nm)) are generated following LFP of peroxyl radical precursors in the presence of ζ-carotene (ZETA) in different microemulsions. The results show that the composition of the microemulsion strongly influences the observed yield and kinetics of the transients formed from the reactions of peroxyl radicals (acetylperoxyl radicals) with carotenoids (77DH and ZETA). Also, the type of surfactant used in the microemulsions influences the yield of the transients formed. The dependence of the transient yields and kinetics on microemulsion composition (or the type of surfactant used in the microemulsion) can be attributed to the change of the polarity of the microenvironment of the carotenoid. Furthermore, the nature of

  4. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for the study of ascorbyl radical and lipid radicals in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Paula Mariela; Aguiar, María Belén; Malanga, Gabriela; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-08-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy detects the presence of radicals of biological interest, such as ascorbyl radical (A(•)) and lipid radicals. A(•) is easily detectable by EPR even in aqueous solution at room-temperature. Under oxidative conditions leading to changes in total ascorbate (AH(-)) content, the A(•)/AH(-) ratio could be used to estimate early oxidative stress in the hydrophilic milieu. This methodology was applied to a wide range of aquatic systems including algae, sea urchin, limpets, bivalves and fish, under physiological and oxidative stress conditions as well. The A(•)/AH(-) ratio reflected the state of one part of the oxidative defense system and provided an early and simple diagnosis of environmental stressing conditions. Oxidative damage to lipids was assessed by the EPR-sensitive adduct formation that correlates well with cell membrane damage with no interference from other biological compounds. Probe instability, tissue metabolism, and lack of spin specificity are drawback factors for employing EPR for in vivo determination of free radicals. However, the dependability of this technique, mostly by combining it with other biochemical strategies, enhances the value of these procedures as contributors to the knowledge of oxidative condition in aquatic organisms. PMID:23485428

  5. European radicals and the 'Third World’: imagined solidarities and radical networks, 1958-1973

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gildea; J. Mark; N. Pas

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of Third Worldism/tiersmondisme as a source of inspiration for European radicals on both sides of the Iron Curtain 1958-73, focusing on the cases of France, the Netherlands and Hungary. Using both oral history and archival material, it considers the decline of d

  6. Radical Reform Within a Liberal and Democratic Framework? Rawls and the Radical Critique of Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, John F.

    1981-01-01

    The radical critique of American education portrays the schools as perpetuators of ethnic, social, and racial inequalities because they do not alter existing class relations. John Rawls' theory of social justice is discussed as an alternative approach to this situation that remains firmly grounded in the liberal tradition. (PP)

  7. Fast beam studies of free radical photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyr, D R [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The photodissociation of free radicals is studied in order to characterize the spectroscopy and dissociation dynamics of the dissociative electronic states in these species. To accomplish this, a novel method of radical production, based on the photodetachment of the corresponding negative ion, has been combined with a highly complementary form of photofragment translational spectroscopy. The optical spectroscopy of transitions to dissociative states is determined by monitoring the total photofragment yield as a function of dissociation photon energy. Branching ratios to various product channels, internal energy distributions of the fragments, bond dissociation energies, and the translational energy-dependent photofragment recoil angular distributions are then determined at selected excitation energies. A detailed picture of the dissociation dynamics can then be formulated, allowing insight concerning the interactions of potential energy surfaces involved in the dissociation. After an introduction to the concepts and techniques mentioned above, the experimental apparatus used in these experiments is described in detail. The basis and methods used in the treatment of data, especially in the dissociation dynamics experiments, are then put forward.

  8. Free radical facilitated damage of ungual keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khengar, Rajeshree H; Brown, Marc B; Turner, Rob B; Traynor, Matthew J; Holt, Katherine B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-09-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) are thought to disrupt alpha-keratin disulfide links in the nail. However, optimal clinical use of these agents to improve the treatment of nail disorders is currently hindered by a lack of fundamental data to support their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how the redox environment of ungual keratin, when manipulated by TA and urea H(2)O(2), influenced the properties of the nail barrier. Potentiometric and voltammetric measurements demonstrated that urea H(2)O(2) obeyed the Nernst equation for a proton coupled one-electron transfer redox process while TA underwent a series of redox reactions that was complicated by electrode adsorption and dimer formation. The functional studies demonstrated that nail permeability, measured through TBF penetration (38.51+/-10.94 microg/cm(2)/h) and nail swelling (244.10+/-14.99% weight increase), was greatest when relatively low concentrations of the thiolate ion were present in the applied solution. Limiting the thiolate ion to low levels in the solution retards thiolate dimerisation and generates thiyl free radicals. It appeared that this free radical generation was fundamental in facilitating the redox-mediated keratin disruption of the ungual membrane. PMID:20550963

  9. Radical cystectomy: Analysis of postoperative course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Dimitrije

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Radical cystectomy is a method of choice in the therapy of infiltrative bladder cancer. The aim of this research was to analyze postoperative course after radical cystectomy (length of hospitalization, most frequent complications and utilization of antibiotics and transfusions. Methods. We analyzed the records of 82 patients operated on in the Department of Urology, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, in a three-year period. In order to aquire data World Health Organization (WHO has developed Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD methodology. Defined daily dose (DDD is the assumed average maintenance dose per day for a drug use for its main indication. Results. Continent urinary derivation was preformed in 23.15% cases. Postoperative complications occurred in 18.29% of patients. Average blood utilization was 2.19 units. Blood utilization for continent derivations (n = 48 was 4.6 units, and incontinent ones 3.36 units. Totally 159.33 DDD/100 bed days were used. Conclusion. When preforming continent derivation there is a significant increase in blood utilization. Frequency of postoperative complications correlates to those reported in the literature.

  10. Free radical facilitated damage of ungual keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khengar, Rajeshree H; Brown, Marc B; Turner, Rob B; Traynor, Matthew J; Holt, Katherine B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-09-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) are thought to disrupt alpha-keratin disulfide links in the nail. However, optimal clinical use of these agents to improve the treatment of nail disorders is currently hindered by a lack of fundamental data to support their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how the redox environment of ungual keratin, when manipulated by TA and urea H(2)O(2), influenced the properties of the nail barrier. Potentiometric and voltammetric measurements demonstrated that urea H(2)O(2) obeyed the Nernst equation for a proton coupled one-electron transfer redox process while TA underwent a series of redox reactions that was complicated by electrode adsorption and dimer formation. The functional studies demonstrated that nail permeability, measured through TBF penetration (38.51+/-10.94 microg/cm(2)/h) and nail swelling (244.10+/-14.99% weight increase), was greatest when relatively low concentrations of the thiolate ion were present in the applied solution. Limiting the thiolate ion to low levels in the solution retards thiolate dimerisation and generates thiyl free radicals. It appeared that this free radical generation was fundamental in facilitating the redox-mediated keratin disruption of the ungual membrane.

  11. Modeling Radicalization Phenomena in Heterogeneous Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Galam, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of radicalization is investigated within an heterogeneous population composed of a core subpopulation, sharing a way of life locally rooted, and a recently immigrated subpopulation of different origins with ways of life which can be partly in conflict with the local one. While core agents are embedded in the country prominent culture and identity, they are not likely to modify their way of life, which make them naturally inflexible about it. On the opposite, the new comers can either decide to live peacefully with the core people adapting their way of life, or to keep strictly on their way and oppose the core population, leading eventually to criminal activities. To study the corresponding dynamics of radicalization we introduce a 3-state agent model with a proportion of inflexible agents and a proportion of flexible ones, which can be either peaceful or opponent. Assuming agents interact via weighted pairs within a Lotka-Volterra like Ordinary Differential Equation framework, the problem is an...

  12. Free Radicals and Extrinsic Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Poljšak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is constantly directly exposed to the air, solar radiation, environmental pollutants, or other mechanical and chemical insults, which are capable of inducing the generation of free radicals as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS of our own metabolism. Extrinsic skin damage develops due to several factors: ionizing radiation, severe physical and psychological stress, alcohol intake, poor nutrition, overeating, environmental pollution, and exposure to UV radiation (UVR. It is estimated that among all these environmental factors, UVR contributes up to 80%. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin develops oxidative stress, when their formation exceeds the antioxidant defence ability of the target cell. The primary mechanism by which UVR initiates molecular responses in human skin is via photochemical generation of ROS mainly formation of superoxide anion (O2−•, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, hydroxyl radical (OH•, and singlet oxygen (1O2. The only protection of our skin is in its endogenous protection (melanin and enzymatic antioxidants and antioxidants we consume from the food (vitamin A, C, E, etc.. The most important strategy to reduce the risk of sun UVR damage is to avoid the sun exposure and the use of sunscreens. The next step is the use of exogenous antioxidants orally or by topical application and interventions in preventing oxidative stress and in enhanced DNA repair.

  13. Fast beam studies of free radical photodissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photodissociation of free radicals is studied in order to characterize the spectroscopy and dissociation dynamics of the dissociative electronic states in these species. To accomplish this, a novel method of radical production, based on the photodetachment of the corresponding negative ion, has been combined with a highly complementary form of photofragment translational spectroscopy. The optical spectroscopy of transitions to dissociative states is determined by monitoring the total photofragment yield as a function of dissociation photon energy. Branching ratios to various product channels, internal energy distributions of the fragments, bond dissociation energies, and the translational energy-dependent photofragment recoil angular distributions are then determined at selected excitation energies. A detailed picture of the dissociation dynamics can then be formulated, allowing insight concerning the interactions of potential energy surfaces involved in the dissociation. After an introduction to the concepts and techniques mentioned above, the experimental apparatus used in these experiments is described in detail. The basis and methods used in the treatment of data, especially in the dissociation dynamics experiments, are then put forward

  14. Hegel’s Gesture Towards Radical Cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Brincat

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary argument of a much larger research project inquiring into the relation betweenHegel’s philosophical system and the project of emancipation in Critical International Relations Theory. Specifically, the paper examines how Hegel’s theory of recognition gestures towards a form of radical cosmopolitanism in world politics to ensure the conditions of rational freedom for all humankind. Much of the paper is a ground-clearing exercise defining what is ‘living’ in Hegel’s thought for emancipatory approaches in world politics, to borrow from Croce’s now famous question. It focuses on Hegel’s unique concept of freedom which places recognition as central in the formation of self-consciousness and therefore as a key determinant in the conditions necessary forhuman freedom to emerge in political community. While further research is needed to ascertain the precise relationship between Hegel’s recognition theoretic, emancipation and cosmopolitanism, it is contended that the intersubjective basis of Hegel’s concept of freedom through recognition necessitates some form of radical cosmopolitanism that ensures successful processes of recognition between all peoples, the precise institutional form of which remains unspecified.

  15. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of the imidogen radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Gustavo A., E-mail: gustavo.garcia@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Gans, Bérenger [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Bât 210, Univ Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Tang, Xiaofeng [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ward, Michael; Batut, Sébastien [PC2A, Université de Lille 1, UMR CNRS-USTL 8522, Cité Scientifique Bât. C11, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Nahon, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fittschen, Christa [PC2A, Université de Lille 1, UMR CNRS-USTL 8522, Cité Scientifique Bât. C11, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Loison, Jean-Christophe [ISM, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    We present the threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of the imidogen radical (NH) recorded in the photon energy region up to 1 eV above its first ionization threshold. The radical was produced by reaction of NH{sub 3} and F in a microwave discharge flow-tube and photoionized using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. A double imaging coincidence spectrometer was used to record mass-selected spectra and avoid contributions from the byproducts present in the reactor and background gas. The energy region includes the ground X{sup +2}Π and first electronically excited a{sup +4}Σ{sup −} states of NH{sup +}. Strong adiabatic transitions and weak vibrational progressions up to v{sup +} = 2 are observed for both electronic states. The rotational profile seen in the origin band has been modeled using existing neutral and cationic spectroscopic constants leading to a precise determination of the adiabatic ionization energy at 13.480 ± 0.002 eV.

  16. Free radicals in synthetic and natural indigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Physics Department; Hewitt, D.J. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Chemistry Department; Picollo, M.; Casini, A. [Istituto di Ricerche sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Firenze (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    Full text: It has been suggested that ESR could be useful in identifying paint pigments in Medieval and Renaissance paintings, since most of the pigments are mineral. However, there are some plant pigments, such as indigo, which also give ESR signals. Indigo used to be made from two kinds of plants: the indigoferae, and isatis (woad): the indigo from the former was regarded as the more valuable. With the development of organic chemistry, it became possible to synthesise indigo in the late 19th century. Two samples, presumed synthesised, were obtained from two European suppliers, and a sample known to be prepared from a plant was kindly supplied by the National Gallery of Victoria. These were examined by ESR, using a Varian E-12 (X-band: {approx}9.1 GHz) spectrometer at room temperature. All samples showed a broad signal, and a very sharp (free radical) signal in the g=2 region. One of the presumed synthesised samples gave other signals as well, probably from transition metals. The highest free radical signal was from the plant sample. The stability of these signals is still under study, since `indigo` also contains unoxidised, pale yellow, leuco-indigo

  17. EI igualitarismo radical de John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Zepeda, Jesús

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to offer an interpretation of the canonical statement of justice as fairness (A Theory of Justice as a deeply egalitarian, even radical, argument. In order to do so, the categories of justice as fairness strongly related to the egalitarian and distributive meaning of the rawlsian liberal model and, specifically, those aimed to solve the problem of social justice, are accurately revised, namely, the fair equality of opportunity and the difference principle. The paper evaluates the relative weight of each of these categories in the rawlsian argument for social and economic equality.

    El objetivo central de este texto es interpretar la enunciación canónica de la justicia como imparcialidad (la de Una Teoría de la Justicia como un argumento profundamente igualitarista, incluso radical. Para ello concede especial atención a las categorías de la justicia como imparcialidad que proporcionan las señas de identidad igualitaria a su modelo liberal y, en particular, a aquellas que pretenden ofrecer una solución a los problemas de la llamada justicia social como la justa igualdad de oportunidades y el principio de diferencia. El artículo evalúa el peso relativo de cada una de estas categorías en la construcción del argumento rawlsiano a favor de la igualdad social y económica.

  18. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illés, Erzsébet, E-mail: erzsebet.illes@chem.u-szeged.hu [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Takács, Erzsébet [Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Dombi, András [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Rácz, Gergely; Gonter, Katalin; Wojnárovits, László [Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-03-01

    Pulse radiolysis experiments were used to characterize the intermediates formed from ibuprofen during electron beam irradiation in a solution of 0.1 mmol dm{sup −3}. For end product characterization {sup 60}Co γ-irradiation was used and the samples were evaluated either by taking their UV–vis spectra or by HPLC with UV or MS detection. The reactions of {sup ·}OH resulted in hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical intermediates. The intermediates produced in further reactions hydroxylated the derivatives of ibuprofen as final products. The hydrated electron attacked the carboxyl group. Ibuprofen degradation is more efficient under oxidative conditions than under reductive conditions. The ecotoxicity of the solution was monitored by Daphnia magna standard microbiotest and Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test. The toxic effect of the aerated ibuprofen solution first increased upon irradiation indicating a higher toxicity of the first degradation products, then decreased with increasing absorbed dose. Highlights: ► In hydroxyl radical attack on the ring mainly hydroxylated products form ► The hydrated electron attacks the carboxyl group. ► Oxidative conditions are more effective in ibuprofen decomposition than reductive. ► Ecotoxicity of ibuprofen solution first increases then decreases with irradiation.

