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Sample records for benzoate esters generic

  1. Thielavin B methyl ester: a cytotoxic benzoate trimer from an unidentified fungus (MSX 55526) from the Order Sordariales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Sloan; Ehrmann, Brandie M; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-11-02

    As part of our ongoing investigation of filamentous fungi for anticancer leads, an active fungal extract was identified from the Mycosynthetix library (MSX 55526; from the Order Sordariales). Bioactivity-directed fractionation yielded the known ergosterol peroxide (2) and 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol(3), and a new benzoate trimer, termed thielavin B methyl ester (1). The structure elucidation of 1 was facilitated by the use of HRMS coupled to an APPI (atmospheric pressure photoionization) source. Compound 1 proved to be moderately active against a panel of three cancer cell lines.

  2. Poly(styrene-co-N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as sorbents for the analysis of sodium benzoate in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shilei; Li, Nan; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, poly(styrene-co-N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were constructed and used as magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbents for analysis of food preservatives in beverages. To prepare the poly(amino acid)-based sorbents, N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester, and styrene served as the functional monomers and modified onto the magnetic nanoparticles via free radical polymerization. Interestingly, compared with propylparaben and potassium sorbate, the proposed poly(amino acid)-based sorbents showed a good selectivity to sodium benzoate. The adsorption capacity of the sorbents to sodium benzoate was 6.08 ± 0.31 mg/g. Moreover, the fast adsorption equilibrium could be reached within 5 min. Further, the resultant poly(amino acid)-based sorbents were applied in the analysis of sodium benzoate in real beverage samples. The results proved that the proposed magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbents have a great potential for the analysis of preservatives in food samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Alkaline earth layered benzoates as reusable heterogeneous catalysts for the methyl esterification of benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy Arêa Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of layered barium, calcium and strontium benzoates and evaluates the potential of these materials as catalysts in the synthesis of methyl benzoate. The methyl esterification of benzoic acid was investigated, where the effects of temperature, alcohol:acid molar ratio and amount of catalyst were evaluated. Ester conversions of 65 to 70% were achieved for all the catalysts under the best reaction conditions. The possibility of recycling these metallic benzoates was also demonstrated, evidenced by unaltered catalytic activity for three consecutive reaction cycles.

  4. Acute poisoning with emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2004-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate is the 4'-deoxy-4'-epi-methyl-amino benzoate salt of avermectin B1 (abamectin), which is similar structurally to natural fermentation products of Streptomyces avermitilis. Emamectin benzoate is being developed as a newer broad-spectrum insecticide for vegetables and has a very low application rate. The mechanism of action involves stimulation of high-affinity GABA receptors and a consequent increase in membrane chloride ion permeability. Animal studies indicate a wide margin of safety because mammalian species are much less sensitive due to lower GABA receptor affinities and relative impermeability of the blood-brain barrier. Notably, the literature has not reported human exposure resulting in toxicity. This paper describes a case of acute poisoning with Proclaim insecticide (Syngenta, Taiwan), consisting of 2.15% w/w emamectin benzoate in 2, 6-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-phenol and 1-hexanol. The clinical manifestation was transient gastrointestinal upset with endoscopy-proven gastric erosion and superficial gastritis, mild central nervous system depression, and aspiration pneumonia. No specific antidote exists for emamectin benzoate intoxication; this patient was treated successfully with gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, and empiric antibiotics. Drugs that enhance GABA activity such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines were avoided.

  5. Benzoate transport in Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alpa; Purohit, Hemant; Phale, Prashant S

    2017-07-03

    Pseudomonas putida strain CSV86 metabolizes variety of aromatic compounds as the sole carbon source. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding putative transporters for benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate, p-hydroxyphenylacetate and vanillate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that benzoate transport and metabolism genes are clustered at the ben locus as benK-catA-benE-benF. Protein topology prediction suggests that BenK (aromatic acid-H+ symporter of major facilitator superfamily) has 12 transmembrane α-helices with the conserved motif LADRXGRKX in loop 2, while BenE (benzoate-H+ symporter protein) has 11 predicted transmembrane α-helices. benF and catA encode benzoate specific porin, OprD and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively. Biochemical studies suggest that benzoate was transported by an inducible and active process. Inhibition (90%-100%) in the presence of dinitrophenol suggests that the energy for the transport process is derived from the proton motive force. The maximum rate of benzoate transport was 484 pmole min-1 mg-1 cells with an affinity constant, Kmof 4.5 μM. Transcriptional analysis of the benzoate and glucose-grown cells showed inducible expression of benF, benK and benE, suggesting that besides outer membrane porin, both inner membrane transporters probably contribute for the benzoate transport in P. putida strain CSV86. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  7. Exploiting members of the BAHD acyltransferase family to synthesize multiple hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudes, Aymerick [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mouille, Maxence [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, David S. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Benites, Veronica T. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); San Francisco State Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wang, George [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Roux, Lucien [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Tsai, Yi-Lin [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chiu, Tsan-Yu [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heazlewood, Joshua L. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); The Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Scheller, Henrik V. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Horsholm (Denmark); Deutsch, Samuel [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Loqué, Dominique [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-21

    BAHD acyltransferases, named after the first four biochemically characterized enzymes of the group, are plant-specific enzymes that catalyze the transfer of coenzyme A-activated donors onto various acceptor molecules. They are responsible for the synthesis in plants of a myriad of secondary metabolites, some of which are beneficial for humans either as therapeutics or as specialty chemicals such as flavors and fragrances. The production of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and commodity chemicals using engineered microbes is an alternative, green route to energy-intensive chemical syntheses that consume petroleum-based precursors. However, identification of appropriate enzymes and validation of their functional expression in heterologous hosts is a prerequisite for the design and implementation of metabolic pathways in microbes for the synthesis of such target chemicals. As a result, for the synthesis of valuable metabolites in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we selected BAHD acyltransferases based on their preferred donor and acceptor substrates. In particular, BAHDs that use hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs and/or benzoyl-CoA as donors were targeted because a large number of molecules beneficial to humans belong to this family of hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates. The selected BAHD coding sequences were synthesized and cloned individually on a vector containing the Arabidopsis gene At4CL5, which encodes a promiscuous 4-coumarate:CoA ligase active on hydroxycinnamates and benzoates. The various S. cerevisiae strains obtained for co-expression of At4CL5 with the different BAHDs effectively produced a wide array of valuable hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates upon addition of adequate combinations of donors and acceptor molecules. In particular, we report here for the first time the production in yeast of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives, quinate hydroxycinnamate esters such as chlorogenic acid, and glycerol hydroxycinnamate esters

  8. Fries rearrangement of naphthyl benzoates; Ansoku kosan naphthyl no fries ten`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, J.; Haraguchi, Y.; Iwaki, T.; Yamana, Sasaki, H. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-10

    When 1-naphthyl benzoate (1{alpha}) was boiled with anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in chlorobenzene, 2-benzoyl-l-naphthol(2) and 4-benzoyl-l-naphthol(3) were obtained as the rearrangement products. A product 1-benzoyl-2-naphthol (4) was given from 2-naphthyl benzoate (1{beta}) under the same reaction conditions. It seems that 2 and 3 are formed via intramolecular pathway from 1{alpha}. Other ester 1{beta} may proceed via both inter- and intramolecular pathways to give 4. Retro-Fries rearrangement of 2 and 3 to 1{alpha} took place in the presence of AlCl3 in boiling chlorobenzene. The compound 4 `however` was almost recovered the reaction of 4 with AlCl3 in chlorobenzene at refluxed temperature. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Generic Advantages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.

  10. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  11. Family Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....

  12. Potential Safety Issues Surrounding the Use of Benzoate Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Piper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (E211 and potassium sorbate (E202 have long been used for large-scale beverage preservation, yet it is potassium sorbate that is now the preferred option for most soft drink manufacturers. Partly this is a reaction to the discovery that benzoate can cause drinks to contain traces of the carcinogen benzene. This benzene is thought to have its origins in a free-radical catalysed reaction of the benzoate with ascorbic acid. However, there may be additional benefits to using potassium sorbate rather than the benzoate preservatives in beverages. In children, a high dietary intake of sodium benzoate may be associated with asthma, allergy, or attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder. Benzoate is now known to influence cognitive functioning. By acting as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO, thereby reducing the DAAO-catalysed degradation of D-serine, it can upregulate the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the brain. A high benzoate intake might also generate glycine deficiency, lack of glycine generally exerting a negative impact on brain neurochemistry. There are therefore strong grounds for suspecting that dietary benzoate can have neuromodulatory (mood, learning, and personality effects and influence child hyperactivity disorders.

  13. Emamectin benzoate: new insecticide against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanigliulo, A; Sacchetti, M

    2008-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate is a new insecticide of Syngenta Crop Protection, with a new mechanism of action and a strong activity against Lepidoptera as well as with and a high selectivity on useful organisms. This molecule acts if swallowed and has some contact action. It penetrates leaf tissues (translaminar activity) and forms a reservoir within the leaf. The mechanism of action is unique in the panorama of insecticides. In facts, it inhibits muscle contraction, causing a continuous flow of chlorine ions in the GABA and H-Glutamate receptor sites. During 2006 and 2007, experimentation was performed by the Bioagritest test facility, according to EPPO guidelines and Principles of Good Experimental Practice (GEP), aiming at establishing the biological efficacy and the selectivity of Emamectin benzoate on industry tomato against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidoe). The study was performed in Tursi-Policoro (Matera), southern Italy. Experimental design consisted in random blocks, in 4 repetitions. A dosage of 1.5 Kg/ha of the formulate was compared with two commercial formulates: Spinosad 0.2 kg/ha (Laser, Dow Agrosciences Italia) and Indoxacarb 0.125 kg/ha (Steward EC insecticide, Dupont). Three foliage applications were applied every 8 days. The severity of damage induced by H. armigera was evaluated on fruits. Eventual phytotoxic effects were also evaluated. Climatic conditions were optimal for Lepidoptera development, so that the percentage of fruits attacked in 2007 at the first scouting was 68.28%. Emamectin benzoate has shown, in two years of testing, a high control of H. armigera if compared with the standards Indoxacarb and Spinosad. No effect of phytotoxicity was noticed on fruits.

  14. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  15. Dissipation and residues of emamectin benzoate in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuaigang; Zhang, Fengzu; Wang, Lei; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    Emamectin benzoate residue dynamics and final residues in supervised field trials at GAP conditions were studied. An HPLC-MS analytical method for the determination of emamectin benzoate in cabbage and soil was developed. The recoveries of emamectin benzoate on cabbage and soil were observed from 71% to 102% at fortification levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg. The reported limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.01 mg/kg. The dissipation experiments showed the half-lives (T(1/2)) of emamectin benzoate was around 1 days. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 7 and 12 days, emamectin benzoate residue was observed to be below the LOQ.

  16. Inhibition of Sodium Benzoate on Stainless Steel in Tropical Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoh, S. Y.; Senin, H. B.; Nik, W. N. Wan; Amin, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition of sodium benzoate for stainless steel controlling corrosion was studied in seawater at room temperature. Three sets of sample have been immersed in seawater containing sodium benzoate with the concentrations of 0.3M, 0.6M and 1.0M respectively. One set of sample has been immersed in seawater without adding any sodium benzoate. It was found that the highest corrosion rate was observed for the stainless steel with no inhibitor was added to the seawater. As the concentration of sodium benzoate being increased, the corrosion rate is decreases. Results show that by the addition of 1.0M of sodium benzoate in seawater samples, it giving ≥ 90% efficiencies

  17. Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, M.; Chukwudebe, A.C.; Wrzesinski, C.; Allen, L.R.S.; Luffer-Atlas, D.; Arison, B.H.

    1998-01-01

    The half-life of [ 14 C]4'-deoxy-4'-(epi-methylamino)avermectin B1a (MAB1a) benzoate (1 ppm) photodegradation in buffer (pH 7), natural pond water, and sensitized buffer (1% acetone in pH 7 buffer) determined at Three Bridges, NJ (latitude approximately 40 degrees N) during the fall season under natural sunlight was 22, 7, and 1 days, respectively. The half-life of [ 14 C]MAB1a benzoate (10-12 ppm) photodegradation in buffer (pH 7) containing 1% (v/v) acetonitrile, ethanol, or acetone as cosolvent under continuous exposure with a xenon lamp was 64.5, 8.5, or 0.5 days, respectively. The photoisomer 8,9-Z-MAB1a, 8a-hydroxy-MAB1a, and unknown polar residues were found in light-exposed samples of MAB1a in buffer and natural pond water. In light-exposed sensitized buffer samples, 8a-oxo-MAB1a and MAB1a-10,11-14,15-diepoxide were additional products. Very polar residues found in the organic and aqueous phases after extraction increased with time, and their formation followed the order sensitized buffer natural pond water buffer. (author)

  18. Benzoate Catabolite Repression of the Phthalate Degradation Pathway in Rhodococcus sp. Strain DK17▿

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ki Young; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Kim, Eungbin

    2006-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 exhibits a catabolite repression-like response when provided simultaneously with benzoate and phthalate as carbon and energy sources. Benzoate in the medium is depleted to detection limits before the utilization of phthalate begins. The transcription of the genes encoding benzoate and phthalate dioxygenase paralleled the substrate utilization profile. Two mutant strains with defective benzoate dioxygenases were unable to utilize phthalate in the presence of benzoat...

  19. Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Sports Drinks. Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh, Zeinab Moradi, Ghazaleh Moghaddam, Zhila Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Farideh Esmaeili Aftabdari, Parnaz Badaei, Mannan Hajimahmoodi ...

  20. Resistance Inheritance of Plutellaxylostella Population to Residual of Emamectin Benzoat

    OpenAIRE

    Udi Tarwotjo; Rully Rahardian

    2017-01-01

    Excessive use of insecticides drives the increasing ability of pests to become resistant. The objectives of this research were to study the susceptibility and the resistance inheritance of the eleven population of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The leaf-dip bioassay was applied to determine the sensitivity of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The offspring of backcrossed F2 were tested whether the resistance was controlled by monogenic. The results showed that the LC50 of the Selo po...

  1. Dissipation, transfer and safety evaluation of emamectin benzoate in tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Jiang, Yaping; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation and residue of emamectin benzoate in tea leaves and the residue transfer from tea leaves to tea brew were investigated by modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries ranged 85.3-101.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005mgkg(-1) in tea leaves and 0.0004mgL(-1) in brew. Emamectin benzoate dissipated rapidly in tea with half-life (t1/2) of 1.0-1.3days. The terminal residues of emamectin benzoate were less than 0.062mgkg(-1). The leaching rate of emamectin benzoate from freshly-made tea to brew was emamectin benzoate at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans depending on risk quotient (RQ) value, that was lower than 1 significantly. This study could provide guidance for the safe use of emamectin benzoate and serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. [Biodistribution and Postmortem Redistribution of Emamectin Benzoate in Intoxicated Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei-wei; Lin, Yu-cai; Lu, Yan-xu

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the lethal blood level, the target organs and tissues, the toxicant storage depots and the postmortem redistribution in mice died of emamectin benzoate poisoning. The mice model of emamectin benzoate poisoning was established via intragastric injection. The main poisoning symptoms and the clinical death times of mice were observed and recorded dynamically in the acute poisoning group as well as the sub-acute poisoning death group. The pathological and histomorphological changes of organs and tissues were observed after poisoning death. The biodistribution and postmortem redistribution of emamectin benzoate in the organs and tissues of mice were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 0h, 24h, 48h and 72h after death. The lethal blood concentrations and the concentrations of emamectin benzoate were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at different time points after death. The symptoms of nervous and respiratory system were observed within 15-30 min after intragastric injection. The average time of death was (45.8 ± 7.9) min in the acute poisoning group and (8.0 ± 1.4) d in the sub-acute poisoning group, respectively. The range of acute lethal blood level was 447.164 0-524.463 5 mg/L. The pathological changes of the organs and tissues were observed via light microscope and immunofluorescence microscope. The changes of emamectin benzoate content in the blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain of poisoning mice showed regularity within 72 h after death (P emamectin benzoate poisoning include heart, liver, kidney, lung, brain and contact position (stomach). The toxicant storage depots are kidney and liver. There is emamectin benzoate postmortem redistribution in mice.

  3. Toxicities of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentine, Joseph A; Jansson, Richard K; Starner, Van R; Halliday, W Ross

    2002-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to five species of Lepidoptera was investigated using diet and foliar bioassays. The emamectin benzoate homologues B1a and B1b were equally toxic in the diet and foliar assays to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Heliothis virescens (F.), Tricoplusia ni (Hübner), and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), within each of these species. Plutella xylostella (L.) was the most sensitive species to emamectin benzoate. The AB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound in the diet assay. However, in the foliage assay AB1a was 4.4-fold less toxic to S. exigua than the parent compound. The MFB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound to P. xylostella, and 3.1 to 6.2 times as toxic as the parent compound to the other species in the diet assay. The order of toxicity of the photodegradates were AB1a > MFB1a > FAB1a > 8,9-Z-MAB1a > PAB1a.

  4. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442) is...

  5. Caffeine Sodium Benzoate for Electroconvulsive Therapy Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozymski, Kevin M; Potter, Teresa G; Venkatachalam, Vasu; Pandurangi, Ananda K; Crouse, Ericka L

    2018-05-15

    Because of an ongoing manufacturer shortage of injectable caffeine sodium benzoate (CSB), patients at our health system were given CSB compounded in-house to increase seizure response during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate its effectiveness and safety as an ECT augmentation agent. Medical records of patients who received compounded CSB at Virginia Commonwealth University Health System were reviewed to identify adults receiving it as part of an index ECT treatment course between June 2012 and December 2016. The primary outcome was change in electroencephalogram seizure duration from pre-caffeine session to initial caffeine session. Data were also collected on demographics, motor seizure duration, maximum heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and concurrent medication use for these sessions and the last caffeine session. Seven-one patients were included in the study, predominantly white females with a mean age of 58.6 years. The most common indication for ECT was major depressive disorder resistant to pharmacotherapy (71.8%), followed by catatonia associated with another mental disorder (19.7%). Electroencephalogram seizure duration increased by 24.1 seconds on average with first CSB use (P < 0.0001), allowing 24 more patients overall to achieve goal of at least 30 seconds (P < 0.0001). No clinically significant changes in maximum heart rate or mean arterial pressure were observed, nor did any patients require an abortive agent for prolonged seizure. Five patients (7%) discontinued CSB prematurely: 4 related to adverse effects and 1 secondary to ineffectiveness. We confirm results of prior studies of the utility of CSB and add that compounded CSB is effective for ECT augmentation, maintaining effectiveness throughout the index course with minimal safety concerns.

  6. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, L J; Hayes, J; Rosen, J; Knight, P

    1999-01-01

    A method was developed to quantitate emamectin benzoate in fish feed at levels between 5 and 15 ppm. The active ingredient is extracted from 20 g medicated feed into aqueous-methanolic solvent by overnight shaking. A solid-phase extraction procedure using a 2 g C18 cartridge is then used to concentrate the active residue and remove interfering matrix components. The extracted drug and internal standard are eluted from the cartridge, evaporated to dryness, and reconstituted in methanol. A control feed sample and fortified control working standard are simultaneously prepared. Remaining interferences and sample analysis are further separated on a gradient liquid chromatographic system. Recovery of emamectin benzoate from fortified feeds ranged from 97 to 100%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.2%. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated feeds resulted in CVs ranging from 2.3 to 4.2% and recoveries of 88 to 98% of label claim.

  7. Benzoate Allergy in Children--From Foods to Personal Hygiene Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hill, Hannah; Lucero, Hanna; Nedorost, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Benzoate allergy may be an overlooked allergen in children and one that may be of increasing importance with its increasing role as a preservative in pediatric personal hygiene formulations. The cases herein report an association with cola and benzoate allergy and discusses the implications of replacement of formaldehyde by benzoates in personal hygiene products. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Benzoate-Induced High-Nuclearity Silver Thiolate Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan-Min; Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shu-Ao; Li, Yan-An; Yu, Fei; Zhao, Quan-Qin; Wang, Xing-Po; Tung, Chen-Ho; Sun, Di

    2018-04-03

    Compared with the well-known anion-templated effects in shaping silver thiolate clusters, the influence from the organic ligands in the outer shell is still poorly understood. Herein, three new benzoate-functionalized high-nuclearity silver(I) thiolate clusters are isolated and characterized for the first time in the presence of diverse anion templates such as S 2- , α-[Mo 5 O 18 ] 6- , and MoO 4 2- . Single-crystal X-ray analysis reveals that the nuclearities of the three silver clusters (SD/Ag28, SD/Ag29, SD/Ag30) vary from 32 to 38 to 78 with co-capped tBuS - and benzoate ligands on the surface. SD/Ag28 is a turtle-like cluster comprising a Ag 29 shell caging a Ag 3 S 3 trigon in the center, whereas SD/Ag29 is a prolate Ag 38 sphere templated by the α-[Mo 5 O 18 ] 6- anion. Upon changing from benzoate to methoxyl-substituted benzoate, SD/Ag30 is isolated as a very complicated core-shell spherical cluster composed of a Ag 57 shell and a vase-like Ag 21 S 13 core. Four MoO 4 2- anions are arranged in a supertetrahedron and located in the interstice between the core and shell. Introduction of the bulky benzoate changes elaborately the nuclearity and arrangements of silver polygons on the shell of silver clusters, which is exemplified by comparing SD/Ag28 and a known similar silver thiolate cluster. The three new clusters emit luminescence in the near-infrared (NIR) region and show different thermochromic luminescence properties. This work presents a flexible approach to synthetic studies of high-nuclearity silver clusters decorated by different benzoates, and structural modulations are also achieved. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Photovoltaic Performance of Polymers Based on Dithienylthienopyrazines Bearing Thermocleavable Benzoate Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    Thermocleavable low-band-gap polymers based on dithienylthienopyrazines were prepared and copolymerized with different donor units like dialkoxybenzene, fluorene, thiophene, and cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) using both Stille and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. In the solid state the band gaps...... are in the range of 1.17−1.37 eV. The polymers were explored as donor materials in bulk heterojunction solar cells together with PCBM as the acceptor material where they were shown to exhibit a photoresponse in the full absorption range up to 900 nm and power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.21% under 1 sun...

  10. Resistance Inheritance of Plutellaxylostella Population to Residual of Emamectin Benzoat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Tarwotjo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Excessive use of insecticides drives the increasing ability of pests to become resistant. The objectives of this research were to study the susceptibility and the resistance inheritance of the eleven population of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The leaf-dip bioassay was applied to determine the sensitivity of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The offspring of backcrossed F2 were tested whether the resistance was controlled by monogenic. The results showed that the LC50 of the Selo population was 53.42 ppb, and the Puasan population was 212.13 ppb. The genetic analysis showed that the backcrosseddegree of dominance (D was less than 1. It was indicated that the P. xylostella resistance to emamectin benzoate was recessive. The value of LC50 of the backcrossed F1♀ x ♂S (177.99 ppb and its reciprocals x ♀R (F1 (201.69 ppb were not significantly different with the value of LC50 resistance population. This suggests that the nature of P. xylostella resistance to emamectin benzoate was controlled by monogenic.The result of the study would be beneficial for developing strategy to maintain susceptible population using refugee plant during lack of their host.

  11. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  12. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2000-02-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  13. The generic article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2005-01-01

    We take a fresh look at the connection between genericity and (in)definiteness by reconsidering a long-standing puzzle concerning the relation between definiteness and genericity. We contrast English on the one hand and Romance languages and Hungarian on the other, focusing on generic sentences

  14. Ester Tuiksoo / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Juhan Partsi valitsuse (05.04.2004-13.04.2005) ja Andrus Ansipi valitsuse (13.04.2005-) põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo oma lapsepõlvest ja elukutsevalikust, poliitilise karjääri algusest ja erakonna valikust, ministritöö kogemustest, naistest poliitikas

  15. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Chern, Mawsheng [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed.

  16. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Guan, Ju; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Engle, Nancy; Chern, Mawsheng; Ronald, Pamela; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Chen, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and comparative antibacterial studies of some benzylidene monosaccharide benzoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Matin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some 4,6-O-benzylidene protected 2,3-di-O-benzoates of methyl a-D-glucopyranoside and methyl a-D-mannopyranoside were prepared. All the compounds (1-7 were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity study against ten human pathogenic bacteria. The study revealed that the benzoylated mannopyranosides (5-7 are more prone towards antibacterial functionalities than that of the glucopyranosides (2-3.

  18. Comparative Effects of Water, Acid and Sodium Benzoate as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative effects of water, sulphuric acid and sodium benzoate as additives on the micelle-catalyzed aquation reactions of the complexes:Fe(Me2Phen)3 2+ and FE(Me4Phen) were studied in acetone using Triton X-100 (TX-100), as the surfactant-catalyst. FE(Me4Phen)2+ equates faster than FE(Me2Phen)2+ in the ...

  19. Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase-catalyzed synthesis of natural flavor esters in a continuous flow microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumel, Ahmad Mohammed; Annuar, M S M

    2016-06-01

    Enzymatic catalysis is considered to be among the most environmental friendly processes for the synthesis of fine chemicals. In this study, lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lecitase Ultra™) was used to catalyze the synthesis of flavor esters, i.e., methyl butanoate and methyl benzoate by esterification of the acids with methanol in a microfluidic system. Maximum reaction rates of 195 and 115 mM min -1 corresponding to catalytic efficiencies (k cat /K M ) of 0.30 and 0.24 min -1  mM -1 as well as yield conversion of 54 and 41 % were observed in methyl butanoate and methyl benzoate synthesis, respectively. Catalytic turnover (k cat ) was higher for methyl butanoate synthesis. Rate of synthesis and yield decreased with increasing flow rates. For both esters, increase in microfluidic flow rate resulted in increased advective transport over molecular diffusion and reaction rate, thus lower conversion. In microfluidic synthesis using T. lanuginosus lipase, the following reaction conditions were 40 °C, flow rate 0.1 mL min -1 , and 123 U g -1 enzyme loading found to be the optimum operating limits. The work demonstrated the application of enzyme(s) in a microreactor system for the synthesis of industrially important esters.

  20. Distribution of emamectin benzoate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevatdal, S; Magnusson, A; Ingebrigtsen, K; Haldorsen, R; Horsberg, T E

    2005-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the content of emamectin in blood, mucus and muscle following field administration of the recommended dose, and correlation with sea lice infection on the same fish (elimination study). The tissue distribution of tritiated emamectin benzoate after a single oral dose in Atlantic salmon was also investigated by means of whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting (distribution study). In the elimination study, concentrations of emamectin benzoate reached maximum levels of 128, 105 and 68 ng/g (p.p.b.) for blood, mucus and muscle respectively, on day 7, the last day of administration. From day 7, the concentration in the blood declined until concentration was less than the limit of detection on day 77. The concentration was higher in mucus compared with plasma (P emamectin benzoate decreased gradually from the end of treatment (day 7) to day 70 with half-lives of 9.2, 10.0 and 11.3 days in muscle, plasma and mucus respectively. The distribution study demonstrated a high quantity of radioactivity in mucous membranes (gastrointestinal tract, gills) throughout the observation period (56 days). Activity was high in the epiphysis, hypophysis and olfactory rosette throughout the study. The highest activity was observed in the bile, indicating this to be an important route for excretion. The distribution study confirmed the results from the elimination study with respect to concentrations in blood, skin mucous and muscle.

  1. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL BENZOATE- UTILIZING Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIUS SUWANTO

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new benzoate-utilizing strain, Serratia marcescens DS-8, isolated from the environment was characterized. The strain was enterobacilli, Gram negative, mesophilic, non ha lophilic, and aerobic bacterium that showed motile ovale-rod shaped cells. The isolate produced extracellular chitinase, protease, and prodigiosin (a red pigment pr oduced by several Serratia strains yielding bright red or pink colonies. A physiological assay using Microbact* test showed that the strain was closely related to Klebsiella ozaenae (49.85% and Serratia liquefaciens (24.42%, respectively. However, 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the strain was closely related to S. marcescens DSM 30121 with similarity level of 98%. DS-8 strain was able to synthesize its own vitamins. Optimum growth in benzoate was obtained at pH between 7-8.5 and NaCl concentration of 1- 1.5% (w/v. The isolate could grow in benzoate-containing medium up to 10 mM. Other carbon sources that could support the growth of DS-8 were casamino acid, glutamate, glucose, acetate, potato star ch, and ethanol.

  2. Interspecies acetate transfer influences the extent of anaerobic benzoate degradation by syntrophic consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warikoo, V.; McInerney, M.J.; Suflita, J.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added, and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 {mu}M. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparent V{sub max} and K{sub m} for benzoate degradation decreased with increasing acetate concentration, but the benzoate degradation capacity (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium to cocultures after the threshold was reached resulted in the degradation of benzoate to below the detection limit. Mathematical simulations showed that the benzoate threshold was not predicted by the inhibitory effect of acetate on benzoate degradation kinetics. With nitrate instead of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor, no benzoate threshold was observed in the presence of 20 mM acetate even though the degradation capacity was lower with nitrate than with sulfate. When strain SB was grown with a hydrogen-using partner that had a 5-fold lower hydrogen utilization capacity, a 5 to 9-fold lower the benzoate degradation capacity was observed compared to SB/G-11 cocultures. The Gibb`s free energy for benzoate degradation was less negative in cell suspensions with threshold compared to those without threshold. These studies showed that the threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate, or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation.

  3. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-04-16

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  4. Three New Triterpene Esters from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kikuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2, and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4. Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5–93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  5. Persistence and risk assessment of emamectin benzoate residues on okra fruits and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Chahil, G S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate, a synthetic derivative of abamectin, is found effective against fruit borer and jassid in okra crops. The present studies were carried out to study the dissipation pattern of emamectin benzoate on okra and to suggest a suitable waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following three applications of emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) at 68.1 and 136.2 g a.i. ha-1, the average initial deposits of emamectin benzoate were observed to be 0.22 and 0.42mg kg-1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 5 days at both the dosages. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of emamectin benzoate at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg-1. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of emamectin benzoate is 0.0005 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, which means an adult of 55 kg weight can safely tolerate an intake of 27.50 microg emamectin benzoate. Assuming an average consumption of 80 g okra fruit and multiplying it by average and maximum residues observed on 0 day at recommended dosage, the intake of emamectin benzoate comes out to be about 20 Itg and these values are quite safe in comparison to its ADI. These studies, therefore, suggest that the use of emamectin benzoate at the minimum effective dosages do not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers if a waiting period of 1 day is observed.

  6. The ability of fruit and vegetable enzyme system to hydrolyse ester bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum, topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus and apples (Malus silvestris can hydrolyse totally, or almost totally, ester bonds in phenyl, α- and β-naphthyl, benzyl and cinnamyl acetates. In methyl 4-acetoxy-3-metoxybenzoate and methyl 2,5-diacetoxybenzoate as well as testosterone propionate and 16,17-acetonide of 21-acetoxy-6-fluoro-16α,17β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione, the hydrolysis is selective towards the substrate and the bioreagent. In contrast, ethyl benzoate and cinnamate are resistant to hydrolysis.

  7. Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase-catalyzed synthesis of natural flavor esters in a continuous flow microreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Gumel, Ahmad Mohammed; Annuar, M. S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic catalysis is considered to be among the most environmental friendly processes for the synthesis of fine chemicals. In this study, lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lecitase Ultra?) was used to catalyze the synthesis of flavor esters, i.e., methyl butanoate and methyl benzoate by esterification of the acids with methanol in a microfluidic system. Maximum reaction rates of 195 and 115?mM?min?1 corresponding to catalytic efficiencies (k cat/K M) of 0.30 and 0.24?min?1?mM?1 as well a...

  8. Efficient Generic Functional Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2005-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular data type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A

  9. Optimizing Generic Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2004-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A direct

  10. [Resistance risk and resistance stability of Frankliniella occidentalis to imidacloprid, emamectin benzoate, and phoxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yin; Yu, Yi; Liu, Yong-Jie; Ma, Jing-Yu

    2012-12-01

    In order to effectively control the damage of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Phaseolus vuglaris was dipped with imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively to select the resistance populations of F. occidentalis from its susceptible population, and the resistance inheritance and resistance risk were analyzed with the resistance reality heredity. After 32, 32, and 24 generations' selection, the F. occidentalis populations obtained 13.8-fold, 29.4-fold and 39.0-fold resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively. The resistance reality heritability to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate was 0.112, 0.166, and 0.259, respectively. The resistance development rate to emamectin benzoate was the fastest, followed by to phoxim, and to imidacloprid. The higher the resistance levels of the selected populations, the lower the differences between the larva and adult susceptibility to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Stopping selection for 12 continuous generations, the resistance level of the selected resistance populations to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate had definite decline, but it was difficult to regain the original susceptibility. F. occidentalis had a greater potential to gain high level resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Compared with the resistance of F. occidentalis to phoxim and emamectin benzoate, the resistance to imidacloprid increased slower and decreased faster, and thus, imidacloprid was more appropriate to control F. occidentalis in practice.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Nanodispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dongsheng; Cui, Bo; Wang, Chunxin; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2017-01-01

    The solid nanodispersion of 15% emamectin benzoate was prepared by the method of solidifying nanoemulsion. The mean particle size and polydispersity index of the solid nanodispersions were 96.6±1.7 nm and 0.352±0.041, respectively. The high zeta potential value of 31.3±0.5 mV and stable crystalline state of the nanoparticles suggested the excellent physical and chemical stabilities. The contact angle and retention compared with microemulsions and water dispersible granules on rice, cabbage, a...

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Microemulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Feng; Bo Cui; Dongsheng Yang; Chunxin Wang; Zhanghua Zeng; Yan Wang; Changjiao Sun; Xiang Zhao; Haixin Cui

    2016-01-01

    The solid microemulsions of emamectin benzoate with the same content of surfactants were prepared by a self-emulsifying method. Emulsifier 600# and emulsifier 700# (3/2, w/w) screened from eleven kinds of commonly used surfactants displayed great emulsifying properties. The redispersed solution of the solid microemulsion presented aqueous microemulsion characteristic. The mean particle size and polydispersity index were 10.34 ± 0.10 nm and 0.283 ± 0.013, respectively. The solid microemulsion ...

  13. Acute toxicity of emamectin benzoate and its desmethyl metabolite to Eohaustorius estuarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jen-Ni; Buday, Craig; van Aggelen, Graham; Ikonomou, Michael George; Pasternak, John

    2010-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate is one of the active ingredients of the anti-sealice drug SLICE. Ten-day acute sediment lethal tests (10-d LC50) of emamectin benzoate and its desmethyl metabolite (AB1) were conducted to determine LC50 values using a sensitive representative West Coast amphipod crustacean, Eohaustorius estuarius. The 10-d LC50s of emamectin benzoate and AB1 to E. estuarius were 0.185 and 0.019 mg/kg wet weight sediment (0.146 and 0.015 mg/kg dry wt), respectively. The degradation properties of emamectin benzoate and AB1 during the 10-d period were also measured and described. No obvious decay patterns were observed for either emamectin benzoate and AB1 over the 10-d period. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  14. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  15. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  16. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fixation of chiral smectic liquid crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate using UV curing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afrizal,, E-mail: rizalunj04@yahoo.com; Nurdelima,; Umeir [Faculty of Mathemathics and Natural Science, University of State Jakarta, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hikam, Muhammad; Soegiyono, Bambang [Department of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Depok (Indonesia); Riswoko, Asep [Center for Material Technology, BPPT, Jl. MH.Thamrin 8 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate has been synthesized using method of steglich esterification at room temperature. The mesomorphic behavior of chiral smectic at 55°C that showed schlieren texture in POM analysis. Fixation of structure chiral smectic liquid crystal by means of photopolymerization of monomer (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate under UV irradiation which called UV curing techniques. The curing process using UV 3 lamps 100 volt at 60°C for an hour. The product of photopolymerization could be seen by analysis of FTIR spectra both monomer and polymer. FTIR spectra of monomer, two peaks for ester carbonyl and C-C double bond groups appeared at 1729.09 cm-1and 3123.46 cm{sup −1}. After UV curing process, peak for the carbonyl group at 1729.09 cm{sup −1} decreased and a new peak at 1160.21 cm{sup −1} appeared due to the carbonyl group attached to a C-C bond group and then peak at 3123.46 cm{sup −1} for C-C double bond group was disappeared.

  18. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  19. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Published 2014 SETAC.

  20. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xingkai; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Hongyan; Ji, Xiaoxue; Wang, Kaiyun; Wei, Min; Qiao, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L(-1), respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China.

  1. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingkai Cheng

    Full Text Available Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L(-1, respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China.

  2. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  3. Scripting XML with Generic Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanassow, F.; Clarke, D.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    A generic program is written once and works on values of many data types. Generic Haskell is a recent extension of the functional programming language Haskell that supports generic programming. This paper discusses how Generic Haskell can be used to implement XML tools whose behaviour depends on

  4. A field efficacy evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of sea lice on Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R; MacPhee, D; Katz, T; Endris, R

    2000-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, 0.2% aquaculture premix, against sea lice on Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada. Salmon pens received either emamectin benzoate, orally, in feed at 50 micrograms/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days, or the same diet with no added medication. The site veterinarian had the option of administering a bath treatment with azamethiphos to any pen in the trial. The mean number of lice per fish was lower (P emamectin benzoate was palatable and highly effective for control of sea lice on salmon.

