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Sample records for benthic worm neanthes

  1. Effect of low 60Co dose rates on sister chromatid exchange incidence in the benthic worm. Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as a measure of low-level radiation effect was examined in a benthic marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Larvae were exposed to 60 Co radiation for 12 to 24 h at total doses ranging from 0.5 to 309 R and at dose rates from 0.04 to 13 R/h. Animals exposed at intermediate dose rates (0.5, 0.6, 1.25, 2.0, and 2.5 R/h) had SCE frequencies per chromosome about twice that of those receiving no radiation (controls), whereas those exposed at the higher dose rates (7.0 and 13 R/h) had SCE frequencies lower than the controls. Animals exposed at the lower dose rates (0.04 and 0.1 R/h) had lower SCE frequencies than those exposed at intermediate dose rates (and higher SCE frequencies than controls). The length of chromosome pair number one differed among metaphase spreads and was used as an index of chromosome condensation in a given metaphase. Because there is a possibility that chromosome morphology may affect the ability to resolve SCEs, morphology will be monitored in future studies. A preliminary experiment was performed to assess the effects of 2.2 and 11.5 R/h for 24 h on growth and development. Larvae observed at 6 and 17 d after irradiation did not have significantly different numbers of abnormal larvae or survival rates

  2. Effects of radiation on frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in the benthic worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.; Moore, D.H.; Varela, M.

    1983-04-01

    Traditional bioassays are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects of low levels of radioactivity because mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated. We compared the usefulness of chromosomal aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as measures of low-level radiation effects in a sediment-dwelling marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to two radiation exposure regimes. Groups of 100 larvae were exposed to either x rays delivered at high dose rates (0.7 Gy min -1 ) or to 60 Co gamma rays delivered at low dose rates (4.8 X 10 -5 to 1.2 X 10 -1 Gy h -1 ). After irradiation, the larvae were exposed to 3 X 10 -5 M bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for 28 h (x-ray-irradiated larvae) or for 54 h ( 60 Co-irradiated larvae). Slides of larval cells were prepared for observation of CAs and SCEs. Frequencies of CAs were determined in first division cells; frequencies of SCEs were determined in second division cells. Results from x-ray irradiation indicated that dose-related increases occur in chromosome and chromatid deletions, but an x-ray dose greater than or equal to 2 Gy was required to observe a significant increase. Worm larvae receiving 60 Co irradiation showed elevated SCE frequencies; a significant increase in SCE frequency was observed at 0.6 Gy. 49 references, 2 figures

  3. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the benthic worm Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.; Moore, D.H.

    1984-07-01

    Traditional bioassays are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects from ocean disposal of low-level radioactive waste because mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated. We compared the usefulness of chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as measures of low-level radiation effects in a sediment-dwelling marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. The SCEs, in contrast to chromosomal aberrations, do not alter the overall chromosome morphology and in mammalian cells appear to be a more sensitive indicator of DNA alterations caused by environmental mutagens. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to two radiation-exposure regimes of either x rays at a high dose rate of 0.7 Gy (70 rad)/min for as long as 5.5 min or to 60 Co gamma rays at a low dose rate of from 4.8 x 10 -5 to 1.2 x 10 -1 Gy (0.0048 to 12 rad)/h for 24 h. After irradiation, the larvae were exposed to 3 x 10 -5 M bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for 28 h (x-ray-irradiated larvae) or for 54 h ( 60 Co-irradiated larvae). Larval cells were examined for the proportion of cells in first, second, and third or greater division. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs were determined in first and second division cells, respectively. Results from x-ray irradiation indicated that dose-related increases occur in chromosome and chromatid deletions, but a dose of equal or greater 2 Gy (equal to or greater than 200 rad) was required to observe a significant increase. Worm larvae receiving 60 Co irradiation showed elevated SCE frequencies with a significant increase of 0.6 Gy (60 rad). We suggest that both SCEs and chromosomal aberrations may be useful for measuring effects on genetic material induced by radiation. 56 references, 7 figures, 9 tables

  4. Representative benthic bioindicator organisms for use in radiation effects research: Culture of Neanthes arenaceodentata (Polychaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Knezovich, J.P.; Martinelli, R.E.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a comprehensive synthesis of information pertaining to the selection and maintenance of bioindicator organisms for use in radiation-effects research. The focus of this report is on the benthic polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata, a species that has been used successfully at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and other institutions to define the impacts of radiation and chemical toxicants on aquatic organisms. In this document, the authors provide a rationale for the selection of this organism, a description of its reproductive biology, and a description of the conditions that are required for the maintenance and rearing of the organism for use in toxicological research