  19. Analysis of radicals, radical precursors and chemical transformations for Houston/Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappenglück, Bernhard; Czader, Beata; Li, Xiangshang

    2015-04-01

    Air quality simulations were performed for the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area for springtime conditions in May and June of 2009. Meteorological parameters predicted by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, for which data assimilation with recursive objective analysis was performed, are well simulated most of the time. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by meteorology from WRF simulates ozone and many other trace species, including radical precursors such as HCHO and HONO, with a satisfactory agreement with observations. While CMAQ satisfactorily captures the daily variations of the OH radical, it sometimes underestimates its high daytime values. Concentrations of HO2 are often underpredicted in polluted air masses and persistently severely underpredicted at low NOx conditions, when the Houston air is affected bymarine air masses. In contrast, concentrations of H2O2 and CH3OOHare almost always overpredicted by the model, the overprediction occurs frequently in the polluted air and occurs always when marine air is encountered. Those mispredictions are consistent despite day-to-day variations in meteorological conditions and emissions and bring into question current representation of radical-related chemistry in the model as radical production and recirculation in the model is overtaken by termination processes and creation ofmore stable compounds, such asH2O2 and CH3OOH. Smaller model biases of H2O2 and peroxides are associated with lower humidity. The relative importance of various photolysis processes as radical sources in the Houston atmosphere was also elucidated. Morning HOx formation is dominated by HONO while ozone contributes the most during midday. HONO contribution to HOx formation is more pronounced at the surface layer where most of it is formed, radical production from ozone is more important at elevated levels where higher concentrations of ozone are observed. Formaldehyde contributes up to 40% and also peaks during midday

  20. Spin polarization transfer by the radical pair mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarea, Mehdi, E-mail: m-zarea@northwestern.edu; Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

    2015-08-07

    In a three-site representation, we study a spin polarization transfer from radical pair spins to a nearby electron or nuclear spin. The quantum dynamics of the radical pair spins is governed by a constant exchange interaction between the radical pair spins which have different Zeeman frequencies. Radical pair spins can recombine to the singlet ground state or to lower energy triplet states. It is then shown that the coherent dynamics of the radical pair induces spin polarization on the nearby third spin in the presence of a magnetic field. The spin polarization transfer depends on the difference between Zeeman frequencies, the singlet and triplet recombination rates, and on the exchange and dipole-dipole interactions between the different spins. In particular, the sign of the polarization depends on the exchange coupling between radical pair spins and also on the difference between singlet and triplet recombination rate constants.

  1. Radical Israeli settlers: ultimate concerns, political goals and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Peste

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is the radical and activist parts of the wider Israeli settler community on the West Bank. This Radical Israeli Settler Movement should not be confused with the general settler community in the West Bank, even if the more radical groups often recruit their members from the general settler community. The Radical Israeli Settler Movement today includes groups such as Kach, The Committee for Safety on the Roads and The Jewish Legion. The purpose of this article is to analyse some instances of violence in the radical Israeli settler movement and to identify recurring features and processes in this violence. It will be argued that these features and processes are important factors in understanding why certain movements use violence. It will also be argued that future comparative studies are needed, which include other contexts where similar radical movements have become violent, in order to develop a general theory of ethno-religious movements using political violence.

  2. Measurements of hydroxyl and hydroperoxy radicals during CalNex-LA: Model comparisons and radical budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, S. M.; Hansen, R. F.; Dusanter, S.; Michoud, V.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Veres, P. R.; Graus, M.; Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J.; Young, C.; Washenfelder, R.; Brown, S. S.; Thalman, R.; Waxman, E.; Volkamer, R.; Tsai, C.; Stutz, J.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Mielke, L. H.; Osthoff, H. D.; Stevens, P. S.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2*) radical concentrations were made at the Pasadena ground site during the CalNex-LA 2010 campaign using the laser-induced fluorescence-fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique. The measured concentrations of OH and HO2* exhibited a distinct weekend effect, with higher radical concentrations observed on the weekends corresponding to lower levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The radical measurements were compared to results from a zero-dimensional model using the Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism-2 constrained by NOx and other measured trace gases. The chemical model overpredicted measured OH concentrations during the weekends by a factor of approximately 1.4 ± 0.3 (1σ), but the agreement was better during the weekdays (ratio of 1.0 ± 0.2). Model predicted HO2* concentrations underpredicted by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.2 on the weekends, while measured weekday concentrations were underpredicted by a factor of 3.0 ± 0.5. However, increasing the modeled OH reactivity to match the measured total OH reactivity improved the overall agreement for both OH and HO2* on all days. A radical budget analysis suggests that photolysis of carbonyls and formaldehyde together accounted for approximately 40% of radical initiation with photolysis of nitrous acid accounting for 30% at the measurement height and ozone photolysis contributing less than 20%. An analysis of the ozone production sensitivity reveals that during the week, ozone production was limited by volatile organic compounds throughout the day during the campaign but NOx limited during the afternoon on the weekends.

  3. Free radical-mediated activation of hydrazine derivatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanaraman, B.; Sinha, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrazines are known to undergo oxidative activation in several enzymatic systems in vitro. Free radicals or carbonium ions have been proposed as active intermediates during such activation. The toxic effects elicited by hydrazines have also been linked to free radical-mediated activation. In this report, we have reviewed the identification of organic free radicals from hydrazines by direct ESR and ESR-spin trapping.

  4. In vivo detection of radicals in biological reactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Chance, B; G. Gao

    1994-01-01

    In vivo detection of free radicals on a quantitative basis is essential for an establishment of their role in membrane, protein, and cell and tissue damage. This article compares optical methods, including chemiluminescence, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and NMR methods for the study of free radicals and free radical damage, especially reperfusion injury neutrophil accumulation 6 hr after the ischemia/reperfusion insult. The chemiluminescence method is applied to an evaluation of the ...

  5. Management of rectal injury during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Octavio A.; Elias Bodden; Gonzalo Vitagliano

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Because laparoscopic radical prostatectomy remains a challenging procedure, rectal injury is always a potential complication. We review the incidence of rectal injuries at our institution in the first 110 consecutive laparoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine (8%) out of the first 110 laparoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomies performed between December 2001 and February 2004, were complicated by rectal injury. Mean patient age was 64....

  6. [Radicalism and feminism: The case of Poulain de la Barre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Frédérique

    2015-12-01

    Early modern radicalism and its criteria are described and defined by Jonathan Israel in various works. Poulain de la Barre, one of the first modern feminist thinkers, first is used by Israel as an example of the so-called radical Enlightenment and finally is rejected as such. This case study exhibed the necessity of questionning the coherence of the required criteria for defining a « radical » thinker, especially when examinating carefully the last paragraph of Spinoza's Political Treatise.

  7. Radicals generated from 2-chloro-5-fluorotoluene by corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Eun Hye; Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2014-06-01

    The generation of molecular radicals in corona discharge was investigated spectroscopically by varying the experimental conditions applied to a substituted toluene precursor. Vibronic emission spectra were observed from the corona discharge of 2-chloro-5-fluorotoluene seeded in a large amount of carrier gas helium. From an analysis of emission spectra observed, it was confirmed that bond dissociation energy plays a key role in radical formation. The possible pathway for the formation of benzyl-type radicals is proposed to explain the observation.

  8. [Radicalism and feminism: The case of Poulain de la Barre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Frédérique

    2015-12-01

    Early modern radicalism and its criteria are described and defined by Jonathan Israel in various works. Poulain de la Barre, one of the first modern feminist thinkers, first is used by Israel as an example of the so-called radical Enlightenment and finally is rejected as such. This case study exhibed the necessity of questionning the coherence of the required criteria for defining a « radical » thinker, especially when examinating carefully the last paragraph of Spinoza's Political Treatise. PMID:26746644

  9. Theoretical Investigation on Radical-Coupling Reactivity of Indolinonic Aminoxyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Indolinonic aminoxyls can effectively scavenge various radicals by directly coupling with them or by imitating superoxide dismutase. To better understand the radical-coupling reactions, DFT method B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) was employed to calculate variations of free energy for the coupling reactions and other physico-chemical parameters. The radical-coupling activity difference between aminoxyls was elucidated to a large extent in terms of electronic properties of substituents.

  10. New reagents for detecting free radicals and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar Amiri Olia, Mina; Schiesser, Carl H; Taylor, Michelle K

    2014-09-21

    Free radicals and oxidative stress play important roles in the deterioration of materials, and free radicals are important intermediates in many biological processes. The ability to detect these reactive species is a key step on the road to their understanding and ultimate control. This short review highlights recent progress in the development of reagents for the detection of free radicals and reactive oxygen species with broad application to materials science as well as biology.

  11. Positive Effect of Propolis on Free Radicals in Burn Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Pawel Olczyk; Pawel Ramos; Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev; Jerzy Stojko; Barbara Pilawa

    2013-01-01

    Concentration and properties of free radicals in the burn wounds treated with propolis were examined by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magnetic spin-spin interactions and complex free radicals structures in wound beds were studied. The results were compared to those obtained for silver sulphadiazine used as a standard pharmaceutical agent. The changes of free radicals in the matrix of injury with time of exposition on these substances were tested. The aim of this stu...

  12. The Serbian Radical movement 1881-1903: A historical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Milan St

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the initial stage (until 1903 of the Serbian Radical movement the paper attempts to delineate and explicate the main phases of its political maturation. In its initial stage Serbian Radicalism passed through several significant phases. The earliest phase (1869-80 may be named the period of rudimentary Radicalism. The movement was unorganized and oscillated between the ideas of socialism, anarchism and peasant democracy. The year 1881 saw the founding of the Radical Party as the first organized political party in Serbia with its own internal structure and programme. It opened the second phase, known as a period of militant Radicalism (1881-86 marked by its organized and uncompromising opposition to the existing system and the personal regime of king Milan Obrenović, culminating in the Timok rebellion in 1883. The period of pragmatic Radicalism (1886-94 saw a recuperation and reorganization of the movement, its inclusion as a legitimate political force into the existing order, the passing in 1888 of a new constitution predominantly influenced by Radical political views and the Party’s first compromises with other factors on the domestic political scene. Finally, there was a period of overpowered Radicalism (1894-1903. Without abandoning their fundamental ideological tenets, the Radicals were forced to make some serious political compromises and moderate their political programme in order to remain in the race for power.

  13. Processing Chinese hand-radicals activates the medial frontal gyrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Lin Wu; Yu-Chen Chan; Joseph P. Lavallee; Hsueh-Chin Chen; Kuo-En Chang; Yao-Ting Sung

    2013-01-01

    Embodied semantics theory asserts that the meaning of action-related words is neural y represented through networks that overlap with or are identical to networks involved in sory-motor processing. While some studies supporting this theory have focused on Chinese cha-racters, less attention has been paid to their semantic radicals. Indeed, there is stil disagreement about whether these radicals are processed independently. The present study investigated whether radicals are processed separately and, if so, whether this processing occurs in sensory-motor gions. Materials consisted of 72 high-frequency Chinese characters, with 18 in each of four ries:hand-action verbs with and without hand-radicals, and verbs not related to hand actions, with and without hand-radicals. Twenty-eight participants underwent functional MRI scans while reading the characters. Compared to characters without hand-radicals, reading characters with hand-radicals activated the right medial frontal gyrus. Verbs involving hand-action activated the left inferior parietal lobule, possibly reflecting integration of information in the radical with the semantic meaning of the verb. The findings may be consistent with embodied semantics theory and suggest that neural representation of radicals is indispensable in processing Chinese characters.

  14. ESR STUDY OF FREE RADICALS IN IRRADIATED POLYAMIDE- 1010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Maotang; ZHANG Lihua; LIU Yayan; CHEN Donglin

    1993-01-01

    Polyamide-1010 samples were irradiated in vacuum at room temperature by Cobalt-60γ-rays. The free radicals formed in irradiation were studied by means of electron spin resonance (ESR)techniques. The ESR spectra consisted of a quartet and a superimposed singlet whichwere attributed to radical - CO - NH - CH - CH2 and - CH2 - C = O, respectively. The effects of temperature and crystallinity on the radicals were discussed and the mechanism for the production and decay of the radicals was also proposed.

  15. In situ generation and detection of methyl radical by voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In persulfate-acetate, dimethyl sulfoxide or tert-butyl alcohol systems, in situ generation and detection of methyl free radical are realized with voltammetry. It includes the following successive processes. The persulfate S2O82- is polarographically reduced via one-electron addition to sulfate radical SO4-., the SO4-. Initiates chain reaction with acetate, dimethyl sulfoxide, or tert-butyl alcohol on the electrode surface to produce a methyl radical, and one-electron reduction of the methyl radical yields its polarographic reduction wave. In comparison with the known techniques such as ultraviolet radiolysis coupling with electron spin resonance, etc., the proposed method is simple, sensitive and selective.

  16. Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos Alivizatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy remains the treatment of choice for localized prostate cancer in age-appropriate and health-appropriate men. Although cancer control is the most important aspect of a radical prostatectomy, minimization of postoperative morbidity, especially urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, is becoming a greater concern. We reviewed recent data available on Medline regarding the incidence, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of incontinence and sexual dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. Health-related quality of life issues have been specifically addressed. Although low incidences of incontinence and erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy have been reported in the hands of experienced surgeons, the literature review revealed a great variety, with incontinence rates ranging from 0.3–65.6% and potency rates ranging from 11–87%. Several factors contribute to this wide difference, the most important being the application of a meticulous surgical technique. General and cancer-specific health-related quality of life is not being affected after radical prostatectomy. The incidence of incontinence and erectile dysfunction is higher after radical prostatectomy when compared to the incidence observed when other therapies for localized prostate cancer are applied. However, the majority of the patients undergoing radical prostatectomy would vote for the operation again. Today, avoidance of major complications after radical prostatectomy depends mostly on a high-quality surgical technique. When incontinence or erectile dysfunction persists after radical prostatectomy, the majority of the treated patients can be managed effectively by various methods.

  17. Leghemoglobin-derived radicals. Evidence for multiple protein-derived radicals and the initiation of peribacteroid membrane damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, S; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Mathieu, C;

    1996-01-01

    Reaction of H2O2 with ferric leghemoglobin (metLb, the monomeric, oxygen-carrying, heme protein from root nodules of nitrogen-fixing plants) has been previously shown to generate an iron(IV)-oxo (ferryl) species and at least one protein radical. The latter has been suggested to be a tyrosine......-derived phenoxyl radical present at Tyr-133 in the soybean protein and Tyr-138 in the lupin protein. To obtain further information on these protein radicals and their potential interaction with the physiologically important peribacteroid membrane (which surrounds the microsymbiont in vivo), EPR spin trapping...... studies have been carried out with soybean metLb. Evidence has been obtained for at least two additional protein-derived radicals in addition to the phenoxyl radical; these radicals are transient and reactive in nature. These species are carbon-centered, and at least one is a tertiary species (.CR1R2R3...

  18. Convenient one-pot synthesis of 2,5-anhydro-3,4,6-tri-O-benzoyl-D-(1-/sup 14/C)allononitrile, and its conversion to methyl 2-. beta. -D-ribofuranosyl-4-(2-/sup 14/C)selenazolecarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, P.W.K.

    1988-10-01

    Reaction of 1-0-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-..beta..-D-ribofuranose with (/sup 14/C)cyanotrimethylsilane, generated in situ by reaction of potassium (/sup 14/C)cyanide and chloro-trimethylsilane in the presence of sodium iodide and 2,6-lutidine, gave 2,5-anhydro-3,4,6-tri-O-benzoyl-D-(1-/sup 14/C)allononitrile. Sequential reaction of the latter with hydrogen selenide, ethyl bromopyruvate, and methanolic sodium methoxide gave methyl ..beta..-D-ribofuranosyl-4-(2-/sup 14/C)selenazolcarboxylate, the penultimate precursor to (2-/sup 14/C)CI-935, or 2-..beta..-D-ribofuranosyl-4-(2-/sup 14/C)selenazolecarboxamide.