  5. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  6. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  7. 2-Oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan René Kambo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H10O4, the dihedral angle between the coumarin ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.015 Å and the benzoate group is 83.58 (9°, which compares to a value of 81.8° obtained from a DFT calculation at the B3LYP/6–311 G(d,p level. In the crystal, C—O...π and C—H...π interactions and aromatic π–π [Cg...Cg = 3.7214 (14 and 3.7059 (14 Å] stacking generate a three-dimensional network.

  8. Preparation and Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid microemulsions of emamectin benzoate with the same content of surfactants were prepared by a self-emulsifying method. Emulsifier 600# and emulsifier 700# (3/2, w/w screened from eleven kinds of commonly used surfactants displayed great emulsifying properties. The redispersed solution of the solid microemulsion presented aqueous microemulsion characteristic. The mean particle size and polydispersity index were 10.34 ± 0.10 nm and 0.283 ± 0.013, respectively. The solid microemulsion showed excellent storage stability and the bioassay compared with water dispersible granules against diamondback moths provided a proof of its improved biological activities. This formulation could significantly reduce surfactants and is perspective in plant protection for improving bioavailability and environmental friendliness.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Nanodispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid nanodispersion of 15% emamectin benzoate was prepared by the method of solidifying nanoemulsion. The mean particle size and polydispersity index of the solid nanodispersions were 96.6±1.7 nm and 0.352±0.041, respectively. The high zeta potential value of 31.3±0.5 mV and stable crystalline state of the nanoparticles suggested the excellent physical and chemical stabilities. The contact angle and retention compared with microemulsions and water dispersible granules on rice, cabbage, and cucumber leaves indicated its improved wettability and adhesion properties. The bioassay compared with microemulsions and water dispersible granules against diamondback moths and green peach aphids provided an evidence of its enhanced biological activity. This formulation composition could avoid organic solvents and obviously reduce surfactants. It is perspective in raising bioavailability and reducing residual pollution of pesticides and further improving agricultural production and environmental safety.

  10. Methyl 4-[N-(5-bromopyrimidin-2-ylcarbamoyl]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Hu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H10BrN3O3, the pyrimidine and benzene rings are twisted with an interplanar angle of 58.4 (1°. The secondary amide group adopts a cis conformation with an H—N—C—O torsion angle of 14.8 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are connected into inversion dimers via pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating an R22(8 motif. The dimers are further connected through a C—Br...O interaction [3.136 (1 Å and 169.31 (1°] into a chain along [110]. Weak C—H...N hydrogen bonds between the methyl benzoate groups and pyrimidine rings are also observed in the crystal structure.

  11. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  12. Rethinking generic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Canning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical analysis of the notion of generic or transversal skillscontained with European Union policy discourses. The author presents a conceptualframework that challenges the idea that generic skills are universal, transferable andautonomous. An alternative analysis is put forward that argues the case forcontextualising skills and knowledge within particular understandings and cultures thatare more collective than individualistic in nature. The arguments are framed withinwider cross-disciplinary debates in linguistics, geosemiotics and social-cultural theoryand build upon an earlier paper exploring core skills in the UK (Canning, 2007.

  13. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide...

  14. Degradation dynamics of emamectin benzoate on cabbage under subtropical conditions of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmail; Chahil, G S; Jyot, Gagan; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-07-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) was applied to cabbage at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha⁻¹, during the head initiation stage. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method, for the determination of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, was developed. Average recoveries of emamectin benzoate ranged from 92 % to 96 % at different fortification levels (0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 mg kg⁻¹). The initial deposits, 0.11 and 0.21 mg kg⁻¹ of emamectin benzoate at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha⁻¹, dissipated below the determination limit of 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ in 3 and 5 days, respectively.

  15. Apomorphine and its esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkar, Nrupa; Chen, Zhizhong; Saaby, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Oral delivery of apomorphine via prodrug principle may be a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transport and stability of apomorphine and its esters across Caco-2 cell monolayer and their affinity towards chylomicrons. Apomorphine......, monolauroyl apomorphine (MLA) and dilauroyl apomorphine (DLA) were subjected to apical to basolateral (A-B) and basolateral to apical (B-A) transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer. The stability of these compounds was also assessed by incubation at intestinal pH and physiological pH with and without Caco-2...

  16. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  17. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  18. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  19. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, Guy J [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Weslaco, TX (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. (author)

  20. The generic strategy trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D

    1992-01-01

    Management experts claim that for a company to thrive, it must concentrate on a single generic strategy--on one thing it does better than its rivals. But specialization also has its disadvantages. The author suggests that a broader, mixed approach may be preferable.

  1. Environmental Fate of Emamectin Benzoate After Tree Micro Injection of Horse Chestnut Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic an...

  2. Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wunan; Huang, Jianlei; Guan, Fang; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a worldwide pest of many crops. Chemical insecticides are heavily used for its control in China, and serious resistance has been evolved in the field to a variety of insecticides including emamectin benzoate. Through repeated backcrossing to a susceptible strain (WH-S) and selection with emamectin benzoate, the trait conferring resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field-collected population of S. exigua (moderately resistant to emamectin benzoate and strongly resistant to pyrethroids and indoxacarb) was introgressed into WH-S to generate a near-isogenic resistant strain (WH-EB). Compared with WH-S, the WH-EB strain developed a 1,110-fold resistance to emamectin benzoate and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin (202-fold), with low levels of cross-resistance to cypermethrin (10-fold) and chlorfluazuron (7-fold), but no cross-resistance to representatives of another six different classes of insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, spinosad, tebufenozide, and chlorpyrifos). Resistance to emamectin benzoate in WH-EB was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. Limited cross-resistance in WH-EB indicates that emamectin benzoate can be rotated with other classes of insecticides to which it does not show cross-resistance to delay the evolution of resistance in S. exigua. The incompletely dominant nature of resistance in S. exigua may explain the rapid evolution of resistance to emamectin benzoate in the field, and careful deployment of this chemical within a resistance management program should be considered. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xingkai; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Hongyan; Ji, Xiaoxue; Wang, Kaiyun; Wei, Min; Qiao, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in labor...

  4. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

    2008-01-01

    The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

  5. Esters with water esters 2-c to 6-c

    CERN Document Server

    Getzen, F W; Hefter, G T; Maczynski, Andrzej

    1992-01-01

    This volume is the first of two devoted to esters and water. It includes solubility data for binary systems containing an ester and water up to the end of 1988. The critical evaluations were all prepared by one author and an introductory section has been included to elaborate the philosophy and methodology followed in the evaluations.

  6. Review article: cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet as a primary treatment for orofacial granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H E; Escudier, M P; Patel, P; Challacombe, S J; Sanderson, J D; Lomer, M C E

    2011-10-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the lips, face and mouth. The aetiology remains unclear but may involve an allergic component. Improvements have been reported with cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets. To explore the prevalence of compound and food sensitivity and examine the dietary treatments used in orofacial granulomatosis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out and relevant studies from January 1933 to January 2010 were identified using the electronic database search engines; AGRIS 1991-2008, AMED 1985-2008, British Nursing and Index archive 1985-2008, EMBASE 1980-2008, evidence based medicine review databases (e.g. Cochrane DSR), International Pharmaceutical and Medline 1950-2008. Common sensitivities identified, predominantly through patch testing, were to benzoic acid (36%) food additives (33%), perfumes and flavourings (28%), cinnamaldehyde (27%), cinnamon (17%), benzoates (17%) and chocolate (11%). The cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet has been shown to provide benefit in 54-78% of patients with 23% requiring no adjunctive therapies. A negative or positive patch test result to cinnamaldehyde, and benzoates did not predict dietary outcome. The most concentrated source of benzoate exposure is from food preservatives. Use of liquid enteral formulas can offer a further dietary therapy, particularly in children with orofacial granulomatosis. Management of orofacial granulomatosis is challenging but cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets appear to have a definite role to play. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Toxicity and residual efficacy of chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the residual toxicity of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Larvae were exposed to apple (Malus spp.) foliage collected at different intervals after an airblast sprayer application at the manufacturer-recommended field rate and half the field rate. A mortality of 100% was recorded at field rate applications of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate through 59, 38, and 10 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. Significantly less foliage was consumed by C. rosaceana larvae surviving in the emamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram treatments compared with those exposed to untreated foliage. Third-instar C. rosaceana exposed to fresh residues on terminal foliage showed 100% mortality after 5-d exposure to spinetoram residues and after 10-d exposure to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate. The effects of larval movement from foliage with fresh residues was examined by transferring neonate larvae from foliage treated with spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, or emamectin benzoate to untreated foliage after various exposure intervals. An exposure of 1, 3, and 6 d was required for spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to cause 100% mortality at the field rate, respectively. The higher the concentration of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate, the less exposure time was necessary to cause high levels of mortality in C. rosaceana neonates. Our results indicate that these novel insecticides are highly toxic to C. rosaceana larvae. Implications of these results for C. rosaceana management programs are discussed.

  8. Increased fitness and realized heritability in emamectin benzoate-resistant Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Razaq, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. A field collected population of C. carnea was selected for emamectin benzoate resistance in the laboratory and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After five generations of selection with emamectin benzoate, C. carnea developed a 318-fold resistance to the insecticide. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.49, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time compared to the susceptible population. Mean population growth rates; such as the intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential were higher for the emamectin benzoate selected population compared to the susceptible population. The realized heritability (h(2)) value of emamectin benzoate resistance was 0.34 in emamectin benzoate selected population of C. carnea. Chrysoperla species which show resistance to insecticides makes them compatible with those IPM systems where emamectin benzoate is employed.

  9. Benzoate-mediated changes on expression profile of soluble proteins in Serratia sp. DS001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeeti, E V P; Chinnaboina, M R; Siddavattam, D

    2009-05-01

    To assess differences in protein expression profile associated with shift in carbon source from succinate to benzoate in Serratia sp. DS001 using a proteomics approach. A basic proteome map was generated for the soluble proteins extracted from Serratia sp. DS001 grown in succinate and benzoate. The differently and differentially expressed proteins were identified using ImageMaster 2D Platinum software (GE Healthcare). The identity of the proteins was determined by employing MS or MS/MS. Important enzymes such as Catechol 1,2 dioxygenase and transcriptional regulators that belong to the LysR superfamily were identified. Nearly 70 proteins were found to be differentially expressed when benzoate was used as carbon source. Based on the protein identity and degradation products generated from benzoate it is found that ortho pathway is operational in Serratia sp. DS001. Expression profile of the soluble proteins associated with shift in carbon source was mapped. The study also elucidates degradation pathway of benzoate in Serratia sp. DS001 by correlating the proteomics data with the catabolites of benzoate.

  10. Generic and biosimilar medicines: quid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Once intellectual property protection, data and marketing exclusivity of reference medicines have expired, generic medicines and biosimilar medicines can enter the off-patent market. This market entry is conditional on the approval of marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement. Given that there tends to be confusion surrounding generic and biosimilar medicines, this Editorial introduces basic concepts related to generic and biosimilar medicines and presents the different studies and articles included in this supplement dedicated to generic and biosimilar medicines.

  11. Generics Pricing: The Greek Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllis, Ioannis; Variti, Lamprini

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains and develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies and the correct evaluation of generics sales. Until today erroneous recording of generics does not help proper pricing and their penetration in the Greek market. This classifies Greece on the outliners in every study or comparison that is referred on papers or studies.

  12. Generic Reed Solomon Encorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Mursanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Reed Solomon (RS codes is a mechanism to detect and correct burst of errors in data transmission and storage systems. It provides a solid introduction to foundation mathematical concept of Galois Field algebra and its application. With the development of digital hardware technology, the RS concepts were brought into reality, i.e. the implementation of RS codec chips. This paper presents the development steps of a generic RS encoder using VHDL. The encoder is able to handle generic width of data, variable length of information, number of error as well as variable form of primitive polynomial and generator polynomial used in the system. The design has been implemented for FPGA chip Xilinx XC3S200-5FT256 and has a better performance than commercially available equivalent encoder.

  13. Generic safety documentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ''core'' upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information

  14. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aba Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Llamas (Lama glama are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2 and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m. injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB and oestradiol cypionate (ECP. Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6 or ECP (ECP group, n = 6. Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA using a repeated measures (within-SS design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5 than in ECP group (day 9. Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose

  15. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Llamas (Lama glama) are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2) and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB) and oestradiol cypionate (ECP). Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6) or ECP (ECP group, n = 6). Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a repeated measures (within-SS) design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD) was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5) than in ECP group (day 9). Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose of both

  16. Comparison of generic-to-brand switchback patterns for generic and authorized generic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A.; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K.; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C. David; Peissig, Peggy

    2018-01-01

    Background While generic drugs are therapeutically equivalent to brand drugs, some patients and healthcare providers remain uncertain about whether they produce identical outcomes. Authorized generics, which are identical in formulation to corresponding brand drugs but marketed as a generic, provide a unique post-marketing opportunity to study whether utilization patterns are influenced by perceptions of generic drugs. Objectives To compare generic-to-brand switchback rates between generics and authorized generics. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using claims and electronic health records data from a regional U.S. healthcare system. Ten drugs with authorized generics and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. Eligible adult patients received a brand drug during the 6 months preceding generic entry, and then switched to a generic or authorized generic. Patients in this cohort were followed for up to 30 months from the index switch date to evaluate occurrence of generic-to-brand switchbacks. Switchback rates were compared between patients on authorized generics versus generics using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index healthcare utilization. Results Among 5,542 unique patients that switched from brand-to-generic or brand-to-authorized generic, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for authorized generics compared with generics (HR=0.86; 95% CI 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR=1.64; 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR=1.81; 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with other drugs in the cohort. Conclusions Overall switchback rates were similar between authorized generic and generic drug users, indirectly supporting similar efficacy and tolerability profiles for

  17. Crystal structures of (E-4-[1-(2-carbamothioylhydrazinylideneethyl]phenyl acetate and (E-4-[1-(2-carbamothioylhydrazinylideneethyl]phenyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compounds, C11H13N3O2S, (I, and C16H15N3O2S, (II, the thiosemicarbazone group adopts an extended conformation. The acetate ester (I crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. In the benzoate ester (II, the planes of the two aryl rings are inclined to one another by 46.70 (7°. In both compounds, there is a short intramolecular N—H...N contact present, forming an S(5 ring motif. In the crystals of both compounds, molecules are linked via pairs of N—H...S hydrogen bonds, forming dimers with R22(8 ring motifs. The dimers are linked by N—H...S and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to (01-1. In (I, there are N—H...π and C—H...π interactions present within the slabs, while in (II, there are only N—H...π interactions present.

  18. A kinetic model for toluene oxidation comprising benzylperoxy benzoate ester as reactive intermediate in the formation of benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; Alsters, P. L.; Versteeg, G. F.

    During the oxidation of toluene under semibatch conditions, the formation of benzyl alcohol is initially equal to the rate of formation of benzaldehyde. As the overall conversion increases the benzyl alcohol concentration at first decreases much faster than benzaldehyde, but this decrease slows down

  19. A kinetic model for toluene oxidation comprising benzylperoxy benzoate ester as reactive intermediate in the formation of benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; Hoorn, J.A.A.; Alsters, P.L.; Versteeg, Geert

    2005-01-01

    During the oxidation of toluene under semibatch conditions, the formation of benzyl alcohol is initially equal to the rate of formation of benzaldehyde. As the overall conversion increases the benzyl alcohol concentration at first decreases much faster than benzaldehyde, but this decrease slows down

  20. Release and Degradation of Microencapsulated Spinosad and Emamectin Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin Bin; Zhang, Shao Fei; Chen, Peng Hao; Wu, Gang

    2017-09-07

    The dynamics of release and degradation of the microencapsulation formulation containing spinosad (SP) and emamectin benzoate (EM) were evaluated in the present study. SP and EM were microencapsulated using biodegradable poly-lactic acid (PLA) as the wall material. Their release from and degradation within the prepared SP and EM microspheres (SP-EM-microspheres) were studied. It was found that the encapsulation significantly prolonged the insecticide release. The release could be further extended if the external aqueous phase was pre-saturated with the insecticides and the microspheres were additionally coated with gelatin. On the other hand, increasing the water content of the emulsion or the hydrophilic polycaprolactone (PCL) content in the PLA/PCL mixture accelerated the release. Due to the photolysis and hydrolysis of SP and EM by sunlight, the toxicity of the non-encapsulated insecticides in water declined continuously from 0 through the 9 th day (d), and dissipated in 13 d. In contrast, an aqueous suspension containing 5% SP-EM-microspheres maintained a mostly constant toxicity to Plutella xylostella for 17 d. The biodegradable SP-EM-microspheres showed significantly higher long-term toxicity to P. xylostella due to lower release, reduced photolysis and hydrolysis of the encapsulated insecticides, which were affected by the varied preparation conditions.

  1. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides.

  2. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  3. Improvement of aqueous solubility and rectal absorption of 6-mercaptopurine by addition of sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, Y; Kimura, T

    1994-10-01

    The solubility of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in water increased as the concentration of sodium benzoate or sodium hippurate in the solution increased. The solubility of 6-MP in 20% (w/v) sodium benzoate or sodium hippurate solution was about 6-fold larger than that of 6-MP alone. The stability constant of the soluble complex of 6-MP with sodium benzoate was estimated to be 2-8 M-1 from (1) phase-solubility study and (2) analysis of chemical shifts observed in 1H-NMR. Partition of 6-MP from the saturated solution to n-octanol was also greatly increased by the addition of sodium benzoate or sodium hippurate, the degree being less in the latter. Administration of 6-MP with 20% (w/v) sodium benzoate to rat rectum resulted in enhanced absorption and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was comparable to that obtained by intravenous administration (bioavailability = 100%), while the bioavailability after intrarectal administration of 6-MP with 20% (w/v) sodium hippurate was only 9%. The reason for the difference was discussed.

  4. Generic patch inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  5. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscolo Maurício

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaça, were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC. The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a. and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a. in cachaças, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachaças (6 mg/100 mL a.a. is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachaças have been observed.

  6. Phthalate esters in marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Gezgin, Tuncay; Güven, Kasim Cemal; Akçin, Göksel

    2001-01-01

    Abstract o-Phthalate esters as diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate were identified at surface and inner part of algae collected in the Bosphorus, as Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha linza, Cystoseria barbata, Pterocladia capillaceaeand Ceramium rubrum. The same esters were also detected in seawater samples taken from the same area. Thus parallelism in pollution was noted between the algae and the surrounding seawater,

  7. Dissipation and residues of emamectin benzoate study in paddy under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Chen, Weitao; Li, Mengyi; Han, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was not only to provide a simple residue analytical method to evaluate the safe application rate of Emamectin Benzoate for paddy crops but also to give a suitable recommended dosage in paddy crops. Paddy samples were detected using HPLC-MS/MS. The half-lives of emamectin benzoate in paddy plants, water and soil were 2.04-8.66 days, 2.89-4.95 days and 3.65-5.78 days with a dissipation rate of 90% over 7 days after application, respectively. Low residues and short half-life suggested that Emamectin Benzoate could be safely used in paddy crops with the suitable dosage and application.

  8. Study of o-125I-benzoate excretion mechanisms in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, R.; Laznicek, M.; Kvetina, J.; Laznickova, A.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the mechanisms of renal clearance of o- 125 I-benzoate in the rabbit based on the inhibition of the secretory transport by probenecid showed that o- 125 I-benzoate was eliminated in the kidneys not only by glomerular filtration but also by tubular secretion. The total amount of the drug excreted in the urine was affected by tubular resorption (apparently by the process of passive diffusion), which exceeded tubular secretion. A comparison of the chromatograms of the plasma and the urine before and after the competitive inhibition of the tubular active transport by probenecid revealed a higher amount of o- 125 I-benzoylglucuronide in the urine in the case of inhibition. The results suggest that the kidneys participated in the total biotransformation of o- 125 I-benzoate. The excretion of the original drug and metabolites in the bile contributed less than 1% to the total clearance in rabbits. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  9. Conductive iron oxide minerals accelerate syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic benzoate degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Li; Tang, Jia; Wang, Yueqiang; Hu, Min; Zhou, Shungui, E-mail: sgzhou@soil.gd.cn

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Paddy soil contaminated with benzoate incubated with hematite and magnetite. • Iron oxides addition enhanced methanogenic benzoate degradation by 25–53%. • The facilitated syntrophy might involve direct interspecies electron transfer. • Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that conductive iron oxide minerals can facilitate syntrophic metabolism of the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, such as ethanol, propionate and butyrate, in natural and engineered microbial ecosystems. This enhanced syntrophy involves direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) powered by microorganisms exchanging metabolic electrons through electrically conductive minerals. Here, we evaluated the possibility that conductive iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) can stimulate the methanogenic degradation of benzoate, which is a common intermediate in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. The results showed that 89–94% of the electrons released from benzoate oxidation were recovered in CH{sub 4} production, and acetate was identified as the only carbon-bearing intermediate during benzoate degradation. Compared with the iron-free controls, the rates of methanogenic benzoate degradation were enhanced by 25% and 53% in the presence of hematite and magnetite, respectively. This stimulatory effect probably resulted from DIET-mediated methanogenesis in which electrons transfer between syntrophic partners via conductive iron minerals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved in the functioning of syntrophic DIET. Considering the ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within soils and sediments, the findings of this study will increase the current understanding of the natural biological attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic environments.

  10. Dissipation kinetics of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron residues in cabbage grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bizhang; Zhao, Qing; Hu, Jiye

    2015-12-01

    Residue analysis of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage matrices and soil was developed using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v) or 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile/water (5:1, v/v) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all samples ranged 87.8-100.0 % and 3.6-12.6% for emamectin benzoate and 87.8-104.8 % and 6.2-11.5% for lufenuron, respectively. The validated method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage and soil as well as the residual levels in harvested cabbage and soil at different preharvest intervals (PHI). The half-lives of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron were 1.08-2.70 and 1.74-5.04 days in cabbage, and 1.42-4.01 and 0.94-6.18 days in soil, respectively. The terminal residues were below the China maximum residue limits (MRLs) at 3 days for emamectin benzoate (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and European Union MRLs at 5 days for lufenuron (0.5 mg kg(-1)), which suggested that 5 days could be recommended as the PHI for the commercial formulation of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron application in the Chinese cabbage field.

  11. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  12. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  13. Comparison of Generic-to-Brand Switchback Rates Between Generic and Authorized Generic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar

  14. A field efficacy evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of sea lice on Atlantic salmon.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, R; MacPhee, D; Katz, T; Endris, R

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, 0.2% aquaculture premix, against sea lice on Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada. Salmon pens received either emamectin benzoate, orally, in feed at 50 micrograms/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days, or the same diet with no added medication. The site veterinarian had the option of administering a bath treatment with azamethiphos to any pen in the trial. The mean number of lice per fish was lower (P < 0.05) in the experimental group...

  15. Synthesis and 125I labeling of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenfeng; Wang Yongxian; Zhou Wei; Wang Lihua; Xia Jiaoyun; Yin Duanzhi

    2005-01-01

    N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE) and N-succinimidyl-3-iodo-benzoate (SIB) is synthesized. The structures of ATE and SIB are confirmed with 1 HNMR, MS and IR. The yields of ATE and SIB are 45.4% and 71.4%, respectively. ATE is labeled with 125 I. The labeling field is 93.0% and radiochemical purity is over 98.0%. The synthesis and the labeling of ATE have a important value for indirect label of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  16. Thermodynamic study of phase transitions in methyl esters of ortho- meta- and para-aminobenzoic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ana R.R.P.; Monte, Manuel J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vapor pressures of liquid and crystalline phases of methyl esters of the aminobenzoic acids were measured. ► Accurate values of enthalpies of sublimation, vaporization, and fusion were derived. ► The enthalpy of intermolecular NH–O hydrogen bonds in methyl p-aminobenzoate was determined. ► The volatility of the methyl benzoates was compared with the volatility of the parent acids. - Abstract: A static method based on capacitance gauges was used to measure the vapor pressures of the condensed phases of the methyl esters of the three aminobenzoic acids. For methyl o-aminobenzoate the vapor pressures of the liquid phase were measured in the range (285.4 to 369.5) K. For the meta and para isomers vapor pressures of both crystalline and liquid phases were measured in the ranges (308.9 to 376.6) K, and (332.9 to 428.0) K, respectively. Vapor pressures of the latter compound were also measured using the Knudsen effusion method in the temperature range (319.1 to 341.2) K. From the dependence of the vapor pressures on the temperature, the standard molar enthalpies and entropies of sublimation and of vaporization were derived. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure the temperatures and molar enthalpies of fusion of the three isomers. The results enabled the estimation of the enthalpy of the intermolecular (N−H … O) hydrogen bond in the crystalline methyl p-aminobenzoate. A correlation relating the temperature of fusion and the enthalpy and Gibbs energy of sublimation of benzene, methyl benzoates and benzoic acids was derived.

  17. Article choice in plural generics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic

  18. Exploiting members of the BAHD acyltransferase family to synthesize multiple hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Mouille, Maxence; Robinson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    the production in yeast of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives, quinate hydroxycinnamate esters such as chlorogenic acid, and glycerol hydroxycinnamate esters. Similarly, we achieved for the first time the microbial production of polyamine hydroxycinnamate amides; monolignol, malate and fatty alcohol...

  19. Reaction of (CP(2)asterisk-lnH)(2) (ln=Y, La) and CP(2)asterisk-Y(2-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NMe(2)) with esters and amides and molecular-structure of [CP(2)asterisk-Y(mu- ocme=chc(oet)o)](2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelman, B.J; Wierda, F.; Meetsma, A.; Teuben, J.H

    1995-01-01

    The activation of esters and amides by (Cp(2)*LnH)(2) [Ln = Y (1a), Ln = La (1b), Cp*=C(5)Me] and Cp(2)*Y(2-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NMe(2)) (2) is described. Compounds 1a and 1b react with ethyl acetate to form Cp(2)*YOEt (3a) and Cp(2)*LaOEt (30). With 1a and ethyl benzoate a 1:1 mixture of 3a and

  20. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  1. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knothe, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  2. Subtractive hybridization and random arbitrarily primed PCR analyses of a benzoate-assimilating bacterium, Desulfotignum balticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Kobuna, Akinori; Hosoda, Akifumi; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-05-01

    Subtractive hybridization (SH) and random arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR) were used to detect genes involved in anaerobic benzoate degradation by Desulfotignum balticum. Through SH, we obtained 121 DNA sequences specific for D. balticum but not for D. phosphitoxidans (a non-benzoate-assimilating species). Furthermore, RAP-PCR analysis showed that a 651-bp DNA fragment, having 55% homology with the solute-binding protein of the ABC transporter system in Methanosarcina barkeri, was expressed when D. balticum was grown on benzoate, but not on pyruvate. By shotgun sequencing of the fosmid clone (38,071 bp) containing the DNA fragment, 33 open reading frames (ORFs) and two incomplete ORFs were annotated, and several genes within this region corresponded to the DNA fragments obtained by SH. An 11.3-kb gene cluster (ORF10-17) revealed through reverse transcription-PCR showed homology with the ABC transporter system and TonB-dependent receptors, both of which are presumably involved in the uptake of siderophore/heme/vitamin B(12), and was expressed in response to growth on benzoate.

  3. Survival after treatment with phenylacetate and benzoate for urea-cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Gregory M; Berry, Susan A; Berry, Gerard T; Rhead, William J; Brusilow, Saul W; Hamosh, Ada

    2007-05-31

    The combination of intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate has been shown to lower plasma ammonium levels and improve survival in small cohorts of patients with historically lethal urea-cycle enzyme defects. We report the results of a 25-year, open-label, uncontrolled study of sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate therapy (Ammonul, Ucyclyd Pharma) in 299 patients with urea-cycle disorders in whom there were 1181 episodes of acute hyperammonemia. Overall survival was 84% (250 of 299 patients). Ninety-six percent of the patients survived episodes of hyperammonemia (1132 of 1181 episodes). Patients over 30 days of age were more likely than neonates to survive an episode (98% vs. 73%, Purea-cycle disorder and treatment with both sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate, in conjunction with other therapies, such as intravenous arginine hydrochloride and the provision of adequate calories to prevent catabolism, effectively lower plasma ammonium levels and result in survival in the majority of patients. Hemodialysis may also be needed to control hyperammonemia, especially in neonates and older patients who do not have a response to intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  4. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  5. [Determination of emamectin benzoate residue in vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Yinliang; Hu, Jiye; Wang, Hongwei; Pan, Canping; Liu, Fengmao

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of emamectin benzoate residue in cabbage and mushroom using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate. Further cleanup was performed on a propylsulfonic acid solid phase extraction cartridge, followed by the derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride in the presence of N-methylimidazole. The amount of derivatized emamectin benzoate was determined by fluorescence detector after separation by HPLC. The detection limit was 0.10 microg/kg for cabbage and mushroom samples. The recoveries of emamectin benzoate in cabbage and mushroom samples were 78.6%-84.9%. The inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) and intra-day RSD were 2.7%-6.0% and 3.1%-8.9%, respectively, at the fortified levels of 1.0-20.0 microg/kg. The calibration curve of emamectin benzoate in vegetables at the concentration range of 0.002 mg/L to 0.10 mg/L was linear (r = 0.9999).

  6. Dissipation and residue behavior of emamectin benzoate on apple and cabbage field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Li, Yanjie; Du, Fengpei; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    A LC-ESI-MS/MS method with QuEChERS for analysis of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil was established. At fortification levels of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg in cabbage, apple and soil, it was shown that recoveries ranged from 75.9 to 97.0 percent with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.4-19.0 percent. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.001 mg/kg for cabbage, apple and soil. The dissipation half-lives of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil were 1.34-1.72 day, 2.75-3.09 day and 1.89-4.89 day, respectively. The final residues of emamectin benzoate ranged from 0.001 to 0.052 mg/kg in cabbages, 0.003 to 0.090 mg/kg in apples and 0.001 to 0.089 mg/kg in soils, respectively. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems if emamectin benzoate was applied according to the use pattern suggested by the manufactures on the label. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate and its influence on efficacy against the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel insecticide with characteristics of translaminar movement into plant leaf tissue. The compound was derived from the avermectin family and improved with thermal stability, greater water solubility, and a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity than avermectin. To deter...

  8. Effect of sodium benzoate on the growth and enzyme activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... This study has indicted the efficacy of sodium benzoate as an antimicrobial ... may have led to physiological, homeostatic and metabolic distortion. Further ... Efiuvwevwere BJO, Efi EU (1999). ... Nutrition. 3: 300-303. Ogiehor IS, Nwafor OE (2004). Associated microbiological, biochemical ... Annals Nat. Sci.

  9. Isolation of novel para-pentyl phenyl benzoate from Mondia whitei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The structure of the compound was elucidated as para pentyl phenyl benzoate. The neuropharmacological evaluation of the compound indicated significant (p<0.05) depression of the central nervous system. The binding characteristics of the compound to gamma amino butyric acid A receptors appears to be more ...

  10. Benzoate-induced stress enhances xylitol yield in aerobic fed-batch culture of Candida mogii TISTR 5892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannawilai, Siwaporn; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Chisti, Yusuf

    2015-01-20

    Production of the natural sweetener xylitol from xylose via the yeast Candida mogii TISTR 5892 was compared with and without the growth inhibitor sodium benzoate in the culture medium. Sodium benzoate proved to be an uncompetitive inhibitor in relatively poorly oxygenated shake flask aerobic cultures. In a better controlled aerobic environment of a bioreactor, the role of sodium benzoate could equally well be described as competitive, uncompetitive or noncompetitive inhibitor of growth. In intermittent fed-batch fermentations under highly aerobic conditions, the presence of sodium benzoate at 0.15gL(-1) clearly enhanced the xylitol titer relative to the control culture without the sodium benzoate. The final xylitol concentration and the average xylitol yield on xylose were nearly 50gL(-1) and 0.57gg(-1), respectively, in the presence of sodium benzoate. Both these values were substantially higher than reported for the same fermentation under microaerobic conditions. Therefore, a fed-batch aerobic fermentation in the presence of sodium benzoate is promising for xylitol production using C. mogii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Aarti; Gauld, Robin; Norris, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines ...

  12. Liquid Crystalline Thermosets from Ester, Ester-imide, and Ester-amide Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Theodorus J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Main chain thermotropic liquid crystal esters, ester-imides, and ester-amides were prepared from AA, BB, and AB type monomeric materials and end-capped with phenylacetylene, phenylmaleimide, or nadimide reactive end-groups. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are thermotropic and have, preferably, molecular weights in the range of approximately 1000-15,000 grams per mole. The end-capped liquid crystaloligomers have broad liquid crystalline melting ranges and exhibit high melt stability and very low melt viscosities at accessible temperatures. The end-capped liquid crystal oli-gomers are stable forup to an hour in the melt phase. They are highly processable by a variety of melt process shape forming and blending techniques. Once processed and shaped, the end-capped liquid crystal oigomers were heated to further polymerize and form liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT). The fully cured products are rubbers above their glass transition temperatures.

  13. Benzoates intakes from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Darch, Maryse; Roberts, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Food consumption data from national dietary surveys were combined with brand-specific-use levels reported by beverage manufacturers to calculate the exposure to benzoic acid and its salts (INS Nos 210-213) from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. These four jurisdictions were identified as having some of the most prevalent use of benzoates in beverages globally. Use levels were weighted according to the brand's market volume share in the respective countries. Benzoates were reported to be used primarily in 'water-based flavoured drinks' (Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) category 14.1.4). As such, the assessments focused only on intakes from these beverage types. Two different models were established to determine exposure: probabilistic (representing non-brand loyal consumers) and distributional (representing brand-loyal consumers). All reported-use levels were incorporated into both models, including those above the Codex interim maximum benzoate use level (250 mg kg -1 ). The exception to this was in the brand-loyal models for consumers of regular carbonated soft drinks (brand loyal category) which used (1) the interim maximum use level for beverages with a pH ≤ 3.5 and (2) all reported use levels for beverages pH > 3.5 (up to 438 mg kg -1 ). The estimated exposure levels using both models were significantly lower than the ADI established for benzoates at the mean level of intake (4-40% ADI) and lower than - or at the ADI only for toddlers/children - at the 95th percentile (23-110% ADI). The results rendered in the models do not indicate a safety concern in these jurisdictions, and as such provide support for maintaining the current Codex interim maximum benzoate level of 250 mg kg -1 in water-based beverages.

  14. Encouraging generic use can yield significant savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christina

    2012-11-01

    Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.

  15. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of pivalolactone-based poly(ether ester)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, E.J.; Tijsma, E.J.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.; Vulic, I.

    1994-01-01

    The processing, mechanical and chemical properties of poly(ether ester)s, prepared from pivalolactone (PVL), 1,4-butanediol (4G) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were studied. The poly(ether ester)s could easily be processed by injection moulding, owing to their favourable rheological and thermal

  16. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF PHTHALATE ESTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters display several modes of toxicity in mammalian species. In the rat, in utero exposure at relatively low dosage levels disrupts development of the reproductive system of the male rat by altering fetal testis hormone production. This presentation is a review of t...

  17. Regioselective Synthesis of Cellulose Ester Homopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiqiang Xu; Kristen Voiges; Thomas Elder; Petra Mischnick; Kevin J. Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Regioselective synthesis of cellulose esters is extremely difficult due to the small reactivity differences between cellulose hydroxyl groups, small differences in steric demand between acyl moieties of interest, and the difficulty of attaching and detaching many protecting groups in the presence of cellulose ester moieties without removing the ester groups. Yet the...

  18. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  19. Catalytic Ester to Stannane Functional Group Interconversion via Decarbonylative Cross-Coupling of Methyl Esters

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng

    2018-01-03

    An unprecedented conversion of methyl esters to stannanes was realized, providing access to a series of arylstannanes via nickel catalysis. Various common esters including ethyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl, and phenyl esters can undergo the newly developed decarbonylative stannylation reaction. The reaction shows broad substrate scope, can differentiate between different types of esters, and if applied in consecutive fashion, allows the transformation of methyl esters into aryl fluorides or biaryls via fluororination or arylation.

  20. Catalytic Ester to Stannane Functional Group Interconversion via Decarbonylative Cross-Coupling of Methyl Esters

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng; Zhu, Chen; Rueping, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    An unprecedented conversion of methyl esters to stannanes was realized, providing access to a series of arylstannanes via nickel catalysis. Various common esters including ethyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl, and phenyl esters can undergo the newly developed decarbonylative stannylation reaction. The reaction shows broad substrate scope, can differentiate between different types of esters, and if applied in consecutive fashion, allows the transformation of methyl esters into aryl fluorides or biaryls via fluororination or arylation.

  1. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  2. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  3. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  4. Synthesis and Antiradical Activity of Isoquercitrin Esters with Aromatic Acids and Their Homologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heřmánková-Vavříková

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoquercitrin, (IQ, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside is known for strong chemoprotectant activities. Acylation of flavonoid glucosides with carboxylic acids containing an aromatic ring brings entirely new properties to these compounds. Here, we describe the chemical and enzymatic synthesis of a series of IQ derivatives at the C-6″. IQ benzoate, phenylacetate, phenylpropanoate and cinnamate were prepared from respective vinyl esters using Novozym 435 (Lipase B from Candida antarctica immobilized on acrylic resin. The enzymatic procedure gave no products with “hydroxyaromatic” acids, their vinyl esters nor with their benzyl-protected forms. A chemical protection/deprotection method using Steglich reaction yielded IQ 4-hydroxybenzoate, vanillate and gallate. In case of p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acid, the deprotection lead to the saturation of the double bonds at the phenylpropanoic moiety and yielded 4-hydroxy-, 3,4-dihydroxy- and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylpropanoates. Reducing capacity of the cinnamate, gallate and 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoate towards Folin-Ciocalteau reagent was significantly lower than that of IQ, while other derivatives displayed slightly better or comparable capacity. Compared to isoquercitrin, most derivatives were less active in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging, but they showed significantly better 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, ABTS scavenging activity and were substantially more active in the inhibition of tert-butylhydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. The most active compounds were the hydroxyphenylpropanoates.