  5. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P 1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F 1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F 1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F 1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F 1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F 1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  6. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Effects of acute irradiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of acute irradiation on the reproductive success of a relatively low-fecundity species were investigated by exposing pairs of female and male polychaete worms (Neanthes arenaceodentata) to either no radiation (controls) or 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10 or 50 Gy of acute irradiation (5 Gy min -1 ) at the time when oocytes were visible in the female. The broods from the pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on the number in the brood, the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and the number of embryos that were living, dying and dead. Developing gametes of N. arenaceodentata appeared to be sensitive to acute irradiation. There was a significant reduction in the percentage of live embryos in the broods from pairs receiving doses as low as 0.5 Gy, which is lower than the lowest dose at which effects in invertebrates have been reported previously. This was most likely due to the induction of lethal mutations in the developing gametes, which affected the survival of embryos in early stages of life. Except for those pairs receiving 10 or 50 Gy, there was no evidence of decreased fertility or fecundity or of reduced fertilization success; the number of embryos in the broods from only these irradiated groups was significantly different from the controls. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Proteomic Changes between Male and Female Worms of the Polychaetous Annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata before and after Spawning

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2013-08-30

    The Neanthes acuminata species complex (Polychaeta) are cosmopolitan in distribution. Neanthes arenaceodentata, complex, has been widely used as toxicological test animal in the marine environment. Method of reproduction is unique in this polychaete complex. Same sexes fight and opposite sexes lie side by side until egg laying. Females lose about 75% of their weight and die after laying eggs. The male, capable of reproducing up to nine times, fertilizes the eggs and incubates the embryos for 3-4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any set of proteins that influences this unique pattern of reproduction. Gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and gel-free quantitative proteomics methods were used to identify differential protein expression patterns before and after spawning in both male and female N. arenaceodentata. Males showed a higher degree of similarity in protein expression patterns but females showed large changes in phosphoproteme before and after spawning. There was a decrease (about 70%) in the number of detected phosphoproteins in spent females. The proteins involved in muscular development, cell signaling, structure and integrity, and translation were differentially expressed. This study provides proteomic insights of the male and female worms that may serve as a foundation for better understanding of unusual reproductive patterns in polychaete worms. © 2013 Chandramouli et al.

  9. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program. Development of a Chronic Sublethal Bioassay for Evaluating Contaminated Sediment with the Marine Polychaete Worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    are typically exposed to a continu- First-generation bioassays in aquatic toxicology ous (i.e., chronic) but low level of contamination. measured...arenaceodentata. In W.E. Storrs, CT. Bishop, R.D. Cardwell and B.B. Heidolph, eds., 38. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1985. Am- Aquatic Toxicology and...sulfide poisoning of respiration of the W.H. van der Schalie, eds., Aquatic Toxicology and hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftiapachyptila. Sci- Hazard

  10. Influence of stability and fragmentation of a worm-reef on benthic macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Jaffré, Mikaël; Desroy, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    In coastal areas, reef-builder worms often are bio-engineers by structuring their physical and biological environment. Many studies showed that this engineering role is determined by the densities of the engineer species itself, the highest densities approximately corresponding to the most stable areas from a sedimentological point of view, and hosting the richest and the most diverse benthic fauna. Here, we tested the potential influence of the spatio-temporal dynamics and the spatial fragmentation of one of the largest European intertidal reefs generated by the marine worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the associated benthic macrofauna. We demonstrated that the worm densities do have a significant positive role on the abundance, biomass, species richness and species diversity of the benthic macrofauna and that the reef stability also significantly influences the biomass and species diversity. Moreover, the reef fragmentation has significant negative effects on the abundance, biomass and species richness. In addition to L. conchilega densities, the stability and the spatial fragmentation of the reef also significantly structure the associated benthic assemblages. This study demonstrates the interest of "benthoscape ecology" in understanding the role played by marine engineer species from a spatial point of view.