  19. Channeling the SmI₂ reactions to the radical path: radicals resisting reduction by SmI₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yella, Ramesh; Hoz, Shmaryahu

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the reaction of 4-(2,2-diphenylvinyl)pyridine with SmI2 revealed that the intermediate radical strongly resists further reduction to the corresponding anion. The resistance of the radical to accepting another electron is traced to its stabilization by the nitrogen lone pair. The literature suggests that oxygen may also play a role similar to that of nitrogen in directing the course of the reaction toward radical rather than to anionic chemistry.

  20. The thermal decomposition of the benzyl radical in a heated micro-reactor. II. Pyrolysis of the tropyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Grant T.; Porterfield, Jessica P.; Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Ahmed, Musahid; Robichaud, David J.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Daily, John W.; Ellison, G. Barney

    2016-07-01

    Cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical, C7H7, was cleanly produced in the gas-phase, entrained in He or Ne carrier gas, and subjected to a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from C7H7 were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the micro-reactor were roughly 200 Torr and residence times were approximately 100 μs. Thermal cracking of tropyl radical begins at 1100 K and the products from pyrolysis of C7H7 are only acetylene and cyclopentadienyl radicals. Tropyl radicals do not isomerize to benzyl radicals at reactor temperatures up to 1600 K. Heating samples of either cycloheptatriene or norbornadiene never produced tropyl (C7H7) radicals but rather only benzyl (C6H5CH2). The thermal decomposition of benzyl radicals has been reconsidered without participation of tropyl radicals. There are at least three distinct pathways for pyrolysis of benzyl radical: the Benson fragmentation, the methyl-phenyl radical, and the bridgehead norbornadienyl radical. These three pathways account for the majority of the products detected following pyrolysis of all of the isotopomers: C6H5CH2, C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H513CH2. Analysis of the temperature dependence for the pyrolysis of the isotopic species (C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H513CH2) suggests the Benson fragmentation and the norbornadienyl pathways open at reactor temperatures of 1300 K while the methyl-phenyl radical channel becomes active at slightly higher temperatures (1500 K).

  1. The thermal decomposition of the benzyl radical in a heated micro-reactor. II. Pyrolysis of the tropyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, Grant T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA; National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Porterfield, Jessica P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA; Kostko, Oleg [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Troy, Tyler P. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Ahmed, Musahid [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Robichaud, David J. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Nimlos, Mark R. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Daily, John W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Combustion and Environmental Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427, USA; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA

    2016-07-05

    Cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical, C7H7, was cleanly produced in the gas-phase, entrained in He or Ne carrier gas, and subjected to a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from C7H7 were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the micro-reactor were roughly 200 Torr and residence times were approximately 100 us. Thermal cracking of tropyl radical begins at 1100 K and the products from pyrolysis of C7H7 are only acetylene and cyclopentadienyl radicals. Tropyl radicals do not isomerize to benzyl radicals at reactor temperatures up to 1600 K. Heating samples of either cycloheptatriene or norbornadiene never produced tropyl (C7H7) radicals but rather only benzyl (C6H5CH2). The thermal decomposition of benzyl radicals has been reconsidered without participation of tropyl radicals. There are at least three distinct pathways for pyrolysis of benzyl radical: the Benson fragmentation, the methyl-phenyl radical, and the bridgehead norbornadienyl radical. These three pathways account for the majority of the products detected following pyrolysis of all of the isotopomers: C6H5CH2, C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5 13CH2. Analysis of the temperature dependence for the pyrolysis of the isotopic species (C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5 13CH2) suggests the Benson fragmentation and the norbornadienyl pathways open at reactor temperatures of 1300 K while the methyl-phenyl radical channel becomes active at slightly higher temperatures (1500 K).

  2. Synthesis and characterization of poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization, reverse atom transfer radical polymerization and radical polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhruba Jyoti Haloi; Bishnu Prasad Koiry; Prithwiraj Mandal; Nikhil Kumar Singha

    2013-07-01

    This investigation reports a comparative study of poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) and conventional free radical polymerization (FRP). The molecular weights and the molecular weight distributions of the polymers were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. Structural characterization of the polymers was carried out by 1H NMR and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. Thermal properties of the polymers were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The polymerization results and the thermal properties of PEHAs prepared via ATRP, RATRP and FRP were compared.

  3. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illés, Erzsébet; Takács, Erzsébet; Dombi, András; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Gonter, Katalin; Wojnárovits, László

    2013-03-01

    Pulse radiolysis experiments were used to characterize the intermediates formed from ibuprofen during electron beam irradiation in a solution of 0.1mmoldm(-3). For end product characterization (60)Co γ-irradiation was used and the samples were evaluated either by taking their UV-vis spectra or by HPLC with UV or MS detection. The reactions of OH resulted in hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical intermediates. The intermediates produced in further reactions hydroxylated the derivatives of ibuprofen as final products. The hydrated electron attacked the carboxyl group. Ibuprofen degradation is more efficient under oxidative conditions than under reductive conditions. The ecotoxicity of the solution was monitored by Daphnia magna standard microbiotest and Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test. The toxic effect of the aerated ibuprofen solution first increased upon irradiation indicating a higher toxicity of the first degradation products, then decreased with increasing absorbed dose.

  4. Interpersonal psychoanalysis' radical façade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Irwin

    2002-01-01

    The participant-observation model initiated the relational turn, as well as the shift from modernism to postmodernism in psychoanalysis. This two-person, coparticipant conceptualization of the psychoanalytic situation moved psychoanalysis from the realm of alleged objective science toward intersubjectivity and hermeneutics. From this perspective, the analyst as subjective other is constantly engaged affectively with the patient in ways that are very often out of awareness. Analyst and patient both, for better or for worse, are believed to unwittingly influence one another. This description of the analytic dyad has led many to mistakingly conclude that interpersonal psychoanalysts advocate wittinly affective expressiveness, often in the form of deliberate self-disclosure of feelings, as part of a standard analytic stance. Upon closer examination, radical interventions are no more emblematic of interpersonal analysts than they are of analysts from most other traditions, though the interpersonalists have indeed expanded what had theretofore been a rather narrow repertoire of interventions. PMID:12597105

  5. Spectroscopy, Kinetics, and Dynamics of Combustion Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesbitt, David J. [Research/Professor

    2013-08-06

    Spectroscopy, kinetics and dynamics of jet cooled hydrocarbon transients relevant to the DOE combustion mission have been explored, exploiting i) high resolution IR lasers, ii) slit discharge sources for formation of jet cooled radicals, and iii) high sensitivity detection with direct laser absorption methods and near the quantum shot noise limit. What makes this combination powerful is that such transients can be made under high concentrations and pressures characteristic of actual combustion conditions, and yet with the resulting species rapidly cooled (T ≈10-15K) in the slit supersonic expansion. Combined with the power of IR laser absorption methods, this provides novel access to spectral detection and study of many critical combustion species.

  6. Schoenberg and the Radical Economies of Harmonielehre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Dineen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Schoenberg’s Harmonielehre as a text shaped by the influence of Central European science and politics. In accord with a severely economical approach to his subject, Schoenberg’s critique of figured bass and chorale harmonization is compared with Ernst Mach’s writings on scientific method. In support of this comparison, the article addresses the role played in Schoenberg’s political development by the Leftist editor and organizer, David J. Bach, one of Schoenberg’s closest childhood friends and a student of Mach. The comparison between Schoenberg and Mach, then, is drawn not only in terms of scientific method but also in light of the radical politics of the Austrian Left at the time, a politics for which both Mach and Schoenberg held sympathies. It should not be overlooked that later, however, they ceased to acknowledge these sympathies explicitly, and Schoenberg would appear to have abandoned them entirely.

  7. Mechanisms of radical removal by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul

    2007-01-01

    It is well established from experiments in premixed, laminar flames, jet-stirred reactors, flow reactors, and batch reactors that SO2 acts to catalyze hydrogen atom removal at stoichiometric and reducing conditions. However, the commonly accepted mechanism for radical removal, SO2 + H......(+M) reversible arrow HOSO(+M), HOSO + H/OH reversible arrow SO2 + H-2/H2O, has been challenged by recent theoretical and experimental results. Based on ab initio calculations for key reactions, we update the kinetic model for this chemistry and re-examine the mechanism of fuel/SO2 interactions. We find...... reaction is in agreement with a range of experimental results from batch and flow reactors, as well as laminar flames....

  8. Development of the radical-stable Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CiP) by blocking the radical attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Joo, Jeong Chan; Kim, Han Sang; Kwon, Inchan; Song, Bong Keun; Yoo, Young Je; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2014-11-10

    Despite the potential use of peroxidases as industrial biocatalysts, their practical application is often impeded due to suicide inactivation by radicals generated in oxidative reactions. Using a peroxidase from Coprinus cinereus (CiP) as a model enzyme, we revealed a dominant factor for peroxidase inactivation during phenol oxidation, and we engineered radical-stable mutants by site-directed mutagenesis of an amino acid residue susceptible to modification by phenoxyl radical. Mass spectrometry analysis of inactivated CiP identified an adduct between F230 and a phenoxyl radical, and subsequently, the F230 residue was mutated to amino acids that resisted radical coupling. Of the F230 mutants, the F230A mutant showed the highest stability against radical inactivation, retaining 80% of its initial activity, while the wild-type protein was almost completely inactivated. The F230A mutant also exhibited a 16-fold higher turnover of the phenol substrate compared with the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the F230A mutant was stable during the oxidation of other phenolic compounds, including m-cresol and 3-methoxyphenol. No structural changes were observed by UV-vis and CD spectra of CiP after radical coupling, implying that the F230-phenol radical adduct inactivated CiP by blocking substrate access to the active site. Our novel strategy can be used to improve the stability of other peroxidases inactivated by radicals.

  9. Iron and radical content in Mya arenaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to analyze oxidative metabolism in Mya arenaria. Total Fe content in M. arenaria collected in the German Wadden Sea was 1.9 ± 0.7, 0.7 ± 0.1 and 0.17 ± 0.01 nmol/mg fresh weight (FW), in digestive glands (DG), mantle and gills, respectively. Labile Fe pool, assessed by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), was 146 ± 10 pmol/mg FW, and by the fluorescence method employing calcein it was 118 ± 9 pmol/mg FW. The lipid radical content in the DG, assessed by EPR, was 27 ± 7 pmol/mg FW, and the thiobarbituric reactive substances content amounted to 57 ± 8 pmol/mg FW. Ascorbyl radical (A·) content, assessed by quantification of EPR signals, was 0.04 ± 0.01 pmol/mg FW, and the ascorbate content (AH-) was 478 ± 12 pmol/mg FW. The ratio A·/AH- was (8 ± 1) x 10-5 AU, suggesting a minimum oxidative stress even under physiological conditions, presumably depending on basal metabolic functions. The content of nitric oxide (NO), assessed by EPR, was 99 ± 3 pmol/mg FW. The generation rate of NO by nitric oxide synthase-like activity (NOS-like) was assayed as NO production detected by EPR in the presence of L-arginine and NADPH, and was 3.16 ± 0.06 pmol/(mg FW min). The data presented here document the detectable presence of highly reactive species in M. arenaria

  10. Iron and radical content in Mya arenaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Paula Mariela [Physical Chemistry-PRALIB, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Abele, Doris [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Department of Shelf Sea Ecology, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven (Germany); Puntarulo, Susana [Physical Chemistry-PRALIB, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: susanap@ffyb.uba.ar

    2008-08-29

    The objective of this work was to analyze oxidative metabolism in Mya arenaria. Total Fe content in M. arenaria collected in the German Wadden Sea was 1.9 {+-} 0.7, 0.7 {+-} 0.1 and 0.17 {+-} 0.01 nmol/mg fresh weight (FW), in digestive glands (DG), mantle and gills, respectively. Labile Fe pool, assessed by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), was 146 {+-} 10 pmol/mg FW, and by the fluorescence method employing calcein it was 118 {+-} 9 pmol/mg FW. The lipid radical content in the DG, assessed by EPR, was 27 {+-} 7 pmol/mg FW, and the thiobarbituric reactive substances content amounted to 57 {+-} 8 pmol/mg FW. Ascorbyl radical (A{center_dot}) content, assessed by quantification of EPR signals, was 0.04 {+-} 0.01 pmol/mg FW, and the ascorbate content (AH{sup -}) was 478 {+-} 12 pmol/mg FW. The ratio A{center_dot}/AH{sup -} was (8 {+-} 1) x 10{sup -5} AU, suggesting a minimum oxidative stress even under physiological conditions, presumably depending on basal metabolic functions. The content of nitric oxide (NO), assessed by EPR, was 99 {+-} 3 pmol/mg FW. The generation rate of NO by nitric oxide synthase-like activity (NOS-like) was assayed as NO production detected by EPR in the presence of L-arginine and NADPH, and was 3.16 {+-} 0.06 pmol/(mg FW min). The data presented here document the detectable presence of highly reactive species in M. arenaria.

  11. Radical radiotherapy for T3 laryngeal cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, T. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Itami, J. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Kotaka, K. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Toriyama, M. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    1996-08-01

    From 1974 through 1992, 37 previously untreated patients with T3 laryngeal cancer (supraglottic 15, glottic 22) were treated with initial radical radiotherapy and surgery for salvage. Two-year local control rate with radiotherapy alone, ultimate voice preservation rate, and ultimate local control rate for T3 supraglottic cancer were 33%, 33%, and 60%, respectively. Corresponding figures for T3 glottic cancer were 32%, 23%, and 77%, respecitvely. Five-year cause-specific survival rate for T3 supraglottic cancer and glottic cancer were 47% and 77%, respectively. In T3 supraglottic cancer, none of the 4 patients with subglottic tumor extension attained local control by radiotherapy alone, and local-regional recurrence-free time were significantly shorter in patients with subglottic tumor extension or tracheostomy before radiotherapy. There were no serious late complications such as chondronecrosis, rupture of carotid artery attributed to radical radiotherapy, while 3 patients had severe laryngeal edema requiring total laryngectomy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Von 1974 bis 1992 wurden 37 zuvor nicht behandelte Patienten mit T3-Larynxkarzinomen (15 supraglottisch, 22 glottisch) primaer kurativ bestrahlt und, wenn erforderlich, einer Salvage-Operation unterzogen. Die Zwei-Jahres-Kontrollrate bei alleiniger Strahlentherapie, die Rate der Stimmerhaltung sowie die unter Einschluss der Operation erreichbare lokale Kontrollrate bei supraglottischen T3-Larynxkarzinomen betrugen 33%, 33% und 60%. Bei glottischen T3-Karzinomen wurden jeweils 32%, 23% und 77% erreicht. Die Fuenf-Jahres-Ueberlebensrate betrug 47% bei supraglottischen T3-Karzinomen und 77% bei den glottischen Karzinomen. Im Fall von supraglottischen Karzinomen erreichte keiner der vier Patienten mit subglottischer Tumorausdehnung eine lokale Kontrolle durch alleinige Strahlentherapie. Die lokoregionale rezidivfreie Zeit war bei den Patienten mit subglottischer Tumorausdehnung oder Tracheostomie vor Einleitung der

  12. Relative reactivities and stereochemistry for free-radical eliminations of 2-(aryloxy)-1-phenylpropyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleman, N.K.; Nelson, D.A.

    1989-01-20

    The steric and electronic influence of substituents on the rate of addition of free radicals to multiple bonds has been much studied and reviewed. From the results of hydrogen-abstraction studies, it was expected that the ..beta..-scission reactions would exhibit substantial substituent effects. The study for which the results are reported here was undertaken to examine the effects of ..beta..-scission reactions and to gain an estimate of the energetics of ..beta..-scission. 2-(aryloxy)-1-phenylpropyl radicals generated from the reaction of the corresponding chlorides with trimethylstannane and azobisisobutyronitrile at 80/degrees/C were found to undergo reactivities for scission. This provides the first opportunity for evaluation of the steric and electronic factors that control this reaction.