  5. Efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalahti, T; Lankinen, Y; Valtonen, E T

    2004-09-08

    Efficacy of in-feed treatment with emamectin benzoate (Slice) for the control of ectoparasitic Argulus coregoni on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was tested under laboratory and field conditions. In both experiments fish were fed with fish feed to deliver a therapeutic dose of 0 (control) or 50 microg emamectin benzoate kg(-1) d(-1) (treatment) for a period of 7 d. After 3 d of challenge with A. coregoni in the laboratory, the infestation level in treated fish was lower than that observed in the controls (p 20. The prevalence of A. coregoni remained emamectin benzoate concentration in fish remained at a level high enough to kill A. coregoni over a period of 9 wk. Emamectin benzoate was very effective in the control of A. coregoni infesting trout.

  6. Flow-injection chemiluminescent determination of estrogen benzoate using the tris(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II)-permanganate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Cao, Wei; Qiao, Shuang; Liu, Wenwen; Yang, Jinghe

    2011-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) detection for the determination of estrogen benzoate, using the reaction of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II)-Na(2)SO(3)-permanganate, is described. This method is based on the CL reaction of estrogen benzoate (EB) with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II). The CL intensity is greatly enhanced when Na(2)SO(3) is added. After optimization of the different experimental parameters, a calibration graph for estrogen benzoate is linear in the range 0.05-10 µg/mL. The 3 s limit of detection is 0.024 µg/mL and the relative standard deviation was 1.3% for 1.0 µg/mL estrogen benzoate (n = 11). This proposed method was successfully applied to commercial injection samples and emulsion cosmetics. The mechanism of CL reaction was also studied. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Investigation on the adsorption characteristics of sodium benzoate and taurine on gold nanoparticle film by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of sodium benzoate and taurine adsorbed on gold nanoparticle (AuNp) film on silanised glass slides have been studied by attenuated total reflection technique (ATR). The surface morphology of the AuNp films has been measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. The ATR spectra of sodium benzoate and taurine deposited on AuNp film are compared with ATR spectra of their powdered bulk samples. A new red-shifted band appeared along with the symmetric and asymmetric stretches of carboxylate group of sodium benzoate leading to a broadening of the above peaks. Similar behavior is also seen in the case of symmetric and asymmetric stretches of sulphonate group of taurine. The results indicate presence of both chemisorbed and physisorbed layers of both sodium benzoate and taurine on the AuNp film with bottom layer chemically bound to AuNp through carboxylate and sulphonate groups respectively.

  8. Preparation and physicochemical characteristics of polylactide microspheres of emamectin benzoate by modified solvent evaporation/extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao Fei; Chen, Peng Hao; Zhang, Fei; Yang, Yan Fang; Liu, De Kun; Wu, Gang

    2013-12-18

    Emamectin benzoate is highly effective against insect pests and widely used in the world. However, its biological activity is limited because of high resistance of target insects and rapid degradation speed in fields. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of degradable microcapsules of emamectin benzoate were studied by modified solvent evaporation/extraction method using polylactide (PLA) as wall material. The influence of different compositions of the solvent in internal organic phase and external aqueous phase on diameter, span, pesticide loading, and entrapment rate of the microspheres was investigated. The results indicated that the process of solvent extraction and the formation of the microcapsules would be accelerated by adding water-miscible organic solvents such as ethyl ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, or n-butanol into internal organic phase and external aqueous phase. Accelerated formation of the microcapsules would result in entrapment rates of emamectin benzoate increased to as high as 97%. In addition, by adding ethanol into the external aqueous phase, diameters would reduce to 6.28 μm, whereas the loading efficiency of emamectin benzoate did not increase. The PLA microspheres prepared under optimum conditions were smoother and more spherical. The degradation rate in PLA microspheres of emamectin benzoate on the 10th day was 4.29 ± 0.74%, whereas the degradation rates of emamectin benzoate in methanol solution and solid technical material were 46.3 ± 2.11 and 22.7 ± 1.51%, respectively. The PLA skeleton had combined with emamectin benzoate in an amorphous or molecular state by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) determination. The results indicated that PLA microspheres of emamectin benzoate with high entrapment rate, loading efficiency, and physicochemical characteristics could be obtained by adding water-miscible organic solvents into the internal organic phase and external aqueous phase.

  9. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  10. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  11. Comparison study of two procedures for the determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, Leslie J; Hayes, John M

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of emamectin benzoate in fish feed. The method uses a wet extraction, cleanup by solid-phase extraction, and quantitation and separation by liquid chromatography (LC). In this paper, we compare the performance of this method with that of a previously reported LC assay for the determination of emamectin benzoate in fish feed. Although similar to the previous method, the new procedure uses a different sample pretreatment, wet extraction, and quantitation method. The performance of the new method was compared with that of the previously reported method by analyses of 22 medicated feed samples from various commercial sources. A comparison of the results presented here reveals slightly lower assay values obtained with the new method. Although a paired sample t-test indicates the difference in results is significant, this difference is within the method precision of either procedure.

  12. In vitro effects of sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro effects of varying concentrations sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate (E.C. 2.6.1.1) and alanine (E.C. 2.6.1.2) aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.1; abbreviated as ALP) from human erythrocytes of different genotypes (HbAA, HbAS and HbSS) were ...

  13. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  14. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346347

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release anticorrosion behavior of benzoate intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Dun, E-mail: zhangdun@qdio.ac.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The benzoate anion released from Zn-Al LDHs provides a more effective long-term protection against corrosion of Q235 carbon steel in 3.5% NaCl solution. Highlights: {yields} A benzoate anion corrosion inhibitor intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been assembled by coprecipitation method. {yields} The kinetic simulation indicates that the ion-exchange one is responsible for the release process and the diffusion through particle is the rate limiting step. {yields} A significant reduction of the corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive media. -- Abstract: Corrosion inhibitor-inorganic clay composite including benzoate anion intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are assembled by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum analyses indicate that the benzoate anion is successfully intercalated into the LDH interlayer and the benzene planes are vertically bilayer-positioned as a quasi-guest ion-pair form in the gallery space. Kinetic simulation for the release data, XRD and FT-IR analyses of samples recovered from the release medium indicate that ion-exchange is responsible for the release process and diffusion through the particle is also indicated to be the rate-limiting step. The anticorrosion capabilities of LDHs loaded with corrosion inhibitor toward Q235 carbon steel are analyzed by polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Significant reduction of corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive medium. This hybrid material may potentially be applied as a nanocontainer in self-healing coatings.

  16. Baseline Susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Indoxacarb, Emamectin Benzoate, and Chlorantraniliprole in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa J

    2015-02-01

    Baseline susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) to emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, and indoxacarb was determined in feeding assays on insecticide-incorporated artificial diet in the laboratory. The intraspecific variation of H. armigera was established from field populations collected between September 2012 and March 2013, primarily from commercial farms across eastern Australia. Emamectin benzoate had the highest toxicity with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 0.01 µg/ml diet (n=20 strains). The LC50 for chlorantraniliprole was 0.03 µg/ml diet (n=21 strains), while indoxacarb had the lowest relative toxicity with an average LC50 of 0.3 µg/ml diet (n=22 strains). Variation in susceptibility amongst field strains was 2.3-fold for emamectin benzoate and 2.9-fold for chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb. Discriminating concentrations of 0.2, 1, and 12 µg of insecticide per milliliter of diet for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, and indoxacarb, respectively, were calculated from toxicological data from field H. armigera strains as a first step in resistance management of these classes of insecticide in Australia. The low intraspecific tolerance, high slope values, and goodness-of-fit to a probit binomial model obtained in this study suggest that a feeding assay using diet incorporated insecticide is an effective laboratory method for measuring the dose-responses of these classes of insecticides in H. armigera. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cytological and cytochemical effects of sodium benzoate and gamma irradiation on human peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.A.F.

    1981-01-01

    In vitro studies of human peripheral lymphocytes were conducted to elucidate and compare the effects of a suspected chemical clastogen, sodium benzoate, widely used in the food industry as an antimicrobial food additive, to that of a well-known physical mutagen, gamma rays. Blood from ten normal donors, five males and five females, was collected and treated with various doses of the two agents independently and in combination during G 0 or G 1 phase. Induction of structural chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and unscheduled DNA synthesis were used as parameters to monitor the effects of the two agents. Sodium benzoate at the same concentrations used in the food industry (0.05% and 0.10%) caused inhibition of mitosis and induced chromatid-type aberrations (gaps and breaks). The frequency of aberrations increased as the concentration of sodium benzoate increased. No increase in SCEs over the control level was observed as either concentration tested. The relative amount of DNA damage inflicted in the treated lymphocytes estimated as 3 H-tritiated thymidine incorporation (unscheduled DNA synthesis) was highly significant. In contrast, blood irradiated with 300, 600, or 900 rad 60 Co gamma rays produced chromatid and chromosome aberrations in cultured lymphocytes, dicentrics being the most frequent exchange event. The aberration yield was found to be dose-dependent and to fit the quadratic model. Unscheduled DNA synthesis as measured by lymphocyte 3 H-TdR incorporation following gamma irradiation was highly significantly increased with the largest uptake occurring during the first hour of incubation. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation plus 0.05% sodium benzoate did not increase the aberration frequencies over the independent irradiation treatments and had no effect on SCEs frequencies

  18. Modelling the effects of lactic acid, sodium benzoate and temperature on the growth of Candida maltosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valík, Ľ; Ačai, P; Liptáková, D

    2017-11-01

    The growth of the oxidatively imperfect yeast Candida maltosa Komagata, Nakase et Katsuya was studied experimentally and modelled mathematically in relation to sodium benzoate and lactic acid concentrations at different temperatures. Application of gamma models for the growth rate resulted in determination of cardinal temperature parameters for the growth environment containing lactic acid or sodium benzoate (T min  = 0·7/1·3°C, T max  = 45·3/45·0°C, T opt  = 36·1/37·0°C, μ opt  = 0·88/0·96 h -1 ) as well as the maximal lactic acid concentration for growth (1·9%) or sodium benzoate (1397 mg kg -1 ). Based on the model, the times to reach the density of C. maltosa at the level of 10 5  CFU per ml can be determined at each combination of storage temperature and preservative concentration. The approach used in this study can broaden knowledge of the microbiological quality of fermented milk products during storage as well as the preservation efficacy of mayonnaise dressing for storage and consumption. The strain of Candida maltosaYP1 was originally isolated from air filters that ensured clean air overpressure in yoghurt fermentation tanks. Its growth in contaminated yoghurts manifested outwardly through surface growth, assimilation lactic acid and slight production of carbon dioxide. This was the opportunity to model the effects of lactic acid and sodium benzoate on growth and predict its behaviour in foods. The approach used in this study provides knowledge about microbiological quality development during storage of the fermented milk products as well as some preserved foods for storage and consumption. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Presence of benzoate type toxins in Gymnodinium catenatum Graham isolated from the Mexican Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos-Guzmán, J; Vale, P; Band-Schmidt, C

    2011-05-01

    Benzoate type toxins have been described as an important component of Gymnodinium catenatum cells. In this paper we study these toxins in a G. catenatum strain isolated from the Mexican coast. A partition of the toxins was done by solid-phase extraction on a COOH cartridge and detected by HPLC coupled to fluorescence after pre-column periodate oxidation. Two groups of the hydrophobic analogues of saxitoxin were identified: those containing a sulphate group in the benzoate moiety instead of a hydroxyl group like GC1/2 or GC3 and the hydroxy-benzoate analogues, with a sulphate group at the eleventh position of the STX core present or absent (GCs-GTX and GCs-STX analogues, respectively). These toxins are more abundant, in a relative basis, when comparing with a G. catenatum toxin content isolated from Portugal. This is the first report of the presence of these toxins in a Mexican strain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis, structure and some properties of a manganese(II) benzoate containing diimine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Pranajit; Roy, Subhadip; Sarkar, Sanjoy; Chowdhury, Shubhamoy; Purkayastha, R. N. Dutta; Raghavaiah, Pallepogu; McArdle, Patrick; Deb, Lokesh; Devi, Sarangthem Indira

    2015-12-01

    A new monomeric manganese(II) benzoate complex containing nitrogen donor 2,2‧-bipyridine, [Mn(OBz)2(bipy)(H2O)] (OBz = benzoate, bipy = 2,2‧-bipyridine) has been synthesized from aqueous methanol medium and characterized by analytical, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound exhibits moderate to appreciable antimicrobial activity. The complex crystallizes in space group P21/n. Mn(II) atom is ligated by two N atoms of bipyridine, three O atoms from a monodentate and a bidentate benzoate ligand and a water molecule forming distorted octahedral structure. The coordinated water molecule forms intramolecular hydrogen bonds and links the monomer molecules into hydrogen bonded dimer. The hydrogen bonded dimers are involved in intermolecular C-H···O and π-π stacking interactions. Density functional theory (DFT) computation was carried out to compute the frequencies of relevant vibrational modes and electronic properties, the results are in compliance with the experimentally obtained structural and spectral data.

  1. Neurodevelopmental Outcome and Treatment Efficacy of Benzoate and Dextromethorphan in Siblings with Attenuated Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Kendra J; Swanson, Michael A; Coughlin, Curtis R; Christodoulou, John; Tan, Ee S; Fergeson, Mark; Dyack, Sarah; Ahmad, Ayesha; Friederich, Marisa W; Spector, Elaine B; Creadon-Swindell, Geralyn; Hodge, M Antoinette; Gaughan, Sommer; Burns, Casey; Van Hove, Johan L K

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan treatment on patients with the attenuated form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Families were recruited with 2 siblings both affected with attenuated nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Genetic mutations were expressed to identify residual activity. The outcome on developmental progress and seizures was compared between the first child diagnosed and treated late with the second child diagnosed at birth and treated aggressively from the newborn period using dextromethorphan and benzoate at dosing sufficient to normalize plasma glycine levels. Both siblings were evaluated with similar standardized neurodevelopmental measures. In each sibling set, the second sibling treated from the neonatal period achieved earlier and more developmental milestones, and had a higher developmental quotient. In 3 of the 4 sibling pairs, the younger sibling had no seizures whereas the first child had a seizure disorder. The adaptive behavior subdomains of socialization and daily living skills improved more than motor skills and communication. Early treatment with dextromethorphan and sodium benzoate sufficient to normalize plasma glycine levels is effective at improving outcome if used in children with attenuated disease with mutations providing residual activity and when started from the neonatal period. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  3. Development of Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Material Gallic acid-CLA Ester Using Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C. H.; Byun, M. W.; Jeong, I. Y.; Kim, D. H.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing interest and current trends for natural materials with various health beneficial functions by radiation (RT)-biotechnology (BT) fusion by developed countries. However, the information and development of new functional materials using the RT-BT fusion technology is still limited. The target material developed and manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a multi-functional effect on human health and it can be applied for pharmaceutical materials as well as functional food ingredient. The market of functional new materials has been grown dramatically and a multi-functional material manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a great economic impact for both the domestic and overseas market. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method. Transformation of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid by irradiation. Identification and confirmation of the biological functions including antioxidative, cancer cell proliferation inhibition, anti-microbial, enhancement of immune response and lipid metabolism of GA-CLA ester. Increase industrial applicability of the new materials. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method(2 patents submitted). Development of the optimum methodology of GA-CLA and its derivative, octadeca-9,12-dienyl-3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoate). Identification and confirmation of biological activities of GA-CLA. Extramural funding from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy subjected by gallic acid-fatty acid derivatives (205,000,000 Won). Provides the basic data for successful project 'Development of cosmeceutical and cosmetics using gallic acid fatty acid derivatives' funded by Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy and collaboration with the Technology-invested venture company, SunBiotech, Co. and problem-solving for industrial application. Complete the patent procedure and publish the results to international or domestic peer-reviewed journals

  4. Generic Graph Grammar: A Simple Grammar for Generic Procedural Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2012-01-01

    in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results...

  5. Copper-Catalysed Aminoboration of Vinylarenes with Hydroxylamine Esters-A Computational Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobisch, Sven

    2017-12-14

    An in-depth computational probe of the copper-mediated formal aminoboration of β-alkylstyrenes with bis(pinacolato)diboron B 2 pin 2 and an archetype hydroxylamine ester by a dppbz-ligated {P^P}Cu I boryl catalyst (dppbz≡{P^P}≡1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene) is presented. This first comprehensive computational study of the copper-mediated formal aminoboration utilising an electrophilic strategy has identified the most accessible pathway for productive catalysis. The mechanistic picture derived from smooth energy profiles acquired by employing a reliable computational protocol applied to a realistic catalyst model conforms to all available experimental data. The high degree of regio- and stereoselectivity achieved in syn-borylcupration and Umpolung electrophilic amination is instrumental to the exclusive generation of the (syn)-β-aminoalkylborane product. On the one hand, syn-borylcupration furnishes exclusively β-borylalkylcopper nucleophile upon boryl addition onto the vinylarene β-carbon. Its subsequent approach by the hydroxylamine electrophile to deliver the product with the release of {P^P}Cu I benzoate favours a stepwise stereoretentive S N 2-type oxidative addition/N-C bond-forming reductive elimination sequence. The copper benzoate species represents the catalyst resting state, and its transformation into the catalytically active borylcopper species upon salt metathesis with Li(OtBu) base and transmetallation with B 2 pin 2 is turnover limiting. Electronically modified β-alkylstyrenes featuring a para-CF 3 substituted phenyl ring render the borylcupration faster, and more electron-rich hydroxylamine agents decelerate the electrophilic amination. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Development and validation of a generic reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for CFD spray combustion modelling of biodiesel fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Xinwei; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Ho, Jee Hou

    2015-01-01

    In this reported work, a generic reduced biodiesel chemical kinetic mechanism, with components of methyl decanoate (C11H22O2, MD), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H20O2, MD9D) and n-heptane (C7H16) was built to represent the methyl esters of coconut, palm, rapeseed and soybean. The reduced biodiesel...... and detailed mechanism predictions, for each zero-dimensional (0D) auto-ignition and extinction process using CHEMKIN-PRO. Maximum percentage errors of less than 40.0% were recorded when the predicted ignition delay (ID) periods for coconut, palm, rapeseed and soybean methyl esters were compared to those...

  7. Ester Tuiksoo. Proua Suhkru kibedad päevad / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo, kellel peagi täitub ministri ametis aasta Euroopa Liidu suhkrutrahvist, maaettevõtlusest, põllumajandusest, Euroopa Liidu toetustest, ministri elu- ja teenistuskäigust. Lisa: Ester Tuiksoo

  8. Lack of Effect of Sodium Benzoate at Reported Clinical Therapeutic Concentration on d-Alanine Metabolism in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek, Michael; Tierney, Brendan; Steyn, Stefanus J; DeVivo, Michael

    2018-06-19

    Cognitive decline and psychosis have been hypothesized to be mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. Consistent with this hypothesis, chronic treatment with d-alanine, a coagonist at the glycine site of the NMDAR, leads to an improvement of positive and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenic patients. d-alanine is oxidized by d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO); thus, an inhibitor of DAAO would be expected to enhance d-alanine levels and likewise lead to desirable clinical outcomes. Sodium benzoate, on the basis of d-amino acid inhibition, was observed to display beneficial clinical effects in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's patients. However, in the clinical pilot studies using sodium benzoate, d-amino acids were not quantified to verify that sodium benzoate's efficacy was mediated through DAAO inhibition. In this study, d-alanine content was monitored in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of dogs treated with daily injections of d-alanine (30 mg/kg) alone and in combination with sodium benzoate (30 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. We reasoned that the cerebral spinal fluid d-alanine quantity is reflective of the brain d-alanine levels and it would increase as a consequence of DAAO inhibition with sodium benzoate. We found that d-alanine treatment lead to maximal concentration of 7.51 μM CSF d-alanine level; however, coadministration of sodium benzoate and d-alanine did not change CSF d-alanine level beyond that of d-alanine treatment alone. As a consequence, we conclude that clinical efficacy associated with chronic administration of sodium benzoate in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's patients is likely not mediated through inhibition of DAAO.

  9. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  10. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  11. Testing properties of generic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson, P.; Jeuring, J.T.; Cabenda, L.; Engels, G.; Kleerekoper, J.; Mak, S.; Overeem, M.; Visser, Kees

    2007-01-01

    A datatype-generic function is a family of functions indexed by (the structure of) a type. Examples include equality tests, maps and pretty printers. Property based testing tools like QuickCheck and Gast support the de¯nition of properties and test-data generators, and they check if a

  12. Generic component failure data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Calley, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses comprehensive component generic failure data base which has been developed for light water reactor probabilistic risk assessments. The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was used to generate component failure rates. Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather then existing estimates

  13. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge...

  14. Triphenyltin derivatives of sulfanylcarboxylic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, José S; Couce, María D; Sánchez, Agustín; Seoane, Rafael; Sordo, José; Perez-Estévez, Antonio; Vázquez-López, Ezequiel

    2018-03-01

    The reaction of 3-(aryl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acids [H 2 xspa; x: p=3-phenyl-, f=3-(2-furyl)-, t=3-(2-thienyl)-] with methanol or ethanol gave the corresponding methyl (Hxspme) or ethyl (Hxspee) esters. The reaction of these esters (HL) with triphenyltin(IV) hydroxide gave compounds of the type [SnPh 3 L], which were isolated and characterized as solids by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and in solution by multinuclear ( 1 H, 13 C and 119 Sn) NMR spectroscopy. The structures of [SnPh 3 (pspme)], [SnPh 3 (fspme)] and [SnPh 3 (fspee)] were determined by X-ray diffractometry and the antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, Resistant P. aeruginosa (a strain resistant to 'carbapenem'), and C. albicans was tested and the in vitro cytotoxic activity against the HeLa-229, A2780 and A2780cis cell lines was determined for all compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxicity of emamectin benzoate to Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): laboratory and field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Angeli, Gino; Civolani, Stefano; Schmidt, Silvia; Pasqualini, Edison

    2009-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide derived from naturally occurring avermectin molecules isolated by fermentation from the soil microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis Kim & Goodfellow. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of emamectin benzoate to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, C. molesta (Busck), under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Dose response bioassays showed that emamectin benzoate had a high level of intrinsic toxicity to early-stage larvae of both species, and that contact activity might contribute significantly to mortality. In the semi-field trials, residual toxicity lasted for more than 1 week. Ovicidal activity was recorded only for C. pomonella (approximately 30%), irrespective of the concentrations tested. Field trials confirmed the efficacy of emamectin benzoate on codling moth when applied at 7 day intervals. Fruit damage, both from the first and second generations, was comparable with that on treatment with chlorpyrifos-ethyl, used as a chemical reference. Emamectin benzoate may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth as a component of an IPM programme. Its collective advantages are: high efficacy, lack of cross-resistance with currently used products, control of secondary pests such as oriental fruit moth and selective toxicity that spares beneficials. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

  16. Preparation of Spirocyclic β-Proline Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Kasper; Marigo, Mauro; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel N-Bn-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using [3+2] cycloaddition and subsequently converted into their corresponding aldehydes. In addition, two novel N-Cbz-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using intramolecular cyclization starting from...

  17. Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about generic medicines among final-year health science students. ... had knowledge deficits about the safety, quality and efficacy of generic medicines. The dissemination of information about generic medicines may strengthen future knowledge, attitudes and perceptions.

  18. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boilerplate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some suggest

  19. Comparing approaches to generic programming in Haskell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of approaches to data- type-generic programming: PolyP, Functorial ML, `Scrap Your Boiler- plate', Generic Haskell, `Generics for the Masses', etc. The approaches vary in sophistication and target audience: some propose full-blown pro- gramming languages, some

  20. Proceedings Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the papers selected for presentation at the 2nd Workshop on Generic Programming (WGP2000), which was held on July 6, 2000 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal. Generic programming is about making programs more adaptable by making them more general. Generic programs often embody

  1. Anticholinesterase activity of fluorochloronitroacetic acid esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu.Ya.; Brel, V.K. Martynov, I.V.

    1984-11-01

    Results are presented from pharmacologic and biochemical experiments leading to the conclusion that fluorochloronitroacetic acid esters have anticholinesterase activity. Since the esters caused muscular weakness in mice, experiments were performed on isolated tissue preparation. The biochemical experiments consisted of finding the biomolecular constants of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by the esters, using acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes, as well as horse serum cholinesterase. The ethyl and n-propyl esters of halogen nitroacetic acid were used in all experiments. It was found that the propyl ester caused an increase in the force of individual contractions in the isolated muscle specimens, plus an inability of the muscle to retain tetanus. The substances were determined to have an anticholinesterase effect. The mechanism of cholinesterase inhibition is not yet known. It is probable that the substances acylate the serine hydroxyl of the esterase center of the cholinestersase. 7 references, 1 figure.

  2. Enhancing Safety through Generic Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mockel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides insights into proactive safety management and mitigation. An analysis of accident reports reveals categories of supervening causes of accidents which can be directly linked to the concept of generic competencies (information management, communication and coordination, problem solving, and effect control. These findings strongly suggest adding the human element as another safety-constituting pillar to the concept of ship safety next to technology and regulation. We argue that the human element has unique abilities in dealing with critical and highly dynamic situations which can contribute to the system's recovery from non-routine or critical situations. By educating seafarers in generic competencies we claim to enable the people onboard to successfully deal with critical situations.

  3. Gamma radiolysis and vinyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, H.; Balic, R.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The principle behind γ relaxation of free-radical polymerizations is that the source of initiating radicals can be switched off 'instantaneously'. In the absence of initiating radicals the only kinetic events remaining are propagation, transfer and termination. For monomers whose propagation rate coefficients have been determined, relaxation behaviour can be interpreted to determine radical-loss rate coefficients and test models of loss mechanisms. This technique has been employed successfully on styrene and MMA emulsion polymerizations. In the present study, vinyl acetate and vinyl neo-decanoate (a ten-carbon-branched homologue of vinyl acetate) were studied, with the propagation rate coefficients for both monomers being established by pulsed-laser polymerization. Both were found to exhibit rapid γ relaxation rates in emulsion polymerization. This is a surprising result because mechanisms for rapid relaxation in emulsion polymerizations require that chain transfer to monomer (which is rapid for both monomers) is followed by exit from the particle into the aqueous phase with subsequent re-entry into a radical-containing particle leading to bimolecular termination. It is not unreasonable to suppose that this may be possible for vinyl acetate which is fairly water soluble (∼0.3 M). However, vinyl neo-decanoate is virtually insoluble (∼0.00004 M) and hence desorption is extremely unlikely. The most likely explanation for the observed rapid relaxations is that some of the radicals produced by γ radiolysis are slow to initiate vinyl esters and hence act as radical traps. As vinyl esters are known to be particularly unreactive monomers. it is feasible that this experimental artifact affects them to a much greater extent than some of the monomers studied successfully with this technique in the past

  4. Automated analysis in generic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Edvard

    This thesis studies automated methods for analyzing hardness assumptions in generic group models, following ideas of symbolic cryptography. We define a broad class of generic and symbolic group models for different settings---symmetric or asymmetric (leveled) k-linear groups --- and prove ''computational soundness'' theorems for the symbolic models. Based on this result, we formulate a master theorem that relates the hardness of an assumption to solving problems in polynomial algebra. We systematically analyze these problems identifying different classes of assumptions and obtain decidability and undecidability results. Then, we develop automated procedures for verifying the conditions of our master theorems, and thus the validity of hardness assumptions in generic group models. The concrete outcome is an automated tool, the Generic Group Analyzer, which takes as input the statement of an assumption, and outputs either a proof of its generic hardness or shows an algebraic attack against the assumption. Structure-preserving signatures are signature schemes defined over bilinear groups in which messages, public keys and signatures are group elements, and the verification algorithm consists of evaluating ''pairing-product equations''. Recent work on structure-preserving signatures studies optimality of these schemes in terms of the number of group elements needed in the verification key and the signature, and the number of pairing-product equations in the verification algorithm. While the size of keys and signatures is crucial for many applications, another aspect of performance is the time it takes to verify a signature. The most expensive operation during verification is the computation of pairings. However, the concrete number of pairings is not captured by the number of pairing-product equations considered in earlier work. We consider the question of what is the minimal number of pairing computations needed to verify structure-preserving signatures. We build an

  5. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  6. Benzoate-driven dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes in microbial cultures from a contaminated aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, M.; Kleikemper, J.; Miniaci, C.; Duc, L.; Muusse, M.G.; Zeyer, J. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Soil Biology; Hause, G. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Biocenter

    2007-10-15

    Microbial dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) was studied in cultures from a continuous stirred tank reactor initially inoculated with aquifer material from a PCE-contaminated site. Cultures amended with hydrogen and acetate readily dechlorinated PCE and cis-DCE; however, this transformation was incomplete and resulted in the accumulation of chlorinated intermediates and only small amounts of ethene within 60 days of incubation. Conversely, microbial PCE and cis-DCE dechlorination in cultures with benzoate and acetate resulted in the complete transformation to ethene within 30 days. Community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed the predominance of phylotypes closely affiliated with Desulfitobacterium, Dehalococcoides, and Syntrophus species. The Dehalococcoides culture VZ, obtained from small whitish colonies in cis-DCE dechlorinating agarose cultures, revealed an irregular cell diameter between 200 and 500 nm, and a spherical or biconcave disk-shaped morphology. These organisms were identified as responsible for the dechlorination of cis-DCE to ethene in the PCE-dechlorinating consortia, operating together with the Desulfitobacterium as PCE-to-cis-DCE dehalogenating bacterium and with a Syntrophus species as potential hydrogen-producing partner in cultures with benzoate. (orig.)

  7. Development and preventative effect against pine wilt disease of a novel liquid formulation of emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2003-03-01

    Injection of the poorly water-soluble emamectin benzoate (EB) into pine trunks required the development of an efficient liquid formulation. For injection into big trees in forests a good rate of injection and a high active content were required. Tests on the viscosity and EB-solubilizing ability of 14 various solubilizers in diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGMBE) led to the selection of Sorpol SM-100PM as the solubilizer of the formulation. Relationships between the solubilizing ability and amounts of Sorpol SM-100PM and DGMBE relative to that of EB, and between the concentration of the latter and the viscosity or the injection rate of the formulation led to a novel 40 g litre(-1) emamectin benzoate formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation), which was composed of EB (40), Sorpol SM-100PM (120), DGMBE (160) and distilled water (50 g litre(-1)) in methanol. Injection of this formulation at a dose of 10 g EB per unit volume of pine tree prevented over 90% of the trees from wilting caused by pine wood nematode, and this preventative effect continued for 3 years. Neither discolouration of the leaves nor injury around the injection hole on the trees was observed after injection of the formulation.

  8. Monitoring of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) resistance to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J Z; Collins, H L; Li, Y X; Mau, R F L; Thompson, G D; Hertlein, M; Andaloro, J T; Boykin, R; Shelton, A M

    2006-02-01

    Six to nine populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were collected annually from fields of crucifer vegetables in the United States and Mexico from 2001 to 2004 for baseline susceptibility tests and resistance monitoring to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate. A discriminating concentration for resistance monitoring to indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate was determined based on baseline data in 2001 and was used in the diagnostic assay for each population in 2002-2004 together with a discriminating concentration for spinosad determined previously. Most populations were susceptible to all three insecticides, but a population from Hawaii in 2003 showed high levels of resistance to indoxacarb. Instances of resistance to spinosad occurred in Hawaii (2000), Georgia (2001), and California (2002) as a consequence of a few years of extensive applications in each region. The collaborative monitoring program between university and industry scientists we discuss in this article has provided useful information to both parties as well as growers who use the products. These studies provide a baseline for developing a more effective resistance management program for diamondback moth.

  9. Moessbauer studies of {sup 151}Eu in europium oxalate, europium bissalen ammonium and europium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynter, C. I., E-mail: wynterc@ncc.edu [Nassau Community College, Department of Chemistry (United States); Ryan, D. H. [McGill University, Centre for the Physics Materials, Department of Physics (Canada); Taneja, S. P. [Maharshi Dayanand University, Department of Physics (India); May, L. [Catholic University of America, Department of Chemistry (United States); Oliver, F. W. [Morgan State University, Department of Physics (United States); Brown, D. E. [Northern Illinois University, Department of Physics (United States); Iwunzie, M. [Morgan State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2005-11-15

    Although a number of europium water insoluble chelates have been prepared for several decades, the covalent nature of these compounds has never been established in any quantitative fashion. Shifts in the I.R. bands and conductivity measurements of these salts were hitherto used to qualitatively compare their molecular nature. In this communique we have used temperature coefficients of {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectra to determine the Debye temperatures ({theta}{sub D}) of three europium chelates: namely europium oxalate, europium bissalen ammonium (recently reported) and europium benzoate and compared their {theta}{sub D} with the measured {theta}{sub D} of the known ionic EuF{sub 3}. Additionally, the mean square amplitude (benzoate with a {theta}{sub D} of (105 {+-} 5 K).

  10. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  11. GLAD: a generic lattice debugger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings. (author)

  12. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  13. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  14. Cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to alcohols: unexpected reactivity trend indicates ester enolate intermediacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Arup; Goldberg, Alexander F G; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Shimon, Linda J W; Ben David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    The atom-efficient and environmentally benign catalytic hydrogenation of carboxylic acid esters to alcohols has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts, with few exceptions. Presented here is the first cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to the corresponding alcohols. Unexpectedly, the evidence indicates the unprecedented involvement of ester enolate intermediates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  16. Prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Minners, W.; VanderMolen, H.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated at Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW, and DROP and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative

  17. Generic communications index: User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, R.S.; Steinbrecher, D.H.; Hennick, A.

    1987-12-01

    This report is a manual for providing information required to use a special computer program developed by the NRC for indexing generic communications. The program is written in a user-friendly menu driven form using dBASE III programming language. It facilitates use of the required dBASE III search and sort capabilities to access records in a database called Generic Communications Index. This index is made up of one record each for all bulletins, circulars, and information notices, including revisions and supplements, from 1971, when such documentation started, through 1986 (or to the latest update). The program is designed for use by anyone modestly acquainted with the general use of IBM-compatible personal computers. The manual contains both a brief overview and a detailed description of the program, as well as detailed instructions for getting started using the program on a personal computer with either a two-floppy disk or a hard disk system. Included at the end are a brief description of how to handle problems which might occur, and notes on the makeup of the program and database files for help in adding records of communications for future years

  18. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  19. Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, van J.B.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate

    from benzoate P. putida KT2440 was used as biocatalyst given its versatile and energetically robust metabolism.

    Therefore, a mutant was generated and a process developed based on which a

  20. Dissipation kinetics and effect of different decontamination techniques on the residues of emamectin benzoate and spinosad in cowpea pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasree, V; Bai, Hebsy; Mathew, Thomas Biju; George, Thomas; Xavier, George; Kumar, N Pratheesh; Visalkumar, S

    2014-07-01

    Dissipation and decontamination of the semisynthetic macrolide emamectin benzoate and the natural insecticide spinosad on cowpea pods were studied following field application at single and double doses of 11.0 and 22 and 73 and 146 g ai ha(-1), respectively. Residues of these naturalytes were estimated using LC-MS/MS. The initial deposit of 0.073 and 0.153 mg kg(-1) of emamectin benzoate dissipated below quantitation level on the fifth and seventh day at single and double dosage, respectively. For spinosad, the initial deposits of 0.94 and 1.90 mg kg(-1) reached below quantitation level on the 7th day and 15th day at single and double dosage, respectively. The half-life of emamectin benzoate and spinosad was 1.13-1.49 and 1.05-1.39 days with the calculated safe waiting period of 2.99-6.12 and 1.09-3.25 days, respectively, for single and double dosage. Processing of the harvestable pods with different decontamination techniques resulted in 33.82 to 100 % removal 2 h after the application of emamectin benzoate and 100 % removal 3 days after spraying, while the removal was 42.05 to 87.46 % 2 h after the application of spinosad and 38.05 to 68.08 % 3 days after application.

  1. Distribution and persistence of emamectin benzoate at efficacious concentrations in pine tissues after injection of a liquid formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper the authors reported the creation of a novel emamectin benzoate 40 g litre(-1) liquid formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation). The injection of this formulation exerted a preventative effect against the pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle, and this effect lasted for at least 3 years. The present study was carried out to show experimentally that the marked effect of this formulation was due to the presence and persistence in pine tissues of sufficient amounts of emamectin benzoate to inhibit nematode propagation. A cleanup procedure prior to quantitative analysis of emamectin benzoate by fluorescence HPLC was devised. The presence of the compound in concentrations sufficient to inhibit nematode propagation in the shoots of current growth and its persistence for 3 years explained the marked preventative effect. Non-distribution of emamectin benzoate in some parts of the lower trunk suggested that the formulation should be injected at several points for large trees in order to distribute the compound uniformly to lower branches.