  11. The WORM site: worm.csirc.net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Write One, Run Many (WORM) site (worm.csirc.net) is the on-line home of the WORM language and is hosted by the Criticality Safety Information Resource Center (CSIRC) (www.csirc.net). The purpose of this web site is to create an on-line community for WORM users to gather, share, and archive WORM-related information. WORM is an embedded, functional, programming language designed to facilitate the creation of input decks for computer codes that take standard ASCII text files as input. A functional programming language is one that emphasizes the evaluation of expressions, rather than execution of commands. The simplest and perhaps most common example of a functional language is a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The spreadsheet user specifies expressions to be evaluated, while the spreadsheet itself determines the commands to execute, as well as the order of execution/evaluation. WORM functions in a similar fashion and, as a result, is very simple to use and easy to learn. WORM improves the efficiency of today's criticality safety analyst by allowing: (1) input decks for parameter studies to be created quickly and easily; (2) calculations and variables to be embedded into any input deck, thus allowing for meaningful parameter specifications; (3) problems to be specified using any combination of units; and (4) complex mathematically defined models to be created. WORM is completely written in Perl. Running on all variants of UNIX, Windows, MS-DOS, MacOS, and many other operating systems, Perl is one of the most portable programming languages available. As such, WORM works on practically any computer platform

  12. The Father Christmas worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.; Sisson, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Given here is an overview analysis of the Father Christmas Worm, a computer worm that was released onto the DECnet Internet three days before Christmas 1988. The purpose behind the worm was to send an electronic mail message to all users on the computer system running the worm. The message was a Christmas greeting and was signed 'Father Christmas'. From the investigation, it was determined that the worm was released from a computer (node number 20597::) at a university in Switzerland. The worm was designed to travel quickly. Estimates are that it was copied to over 6,000 computer nodes. However, it was believed to have executed on only a fraction of those computers. Within ten minutes after it was released, the worm was detected at the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN), NASA's largest space and Earth science network. Once the source program was captured, a procedural cure, using the existing functionality of the computer operating systems, was quickly devised and distributed. A combination of existing computer security measures, the quick and accurate procedures devised to stop copies of the worm from executing, and the network itself, were used to rapidly provide the cure. These were the main reasons why the worm executed on such a small percentage of nodes. This overview of the analysis of the events concerning the worm is based on an investigation made by the SPAN Security Team and provides some insight into future security measures that will be taken to handle computer worms and viruses that may hit similar networks.

  13. Benthic foraminifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.

    sensitive to the changes in ambient environment. The response of benthic foraminifera to the changes in the ambient environment is incorporated in their tests, which have high preservation potential. Therefore, the characteristics of the benthic...

  14. Proteomic Changes Associated with Successive Reproductive Periods in Male Polychaetous Neanthes arenaceodentata

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2015-09-04

    The polychaetous annelid Neanthes acuminata complex has a widespread distribution, with the California population referred to as N. arenaceodentata. The reproductive pattern in this complex is unique, in that the female reproduces once and then dies, whereas the male can reproduce up to nine times. The male incubates the embryos until the larvae leave the male’s tube 21–28 days later and commences feeding. Reproductive success and protein expression patterns were measured over the nine reproductive periods. The percent success of the male in producing juveniles increased during the first three reproductive periods and then decreased, but the number of juveniles produced was similar through all nine periods. iTRAQ based quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the dynamics of protein expression patterns. The expression patterns of several proteins were found to be altered. The abundant expression of muscular and contractile proteins may have affected body weight and reproductive success. Sperm have never been observed; fertilization occurs within the parent’s tube. Proteins associated with sperm maturation and fertilization were identified, including ATPase, clathrin, peroxiredoxins and enolase, which may provide clues to the molecular mechanisms enabling males to reproduce multiple times.

  15. Benthic macrofauna community composition, abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The communities of the shallow, intermediate and deep environments were composed mainly of molluscs, worms and insects. Gastropods (52.68%) and bivalves (40.18%) constituted the major part of the benthic community. Bellamya unicolor, Melanoides tuberculata and Coelatura spp. were the most abundant molluscs.

  16. WormBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WormBase is an international consortium of biologists and computer scientists dedicated to providing the research community with accurate, current, accessible...

  17. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    Morphologically characterized by the presence of a dorsal covering of paired segmental scales (=elytra), scale worms are well represented throughout the scientific literature, and are a result of one of the most successful radiations of annelids. However, the phylogenetic relationships of elytrig......Morphologically characterized by the presence of a dorsal covering of paired segmental scales (=elytra), scale worms are well represented throughout the scientific literature, and are a result of one of the most successful radiations of annelids. However, the phylogenetic relationships...... to improve the overall resolution of the phylogenetic relationships within Aphroditiformia. To date, this is the largest and most diverse phylogenetic sampling of scale worms, being the first to include anchialine as well as several previously neglected interstitial representatives. Using combined and total...... evidence approaches, our phylogenetic analyses integrated morphological and molecular datasets, with subsequent sensitivity analyses to identify those groups with unstable positioning. Our inclusion of species from extreme environments showed several independent radiations among the deep sea, (anchialine...