  13. Uma análise behaviorista radical dos sonhos A radical behaviorist analysis of the dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francynete Melo e Silva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora não haja um consenso acerca de questões sobre o que são os sonhos, porque sonhamos, etc., a maioria dos estudos sobre a natureza dos sonhos concorda que ela está relacionada a condições internas do organismo. Contrariamente, o behaviorismo radical analisa os sonhos como comportamentos privados, sendo produtos das histórias filogenética, ontogenética e cultural. Neste sentido, este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os sonhos a partir da perspectiva behaviorista radical, considerando-os como comportamentos perceptuais encobertos, argumentando-se que são aprendidos. Afirma-se que a interpretação dos sonhos é impossível se não se conhecem as contingências de reforço com as quais a pessoa está interagindo.In spite of the fact that there is no consensus concerning questions about the nature and origin of dreams, the majority of the studies on the nature of the dreams agrees that they are related to internal conditions of the organism. As opposed to that notion, the radical behaviorism analyses the dreams as private behaviors and, thus, as products of philogenetical, ontogenetical, and cultural histories. In this sense, this paper aims to analyze the dreams from a radical behaviorism perspective, considering them as private events, perceptual behaviors, and arguing that they are learned processes. It is asserted that the dreams interpretation is impossible if the contingencies that control such activity are unknown.

  14. THE RADICAL ONLINE: INDIVIDUAL RADICALIZATION PROCESSES AND THE ROLE OF THE INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Koehler

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines in detail the role of the Internet in individual radicalization processes of eight German former right-wing extremists. Applying Grounded Theory methodology the qualitative interviews were analyzed in several coding and re-coding phases. The findings are integrated into the existing literature afterwards. Besides well known factors, such as more effective communication, anonymity and better networking opportunities, this study found evidence that the Internet is a major dr...

  15. Formation of Chlorotriophenoxy Radicals from Complete Series Reactions of Chlorotriophenols with H and OH Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The chlorothiophenoxy radicals (CTPRs are key intermediate species in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes/thianthrenes (PCDT/TAs. In this work, the formation of CTPRs from the complete series reactions of 19 chlorothiophenol (CTP congeners with H and OH radicals were investigated theoretically by using the density functional theory (DFT method. The profiles of the potential energy surface were constructed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p level. The rate constants were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT contribution at 600–1200 K. The present study indicates that the structural parameters, thermal data, and rate constants as well as the formation potential of CTPRs from CTPs are strongly dominated by the chlorine substitution at the ortho-position of CTPs. Comparison with the study of formation of chlorophenoxy radicals (CPRs from chlorophenols (CPs clearly shows that the thiophenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CTPs by H is more efficient than the phenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CPs by H, whereas the thiophenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CTPs by OH is less impactful than the phenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CPs by OH. Reactions of CTPs with H can occur more readily than that of CTPs with OH, which is opposite to the reactivity comparison of CPs with H and OH.

  16. A new factor affecting free-radical of wood surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors took Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb.) as sample wood and studied the change of free-radical concentration of the sample wood surface by means of these factors: electromagnetic radiation, water, heat, oxygen, and ozone. The results showed that among above factors, the most important one which degraded the lignin and produced the free-radicals mainly is ultraviolet radiation

  17. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy is a safe procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Hvarness, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    We present our departmental experience with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and describe complications and early results for the first 239 consecutive patients.......We present our departmental experience with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and describe complications and early results for the first 239 consecutive patients....

  18. Alkyl Radicals as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors: Computational Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Steen

    2009-01-01

    , and gives rise to pronounced shifts of IR stretching frequencies and to increased absorption intensities. The hydrogen bond acceptor properties of alkyl radicals equal those of many conventional acceptors, e.g., the bond length changes and IR red-shifts suggest that tert-butyl radicals are slightly better...

  19. Production of radicals in the ozonolysis of propene in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Radical production in the ozonolysis of propene in air was monitored directly by a peroxy radical chemical amplification (PERCA) instrument at room temperature (298±2 K) and atmospheric pressure (1×105 Pa). The ozonolysis reactions were conducted in a flow tube under pseudo-first-order conditions for ozone. The decay in ozone was calculated based on reaction time tr and effective rate constant keff (keff = k1[C3H6]0)) for the ozone-propene reaction. The total radical yields relative to consumed ozone were determined to be 0.97±0.17 (σ). A box model was used to simulate radical production in the ozone-propene reaction. The model-derived radical yields agree well with those from experiment within the uncertainty of the two methods. In addition, the yields for OH, HO2 and CH3O2 were obtained from the measured total radical yields and radical partitioning derived from the box model. The yield is 0.39±0.08 (σ) for OH, 0.19±0.04 (σ) for HO2, and 0.39±0.08 (σ) for CH3O2. This work suggests that the previously measured radical yield by indirect method for the ozonolysis of propene may be underes-timated.

  20. Production of radicals in the ozonolysis of propenein air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Bin; YANG Bing; WANG Zhu-Qing; YANG Hong-Yan; LIU Lu

    2009-01-01

    Radical production in the ozonolysis of propene in air was monitored directly by a peroxy radical chemical amplification (PERCA) instrument at room temperature (298±2 K) and atmospheric pressure (1×105 Pa). The ozonolysis reactions were conducted in a flow tube under pseudo-first-order conditions for ozone. The decay in ozone was calculated based on reaction time tr and effective rate constant keff (keff = k1[C3H6]0)) for the ozone-propene reaction. The total radical yields relative to consumed ozone were determined to be 0.97±0.17 (σ). A box model was used to simulate radical production in the ozons-propene reaction. The model-derived radical yields agree well with those from experiment within the uncertainty of the two methods. In addition, the yields for OH, HO2 and CH3O2 were obtained from the measured total radical yields and radical partitioning derived from the box model. The yield is 0.39±0.08 (σ) for OH, 0.19±0.04 (σ) for HO2, and 0.39±0.08 (σ) for CH3O2. This work suggests that the previously measured radical yield by indirect method for the ozonolysis of propene may be underes-timated.

  1. Hydrocarbon radical thermochemistry: Gas-phase ion chemistry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, Kent M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-03-21

    Final Scientific/Technical Report for the project "Hydrocarbon Radical Thermochemistry: Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry Techniques." The objective of this project is to exploit gas-phase ion chemistry techniques for determination of thermochemical values for neutral hydrocarbon radicals of importance in combustion kinetics.

  2. Formation and reactivity of phenylperoxyl radicals in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of phenyl radicals with oxygen, to produce phenylperoxyl radicals, and the reactions of several phenylperoxyl radicals with a number of organic compounds in aqueous solutions have been studied by pulse radiolysis. Phenyl radicals were produced by reduction of aryl halides with hydrated electrons. The rate constant for the reaction of 4-carboxyphenyl with O2 was determined from the rate of buildup of the peroxyl radical absorption at 520 nm as a function of [O2] and found to be 1.6 x 109 L mol-1 s-1. Phenyl radicals react with 2-PrOH by H abstraction; a rate constants of 4 x 106 L mol-1 s-1 was determined for 4-carboxyphenyl by competition with the reaction of this radical with O2. Phenylperoxyl radicals react with 4-methoxyphenolate ions, trolox C(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), ascorbate ions, chlorpromazine, and ABTS [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate ion)] by one-electron oxidation. The rate constants for such reactions, determined from the rate of formation of the one-electron oxidation product as a function of substrate concentration, were found to be near 108-109 L mol-1 s-1. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Market Feedback and Team Commitment in Radical Product Innovation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Berchicci (Luca); C.L. Tucci (Christopher)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPrevious research has considered how exploratory market learning processes moderate market and technological uncertainty in radical product development. Scholars argue that new product development (NPD) teams may increase the chances of success of radically new projects by acquiring, ass

  4. Radical Change Revisited: Dynamic Digital Age Books for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresang, Eliza T.

    2008-01-01

    Radical change, a theory described in Eliza Dresang's 1999 book, "Radical Change: Books for Youth in a Digital Age," was developed in the mid-1990s. It serves as a lens through which to examine, explain, and ultimately, use contemporary literature for youth growing up in the Digital Age. It identifies changes in forms and formats,…

  5. Structural Approaches to Organising for Radical Innovation in Established Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    . Therefore, the usual recommendation to established firms with the goal of producing radical innovations is to develop them outside the firm itself. This paper questions this 'standard solution' and discusses alternative organizational approaches to producing radical innovation that avoid extreme forms...

  6. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Short-Lived Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Hansen, Karina Benthin;

    1976-01-01

    We report the first application of pulsed resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by pulse radiolysis. A single pulse from a flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the resonance Raman spectrum of the p-terphenyl anion radical with an initial...

  7. Teaching Methods in Nutrition: Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiak, John J.

    This article presents a teaching methodology for free radical theory and discusses the role of antioxidants in human health. Free radicals are a normal byproduct of respiration, which allows the body to use oxygen, liberate energy, and dispose of harmful substances. The body's antioxidants and nutritional antioxidants quench most of the free…

  8. Professionalising Community Work and Its Implications for Radical Community Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article adopts a radical lens and examines the relationship between community development, adult education and professionalism. It draws from research on one specific community- university partnership and presents the professionalisation of community work as detrimental to radical practice because of its encouragement of individual vertical…

  9. Studies of radiation-produced radicals and radical ions. Progress report, June 1, 1981-August 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery and characterization of novel radical ions produced by the γ irradiation of solids continues to be a fertile field for investigation. This Progress Report describes the generation and ESR identification of several new paramagnetic species, some of which have long been sought as important intermediates in radiation chemistry. We have also contributed to a general theoretical problem in ESR spectroscopy. Solid-state studies of electron attachment reactions, both non-dissociative and dissociative, reveal interesting structural and chemical information about the molecular nature of these processes for simple compounds. In particular, ESR measurements of the spin distribution in the products allow a fairly sharp distinction to be drawn between radical anions and radical-anion pairs or adducts. Dimer radical anion formation can also take place but the crystal structure plays a role in this process, as expected. Some radical anions undergo photolysis to give radical-anion pairs which may then revert back to the original radical anion by a thermal reaction. The chemistry of these reversible processes is made more intricate by a competing reaction in which the radical abstracts a hydrogen atom from a neighboring molecule. However, the unraveling of this complication has also served to extend our knowledge of the role of quantum tunneling in chemical reactions. The results of this investigation testify to the potential of solid-state techniques for the study of novel and frangible radical ions. Progress in this field shows no sign of abating, as witness the recent discovery of perfluorocycloalkane radical anions and alkane radical cations

  10. Reactions of methyl and ethyl radicals with uranium hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, John L.; Laguna, Glenn

    1985-01-01

    We have measured the rates of reaction of both methyl and ethyl radicals with uranium hexafluoride (UF6) in the gas phase. The method we used was to photolyze samples of UF6 in the presence of either methane or ethane. The radicals produced by reaction of fluorine atoms with these species then react with either themselves or with UF6. We inferred the rate constants from ratios of the reaction products and the published rate constants for radical recombination. The diagnostic technique was gas chromatography. The resulting rate constants for reaction with UF6 were (1.6±0.8)×10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for methyl radicals and (4±2)×10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for ethyl radicals.

  11. Radical Islam in Xinjiang – Evolution and Current State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Suchanek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the evolution and the current state of radical Islam in China’s Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Chinese government considers Islamic radicalism as a serious threat, in particular in the Xinjiang region, which borders on some states in Central Asia as well as Pakistan and Afghanistan. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate roots and historical development of significant groups, in particular the East Turkestan Islamic Movement – ETIM. In its next part, the article deals with the contemporary situation as well as the cooperation between Uyghur radicals and other radical Islamic movements, in particular al-Qaeda and Taliban, and their activities. The article concludes that contemporary Uyghur Islamic radicalism cannot be considered as a major security threat, since the activities of these groups have largely shifted to Pakistan and rather have the nature of a propaganda war.

  12. Irradiation modes' impact on radical entrapment in photoactive resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, J G; Lamblin, G; Devaux, J; Dewaele, M; Mestdagh, M; Palin, W M; Gallez, B; Leloup, G

    2010-12-01

    Different irradiation protocols are proposed to polymerize dental resins, and discordances remain concerning their impact on the material. To improve this knowledge, we studied entrapment of free radicals in unfilled Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (50:50 wt%) resin after light cure. The tested hypothesis was that various irradiation parameters (curing time, irradiance, and radiant exposure) and different irradiation modes (continuous and pulse-delay) led to different amounts of trapped free radicals. The analysis of cured samples (n = 3) by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) revealed that the concentrations of trapped free radicals significantly differed according to the curing protocol. When continuous modes with similar radiant exposure were compared, higher concentrations of trapped free radicals were measured for longer times with lower irradiance. Concerning pulse modes, the delay had no influence on trapped radical concentration. These results give new insights into the understanding of the photopolymerization process and highlight the relevance of using EPR when studying polymerization of dimethacrylate-based materials.

  13. Social Cohesion and Islamic Radicalization: Implications from the Uighur Insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts with a critical review of the current literature on the Islamic radicalization and Uighur insurgency in Xinjiang, pointing out that existing literature focuses too narrowly on certain aspects of the Uighur insurgency, and is insufficient to explain the causal mechanism of the insurgency and Islamic radicalization. Built upon historical evidence, this article uses sociological analysis to explore the structural changes in the Uighur community over the past decades, and demonstrates the importance and effectiveness of social cohesion theory in identifying the key causal variables which underlie and determine the course of Uighur insurgency and Islamic radicalization. The last section of the article offers policy implications on Islamic radicalization prevention at both international and domestic levels, and on how to reduce the negative impact of Islamic radicalism on national security and stability.

  14. Evidence of radicals created by plasma in bacteria in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chae Bok [Department of Plasma Bioscience and Display, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwoon-gil, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Young Ho [Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwoon-gil, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Eun [High Technology Components and Materials Research Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 1275 Jisa-dong, Gangseo-gu, Busan 618-230 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han S.; Baik, Ku Youn, E-mail: kybaik@kw.ac.kr, E-mail: gckwon@kw.ac.kr; Kwon, Gichung, E-mail: kybaik@kw.ac.kr, E-mail: gckwon@kw.ac.kr [Department of Plasma Bioscience and Display, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwoon-gil, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwoon-gil, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-18

    Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) was introduced into a non-thermal plasma-jet (NTPJ) device to generate deuterium monoxide (OD) radicals at room temperature. Owing to the similar reactivity and low prevalence of deuterium in nature, OD radicals can be utilized to visualize the OH radical interactions with water and living cells. Escherichia coli in water were treated with OD radicals, and D atom incorporation into cells was visualized using time-of-flight SIMS and Nano-SIMS. The results show that D atoms from NTPJ reach the cytoplasm of E. coli in H{sub 2}O, indicating the usefulness of this OD-tracking method for the study of radical interactions with living cells.

  15. A hydrogen-donating monohydroxamate scavenges ferryl myoglobin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, C E; Green, E S; Rice-Evans, C A;

    1994-01-01

    of the high spin metmyoglobin (g = 6) signal is consistent with these findings. At this low peroxide concentration there is no evidence for iron release from the haem. At least two free radicals are detectable by EPR immediately after H2O2 addition, but decay completely after ten minutes. However, a longer......-lived radical is observed at lower concentrations that is still present after 90 minutes. The monohydroxamate N-methylbutyro-hydroxamic acid (NMBH) increases the rate of decay of the fenyl species. In the presence of NMBH, none of the protein-bound free radicals are detectable; instead nitroxide radicals...... produced by oxidation of the hydroxamate group are observed. Similar results are observed with the trihydroxamate, desferrioxamine. "Ferryl myoglobin" is still able to initiate lipid peroxidation even after the short-lived protein free radicals are no longer detectable (E.S.R. Newman, C.A. Rice-Evans and M...