  2. Magnetic ordering of quasi-1 D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu benzoate at sub-mK temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Y.; Masutomi, R.; Kubota, M.; Ishimoto, H.; Asano, T.; Ajiro, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the AC susceptibility of quasi-1D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu benzoate at temperatures down to 0.2 mK. A sharp susceptibility peak is observed at 0.8 mK under an earth field. This fact indicates a 3D ordering of linear chains coupled by a weak magnetic interaction between chains

  3. Use of emanation thermal analysis and evolved gas analysis in thermal study of zinc(II) benzoate complex compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Findoráková, L.; Györyová, K.; Večerníková, Eva; Balek, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2009), s. 765-769 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : zinc(II) benzoate * caffeine * urea * thermogravimetry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2009

  4. Polarographic reduction of Yb/sup +3/ benzoate and salicylate complexes in aqueous-nonaqueous mixtures at D. M. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutshi, K; Gupta, K C [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of Yb/sup +3/ and Yb/sup +3/-benzoate and salicylate complexes was studied polarographically at constant ionic strength at 25 +- 0.02/sup 0/C in aqueous-nonaqueous mixtures. The reduction was found to be diffusion-controlled, but the electrode process was irreversible in all cases. The kinetic parameters were determined by Koutecky's method.

  5. USE OF BENZOATE TO ESTABLISH REACTIVE BUFFER ZONES FOR ENHANCED ATTENUATION OF BTX MIGRATION: AQUIFER COLUMN EXPERIMENTS (R823420)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow-through aquifer columns were used to evaluate the efficacy of using benzoate as a biostimulatory substrate to enhance the aerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and o-xylene (BTX), fed continuously at low concentra tions (about 0.2 mg/L each). When used as a cosubstr...

  6. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations.

  7. Allied, MGC link on cyanate esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the latest of a line of joint ventures in its plastics business, Allied Signal has reached agreement with Mitsubishi Gas Chemical (MGC) to jointly develop thermoset cyanate ester resins and blends. The deal will involve further development of Allied Signal's Primaset phenol-formaldehyde cyanate ester resins, a new entrant in the thermoset arena. Although the Primaset resins were discovered in the 1960s, this would be the first time they are available commercially. The deal will marry Primaset technology with MGC's Skylex bisphenol A cyanate ester resins, says Fred DiAntonis, director/advanced materials at Allied Signal. The two firms are looking at marketing blends of the two materials. The potential market for these resins, used commercially by the electronics industry in printed circuit boards and by the aerospace industry in composites, is significant, says Robert P. Viarengo, Allied Signal president/performance materials. By aligning ourselves with MGC, the world leader in cyanate ester resin, we anticipate moving forward aggressively. The main competitor is Ciba, which acquired bisphenol A cyanate ester resins with its purchase of Rhone-Poulenc's high temperature resins business. DiAntonis estimates the market for cyanate ester resins could be worth $150 million by the end of the decade, although development costs have been in the tens of millions of dollars range

  8. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan D; Latheef, M A; Hoffmann, W C

    2010-01-01

    Newly emerged corn earworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) require a carbohydrate source from plant or other exudates and nectars for dispersal and reproduction. Adults actively seek and forage at feeding sites upon eclosion in the habitat of the larval host plant or during dispersal to, or colonization of, a suitable reproductive habitat. This nocturnal behavior of H. zea has potential for exploitation as a pest management strategy for suppression using an adult feeding approach. This approach entails the use of a feeding attractant and stimulant in combination with a toxicant that when ingested by the adult will either reduce fecundity/fertility at sub-lethal dosages or kill the adult. The intent of this study was to assess reproductive inhibition and toxicity of emamectin benzoate on H. zea when ingested by the adults when mixed in ppm active ingredient (wt:vol) with 2.5 M sucrose as a feeding stimulant. Because the mixture has to be ingested to function, the effect of emamectin benzoate was also evaluated at sub-lethal and lethal concentrations on proboscis extension and gustatory response of H. zea in the laboratory. Feral males captured in sex pheromone-baited traps in the field were used for toxicity evaluations because they were readily available and were more representative of the field populations than laboratory-reared adults. Laboratory-reared female moths were used for reproduction effects because it is very difficult to collect newly emerged feral females from the field. Emamectin benzoate was highly toxic to feral H. zea males with LC(50) values (95% CL) being 0.718 (0.532-0.878), 0.525 (0.316-0.751), and 0.182 (0.06-0.294) ppm for 24, 48 and 72 h responses, respectively. Sub-lethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate did not significantly reduce proboscis extension response of feral males and gustatory response of female H. zea. Sublethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate significantly reduced percent larval hatch of

  9. Generic medicines and generic substitution: contrasting perspectives of stakeholders in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, A; Usher, C; Lynch, M; Hall, M; Hemeryk, L; Spillane, S; Gallagher, P; Barry, M

    2015-12-15

    The Health (Pricing and Supply of Medical Goods) Act 2013 passed into law in July 2013 and legislated for generic substitution in Ireland. The aim of the study was to ascertain the knowledge and perceptions of stakeholders i.e. patients, pharmacists and prescribers, of generic medicines and to generic substitution with the passing of legislation. Three stakeholder specific questionnaires were developed to assess knowledge of and perceptions to generic medicines and generic substitution. Purposive samples of patients, prescribers and pharmacists were analysed. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken. A total of 762 healthcare professionals and 353 patients were recruited. The study highlighted that over 84% of patients were familiar with generic medicines and are supportive of the concept of generic substitution. Approximately 74% of prescribers and 84% of pharmacists were supportive of generic substitution in most cases. The main areas of concern highlighted by the healthcare professionals that might impact on the successful implementation of the policy, were the issue of bioequivalence with generic medicines, the computer software systems used at present in general practitioner (GP) surgeries and the availability of branded generics. The findings from this study identify a high baseline rate of acceptance to generic medicines and generic substitution among patients, prescribers and pharmacists in the Irish setting. The concerns of the main stakeholders provide a valuable insight into the potential difficulties that may arise in its implementation, and the need for on-going reassurance and proactive dissemination of the impact of the generic substitution policy. The existing positive attitude to generic medicines and generic substitution among key stakeholders in Ireland to generic substitution, combined with appropriate support and collaboration should result in the desired increase in rates of prescribing, dispensing and use of generic

  10. Generic domain models in software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  11. PROBLEM OF GENERIC REPLACEMENT: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tolpygina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main differences between original and generic drugs as well as registration criteria for generics are described. Possible reasons of discrepancy in bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of original and generic drugs are reviewed. The examples of such a discrepancy as a result of comparative clinical trails (enalapril maleate are discussed. Approaches to planning of comparative trails on drug therapeutic equivalence are presented. 

  12. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufkin Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and

  13. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole

    OpenAIRE

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re...

  14. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  15. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  16. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  17. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... FR 54507), that requested public comment on Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk...

  18. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  19. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  20. A Generic Approach to Parameter Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karafotias, G.; Smit, S.K.; Eiben, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    On-line control of EA parameters is an approach to parameter setting that offers the advantage of values changing during the run. In this paper, we investigate parameter control from a generic and parameter-independent perspective. We propose a generic control mechanism that is targeted to

  1. Once more the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The note on the generic name of the Snow-bunting by Dr. E. Hartert in this part of our periodical gives me cause to revert to the subject of my note on the generic name Passerina Vieillot and to state here, that I stand to what I have said about the rejection of this name in Zoology (Notes Leyden

  2. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs

  3. South African patient's acceptance of generic drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mechanism in this regard for final consumers, insurance providers, and ... facilities are viewed as inferior, treated with sus- picion and ... to choose a generic drug if the decision was supported by their doctor ... The effect of brand to generic and ...

  4. Brand vs generic adverse event reporting patterns: An authorized generic-controlled evaluation of cardiovascular medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawi, Y; Rahman, Md M; Cheng, N; Qian, J; Peissig, P L; Berg, R L; Page, C D; Hansen, R A

    2018-06-01

    Some public scepticism exists about generics in terms of whether brand and generic drugs produce identical outcomes. This study explores whether adverse event (AE) reporting patterns are similar between brand and generic drugs, using authorized generics (AGs) as a control for possible generic drug perception biases. Events reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System from the years 2004-2015 were analysed. Drugs were classified as brand, AG or generic based on drug and manufacturer names. Reports were included if amlodipine, losartan, metoprolol extended release (ER) or simvastatin were listed as primary or secondary suspect drugs. Disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) assessed the relative rate of reporting labelled AEs compared to reporting these AEs with all other drugs. The Breslow-Day test compared RORs across brand, AG and generic. Interrupted time series analysis evaluated the impact of generic entry on reporting trends. Generics accounted for significant percentages of total U.S. reports, but AGs accounted for smaller percentages of reports, including for amlodipine (14.26%), losartan (1.48%), metoprolol ER (0.35%) and simvastatin (0.70%). Whereas the RORs were significantly different for multiple brand vs generic comparisons, the AG vs generic comparisons yielded fewer statistically significant findings. Namely, only the ROR for AG differed from generic for amlodipine with peripheral oedema (P brand and generic compared with AG and generic. Use of AGs as a control for perception biases against generics is useful, but this approach can be limited by small AG report numbers. Requiring the manufacturer name to be printed on the prescription bottle or packaging could improve the accuracy of assignment for products being reported. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Generic drugs: good or bad? Physician's knowledge of generic drugs and prescribing habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A J; Martos, F; Leiva, F; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    2003-01-01

    In this article we analyze the responses of 1220 Spanish physicians who participated in a survery about generic drugs. A previously validated questionnaire was sent to physicians through the Spanish Medical Councils of the different provinces. Four items were analyzed: what doctors know about generic drugs (knowledge); physicians' prescribing habits concerning these drugs (attitude and professional competence); how prescription of generic drugs effects pharmaceutical costs amd, finally, what doctors believe a generic drug should be. The influence of physician-related variables (age, type of contract, specialty, workload, etc.) on prescribing of generic drugs was also analyzed. In view of the results, we believe that to rationalize expenditure through and appropriate policy on generic drugs Spanish health authorities should offer more and better training and information (clear and independent) about what generic drugs are.

  6. The European source term code ESTER - basic ideas and tools for coupling of ATHLET and ESTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.; Schuch, A.; Hinkelmann, M.

    1993-04-01

    The French software house CISI and IKE of the University of Stuttgart have developed during 1990 and 1991 in the frame of the Shared Cost Action Reactor Safety the informatic structure of the European Source TERm Evaluation System (ESTER). Due to this work tools became available which allow to unify on an European basis both code development and code application in the area of severe core accident research. The behaviour of reactor cores is determined by thermal hydraulic conditions. Therefore for the development of ESTER it was important to investigate how to integrate thermal hydraulic code systems with ESTER applications. This report describes the basic ideas of ESTER and improvements of ESTER tools in view of a possible coupling of the thermal hydraulic code system ATHLET and ESTER. Due to the work performed during this project the ESTER tools became the most modern informatic tools presently available in the area of severe accident research. A sample application is given which demonstrates the use of the new tools. (orig.) [de

  7. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  8. Generic Local Hamiltonians are Gapless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2017-12-01

    We prove that generic quantum local Hamiltonians are gapless. In fact, we prove that there is a continuous density of states above the ground state. The Hamiltonian can be on a lattice in any spatial dimension or on a graph with a bounded maximum vertex degree. The type of interactions allowed for include translational invariance in a disorder (i.e., probabilistic) sense with some assumptions on the local distributions. Examples include many-body localization and random spin models. We calculate the scaling of the gap with the system's size when the local terms are distributed according to a Gaussian β orthogonal random matrix ensemble. As a corollary, there exist finite size partitions with respect to which the ground state is arbitrarily close to a product state. When the local eigenvalue distribution is discrete, in addition to the lack of an energy gap in the limit, we prove that the ground state has finite size degeneracies. The proofs are simple and constructive. This work excludes the important class of truly translationally invariant Hamiltonians where the local terms are all equal.

  9. Generic physical protection logic trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  10. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  11. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.

  12. Generic adversary characteristics: summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.B. Jr.; Davidson, J.J.; Jones, H.B.; Fulwiler, C.H.; Mullen, S.A.

    1978-07-01

    The adversaries studied were found to be complex, often unpredictable, and dynamic. The adversary typically goes through a complex decision-making process between the time a potential target is identified and the moment the decision to act is made. This study analyzes the adversary characteristics, and the following conclusions are made: one of the least likely methods of attack is an overt armed assault. Terrorists and psychotics depend upon a high degree of personal dedication. No single generic adversary group or individual exhibits strength in every characteristic. Physical danger appears to have some deterrent effect on all adversaries except the psychotics. Organized and professional criminals often try to recruit insiders. Disoriented persons, white-collar criminals, and disgruntled employees tend to operate as insiders. Professional criminals, many terrorist groups, some extremist protest groups, and certain disoriented persons plan carefully before initiating a criminal mission. Organized crime and miscellaneous criminal adversaries rely on deception and ruse to bypass security. After the decision to commit a crime, the resources deployed by terrorists or organized criminals will be a function of their perception of the operational requirements of the crime. The nature of ''threat'' is dynamic; adversary behavior and capability appear to be related to prevailing political, economic, and social conditions

  13. 78 FR 22553 - Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites, and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION.... Generic drug facilities, certain sites, and organizations identified in a generic drug submission are... active pharmaceutical ingredients and certain other sites and organizations that support the manufacture...

  14. 78 FR 59911 - Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Generic Information Collection for Land Management... organizations on the proposed information collection, Generic Information Collection for Land Management... related to forest management. The intent of this generic information collection request (ICR) is to...

  15. Palladium-catalysed arylation of acetoacetate esters to yield 2-arylacetic acid esters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zeevaart, JG

    2004-05-24

    Full Text Available , was developed simultaneously by Hart- wig and Buchwald.5 Typically the tert-butyl ester of propionic acid is treated with an aryl halide (bromide or chloride) in the presence of a strong base, palladium and a bulky phosphine ligand or a bulky imidazolinium CO2t... novel palladium- catalysed conditions for the arylation of acetoacetate esters resulting in the formation of 2-arylacetic acid esters. When we attempted the arylation of tert-butyl aceto- acetate 1a with bromobenzene 2a using mild reaction conditions (K3...

  16. Segmented poly(ether ester)s and poly(ether ester amide)s for use in tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the studies described in this thesis is to investigate the applicability of these slowly degradable thermoplastic elastomers as scaffolds for tissue engineering, with emphasis on their phase separation and degradation properties. A second thermoplastic elastomer in which the terephthalic moieties have been replaced by ester-amide segments, is also investigated for use in scaffolding.

  17. A multicenter experience with generic tacrolimus conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Sadaka, Basma; Tichy, Eric M; Rogers, Christin C; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-09-27

    The first generic tacrolimus product gained Food and Drug Administration approval in August 2009. This prospective, observational trial sought to determine the need for dose titrations and measure drug cost savings on conversion to generic tacrolimus. Transplant recipients on stable tacrolimus doses were converted from brand to generic tacrolimus on a mg:mg basis. Data were collected at the time of generic conversion (study arm) and at a time point exactly 6 months before conversion (control arm) for all subjects. Seventy conversions from four centers are reported. Subjects were a mean of 70 months after kidney (n=37), liver (n=28), or multiorgan (n=5) transplant. In the study arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.4 and 4.5 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 5.8 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after conversion, respectively. In the control arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.6 and 4.6 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 6.1 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after the control time point, respectively. Dose titrations occurred in five patients (7%) in the control arm and 15 patients (21%) in the study arm (P=0.028). Mean monthly drug costs were $645 for brand, $593 for generic, and $595 for generic after dose titrations. Mean monthly patient copays were $38 for brand and $15 for generic. These cumulative data show that dose requirements and trough levels are similar between brand and generic tacrolimus and that generic substitution allows for savings. However, postconversion monitoring is prudent as patients may require dose titration.

  18. Generic Penetration of the SSRI Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascade, Elisa F; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the penetration of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the US market and the implications for patient out-of-pocket expense. The data suggest that generic penetration into the SSRI market has grown from approximately nine percent in 2000, the year that the patent for Prozac((R)) expired, to 72 percent in 2007. For December, 2007, the difference in patient out-of-pocket expense for branded vs. generic agents was, on average, $55.42 for patients paying by cash (i.e., they had no prescription drug insurance) and $22.39 for patients with insurance coverage.

  19. Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Duuren, van, J.B.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate P. putida KT2440 was used as biocatalyst given its versatile and energetically robust metabolism. Therefore, a mutant was generated and a process developed based on which a life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed. Additionally, the growth related parameters were experimentally obtained to constrain the metabolic model iJP815 further. The mutant Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 was deri...

  20. The translational repressor Crc controls the Pseudomonas putida benzoate and alkane catabolic pathways using a multi-tier regulation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arranz, Sofía; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Metabolically versatile bacteria usually perceive aromatic compounds and hydrocarbons as non-preferred carbon sources, and their assimilation is inhibited if more preferable substrates are available. This is achieved via catabolite repression. In Pseudomonas putida, the expression of the genes allowing the assimilation of benzoate and n-alkanes is strongly inhibited by catabolite repression, a process controlled by the translational repressor Crc. Crc binds to and inhibits the translation of benR and alkS mRNAs, which encode the transcriptional activators that induce the expression of the benzoate and alkane degradation genes respectively. However, sequences similar to those recognized by Crc in benR and alkS mRNAs exist as well in the translation initiation regions of the mRNA of several structural genes of the benzoate and alkane pathways, which suggests that Crc may also regulate their translation. The present results show that some of these sites are functional, and that Crc inhibits the induction of both pathways by limiting not only the translation of their transcriptional activators, but also that of genes coding for the first enzyme in each pathway. Crc may also inhibit the translation of a gene involved in benzoate uptake. This multi-tier approach probably ensures the rapid regulation of pathway genes, minimizing the assimilation of non-preferred substrates when better options are available. A survey of possible Crc sites in the mRNAs of genes associated with other catabolic pathways suggested that targeting substrate uptake, pathway induction and/or pathway enzymes may be a common strategy to control the assimilation of non-preferred compounds. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. A fixed-dose approach to conducting emamectin benzoate tolerance assessments on field-collected sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, S K; Westcott, J D; Elmoslemany, A; Hammell, K L; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    In New Brunswick, Canada, the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses an on-going management challenge to the health and productivity of commercially cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. While the in-feed medication, emamectin benzoate (SLICE® ; Merck), has been highly effective for many years, evidence of increased tolerance has been observed in the field since late 2008. Although bioassays on motile stages are a common tool to monitor sea lice sensitivity to emamectin benzoate in field-collected sea lice, they require the collection of large numbers of sea lice due to inherent natural variability in the gender and stage response to chemotherapeutants. In addition, sensitive instruments such as EC(50) analysis may be unnecessarily complex to characterize susceptibility subsequent to a significant observed decline in efficacy. This study proposes an adaptation of the traditional, dose-response format bioassay to a fixed-dose method. Analysis of 657 bioassays on preadult and adult stages of sea lice over the period 2008-2011 indicated a population of sea lice in New Brunswick with varying degrees of susceptibility to emamectin benzoate. A seasonal and spatial effect was observed in the robustness of genders and stages of sea lice, which suggest that mixing different genders and stages of lice within a single bioassay may result in pertinent information being overlooked. Poor survival of adult female lice in bioassays, particularly during May/June, indicates it may be prudent to consider excluding this stage from bioassays conducted at certain times of the year. This work demonstrates that fixed-dose bioassays can be a valuable technique in detecting reduced sensitivity in sea lice populations with varying degrees of susceptibility to emamectin benzoate treatments. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Changes induced by UV radiation in the presence of sodium benzoate in films formulated with polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarruel, S. [Faculty of Exact Sciences, UNLP (Argentina); Giannuzzi, L.; Rivero, S. [Center for Research and Development in Food Cryotechnology (CCT-CONICET La Plata), 47 and 116 (Argentina); Pinotti, A., E-mail: acaimpronta@hotmail.com [Center for Research and Development in Food Cryotechnology (CCT-CONICET La Plata), 47 and 116 (Argentina); Faculty of Engineering, UNLP, La Plata 1900 (Argentina)

    2015-11-01

    This work was focused on: i) developing single and blend films based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) studying their properties, ii) analyzing the interactions between CMC and PVOH and their modifications UV-induced in the presence of sodium benzoate (SB), and iii) evaluating the antimicrobial capacity of blend films containing SB with and without UV treatment. Once the blend films with SB were exposed to UV radiation, they exhibited lower moisture content as well as a greater elongation at break and rougher surfaces compared to those without treatment. Considering oxygen barrier properties, the low values obtained would allow their application as packaging with selective oxygen permeability. Moreover, the characteristics of the amorphous phase of the matrix prevailed with a rearrangement of the structure of the polymer chain, causing a decrease of the crystallinity degree. These results were supported by X-rays and DSC analysis. FT-IR spectra reflected some degree of polymer–polymer interaction at a molecular level in the amorphous regions. The incorporation of sodium benzoate combined with UV treatment in blend films was positive from the microbial point of view because of the growth inhibition of a wide spectrum of microorganisms. From a physicochemical perspective, the UV treatment of films also changed their morphology rendering them more insoluble in water, turning the functionalized blend films into a potential material to be applied as food packaging. - Highlights: • CMC:PVOH blend films were developed with the addition of sodium benzoate (SB). • Exposition to UV radiation was carried out with sodium benzoate as photoinitiator. • Blend films were exposed to UV radiation to modify their surface morphology. • Low O{sub 2} permeability of UV treated blends allow them to be used as selective packaging. • Efficacy of SB as an antimicrobial agent was examined with and without UV radiation.

  3. Changes induced by UV radiation in the presence of sodium benzoate in films formulated with polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarruel, S.; Giannuzzi, L.; Rivero, S.; Pinotti, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work was focused on: i) developing single and blend films based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) studying their properties, ii) analyzing the interactions between CMC and PVOH and their modifications UV-induced in the presence of sodium benzoate (SB), and iii) evaluating the antimicrobial capacity of blend films containing SB with and without UV treatment. Once the blend films with SB were exposed to UV radiation, they exhibited lower moisture content as well as a greater elongation at break and rougher surfaces compared to those without treatment. Considering oxygen barrier properties, the low values obtained would allow their application as packaging with selective oxygen permeability. Moreover, the characteristics of the amorphous phase of the matrix prevailed with a rearrangement of the structure of the polymer chain, causing a decrease of the crystallinity degree. These results were supported by X-rays and DSC analysis. FT-IR spectra reflected some degree of polymer–polymer interaction at a molecular level in the amorphous regions. The incorporation of sodium benzoate combined with UV treatment in blend films was positive from the microbial point of view because of the growth inhibition of a wide spectrum of microorganisms. From a physicochemical perspective, the UV treatment of films also changed their morphology rendering them more insoluble in water, turning the functionalized blend films into a potential material to be applied as food packaging. - Highlights: • CMC:PVOH blend films were developed with the addition of sodium benzoate (SB). • Exposition to UV radiation was carried out with sodium benzoate as photoinitiator. • Blend films were exposed to UV radiation to modify their surface morphology. • Low O 2 permeability of UV treated blends allow them to be used as selective packaging. • Efficacy of SB as an antimicrobial agent was examined with and without UV radiation

  4. Synthesis of [18F]-N-succinimidyl 4-fluoromethyl benzoate and its protein labeling property in detection of malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian, A.R; Afarideh, H.; Shafiee, A.; Rafii, H.; Najafi, R.

    1998-01-01

    [ 18 F]-N-succinimidyl 4-fluoromethyl benzoate (9) is prepared through a one-step hot reaction and a four-step cold reaction. After optimizing the reaction conditions, more simple methods are suggested to be used in order to prepare substance (9). Finally, the labeled molecule is purified via an easier way in comparison to the published methods. HPLC procedure is replaced with a hand-made gel filtration column and is utilized in satisfactorily

  5. Identification of the electron transfer flavoprotein as an upregulated enzyme in the benzoate utilization of Desulfotignum balticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Kobuna, Akinori; Hosoda, Akifumi; Kosaka, Tomoyuki; Endoh, Takayuki; Tamura, Hiroto; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2009-07-01

    Desulfotignum balticum utilizes benzoate coupled to sulfate reduction. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) analysis was conducted to detect proteins that increased more after growth on benzoate than on butyrate. A comparison of proteins on 2D gels showed that at least six proteins were expressed. The N-terminal sequences of three proteins exhibited significant identities with the alpha and beta subunits of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) from anaerobic aromatic-degraders. By sequence analysis of the fosmid clone insert (37,590 bp) containing the genes encoding the ETF subunits, we identified three genes, whose deduced amino acid sequences showed 58%, 74%, and 62% identity with those of Gmet_2267 (Fe-S oxidoreductase), Gmet_2266 (ETF beta subunit), and Gmet_2265 (ETF alpha subunit) respectively, which exist within the 300-kb genomic island of aromatic-degradation genes from Geobacter metallireducens GS-15. The genes encoding ETF subunits found in this study were upregulated in benzoate utilization.

  6. Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in “Doogh” Samples in Post Market Surveillance in Iran 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari-adergani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two major chemical preservatives which are used in Doogh (Iranian traditional dairy drink. In this study, a total of 27 commercial brands of highly consumed of Doogh samples were analyzed. The means and standard deviation for concentration of these preservatives based on HPLC results for analysis of benzoate and sorbate were 195·9 (SD 1·8 and 328·8 (SD 2·1 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The minimum and maximum of benzoate content in various brands were 18.3 and 2345.1 mg.Kg-1 and for sorbate were not detected and 4961.3 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The study revealed that there was not significant difference in preservative concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. However, a few samples had a high preservative concentration, which could be a risk factor for human health, especially when their intake was being occurred by various foodstuffs simultaneously.

  7. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for residue analysis of the insecticide emamectin benzoate in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Mika; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Uchigashima, Mikiko; Kono, Takeshi; Takemoto, Toshihide; Fujita, Masahiro; Saka, Machiko; Iwasa, Seiji; Ito, Shigekazu; Miyake, Shiro

    2009-01-28

    A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dc-ELISA) for the analysis of emamectin residues in agricultural products was developed using a prepared mouse monoclonal antibody. The working range was 0.3-3.0 ng/mL, and the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 1.0 ng/mL. The assay was sufficiently sensitive for analysis of the maximum residue limits in agricultural products in Japan (>0.1 microg/g). Emamectin residues contain the following metabolites: the 4''-epi-amino analogue, the 4''-epi-(N-formyl)amino analogue, the 4''-epi-(N-formyl-N-methyl)amino analogue, and the 8,9-Z isomer. The dc-ELISA reacted with these compounds at ratios of 113, 55, 38, and 9.1% of the IC(50) value of emamectin benzoate. Seven kinds of vegetables were spiked with emamectin benzoate at concentrations of 15-300 ng/g, and the recoveries were 91-117% in the dc-ELISA. The dc-ELISA results agreed reasonably well with results obtained by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using spiked samples and actual (incurred) samples. The results indicate that the dc-ELISA was useful for the analysis of emamectin benzoate residues in agricultural products.

  8. High-level of resistance to spinosad, emamectin benzoate and carbosulfan in populations of Thrips tabaci collected in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Galina; Abo-Moch, Fauzi; Gafni, Guy; Ben-Yakir, David; Ghanim, Murad

    2013-02-01

    The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a major pest of several crop plants in the genus Allium, such as onions, garlic and chives. In Israel, these crops are grown in open fields and in protected housing. This thrips is usually controlled by the application of chemical insecticides. In recent years, spinosad, emamectin benzoate and carbosulfan have been the major insecticides used for the control of the onion thrips. In the last 4 years, growers of chives and green onion from several regions of Israel have reported a significant decrease in the efficacy of insecticides used to control the onion thrips. The susceptibility of 14 populations of the onion thrips, collected mainly from chives between the years 2007 and 2011, to spinosad, emamectin benzoate and carbosulfan was tested using a laboratory bioassay. The majority of the populations showed significant levels of resistance to at least one of the insecticides. LC(50) values calculated for two of the studied populations showed that the resistance factor for spinosad compared with the susceptible population is 21 393, for carbosulfan 54 and for emamectin benzoate 36. Only two populations, collected from organic farms, were susceptible to the insecticides tested. This is the first report of a high resistance level to spinosad, the major insecticide used to control the onion thrips. Resistance cases to spinosad were associated with failures to control the pest. Populations resistant to spinosad also had partial or complete resistance to other insecticides used for controlling the onion thrips. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Correlation and prediction of mixing thermodynamic properties of ester-containing systems: Ester + alkane and ester + ester binary systems and the ternary dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Noelia; Fernández, Luís; Ortega, Juan; Toledo, Francisco J.; Wisniak, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Excess enthalpies and volumes were measured for ester–ester–alkane. ► Mixing behaviour for ester–ester, ester–alkane and ester–ester–alkane are analyzed. ► Correlations with a new polynomial model reproduce well the mixing properties. ► UNIFAC predictions for h E result acceptable excluding the ester–ester mixtures. - Abstract: Excess thermodynamic properties V m E and H m E , have been measured for the ternary mixture dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate and for the corresponding binaries dodecane + ethyl pentanoate, dodecane + ethyl ethanoate, ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate at 298.15 K. All mixtures show endothermic and expansive effects. Experimental results are correlated with a suitable equation whose final form for the excess ternary quantity M E contains the particular contributions of the three binaries (i–j) and a last term corresponding to the ternary, all of them obtained considering fourth-order interactions. The fit goodness for all mixtures is good and comparable to others equations taken from the literature. In this work the dissolution model for the binaries and ternary is analyzed with a special attention to ester–ester binaries whose behaviour is discussed. The application of the UNIFAC group contribution model to estimate the H m E yields acceptable results for the binaries (with the exception of ester–ester) and for the ternary mixture.

  10. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  11. Ester Tuiksoo - Eesti esimene naissoost põllumajandusminister / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Toomas Verrev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Ametist lahkuv põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo räägib saadud juhtimiskogemusest, Euroopa Liidu ühise põllumajanduspoliitika juurutamisest, rahvuskala valimisest, Rahvaliidu käekäigust parlamendivalimistel

  12. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of catonic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrogen hydrolysis rate constant.

  13. Technetium and rhenium tracers with metabolizable ester functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syhre, R.; Seifert, S.; Schneider, F.; Pietzsch, H.J.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.

    1993-01-01

    Re-DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) ester complexes were prepored by ligand exchange reactions. To determine whether the ester band in Re-DMSA ester complexes is susceptible to cleavage by esterases, incubation experiments with tissue homogenates and plasma were carried out. (BBR)

  14. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  15. Celorbicol, isocelorbicol, and their esters: new sesquiterpenoids from Celastrus orbiculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.R. Jr. (Dept. of Agriculture, Peoria, IL); Miller, R.W.; Weisleder, D.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Eickman, N.; Clardy, J.

    1976-10-01

    Esters of two new sesquiterpenoid polyalcohols - celorbicol and isocelorbicol - have been isolated from Celastrus orbiculatus. Structures of the parent alcohols have been established by x-ray crystallography, and those of the derived esters have been assigned by NMR spectroscopy. These compounds are structurally related to other polyesters and ester alkaloids from the Celastraceae, all of which are based on the dihydroagarofuran ring system.

  16. Efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination using a progesterone device combined with GnRH or estradiol benzoate in Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Antônio Pelissari Poncio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available he use of estrogens in artificial insemination protocols for cattle is the least expensive and most efficient method currently available. However, the trend to prohibit the use of estrogens for this purpose has made it necessary to find alternatives that replace estrogens without compromising the reproductive performance of the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate conception rates in Bos indicus beef heifers treated with a progesterone device (P4 combined with GnRH or an estradiol ester. On day 0, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 100 received an intravaginal device containing 1 g P4 and were randomly divided into two groups. The GnRH group (n = 49 received an intramuscular injection of 100 µg GnRH, while the E2 group (n = 51 received 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB. The P4 device was removed after 5 (GnRH group or 8 days (E2 group, followed by an injection of 125 µg of the PGF2α, analog cloprostenol. On that occasion, the E2 group received an additional injection of 300 IU eCG. Twenty-four hours later, the GnRH group received a second injection of 125 µg cloprostenol, while the E2 group received 1 mg EB. The heifers were inseminated 72 (GnRH group or 54 hours (E2 group after removal of the P4 device. At the time of insemination, the GnRH group received additionally an injection of 100 µg GnRH. Estrus was monitored during the period of cloprostenol injection until the time of artificial insemination and pregnancy was diagnosed 40 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. The data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rate was 38.8% and 31.4% in the GnRH and E2 groups, respectively (P>0.05. The ovarian condition of the heifers (estrus or anestrus tended to influence (P=0.07 pregnancy rates in the GnRH group, but not in the E2 group. At the time of artificial insemination, 33.3% of heifers in the GnRH group showed signs of estrus versus 88.2% in the E2 group (P<0.05. However, the time of estrus

  17. Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmaul Husna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to mitigate Salmonella from betel leaf in Mymensingh. A total of 35 betel leaf samples were collected from 2 baroujes and 5 local markets in Mymensingh. The samples were sub-divided into two groups: (i phosphate buffer solution (PBS washed, and (ii grinded sample. There was control and treated (with 1.5% vinegar, sorbitol, and sodium benzoate sub-groups in both groups. Mitigation of Salmonella was determined by comparing Total Viable Count (TVC and Total Salmonella Count (TSAC of control with treated groups. No bacterial growth was observed in the betel leaf samples collected directly from barouj level. At market level, when grinded, there was no growth of bacteria in Plate Count Agar (PCA and Salmonella- Shigella (SS or Xylose Lysine De-oxy-chocolate (XLD in both treated and untreated groups. But when the PBS washed samples were used, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL of betel leaf ranged from 5.16±0.82 to 5.96±1.11, whereas the TSAC value ranged from 4.87±0.58 to 5.56±1.00 for untreated group. In vinegar, there was no growth, but when treated with sorbitol, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.00±0.54 to 5.66±1.09, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.28±0.71 to 4.78±0.64. When treated with sodium benzoate, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.06±0.53 to 5.75±1.02, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.34±0.79 to 4.92±0.64. Data of this study indicates that all the three chemicals were effective in terms of reducing bacterial load but vinegar (1.5% was found to be the most effective against Salmonella as well as some other bacteria when treated for 10 min.

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Technology: A Powerful, Generic, Facile and Cost Effective Alternative for Enantio-recognition and Separation: A Glance at Advances and Applications. ... Tanzania Journal of Science. Journal Home · ABOUT ...

  19. Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management Practices on Spending for Prescription Drugs - Evidence from Medicares Part D...

  20. Development of a water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate and its preventative effect against the wilting of pot-grown pine trees inoculated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, K; Soejima, T; Suzuki, T; Kawazu, K

    2001-05-01

    Water-soluble preparations have been investigated to develop a trunk injection agent based on the poorly water-soluble anti-nematode emamectin benzoate. Following tests on the phytotoxicity of some solvents and solubilizers and demonstration of the ability of some solubilizers to dissolve emamectin benzoate in water, acetone + methanol was selected as the solvent and Polysorbate 80 as the solubilizer. This water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate prevented the wilting of pot-grown 4-year-old trees of the Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, artificially inoculated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, at a dose of 20 g emamectin benzoate per cubic metre of pine tree.

  1. Synthesis of 11C labelled methyl esters: transesterification of enol esters versus BF3 catalysed esterification-a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Uwe; Blanc, Paul; Falzon, Cheryl L.; Issa, William; White, Jonathan; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J.; Sachinidis, John I.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    C-11 labelled methyl esters have been synthesized via the transesterification of enol esters in the presence of C-11 methanol and 1,3 dichlorodibutylstannoxane as catalyst. This method leaves functional groups intact and allows access to a wider variety of C-11 labelled methyl esters compared to the BF 3 catalysed ester formation, which uses carboxylic acids and C-11 methanol as starting materials

  2. Rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters with thallium trinitrate: synthesis of indans bearing a beta-keto ester moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jr. Luiz F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters, such as 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl-propionic acid ethyl ester, with thallium trinitrate (TTN in acetic acid leads to 3-indan-1-yl-2-methyl-3-oxo-propionic acid ethyl ester in good yield, through a ring contraction reaction. The new indans thus obtained feature a beta-keto ester moiety, which would be useful for further functionalization.

  3. Brand and generic medications: Are they interchangeable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jazairi, Abdulrazak S.; Blhareth, S.; Eqtefan, Iyad S.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2008-01-01

    Generic substitution has become a common practice since the late 1970s in the United States. At that time, many of these generics caused bioavailability problems, which fueled suspicions about their efficacy and safety and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards for bioequivalence. In Saudi Arabia, the increasing number of local products raised several concerns with regard to switching from brands to generics. Our objective was to review and examine the basis of the controversy surrounding brand and generic interchangeability and to explore a practical approach in pursuing a switch. Articles indexed initially under terms such as generic medications, generic substitution, bioequivalence and bioinequivalence were identified. These terms were used to search the indexing service, MEDLINE (1966-2006). References from the extracted articles and additional data sources, including the Code of Federal Regulations and Regulatory Guidelines from the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and research were also reviewed. Foe most drugs, bioequivalence testing generally should enable clinicians to routinely substitute generic for innovator products. However, for narrow therapeutic, critical dose drugs, or for highly variable drugs, safe switching between products can not be assured. These drugs need special precautions and blood level monitoring upon switching. FDA firmly believes that approved generic and brand drugs can be dispensed with the full expectation that the consumer will receive the same clinical benefit. Performing the switch process is an advisable practice to reduce health care costs in countries with strong post-marketing surveillance program, but caution is to be exercised when narrow therapeutic index drugs or highly variable drugs are prescribed. (author)

  4. Generic medicine and prescribing: A quick assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA describes that generic drugs are essential possibilities that allow better access to healthcare for all Americans. They are replicas of brand-name drugs and are the identical as those of brand-name drugs in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance features, and anticipated to use. Healthcare authorities and users can be guaranteed that FDA-approved generic drug products have met the same stiff principles as the innovator drug. The company that made Bayer aspirin fought in court enthusiastically to keep generic versions off the shelves, in the 1920s. The company lost in court, and consumers suddenly had an array of choices in generic aspirin. The Supreme Court of India uttering ‘the Supreme Court's ruling will prevent companies from further seeking unwarranted patents on HIV and other essential medicines.’ Generic medicine cannot be sold at a price higher than the branded medicine, so it is regularly a low-priced option. Thereafter, both the end user and the government who pay for part of the price of the medicine under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme in Australia are benefitted. The treatment of diseases using essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasised by the WHO and many national health policies. Although there are some improvements in generic medicine prescribing, it has been advised by the WHO that ‘countries should intensify efforts to measure and regularly monitor medicine prices and availability, and adopt policy measures to address the issues identified.’