  18. On the supposed identity of Nereis (Neanthes) cuccinea Leuck. and N. Perrieri St. Jos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1908-01-01

    Examining a collection of Annelida from the Zuiderzee I met with several individuals of a think can only be Nereis-species, that I N. succinea Leuck. Yet this worm is a somewhat mysterious species, first described by Leuckart in his „Verzeichniss der zur Fauna Helgoland’s gehörenden wirbellosen

  19. Making Worms Glow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While much progress has been made in creatingsuch nano-architectures, the use of these structureswithin organisms had never been attempted. Our work is focusedon using a simple DNA-based pH sensor in worms toyield information about organelle activity in cells. The firstof its kind, this work set up a system to use DNA ...

  20. Weird and wonderful worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the WaterLab, biotechnologist Steef de Valk is carrying out experiments with tubifex worms. These threadlike creatures are capable of reducing by half the quantity of sewage sludge from water treatment. No-one really understands how this works.

  1. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  2. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  3. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  4. Measurement and modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation from sediment for the marine polychaete neanthes arenaceodentata and response to sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, E.M.-L.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were characterized, including PCB uptake rates from water and sediment, and the effect of sorbent amendment to the sediment on PCB bioavailability, organism growth, and lipid content. Physiological parameters were incorporated into a biodynamic model to predict contaminant uptake. The results indicate rapid PCB uptake from contaminated sediment and significant organism growth dilution during time-series exposure studies. PCB uptake from the aqueous phase accounted for less than 3% of the total uptake for this deposit-feeder. Proportional increase of gut residence time and assimilation efficiency as a consequence of the organism's growth was assessed by PCB uptake and a reactor theory model of gut architecture. Pulse-chase feeding and multilabeled stable isotope tracing techniques proved high sediment ingestion rates (i.e., 6?10 times of dry body weight per day) indicating that such deposit-feeders are promising biological indicators for sediment risk assessment. Activated carbon amendment reduced PCB uptake by 95% in laboratory experiments with no observed adverse growth effects on the marine polychaete. Biodynamic modeling explained the observed PCB body burdens for N. arenaceodentata, with and without sorbent amendment. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Changes of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries Under Polluted Conditions with Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollution on the Thi Vai River has been spreading out rapidly over the two lasted decades caused by the wastewater from the industrial parks in the left bank of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The evaluation of the benthic macroinvertebrate changes was very necessary to identify the consequences of the industrial wastewater on water quality and aquatic ecosystem of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. In this study, the variables of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality were investigated in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries, Southern Vietnam. The monitoring data of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters covered the period from 1989 to 2015 at 6 sampling sites in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The basic water quality parameters were also tested including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The biodiversity indices of benthic macroinvertebrates were applied for water quality assessment. The results showed that pH ranged from 6.4 – 7.6 during the monitoring. The DO concentrations were in between 0.20 - 6.70 mg/L. The concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorous ranged from 0.03 - 5.70 mg/L 0.024 - 1.380 mg/L respectively. Macroinvertebrate community in the study area consisted of 36 species of polychaeta, gastropoda, bivalvia, and crustacea, of which, species of polychaeta were dominant in species number. The benthic macroinvertebartes density ranged from 0 - 2.746 individuals/m−1 with the main dominant species of Neanthes caudata, Prionospio malmgreni, Paraprionospio pinnata, Trichochaeta carica, Maldane sarsi, Capitella capitata, Terebellides stroemi, Euditylia polymorpha, Grandidierella lignorum, Apseudes vietnamensis. The biodiversity index values during the monitoring characterized for aquatic environmental conditions of mesotrophic to polytrophic. Besides, species richness positively correlated with DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The results

  6. Indicators: Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic (meaning “bottom-dwelling”) macroinvertebrates are small aquatic animals and the aquatic larval stages of insects. Benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used as indicators of the biological condition of waterbodies.