  16. Positive effect of propolis on free radicals in burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczyk, Pawel; Ramos, Pawel; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Stojko, Jerzy; Pilawa, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Concentration and properties of free radicals in the burn wounds treated with propolis were examined by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magnetic spin-spin interactions and complex free radicals structures in wound beds were studied. The results were compared to those obtained for silver sulphadiazine used as a standard pharmaceutical agent. The changes of free radicals in the matrix of injury with time of exposition on these substances were tested. The aim of this study was to check the hypothesis about the best influence of propolis on the burn wounds healing. It was confirmed that a relatively lower concentration of free radicals exists in the burn wounds treated with propolis. The homogeneously broadened spectra and a complex free radical system characterize the tested tissue samples. The fastening of spin-lattice relaxation processes in the matrix of injury after treatment with propolis and silver sulphadiazine was observed. Practical usefulness of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in alternative medicine was proved.

  17. Principally Left Hereditary and Principally Left Strong Radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Tumurbat; R. Wiegandt

    2001-01-01

    A radical γ is normal if and only if γ is principally left hereditary and principally left strong (i.e., γ(L) = L e A and Lz ∈γ for all z ∈ L imply L γ(A)). Let a radical γ satisfy that A°∈γ and S° A° imply S°∈γ.Then γ is a hereditary normal radical if and only if γ is principally left strong and γ {A | (A, +,◇a) ∈γ a ∈ A}, where the multiplication ◇a is defined by x ◇a y = xay. The Behrens radical class B is the largest principally left hereditary subclass of the Brown-McCoy radical class G. Neither3 nor G is principally left strong.

  18. Generation of reactive oxygen radicals through bioactivation of mitomycin antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, C A; Sartorelli, A C

    1986-07-01

    Mitomycin C (MC) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent which has been shown to be more cytotoxic to hypoxic tumor cells than to their aerobic counterparts. The mechanism of action of this agent is thought to involve biological reductive activation, to a species that alkylates DNA. A comparison of the cytotoxicity of MC to EMT6 tumor cells with that of the structural analogues porfiromycin (PM), N-(N',N'-dimethylaminomethylene)amine analogue of mitomycin C (BMY-25282), and N-(N',N'-dimethylaminomethylene)amine analogue of porfiromycin (BL-6783) has demonstrated that PM is considerably less cytotoxic to aerobic EMT6 cells than MC, whereas BMY-25282 and BL-6783 are significantly more toxic. The relative abilities of each of these compounds to generate oxygen free radicals following biological activation were measured. Tumor cell sonicates, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-cytochrome c reductase, xanthine oxidase, and mitochondria were used as the biological reducing systems. All four mitomycin antibiotics produced oxygen radicals following biological reduction, a process that may account for the aerobic cytotoxicity of agents of this class. The generation of relative amounts of superoxide and hydroxyl radical were also measured in EMT6 cell sonicates. BMY-25282 and BL-6783 produced significantly greater quantities of oxygen free radicals with the EMT6 cell sonicate, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-cytochrome c reductase, and mitochondria than did MC and PM. In contrast, BMY-25282 and BL-6783 did not generate detectable levels of free radicals in the presence of xanthine oxidase, whereas this enzyme was capable of generating free radicals with MC and PM as substrates. MC consistently produced greater amounts of free radicals than PM with all of the reducing systems. BMY-25282, BL-6783, and MC all generated hydroxyl radicals, while PM did not appear to form these radicals. The findings indicate that a correlation exists between

  19. Structure and Reactivity of the N-Acetyl-Cysteine Radical Cation and Anion: Does Radical Migration Occur?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; G. Berden,; Oomens, J.; O' Hair, R. A. J.; Ryzhov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure and reactivity of the N-acetyl-cysteine radical cation and anion were studied using ion-molecule reactions, infrared multi-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The radical cation was generated by first nitrosylating the thiol of N-

  20. Structure and reactivity of the N-acetyl-cysteine radical cation and anion: does radical migration occur?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Osburn; G. Berden; J. Oomens; R.A.J. O'Hair; V. Ryzhov

    2011-01-01

    The structure and reactivity of the N-acetyl-cysteine radical cation and anion were studied using ion-molecule reactions, infrared multi-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The radical cation was generated by first nitrosylating the thiol of N-

  1. The effect of number of kanji radical companions in character activation with a multi-radical-display task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hirofumi; Yamazaki, Osamu; Masuda, Hisashi

    2002-01-01

    The majority of Japanese complex kanji consist of two subword units (radicals), and each radical is differentiated according to its combinability. Radical-type frequency is defined as the number of radical companions (NC) functioning as the number of characters containing that radical. The current study is intended to address the question of whether the NC plays a role in kanji character activation under a multi-radical-display (MRD) instead of a tachistoscopic display. An MRD task was used in which the NC was manipulated and the frequency of use of the whole characters was matched on average across the experimental conditions. Participants were divided into two groups (good knowledge vs poor knowledge) according to the score of a kanji completion task. The participants' task was to select an appropriate combination of radicals to compose a legitimate character under the MRD condition. The poor-knowledge group yielded relatively more errors than did the good-knowledge group in the low-NC condition, whereas the good-knowledge group yielded more errors in the high-NC condition than in the low-NC condition. These results demonstrate the different influences of NC as metaknowledge (tacit knowledge of radical productivity) in both good and poor readers. PMID:12081417

  2. The role of melanin as protector against free radicals in skin and its role as free radical indicator in hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, Thomas; Jung, Katinka; Fuchs, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    Throughout the body, melanin is a homogenous biological polymer containing a population of intrinsic, semiquinone-like radicals. Additional extrinsic free radicals are reversibly photo-generated by UV and visible light. Melanin photochemistry, particularly the formation and decay of extrinsic radicals, has been the subject of numerous electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy studies. Several melanin monomers exist, and the predominant monomer in a melanin polymer depends on its location within an organism. In skin and hair, melanin differs in content of eumelanin or pheomelanin. Its bioradical character and its susceptibility to UV irradiation makes melanin an excellent indicator for UV-related processes in both skin and hair. The existence of melanin in skin is strongly correlated with the prevention against free radicals/ROS generated by UV radiation. Especially in the skin melanin (mainly eumelanin) ensures the only natural UV protection by eliminating the generated free radicals/ROS. Melanin in hair can be used as a free radical detector for evaluating the efficacy of hair care products. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of melanin as protector of skin against UV generated free radicals and as free radical indicator in hair.

  3. Application of ABTS radical cation for selective on-line detection of radical scavengers in HPLC eluates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, [No Value; Niederlander, HAG; van Beek, TA

    2001-01-01

    The radical cation 2,2 ' -azinobis-(3 -ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate), (ABTS(.+)) was utilized in an on-line HPLC method for the detection of radical scavengers in complex matrixes. The HPLC-separated analytes react postcolumn with the preformed ABTS(.+), and the induced bleaching is detected as

  4. First measurement of hadronic event shapes in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Eroe, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Fruehwirth, R.; Ghete, V.M.; Hammer, J.; Haensel, S.; Hartl, C.; Hoch, M.; Hoermann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kasieczka, G.; Kiesenhofer, W. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der OeAW, Wien (Austria)

    2011-05-02

    Hadronic event shapes have been measured in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, with a data sample collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 pb{sup -1}. Event-shape distributions, corrected for detector response, are compared with five models of QCD multijet production.

  5. The connection between selective referrals for radical cystectomy and radical prostatectomy and volume-outcome effects: an instrumental variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Ward, Marcia M; Wehby, George L; Konety, Badrinath R

    2012-01-01

    This study delineates the roles of "selective referrals" and "practice makes perfect" in the hospital procedure volume and in-hospital mortality association for radical cystectomy and radical prostatectomy. This is a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (years 2000-2004). All hospitalizations with primary procedure codes for radical cystectomy and radical prostatectomy were selected. The association between hospital procedure volume and in-hospital mortality was examined using generalized estimating equations and by instrumental variables approaches. There was an inverse association between hospital procedure volume and in-hospital mortality for radical cystectomy (odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval = 0.38-0.87; P practice makes perfect." PMID:22205768

  6. Amino acid peroxyl radicals. Formation and reaction with ascorbate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Proteins are significant targets for partly reduced oxygen species in vivo. This results in random formation of radicals on the amino acid residues (AA·) of the protein, which in turn, in the presence of oxygen, can yield the corresponding peroxyl radicals (AAOO·). Both radical types can cause further biological damage. We studied the N-acetylamide derivatives of the amino acids glycine, alanine and proline as models of these residues in proteins. We generated the amino acid radicals specifically by reaction with hydroxyl radicals produced in solutions irradiated with 2 MeV electrons in the presence of N2O. In the absence of oxygen the amino acid radicals decayed with rate constants in the narrow range (0.9-1.3) x 109 M-1s-1, while in the presence of oxygen they were converted very rapidly to the corresponding peroxyl radicals with rate constants that vary between 6.3 x 108 and 5.5 x 109 M-1s-1, depending on the amino acid. The corresponding N-acetylated amino acids were also studied and showed similar behaviour but with slightly smaller rate constants. Antioxidants are able to repair tyrosyl and tryptophanyl radicals in various proteins in vitro. For ascorbate, the principal endogenous biological antioxidant, we have measured rate constants in the range 105-108 M-1s-1. The peroxyl radicals of all amino acids studied here were reduced by oxidizing ascorbate to the ascorbyl radical. The reaction was followed at 360 nm, where ascorbyl radical has an absorption coefficient of 3300 M-1cm-1, and the derived rate constants were all close to 107 M-1s-1. However, the spontaneous decay of peroxyl radicals is also fast and competes with the reaction with ascorbate. It is to be stressed that reaction of AAOO· and ascorbate gives rise to hydroperoxides (AAOOH) that are also reactive molecules. Our study suggests that reaction with protein radicals may be responsible for the ascorbate loss reported in organisms exposed to oxidative

  7. The Electronic Dissertation: A less radical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Costopoulos

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Cornelius Holtorf's article in Internet Archaeology, Issue 6 (1999 is a strident call for a radical application of hypermedia techniques to archaeological publishing. Like Holtorf, I recently produced and submitted a Ph.D. dissertation on electronic medium entitled Simulation and Modelling for Anthropological Archaeology (Costopoulos, 1999. My experience of the process, however, was quite different from Holtorf's. While his work concentrates on the hypertextuality of electronic media, mine tends to show the advantages of mass storage and easy access which are inherent to the media. My dissertation is a quite traditionally linear text which is intended to be read sequentially. My effort points, however, to the possibility of including non-textual documents and massive amounts of raw data in an academic publication. I was able to include in my dissertation a working version of my simulation as well as 150 000 pages of simulated data on which the analysis was based. These would clearly have had to be left out of a strictly paper document. In response to Holtorf, I am offering up a short account of the production and submission of my CD dissertation, concentrating on the differences and similarities between the processes we experienced as well as the approaches we used. I plan to present electronic publishing as a natural development of the communication of scientific results rather than as a hypertext revolution.

  8. Sound radiation by violins radically modal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, George

    2003-10-01

    Following a radically modal path pioneered by Gabi Weinreich in the early 1980s, normal-mode vibration and radiation analysis was applied to quality-rated violins. Being able to describe the violin in terms of normal-mode behaviors leads directly to a violin equation, allows extraction of a critical frequency for the violin, provides estimates of the fraction of vibrational energy radiated and extends to modal-average trendline modeling of the acoustic output, all of which can be linked to violin quality classifications if desired. Some quality-related results mirror Weinreich's conclusions from inverse radiativity measurements on violins, i.e., there is little difference in the radiativity of good and bad violins below 1 kHz. The first corpus bending modes (the baseball modes), first identified by Gabi and Eric Arnold, are a major contributor to violin sound and highlight one of the important aspects of Gabi's research, the coupling between wood and air. The first near-field acoustic holography results indicate that a significant part of the radiation from these structural modes is from the f-holes of the violin. These normal-mode investigations reflect some of the importance of Gabi's work for modern violin acoustics. [Research supported by NSF.

  9. Radical prostatectomies in Austria, 1997–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatzl Georg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of PSA testing in Austria led to a steep increase of the incidence of prostate cancer. We want to present the course of the number of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer in Austria since 1997, and set these numbers in relation to the total of radical prostatectomies (with resection of lymph nodes in the same time period. All numbers were retrieved from health statistics of Statistics Austria. The report period of cancer cases and of RPE comprises the years 1997–2004. All calculations were performed for totals as well as for 5-year age groups (40–89 years of age. Findings The number of prostate cancer cases rose from 1997 to 2004 by 35%, while the number of RPE rose by 94% in the same time period. The proportion of RPE in relation to new cases rose from 41% in 1997 to 59% in 2004. Conclusion A slight decrease of prostate cancer mortality can already be observed in Austria, but the question of over-treatment still awaits analysis.

  10. REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained by Russian and foreign investigators, the major complication after radical prostatectomy (RPE is urinaryincontinence that is recorded in 20-30% of cases.Objective. To improve the results of surgical treatment in patients with prostate cancer, by developing and introducing a well-rounded post-operative rehabilitation program.Subjects and methods. Seventy-four patients who were treated at the urology clinic, Bashkir State Medical University, and underwent RPEin 2005 to 2007 have been examined; 27 of them were diagnosed as having urinary incontinence (UI. After discharge from the clinic, acontrol group received rehabilitative treatment at the sanatorium “Krasnousolsk” of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Results and discussion. Therapeutic exercises and pelvic floor electrostimulation halve the number of day urinations and paddings used inpatients with UI, by increasing the bladder capacity from 138.2±12.7 to 196±11.2 ml and improving the trophism of the bladder neck andurethra in the sphincteral area. 

  11. REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained by Russian and foreign investigators, the major complication after radical prostatectomy (RPE is urinaryincontinence that is recorded in 20-30% of cases.Objective. To improve the results of surgical treatment in patients with prostate cancer, by developing and introducing a well-rounded post-operative rehabilitation program.Subjects and methods. Seventy-four patients who were treated at the urology clinic, Bashkir State Medical University, and underwent RPEin 2005 to 2007 have been examined; 27 of them were diagnosed as having urinary incontinence (UI. After discharge from the clinic, acontrol group received rehabilitative treatment at the sanatorium “Krasnousolsk” of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Results and discussion. Therapeutic exercises and pelvic floor electrostimulation halve the number of day urinations and paddings used inpatients with UI, by increasing the bladder capacity from 138.2±12.7 to 196±11.2 ml and improving the trophism of the bladder neck andurethra in the sphincteral area. 

  12. Incidental prostate cancer in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Jin; Zhao-Dian Chen; Bo Wang; Song-Liang Cai; Xiao-Lin Yao; Bai-Ye Jin

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the rates of prostate cancer (Pca) in radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) specimens for bladder cancer in mainland China. To determine the follow-up outcome of patients with two concurrent cancers and identify whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tool for the detection of Pca prior to surgery. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2007, 264 male patients with bladder cancer underwent RCP at our center. All patients underwent digital rectal examination (DRE) and B ultrasound. Serum PSA levels were tested in 168 patients. None of the patients had any evidence of Pca before RCP. Entire prostates were embedded and sectioned at 5 mm intervals. Results: Incidental Pca was observed in 37 of 264 (14.0%) RCP specimens. Of these, 12 (32.4%) were clinically significant according to an accepted definition. The PSA levels were not significantly different between patients with Pca and those without Pca, nor between patients with significant Pca and those with insignificant Pca. Thirty-four patients with incidental Pca were followed up. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, two patients with PSA > 4 ng/mL underwent castration. None of the patients died of Pca. Conclusion: The incidence of Pca in RCP specimens in mainland China is lower than that in most developed countries. PSA cannot identify asymptomatic Pca prior to RCP. In line with published reports, incidental Pca does not impact the prognosis of bladder cancer patients undergoing RCP.