  5. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) micro- and nanospheres: DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Blaine A; Burdick, Jason A; Little, Steve R; Langer, Robert

    2005-11-04

    Poly(ester-anhydride) delivery devices allow flexibility regarding carrier dimensions (micro- versus nanospheres), degradation rate (anhydride versus ester hydrolysis), and surface labeling (through the anhydride functional unit), and were therefore tested for DNA encapsulation and transfection of a macrophage P388D1 cell line. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-sebacic anhydride) and poly(l-lactic acid-co-adipic anhydride) were synthesized through melt condensation, mixed with 25 wt.% poly(beta-amino ester), and formulated with plasmid DNA (encoding firefly luciferase) into micro- and nanospheres using a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The micro- and nanospheres were then characterized (size, morphology, zeta potential, DNA release) and assayed for DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection over a range of poly(ester-anhydride) copolymer ratios. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) composite microspheres (6-12 microm) and nanospheres (449-1031 nm), generated with copolymers containing between 0 and 25% total polyanhydride content, encapsulated plasmid DNA (>or=20% encapsulation efficiency). Within this polyanhydride range, poly(adipic anhydride) copolymers provided DNA encapsulation at an increased anhydride content (10%, microspheres; 10-25%, nanospheres) compared to poly(sebacic anhydride) copolymers (1%, microspheres and nanospheres) with cellular transfection correlating with the observed DNA encapsulation.

  6. Determination of Benzoate Level in Canned Pickles and Pickled Cucumbers in Food Producing Factories in Markazi Province and those that their Products were Sold in Arak City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anecdotal information has suggested that sodium benzoate is used with more than permissible doses during production steps of food products especially pickles and pickled cucumbers in food producing factories in Markazi province and other food producing factories . The present study was done to evaluate factual concentration of sodium benzoate in these products. Methods: In this study, 8 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 10 samples from canned pickles were randomly gathered from food production factories in Markazi province between March and September 2010. Also, 25 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 15 samples from canned pickles and 7 samples of bulk cargo pickled cucumbers were collected from the other provinces in Arak city. Sodium benzoate level was determined in the samples using UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The determined values were analyzed by N-par test using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Sodium benzoate level was near zero in the samples of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers from producing factories. This was 200-400 PPM in 7 samples from bulk cargo pickled cucumbers which was higher than permissible dose. There was not a statistically significant difference between mean benzoate level of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers produced in Markazi providence factories and other food factories. Benzoate level was significantly higher than permissible dose in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Conclusion: Food products from production factories do not have higher than permissible level of sodium benzoate; however, this is higher in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Hence, stricter control on bulk cargo pickled cucumber products is recommended.

  7. Evaluations of emamectin benzoate and propiconazole for protecting individual Pinus contorta from mortality attributed to colonization by Dendroctonus ponderosae and associated fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; Grosman, Donald M; Bush, Parshall B

    2014-05-01

    Protection of conifers from bark beetle colonization typically involves applications of liquid formulations of contact insecticides to the tree bole. An evaluation was made of the efficacy of bole injections of emamectin benzoate alone and combined with the fungicide propiconazole for protecting individual lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., from mortality attributed to colonization by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and progression of associated blue stain fungi. Injections of emamectin benzoate applied in mid-June did not provide adequate levels of tree protection; however, injections of emamectin benzoate + propiconazole applied at the same time were effective for two field seasons. Injections of emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + propiconazole in mid-September provided tree protection the following field season, but unfortunately efficacy could not be determined during a second field season owing to insufficient levels of tree mortality observed in the untreated control, indicative of low D. ponderosae populations. Previous evaluations of emamectin benzoate for protecting P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae have failed to demonstrate efficacy, which was later attributed to inadequate distribution of emamectin benzoate following injections applied several weeks before D. ponderosae colonization. The present data indicate that injections of emamectin benzoate applied in late summer or early fall will provide adequate levels of tree protection the following summer, and that, when emamectin benzoate is combined with propiconazole, tree protection is afforded the year that injections are implemented. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. High secondary [alpha]-deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, S. (Research Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kukric, Z.; Sutic, D. (Sarajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics); Saunders, W.H. Jr. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-02-01

    Acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate exhibit large secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and an abnormal temperature dependence. In the presence of LiClO[sub 4], which prevents the reversion from solvent-separated to contact ion-pairs, K[sub H]/K[sub D] at 25 [sup o]C amount to 1.53 [+-] 0.02 (acetolysis) and 1.48 [+-] 0.03 (formolysis). In the presence of LiClO[sub 4] the ratios of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A[sub H]/A[sub D], are significantly less than unity and amount to 0.49 [+-] 0.01 (acetolysis) and 0.38 [+-] 0.04 (formolysis). In the absence of LiClO[sub 4] the A[sub H]/A[sub D] ratios are much smaller (0.02 both in acetolysis and formolysis). We suggest that these surprisingly low values result from a change in rate-determining step over the temperature range, from formation of the solvent-separated ion-pair at low temperatures to reaction of the dissociated carbocation with solvent at the highest temperatures. Whether tunnelling plays any role in these solvolyses is discussed. (Author).

  9. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Wei Zhongling [Magnesium Technology Co., Ltd., Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiaxing 314051 (China); Yang Fuwei [Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Zhang Zhao, E-mail: eaglezzy@zjuem.zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory for Light Alloy Materials Technology, Jiaxing 314051 (China)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. > NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. > The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. > Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. > The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz{sup -} on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  10. Relationship between dose of emamectin benzoate and molting response of ovigerous American lobsters (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddy, S L; Merritt, V A; Hamilton-Gibson, M N; Aiken, D E; Burridge, L E

    2007-05-01

    A widely-prescribed treatment to control sea lice on cultured salmon is the administration of feed medicated with SLICE (active ingredient emamectin benzoate (EMB)). High doses of EMB can disrupt the molt cycle of ovigerous American lobsters, causing them to enter proecdysis prematurely and lose their attached eggs when the shell is cast. To determine the dose response to EMB, lobsters were forced to ingest doses that ranged from 0.05 to 0.39 microg g(-1). A significant proportion of lobsters given doses of 0.39 and 0.22 microg g(-1) (37% and 23%, respectively) molted prematurely, almost a year earlier than the control group. All the lobsters in the 0.05 and 0.12 microg g(-1) groups molted at the normal time and the mean time of molt was similar to that of the control group. Thus, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) and lowest-observed-effect level (LOEL) of EMB on the molt cycle were 0.12 and 0.22 microg EMB g(-1) lobster, respectively. To acquire the LOEL, a 500-g lobster would have to consume 22 g of salmon feed medicated with SLICE at a level of 5 microg EMB g(-1) feed.

  11. Potential genotoxic and cytotoxicity of emamectin benzoate in human normal liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zhao, Xinyu; Qin, Xiaosong

    2017-10-10

    Pesticide residue inducing cancer-related health problems draw people more attention recently. Emamectin benzoate (EMB) has been widely used in agriculture around the world based on its specificity targets. Although potential risk and the molecular mechanism of EMB toxicity to human liver has not been well-characterized. Unlike well-reported toxicity upon central nervous system, potential genotoxic and cytotoxicity of EMB in human liver cell was ignored and very limited. In this study, we identify genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of EMB to human normal liver cells (QSG7701 cell line) in vitro . We demonstrate that EMB inhibited the viability of QSG7701 cells and induced the DNA damage. Established assays of cytotoxicity were performed to characterize the mechanism of EMB toxicity on QSG7701 cells. Typical chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation indicated the apoptosis of QSG7701 cells induced by EMB. And the intracellular biochemical results demonstrated that EMB-enhanced apoptosis of QSG7701 cells concurrent with generated ROS, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the cytochrome-c release, up regulate the Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-9/-3. Our results of EMB induces the death of QSG7701 cells maybe via mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathways would contribute to promote the awareness of EMB as an extensive used pesticide to human being effects and reveal the underlying mechanisms of potential genotoxic.

  12. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed: a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, Leslie J

    2005-01-01

    A new method was developed for the quantitation of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed at levels between 1 and 30 ppm. The new procedure, based on a previously reported assay, consists of a wet methanolic extraction of ground feed, followed by solid-phase extraction and injection onto a gradient liquid chromatographic system. A multisite study involving 3 laboratories (the developing laboratory and 2 independent laboratories) was performed to evaluate precision, recovery, linearity, and sensitivity. Mean recove;ries for triplicate analyses at 3 levels, performed by 2 analysts per laboratory, were between 89 and 97%, with coefficients of variation ranging from 1.6 to 8.6%. Coefficients of determination (r2) obtained from the plotted data were > or =0.993. The precision of the method, determined from 6 replicate preparations from the same batch of medicated feed assayed in 3 separate trials per laboratory, was between 0.6 and 5.8%. The quantitation limit was established at 0.5 ppm. Specificity and robustness studies were performed by the developing laboratory.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of emamectin-benzoate slow-release microspheres with different surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Anqi; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Shen, Yue; Gao, Fei; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2017-10-06

    Pesticide slow-release formulations provide a way to increase the efficiency of active components by reducing the amount of pesticide that needs to be applied. Slow-release formulations also increase the stability and prolong the control effect of photosensitive pesticides. Surfactants are an indispensable part of pesticide formulations, and the choice of surfactant can strongly affect formulation performance. In this study, emamectin-benzoate (EMB) slow-release microspheres were prepared by the microemulsion polymerization method. We explored the effect of different surfactants on the particle size and dispersity of EMB in slow-release microspheres. The results indicated that the samples had uniform spherical shapes with an average diameter of 320.5 ±5.24 nm and good dispersity in the optimal formulation with the polymeric stabilizer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and composite non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene castor oil (EL-40). The optimal EMB pesticide slow-release microspheres had excellent anti-photolysis performance, stability, controlled release properties, and good leaf distribution. These results demonstrated that EMB slow-release microspheres are an attractive candidate for improving pesticide efficacy and prolonging the control effect of EMB in the environment.

  14. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Wei Zhongling; Yang Fuwei; Zhang Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. → NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. → The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. → Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. → The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz - on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  15. Sodium benzoate induced developmental defects, oxidative stress and anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Himanshu; Purushothaman, Srinithi; Pullaguri, Narasimha; Bhargava, Yogesh; Bhargava, Anamika

    2018-05-28

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a common food preservative. Its FDA described safety limit is 1000 ppm. Lately, increased use of SB has prompted investigations regarding its effects on biological systems. Data regarding toxicity of SB is divergent and controversial with studies reporting both harmful and beneficial effects. Therefore, we did a systematic dose dependent toxicity study of SB using zebrafish vertebrate animal model. We also investigated oxidative stress and anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish larva treated with SB. Our results indicate that SB induced developmental (delayed hatching), morphological (pericardial edema, yolk sac edema and tail bending), biochemical (oxidative stress) and behavioural (anxiety-like behaviour) abnormalities in developing zebrafish larva. LC 50 of SB induced toxicity was approximately 400 ppm after 48 h of SB exposure. Our study strongly supports its harmful effects on vertebrates at increasing doses. Thus, we suggest caution in the excessive use of this preservative in processed and convenience foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Indirect radioiodination of human IgG with N-succinimidyl-3-iodo[125I] benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenfeng; Wang Yongxian; Dong Mo; Zhou Wei; Xia Jiaoyun; Yin Duanzhi; Li Linfa

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an acylation method for the radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies that could decrease the loss of radioiodine in vivo. Preparation of N- succinimidyl-3-iodobenzoate(S 125 IB) from the organoth precursor, N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-bu- tylstannyl)benzoate(ATE) proceeds in more than 95% labelling yield, when the mass of ATE and NCS are respectively 25-100 μg and 10-20 μg, and the volume of PBS is 10-20 μL, and reaction time is 5 min. IgG is labeled using S 125 IB in up to 75% conjugation efficiency and with well retained immunoreactivity to sheep anti-human IgG. Hepama-1 is also labeled using S 125 IB in more than 75% conjugation efficiency. Paired-label biodistribution studies in normal mice demonstrate that thyroid uptake(a monitor of dehalogenation) of Hepama-1 labeled by S 125 IB method is up to 87.9 times lower than that of Hepama-1 labeled with Iodogen. This result suggests that S 125 IB offers significant advantages for labeling proteins, antibodies over other conventional methods for protein radioiodination. (authors)

  17. Monitoring benzene formation from benzoate in model systems by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Carlin, Silvia; Märk, Tilmann D.; Gasperi, Flavia

    2008-08-01

    The presence of benzene in food and in particular in soft drinks has been reported in several studies and should be considered in fundamental investigations about formation of this carcinogen compound as well as in quality control. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used here for rapid, direct quantification of benzene and to monitor its formation in model systems related to the use of benzoate, a common preservative, in presence of ascorbic acid: a widespread situation that yields benzene in, e.g., soft drinks and fruit juices. Firstly, we demonstrate here that PTR-MS allows a rapid determination of benzene that is in quantitative agreement with independent solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography (SPME/GC) analysis. Secondly, as a case study, the effect of different sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) on benzene formation is investigated indicating that they inhibit its formation and that this effect is enhanced for reducing sugars. The sugar-induced inhibition of benzene formation depends on several parameters (type and concentration of sugar, temperature, time) but can be more than 80% in situations that can be expected in the storage of commercial soft drinks. This is consistent with the reported observations of higher benzene concentrations in sugar-free soft drinks.

  18. Sharing, samples, and generics: an antitrust framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Michael A

    Rising drug prices are in the news. By increasing price, drug companies have placed vital, even life-saving, medicines out of the reach of consumers. In a recent development, brand firms have prevented generics even from entering the market. The ruse for this strategy involves risk-management programs known as Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies ("REMS"). Pursuant to legislation enacted in 2007, the FDA requires REMS when a drug's risks (such as death or injury) outweigh its rewards. Brands have used this regime, intended to bring drugs to the market, to block generic competition. Regulations such as the federal Hatch-Waxman Act and state substitution laws foster widespread generic competition. But these regimes can only be effectuated through generic entry. And that entry can take place only if a generic can use a brand's sample to show that its product is equivalent. More than 100 generic firms have complained that they have not been able to access needed samples. One study of 40 drugs subject to restricted access programs found that generics' inability to enter cost more than $5 billion a year. Brand firms have contended that antitrust law does not compel them to deal with their competitors and have highlighted concerns related to safety and product liability in justifying their refusals. This Article rebuts these claims. It highlights the importance of samples in the regulatory regime and the FDA's inability to address the issue. It shows how a sharing requirement in this setting is consistent with Supreme Court caselaw. And it demonstrates that the brands' behavior fails the defendant-friendly "no economic sense" test because the conduct literally makes no sense other than by harming generics. Brands' denial of samples offers a textbook case of monopolization. In the universe of pharmaceutical antitrust behavior, other conduct--such as "pay for delay" settlements between brands and generics and "product hopping" from one drug to a slightly modified

  19. Synthesis of Estolide 2-ethylhexyl Ester from Ricinus communis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrizawati Ahmad Tajuddin; Nor Habibah Rosli

    2013-01-01

    Estolide 2-ethylhexyl ester synthesized through condensation reaction between ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and lauric acid, and then capped with 2-ethylhexyl alcohol. The reaction was continuously conducted under vacuum for 24 hours. Product of 2-ethylhexyl ester was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) to determine functional group and Nuclear Magnetic Resonans (NMR) for structure's determination. The presence of ester group at 1738.23 cm -1 wavenumber indicates that the formation of estolide ester has occurred. The vibration peak of C-O at 1174.60 cm -1 and 1117.10 cm -1 support the formation of ester. The presence of CH 2 bending indicated the long-chain compound. The ester methine signal at 3.8669 ppm indicated the estolide linkage in the 1 H-NMR spectrum while the 13 C-NMR showed two carbonyl signals at 173.41 ppm for acid and 173.56 ppm for ester. (author)

  20. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic drug...

  1. Enzymatic synthesizing of phytosterol oleic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Chen, Biqiang; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zhul, Biyun; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    A method of synthesizing the phytosterol esters from oleic acid and sterols was studied, using immobilized lipase Candida sp. 99-125 as catalyst. Molar ratio (oleic acid/phytosterols), temperature, reaction period, organic solvents, catalyst, and silica-gel drier were optimized, and the result showed that 93.4% of the sterols had been esterified under the optimal synthetic condition: the molar ratio of oleic acid/phytosterol is 1:1 in 10 mL iso-octane, immobilized lipase (w, 140% of the sterols), incubated in an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at a temperature of 45 °C for 24 h. The immobilized lipase could be reused for at least 13 times with limited loss of esterification activity. The conversion still maintained up to 86.6%. Hence, this developed process for synthesizing phytosterol esters could be considered as simple and low-energy consumption compared to existing chemical processes.

  2. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shahnaz; Tabassum, S.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Pervez, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  3. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M S; Shahnaz,; Tabassum, S; Ogunwande, I A; Pervez, M K [University of Karachi (Pakistan). HEJ Research Inst. of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences

    2010-08-15

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  4. Atmospheric oxidation of selected alcohols and esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K H; Cavalli, F

    2001-03-01

    The decision whether it is appropriate and beneficial for the environment to deploy specific oxygenated organic compounds as replacements for traditional solvent types requires a quantitative assessment of their potential atmospheric impacts including tropospheric ozone and other photooxidant formation. This involves developing chemical mechanisms for the gasphase atmospheric oxidation of the compounds which can be reliably used in models to predict their atmospheric reactivity under a variety of environmental conditions. Until this study, there was very little information available concerning the atmospheric fate of alcohols and esters. The objectives of this study were to measure the atmospheric reaction rates and to define atmospheric reaction mechanisms for the following selected oxygenated volatile organic compounds: the alcohols, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, and the esters, methyl propionate and dimethyl succinate. The study has successfully addressed these objectives. (orig.)

  5. Mortality of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (sternorrhyncha: aleyrodidae adults by aliphatic and aromatic synthetic sucrose esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The B-strain of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius is a key pest of several crops and chemical control is the main control method used by growers, although reduction in efficacy due to insecticide resistance has already been reported. The aim of this work was to investigate the insecticidal effect of an array of synthetic sucrose esters with the aliphatic and aromatic groups on whitefly adults. Sucrose butyrate, caprate, octanoate, palmitate, oleate, octaacetate, phthalate, benzoate, and sucrose diacetate hexaisobutyrate were tested. The solutions were prepared and applied on the adults caught on yellow sticky traps using the Potter spray tower. Long-chains sucrose aliphatic esters were more effective against the silverleaf whiteflies and the highest mortality was obtained with sucrose oleate and sucrose octanoate. Since these compounds were tensoactive, sodium dodecylsulphate was also tested for the comparison but no effect was observed. Sucrose butyrate and other aliphatic and aromatic sucrose polyesters showed negligible effect on the silverleaf whiteflies.O biótipo B de B. tabaci Gennadius tem se destacado como uma praga-chave de diversas culturas. O controle químico tem sido a principal tática de controle utilizada, embora já se tenha observado redução na eficiência dos produtos devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diversos ésteres de sacarose com grupos alifáticos ou aromáticos sobre adultos de mosca-branca. Butirato de sacarose, caprato, octanoato, palmitato, oleato, actaacetato, ftlato, benzoato e diacetato hexaisobutirato de sacarose foram testados. Soluções de éster de sacarose foram preparadas e aplicadas sobre adultos capturados em armadilhas adesivas utilizando Torre de Potter. Ésteres alifáticos de sacarose com longas cadeias foram mais efetivos contra mosca-branca e as maiores taxas de mortalidade foram obtidas com oleato e octanoato de sacarose. Uma vez que

  6. 76 FR 54507 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic... functions. SSCs in operating nuclear power plants are designed either in accordance with, or have been... nuclear reactors. The background information relevant to this GL includes the individual plant...

  7. Cytosolic cholesterol ester hydrolase in adrenal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Tocher, Douglas R.

    1983-01-01

    Cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) in adrenocortical cytosol was known to be phosphorylated and activated, in response to ACTH in a cAMPdependent protein kinase mediated process. The purification of CEH from bovine adrenocortical cytosol was attempted. The use of detergents to solubilise the enzyme from lipid-rich aggregates was investigated and sodium cholate was found to be effective. A purification procedure using cholate solubilised enzyme was developed. The detergent int...

  8. Synthetic Methods for Ester Bond Formation and Conformational Analysis of Ester-Containing Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbusch, Sven

    This dissertation encompasses work related to synthetic methods for the formation of ester linkages in organic compounds, as well as the investigation of the conformational influence of the ester functional group on the flexibility of inter-saccharide linkages, specifically, and the solution phase structure of ester-containing carbohydrate derivatives, in general. Stereoselective reactions are an important part of the field of asymmetric synthesis and an understanding of their underlying mechanistic principles is essential for rational method development. Here, the exploration of a diastereoselective O-acylation reaction on a trans-2-substituted cyclohexanol scaffold is presented, along with possible reasons for the observed reversal of stereoselectivity dependent on the presence or absence of an achiral amine catalyst. In particular, this work establishes a structure-activity relationship with regard to the trans-2-substituent and its role as a chiral auxiliary in the reversal of diastereoselectivity. In the second part, the synthesis of various ester-linked carbohydrate derivatives, and their conformational analysis is presented. Using multidimensional NMR experiments and computational methods, the compounds' solution-phase structures were established and the effect of the ester functional group on the molecules' flexibility and three-dimensional (3D) structure was investigated and compared to ether or glycosidic linkages. To aid in this, a novel Karplus equation for the C(sp2)OCH angle in ester-linked carbohydrates was developed on the basis of a model ester-linked carbohydrate. This equation describes the sinusoidal relationship between the C(sp2)OCH dihedral angle and the corresponding 3JCH coupling constant that can be determined from a J-HMBC NMR experiment. The insights from this research will be useful in describing the 3D structure of naturally occurring and lab-made ester-linked derivatives of carbohydrates, as well as guiding the de novo-design of

  9. [Analysis of generic drug supply in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph

    2003-09-01

    The list of generic medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between generic and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between generics and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the generic groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.

  10. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  11. Mixed WTO ruling on generic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    On 17 March 2000, the World Trade Organization upheld the provision in Canada's patent laws that allows generic drug manufacturers to develop (but not sell) their cheaper versions of patented medicines before the 20-year patients expire. The decision prevents pharmaceutical companies from enjoying market monopolies beyond their patent terms, avoiding what would otherwise be even lengthier delays in the sale of cheaper, generic drugs in Canada. This decision is of significance not only to Canada, but also to other WTO member countries and to all individuals who use pharmaceutical products. However, the decision is not all positive: the WTO also ruled that Canada is violating international agreements by letting generic manufacturers stockpile their versions of patented drugs before patents expire. This article explains the issues, the arguments, and the decision.

  12. Synthèse d'esters de l'acide benzoïque par catalyse enzymatique en milieu hétérogène microaqueux

    OpenAIRE

    Leszczak , Jean-Pierre

    1998-01-01

    171 pages; No english abstract; La synthèse d'esters de l'acide benzoïque par voie enzymatique en milieu hétérogène microaqueux est envisagée. Cette estérification est possible et est catalysée par la lipase de Candida rugosa en suspension dans un mélange hexane/toluène. Le toluène permet la solubilisation de l'acide benzoïque. De nombreux paramètres influencent la synthèse des benzoates de méthyle et de butyle. La teneur en eau initiale agit uniquement sur la cinétique de réaction sans modif...

  13. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  14. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C against hepatotoxicity induced by emamectin benzoate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldoun Oularbi, H; Richeval, C; Lebaili, N; Zerrouki-Daoudi, N; Baha, M; Djennas, N; Allorge, D

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential protective effect of ascorbic acid (AA) against emamectin benzoate (EMB)-induced hepatotoxicity. For this purpose, biochemical, histopathological and analytical investigations were performed. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups, that is, a control group, an EMB group given 10 mg EMB/kg body weight (BW) by gavage and an EMB + AA group given 10 mg EMB/kg BW and vitamin C intraperitoneally (200 mg/kg). The duration of the treatment was 28 days and the duration of the study was 42 days. There was a statistically significant increase of all hepatic biomarkers, that is, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, and glycemia, in EMB-treated group when compared with the control group. Light microscopic observations revealed variable signs of hepatotoxicity in the EMB group, which were represented by alteration of normal hepatic architecture, inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatocellular steatosis and foci of necrosis at 28 and 42 days post-treatment. However, co-treatment with vitamin C reduced EMB-related liver toxicity and diminished the abnormal biochemical and architectural damage. Emamectin B1a and B1b residues were detectable in all plasma samples of treated rats at 14, 21 and 28 days of treatment. The drug liver tissue concentration was significantly lower in EMB + AA group compared with EMB group at 28 and 42 days. In conclusion, the findings of the present study clearly indicate a significant protective action of vitamin C against EMB hepatotoxicity.

  15. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion. Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers. Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake. Results: Women ( n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus ( P = 0.005) than men ( n = 26). In women ( n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum ( P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings ( P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men ( n = 10). In women ( n = 12), motilin ( P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger ( P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings ( P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women. Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759926. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Benefits of Digital Equipment Generic Qualification Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, James E.; Steiman, Samuel C.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control obsolescence issues, there have been numerous activities during recent years relating to the qualification of digital equipment. Some of these activities have been 'generic' in nature in that the qualification was not limited to plant specific applications, but was intended to cover a broad base of potential applications of the digital equipment. These generic qualifications have been funded by equipment manufacturers and by utility groups and organizations. The generic activities sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been pilot projects for an overall generic qualification approach. The primary benefit resulting from the generic qualification work to date is that a number of digital platforms and digital devices are now available for use in various nuclear safety-related applications. Many of the tests and evaluations necessary to support plant specific applications have been completed. The amount of data and documentation that each utility must develop on a case by case basis has been significantly reduced. There are also a number of additional benefits resulting from these industry efforts. The challenges and difficulties in qualifying digital equipment for safety-related applications are now more clearly understood. EPRI has published a lessons learned document (EPRI Report 1001452, Generic Qualification of Commercial Grade Digital Devices: Lessons Learned from Initial Pilots, which covers several different qualification areas, including device selection, project planning, vendor surveys and design reviews, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) qualification. Application of the experience and lessons learned from the EPRI pilot activities should help reduce the effort and cost required for future qualification work. Most generic qualification activities for commercial equipment have been conducted using the approach of EPRI TR-106439, Guideline on Evaluation and Acceptance

  17. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...... innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other...

  18. The SENSEI Generic In Situ Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayachit, Utkarsh [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Whitlock, Brad [Intelligent Light, Rutherford, NJ (United States); Wolf, Matthew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lonie, David [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    The SENSEI generic in situ interface is an API that promotes code portability and reusability. From the simulation view, a developer can instrument their code with the SENSEI API and then make make use of any number of in situ infrastructures. From the method view, a developer can write an in situ method using the SENSEI API, then expect it to run in any number of in situ infrastructures, or be invoked directly from a simulation code, with little or no modification. This paper presents the design principles underlying the SENSEI generic interface, along with some simplified coding examples.

  19. Generic magnetic fusion reactor cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Energy Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discusses ''generic'' magnetic fusion reactors. The author comments on DT burning magnetic fusion reactor models being possibly operational in the 21st century. Representative parameters from D-T reactor studies are given, as well as a shematic diagram of a generic fusion reactor. Values are given for winding pack current density for existing and future superconducting coils. Topics included are the variation of the cost of electricity (COE), the dependence of the COE on the net electric power of the reactor, and COE formula definitions

  20. Tolerance and Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate and Ivermectin for the Treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in Laboratory Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R.; Colvin, Michael E.; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J.; Kent, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease i...

  1. Commercial trials using emamectin benzoate to control sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestations in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J; Sutherland, I H; Sommerville, C; Richards, R H; Varma, K J

    2000-06-19

    Two trials were conducted at commercial salmon farms to evaluate the efficacy of emamectin benzoate (Slice, 0.2% aquaculture pre-mix, Schering-Plough Animal Health) as a treatment for sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) and Caligus elongatus Nordmann infestations in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Trials were carried out in 15 m2 commercial sea pens, at temperatures of 5.5 to 7.5 degrees C and 10.8 to 13.8 degrees C. Each pen was stocked with 14,000 to 17,500 fish with mean weights of 0.44 to 0.74 and 1.33 to 1.83 kg. Fish were naturally infested with sea lice at the start of each trial. At Day -1, samples of 10 or 15 fish were taken from each pen to determine pre-treatment numbers of lice. Emamectin benzoate was administered in feed, to 4 replicate pens, at a dose of 50 micrograms kg-1 biomass d-1 for 7 consecutive days (Days 0 to 6). Sea lice were counted again, between Days 7 and 77, and comparisons made with untreated control fish. Despite adverse weather conditions, wide variations in fish weights and exposure to new infestations, treatment was effective against chalimus and motile stages of L. salmonis. In the autumn trial, efficacy at Day 27 was 89%, and lice numbers remained lower on treated fish than on control fish 64 d from the start of treatment. In the winter trial, reductions in lice numbers at low temperatures were slower but good efficacy was achieved by Day 35. Although control fish had to be treated with hydrogen peroxide at Day 21, fish treated only with emamectin benzoate on Days 0 to 6 still had 89% fewer lice than control fish at Day 35. There were very few C. elongatus present, but at the end of both trials numbers were lower on treated fish. No adverse effects were associated with treatment of fish with emamectin benzoate.

  2. Crystal structure of 3-({[(morpholin-4-yl)carbono-thio-yl]sulfan-yl}acet-yl)phenyl benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambekar, Sachin P; Mahesh Kumar, K; Shirahatti, Arun Kumar M; Kotresh, O; Anil Kumar, G N

    2014-11-01

    In the title compound, C20H19NO4S2, the morpholine ring adopts the expected chair conformation. The central phenyl ring makes dihedral angles of 67.97 (4) and 7.74 (3)°, respectively, with the benzoate phenyl ring and the morpholine mean plane. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains along the b-axis direction. C-H⋯π inter-actions link centrosymmetrically related mol-ecules, reinforcing the three-dimensional structure.

  3. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching...... on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. Results Earlier generic...... switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93 95% CI 4.70; 7.49). Having had more than 5 earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic...

  4. Field trials in Norway with SLICE (0.2% emamectin benzoate) for the oral treatment of sea lice infestation in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, A; Colquhoun, D J; Nordmo, R; Sutherland, I H; Simmons, R

    2002-06-21

    Four commercial salmon farms on the West coast of Norway were recruited to a programme of field trials in which the efficacy of SLICE (0.2% emamectin benzoate; Schering-Plough Animal Health) was compared with a commercially available product, EKTOBANN (teflubenzuron 2 g kg(-1); Skretting A/S) in treating natural sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis infections in Atlantic salmon Salmo salmar L. At each test site, 3 fish pens were treated with each product. In total, nearly 1.2 million first-year-class fish were included in the trial, of which approximately 561,000 received emamectin benzoate at a dosage of 50 microg kg(-1) body wt d(-1), while approximately 610,000 received teflubenzuron at a dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) body wt d(-1). Medicated feed was provided at 0.5% body wt d(-1) over 7 consecutive days. Feed containing emamectin benzoate was generally well accepted by the fish and no problems were encountered in feeding the medicated diet at the desired dose. Lice numbers were counted 2 d before and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d after commencement of treatment. While treatment with both substances rapidly reduced lice numbers, pens treated with emamectin benzoate were found to harbour significantly fewer lice 14 and 21 d post-treatment. Twenty-one days following treatment with emamectin benzoate the lice abundance was reduced on average by 94%. Limited sampling outside the main study period indicated that emamectin benzoate protects against sea-lice infestation over longer periods.

  5. Add-on treatment of benzoate for schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Hua; Green, Michael F; Hellemann, Gerhard; Huang, Chih-Chia; Chen, Po-Wei; Tun, Rene; Chang, Yue-Cung; Tsai, Guochuan E

    2013-12-01

    In addition to dopaminergic hyperactivity, hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Enhancing NMDAR-mediated neurotransmission is considered a novel treatment approach. To date, several trials on adjuvant NMDA-enhancing agents have revealed beneficial, but limited, efficacy for positive and negative symptoms and cognition. Another method to enhance NMDA function is to raise the levels of d-amino acids by blocking their metabolism. Sodium benzoate is a d-amino acid oxidase inhibitor. To examine the clinical and cognitive efficacy and safety of add-on treatment of sodium benzoate for schizophrenia. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 2 major medical centers in Taiwan composed of 52 patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been stabilized with antipsychotic medications for 3 months or longer. Six weeks of add-on treatment of 1 g/d of sodium benzoate or placebo. The primary outcome measure was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. Clinical efficacy and adverse effects were assessed biweekly. Cognitive functions were measured before and after the add-on treatment. Benzoate produced a 21% improvement in PANSS total score and large effect sizes (range, 1.16-1.69) in the PANSS total and subscales, Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms-20 items, Global Assessment of Function, Quality of Life Scale and Clinical Global Impression and improvement in the neurocognition subtests as recommended by the National Institute of Mental Health's Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia initiative, including the domains of processing speed and visual learning. Benzoate was well tolerated without significant adverse effects. Benzoate adjunctive therapy significantly improved a variety of symptom domains and neurocognition in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The preliminary results show promise for d-amino acid oxidase

  6. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  7. Characterization of a distonic isomer C6H5C+(OH)OCH2 of methyl benzoate radical cation by associative ion-molecule reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechamps, Noémie; Flammang, Robert; Gerbaux, Pascal; Nam, Pham-Cam; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2006-03-01

    The C6H5C+(OH)OCH2 radical cation, formally a distonic isomer of ionized methyl benzoate, has been prepared by dissociative ionization of neopentyl benzoate, as earlier suggested by Audier et al. [H.E. Audier, A. Milliet, G. Sozzi, S. Hammerum, Org. Mass. Spectrom. 25 (1990) 44]. Its distonic character has now been firmly established by its high reactivity towards neutral methyl isocyanide (ionized methylene transfer) producing N-methyl ketenimine ions. Other mass spectrometric experiments and ab initio quantum chemical calculations also concur with each other pointing toward the existence of a stable distonic radical cation.

  8. The Effect of Emamectin Benzoate in the Control of Lernanthropus kroyeri (van Beneden, 1851) (Lernanthropidae) Infestations in Cultured Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    TOKŞEN, Erol; ÇAĞIRGAN, Haşmet; TANRIKUL, Tansel T.; SAYGI, Hülya

    2006-01-01

    Five different dose groups were formed to evaluate the efficacy of emamectin benzoate as a treatment for Lernanthropus kroyeri (van Beneden, 1851) infestation in cultured sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Emamectin benzoate was administered in-feed at doses of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg kg-1 biomass day-1 for 7 consecutive days. Parasites were counted on days 7, 14, and 21, and comparisons were made to untreated control fish. Seawater temperature was 16-16.5 °C. Treatment with ema...

  9. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  10. Mutagenic activity of phthalate esters in bacterial liquid suspension assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Seed, J L

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenic activities of several phthalate esters have been evaluated in an 8-azaguanine resistance assay in Salmonella typhimurium. Three phthalate esters were found to be mutagenic: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate. A number of other phthalate esters were not found to be mutagenic, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate. A metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 2-ethylhe...

  11. Towards Generic Interaction Styles for Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2008-01-01

    a wider range of interactive products. In this paper we report on five years of continued research into interaction styles for telephones, kitchen equipment, HiFi products and medical devices, and we show how it is indeed possible and beneficial to formulate a set of generic interaction styles....

  12. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modelling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    An existing generic modelling framework has been expanded with tools for kinetic model analysis. The analysis of kinetics is carried out within the framework where kinetic constitutive models are collected, analysed and utilized for the simulation of crystallization operations. A modelling...... procedure is proposed to gain the information of crystallization operation kinetic model analysis and utilize this for faster evaluation of crystallization operations....

  13. Baldrige Theory into Practice: A Generic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The education system globally has moved from a push-based or producer-centric system to a pull-based or customer centric system. Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) model happens to be one of the latest additions to the pull based models. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic framework for MBQA that can be used by…

  14. Generic Checklist for Day Care Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium.

    This guide presents the results of research on day care monitoring methods conducted by the Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium. It suggests a set of generic predictor items that can be used to monitor day care providers' compliance with standards. The predictor items are at the licensing or minimal compliance level and have been…

  15. Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture. Increasing carbon dioxide: Good for most crops. Increase in mean temperature: orter ... Increasing rainfall intensity and dry days- more floods and droughts: Higher production variability. Himalayan glaciers to recede: irrigation in IGP gradually becomes less dependable ...

  16. A Generic Solution Approach to Nurse Rostering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, David

    In this report, we present a solution approach to the nurse rostering problem. The problem is defined by a generic model that is able to capture close to all of the problem characteristics that we have seen in the literature and in the realistic problems at hand. The model is used directly in the...