  7. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  8. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Defense and detection strategies against Internet worms

    CERN Document Server

    Nazario, José

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book focused exclusively on Internet worms, offering you solid worm detection and mitigation strategies for your work in the field. This ground-breaking volume enables you to put rising worm trends into perspective with practical information in detection and defense techniques utilizing data from live networks, real IP addresses, and commercial tools. The book helps you understand the classifications and groupings of worms, and offers a deeper understanding of how they threaten network and system security.

  10. De-worming alone versus de-worming plus iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De-worming alone versus de-worming plus iron supplementation: Effect on haemoglobin of primary school children in Aboh-Mbaise. ... Aim: To compare the effect of de-worming alone and de-worming plus iron supplementation on the haemoglobin (Hb) of primary school children. ... Journal of College of Medicine Vol.

  11. Low dimensional worm-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzija, Nikola

    1995-01-01

    A simple three dimensional physical model is proposed to qualitatively address a particular type of dynamics evolving on toroidal structures. In the phase space this dynamics creates appearance of a worm-hole through which a chaotic, quasiperiodic and periodic behaviors are formed. An intriguing topological property of such a system is that it possesses no steady state solutions. As such, it opens some interesting questions in the bifurcation theory. The model also offers a novel qualitative tool for explaining some recently reported experimental and simulation results observed in physics, chemistry and biology.

  12. NEDAC: A worm countermeasure mechanism | Ahmad | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an Internet worm countermeasure mechanism that uses DNS activities as a behavioural technique to detect worm propagation. The mechanism also uses a data-link containment solution to block traffic from an infected host. The concept has been demonstrated using a developed prototype and tested in ...

  13. Reduction of faecal worm egg count, worm numbers and worm fecundity in sheep selected for worm resistance following artificial infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, K E; Palmer, D G; Liu, S M; Greeff, J C; Bishop, S C; Karlsson, L J E

    2010-08-04

    We examined the changes to populations of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teledorsagia circumcincta in mature sheep selected for reduced faecal worm egg count (WEC). Worm resistant (n=19) and control (n=10) genotype sheep were penned and dosed with a total of 10,000 T. colubriformis and 10,000 T. circumcincta per week for 18-weeks. Sheep genotypes were from lines previously bred over 15 years for either low WEC (resistant) or non-selected (control). Weekly WEC and the proportion of larvae from each species in faecal culture were measured during weeks 3-17. Egg hatchability was assessed on a pooled faecal sample from worm resistant or control genotype sheep at weeks 7, 9, 10, 13, 14 and 17. At week 18 the number of adult and immature worms (early and late 4th, and 5th stage), and indicators of worm fecundity (female worm length and number of eggs in utero) were assessed at necropsy. Results show that resistant sheep had reduced mean WEC to only 18% of the control (PWEC and different prediction equations for WEC from necropsy traits for the two sheep genotypes (PWEC. We conclude that lower WEC is achieved through reduced number of adult worms for both species and reduced fecundity for T. circumcincta. These results support the hypotheses that worm resistant sheep with a strong immune function can regulate T. colubriformis by rejecting adult worms but that T. circumcincta is regulated through a combination of suppressed development and reduced female fecundity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parasitic worms and inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Parasitic worms have evolved strategies to manipulate the host immune system, some of which may lead to a reduction in inflammation. Characterisation of the ways in which these organisms mediate an anti-inflammatory response and identification of parasite-derived molecules involved in immune modulation paves the way to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of inflammatory disease. This review highlights recent findings in this field of research in the context of a broader overview. Some parasites and parasite derived products inhibit inflammatory responses through effects on both the innate and adaptive immune response. Considerable progress has been made in identifying parasite derived molecules, the ways in which they interact with the immune system and how they mediate immunomodulation. There is great interest in the potential usefulness of parasite-mediated immunomodulation for the treatment and prevention of a range of inflammatory disorders. Much remains to be resolved regarding characterisation of potential helminth-derived biomodulators, timing and dose of exposure to the agents as well as characterisation of the modes of action so that synthetic analogues that mimic the effects can be generated.

  15. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  16. Detecting Internet Worms Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Siddiqui

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet worms pose a serious threat to computer security. Traditional approaches using signatures to detect worms pose little danger to the zero day attacks. The focus of malware research is shifting from using signature patterns to identifying the malicious behavior displayed by the malwares. This paper presents a novel idea of extracting variable length instruction sequences that can identify worms from clean programs using data mining techniques. The analysis is facilitated by the program control flow information contained in the instruction sequences. Based upon general statistics gathered from these instruction sequences we formulated the problem as a binary classification problem and built tree based classifiers including decision tree, bagging and random forest. Our approach showed 95.6% detection rate on novel worms whose data was not used in the model building process.