  13. Process Improvement in a Radically Changing Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Denise M.; Wilson, Barbara M.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes how the NASA Glenn Research Center planned and implemented a process improvement effort in response to a radically changing environment. As a result of a presidential decision to redefine the Agency's mission, many ongoing projects were canceled and future workload would be awarded based on relevance to the Exploration Initiative. NASA imposed a new Procedural Requirements standard on all future software development, and the Center needed to redesign its processes from CMM Level 2 objectives to meet the new standard and position itself for CMMI. The intended audience for this presentation is systems/software developers and managers in a large, research-oriented organization that may need to respond to imposed standards while also pursuing CMMI Maturity Level goals. A set of internally developed tools will be presented, including an overall Process Improvement Action Item database, a formal inspection/peer review tool, metrics collection spreadsheet, and other related technologies. The Center also found a need to charter Technical Working Groups (TWGs) to address particular Process Areas. In addition, a Marketing TWG was needed to communicate the process changes to the development community, including an innovative web site portal.

  14. Ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the SH radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation dynamics of jet-cooled SH radical (in X 2Π3/2, ν''=0-2) is studied in the photolysis wavelength region of 216-232 nm using high-n Rydberg atom time-of-flight technique. In this wavelength region, anisotropy β parameter of the H-atom product is ∼-1, and spin-orbit branching fractions of the S(3PJ) product are close to S(3P2):S(3P1):S(3P0)=0.51:0.36:0.13. The UV photolysis of SH is via a direct dissociation and is initiated on the repulsive 2Σ- potential-energy curve in the Franck-Condon region after the perpendicular transition 2Σ--X 2Π. The S(3PJ) product fine-structure state distribution approaches that in the sudden limit dissociation on the single repulsive 2Σ- state, but it is also affected by the nonadiabatic couplings among the repulsive 4Σ-, 2Σ-, and 4Π states, which redistribute the photodissociation flux from the initially excited 2Σ- state to the 4Σ- and 4Π states. The bond dissociation energy D0(S-H)=29 245±25 cm-1 is obtained

  15. Learning curve for radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. A. Saito

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The learning curve is a period in which the surgical procedure is performed with difficulty and slowness, leading to a higher risk of complications and reduced effectiveness due the surgeon's inexperience. We sought to analyze the residents' learning curve for open radical prostatectomy (RP in a training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study from June 2006 to January 2008 in the academic environment of the University of São Paulo. Five residents operated on 184 patients during a four-month rotation in the urologic oncology division, mentored by the same physician assistants. We performed sequential analyses according to the number of surgeries, as follows: = 10, 11 to 19, 20 to 28, and = 29. RESULTS: The residents performed an average of 37 RP each. The average psa was 9.3 ng/mL and clinical stage T1c in 71% of the patients. The pathological stage was pT2 (73%, pT3 (23%, pT4 (4%, and 46% of the patients had a Gleason score 7 or higher. In all surgeries, the average operative time and estimated blood loss was 140 minutes and 488 mL. Overall, 7.2% of patients required blood transfusion, and 23% had positive surgical margins. CONCLUSION: During the initial RP learning curve, we found a significant reduction in the operative time; blood transfusion during the procedures and positive surgical margin rate were stable in our series.

  16. A scalable and operationally simple radical trifluoromethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Joel W; Douglas, James J; Cole, Kevin P; Stephenson, Corey R J

    2015-01-01

    The large number of reagents that have been developed for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated compounds is a testament to the importance of the CF3 group as well as the associated synthetic challenge. Current state-of-the-art reagents for appending the CF3 functionality directly are highly effective; however, their use on preparative scale has minimal precedent because they require multistep synthesis for their preparation, and/or are prohibitively expensive for large-scale application. For a scalable trifluoromethylation methodology, trifluoroacetic acid and its anhydride represent an attractive solution in terms of cost and availability; however, because of the exceedingly high oxidation potential of trifluoroacetate, previous endeavours to use this material as a CF3 source have required the use of highly forcing conditions. Here we report a strategy for the use of trifluoroacetic anhydride for a scalable and operationally simple trifluoromethylation reaction using pyridine N-oxide and photoredox catalysis to affect a facile decarboxylation to the CF3 radical. PMID:26258541

  17. 合成4-苯甲酰基-1,7-庚二酸二甲酯的方法改进%Process Improvement on the Synthesis of 4-Benzoyl-heptanedioic Acid Dimethyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康从民; 李园园; 吕英涛

    2013-01-01

    采用改进方法,苯乙酮与丙烯酸甲酯缩合制得4-苯甲酰基-1,7-庚二酸二甲酯,其结构经1H NMR和MS确证.较适宜的反应条件为:苯乙酮50 mmol,n(丙烯酸甲酯)∶n(苯乙酮)=2.5∶1.O,无水环境下,以甲醇钠为催化剂,于50℃反应24h,收率12.8%.%4-Benzoyl-heptanedioic acid dimethyl ester was prepared by condensation of acetophenone with methyl acrylate by improve method. The structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and MS. The optimal reaction conditions at 50 ℃ for 24 h were as follows: acetophenone was 50 mmol, n( methyl acrylate) : n(acetophenone) was 2. 5 :1. 0, catalyst was MeONa in water-free. The yield was 12. 8% under the optimal conditions.

  18. Binding of N-acetyl-N '-beta-D-glucopyranosyl urea and N-benzoyl-N '-beta-D-glucopyranosyl urea to glycogen phosphorylase b: kinetic and crystallographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakos, Nikos G; Kosmopoulou, Magda; Zographos, Spyros E; Leonidas, Demetres D; Chrysina, Evangelia D; Somsák, László; Nagy, Veronika; Praly, Jean-Pierre; Docsa, Tibor; Tóth, Béla; Gergely, Pál

    2002-03-01

    Two substituted ureas of beta-D-glucose, N-acetyl-N'-beta-D-glucopyranosyl urea (Acurea) and N-benzoyl-N'-beta-D-glucopyranosyl urea (Bzurea), have been identified as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase, a potential target for therapeutic intervention in type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the structural basis of inhibition, we determined the structure of muscle glycogen phosphorylase b (GPb) complexed with the two compounds at 2.0 A and 1.8 A resolution, respectively. The structure of the GPb-Acurea complex reveals that the inhibitor can be accommodated in the catalytic site of T-state GPb with very little change in the tertiary structure. The glucopyranose moiety makes the standard hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts as observed in the GPb-glucose complex, while the acetyl urea moiety is in a favourable electrostatic environment and makes additional polar contacts with the protein. The structure of the GPb-Bzurea complex shows that Bzurea binds tightly at the catalytic site and induces substantial conformational changes in the vicinity of the catalytic site. In particular, the loop of the polypeptide chain containing residues 282-287 shifts 1.3-3.7 A (Calpha atoms) to accommodate Bzurea. Bzurea can also occupy the new allosteric site, some 33 A from the catalytic site, which is currently the target for the design of antidiabetic drugs. PMID:11895439

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure analysis, spectral IR, NMR UV-Vis investigations, NBO and NLO of 2-benzoyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-oxo-3-phenylpropanamide with use of X-ray diffractions studies along with DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Sibel; Sarioğlu, Ahmet Oral; Güler, Semih; Dege, Necmi; Sönmez, Mehmet

    2016-08-01

    The title compound, 2-benzoyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-oxo-3-phenylpropanamide compound (C22H16NO3Cl) has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectra. Optimized geometrical structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies and chemical shifts were computed using hybrid-DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) methods and 6-311G(d,p) as the basis set. The results of the optimized molecular structure are presented and compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction. The calculated optimized geometries, vibrational frequencies and 1H NMR chemical shift values are in strong agreement with experimentally measured values. UV-Vis spectrum of the title compound, was also recorded and the electronic properties, such as calculated energies, excitation energies, oscillator strengths, dipole moments and frontier orbital energies and band gap energies were computed with TDDFT-B3LYP methodolgy and using 6-311G(d,p) as the basis set. Furthermore, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbital (NBO) and non linear optical (NLO) properties were performed by using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level for the title compound.

  20. Extraction studies of selected actinide ions from aqueous solutions with 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannink, N.J.; Hoffman, D.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1991-11-01

    The first measurements of distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for Cm(III), Bk(III), Cf(III), Es(III), and Fm(III) between aqueous perchlorate solutions and solutions of 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT) and the synergist tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in toluene are reported. Curium-243, berkelium-250, californium-249, einsteinium-254, and fermium-253 were used in these studies. The K{sub d} for {sup 241}Am was also measured and is in agreement with previously published results. Our new results show that the K{sub d}`s decrease gradually with increasing atomic number for the actinides with a dip at Cf. In general, the K{sub d}`s for these actinides are about a factor of 5 to 10 greater than the K{sub d}`s for the homologous lanthanides at a pH of 2.9, a BMPPT concentration of 0.2 M, and a TOPO concentration of 0.04 M. The larger K{sub d}`s for the actinides are consistent with greater covalent bonding between the actinide metal ion and the sulfur bonding site in the ligand.

  1. Extraction studies of selected actinide ions from aqueous solutions with 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannink, N.J.; Hoffman, D.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Smith, B.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The first measurements of distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for Cm(III), Bk(III), Cf(III), Es(III), and Fm(III) between aqueous perchlorate solutions and solutions of 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT) and the synergist tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in toluene are reported. Curium-243, berkelium-250, californium-249, einsteinium-254, and fermium-253 were used in these studies. The K{sub d} for {sup 241}Am was also measured and is in agreement with previously published results. Our new results show that the K{sub d}'s decrease gradually with increasing atomic number for the actinides with a dip at Cf. In general, the K{sub d}'s for these actinides are about a factor of 5 to 10 greater than the K{sub d}'s for the homologous lanthanides at a pH of 2.9, a BMPPT concentration of 0.2 M, and a TOPO concentration of 0.04 M. The larger K{sub d}'s for the actinides are consistent with greater covalent bonding between the actinide metal ion and the sulfur bonding site in the ligand.

  2. Separation studies of yttrium(III) and lanthanide(III) ions with 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione and trioctylphosphine oxide using a robotic extraction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekimken, H.L.; Smith, B.F.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Bartholdi, C.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-07-01

    We studied the extraction of trivalent Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er, and Lu from aqueous perchlorate solutions using a mixture of 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (HBMPPT) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). The metal ion distribution coefficients (D-values) as a function of increasing lanthanide atomic number increased initially, reached a maximum value at Nd, then decreased to a nearly constant value for Gd and the later lanthanides. The D-values vary slightly across the lanthanide series, the maximum difference being a factor of 14 between La and Nd. Analysis of slopes of plots of log D versus pH, log [HBMPPT], and log [TOPO] indicated that the stoichiometries of the extraction complexes varied across the lanthanide series showing a decrease in the number of HBMPPT (and/or BMPPT) units and an increase in the number of TOPO molecules involved in the major extraction species. This extraction system can provide a good way to separate the trivalent actinides from the trivalent lanthanides. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Extraction studies of selected actinide ions from aqueous solutions with 4-benzoyl-2,4-Dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione and Tri-n-octylphosphine oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannink, N.J.; Hoffman, D.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The first measurements of distribution coefficients (k{sub d}) for Cm(III), Bk(III), Cf(III), Es(III), and Fm(III) between aqueous perchlorate solutions and solutions of 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT) and the synergist tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in toluene are reported. Curium-243, berkelium-250, californium-249, einsteinium-254, and fermium-253 were used in these studies. The K{sub d} for {sup 241}Am was also measured and is in agreement with previously published results. Our new results show that the K{sub d}`s decrease gradually with increasing atomic number for the actinides with a dip at Cf. In general, the K{sub d}`s for these actinides are about about a factor of 10 greater than the K{sub d}`s for the homologous lanthanides at a pH of 2.9, a BMPPT concentration of 0.2 M, and a TOPO concentration of 0.04 M. The larger K{sub d}`s for the actinides are consistent with greater covalent bonding between the actinide metal ion and the sulfur bonding site in the ligand. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. When do efficacy outcomes in clinical trials correlate with clinical relevance? analysis of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel in moderate to severe acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-07-01

    Acne vulgaris (AV) is a common skin disease that is challenging to successfully treat due to its complex underlying pathophysiology and chronicity. Unrealistic expectations based on the desire for rapid and complete clearance or local tolerability reactions related to topical medications often lead to incomplete adherence with therapy, premature treatment cessation, and poor therapeutic outcomes. Despite stressing to patients the importance of compliance and the lag time of several weeks before visible improvement may be noted with treatments for AV, data on evaluation of the time taken to achieve a clinically meaningful improvement of AV that may be perceived by clinicians and patients are limited. Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% (clindamycin-BP 3.75%) gel has been shown in pivotal trials to be effective and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe AV. This article reviews a new concept referred to as time to onset of action (TOA), which is described in detail and illustrated using the pivotal trial data with clindamycin-BP 3.75% gel for treatment of AV. PMID:27529706

  5. Radical attached aluminum nanoclusters: an alternative way of cluster stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Turbasu; Pal, Sourav

    2016-08-21

    The stability and electronic structure of radical attached aluminum nanoclusters are investigated using density functional theory (DFT). A detailed investigation shows good correlation between the thermodynamic stability of radical attached clusters and the stability of the attached radical anions. All other calculated parameters like HOMO-LUMO gap and charge transfer are also found to be consistent with the observed thermodynamic stabilities of the complexes. Investigation of the electronic structure of radical attached complexes further shows the presence of jellium structures within the core similar to the ligated clusters. Comparison with available experimental and theoretical data also proves the validity of superatomic complex theory for the radical attached clusters as well. Based on the evaluated thermodynamic parameters, selected radical attached clusters are observed to be more thermodynamically stable in comparison with experimentally synthesized ligated clusters. Stabilization of small metal clusters is one of the greatest challenges in current cluster science and the present investigation confirms the fact that radical attached clusters can provide a viable alternative to ligated clusters in the future. PMID:27435912

  6. Spin radical enhanced magnetocapacitance effect in intermolecular excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Huidong; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Mingxing; He, Lei; Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Deqing; Hu, Bin

    2013-11-14

    This article reports the magnetocapacitance effect (MFC) based on both pristine polymer MEH-PPV and its composite system doped with spin radicals (6R-BDTSCSB). We observed that a photoexcitation leads to a significant positive MFC in the pristine MEH-PPV. Moreover, we found that a low doping of spin radicals in polymer MEH-PPV causes a significant change on the MFC signal: an amplitude increase and a line-shape narrowing under light illumination at room temperature. However, no MFC signal was observed under dark conditions in either the pristine MEH-PPV or the radical-doped MEH-PPV. Furthermore, the magnitude increase and line-shape narrowing caused by the doped spin radicals are very similar to the phenomena induced by increasing the photoexcitation intensity. Our studies suggest that the MFC is essentially originated from the intermolecular excited states, namely, intermolecular electron-hole pairs, generated by a photoexcitation in the MEH-PPV. More importantly, by comparing the effects of spin radicals and electrically polar molecules on the MFC magnitude and line shape, we concluded that the doped spin radicals can have the spin interaction with intermolecular excited states and consequently affect the internal spin-exchange interaction within intermolecular excited states in the development of MFC. Clearly, our experimental results indicate that dispersing spin radicals forms a convenient method to enhance the magnetocapacitance effect in organic semiconducting materials. PMID:24144347

  7. Relationship between bilirubin free radical and formation of pigment gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Tao Liu; Jian Hu

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the main progresses made inour group in the field of the mechanism of pigment gallstoneformation. It was found that after treetment with freeradicals, bilirubin (BR) was changed into free radical itself,and a semiquinone free radical and a superoxide free radicalbound with metal were recognized, which was detected byESR (electron spin resonance). By the meana of NMR(nuclear magnetic resonance) and IR (Infra-red spectra), itwas postulated that bilirubin polymerized through thereaction between the vinyl group and the hydroxyl groupunder the attack of free radicals. It was also found thatbilirubin free radical were liable to calcify in a kinetic study.Because of its chemical properties, bilirubin free radical wasshown to be cytotoxic to hepetocyte, which wasdemonstrated based on the following facts: induction ofphospholipid peroxidation (LPO), leakage of lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) and decrease of glutathione. As tothe mechanism of bilirubin-induced cytotoxicity, it waspostulated that the main target of bilirubin free radical wasthe cell membrane, including phospholipid and membranebound proteins, especially spectrin, a content ofcytoskeleton. Based on the results mentioned above, it wasdeduced that bilirubin free radical is the key factor thatinitiates and promotes the formation of pigment gallstone,which is consistent with other researches in recent years.