  17. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  18. Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lombard, L.; Houbraken, J.; Decock, C.; Samson, R.A.; Meijer, M.; Réblová, Martina; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, SI Jun (2016), s. 156-246 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/0038 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodegraders * generic concept * human and plant pathogens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  19. Generic Principles for Resolving Intergroup Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an initial statement of generic principles deemed effective for addressing protracted social conflicts between identity groups. These principles are compatible with certain values for societal organization and approaches to social change, raising questions of value differences between intervenors and the host culture(s). Three case…

  20. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  1. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  2. Investigation of bifunctional ester additives for methanol-gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, C.; Tang, Y.; Du, Q.; Song, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To explore new and multifunctional additives for methanol-gasoline, tartaric ester were synthesized and screened as phase stabilizer and saturation vapor pressure depressor for methanol-gasoline. The effect of the esters structure on the efficiency was discussed. The results show that the stabilities of the blends depend on the length of the glycolic esters alkoxy group. In addition, the tartaric esters also can depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline effectively in M15. Effect of the structure on the efficiency was also discussed. (author)

  3. Estereótipos e mulheres na cultura marroquina

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiqi,Fatima

    2008-01-01

    Estereótipos sobre as mulheres no Marrocos podem ser caracterizados como crenças culturais incompletas e inexatas mantidas por algumas pessoas e que se encontram inscritos em expressões lingüísticas ou em discursos subliminares. A cultura popular marroquina emprega representações poderosas para transmitir e sustentar tais estereótipos. Embora existam alguns estereótipos positivos, a maioria dos estereótipos sobre as mulheres no Marrocos é negativa e reflete ditames patriarcais subliminares qu...

  4. Emission and Mechanical Evaluations of Vinyl-Ester Resin Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James

    2003-01-01

    Vinyl-ester resins (VE) are frequently used in liquid molding of composite materials for several applications including naval and army structures, commercial boat manufacturing, and building construction...

  5. Half esters and coating compositions comprising reactions products of half esters and polyepoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, R.; Mulder, W.J.; Koelewijn, R.; Boswinkel, G.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to half esters based on dicarboxylic acid derivatives and dimer fatty diols, wherein the dimer fatty dio ls are based on dimerised and/or trimerised and/or oligomerised unsaturated fatty acids. The present invention further relates to resin compositions based on the

  6. Occurrence of 3-monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters in commercial infant formulas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica; MacMahon, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    This work presents occurrence data for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol in 98 infant formula samples purchased in the United States. These contaminants are considered potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in refined oils and foods a potential health risk. Recently, attention has focused on methodology to quantify MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula for risk-assessment purposes. Occurrence data for 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters were produced using a procedure for extracting fat from infant formula and an LC-MS/MS method for analysing fat extracts for intact esters. Infant formulas were produced by seven manufacturers, five of which use palm oil and/or palm olein in their formulations. In formulas containing palm/palm olein, concentrations for bound 3-MCPD and glycidol ranged from 0.021 to 0.92 mg kg - 1 (ppm) and from 3-MCPD and glycidol concentrations ranged from 0.072 to 0.16 mg kg - 1 (ppm) and from 0.005 to 0.15 mg kg - 1 (ppm), respectively. Although formulas from manufacturers A and G did not contain palm/palm olein, formulas from manufacturer E (containing palm olein) had the lowest concentrations of bound 3-MCPD and glycidol, demonstrating the effectiveness of industrial mitigation strategies.

  7. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  8. Effects of insecticides chlorpyrifos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil on Spodoptera litura might be mediated by OBPs and CSPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Jiang, Y; Zhang, L; Cai, Y

    2017-12-04

    Spodoptera litura is a widespread polyphagous insect pest that can develop resistance and cross-resistance to insecticides, making it difficult to control. Insecticide exposure has previously been linked with induction of specific olfactory-related proteins, including some chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and odorant-binding proteins (OPBs), which may disrupt detection of environmental factors and reduce fitness. However, functional evidence supporting insecticide and OBPs/CSPs mediation remains unknown. Here we fed male S. litura moths with sucrose water containing one of three insecticides, chlorpyrifos, emamectin benzoate or fipronil, and used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNAi to investigate OBPs and CSPs expression and their correlations with survival. Chlorpyrifos and emamectin benzoate increased expression of 78% of OBPs, plus 63 and 56% of CSP genes, respectively, indicating a major impact on these gene families. RNAi knockdown of SlituCSP18, followed by feeding with chlorpyrifos or fipronil, decreased survival rates of male moths significantly compared with controls. Survival rate also decreased significantly with the downregulation of SlituOBP9 followed by feeding with chlorpyrifos. Thus, although these three insecticides had different effects on OBP and CSP gene expression, we hypothesize that SlituOBPs and SlituCSPs might mediate their effects by increasing their expression levels to improve survival. Moreover, the differential response of S. litura male moths to the three insecticides indicated the potential specificity of chlorpyrifos affect SlituCSP18 and SlituOBP9 expression.

  9. Stability indicating method development and validation of assay method for the estimation of rizatriptan benzoate in tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar K. Gadewar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, precise and specific high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of rizatriptan in rizatriptan benzoate tablet. The separation was carried out by using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: pH 3.4 phosphate buffer in ratio of 20:80. The column used was Zorbax SB CN 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ with a flow rate of 1 ml/min using UV detection at 225 nm. The retention time of rizatriptan and benzoic acid was found to be 4.751 and 8.348 min respectively. A forced degradation study of rizatriptan benzoate in its tablet form was conducted under the condition of hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal and photolysis. Rizatriptan was found to be stable in basic buffer while in acidic buffer was found to be degraded (water bath at 60 °C for 15 min. The detector response of rizatriptan is directly proportional to concentration ranging from 30% to 160% of test concentration i.e. 15.032 to 80.172 mcg/ml. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies (mean recovery = 99.44. The result of the study showed that the proposed method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of rizatriptan in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  10. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant E...

  11. The modulatory effect of estradiol benzoate on superoxide dismutase activity in the developing rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejic S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of copper,zinc (CuZn- and manganese (Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD to exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB was investigated in Wistar rats during postnatal brain development. Enzyme activities were measured in samples prepared from brains of rats of both sexes and various ages between 0 and 75 days, treated sc with 0.5 µg EB/100 g body weight in 0.1 ml olive oil/100 g body weight, 48 and 24 h before sacrifice. In females, EB treatment stimulated MnSOD activity on days 0 (66.1%, 8 (72.7% and 15 (81.7%. In males, the stimulatory effect of EB on MnSOD activity on day 0 (113.6% disappeared on day 8 and on days 15 and 45 it became inhibitory (40.3 and 30.5%, respectively. EB had no effect on the other age groups. The stimulatory effect of EB on CuZnSOD activity in newborn females (51.8% changed to an inhibitory effect on day 8 (38.4% and disappeared by day 45 when inhibition was detected again (48.7%. In males, the inhibitory effect on this enzyme was observed on days 0 (45.0% and 15 (28.9%, and then disappeared until day 60 when a stimulatory effect was observed (38.4%. EB treatment had no effect on the other age groups. The sensitivity of MnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during the neonatal and prepubertal period, whereas it followed a similar pattern thereafter. The sensitivity of CuZnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during most of the study period. Regression analysis showed that the sensitivity of MnSOD to this estrogen tended to decrease similarly in both sexes, whereas the sensitivity of CuZnSOD showed a significantly different opposite tendency in female and male rats. These are the first reports indicating hormonal modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities related to the developmental process.

  12. Evaluation of estradiol benzoate as a pre-treatment for oocyte recovery in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu Constantino Max

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the number of follicles, oocytes and the recovery rate in sheep submitted to the one-shot protocol with or without ovarian priming with estradiol benzoate (EB. Pluriparous non-lactating sheep (n=33 with an average age of five years (range 4-6 and a body condition score of 3.0±0.3 were divided into three groups. The one-shot group (n=10 was treated with a subcutaneous implant containing 1.5 mg of norgestomet from D0 to D10. The animals in this group were administered 0.04 mg of D-cloprostenol, 200 IU of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and 300 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on D8. Animals in the EB group (n=11 received the same treatment as one-shot plus the administration of 0.6 mg of EB on D0. In the untreated group (n=12, the animals received no hormone stimulation. The collection of the oocytes was performed by laparotomy 36 h after the administration of gonadotropins (D10. Oocytes were searched and classified based on morphology. An increase was observed (p<0.05 in the number of follicles aspirated in the one-shot vs. the EB and untreated groups (16.3±5.6 vs. 9.5±2.4 and 12.1±4.1, respectively. The average number of oocytes and the recovery rate were higher (p<0.05 in the one-shot and EB groups compared to the untreated group, resulting in 14.2±9.0 and 87.1% (142/163, 11.0±6.2 and 91.4% (122/134 vs. 6.8±3.5 and 71.9% (82/114, respectively. It was concluded that the EB did not improve efficiency in the oneshot protocol, but was significantly better than in untreated animals

  13. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  14. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  15. Generic penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we explore the penetration of generic atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of generic risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, generic penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  16. Determination of Phthalate Esters in the Aquatic Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of solid phase extraction and capillary GLC provides the basis for selective determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in rivers and marine water samples. Of the several solvent ratios (methanol in dichloromethane) that were tried for selective elution of phthalate esters from the C18 solid phase glass catridge, the ...

  17. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sucrose esters on the physicochemical properties of wheat starch. Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising from the interaction between were assessed for starch blue value, viscosity ...

  18. Alternative Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Triglycerides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalysts activity was tested in thermocatalytic cracking of triglyceride; a direct conversion process for fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). The SZ1 not only exhibited higher conversion of triglycerides but higher fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) yields of approximately 59% after 3h as compared to SZ2 (32%). In addition ...

  19. 13-week oral toxicity study with stanol esters in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnbull, D.; Whittaker, M.H.; Frankos, V.H.; Jonker, D.

    1999-01-01

    Plant sterols and their saturated derivatives, known as stanols, reduce serum cholesterol when consumed in amounts of approximately 2 g per day. Stanol fatty acid esters have been developed as a highly fat-soluble form that may lower cholesterol more effectively than stanols. Stanol esters occur

  20. Preparation of esters of gallic acid with higher primary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerk, G.J.M. van der; Verbeek, J.H.; Cleton, J.C.F.

    1951-01-01

    The esters of gallic acid and higher primary alcohols, especially fatty alcohols, have recently gained considerable interest as possible antioxidants for fats. Two independent methods for the preparation of these esters are described. In the first method the hitherto unknown compound galloyl

  1. Distribution of phthalate esters in underground water from power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the distribution of phthalateacid esters (PAEs) in groundwater from some power stations in Delta State. Groundwater samples were collected from eight power transmission and distribution stations. Concentrations (μg/L) of six phthalate acid esters compounds in the groundwater ranged from ...

  2. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from chicken fat waste using ZnO/SiO fatty acid ethyl ester ... obtained in the range of 56−88%and a second order quadratic polynomial regression model that established the ... Transesterification is a chemical.

  3. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2083 - Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroxylamine (generic). 721.2083 Section 721.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2083 Polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (generic). (a... generically as a polysubstituted carbomonocyclic hydroxylamine (PMN P-97-878) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5350 - Substituted nitrile (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted nitrile (generic name... Substances § 721.5350 Substituted nitrile (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted nitrile (PMN P-83...

  6. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96...

  7. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  8. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  9. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate polymer...

  10. The Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate against Infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) in Scotland, 2002–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Fiona; Baillie, Mark; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE®, Schering Plough Animal Health). The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. Conclusions/Significance Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated. PMID:18253496

  11. The efficacy of emamectin benzoate against infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L in Scotland, 2002-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Lees

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE(R, Schering Plough Animal Health. The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated.

  12. The efficacy of emamectin benzoate against infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in Scotland, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Fiona; Baillie, Mark; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W

    2008-02-06

    Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE(R), Schering Plough Animal Health). The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated.

  13. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Generic Structure Potential of Christian Apologetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwu Inya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious texts have been examined by scholars from different theoretical standpoints. However, a close survey of the literature reveals that little attention has been paid to Christian apologetics from a linguistic perspective. Also, an examination of studies along the lines of Generic Structure Potential (henceforth GSP shows that the genre status of Christian apologetics has not been indicated. This gap provides the motivation for this paper, which investigates the GSP of Christian apologetics. Twenty texts written by various key contemporary apologetic writers were purposively selected for the study. The following generic structure potential catalogue was generated:The paper reveals that the elements of the GSP concertedly work to advance, argue for or defend the Christian belief system. The paper also suggests that the model could be applied to other forms of apologetic instances.

  15. Generic Sensor Failure Modeling for Cooperative Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Georg; Zug, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application’s fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system’s safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches. Consequently, this work presents a mathematically defined generic failure model as well as a processing chain for automatically extracting such failure models from empirical data. By examining data of an Sharp GP2D12 distance sensor, we show that the generic failure model not only fulfills the predefined requirements, but also models failure characteristics appropriately when compared to traditional techniques. PMID:29558435

  16. An Internet of Things Generic Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhalerao, Dipashree M.; Riaz, Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2013-01-01

    Internet of things Network is a future application of Internet. This network has three major basic blocks as business process or Application, core network or internetwork and peripheral network as Things or objects. The assembly has the basic intention of connecting all physical and virtual things......, and keeping track of all these things for monitoring and controlling some information. IoT architecture is studied from software architecture, overall system architecture and network architecture point of view. Paper puts forward the requirements of software architecture along with, its component...... and deployment diagram, process and interface diagram at abstract level. Paper proposes the abstract generic IoT reference and concrete abstract generic IoT reference architectures. Network architecture is also put up as a state of the art. Paper shortly gives overviews of protocols used for IoT. Some...

  17. U.S. NRC's generic issues program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.V.; Foster, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a Generic Issues Program (GIP) to address Generic Issues (GI). A GI is defined as 'a regulatory matter involving the design, construction, operation, or decommissioning of several, or a class of, NRC licensees or certificate holders that is not sufficiently addressed by existing rules, guidance, or programs'. This rather legalistic definition has several practical corollaries: First, a GI must involve safety. Second, the issue must involve at least two plants, or it would be a plant-specific issue rather than a GI. Third, the potential safety question must not be covered by existing regulations and guidance (compliance). Thus, the effect of a GI is to potentially change the body of regulations and associated guidance (e.g., regulatory guides). The GIP was started in 1976, thus it is a relatively mature program. Approximately 850 issues have been processed by the program to date. More importantly, even after 30 years, new GIs continue to be proposed. The entire set of Generic Issues (GIs) is updated annually in NUREG-0933, 'A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues'. GIs normally involve complex questions of safety and regulation. Efficient and effective means of addressing these issues are very important for regulatory effectiveness. If an issue proves to pose a genuine, significant safety question, then swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective action needs to be taken. Conversely, if an issue is of little safety significance, the issue should be dismissed in an expeditious manner, avoiding unnecessary expenditure of resources and regulatory burden or uncertainty. This paper provides a summary of the 5-stage program, from identification through the regulatory assessment stage. The paper also includes a discussion of the program's seven criteria, sources of proposed GIs, recent improvements, publicly available information, historical performance, and status of current GIs. (authors)

  18. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO 2 and PuO 2 in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  19. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values

  20. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  1. Agricultural Market Structure, Generic Advertising, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, James H.; Pope, Rulon D.

    2003-01-01

    This analysis begins with a definition and discussion of productive advertising. Then, following Dixit and Norman, persuasive advertising is used to study the welfare effects of generic advertising by marketing orders. The study first examines horizontal competition when the competing advertiser is a monopoly, and results show that the socially optimal level of advertising for a competitive marketing order is positive only if advertising raises monopoly output. Next, advertising choices of a ...

  2. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayuela, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%. [es

  3. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B ) and electric (E ) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ2 rather than κ . For E =0 , SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ . In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.

  4. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  5. Generic programming for deterministic neutron transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagne, L.; Poncot, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of neutron transport codes via generic programming techniques. Two different Boltzmann equation approximations have been implemented, namely the Sn and SPn methods. This implementation experiment shows that generic programming allows us to improve maintainability and readability of source codes with no performance penalties compared to classical approaches. In the present implementation, matrices and vectors as well as linear algebra algorithms are treated separately from the rest of source code and gathered in a tool library called 'Generic Linear Algebra Solver System' (GLASS). Such a code architecture, based on a linear algebra library, allows us to separate the three different scientific fields involved in transport codes design: numerical analysis, reactor physics and computer science. Our library handles matrices with optional storage policies and thus applies both to Sn code, where the matrix elements are computed on the fly, and to SPn code where stored matrices are used. Thus, using GLASS allows us to share a large fraction of source code between Sn and SPn implementations. Moreover, the GLASS high level of abstraction allows the writing of numerical algorithms in a form which is very close to their textbook descriptions. Hence the GLASS algorithms collection, disconnected from computer science considerations (e.g. storage policy), is very easy to read, to maintain and to extend. (authors)

  6. Discrimination of processing grades of olive oil and other vegetable oils by monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Jing; Oey, Sergio B.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the processing derived contaminants 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) were analysed in 84 oil samples by GC–MS/MS for the discrimination of processing grades of olive oils as a potential authentication tool. Concentrations of 2- and 3-MCPD

  7. Stability of a metabolizable ester bond in radioimmunoconjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arano, Yasushi; Wakisaka, Kouji; Mukai, Takahiro; Uezono, Takashi; Motonari, Hiroshi; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Kairiyama, Claudia; Ohmomo, Yoshiro; Tanaka, Chiaki; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Sakahara, Harumi; Konishi, Junji; Yokoyama, Akira

    1996-01-01

    Ester bonds have been used as metabolizable linkages to reduce radioactivity levels in non-target tissues following the administration of antibodies labeled with metallic radionuclides. In this radiochemical design of antibodies, while the ester bonds should be cleaved rapidly in non-target tissues, high stability of the ester bonds in plasma is also required to preserve target radioactivity levels. To assess the structural requirements to stabilize the ester bond, a new benzyl-EDTA-derived bifunctional chelating agent with an ester bond, (1-[4-[4-(2-maleimidoethoxy)succinamido]benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid; MESS-Bz-EDTA), was developed. MESS-Bz-EDTA was coupled with a thiolated monoclonal antibody (OST7, IgG 1 ) prepared by reducing its disulfide bonds to introduce the ester bond close and proximal to the antibody molecule. For comparison, 1-[4-(5-maleimidopentyl)aminobenzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EMCS-Bz-EDTA) and meleimidoethyl 3-[ 131 I]iodohippurate (MIH) was coupled to OST7 under the same conjunction chemistry. When incubated in 50% murine plasma or a buffered-solution of neutral pH, OST7-MESS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In rapidly released the radioactivity, and more than 95% of the initial radioactivity was liberated after a 24 h incubation in both solutions, due to a cleavage of the ester bond. On the other hand, only about 20% of the radioactivity was released from OST7-MIH- 131 I in both solutions during the same incubation period. In mice biodistribution studies, while a slightly faster radioactivity clearance from the blood with less radioactivity levels in the liver and kidneys was observed with OST7-MIH- 131 I than with OST7-EMCS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In, OST7-MESS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In indicated radioactivity clearance from the blood much faster than and almost comparable to that of OST7-MIH- 131 I and succinamidobenzyl-EDTA- 111 In, respectively. These findings as well as previous findings on radiolabeled antibodies with ester bonds

  8. Generic Switching and Non-Persistence among Medicine Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Andersen, Morten; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution means that one medicinal product is replaced by another product containing the same active substance. It is strictly regulated with respect to its bioequivalence, and all products must have undergone appropriate studies. Although generic substitution is widely...... implemented, it still remains to be answered how generic switch influences persistence to long-term treatment, and if it is modified by patients' concerns about medicine and views on generic medicine. This study focuses on users of antidepressants and antiepileptics, and their experience of generic switching....... METHODS: The study was an observational cohort study. By use of a prescription database, we identified patients who had redeemed prescriptions on generically substitutable drugs, and a questionnaire was mailed to them. We analyzed predictors of discontinuation in relation to generic switch and patients...

  9. Advances on generic exemption levels and generic clearance levels in the argentinean regulatory field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, C.C.; Bossio, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of optimizing the regulatory effort in Argentina, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) evaluated two worldwide concepts used in the radioactive waste management field: “Generic Exemption Levels” and “Generic Clearance Levels”. The objective of this paper is to present the progress made in the past two years in relation to these topics and to present the results of the specific requests received from users of radioactive material. Since the approval of both Generic Levels, the ARN received two exemption requests. The first one, regarding the practice of dismantling lighting rods with 241 Am. The other case regards the international trade, distribution, usage and final disposal of lighting products with radioactive material ( 85 Kr and 232 Th). Concerning clearance, there has not been any request yet. However, in the future the ARN expects to receive this kind of requests from nuclear power plants and other facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors) [es

  10. A generic coordinate system and a set of generic variables for MFE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miner, W.H. Jr.; Ross, D.W.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.; Wiley, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last several years, profile data from nine different tokamaks have been stored in the magnetic fusion energy database (MFEDB). These data sets have come from a variety of sources and most are given in different coordinate systems. In order to attempt any intermachine analysis, it is convenient to transform these data sets into one generic coordinate system and to choose a uniform set of variable names. The authors describe the data sets from each tokamak indicating the source of the data and the coordinate system in which it is given. Next, they discuss the generic coordinate that has been adopted and show how it is implemented for each tokamak. Finally, the generic naming convention that has been adopted is discussed. It follows closely that which was used by Christiansen et al. for the ITER Global Energy Confinement H-Mode Database. For further clarification, they discuss the characteristics of the magnetic geometry given a Fourier representation of the magnetic equilibria

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activities of Transition Metal Complexes of methyl 2-(((E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene)amino)benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rehman, S.

    2016-01-01

    New metal complexes with Schiff base ligand methyl 2-(((E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene)amino)benzoate, were synthesized and characterized. Elemental analyses, EI-MS, 1H and 13C(1H)-NMR were used for ligand characterization whereas elemental analyses, EI-MS, IR and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques were used for the transition metal compounds. All these analyses reveal the bis arrangement of the ligand around the metal centres. The compounds were studied for their antimicrobial activities against different pathogenic microbial species. It was found that the Schiff base ligand was completely inactive in comparison to the transition metal compounds. It was also observed that nickel based metal complex shown good results against Candida albican (25 mm) and zinc based metal complex against Agrobacterium tumefaciens (16 mm). (author)

  12. Di-μ-iodido-bis(iodido{methyl 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneamino]benzoate-κ2N,N′}cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar S. Basu Baul

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complete binuclear molecule of the title compound, [Cd2I4(C14H12N2O22], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The Cd—I bond lengths of the central core are close and uniformly longer than the exocyclic Cd—I bond. The coordination sphere of the CdII atom is completed by two N atoms of a chelating methyl 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneamino]benzoate ligand, and is based on a square pyramid with the terminal I atom in the apical position. The three-dimensional crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O and C—H...π interactions, each involving the pyridine ring.

  13. Preparation of polyol esters based on vegetable and animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, S; Piechocki, W; Gryglewicz, G

    2003-03-01

    The possibility of using some natural fats: rapeseed oil, olive oil and lard, as starting material for the preparation of neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylol propane (TMP) esters is reported. The syntheses of final products were performed by alcoholysis of fatty acid methyl esters, obtained from natural fats studied, with the appropriate polyhydric alcohol using calcium methoxide as a catalyst. The basic physicochemical properties of the NPG and TMP esters synthesized were the following: viscosity at 40 degrees C in the range of 13.5-37.6 cSt, pour point between -10.5 and -17.5 degrees C and very high viscosity indices, higher than 200. Generally, the esters of neopentyl alcohols were characterized by higher stability in thermo-oxidative conditions in comparison to native triglycerides. Due to the low content of polyunsaturated acids, the olive oil based esters showed the highest thermo-oxidative resistance. Also, methyl esters of fatty acids of lard would constitute a good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils, provided that their saturated acids content was lowered. This permits synthesis of NPG and TMP esters with a lower pour point (below -10 degrees C) than natural lard (+33 degrees C).

  14. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Shari K; Hill, Jeffrey E; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E; Endris, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24-25 degrees C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number of fish lice attached to each fish at the start of the experiment was not determined; however, the total number of motile fish lice in each aquarium (on fish and in the water) was determined at the start and end of each experiment. Eight goldfish were fed the control diet (0 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) and eight were fed the medicated diet (50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for seven consecutive days. After treatment, fish louse infestation in controls was 20.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SE) lice per fish. No Argulus were found on fish in the treated group. In a separate experiment, 10 individually housed koi were each exposed to 128 Argulus. Five koi were fed the control diet and five were fed a low-dose medicated diet (5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d. After treatment, fish louse infestation among the controls was 14.6 +/- 3.8 lice per koi. No Argulus were found on koi in the treated group. Hence, a 7-d regimen of oral emamectin benzoate controlled experimental infestation of Argulus when administered to goldfish at 50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1) and to koi at 5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1).

  15. Tissue distribution, metabolism, and residue depletion study in Atlantic salmon following oral administration of [3H]emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Kang, Heasook; Bova, Alice; Crouch, Louis S; Wislocki, Peter G; Robinson, Robert A; Wu, Jinn

    2004-04-07

    Atlantic salmon (approximately 1.3 kg) maintained in tanks of seawater at 5 +/- 1 degrees C were dosed with [3H]emamectin B1 benzoate in feed at a nominal rate of 50 microg of emamectin benzoate/kg/day for 7 consecutive days. Tissues, blood, and bile were collected from 10 fish each at 3 and 12 h and at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 days post final dose. Feces were collected daily from the tanks beginning just prior to dosing to 90 days post final dose. The total radioactive residues (TRR) of the daily feces samples during dosing were 0.25 ppm maximal, and >97% of the TRR in pooled feces covering the dosing period was emamectin B1a. Feces TRR then rapidly declined to approximately 0.05 ppm by 1 day post final dose. The ranges of mean TRR for tissues over the 90 days post dose period were as follows: kidney, 1.4-3 ppm; liver, 1.0-2.3 ppm; skin, 0.04-0.09 ppm; muscle, 0.02-0.06 ppm; and bone, emamectin B1a (81-100% TRR) and desmethylemamectin B1a (0-17% TRR) with N-formylemamectin B1a seen in trace amounts (emamectin residues was emamectin B1a. The emamectin B1a level was quantified in individual samples of skin and muscle using HPLC-fluorometry and was below 85 ppb in all samples analyzed (3 h to 30 days post dose).

  16. Thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H; Vorwerg, W; Rihm, R

    2014-02-15

    The current study examined thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters (FASEs). All highly soluble esters were obtained by the sustainable, homogeneous transesterification of fatty acid vinyl esters in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Casted films of products with a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.40-1.73 were compared with highly substituted ones (DS 2.20-2.63). All films were free of any plasticizer additives. Hydrophobic surfaces were characterized by contact angle measurements. Dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) revealed thermal transitions (T(g), T(m)) which were influenced by the internal plasticizing effect of the ester groups. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed the increased thermal stability toward native starch. Tensile tests revealed the decreasing strength and stiffness of the products with increasing ester-group chain length while the elongation increased up to the ester group laurate and after that decreased. Esters of the longest fatty acids, palmitate and stearate turned out to be brittle materials due to super molecular structures of the ester chains such as confirmed by X-ray. Summarized products with a DS 1.40-1.73 featured more "starch-like" properties with tensile strength up to outstanding 43 MPa, while products with a DS >2 behaved more "oil-like". Both classes of esters should be tested as a serious alternative to commercial starch blends and petrol-based plastics. The term Cnumber is attributed to the number of total C-Atoms of the fatty acid (e.g. C6=Hexanoate). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer choice between common generic and brand medicines in a country with a small generic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Jessica; Peeters, Lies; Van Hal, Guido; Beutels, Philippe; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Loof, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Generic medicines offer an opportunity for governments to contain pharmaceutical expenditures, since generics are generally 10%-80% lower in price than brand medicines. Belgium has a small generic market that takes up 15% of the total pharmaceutical market in packages sold. To determine the knowledge of consumers about the different available packages of a common over-the-counter medicine (acetaminophen) with regard to price advantage, quality, and effectiveness in a country with a small generic market. We conducted an online survey in the general Flemish population using a questionnaire with 25 statements. The questionnaire also contained 2 informative interventions. First, we showed the price per package and per tablet that the patient would pay in the pharmacy. Second, we provided the respondent with general information about generic medication (equivalence, effectiveness, price, and recognition). Before and after the interventions, we probed for preferences and knowledge about the different packages. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the independent effects of consumer characteristics on responses to the survey statements. We obtained a sample of 1,636 respondents. The general attitude towards generic medication was positive-only 5% would rather not use a generic. Nevertheless, only 17% of the respondents were able to recognize a generic medicine. Older consumers (aged 60 years and above) were more often confused about the different packages (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.76-3.80, P ≤ 0.001). Consumers without a higher education degree tended to be more doubtful about the difference in effectiveness and quality between the different brands (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.79, P ≤ 0.001). Consumer recognition of the name of the active substance of acetaminophen was poor. When different brands were displayed, possible price advantage seemed to be an important motive to switch to a cheaper brand. Consumers generally found medicines

  18. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  19. Catalytic Oxidation of Allylic Alcohols to Methyl Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallas-Hulin, Agata; Kotni, Rama Krishna; Nielsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of allylic alcohols to methyl esters using gold nanoparticles supported on different metal oxide carriers has been performed successfully under mild conditions (room temperature, 0.1 MPa O2) without significant loss of catalytic activity. The effects of different reaction...... parameters are studied to find the suitable reaction conditions. All catalysts are characterised by XRD, XRF and TEM. Among these catalysts, Au/TiO2 showed the most efficient catalytic activity towards the selective oxidation of allylic alcohols to the corresponding esters. Moreover, the same Au/TiO2...... to synthesize methyl esters from allylic alcohols....

  20. Generic drugs: myths, facts, and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioequivalence (BE has always been an important pharmaceutical area, particularly (but not solely in Mediterranean region, where the use of generic drugs is a relatively recent development. The lack of new therapeutic molecules has concentrated primary research in the hands of a few large pharmaceutical companies. For smaller companies, this has created opportunities for the development of new formulations of existing drugs (orodispersible tablets that dissolve in the mouth, extended-release tablets, transdermal delivery systems, generic drugs. These applications take advantage of the Abridged New Drug Application (ANDA procedure, which exempts them from a series of expensive investigations and limits the requirement for clinical testing to bioequivalence trials. Since 1991, bioequivalence trials have been regulated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA guidelines that provide precise indications on the most specific procedures to be adopted. In spite of these guidelines, however, some aspects of the process have not been fully defined, the most important of which regards the management of endogenous substances. Additional problems are how to manage bioequivalence protocols with drugs that have long half-lives and those whose clearance is characterized by high intrinsic variability. The view that bioequivalence data would be more reliable if they were based on studies in target populations is a myth to be discredited. The present paper reviews issues relative to pharmacokinetics (PK, bioavailability (BA, and bioequivalence, also from an historical viewpoint, and includes a stimulating “questions and answers” section on some key aspects of the bioequivalence of generic drugs.

  1. Generic evolution of mixing in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreuzy, J.; Carrera, J.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing in heterogeneous media results from the competition bewteen flow fluctuations and local scale diffusion. Flow fluctuations quickly create concentration contrasts and thus heterogeneity of the concentration field, which is slowly homogenized by local scale diffusion. Mixing first deviates from Gaussian mixing, which represents the potential mixing induced by spreading before approaching it. This deviation fundamentally expresses the evolution of the interaction between spreading and local scale diffusion. We characterize it by the ratio γ of the non-Gaussian to the Gaussian mixing states. We define the Gaussian mixing state as the integrated squared concentration of the Gaussian plume that has the same longitudinal dispersion as the real plume. The non-Gaussian mixing state is the difference between the overall mixing state defined as the integrated squared concentration and the Gaussian mixing state. The main advantage of this definition is to use the full knowledge previously acquired on dispersion for characterizing mixing even when the solute concentration field is highly non Gaussian. Using high precision numerical simulations, we show that γ quickly increases, peaks and slowly decreases. γ can be derived from two scales characterizing spreading and local mixing, at least for large flux-weighted solute injection conditions into classically log-normal Gaussian correlated permeability fields. The spreading scale is directly related to the longitudinal dispersion. The local mixing scale is the largest scale over which solute concentrations can be considered locally uniform. More generally, beyond the characteristics of its maximum, γ turns out to have a highly generic scaling form. Its fast increase and slow decrease depend neither on the heterogeneity level, nor on the ratio of diffusion to advection, nor on the injection conditions. They might even not depend on the particularities of the flow fields as the same generic features also prevail for

  2. Deriving GENERIC from a Generalized Fluctuation Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Richard; Lazarescu, Alexandre; Maes, Christian; Peletier, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient zero-cost flow. We expose a new such fluctuation symmetry that implies GENERIC, an extension of gradient flow where a Hamiltonian part is added to the dissipative term in such a way as to retain the free energy as Lyapunov function.

  3. Might generic OCs create contraceptive price war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Genora 1/35 and 1/50, the 1st generic oral contraceptives (OCs) in the world, are now being marketed in the US. Clinicians interviewed by "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) offer differing opinions as to what this new OC may mean in the marketplace. Products of Rugby Laboratories, the pills are copy products of Ortho Pharmaceutical's ON 1/35 and ON 1/50 formulations. Most clinicians believe that Genora's success or failure in the OC market depends on its eventual retail price. The price difference of $3-$4 may be sufficiently substantial for retailers to charge less for the generic OCs. If that is the case, many doctors may prescribe a pill which will save their patients $4/month. Dr. Mildred Hanson, a Minneapolis gynecologist/obstetrician, feels any cost savings from Genora will have a significant impact on the OC market. She suggests that the less expensive OCs will catch the attention of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and the business of women who participate in such health plans. Yet James Burns, director of family planning services for the Hartford City Health Department, thinks that even a full-scale retail price war won't have much effect from a clinic standpoint. He reports that clinics are able to obtain contraceptive supplies rather inexpensively through the contracting system. Hanson also expressed doubt over the potential popularity of Genora 1/50 as clinical concerns about the effects of combined OCs on serum lipid levels and carbohydrate metabolism have resulted in a nationwide push toward OCs containing less than 50 micrograms of estrogen. He indicated concern that declines in pharmaceutical house products from pricing competition with generic pills might have a negative impact on contraceptive research and development. Dick Haskitt, director of business planning for Syntex Laboratories, Inc., who will produce the OCs for Rugby, reports that their market research shows that people are very interested in having a generic OC available

  4. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  5. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  6. Specialization of Generic Array Accesses After Inlining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Tokuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an optimization that specializes type-generic array accesses after inlining of polymorphic functions in the native-code OCaml compiler. Polymorphic array operations (read and write in OCaml require runtime type dispatch because of ad hoc memory representations of integer and float arrays. It cannot be removed even after being monomorphized by inlining because the intermediate language is mostly untyped. We therefore extended it with explicit type application like System F (while keeping implicit type abstraction by means of unique identifiers for type variables. Our optimization has achieved up to 21% speed-up of numerical programs.

  7. Modeling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss...... slackening and tightening as well as aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopters or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm is introduced and finally the use...... of the model is illustrated through simulations and flight verifications.  ...

  8. Entry decisions in the generic pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F M

    1999-01-01

    Data on all generic drug entries in the period 1984-1994 are used to estimate which markets heterogeneous potential entrants will decide to enter. I find that organizational experience predicts entry. Firms tend to enter markets with supply and demand characteristics similar to the firm's existing drugs. Larger revenue markets, markets with more hospital sales, and products that treat chronic conditions attract more entry. The simultaneous nature of entry leads to an additional interpretation: specialization is profitable because of the severe risk to profits when a market is "overentered." However, I am unable to make any conclusions about the efficiency of entry decisions.

  9. Developing A Generic Optical Avionic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    We propose a generic optical network design for future avionic systems in order to reduce the weight and power consumption of current networks on board. A three-layered network structure over a ring optical network topology is suggested, as it can provide full reconfiguration flexibility...... and support a wide range of avionic applications. Segregation can be made on different hierarchies according to system criticality and security requirements. The structure of each layer is discussed in detail. Two network configurations are presented, focusing on how to support different network services...... by such a network. Finally, three redundancy scenarios are discussed and compared....

  10. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  11. Rigidity of complete generic shrinking Ricci solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Zhou, Jundong; Wang, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Let (Mn , g , X) be a complete generic shrinking Ricci soliton of dimension n ≥ 3. In this paper, by employing curvature inequalities, the formula of X-Laplacian for the norm square of the trace-free curvature tensor, the weak maximum principle and the estimate of the scalar curvature of (Mn , g) , we prove some rigidity results for (Mn , g , X) . In particular, it is showed that (Mn , g , X) is isometric to Rn or a finite quotient of Sn under a pointwise pinching condition. Moreover, we establish several optimal inequalities and classify those shrinking solitons for equalities.

  12. Generic Patch Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  13. The generic Gröbner walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Fukuda, Komei

    2005-01-01

    perturbation of this line. This usually involves both time and space demanding arithmetic of integers much larger than the input numbers. In this paper we show how the explicit line may be replaced by a formal line using Robbiano's characterization of group orders on . This gives rise to the generic Gröbner...... walk involving only Gröbner basis conversion over facets and computations with marked polynomials. The infinite precision integer arithmetic is replaced by term order comparisons between (small) integral vectors. This makes it possible to compute with infinitesimal numbers and perturbations...