  17. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness.Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections.These results could have an

  18. Community assembly of the worm gut microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    It has become increasingly clear that human health is strongly influenced by the bacteria that live within the gut, known collectively as the gut microbiome. This complex community varies tremendously between individuals, but understanding the sources that lead to this heterogeneity is challenging. To address this challenge, we are using a bottom-up approach to develop a predictive understanding of how the microbiome assembles and functions within a simple and experimentally tractable gut, the gut of the worm C. elegans. We have found that stochastic community assembly in the C. elegansintestine is sufficient to produce strong inter-worm heterogeneity in community composition. When worms are fed with two neutrally-competing fluorescently labeled bacterial strains, we observe stochastically-driven bimodality in community composition, where approximately half of the worms are dominated by each bacterial strain. A simple model incorporating stochastic colonization suggests that heterogeneity between worms is driven by the low rate at which bacteria successfully establish new intestinal colonies. We can increase this rate experimentally by feeding worms at high bacterial density; in these conditions the bimodality disappears. We have also characterized all pairwise interspecies competitions among a set of eleven bacterial species, illuminating the rules governing interspecies community assembly. These results demonstrate the potential importance of stochastic processes in bacterial community formation and suggest a role for C. elegans as a model system for ecology of host-associated communities.

  19. Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be

  20. Aquatic worms eat sludge: mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also

  1. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...

  2. Polyamide worm gear: manufacturing and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luís Gasparin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to establish a characterisation method for seven polyamide (PA grades to determine the major material to manufacture an automotive worm gear. The composite properties were measured according to the worm gear loadings: tensile strength, Young's modulus, abrasion and impact resistance. They were also correlated to the PA moisture absorption and its glass fibre (GF reinforcement. The data from mechanical tests were applied in the finite element analysis (FEA using the von Mises stress criterion. Before the rig tests of the PA worm gears, the injection process was evaluated, through the capillary rheometry. A higher difficulty to process PA 6/6 30% GF was found, due to its lower apparent viscosity. In the end, the influence of moisture absorption was as decisive to the gear's material selection as the GF to the pinion. Thus, the PAs with the best performance were: PA 6 with 30% GF (gear and with PA 60% GF (pinion.

  3. Worm Disease Profile of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati; Destriani; Victoria, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    The result of an elementary study of relations between disease symptoms and signs with the wormy occurrence child at Elementary School in Ilir Barat II Subdistrict of Palembang in concerned in this research amount to 200 people from the population of 4200 people of a child in elementary school. The result indicates that the child roommates infested worm marked with a few symptoms like passion eat to Decrease the puking pain in the home of stomach after eating, diarrhea, defecate with the mucus and bleed the purities at the anus before controlled from some worm type of there no difference having a meaning between child roommates worm infested with the child roommates do not infest worm (P > 0.05). Symptom vomit got more amount by having a meaning a child by infested is Trichuris (RO > 2.669, P < 0/005). The result of infested Tricuris generate the more amount of symptoms lust to eat to Decrease by having a meaning of Compared to the which do not infest Trichuris (RO = 3.772; CI 95% = 1.214 to 11.726; P = 0.016) symptoms lust to eat to Decrease and more amount diarrhea got at Infest oxyuris with the special sign of purities at nighttime anus (RO = 0.557; 85% CI = 0.166 to 2.168). The risk of the happening of unfavorable nutrition According to BB / U and Also TB / U growing niche to more amount (having a meaning) at child roommates worm infested by a child Compared to the which do not infest worm.

  4. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  5. END THE OF HORROR WORM: Dracunculus medinensis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dracunculus medinensis is a nematode that causes dracunculiasis. It is also known as the guinea worm disease and is caused by the large female nematode which is the longest nematode infecting humans. The adult female is longer than the male and can grow up to about 1m in length inside the body of the human host.

  6. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A.; Magnussen, P.; Bloch, P.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 µg/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent...... guinea-worms. There was no significant differencein the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded...