  8. Fluorescence probes to detect lipid-derived radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Mito, Fumiya; Matsuoka, Yuta; Ide, Satsuki; Shikimachi, Kazushige; Fujiki, Ayano; Kusakabe, Daiki; Ishida, Yuma; Enoki, Masataka; Tada, Arisa; Ariyoshi, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Toshihide; Yamato, Mayumi

    2016-08-01

    Lipids and their metabolites are easily oxidized in chain reactions initiated by lipid radicals, forming lipid peroxidation products that include the electrophiles 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde. These markers can bind cellular macromolecules, causing inflammation, apoptosis and other damage. Methods to detect and neutralize the initiating radicals would provide insights into disease mechanisms and new therapeutic approaches. We describe the first high-sensitivity, specific fluorescence probe for lipid radicals, 2,2,6-trimethyl-4-(4-nitrobenzo[1,2,5]oxadiazol-7-ylamino)-6-pentylpiperidine-1-oxyl (NBD-Pen). NBD-Pen directly detected lipid radicals in living cells by turn-on fluorescence. In a rat model of hepatic carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN), NBD-Pen detected lipid radical generation within 1 h of DEN administration. The lipid radical scavenging moiety of NBD-Pen decreased inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress markers at 24 h after DEN, and liver tumor development at 12 weeks. Thus, we have developed a novel fluorescence probe that provides imaging information about lipid radical generation and potential therapeutic benefits in vivo. PMID:27294322

  9. Free radicals created by radiation and aging symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The universality of aging implies that its cause is basically the same in all species. A free radical hypothesis of aging has been proposed that the free radicals produced during normal metabolism of the cell over time damage DNA and other macromolecules leading to degenerative diseases, malignancies, and eventual death of vital cells which in turn causes aging and death of the organism. This hypothesis is supported by several observations. Radiation produces its biologic effect through free radical formation and causes premature aging. Second, the age pigment lipo fuscin is associated with lipid peroxidation. The hypothesis that oxygen radicals play a role in aging is also supported by the observation that, in general, long-lived species produce less endogenous free oxygen radicals because of their lower metabolic rate. Long-lived animals also have more superoxide dismutase than do their short-lived counterparts, and animal species with the longest lifespan have the highest levels of superoxide dismutase. Oxidative DNA damage is rapidly and effectively repaired. It has been estimated that there are several thousand oxidative DNA damage sites in a human cell every day, and the majority of these are repaired. However, a small fraction of unrepaired lesions could cause permanent changes in DNA and might be a major contributor to aging and cancer. A consequence of the free radical hypothesis of aging is the idea that free radical scavenging agents might be used to prevent aging. (author)

  10. Are free radicals involved in thiol-based redox signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbourn, Christine C

    2015-03-01

    Cells respond to many stimuli by transmitting signals through redox-regulated pathways. It is generally accepted that in many instances signal transduction is via reversible oxidation of thiol proteins, although there is uncertainty about the specific redox transformations involved. The prevailing view is that thiol oxidation occurs by a two electron mechanism, most commonly involving hydrogen peroxide. Free radicals, on the other hand, are considered as damaging species and not generally regarded as important in cell signaling. This paper examines whether it is justified to dismiss radicals or whether they could have a signaling role. Although there is no direct evidence that radicals are involved in transmitting thiol-based redox signals, evidence is presented that they are generated in cells when these signaling pathways are activated. Radicals produce the same thiol oxidation products as two electron oxidants, although by a different mechanism, and at this point radical-mediated pathways should not be dismissed. There are unresolved issues about how radical mechanisms could achieve sufficient selectivity, but this could be possible through colocalization of radical-generating and signal-transducing proteins. Colocalization is also likely to be important for nonradical signaling mechanisms and identification of such associations should be a priority for advancing the field.

  11. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  12. A comparison of radical and non-radical conversion rates of SVOCs in the tropospheric condensed phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, Andreas; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2010-05-01

    Secondary formation pathways of organic compounds are currently intensely discussed including conversions in tropospheric aqueous particles as well as cloud droplets. Particularly, SVOCs (Semivolatile Organic Compounds) and their reaction products are expected to be potential precursors for the formation of higher molecular organic compounds. In the aqueous phase, such compounds can undergo both various oxidative processes (radical and non-radical oxidants reactions) and non oxidative processes (aldol, acetal, dimerisation and ester formation reactions). These chemical aqueous phase processes are expected to be very efficient proceeding on short timescales and produce multifunctional organic compounds of less volatility. However, the importance of non-radical reactions compared to currently known radical oxidations under different conditions has not yet been assessed .Current aqueous phase mechanisms such as CAPRAM (Chemical Aqueous Phase RAdical Mechanism; Herrmann et al., 2005) do consider radical oxidation processes of organic compounds. In the present study, a comparison of radical and non-radical conversion rates of organics in cloud droplet and aqueous particles is performed for both urban and remote environmental conditions. For the comparison, available reaction rate constants have been used together with outcome of recent model simulations (Tilgner and Herrmann, 2010) using the CAPRAM 3.0i mechanism. First order-conversion rate constants in the aqueous phase for cloud and aqueous particle conditions, for (i) OH, (ii) NO3, (iii) H2O2, (iv) the aldol condensation, (v) the dimerisation and (vi) the ammonium-catalysed accretion reactions were calculated with the available, at current quite restricted data set. From the comparison, it is concluded that organic accretion reactions might be of interest in some cases but generally do by far not reach the oxidative conversion rates of radical and non-radical oxidants. Particularly, the adol condensation reactions

  13. Radical and Non-Radical Mechanisms for Alkane Oxidations by Hydrogen Peroxide-Trifluoroacetic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bays, J. Timothy; Shaw, Wendy J.; Linehan, John C.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.

    2001-02-01

    The oxidation of cyclohexane by the H2O2-trifluoroacetic acid system is revisited. Consistent with a previous report (Deno, N.; Messer, L. A. Chem. Comm. 1976, 1051), cyclohexanol forms initially but then esterifies to cyclohexyl trifluoroacetate. Small amounts of trans-1,2-cyclohexadiyl bis(trifluoroacetate) also form. Although these products form irrespective of the presence or absence of O2, dual mechanisms are shown to operate. In the absence of O2, the dominant mechanism is a radical chain reaction that is propagated by CF3• abstracting H from C6H12 and SH2 displacement of C6H11• on CF3CO2OH. The intermediacy of C6H11• and CF3• is inferred from production of CHF3 and CO2 along with cyclohexyl trifluoroacetate, or CDF3 when cyclohexane-d12 is used. In the presence of O2, fluoroform and CO2 are suppressed, the reaction rate slows, and the rate law approaches second order (first order in peracid and in C6H12). Trapping of cyclohexyl radicals by quinoxaline is inefficient except at elevated (75 °C) temperatures. Fluoroform and CO2, telltale evidence for the chain pathway, were not produced when quinoxaline was present in room temperature reactions. These observations suggest that a parallel, nonfree radical, oxenoid insertion mechanism dominates when O2 is present. A pathway is discussed in which a biradicaloid-zwiterionic transition state is attained by hydrogen transfer from alkane to peroxide oxygen with synchronous O-O bond scission.

  14. Flow Giese reaction using cyanoborohydride as a radical mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Fukuyama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tin-free Giese reactions, employing primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl iodides as radical precursors, ethyl acrylate as a radical trap, and sodium cyanoborohydride as a radical mediator, were examined in a continuous flow system. With the use of an automated flow microreactor, flow reaction conditions for the Giese reaction were quickly optimized, and it was found that a reaction temperature of 70 °C in combination with a residence time of 10–15 minutes gave good yields of the desired addition products.

  15. El decadentismo en la derecha radical contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Simón Gómez

    2007-01-01

    The main concern this articles deals with is, first, the elusive conceptual definition of the «radical right». In the last years a, so called, new consensus, has been developed in the literature of this field. The core of this new consensus about the radical right is the palingentic form of nationalism, form this pant of view the decadentism and the claim for a social renewal is a central point in the political thought of the radical right. In this article we deal with the decadent subjects o...

  16. ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS FOR ROBOTIC NERVE SPARING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Moiseenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed anatomical study of the prostate and pelvic organs has been recently relevant. Their anatomical knowledge is directly associated with the improved procedure of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, which contributes to the preservation of the anatomical structures responsible for postsurgical erection and urinary continence. The main tasks of radical prostatectomy are effective cancer control, early recovery of urinary continence, and recovery of erectile function.The literature on the anatomy of the prostate and its adjacent structures is analyzed in the context of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

  17. Radical Hysterectomy and Total Abdominal Vaginectomy for Primary Vaginal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Nejat; Basaran, Derman; Boyraz, Gokhan; Salman, Coskun; Yuce, Kunter

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this surgical video is to demonstrate en bloc radical removal of uterus and vagina in a patient with clinical early-stage vaginal cancer. Surgical treatment was offered to our patient for clinical early-stage primary vaginal cancer. An en bloc radical hysterectomy, systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy, and total abdominal vaginectomy were performed. Postoperative adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy was not recommended for completely resected pathologic stage I disease with no lymph node involvement and negative surgical margins. Radical surgery can be a treatment option for selected patients with primary vaginal cancer. PMID:26825828

  18. Salvage robot-assisted radical prostatectomy after brachytherapy: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In case of recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation therapy patient may be offered salvage radical prostatectomy (both open and laparoscopic/robotic, hormone therapy, and a number of alternative techniques such as salvage cryoablation, HIFU-therapy and brachytherapy. Results of monitoring of patients for 10 years after salvage treatment of prostate cancer are known only after salvage prostatectomy. Technically radical prostatectomy after radiation therapy is associated with a large number of complications if compared with primary radical prostatectomy. The most frequent complications after salvage prostatectomy include incontinence, stricture formation of urethrovesical anastomosis, rectal injury, acute urinary retention and infectious complications.

  19. Salvage robot-assisted radical prostatectomy after brachytherapy: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation therapy patient may be offered salvage radical prostatectomy (both open and laparoscopic/robotic, hormone therapy, and a number of alternative techniques such as salvage cryoablation, HIFU-therapy and brachytherapy. Results of monitoring of patients for 10 years after salvage treatment of prostate cancer are known only after salvage prostatectomy. Technically radical prostatectomy after radiation therapy is associated with a large number of complications if compared with primary radical prostatectomy. The most frequent complications after salvage prostatectomy include incontinence, stricture formation of urethrovesical anastomosis, rectal injury, acute urinary retention and infectious complications.

  20. The mechanisms of radical formation in L-α-alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling of radical transformations in L-α-alanine after irradiation was performed for isolated radicals and for clusters. Special attention was devoted to the explanation of the experimental results concerning selective proton transfer and behavior of cation-radicals because a unique interpretation of the corresponding experiments is very difficult. Both semi-empirical and ab initio methods were used depending on the size of system under investigation. The results obtained show the usefulness of the computer simulation for processes in rather complex materials used in dosimetry

  1. The mechanisms of radical formation in L-{alpha}-alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugay, A.A.; Onischuk, V.A.; Petrenko, T.L.; Teslenko, V.V

    2000-05-15

    Modeling of radical transformations in L-{alpha}-alanine after irradiation was performed for isolated radicals and for clusters. Special attention was devoted to the explanation of the experimental results concerning selective proton transfer and behavior of cation-radicals because a unique interpretation of the corresponding experiments is very difficult. Both semi-empirical and ab initio methods were used depending on the size of system under investigation. The results obtained show the usefulness of the computer simulation for processes in rather complex materials used in dosimetry.

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and photodissociation of polyatomic molecules and radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y. [Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States)

    1993-12-01

    In the past decade, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the photodissociation (PD) dynamics of triatomic molecules. However, the PD study of radicals, especially polyatomic radicals, has remained essentially an unexplored research area. Detailed state-to-state PD cross sections for radicals in the UV and VUV provide challenges not only for dynamical calculations, but also for ab initio quantum chemical studies. The authors have developed a laser based pump-probe apparatus for the measurement of absolute PD cross sections for CH{sub 3}S and HS is summarized.

  3. Transverse flow reactor studies of the dynamics of radical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, R.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Radical reactions are in important in combustion chemistry; however, little state-specific information is available for these reactions. A new apparatus has been constructed to measure the dynamics of radical reactions. The unique feature of this apparatus is a transverse flow reactor in which an atom or radical of known concentration will be produced by pulsed laser photolysis of an appropriate precursor molecule. The time dependence of individual quantum states or products and/or reactants will be followed by rapid infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The reaction H + O{sub 2} {yields} OH + O will be studied.

  4. Photo-induced free radicals on a simulated Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, S.-S.; Chang, S.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an electron spin resonance study of free radicals in the ultraviolet irradiation of a simulated Martian surface suggest that the ultraviolet photolysis of CO or CO2, or a mixture of both, adsorbed on silica gel at minus 170 C involves the formation of OH radicals and possibly of H atoms as the primary process, followed by the formation of CO2H radicals. It is concluded that the photochemical synthesis of organic compounds could occur on Mars if the siliceous surface dust contains enough silanol groups and/or adsorbed H2O in the form of bound water.

  5. The Radical Stabilization Energy of a Substituted Carbon-centered Free Radical Depends both on the Functionality of the Substituent and the Ordinality of the Radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poutsma, Marvin L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Chemical intuition suggests that the stabilization of a carbon-centered free radical by a substituent X would be the greatest for a prim and least for a more stable tert radical because of saturation. However, analysis of a comprehensive recent set of bond dissociation energies computed by Coote and coworkers (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2010 12 9597) and transformed into radical stabilization energies (RSE) suggests that this supposition is often violated. The RSE for a given X depends not only on the nature of X but also on the ordinality (i.e., prim, sec, or tert) of the radical onto which it is substituted. For substituents that stabilize by electron delocalization but also contain electron-withdrawing centers, such as the carbonyl function, the stabilization of XCMe2 compared with HCMe2 is greater than for XCH2 compared with HCH2 . However, for substituents that stabilize by lone-pair electron donation, such as N or O centers, the order is strongly reversed. This contrast can be qualitatively rationalized by considering charge-separated VB contributors to the radical structure (R2C+ X- and R2C- X+ ) and the contrasting effects of methyl substituents on them. This conclusion is not dependent on the particular definition used for RSE.