  14. Influencers of generic drug utilization: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer N; Harris, Ilene; Frank, Gavriella; Kiptanui, Zippora; Qian, Jingjing; Hansen, Richard

    2017-08-04

    With an increase in prescription drug spending and rising drug costs there is a need to encourage the use of generic prescription drugs. However, maximizing generic drug use is not possible without the public's positive perception and meeting their informational needs about generic drugs. Thus, improving the public's confidence in, and knowledge of generic drugs on the market is critical. The objective of this systematic review is to examine and evaluate the studies focusing on the nature and extent of key factors influencing generic drug use in the United States in order to help guide policy, education and practice interventions. Using multiple search engines and key word screening criteria, empirical studies published in English between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015 were identified. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence identified domains of key factors that influenced generic drug use across studies. Over 3000 citations met the key word screening criteria; 67 of these met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Seven domains of factors that influence generic drug utilization were identified: 1) patient-related factors, 2) formulary management or cost containment, 3) healthcare policies, 4) promotional activities, 5) educational initiatives, 6) technology, and 7) physician-related factors. Patients, physicians, pharmacists, formulary managers, and policymakers play an important role in generic drug use. Understanding the factors influencing generic drug use can help guide future policy, education, and practice interventions to increase generic drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  16. Complex formation of technetium with the methyl esters of MAG2 and MAG1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, B.; Noll, S.; Grosse, B.; Johannsen, B.; Spies, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mercaptoacetylglycine methyl ester (MAG 2 ester) and mercaptoacetyldiglycine methyl ester (MAG 1 ester) were included to investigate complex formation of SH/amide ligands with technetium. The studies are aimed at finding out how blocking the carboxylic groups influences the complexation reaction, with a view to finding an approach to new lipophilic species. (orig./BBR)

  17. Crystal structure of 4′-allyl-4,5,6,7,2′,7′-hexachlorofluorescein allyl ester unknown solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, 4′-allyl-4,5,6,7,2′,7′-hexachlorofluorescein allyl ester {systematic name: prop-2-en-1-yl 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-6-[2,7-dichloro-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-en-1-yl-3H-xanthen-9-yl]benzoate}, C26H14Cl6O5, accompanied by unknown solvate molecules, the dihedral angle between the xanthene ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.046 Å and the pentasubstituted benzene ring is 71.67 (9°. Both allyl groups are disordered over two sets of sites in statistical ratios. The scattering contributions of the disordered solvent molecules (both Ph2O and CHCl3, as identified by NMR were removed with the PLATON SQUEEZE algorithm [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18]. In the crystal, tetrameric supramolecular aggregates linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds occur; these further interact with neighboring aggregates through C—Cl...π interactions arising from the benzene rings, forming infinite two-dimensional sheets. Each C6Cl4 ring shifts in the direction perpendicular to the two-dimensional sheet, exhibiting a helical chain in which every C6Cl4 ring is utilized as both a donor and an acceptor of Cl...π contacts. Thus, these two-dimensional sheets pack in a helical fashion, constructing a three-dimensional network.

  18. A prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Riggs, R.; Milstead, W.; Pittman, J.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues and related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated as Un-resolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are High, Medium, Low, and Drop and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative. 1310 refs

  19. Hydrolytic Stability of Boronate Ester-Linked Covalent Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huifang; Li, Haoyuan; Dai, Qingqing; Li, Hong; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-01

    by reducing the energy barrier by a factor of 3. Importantly, the hydrolysis of boronate ester bonds situated in a COF environment follows reaction pathways that are different and have increased energy barriers. These results point to an enhanced hydrolytic

  20. ESTER: a new approach in modelling severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, I.; Jones, A.; Schmidt, F.

    1993-01-01

    ESTER is a set of codes for calculating phenomena during severe accidents in thermal reactors. It makes use of software tools that allow the data to be defined as a tree-structured data base and this data to be stored and retrieved by the code modules. The tools include generalized input and output routines that are independent of the particular code being used. Severe accident research codes are in a continual state of development and the structure of ESTER is such that modifications can be introduced easily and safely. The ESTER framework also facilitates the coupling together of codes. A preliminary version of ESTER containing a complete set of tools and a limited number of applications has already been released. 9 refs., 5 figs

  1. Evaluation of the levels of phthalate ester plasticizers in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the levels of phthalate ester plasticizers in surface water of Ethiope ... Gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) was used to ... with their common use in plastic materials and other industrial chemicals.

  2. Production of both esters and biogas from Mexican poppy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    scale industries and agricultural farms. Key words: Transestrification, energy conservation, anaerobic digestion, methane, biogas, methyl ester. INTRODUCTION. For advancement of civilization and socioeconomic developmental progress, the world is dependent on various energy resources like petrochemicals, coal,.

  3. Baker's yeast: production of D- and L-3-hydroxy esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Allan Carsten; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1998-01-01

    harvested while growing. In contrast, the stereoselectivity was shifted towards L-hydroxy esters when the oxo esters were added slowly to ordinary baker's yeast supplied with gluconolactone as co-substrate. The reduction rate with gluconolactone was increased by active aeration. Ethyl L-(S)-3......Baker's yeast grown under oxygen limited conditions and used in the reduction of 3-oxo esters results in a shift of the stereoselectivity of the yeast towards D-hydroxy esters as compared with ordinary baker's yeast. The highest degree of stereoselectivity was obtained with growing yeast or yeast......-hydroxybutanoate was afforded in >99% ee. Both enantiomers of ethyl 3-hydroxypentanoate, D-(R) in 96% ee and L-(S) in 93% ee, and of ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate, D-(S) in 98% ee and L-(R) in 94% ee, were obtained. The results demonstrate that the stereoselectivity of baker's yeast can be controlled...

  4. α-Imino Esters in Organic Synthesis: Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher; Zirak, Maryam

    2017-06-28

    α-Imino esters are useful precursors for the synthesis of a variety of types of natural and unnatural α-amino acid derivatives, with a wide range of biological activities. Due to the adjacent ester group, α-imino esters are more reactive relative to other types of imines and undergo different kinds of reactions, including organometallics addition, metal catalyzed vinylation and alkynylation, aza-Henry, aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman, imino-ene, Mannich-type, and cycloaddition reactions, as well as hydrogenation and reduction. This review discusses the mechanism, scope, and applications of the reactions of α-imino esters and related compounds in organic synthesis, covering the literature from the last 12 years.

  5. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    In addition, the structure and thermodynamic properties of the ... Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals ... functional differences between wheat starches ..... esters cosurfactant microemulsion systems for.

  6. The importance of being first: evidence from Canadian generic pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Aidan

    2002-12-01

    This paper uses pooled cross-section data on Canadian ethical drug sales to examine the effect of entry timing on sales of generic drugs. The data is for all drugs for which the first generic competitor entered during the years 1994-1997. It is found that the first generic entrant has a lasting competitive advantage: being first into the market appears to lead to an increase of around 30% in market share (among generics) over a period of at least 4 years. This finding has considerable implications for the current policy of allowing brandname drug companies to issue pseudo-generic equivalents as a preemptive strike against true generic competitors. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Contact Geometry of Hyperbolic Equations of Generic Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis The

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the contact geometry of scalar second order hyperbolic equations in the plane of generic type. Following a derivation of parametrized contact-invariants to distinguish Monge-Ampère (class 6-6, Goursat (class 6-7 and generic (class 7-7 hyperbolic equations, we use Cartan's equivalence method to study the generic case. An intriguing feature of this class of equations is that every generic hyperbolic equation admits at most a nine-dimensional contact symmetry algebra. The nine-dimensional bound is sharp: normal forms for the contact-equivalence classes of these maximally symmetric generic hyperbolic equations are derived and explicit symmetry algebras are presented. Moreover, these maximally symmetric equations are Darboux integrable. An enumeration of several submaximally symmetric (eight and seven-dimensional generic hyperbolic structures is also given.

  8. METODE ESTIMASI PROPERTI KRITIS UAP-CAIR KOMPONEN MURNI ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhoni Hartantoa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel become eco-friendly renewable energy resources which is consisted of monoalkyl ester or long chain fatty acid from plants or animal. Biodiesel has more advantage than petrodiesel. Property of pure compound such as critical properties are the important thing to determine chemical mixtures behavior and also as base of equation of state. Joback method can show good results in estimating critical properties of monoalkyl ester.

  9. Sulfur deactivation of fatty ester hydrogenolysis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, D.S.; U-A-Sai, G.; Poels, E.K.; Bliek, A. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-08-15

    Trace organosulfur compounds present as natural impurities in oleochemical feedstocks may lead to activation of copper-containing catalysts applied for hydrogenolysis of esters toward fatty alcohols. In this paper, the sulfur deactivation of Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZnO/SiO{sub 2} catalysts was studied in the liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl palmitate. The rate of deactivation is fast and increases as a function of the sulfur-containing compound present: octadecanethiol {approx} dihexadecyl disulfide < benzyl isothiocyanate < methyl p-toluene sulfonate < dihexadecyl sulfide < dibenzothiophene. The rapid deactivation is caused by the fact that sulfur is quantitatively removed from the reaction mixture and because mainly surface sulfides are formed under hydrogenolysis conditions. The life time of a zinc-promoted catalyst is up to two times higher than that of the Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, most likely due to zinc surface sulfide formation. The maximum sulfur coverage obtained after full catalyst deactivation with dibenzothiophene and dihexadecyl sulfide--the sulfur compounds that cause the fastest deactivation--may be as low as 0.07. This is due to the fact that decomposition of these compounds as well as the hydrogenolysis reaction itself proceeds on ensembles of copper atoms. Catalyst regeneration studies reveal that activity cannot be regained by reduction or combined oxidation/reduction treatments. XRD, TPR, and TPO results confirm that no distinct bulk copper or zinc sulfide or sulfate phases are present.

  10. Combustion characteristics of the mustard methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, M.G.; Vasilev, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mustard Methyl Esters (further bio diesel) and regular diesel fuel were tested in direct injection diesel engine. Analysis of experimental data was supported by an analysis of fuel injection and combustion characteristics. Engine fuelled with bio diesel had increased brake specific fuel consumption, reduced nitrogen oxides emission and smoke opacity, moderate increase in carbon monoxide emission with essentially unchanged unburned hydrocarbons emission. Increase in fuel consumption was attributed to lesser heating value of bio diesel and partially to decreased fuel conversion efficiency. Analysis of combustion characteristics revealed earlier start of injection and shorter ignition delay period of bio diesel. Resulting decrease in maximum rate of heat release and cylinder pressure was the most probable reason for reduced emission of nitrogen oxides. Analysis of combustion characteristics also showed that cetane index determined by ASTM Method D976 is not a proper measure of ignition quality of bio diesel. Conclusion was made on applicability of mustard oil as a source for commercial production of bio diesel in Pakistan. Potentialities of on improving combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine by reformulating bio diesel were discussed. (author)

  11. Impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic prescribing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Shane P; Chen, Qingxia; Johnson, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic (e-) prescribing of generic medications. The authors analyzed retrospective outpatient e-prescribing data from an academic medical center and affiliated network for July 1, 2005-September 30, 2008 using an interrupted time-series design to assess the rate of generic prescribing before and after implementing generic substitution decision support. To assess background secular trends, e-prescribing was compared with a concurrent random sample of hand-generated prescriptions. Proportion of generic medications prescribed before and after the intervention, evaluated over time, and compared with a sample of prescriptions generated without e-prescribing. The proportion of generic medication prescriptions increased from 32.1% to 54.2% after the intervention (22.1% increase, 95% CI 21.9% to 22.3%), with no diminution in magnitude of improvement post-intervention. In the concurrent control group, increases in proportion of generic prescriptions (29.3% to 31.4% to 37.4% in the pre-intervention, post-intervention, and end-of-study periods, respectively) were not commensurate with the intervention. There was a larger change in generic prescribing rates among authorized prescribers (24.6%) than nurses (18.5%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.63). Two years after the intervention, the proportion of generic prescribing remained significantly higher for e-prescriptions (58.1%; 95% CI 57.5% to 58.7%) than for hand-generated prescriptions ordered at the same time (37.4%; 95% CI 34.9% to 39.9%) (p<0.0001). Generic prescribing increased significantly in every specialty. Implementation of generic substitution decision support was associated with dramatic and sustained improvements in the rate of outpatient generic e-prescribing across all specialties.

  12. Generic task problem descriptions: Category B, C, and D tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D

  13. Guide for generic application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwan, C.A.; Toomey, G.E.; Morgan, T.A.; Darling, S.S.

    1991-02-01

    Previously completed reliability centered maintenance (RCM) studies form the basis for developing or refining a preventive maintenance program. This report describes a generic methodology that will help utilities optimize nuclear plant maintenance programs using RCM techniques. This guide addresses the following areas: history of the generic methodology development process, and use of the generic methodology for conducting system-to-system and component-to-component evaluations. 2 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Encouraging the use of generic medicines: implications for transition economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Derek R; Kanavos, Panos

    2002-08-01

    Generic drugs have a key role to play in the efficient allocation of financial resources for pharmaceutical medicines. Policies implemented in the countries with a high rate of generic drug use, such as Canada, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, are reviewed, with consideration of the market structures that facilitate strong competition. Savings in these countries are realized through increases in the volume of generic drugs used and the frequently significant differences in the price between generic medicines and branded originator medicines. Their policy tools include the mix of supply-side measures and demand-side measures that are relevant for generic promotion and higher generic use. On the supply-side, key policy measures include generic drug marketing regulation that facilitates market entry soon after patent expiration, reference pricing, the pricing of branded originator products, and the degree of price competition in pharmaceutical markets. On the demand-side, measures typically encompass influencing prescribing and dispensing patterns as well as introducing a co-payment structure for consumers/patients that takes into consideration the difference in cost between branded and generic medicines. Quality of generic medicines is a pre-condition for all other measures discussed to take effect. The paper concludes by offering a list of policy options for decision-makers in Central and Eastern European economies in transition.

  15. Generic substitution of antiretrovirals: patients' and health care providers' opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Jennifer A; O'Reilly, Eimear; O'Dea, Siobhan; Bergin, Colm; O'Leary, Aisling

    2017-10-01

    There is interest in introducing generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into high-income countries in order to maximise efficiency in health care budgets. Studies examining patients' and providers' knowledge and attitudes to generic substitution in HIV are few. This was a cross-sectional, observational study with a convenience sample of adult HIV-infected patients and health care providers (HCPs). Data on demographics, knowledge of generic medicine and facilitators of generic substitution were collected. Descriptive and univariate analysis was performed using SPSS V.23™. Questionnaires were completed by 66 patients. Seventy-one per cent would have no concerns with the introduction of generic ARVs. An increase in frequency of administration (61%) or pill burden (53%) would make patients less likely to accept generic ARVs. There were 30 respondents to the HCP survey. Concerns included the supply chain of generics, loss of fixed dose combinations, adherence and use of older medications. An increase in dosing frequency (76%) or an increase in pill burden (50%) would make HCPs less likely to prescribe a generic ARV. The main perceived advantage was financial. Generic substitution of ARVs would be acceptable to the majority of patients and HCPs. Reinvesting savings back into HIV services would facilitate the success of such a programme.

  16. Brand loyalty, patients and limited generic medicines uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Tan, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The sluggish development of European generic drug markets depends heavily on demand side factors, and more specifically, patients' and doctors' loyalty to branded products. Loyalty to originator drugs, to the point where originator prices rise upon generic entry has been described as the 'generics paradox'. Originator loyalty can emerge for a plethora of reasons; including costs, perceptions about quality and physician advice. We know very little about the behavioural underpinnings of brand loyalty from the consumer or patient standpoint. This paper attempts to test the extent to which patients are brand loyal by drawing upon Spain's 2002 Health Barometer survey as it includes questions about consumer acceptance of generics in a country with exceptionally low generic uptake and substitution at the time of the study. Our findings suggest that at least 13% of the population would not accept generics as substitutes to the originator. These results confirm evidence of brand loyalty for a minority. Alongside high levels of awareness of generics, we find that low cost-sharing levels explain consumer brand loyalty but their impact on acceptance of generic substitution is very small. Higher cost-sharing and exempting fewer patients from cost-sharing have the potential to encourage generic acceptance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transforming Cobol Legacy Software to a Generic Imperative Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moraes, DinaL

    1999-01-01

    .... This research develops a transformation system to convert COBOL code into a generic imperative model, recapturing the initial design and deciphering the requirements implemented by the legacy code...

  18. Towards Using a Generic Robot as Training Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Nielsen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how a generic industrial robot can be used as a training partner, for upper limb training. The motion path and human/robot interaction of a non-generic upper-arm training robot is transferred to a generic industrial robot arm, and we demonstrate that the robot arm can...... implement the same type of interaction, but can expand the training regime to include both upper arm and shoulder training. We compare the generic robot to two affordable but custom-built training robots, and outline interesting directions for future work based on these training robots....

  19. Ester Tuiksoo võitleb viina puhtuse eest / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Silja Lättemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2006-01-01

    Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo lubab Euroopa Liidu piiritusjookide määruse eelnõu arutusel kaitsta seisukohta, et viinaks tuleb pidada üksnes teraviljast või kartulist valmistatud piiritusjooki

  20. Request from the Phthalate Esters Panel of the American Chemistry Council for correction of EPA's Action Plan for Phthalate Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Phthalate Esters Panel (Panel) of the American Chemistry Council submits this Request for Correction to EPA under the Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity, of Information Disseminated by the Environmental Protection Agency

  1. N-succinimidyl 4-methyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate: synthesis and potential utility for the radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, P.K.; Garg, S.; Zalutsky, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    N-Succinimidyl 4-methyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (MATE) was synthesized in two steps from 4-methyl-3-iodobenzoic acid. Radioiododestannylation of MATE proceeded more slowly than N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), but for reaction periods of 10 min, identical yields were obtained. Paired-label biodistribution studies were performed in mice with an intact monoclonal antibody and an F(ab') 2 fragment labeled using MATE, ATE and Iodogen. Thyroid uptake with MATE was low, comparable to that seen with ATE, and considerably lower than that observed when the Iodogen method was used. With the F(ab') 2 fragment, kidney uptake using MATE was 8-fold higher than that observed when either the ATE or Iodogen methods were used. (Author)

  2. Influence of flavone extract from cultivated saussurea on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease A comparison with estradiol benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiqiang Chen; Shuiming Gong; Yan Li; Ming Li; Zemin Yang; Lirong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The present study established a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, and investigated the effects of treatment with flavone extract from artificially cultivated saussurea. A positive control group was treated with estradiol benzoate, and learning and memory ability were examined in the 8-arm radial maze. The learning and recognition ability of mice with Alzheimer's disease treated with flavone extract was significantly improved and the number of hippocampal neurons was significantly increased in the flavone-treated and positive control groups compared with the model group. The results indicate that flavone extract from artificially cultivated saussurea can improve learning and memory deficits in mice with Alzheimer's disease, exerting effects similar to those of estradiol benzoate.

  3. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  4. Lubricating and Waxy Esters. VI. Effect of Symmetry about Ester on Crystallization of Linear Monoester Isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laziz Bouzidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure development of jojoba-like esters incorporating either 1-decenoic acid and/or 1-decenol, namely octadec-9-enyl dec-9-enoate (JLE-281, and its isomer dec-9-enyl oleate (JLE-282 was investigated to reveal the effect of symmetry about the ester group on crystallization of aliphatic fatty monoesters. The phase transformation path was investigated with temperature-time resolved X-ray diffraction during stepped isothermal crystallization, and while cooling from the melt at a fixed rate. Startling differences in phase behavior were uncovered between the isomers. When stepped isothermals were used, selective extinctions occurred at a transition temperature for JLE-281 but not for JLE-282. The extinctions, which are due to dramatic changes in the electronic density of certain families of planes, indicate a phase transition attributed to a brusque rearrangement of the oxygen atoms in the crystal subcell. The phase transition did not occur when the JLEs were cooled continuously. The crucial role played by the position of the alkyl chain and its orientation relative to the easy rotation site of the C–O bond in the phase trajectories of the JLEs was particularly highlighted.

  5. Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica K; MacMahon, Shaun

    2016-12-14

    A method was developed for the extraction of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol from infant formula, followed by quantitative analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These process-induced chemical contaminants are found in refined vegetable oils, and studies have shown that they are potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction, where powdered infant formula is dissolved in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Following shaking, centrifugation, and drying of the organic phase, the resulting fat extract is cleaned-up using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance was confirmed by verifying the percent recovery of each 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester in a homemade powdered infant formula reference material. Average ester recoveries in the reference material ranged from 84.9 to 109.0% (0.6-9.5% RSD). The method was also validated by fortifying three varieties of commercial infant formulas with a 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester solution. Average recoveries of the esters across all concentrations and varieties of infant formula ranged from 88.7 to 107.5% (1.0-9.5% RSD). Based on the validation results, this method is suitable for producing 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester occurrence data in all commercially available varieties of infant formula.

  6. Generic Adaptively Secure Searchable Phrase Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissel Zachary A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years searchable symmetric encryption has seen a rapid increase in query expressiveness including keyword, phrase, Boolean, and fuzzy queries. With this expressiveness came increasingly complex constructions. Having these facts in mind, we present an efficient and generic searchable symmetric encryption construction for phrase queries. Our construction is straightforward to implement, and is proven secure under adaptively chosen query attacks (CQA2 in the random oracle model with an honest-but-curious adversary. To our knowledge, this is the first encrypted phrase search system that achieves CQA2 security. Moreover, we demonstrate that our document collection preprocessing algorithm allows us to extend a dynamic SSE construction so that it supports phrase queries. We also provide a compiler theorem which transforms any CQA2-secure SSE construction for keyword queries into a CQA2-secure SSE construction that supports phrase queries.

  7. Generic Automated Multi-function Finger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpardaz, M.; Tarkian, M.; Sirkett, D.; Ölvander, J.; Feng, X.; Elf, J.; Sjögren, R.

    2016-11-01

    Multi-function fingers that are able to handle multiple workpieces are crucial in improvement of a robot workcell. Design automation of multi-function fingers is highly demanded by robot industries to overcome the current iterative, time consuming and complex manual design process. However, the existing approaches for the multi-function finger design automation are unable to entirely meet the robot industries’ need. This paper proposes a generic approach for design automation of multi-function fingers. The proposed approach completely automates the design process and requires no expert skill. In addition, this approach executes the design process much faster than the current manual process. To validate the approach, multi-function fingers are successfully designed for two case studies. Further, the results are discussed and benchmarked with existing approaches.

  8. Towards a generic user support system (GUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, W.J.; Wilson, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    One relevant issue confronting the operator of a nuclear power plant is information and task overload. The goal, then, of the various developers is to improve the current situations by creating an environment where the operator can perform at optimum capacity. This is to be accomplished by providing tools and techniques which reduce operator involvement in low level tasks (freeing up time for higher level cognitive tasks) and assist in information and knowledge manipulation so that high level tasks can be performed more efficiently. This paper reviews the operational environment of nuclear plants from the viewpoint of engineering design and from the viewpoint of the operators and technical support staff. Principles are advanced for a generic operator companion. These design principles are being applied to a test case: the Point Lepreau NGS secondary side central sampling system. 6 refs., 6 figs

  9. Generic Entity Resolution in Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidló, Csaba István

    Entity Resolution (ER) covers the problem of identifying distinct representations of real-world entities in heterogeneous databases. We consider the generic formulation of ER problems (GER) with exact outcome. In practice, input data usually resides in relational databases and can grow to huge volumes. Yet, typical solutions described in the literature employ standalone memory resident algorithms. In this paper we utilize facilities of standard, unmodified relational database management systems (RDBMS) to enhance the efficiency of GER algorithms. We study and revise the problem formulation, and propose practical and efficient algorithms optimized for RDBMS external memory processing. We outline a real-world scenario and demonstrate the advantage of algorithms by performing experiments on insurance customer data.

  10. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2014-01-01

    of employing a well-structured model library for storage, use/reuse, and analysis of the kinetic models are highlighted. Examples illustrating the application of the modeling framework for kinetic model discrimination related to simulation of specific crystallization scenarios and for kinetic model parameter......A new and extended version of a generic modeling framework for analysis and design of crystallization operations is presented. The new features of this framework are described, with focus on development, implementation, identification, and analysis of crystallization kinetic models. Issues related...... to the modeling of various kinetic phenomena like nucleation, growth, agglomeration, and breakage are discussed in terms of model forms, model parameters, their availability and/or estimation, and their selection and application for specific crystallization operational scenarios under study. The advantages...

  11. Dream content: Individual and generic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan; Kahn, David

    2007-12-01

    Dream reports were collected from normal subjects in an effort to determine the degree to which dream reports can be used to identify individual dreamers. Judges were asked to group the reports by their authors. The judges scored the reports correctly at chance levels. This finding indicated that dreams may be at least as much like each other as they are the signature of individual dreamers. Our results suggest that dream reports cannot be used to identify the individuals who produced them when identifiers like names and gender of friends and family members are removed from the dream report. In addition to using dreams to learn about an individual, we must look at dreams as telling us about important common or generic aspects of human consciousness.

  12. Generic analysis of kinetically driven inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Rio

    2018-04-01

    We perform a model-independent analysis of kinetically driven inflation (KDI) which (partially) includes generalized G-inflation and ghost inflation. We evaluate the background evolution splitting into the inflationary attractor and the perturbation around it. We also consider the quantum fluctuation of the scalar mode with a usual scaling and derive the spectral index, ignoring the contribution from the second-order products of slow-roll parameters. Using these formalisms, we find that within our generic framework the models of KDI which possess the shift symmetry of scalar field cannot create the quantum fluctuation consistent with the observation. Breaking the shift symmetry, we obtain a few essential conditions for viable models of KDI associated with the graceful exit.

  13. Generic Properties of Random Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Bianco, Simone; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Tang, Chao

    2013-12-01

    Modeling gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is an important topic in systems biology. Although there has been much work focusing on various specific systems, the generic behavior of GRNs with continuous variables is still elusive. In particular, it is not clear typically how attractors partition among the three types of orbits: steady state, periodic and chaotic, and how the dynamical properties change with network's topological characteristics. In this work, we first investigated these questions in random GRNs with different network sizes, connectivity, fraction of inhibitory links and transcription regulation rules. Then we searched for the core motifs that govern the dynamic behavior of large GRNs. We show that the stability of a random GRN is typically governed by a few embedding motifs of small sizes, and therefore can in general be understood in the context of these short motifs. Our results provide insights for the study and design of genetic networks.

  14. Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate improved cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia patients with constant clinical symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yuan; Liang, Sun-Yuan; Chang, Yue-Cune; Ting, Shuo-Yen; Kao, Ching-Ling; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Hypofunction of NMDA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology, particularly cognitive impairment, of schizophrenia. Sarcosine, a glycine transporter I (GlyT-1) inhibitor, and sodium benzoate, a d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor, can both enhance NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. We proposed simultaneously inhibiting DAAO and GlyT-1 may be more effective than inhibition of either in improving the cognitive and global functioning of schizophrenia patients. Methods This study compared add-on sarcosine (2 g/day) plus benzoate (1 g/day) vs. sarcosine (2 g/day) for the clinical symptoms, as well as the cognitive and global functioning, of chronic schizophrenia patients in a 12-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale every 3 weeks. Seven cognitive domains, recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Committee, were measured at weeks 0 and 12. Results Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate, but not sarcosine alone, improved the cognitive and global functioning of patients with schizophrenia, even when their clinical symptoms had not improved. Conclusions This finding suggests N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-enhancement therapy can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia, further indicating this pro-cognitive effect can be primary without improvement in clinical symptoms.

  15. Evaluation of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) control provided by emamectin benzoate and two neonicotinoid insecticides, one and two seasons after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Anulewicz, Andrea C; Lewis, Phillip; Cappaert, David

    2011-10-01

    Effective methods are needed to protect ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) from emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive buprestid that has killed millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. We randomly assigned 175 ash trees (11.5-48.1 cm in diameter) in 25 blocks located in three study sites in Michigan to one of seven insecticide treatments in May 2007. Treatments included 1) trunk-injected emamectin benzoate; 2) trunk-injected imidacloprid; 3) basal trunk spray of dinotefuran with or 4) without Pentra-Bark, an agricultural surfactant; 5) basal trunk spray of imidacloprid with or 6) without Pentra-Bark; or (7) control. Foliar insecticide residues (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and toxicity of leaves to adult A. planipennis (4-d bioassays) were quantified at 3-4-wk intervals posttreatment. Seven blocks of trees were felled and sampled in fall 2007 to quantify A. planipennis larval density. Half of the remaining blocks were retreated in spring 2008. Bioassays and residue analyses were repeated in summer 2008, and then all trees were sampled to assess larval density in winter. Foliage from emamectin benzoate-treated trees was highly toxic to adult A. planipennis, and larval density was emamectin benzoate for > or = 2 yr may reduce costs or logistical issues associated with treatment.

  16. Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Effectiveness of emamectin benzoate for treatment of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patti G; Hammell, K Larry; Dohoo, Ian R; Revie, Crawford W

    2012-12-03

    Emamectin benzoate (an avermectin chemotherapeutant administered to fish as an in-feed treatment) has been used to treat infestations of sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, since 1999. This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of 114 emamectin benzoate treatment episodes from 2004 to 2008 across 54 farms. Study objectives were to establish whether changes in the effectiveness of emamectin benzoate were present for this period, examine factors associated with treatment outcome, and determine variables that influenced differences in L. salmonis abundance after treatment. The analysis was carried out in 2 parts: first, trends in treatment effectiveness and L. salmonis abundance were explored, and second, statistical modelling (linear and logistic regression) was used to examine the effects of multiple variables on post-treatment abundance and treatment outcome. Post-treatment sea lice abundance increased in the later years examined. Mean abundance differed between locations in the Bay of Fundy, and higher numbers were found at farms closer to the mainland and lower levels were found in the areas around Grand Manan Island. Treatment effectiveness varied by geographical region and decreased over time. There was an increased risk for unsuccessful treatments in 2008, and treatments applied during autumn months were more likely to be ineffective than those applied during summer months.

  18. Generic Skills from Qur'anic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Generic skills are defined as a set of skills that are directly related and needed for the working environment. Employers prefer to recruit officials who are competent in interpersonal communication, leadership skill, team work, oral and written skills. They are reluctant to employ graduates lacking certain necessary skills. This reveals the fact that there is a serious gap between the skills that are required by the employers and the skills that the graduates possess. Therefore, this research is focused on five aspects of generic skills namely; communication, team work, problem solving, lifelong learning and self-esteem. From Qur’anic perspective, the same terms have been used except minor differences in using various terms. The thematic approach is used when discussing these aspects from the Qur’an. The findings showed that the ways of effective communication are represented by terms of qawl sadid, qawl ma`ruf, qawl baligh, qawl maysur, qawl karim and qawl layyin. For collective work, ta`aruf and tafahum, as the pre-requisites, should be practiced via ta`awun and takaful. For problem solving, four methods are adapted from the Qur’an such as reflection of the past, observation, demonstration and asking questions. For lifelong learning, the establishment of learning institutions and the self-motivation of learners are two pre-requisites that should be undertaken for its accomplishment. They could be practiced through open learning system, consultation and hands-on learning. Last but not least, for personality development could be built up through physical training, spiritual training and mental training.

  19. Light induced degradation of phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunping, Bu; Ha, Bui Thi Ngoc; Eunice, Yeo; Chueng, Lo Loong; Yan, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Jatropha curcas (Jatropha) is a tropical shrub that is gaining popularity as a biofuel feedstock plant. Phorbol esters (PEs) are tetracyclic tiglian diterpenoids that are present in Jatropha seeds and other parts of plant. Epidermal cell irritating and cancer promoting PEs not only reduce commercial values of Jatropha seed cake but also cause some safety and environment concerns on PE leaching to soil. A simple bioassay of PE toxicity was conducted by incubating 48 h old brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii with Jatropha oil for 24 h. 1-4% of Jatropha oil (corresponding to PE concentration of 25-100 mg L(-1)) had mortality rate of 5-95%, with LC50 estimated to be 2.7% of oil or 67 mg L(-1) of PE. Jatropha oil was incubated with clay or black soil (autoclaved or non-autoclaved) in the darkness or under sunlight for different periods of time before oil was re-extracted and tested for PE content by HPLC and for remaining toxicity with the brine shrimp bioassay. Under sunlight, PE decreased to non-detectable level within six days. Toxicity reduced to less than 5% mortality rate that is comparable to rapeseed oil control within the same period. In contrast, PE level and toxicity remained little changed when Jatropha oil was incubated in the darkness. Such PE degradation/detoxification was also found independent of the presence of soil or soil microorganisms. We conclude that sunlight directly degrades and detoxifies PEs and this finding should alleviate the concern on long term environmental impact of PE leaching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sorption of organophosphate esters by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Yan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Duan, Jinming [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The interfacial interactions between the OPE molecules and CNTs. - Highlights: • Oxygen-containing groups on CNTs change the sorption property for OPEs. • Molecular configuration of OPEs has insignificant impact on their sorption. • Hydrophobic, π–π EDA and Brønsted acid–base interaction occurred between the CNTs and OPEs. - Abstract: Insights from the molecular-level mechanism of sorption of organophosphate esters (OPEs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can further our understanding of the fate and transport of OPEs in the environment. The motivation for our study was to explore the sorption process of OPEs on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and their oxidized counterparts (O-MWCNTs and O-SWCNTs), and its molecular mechanism over a wide concentration range. The sorption isotherm results revealed that the hydrophobicity of OPEs dominated their affinities on a given CNT and the π–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction also played an important role in the sorption of aromatic OPEs. This π–π EDA interaction, verified with Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, could restrict the radial vibration of SWCNTs and affect the deformation vibration γ(CH) bands of OPE molecules. The OPE surface coverage on CNTs, estimated using the nonlinear Dubinin–Ashtakhov model, indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNTs could interact with water molecules by H-bonding, resulting in a decrease in effective sorption sites. In addition, FTIR analysis also confirmed the occurrence of Brønsted acid–base interactions between OPEs and surface OH groups of SWCNTs. Our results should provide mechanistic insights into the sorption mechanism of OPE contaminants on CNTs.

  1. de Vries liquid crystals based on a chiral 5-phenylpyrimidine benzoate core with a tri- and tetra-carbosilane backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenilayam, S. P.; Rodriguez-Lojo, D.; Agra-Kooijman, D. M.; Vij, J. K.; Panov, V. P.; Panov, A.; Fisch, M. R.; Kumar, Satyendra; Stevenson, P. J.

    2018-02-01

    New chiral de Vries smectic liquid-crystalline compounds are designed, synthesized, and investigated for perspective applications in defect-free bistable surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal displays. In these compounds, a 5-phenyl-pyrimidine benzoate core is terminated on one side by a tri- or tetra-carbosilane group linked through an alkoxy group and an alkyl spacer and on the opposite side terminated by a chiral 2-octanol group. The stereogenic center contains either a methyl or perfluoromethyl functional group. These compounds exhibit Iso-Sm A*-Sm C*-Sm X -Cr phases under cooling from the isotropic state. Measurements of the temperature-dependent smectic layer spacing by x-ray diffraction experiments combined with the measured apparent optical tilt angle and the birefringence reveal that Sm A* phase in these compounds is of the de Vries type. In addition, the chiral compound with a tetra-carbosilane backbone, DR277, exhibits good de Vries properties with the Sm C* phase exhibited over a wide temperature range. By varying the carbosilane end group, the de Vries properties are enhanced, that is, the layer shrinkage of ˜1.9 % for the tri-carbosilane DR276 is reduced to ˜0.9 % for tetra-carbosilane DR277 at 10°C below Sm A* to Sm C* transition temperature, TAC. For DR277, the reduction factor R ≈0.22 for T =(TAC-10 )°C is reasonably low and the apparent optical tilt angle θapp=35.1°, hence this compound is a "good de Vries smectic" LC. Therefore, synthesis of the chiral mesogen with an even higher number of carbosilane groups may lead to a further reduction or even zero-layer shrinkage exhibited at TAC with Sm C* phase extending over a wide temperature range close to the room temperature for perspective suitability in device applications. Our results for 5-phenyl-pyrimidine benzoate core-based compounds support a recently drawn conclusion by Schubert et al. [J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 8483 (2016), 10.1039/C6TC03120J] from a different compound, namely

  2. Generic implications of ATWS events at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant: generic implications. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report is the first of two volumes. It documents the work of an interoffice, interdisciplinary NRC Task Force established to determine the generic implications of two anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) at the Salem Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 on February 22 and 25, 1983. A second report will document the NRC actions to be taken based on the work of the Task Force. The Task Force was established to address three questions: (1) Is there a need for prompt action for similar equipment in other facilities. (2) Are NRC and its licensees learning the sefety-management lessons, and, (3) How should the priority and content of the ATWS rule be adjusted. A number of short-term actions were taken through Bulletins and an Information Notice. Intermediate-term actions to address the generic issues will be addressed in the separate report and implemented through appropriate regulatory mechanisms

  3. ESR study of electron reactions with esters and triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.; Morehouse, K.M.; Swarts, S.