  7. Cyanobacteria-derived nitrogen uptake by benthic invertebrates in Lake Taihu: a mesocosm study using 15N labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication of lakes can lead to dominance by cyanobacteria, which are hardly used by zooplankton due to their low nutrition value. However, sedimented cyanobacterial detritus may be a useful source for benthic invertebrates. We studied the Microcystis-derived nitrogen incorporation in benthic invertebrates in Lake Taihu using stable isotopic nitrogen (15N as a tracer. The δ15N of all organisms increased significantly with time after addition of the labeled Microcystis detritus. δ15N values of POM and periphyton peaked earlier than for benthic invertebrates, and the maximum levels were also higher than bivalves, snails and worms (Limnodrilus spp.. Among benthic invertebrates, Radix swinhoei peaked later than other invertebrates, but the maximum level and the excess 15N of the last sampling day were higher. At the end of the experiment, approximately 70% of the added 15N was retained in the benthic food web, while only a small fraction (less than 1% of the added detritus 15N occurred in the pelagic food web. Our results suggest that nitrogen from cyanobacteria can be incorporated more in benthic than pelagic food webs and cyanobacterial blooms may contribute to the development of benthic animals.

  8. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emillienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Didier Owono2, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Assumpta Lucienne Bella21Gynaeco Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.Keywords: Loa loa, red eye, Cameroon

  9. WormBase: Annotating many nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin; Davis, Paul; Paulini, Michael; Tuli, Mary Ann; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) has been serving the scientific community for over 11 years as the central repository for genomic and genetic information for the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The resource has evolved from its beginnings as a database housing the genomic sequence and genetic and physical maps of a single species, and now represents the breadth and diversity of nematode research, currently serving genome sequence and annotation for around 20 nematodes. In this article, we focus on WormBase's role of genome sequence annotation, describing how we annotate and integrate data from a growing collection of nematode species and strains. We also review our approaches to sequence curation, and discuss the impact on annotation quality of large functional genomics projects such as modENCODE.

  10. Distributed Software-Attestation Defense against Sensor Worm Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to sensor worm attacks in which the attacker compromises a few nodes and makes these compromised nodes initiate worm spread over the network, targeting the worm infection of the whole nodes in the network. Several defense mechanisms have been proposed to prevent worm propagation in wireless sensor networks. Although these proposed schemes use software diversity technique for worm propagation prevention under the belief that different software versions do not have common vulnerability, they have fundamental drawback in which it is difficult to realize the aforementioned belief in sensor motes. To resolve this problem, we propose on-demand software-attestation based scheme to defend against worm propagation in sensor network. The main idea of our proposed scheme is to perform software attestations against sensor nodes in on-demand manner and detect the infected nodes by worm, resulting in worm propagation block in the network. Through analysis, we show that our proposed scheme defends against worm propagation in efficient and robust manner. Through simulation, we demonstrate that our proposed scheme stops worm propagation at the reasonable overhead while preventing a majority of sensor nodes from being infected by worm.

  11. Worm algorithm for the CPN−1 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Rindlisbacher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The CPN−1 model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CPN−1 on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CPN−1 model for N>2 has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CPN−1 model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CPN−1 lattice actions and exhibit marked differences in their approach to the continuum limit.

  12. Pin Worm Survey on Infant School Children in Gunma Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 久美子; 阿部, 美幸; 伊藤, 恵美; 金田, 聡子; 関口, 直美; 深町, 容子; 松渕, ユカ子; 柳, 博美; 鈴木, 守

    1991-01-01

    Pin worms (Enterobius vermicularis) are the commonest intestinal parasite in Japan. Examination of this worm infection is usually made by microscopic observation on the swab taken on a scothch tape. We conducted a survey of pin worm infection among infant school children of 4-6 years old. Suitable days for swab examination were studied by comparing the detection rate according to the consecutive days tested. Results were summarized as follows: 1. Three hundred sixteen children (172 boys and 1...

  13. Life cycle of the oriental compost worm Perionyx excavatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-03-21

    Mar 21, 1989 ... Cocoons were produced at a mean rate of 1,1 cocoons per worm per day. The mean incubation period of cocoons produced by batches of worms was 18,7 days with a mean hatching success of 63,4%. The mean incubation period of cocoons produced by single worms was 20,4 days with a mean hatching ...

  14. Worm-it: converting organic wastes into sustainable fish feed by using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Laarhoven, B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Due to overfishing and the use of one-third of wild fish catches for feeding farmed fish and livestock, there is a strong need for alternative sources of suitable proteins and lipids in fish feeds. Small freshwater worms of the species Lumbriculus variegatus can be such a source based on their high

  15. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  16. National Benthic Infaunal Database (NBID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NBID is a quantitative database on abundances of individual benthic species by sample and study region, along with other synoptically measured environmental...