  6. Formation of long-lived radicals on proteins by radical transfer from heme enzymes--a common process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostdal, H; Andersen, H J; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of Fe(III)myoglobin (Fe(III)Mb) with H2O2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been shown previously to give albumin-derived radicals as a result of radical transfer from myoglobin to BSA. In this study the occurrence of similar processes with peroxidases has been...... for these albumin radicals being located on buried tyrosine residues on the basis of blocking experiments. The effect of protein conformation on radical transfer has been investigated using partial proteolytic digestion prior to protein oxidation. With HRP/H2O2/BSA and Fe(III)Mb/H2O2/BSA increased radical...... concentrations were observed after limited digestion, although this effect was less marked with the HRP/H2O2/BSA system than with Fe(III)Mb/H2O2/BSA, consistent with different modes of radical transfer. More extensive digestion of BSA decreased the radical concentration to levels below those detected with native...

  7. Effect of Trapping Agent and Polystyrene Chain End Functionality on Radical Trap-Assisted Atom Transfer Radical Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Carnicom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupling reactions were performed to gauge the effect of the inclusion of a radical trap on the success of coupling reactions of monohalogenated polystyrene (PSX chains in atom transfer radical coupling (ATRC type reactions. The effect of both the specific radical trap chosen and the structure of the polymer chain end were evaluated by the extent of dimerization observed in a series of analogous coupling reactions. The commonly used radical trap 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP showed the highest amounts of dimerization for PSX (X = Br, Cl compared to coupling reactions performed in its absence or with a different radical trap. A dinitroxide coupling agent was also studied with the extent of coupling nearly matching the effectiveness of MNP in RTA (Radical trap-assisted-ATRC reactions, while N-nitroso and electron rich nitroso coupling agents were the least effective. (2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-piperin-l-yloxyl-capped PS (PS-TEMPO, prepared by NMP, was subjected to a coupling sequence conceptually similar to RTA-ATRC, but dimerization was not observed regardless of the choice of radical trap. Kinetic experiments were performed to observe rate changes on the coupling reaction of PSBr as a result of the inclusion of MNP, with substantial rate enhancements found in the RTA-ATRC coupling sequence compared to traditional ATRC.

  8. Pressure Effects on Product Channels of Hydrocarbon Radical-Radical Reactions; Implications for Modelling of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, A.; Halpern, J.; N'doumi, M.

    2011-10-01

    Previously we had studied the kinetics and product channels of small unsaturated hydrocarbon radical (C2 and C3s) reactions relevant to planetary atmospheric modelling. Reactions of C2 radicals (such as vinyl, H2CCH and ethynyl C2H) and C3 radicals (such as propargyl, HCCCH2 and allyl, H2CCCH3) can affect the abundances of a large number of stable observable C3, C4, C5, C6 and larger molecules, including linear, aromatic and even poly aromatic molecules. We have experimentally determined pressuredependent product yields for self- and cross-radical reactions performed at 298 K and at selected pressures between ~4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Final products were determined by gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID). In some cases complementary computational studies extended the pressure and temperature range of the observations and provided valuable information on complex reaction mechanisms. These studies provide a systematic framework so that important energetic and structural parameters for radical-radical reactions can be assessed. Here we report a compilation of our earlier results relevant to planetary atmospheres in addition to recent ones for allyl radical (H2CCCH3) reactions.

  9. Inhibitory effect of free radical scavenger, MCI-186, in the increase of hydroxyl radical induced by iminodipropionitrile in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Nobuatsu

    2004-04-15

    Beta,beta'-Iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) is known to produce permanent motor behavioral abnormalities in rats. This behavior syndrome is also termed as "ECC Syndrome", the animal model for Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in humans. Some reports showed that these behavioral abnormalities are caused by monoamine changes. However, there was little research on the relation between IDPN-induced behavioral abnormalities and free radical. 3-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (MCI-186), a newly synthesized free radical scavenger, exerts beneficial free radical scavenging and antioxidant characteristics. We investigated that MCI-186 inhibited the process of hydroxyl radical formation induced by IDPN administration in the rat brain. In the group of IDPN administration, hydroxyl radical levels exhibited predominant increase in most parts of the rat brain. In the group of IDPN and MCI-186 administration, hydroxyl radical levels marked significant decrease compared with those in the group of IDPN administration. Therefore, MCI-186 inhibited production of hydroxyl radical and might prove to be effective against ECC syndrome induced by IDPN. PMID:15050436

  10. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: omitting a pelvic drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess outcomes of a selective drain placement strategy during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with a running urethrovesical anastomosis (RUVA using cystographic imaging in all patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing LRP between January 2003 and December 2004. The anastomosis was performed using a modified van Velthoven technique. A drain was placed at the discretion of the senior surgeon when a urinary leak was demonstrated with bladder irrigation, clinical suspicion for a urinary leak was high, or a complex bladder neck reconstruction was performed. Routine postoperative cystograms were obtained. RESULTS: 208 patients underwent LRP with a RUVA. Data including cystogram was available for 206 patients. The overall rate of cystographic urine leak was 5.8%. A drain was placed in 51 patients. Of these, 8 (15.6% had a postoperative leak on cystogram. Of the 157 undrained patients, urine leak was radiographically visible in 4 (2.5%. The higher leak rate in the drained vs. undrained cohort was statistically significant (p = 0.002. Twenty-four patients underwent pelvic lymph node dissection (8 drained, 16 undrained. Three undrained patients developed lymphoceles, which presented clinically on average 3 weeks postoperatively. There were no urinomas or hematomas in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Routine placement of a pelvic drain after LRP with a RUVA is not necessary, unless the anastomotic integrity is suboptimal intraoperatively. Experienced clinical judgment is essential and accurate in identifying patients at risk for postoperative leakage. When suspicion is low, omitting a drain does not increase morbidity.

  11. The Outcomes of Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Akçay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we analyzed the surgical data and indications of patients, who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with the Heilbronn technique, according to the techniques and observed complications. Methods: Between November 2006 and September 2008, 61 patients with prostate cancer underwent LRP at Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Department of Urology. The analyzed preoperative factors were mean age, body-mass index, PSA value, prostate volume measured by transrectal ultrasonography, Gleason score, and hemoglobin levels. Mean operation time, urethrovesical anastomosis time, requirement of blood transfusion and complications were investigated. The postoperative factors such as duration of hospitalization and catheterization were also analyzed. Results: The mean operating time was 257.1±64.6 (190-460 and the mean urethrovesical anastomosis time was 47.6±12.1 (29-90 minutes. Pelvic lymphadenectomy and nerve sparing surgery were performed in 62% and 32% of the patients, respectively. Blood transfusion was needed in 36% of patients in perioperative or postoperative period. The mean hospitalization time was 4.4±1.3 days. The mean urethral catheterization time was 9.3±2.9 (5-17 days. Conclusion: The data of our series, which is one of the first large series of LRP in our country, show that LRP will evolve as an important surgical procedure in our country in the future. The advance in surgical training programs and skills should have an important role to make it a commonly used technique. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48: 28-33

  12. Electron affinities of atoms, molecules, and radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review briefly but comprehensively the theoretical, semiempirical and experimental methods employed to determine electron affinities (EAs) of atoms, molecules and radicals, and summarize the EA data obtained by these methods. The detailed processes underlying the principles of the experimental methods are discussed very briefly. It is, nonetheless, instructive to recapitulate the definition of EA and those of the related quantities, namely, the vertical detachment energy, VDE, and the vertical attachment energy, VAE. The EA of an atom is defined as the difference in total energy between the ground state of the neutral atom (plus the electron at rest at infinity) and its negative ion. The EA of a molecule is defined as the difference in energy between the neutral molecule plus an electron at rest at infinity and the molecular negative ion when both, the neutral molecules and the negative ion, are in their ground electronic, vibrational and rotational states. The VDE is defined as the minimum energy required to eject the electron from the negative ion (in its ground electronic and nuclear state) without changing the internuclear separation; since the vertical transition may leave the neutral molecule in an excited vibrational/rotational state, the VDE, although the same as the EA for atoms is, in general, different (larger than), from the EA for molecules. Similarly, the VAE is defined as the difference in energy between the neutral molecule in its ground electronic, vibrational and rotational states plus an electron at rest at infinity and the molecular negative ion formed by addition of an electron to the neutral molecule without allowing a change in the intermolecular separation of the constituent nuclei; it is a quantity appropriate to those cases where the lowest negative ion state lies above the ground states of the neutral species and is less or equal to EA

  13. Nutritional Predictors of Complications Following Radical Cystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David C.; Riggs, Stephen B.; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Matthews, Jonathan E.; Woods, Michael E.; Wallen, Eric M.; Pruthi, Raj S.; Smith, Angela B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of preoperative nutritional status on the development of surgical complications following cystectomy using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). Methods We performed a retrospective review of the NSQIP 2005–2012 Participant Use Data Files. ACS-NSQIP collects data on 135 variables, including pre- and intraoperative data and 30-day post-operative complications and mortality on all major surgical procedures at participating institutions. Preoperative albumin (3.5 g/dl), weight loss 6 months before surgery (>10%), and BMI were identified as nutritional variables within the database. The overall complication rate was calculated and predictors of complications were identified using multivariable logistic regression models. Results 1,213 patients underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer between 2005–2012. The overall 30-day complication rate was 55.1% (n=668). While 14.7% (n=102) had a preoperative albumin 10% weight loss in the 6 months prior to surgery, and the mean BMI was 28 kg/m2. After controlling for age, sex, medical comorbidities, medical resident involvement, operation year, operative time and prior operation, only albumin <3.5g/dl was a significant predictor of experiencing a postoperative complication (p=0.03). This remained significant when albumin was evaluated as a continuous variable (p=0.02) Conclusions Poor nutritional status measured by serum albumin is predictive of an increased rate of surgical complications following radical cystectomy. This finding supports the importance of preoperative nutritional status in this population and highlights the need for the development of effective nutritional interventions in the preoperative setting. PMID:25240535

  14. Syntheses and study of pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. Preparation of a nitroxide-type stable bi-radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syntheses and study of pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals: These radicals are obtained by oxidation, with hydrogen peroxide, of pyrrolidinic amines prepared from triacetonamine by ring contraction. The U. V,, I. R, and E.P.R. spectral characteristics have been determined. The oxidation of these amines with hydrogen peroxide has led also to rupture of the pentagonal ring; some of the decomposition products have been identified. The high chemical stability of the nitroxide group has made it possible to synthesize and study a stable bi-radical. (author)

  15. Iodinated (Perfluoro)alkyl Quinoxalines by Atom Transfer Radical Addition Using ortho-Diisocyanoarenes as Radical Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, Dirk; Studer, Armido

    2016-09-12

    A simple method for the preparation of functionalized quinoxalines is reported. Starting from readily accessible ortho-diisocyanoarenes and (perfluoro)alkyl iodides, the quinoxaline core is constructed during (perfluoro)alkylation by atom transfer radical addition (ATRA), resulting in 2-iodo-3-(perfluoro)alkylquinoxalines. The radical cascades are readily initiated either with visible light or by using α,α'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). The heteroarene products are obtained in high yields (up to 94 %), and the method can be readily scaled up. Useful follow-up chemistry documents the value of the novel radical quinoxaline synthesis.

  16. Ferrous ion-EDTA-stimulated phospholipid peroxidation. A reaction changing from alkoxyl-radical- to hydroxyl-radical-dependent initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, J M

    1984-01-01

    The stimulatory effect of ferrous salts on the peroxidation of phospholipids can be enhanced by EDTA when the concentration of Fe2+ in the reaction is greater than that of EDTA. Hydroxyl-radical scavengers do not inhibit peroxidation until the concentrations of Fe2+ and EDTA in the reaction are equal. Lipid peroxidation is then substantially initiated by hydroxyl radicals derived from a Fenton-type reaction requiring hydrogen peroxide. Superoxide radicals appear to play some role in the formation of initiating species. PMID:6441569

  17. J/{psi} production in {radical}(s)=7 TeV pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Frederick

    2012-07-01

    In the first part of this work the inclusive cross section for J/{psi} production in inelastic {radical}(s) = 7 TeV pp collisions has been determined within vertical stroke y vertical stroke < 0.9 and in the decay channel J/{psi} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}. The result for the integrated value is: {sigma}{sub J/{psi}}(vertical stroke y vertical stroke < 0.9) = 10.7 {+-} 0.8 (stat.) {+-} 1.4 (syst.) {+-} 0.4 (lumi.) {mu}b. Together with the ALICE measurement in the {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay channel at forward rapidities and data from other experiments this result fills the gap at mid-rapidity for a comprehensive measurement of the J/{psi} rapidity distribution. Furthermore, results of the differential analysis as a function of the J/{psi} transverse momentum were presented. Finally the data are shown together with various theoretical predictions representing the current status of the three most common theoretical approaches for the description of quarkonia production: the Color-Singlet Model, the Color-Evaporation Model and NRQCD.

  18. Autoconhecimento e liberdade no behaviorismo radical Self-knowledge and liberty in radical behaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Justen Brandenburg

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo corresponde a um estudo teórico sobre o conceito do autoconhecimento e da liberdade no behaviorismo radical, com o objetivo de discutir a relação entre esses conceitos. Após a discussão sobre a definição do autoconhecimento e sobre sua origem social, a visão de Skinner sobre liberdade é abordada. A existência da liberdade depende do autoconhecimento, e esta é a ligação entre os dois termos. Conclui-se que ninguém pode se libertar do controle, mas com o autoconhecimento é possível modificar o ambiente e trocar controles coercitivos por reforçamento positivo, atingindo melhor qualidade de vida.The present article corresponds to a theoretical study on the concept of self-knowledge and freedom in radical behaviorism, with the objective to argue the relation between these concepts. After discussing the definition of self-knowledge and its social origin, Skinner's vision of freedom is approached. The existence of freedom depends on the self-knowledge, and this is the linking between the two terms. The conclusion is that nobody can free of this control, but with self-knowledge, it's possible to modify the environment and change coercive controls for positive reinforcement and thus, achieve a better quality of life.

  19. Observation of X(3872) production in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Abellan Beteta, C. [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (ES)] (and others)

    2012-05-15

    Using 34.7 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the LHCb detector, the inclusive production of the X(3872) meson in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV is observed for the first time. Candidates are selected in the X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay mode, and used to measure where {sigma}(pp{yields}X(3872)+anything) is the inclusive production cross section of X(3872) mesons with rapidity in the range 2.5-4.5 and transverse momentum in the range 5-20 GeV/c. In addition the masses of both the X(3872) and {psi}(2S) mesons, reconstructed in the J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} final state, are measured to be m{sub X(3872)} = 3871.95 {+-}0.48(stat){+-}0.12(syst) MeV/c{sup 2} and m{sub {psi}}{sub (2S)} = 3686.12{+-}0.06(stat){+-}0.10(syst) MeV/c{sup 2}. (orig.)

  20. A search for excited leptons in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Eroe, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Fruehwirth, R.; Ghete, V.M.; Hammer, J.; Haensel, S.; Hoch, M.; Hoermann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der OeAW, Wien (Austria)

    2011-10-13

    A search for excited leptons is carried out with the CMS detector at the LHC, using 36 pb{sup -1} of pp collision data recorded at {radical}(s)=7 TeV. The search is performed for associated production of a lepton and an oppositely charged excited lepton pp{yields}ll*, followed by the decay l*{yields}l{gamma}, resulting in the ll{gamma} final state, where l=e,{mu}. No excess of events above the standard model expectation is observed. Interpreting the findings in the context of l{sup *} production through four-fermion contact interactions and subsequent decay via electroweak processes, first upper limits are reported for l{sup *} production at this collision energy. The exclusion region in the compositeness scale {Lambda} and excited lepton mass M{sub l}{sup *} parameter space is extended beyond previously established limits. For {Lambda}=M{sub l}{sup *}, excited lepton masses are excluded below 1070 GeV/c{sup 2} for e* and 1090 GeV/c{sup 2} for {mu}* at the 95% confidence level.