    1981-01-01

    Reactions which occurred after electron attachment at 77K to a number of small carboxylic acid esters and triglycerides in an aqueous glass are reported. Most ester anions are found to decay on warming to form alkyl radicals by β scission: RC(O - )OR' → RCO 2 - + R'.. The alkyl radical (R'.) produced by annealing is found to abstract hydrogen from the parent ester at an α-carbon site, R'.+ R''CH 2 CO 2 R' → R''CHCO 2 R', or in the case of ethyl formate from the formate hydrogen, CH 3 CH 2 .+ HCO 2 C 2 H 5 → C 2 H 6 +.CO 2 C 2 H 5 . Results found for the methyl formate anion suggest hydrogen abstraction by the anion itself may compete with alkyl radical formation. The anion of the triglyceride triacetin is found to undergo an analogous mechanism to the ester anions producing the propane diol diester radical, .CH 2 CH(Ac)CH 2 (Ac), Ac = acetate. This species subsequently abstracts hydrogen from the parent compound to produce the α-carbon radical, .CH 2 CO 2 R. Results found after annealing the tripropionin radical anion give evidence for abstraction from the α carbon in the propionate side groups producing CH 3 CHCO 2 R. Studies of a γ-irradiated ester (ethyl myristate) and two triglycerides (tripalmitin and tristearin) yield results which suggest that the mechanism of ester anion decay found in aqueous glasses applies to γ-irradiated neat long-chain esters and triglycerides. Results found in this work are compared to the results of product analysis

  4. MONITORING RESISTENSI POPULASI Plutella xylostella, L TERHADAP RESIDU EMAMEKTIN BENZOAT DI SENTRA PRODUKSI TANAMAN KUBIS PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH (Monitoring the Resistance of Plutella xylostella, L Population against Emamektin Benzoate Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Tarwotjo

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this research to know the susceptible of P. xylostella population against emamectin benzoate insecticide, to monitor the resistance development of  P. xylostella against insecticides by determine of a diagnostic concentration, to determine the resistance mechanism of P. xylostella population. P. xylostella  was collected from central of Java areas from August 2011 up to September 2012.  The data from bioassay test was analized using Probit analysis to obtain LC50 value. The suseptibility test of the insect resulted show that Puasan population (Ngablak FR value was 3.97 and it was higher than  the Selo population (Cepogo. The concentration of 2443.99 ppb as selected diagnostic consentration. The test result of diagnostic concentration validation indicated that the value of calculated c2 of all the tested population was lower than the value of c2table. Therefore the diagnostic concentration of 2443.99 ppb can be used monitoring device of susceptible P, xylostella population. The resistance mechanism of the P. xylostella to the insecticide resulted from the increase in the detoxification rate in the insect body by MFO enzyme, but non-specific esterase enzyme activity did not reflect the esterase activity.

  5. Systematic identification of crystallization kinetics within a generic modelling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    A systematic development of constitutive models within a generic modelling framework has been developed for use in design, analysis and simulation of crystallization operations. The framework contains a tool for model identification connected with a generic crystallizer modelling tool-box, a tool...

  6. When Does an Argument Use a Generic Example?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David A.; Ely, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We offer criteria that an observer can use to determine whether an argument that uses an example to argue for a general claim appeals to that example generically. We review existing literature on generic example and note the strengths of each contribution, as well as inconsistencies among uses of the term. We offer several examples from the…

  7. 77 FR 60125 - Generic Drug Facilities, Sites and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...] Generic Drug Facilities, Sites and Organizations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice..., and certain sites and organizations identified in a generic drug submission, that they must provide... and Innovation Act (FDASIA). This notice is intended to help organizations ascertain if they need to...

  8. Generic ICT Skills Profiles: Future Skills for Tomorrow's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Co-operation Europe Ltd. (ICEL), Brussels, Belgium.

    This document describes generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs in information and communications technology (ICT). The profiles cover the main job areas for which the ICT industry is experiencing skills shortages. These types of information are provided for 18 generic job profiles: job description (vision, role, lifestyle); examples of job…

  9. Is bioavailability altered in generic versus brand anticonvulsants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Slobodan M; Ignjatovic Ristic, Dragana

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic window of anticonvulsants is not a wide one, with phenytoin being one extreme, which can be classified as a narrow therapeutic index drug, since its ratio between the least toxic and the least effective concentration is less than twofold. In order to obtain marketing authorization, a generic anticonvulsant should demonstrate relative bioequivalence with its brand-name counterpart. However, although bioequivalent, generic anticonvulsants still do not have the same bioavailability as brand-name drugs, which may lead to larger fluctuations of steady-state plasma concentrations, and sometimes to loss of seizure control if a patient is switched from brand-name to generic or from generic to generic anticonvulsant. Generic anticonvulsants are effective, safe and affordable drugs for treatment of epilepsy, and patients could be successfully treated with them from the very beginning. It is switching from brand-name to generic anticonvulsant or from one generic anticonvulsant to another that should be avoided in clinical practice, since subtle differences in bioavailability may disturb optimal degree of seizure control to which the patient was previously successfully titrated.

  10. Policies and perceptions on generic drugs: The case of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Sofia-Sotiria; Katsaliaki, Korina

    2018-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of generic drugs to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure is a challenge for many countries, especially during the economic crisis. The purpose of the present study is to review the Greek market of generic drugs and the decisions that shape it, to determine the factors that affect Greek patients' and doctors' attitudes about generic substitution and present a set of measures for all stakeholders based on the findings of the secondary and primary analysis. The study includes (a) an analysis of international and national reports and legislation on drugs policies and (b) a questionnaire survey of 242 hospital patients and 85 doctors regarding their perceptions on generics. A small increase in the volume of generics is recorded, yet not followed by sales value, over the recent years that the measures for promoting generics prescription took effect. Distrust from both patients and doctors was observed toward generics' effectiveness and toward the appropriateness of the regulatory authorities' quality controls. The study presents a structured set of viable measures, applicable to many countries, for promoting generic drug consumption that can lead to economic efficiency without degrading the health care quality.

  11. Generic medicines: solutions for a sustainable drug market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Godman, Brian; Simoens, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Generic medicines offer equally high-quality treatment as originator medicines do at much lower prices. As such, they represent a considerable opportunity for authorities to obtain substantial savings. At the moment, the pharmaceutical landscape is changing and many pharmaceutical companies have altered their development and commercial strategies, combining both originator and generic divisions. In spite of this, the generic medicines industry is currently facing a number of challenges: delayed market access; the limited price differential with originator medicines; the continuous downwards pressure on prices; and the negative perception regarding generic medicines held by some key stakeholder groups. This could jeopardize the long-term sustainability of the generic manufacturing industry. Therefore, governments must focus on demand-side policies, alongside policies to accelerate market access, as the generic medicines industry will only be able to deliver competitive and sustainable prices if they are ensured a high volume. In the future, the generic medicines industry will increasingly look to biosimilars and generic versions of orphan drugs to expand their business.

  12. Generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Christopher R; Trofe-Clark, Jennifer; Gabardi, Steven; McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Shullo, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Survival after solid organ transplantation has increased in the era of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. This increased survival could be due in part to the broad clinical use of these potent and specific agents for maintenance immunosuppression. These drugs have enhanced specificity and potency for T and B lymphocytes compared with their predecessors, cyclosporine and azathioprine. Between 2008 and 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved several generic formulations of both tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Deciding whether generic products can be safely substituted for the innovator product is a clinical dilemma similar to that which occurred when generic formulations of cyclosporine became available. We describe the concerns regarding generic immunosuppression use, summarize expert opinion and consensus statements in transplantation, analyze the potential impact of generic substitution, and provide estimates of populations affected based on generic drug market penetration. Formulary considerations such as cost, availability, and potential drug ordering and drug selection errors are described, and transplant coordinator and patient perspectives are reviewed. Finally, general recommendations about the use of generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients are provided. Although more research is needed to confirm clinical and therapeutic equivalence and pharmacoeconomic benefit, generic immunosuppressants can be safely substituted for innovator products as long as patients consistently receive the same product, patients and clinicians are aware of when substitutions occur, and enhanced therapeutic drug monitoring is provided during the transition.

  13. Potential cost savings from generic medicines – protecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the difference between brand and generic medicines listed for that algorithm, and also as the median of differences between generic medicines for the same condition. Results: Three of the algorithms .... Protecting the PMBs, as a key element of the new community-rated medical schemes environment, is therefore vital.

  14. 76 FR 79198 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0381] Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... meeting entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee.'' The document published with an inadvertent error in the Dates...

  15. Generic medicines: Perceptions of Physicians in Basrah, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adheed Khalid Sharrad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of cheaper generic medicines is a strategy promotedin many countries to reduce rising health care costs. The aimof this study was to explore factors affecting generic medicineprescribing by physicians in Basrah, Iraq.MethodologyA purposive sample of ten physicians practicing in Basrahwas interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide.ResultsAnalysis of the interviews identified seven major themes:medicine prescribing practice, knowledge of therapeuticequivalency of generic medicine, patients’ acceptance ofgeneric medicine, counterfeit medicine, drug informationsource and effect of drug advertising on medicines choice,brand substitution practice by community pharmacists, and,finally strategies to improve generic medicine usefulness.Participants identified helpful strategies to increase genericprescribing including; physician and patient education ongeneric medicine; persuading physicians about the safety andefficacy of generic medicines; and finally educating seniormedical students on generic prescribing.ConclusionThe data suggest that participants were enthusiasticabout prescribing generic medicines. However physiciansinsist that pharmacists should not be allowed tosubstitute generic drugs without prior approval ofdoctors.

  16. 17 CFR 230.135a - Generic advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic advertising. 230.135a Section 230.135a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.135a Generic advertising. (a) For the purposes only of...

  17. Development of a generic virus behavioural detector: a preview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Generic Virus Behavioral Detector (GVBD) is a system (program) that monitors various system activities; reading and writing block of disks and memory and the use of Interrupts. A technique for its realisation is presented. Key Words: Computer virus, interrupts, handlers, GVBD (Generic Virus Behavioral Detector).

  18. Evaluation of generic and branded herbicides : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As with other generic brand products in the marketplace, generic herbicides often have a lower initial product cost than : their brand-name counterparts. While the purchase price of herbicides is important to TxDOT, it is essential to look at : more ...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10151 - Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10151 Section 721.10151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10151 Modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified styrene, divinylbenzene polymer (PMN P-07-642) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10146 - Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10146 Section 721.10146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10146 Partially fluorinated condensation polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as partially fluorinated condensation polymer (PMN P-07-87) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. Developing competitive and sustainable Polish generic medicines market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-10-01

    To descriptively analyze the policy environment surrounding the Polish generic medicines retail market. The policy analysis was based on an international literature review. Also, a simulation exercise was carried out to compute potential savings from substituting generic for originator medicines in Poland using IMS Health pharmaceutical intelligence data. Poland has a mature, high-volume, low-value generic medicines market, primarily driven by the establishment of the reference price at the price of the cheapest medicine in combination with pricing regulation and the low level of medicine prices. The practice of discounting in the distribution chain implies that the National Health Fund and patients do not capture the potential savings from a generic medicines market where companies compete on price. This high-volume market has benefited in the past from the limited availability of originator medicines and a short data exclusivity period, even though there are no incentives for physicians to prescribe generic medicines and a financial disincentive for pharmacists to dispense generic medicines. Increased generic substitution would be expected to reduce public expenditure on originator medicines by 21%. To develop a competitive and sustainable market, Poland needs to consider moving away from competition by discount to competition by price. This could be achieved by replacing maximum distribution margins by fixed margins. Also, Poland may wish to raise reference prices as a temporary measure to boost market entry for medicine classes with few generic medicines.

  3. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  4. Fate of benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from Gymnodinium catenatum in shellfish and fish detected by pre-column oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Paulo

    2008-05-09

    Several cultured strains of Gymnodinium catenatum isolated worldwide have been shown to produce important proportions of the recently discovered benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins GC1 through GC3. These toxins pose a new challenge for the HPLC analysis of shellfish predating during blooms of this microalga because due to their hydrophobicity are retained along the C18 solid-phase extraction step employed to eliminate interferences. The production of GC toxins was confirmed in a clone of G.catenatum isolated from the Portuguese Northwest coast during the winter bloom of 2005, in addition to a clone from 1989 reported previously by other authors. The major peroxide oxidation products of GC1+2 and GC3 were, respectively, dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX. The search of benzoate analogues in bivalves contaminated during the winter 2005 bloom showed these analogues constituted a minor component of the N(1)-H containing toxins, as selectively detected by peroxide oxidation. While in G.catenatum GC1-3 were the major components after C1+2 and B1, in bivalves dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX were the major components after C1+2 and B1. Similar conclusions were later extended to more shellfish species naturally contaminated during the autumn bloom of 2007. In the gut content of sardines GC toxins were present, while in crabs predating upon shellfish, these were absent. A generalised conversion of GC toxins into decarbamoyl analogues was confirmed by in vitro incubations of bivalve's digestive glands with semi-purified GC toxins. This is the first report of widespread carbamoylase activity in shellfish, exclusively targeted at benzoate PSP analogues and that is heat-inactivated. Despite the high proportion of benzoate analogues produced by G.catenatum, analyses of bivalves contaminated with PSP toxins seem to be simplified due to the important conversion of benzoate into decarbamoyl analogues that occurs in bivalves. These last analogues are detected by common HPLC methods used for food

  5. The Impact of Information on Doctors’ Attitudes Toward Generic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeliki V. Tsaprantzi MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the impact of information on doctors’ attitudes and perceptions toward generics. A cross-sectional survey based on a specially designed 21-item questionnaire was conducted. The survey involved doctors of different specialties working in a public hospital in Greece. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics, reliability and validity tests, as well as structural equation modeling to evaluate the causal model. Statistical analysis was accomplished by using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. A total of 134 questionnaires out of 162 were received, providing a response rate of 82.71%. A number of significant associations were found between information and perceptions about generic medicines with demographic characteristics. It seems that the provision of quality information on generic drugs influences doctors’ attitudes and prescription practices toward generic drugs. This is not a static process but a rather dynamic issue involving information provision policies for strengthening the proper doctors’ attitudes toward generic drugs.

  6. Generic policy in Bulgaria: a policy of failure or success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assena Stoimenova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicines play a key role in managing the financial resources for pharmaceuticals in every country. This study analysed the generic policy legislative framework in Bulgaria with the aim to identify whether the policy implementation can be considered successful in the light of an international review of such policies introduced in other countries, or on the contrary, it has failed to deliver the main benefits. Legislative analysis, desktop study and macroeconomic overview of the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market were included. The study showed that only 3 out of 11 important policy elements are implemented in the country. Bulgaria has one of the highest shares of generics, an average of 81.39% (volume, for the studied period (2006–2014. However, further research is needed to evaluate the success of the existing generic policy in Bulgaria, as the market share of generic drugs is not the only measure of the policy efficiency.

  7. An audit of generic prescribing in a general surgical department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, M

    2013-01-17

    BACKGROUND: The Health Service Executive introduced a generic prescription policy to reduce costs. Despite this, generic prescription rates remain low. AIM: To audit in-patient prescription practice in a single surgical department and identify potential savings which could be realised by adherence to the generic prescribing policy. METHODS: Surgical in-patient charts were obtained at the point of discharge and their drug prescription information was recorded. RESULTS: 51 % of prescriptions involved a trade-name prescription where an appropriate generic equivalent existed. The cost implications for hospital and community patients were found to be greatly affected by substitution policies that exist at hospital pharmacy level. CONCLUSION: There is a need to promote greater adherence to generic prescribing amongst hospital doctors in line with international best practice. It can have a positive impact in terms of safe prescribing and can have cost implications at both hospital and community level.

  8. Generic substitution: micro evidence from register data in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Furu, Kari; Locatelli, Marilena; Strøm, Steinar

    2011-02-01

    The importance of prices, doctor and patient characteristics, and market institutions for the likelihood of choosing generic drugs instead of the more expensive original brand-name version are examined. Using an extensive dataset extracted from The Norwegian Prescription Database containing all prescriptions dispensed to individuals in February 2004 and 2006 on 23 different drugs (chemical substances) in Norway, we find strong evidence for the importance of both doctor and patient characteristics for the choice probabilities. The price difference between brand and generic versions and insurance coverage both affect generic substitution. Moreover, controlling for the retail chain affiliation of the dispensing pharmacy, we find that pharmacies play an important role in promoting generic substitution. In markets with more recent entry of generic drugs, brand-name loyalty proves to be much stronger, giving less explanatory power to our demand model.

  9. Generic switching of warfarin and risk of excessive anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Rathe, Jette; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Generic switching of warfarin was recently repealed in Denmark, as adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports suggested risk of excessive anticoagulation following switches from branded to generic warfarin. We investigated this putative association in a formalized pharmacoepidemiological analysis....... METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study based on Danish healthcare registries, including data from the introduction of generic warfarin until the repeal (January 2011-April 2015). We followed Danish warfarin users over time and compared the rate of incident hospitalizations due to excessive...... anticoagulation (i.e. increased INR or any bleeding requiring hospitalization) in periods following a recent switch to generic warfarin to the rate in periods without a recent switch. RESULTS: We included 105,751 warfarin users, filling a total of 1,539,640 prescriptions for warfarin (2.5% for generic warfarin...

  10. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors Jette Østergaard Rathe1, Pia V. Larsen1, Morten Andersen2, Janus L. Thomsen3, Maja S. Paulsen1, Jens Søndergaard1 1. Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark 2. Centre...... for Pharmacoepidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine Solna, Stockholm, Sweden 3. Danish Quality Unit of General Practice, Odense, Denmark Background Generic substitution means that chemically equivalent but less expensive drugs are dispensed in place of a brand name product. Although generic medicines...... by definition are bioequivalent to their brand name counterparts there are concerns about whether generic substitution is always accompanied by clinical equivalence in terms of effectiveness and that it may cause concerns and thereby causing some skepticism towards generic substitution. There is, however...

  11. Effect of temperature stress on protein methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, W.; Kracaw, K.

    1986-01-01

    Protein methyl esters have been implicated in a number of physiological processes. They have measured the effect of temperature stress on the levels of protein methyl esters in the mesophilic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum (PCPS) and the thermophilic fungus P. duponti (PD). PD and PCPS were incubated with [methyl- 3 H]methionine. The mycelia were collected by filtration, frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground to a fine powder. The nitrogen powder was extracted with either phosphate buffer or with SDS, glycerol, phosphate, 2-mercaptoethanol. Insoluble material was removed by centrifugation. The supernatants were assayed for protein methyl esters. The released [ 3 H]methanol was extracted into toluene:isoamyl alcohol (3:2) and quantitated by liquid scintillation. The production of volatile methanol was confirmed by use of Conway diffusion cells. Soluble proteins accounted for about one-fourth of the total protein methyl ester extracted by SDS. In PCPS, the SDS extracted proteins have about three times the level of esterification of the soluble proteins whereas in PD there is little difference between soluble and SDS extracted protein. The level of protein esterification in PD is about one-tenth that observed in PCPS. Temperature stress caused large changes in the level of protein esterification. The data suggest protein methyl esters may contribute to the adaptation to environmental stress

  12. Influence of ester-modified lipids on bilayer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Diana Y; Lim, Joseph B; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2013-11-19

    Lipid membranes function as barriers for cells to prevent unwanted chemicals from entering the cell and wanted chemicals from leaving. Because of their hydrophobic interior, membranes do not allow water to penetrate beyond the headgroup region. We performed molecular simulations to examine the effects of ester-modified lipids, which contain ester groups along their hydrocarbon chains, on bilayer structure. We chose two lipids from those presented in Menger et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 14034] with ester groups in (1) the upper half of the lipid chain (MEPC) and (2) the middle and end of the lipid chain (MGPC). MGPC (30%)/POPC bilayers formed stable water pores of diameter 5-7 Å, but MGPC (22%)/POPC and MEPC (30%)/POPC bilayers did not form these defects. These pores were similar to those formed during electroporation; i.e., the head groups lined the pore and allowed water and ions to transport across the bilayer. However, we found that lateral organization of the MGPC lipids into clusters, instead of an electric field or charge disparity as in electroporation, was essential for pore formation. On the basis of this, we propose an overall mechanism for pore formation. The similarities between the ester-modified lipids and byproducts of lipid peroxidation with multiple hydrophilic groups in the middle of the chain suggest that free radical reactions with unsaturated lipids and sterols result in fundamental changes that may be similar to what is seen in bilayers with ester-modified lipids.

  13. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-({beta}-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and {beta} = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores

  14. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Elaine Ann

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(β-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20.6645(5) A and β = 115.027 (10) deg at 123 K. The crystal structures of both TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate are stabilised by complex networks of intermolecular C--H...O contacts. Two model compounds were selected for dissolution studies: diltiazem hydrochloride, as a water- soluble organic salt, and ketoprofen as a poorly water-soluble organic compound. Dissolution of both compounds from amorphous TOAC and TR153 matrices was investigated. The release of both drugs was more rapid and complete from TOAC matrices than from TR153 matrices, with both matrices showing a tendency to crystallise (devitrify) during the course of the dissolution experiments. This tendency was greater for the TOAC matrix, which transformed to the extent of ca. 100% within 48 hours. The available evidence suggests that devitrification of the matrix in contact with water produces a polycrystalline, non-monolithic structure rich in microscopic cracks and pores which allows diffusion of

  15. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

  16. How Well Does BODIPY-Cholesteryl Ester Mimic Unlabeled Cholesteryl Esters in High Density Lipoprotein Particles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karilainen, Topi; Vuorela, Timo; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2015-01-01

    We compare the behavior of unlabeled and BODIPY-labeled cholesteryl ester (CE) in high density lipoprotein by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We find through replica exchange umbrella sampling and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations that BODIPY labeling has no significant effect...... on the partitioning of CE between HDL and the water phase. However, BODIPY-CE was observed to diffuse more slowly and locate itself closer to the HDL-water interface than CE due to the BODIPY probe that is constrained to the surface region, and because the CE body in BODIPY-CE prefers to align itself away from...... the HDL surface. The implications as to the suitability of BODIPY to explore lipoprotein properties are discussed....

  17. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethylamino]propyl 4-[(Alkoxycarbonylamino]benzoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tengler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty substituted 2-hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethylamino]propyl 4-[(alkoxycarbonylamino]benzoates were prepared and characterized. As similar compounds have been described as potential antimycobacterials, primary in vitro screening of the synthesized carbamates was also performed against two mycobacterial species. 2-Hydroxy-3-[2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride, 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(4-methoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride, and 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(2-methoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride showed higher activity against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. intracellulare than the standards ciprofloxacin, isoniazid, or pyrazinamide. Cytotoxicity assay of effective compounds was performed using the human monocytic leukaemia THP-1 cell line. Compounds with predicted amphiphilic properties were also tested for their effects on the rate of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. All butyl derivatives significantly stimulated the rate of PET, indicating that the compounds can induce conformational changes in thylakoid membranes resulting in an increase of their permeability and so causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from electron transport.

  18. Simplified RP-HPLC method for multi-residue analysis of abamectin, emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianchuan; Gong, Shu; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yinxing; Zhao, Li

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, reliable and sensitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection (RP-FLD-HPLC) was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of the abamectin (ABA), emamectin (EMA) benzoate and ivermectin (IVM) residues in rice. After extraction with acetonitrile/water (2 : 1) with sonication, the avermectin (AVMs) residues were directly derivatised by N-methylimidazole (N-NMIM) and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and then analysed on RP-FLD-HPLC. A good linear relationship (r(2 )> 0.99) was obtained for three AVMs ranging from 0.01 to 5 microg ml(-1), i.e. 0.01-5.0 microg g(-1) in rice matrix. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.001 and 0.002 microg g(-1) and between 0.004 and 0.006 microg g(-1), respectively. Recoveries were from 81.9% to 105.4% and precision less than 12.4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to routine analysis of the AVMs residues in rice.

  19. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-04-08

    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB.

  20. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-02-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance.

  1. Induction and transmission of tolerance to the synthetic pesticide emamectin benzoate in field and laboratory populations of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Baker, G; Powis, K J; Roush, R T; Schmidt, O

    2010-08-01

    Field surveys of pest insect pest populations in agroecosystems reveal low but significant levels of tolerance to synthetic and biological pesticides but fail to uncover resistance alleles in test crosses. To study the potential of inducible mechanisms to generate tolerance to synthetic pesticides, we performed baseline susceptibility studies in field and laboratory populations of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), to commercial formulations of emamectin benzoate. Pesticide exposure in the field caused elevated levels of tolerance, which decreased in field-collected populations after maintaining insects with pesticide-free diet in the laboratory. Because no significant resistance alleles were identified in back-crossed individuals, the observed increase in tolerance was probably not based on preexisting recessive resistance mechanisms in the population. Instead, the genetic analysis after five and 12 generations is compatible with a transient up-regulation of an immune and metabolic status in tolerant insects that can be transmitted to offspring by a maternal effect. Although the epigenetic effects contributed to incremental increases in tolerance in the first five generations, other resistance mechanisms that are transmitted genetically predominate after 12 generations of increased exposure to the pesticide.

  2. Detection on emamectin benzoate-induced apoptosis and DNA damage in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiwei; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chao; Zong, Mimi; Huang, Qingchun; Tao, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EMB), an important macrocyclic lactone insecticide that belongs to the avermectin family and possesses excellent potency in controlling pests, is non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic conducted in rats and mice, but EMB-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in arthropod insect have been seldom reported yet. In the present paper, we quantified the cytotoxicity of EMB through the detections on cell viability, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells in vitro. The results showed that EMB caused a concentration- and time-dependent reduction on the viability of Sf-9 cells, and the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were 3.34μM at 72h of exposure. The dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed that exposure to EMB induced a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase on cell apoptosis. The alkaline comet assay revealed that EMB induced significant increases on single-strand DNA breaks, and the percentage of γH2AX-positive cells represented a time- and concentration-dependent formation of DNA double-strand breaks in Sf-9 cells. Interestingly, the similar cytotoxic actions of EMB also went for the human cancerous HeLa cells as a control cell group. Data demonstrated the potential cytotoxic effect of EMB on Sf-9 cells that was significantly greater than the effect of hydrogen peroxide at the same concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  4. Emamectin benzoate (Affirm). a modern insecticide for the control of lepidoptera larvae on fruits, grapes and vegetables crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, R; Correia, R; Thomas, C; Decaudin, B; Cisneros, J; Lopez, A

    2010-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Affirm) is a novel insecticide with potent efficacy against many specie of lepidoptera which are damaging fruits and leaves of agricultural crops. The active ingredient belongs to the naturally derived chemical group of avermectine, causing paralysis of lepidoptera larvae due to the activation of chloride channel at nerves level. Affirm is acting mainly through ingestion, due to its mode of action and fast activity, it is effective at very low rates and on all instars stages. It has been developed for the use on pomefruits, stonefruits, grapes and a broda range of vegetables crops at a rate range of 1.5 to 3 g ai/100L. The product shows translaminar activity and rapid degradation on leaf surface; therefore the active ingredient breaks down in a very short time to sublethal doses for most beneficials organisms living on the vegetation. The short rentry time, generally 24 hours for beneficials and impollinators, makes Affirm compatible for IPM programme in orchards and greenhouses. Also the residue profile is very favourable, leading to a very low maximum residue level and short preharvest interval in all edible crops.

  5. Tolerance and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin for the treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R; Colvin, Michael E; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J; Kent, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish.

  6. Short-Term Effects of the Anti-sea Lice Therapeutant Emamectin Benzoate on Clam Worms (Nereis virens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBriarty, G J; Kidd, K A; Burridge, L E

    2018-05-01

    The polychaete Nereis virens occurs commonly in marine sediments, is widely distributed, and is a popular bait species, as well as a potential replacement for wild-caught fish in commercial fish feed preparations. It is being considered as a potential co-extractive species for culture in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture operations. However, it is not known whether pesticides or drugs used to treat sea lice on farmed salmon, such as emamectin benzoate (EB), would adversely affect cultured or wild worms, because these compounds may persist in the environment. To determine the potential effects of EB to N. virens, bioassays were performed wherein worms were exposed in sand for 30 days to a concentration of 400 µg/kg dw (nominal). While no treatment-related mortality occurred, significant decreases in worm mass and marked behavioral changes (lack of burrowing) were observed in EB-treated sand compared with controls. These lab-based observations suggest a potential hazard to worms at sites where EB treatments have occurred.

  7. Structural and vibrational spectroscopic studies on charge transfer and ionic hydrogen bonding interactions of melaminium benzoate dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Gunasekaran, S.; Rajakumar, P. R.; Anbalagan, G.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of melaminium benzoate dihydrate (MBDH) have been grown from aqueous solution by the slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Crystalline nature of the grown crystal has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction studies. The optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of MBDH were obtained by the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory using B3LYP/cam-B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with the experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral values. The obtained vibrational wavenumbers and optimized geometric parameters are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. UV-Visible spectrum was recorded in the region 200-400 nm and the electronic properties, HOMO-LUMO energies and other related electronic parameters are calculated. The isotropic chemical shifts computed by 1H and 13C NMR analysis also show good agreement with experimental observation. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis has been performed on MBDH compound to analyze the stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization. Molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEP) has also been performed by DFT/cam-B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Differential scanning calorimetric measurements performed on the powder sample indicate the phase transition point approximately at 368 and 358 K for heating and cooling, respectively.

  8. Purification and crystallization of a putative transcriptional regulator of the benzoate oxidation pathway in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Adrienne M.; Bains, Jasleen; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction and preliminary phasing of the putative transcriptional regulator Bxe-C0898 from B. xenovorans LB400 are reported. Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 harbours two paralogous copies of the recently discovered benzoate oxidation (box) pathway. While both copies are functional, the paralogues are differentially regulated and flanked by putative transcriptional regulators from distinct families. The putative LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) adjacent to the megaplasmid-encoded box enzymes, Bxe-C0898, has been produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Gel-filtration studies show that Bxe-C0898 is a tetramer in solution, consistent with previously characterized LTTRs. Bxe-C0898 crystallized with four molecules in the asymmetric unit of the P4 3 2 1 2/P4 1 2 1 2 unit cell with a solvent content of 61.19%, as indicated by processing of the X-ray diffraction data. DNA-protection assays are currently under way in order to identify potential operator regions for this LTTR and to define its role in regulation of the box pathway

  9. Preparation and characterization of aliphatic diphenyl esters intended as precursors for polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, S.; Andruzzi, F.; Cerrai, P.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive number of aliphatic diphenyl esters, C6H5OOC(CH2)nCOOC6H5 (n = O,...,8,10,11,12,14), have been prepared in pure form. The crystalline melting points these esters exhibit an odd-even temperature behaviour, with the higher-melting even series (n even) displaying a minimum for n = 8 while...... based on similar data from phenyl esters, interpreted as the results of an apparent macrocyclic conformation of the larger diphenyl esters. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (s.e.c.) of diphenyl esters, phenyl esters, aromatic and linear hydrocarbons in tetrahydrofuran, toluene...

  10. Boric Ester-Type Molten Salt via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyoshi Matsumi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel boric ester-type molten salt was prepared using 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a key starting material. After an ion exchange reaction of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with lithium (bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide (LiNTf2, the resulting 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium NTf2 was reacted with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN to give the desired boric ester-type molten salt in a moderate yield. The structure of the boric ester-type molten salt was supported by 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR spectra. In the presence of two different kinds of lithium salts, the matrices showed an ionic conductivity in the range of 1.1 × 10−4–1.6 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 51 °C. This was higher than other organoboron molten salts ever reported.

  11. Ester oxidation on an aluminum surface using chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Meador, Michael A.; Morales, Wilfredo

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of a pure ester (trimethyolpropane triheptanoate) were studied by using a chemiluminescence technique. Tests were run in a thin film microoxidation apparatus with an aluminum alloy catalyst. Conditions included a pure oxygen atmosphere and a temperature range of 176 to 206 C. Results indicated that oxidation of the ester (containing .001 M diphenylanthracene as an intensifier) was accompanied by emission of light. The maximum intensity of light emission was a function of the amount of ester, the concentration of intensifier, and the test temperature. The induction period, or the time to reach one-half of maximum intensity was inversely proportional to test temperature. Decreases in light emission at the later stages of a test were caused by depletion of the intensifier.

  12. Three new fatty acid esters from the mushroom Boletus pseudocalopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2012-06-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of a MeOH extract of the Korean wild mushroom Boletus pseudocalopus resulted in the identification of three new fatty acid esters, named calopusins A-C (1-3), along with two known fatty acid methyl esters (4-5). These new compounds are structurally unique fatty acid esters with a 2,3-butanediol moiety. Their structures were elucidated through 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data and GC-MS analysis as well as a modified Mosher's method. The new compounds 1-3 showed significant inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the tested cancer cell lines with IC(50) values in the range 2.77-12.51 μM.

  13. Long-Acting Diclofenac Ester Prodrugs for Joint Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Nina; Larsen, Susan Weng; Kristensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A prodrug approach for local and sustained diclofenac action after injection into joints based on ester prodrugs having a pH-dependent solubility is presented. Inherent ester prodrug properties influencing the duration of action include their pH-dependent solubility and charge state, as well...... as susceptibility to undergo esterase facilitated hydrolysis. In this study, physicochemical properties and pH rate profiles of 3 diclofenac ester prodrugs differing with respect to the spacer carbon chain length between the drug and the imidazole-based promoiety were determined and a rate equation for prodrug...... degradation in aqueous solution in the pH range 1-10 was derived. In the pH range 6-10, the prodrugs were subject to parallel degradation to yield diclofenac and an indolinone derivative. The prodrug degradation was found to be about 6-fold faster in 80% (vol/vol) human plasma as compared to 80% (vol...

  14. Maximization of fructose esters synthesis by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair Sampaio; Peres, António M; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of fructose fatty acid ester was performed in organic solvent media, using a purified lipase from Candida antartica B immobilized in acrylic resin. Response surface methodology with a central composite rotatable design based on five levels was implemented to optimize three experimental operating conditions (temperature, agitation and reaction time). A statistical significant cubic model was established. Temperature and reaction time were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum operational conditions for maximizing the synthesis of fructose esters were 57.1°C, 100 rpm and 37.8 h. The model was validated in the identified optimal conditions to check its adequacy and accuracy, and an experimental esterification percentage of 88.4% (±0.3%) was obtained. These results showed that an improvement of the enzymatic synthesis of fructose esters was obtained under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Saliva-catalyzed hydrolysis of a ketobemidone ester prodrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    Saliva enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of ester prodrugs or drugs containing sensitive ester groups may be a limiting factor for the buccal absorption of such compounds. Using the isopropyl carbonate ester of ketobemidone as a model substance of a hydrolysis-sensitive prodrug the esterase activity...... of human saliva has been characterized as a function of various factors. The esterase activity was found to decrease rapidly upon storage of the saliva at 37°C. The activity increased with increasing pH in the range 4.5-7.4 and with increasing salivation flow rate up to a rate of 0.9 ml min. Under resting...... conditions, the flow rate was about 0.2 ml min which implied a greatly decreased esterase activity. The activity was highest after fasting and decreased after intake of a meal. The intraindividual variation in the saliva esterase activity was small whereas a larger interindividual variation was found....

  16. Differential Partitioning of Triterpenes and Triterpene Esters in Apple Peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Brenton C; Buchanan, David A; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P

    2018-02-28

    Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study, we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the dewaxed peel epidermis.

  17. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  18. Developing a generic environmental safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been charged with implementing the United Kingdom government's policy for the long-term management of higher activity radioactive waste by planning, building and operating a geological disposal facility (GDF). Within the NDA, we - the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) - are tasked with the development of a GDF. The UK government has also decided that a process of voluntarism and partnership will be followed to identify a suitable site for the GDF. To date there is no volunteer community and the site selection process to find a volunteer host community is under review. RWMD has an ongoing role to provide advice to UK radioactive waste producers on the conditioning and packaging of wastes and to undertake disposability assessments of waste packaging proposals to determine their suitability for eventual disposal in a GDF. We also need to demonstrate our confidence that a GDF would be safe. Therefore RWMD has published a generic Environmental Safety Case (ESC) (NDA, 2010) to demonstrate that we are confident that a GDF could be developed to meet the guidelines set down by the environmental regulators (EA/NIEA, 2009) in a range of geological settings. The ESC includes reference case calculations that are used as a benchmark for disposability assessments. (author)

  19. Modeling generic aspects of ideal fibril formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, D., E-mail: denis.michel@live.fr [Universite de Rennes1-IRSET, Campus de Beaulieu Bat. 13, 35042 Rennes (France)

    2016-01-21

    Many different proteins self-aggregate into insoluble fibrils growing apically by reversible addition of elementary building blocks. But beyond this common principle, the modalities of fibril formation are very disparate, with various intermediate forms which can be reshuffled by minor modifications of physico-chemical conditions or amino-acid sequences. To bypass this complexity, the multifaceted phenomenon of fibril formation is reduced here to its most elementary principles defined for a linear prototype of fibril. Selected generic features, including nucleation, elongation, and conformational recruitment, are modeled using minimalist hypotheses and tools, by separating equilibrium from kinetic aspects and in vitro from in vivo conditions. These reductionist approaches allow to bring out known and new rudiments, including the kinetic and equilibrium effects of nucleation, the dual influence of elongation on nucleation, the kinetic limitations on nucleation and fibril numbers, and the accumulation of complexes in vivo by rescue from degradation. Overlooked aspects of these processes are also pointed: the exponential distribution of fibril lengths can be recovered using various models because it is attributable to randomness only. It is also suggested that the same term “critical concentration” is used for different things, involved in either nucleation or elongation.

  20. Generic implications of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sege, G.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's assessment of the generic implications of the Chernobyl accident led to the conclusion that no immediate changes in the NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors are needed. However, further consideration of certain issues was recommended. This paper discusses those issues and the studies being addressed to them. Although 24 tasks relating to light water reactor issues are identified in the Chernobyl follow-up research program, only four are new initiatives originating from Chernobyl implications. The remainder are limited modifications of ongoing programs designed to ensure that those programs duly reflect any lessons that may be drawn from the Chernobyl experience. The four new study tasks discussed include a study of reactivity transients, to reconfirm or bring into question the adequacy of potential reactivity accident sequences hitherto selected as a basis for design approvals; analysis of risk at low power and shutdown; a study of procedure violations; and a review of current NRC testing requirements for balance of benefits and risks. Also discussed, briefly, are adjustments to ongoing studies in the areas of operational controls, design, containment, emergency planning, and severe accident phenomena