  17. Benthic fauna of mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    distribution of benthic communities in mangrove environment is governEd. by tidal amplitude, light penetration, nature of substratum and distance from the sea. The littoral zone, neritic zone, Barnacle-oyster zone, Uca zone, Polychaeta zone have been delineated...

  18. Viability of microcomputed tomography to study tropical marine worm galleries in humid muddy sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennafirme, Simone F.; Machado, Alessandra S.; Lima, Inaya; Suzuki, Katia N.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2013-01-01

    Bioturbation is an ecological process driven by organisms, which transports nutrients and gases from air/water to sediment through their galleries, by the time they feed, burrow and/or construct galleries. This exchange is vital to the maintenance of micro and macrobenthic organisms, mainly in muddy flat environments. Species with distinct galleries could create levels of bioturbation, affecting the benthic interactions. In this sense, it is fundamental developing a non-destructive method that permits identifying/quantifying the properties of these galleries. The recent advances in micro-computed tomography are allowing the high resolution 3D images generation. However, once muddy sediments are rich in organic matter and interstitial water, these would lead to motion artifacts which could, in turn, decrease the accuracy of galleries identification/quantification. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol which combines laboratory experiments and microtomography analysis in order to generate accurate 3D images of the small marine worm's galleries within humid muddy sediments. The sediment was collected at both muddy flats of Surui's and Itaipu lagoon's mangroves (RJ-Brazil), sieved (0.5mm mesh) and introduced with one individual of the marine worm Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae, Polychaeta) in each acrylic corer holders (4.4cm of internal diameter). High energy microtomography scanner was used to obtain 3D images and the setup calibration was 130 kV and 61 mA. Each acquisition image time was among 4h and 6h. Several procedures of drying remained water inside the cores were performed aiming obtaining images without movement artifacts due to circulating water, and this issue was one of the main studied parameter. In order to investigate possible chemical effects, 2ml of formalin (35%) with menthol were added to the surface of the cores. The results show that although the drying time was appropriated, the chemicals created bubbles within the

  19. Viability of microcomputed tomography to study tropical marine worm galleries in humid muddy sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennafirme, Simone F., E-mail: sipennafirme@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Marinha; Machado, Alessandra S.; Lima, Inaya; Suzuki, Katia N.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: machado@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: norisuzuki6@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Bioturbation is an ecological process driven by organisms, which transports nutrients and gases from air/water to sediment through their galleries, by the time they feed, burrow and/or construct galleries. This exchange is vital to the maintenance of micro and macrobenthic organisms, mainly in muddy flat environments. Species with distinct galleries could create levels of bioturbation, affecting the benthic interactions. In this sense, it is fundamental developing a non-destructive method that permits identifying/quantifying the properties of these galleries. The recent advances in micro-computed tomography are allowing the high resolution 3D images generation. However, once muddy sediments are rich in organic matter and interstitial water, these would lead to motion artifacts which could, in turn, decrease the accuracy of galleries identification/quantification. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol which combines laboratory experiments and microtomography analysis in order to generate accurate 3D images of the small marine worm's galleries within humid muddy sediments. The sediment was collected at both muddy flats of Surui's and Itaipu lagoon's mangroves (RJ-Brazil), sieved (0.5mm mesh) and introduced with one individual of the marine worm Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae, Polychaeta) in each acrylic corer holders (4.4cm of internal diameter). High energy microtomography scanner was used to obtain 3D images and the setup calibration was 130 kV and 61 mA. Each acquisition image time was among 4h and 6h. Several procedures of drying remained water inside the cores were performed aiming obtaining images without movement artifacts due to circulating water, and this issue was one of the main studied parameter. In order to investigate possible chemical effects, 2ml of formalin (35%) with menthol were added to the surface of the cores. The results show that although the drying time was appropriated, the chemicals created bubbles

  20. PCB-induced changes of a benthic community and expected ecosystem recovery following in situ sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Elisabeth M.-L.; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The benthic community was analyzed to evaluate pollution-induced changes for the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site at Hunters Point (HP) relative to 30 reference sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. An analysis based on functional traits of feeding, reproduction, and position in the sediment shows that HP is depauperate in deposit feeders, subsurface carnivores, and species with no protective barrier. Sediment chemistry analysis shows that PCBs are the major risk drivers at HP (1,570 ppb) and that the reference sites contain very low levels of PCB contamination (9 ppb). Different feeding traits support the existence of direct pathways of exposure, which can be mechanistically linked to PCB bioaccumulation by biodynamic modeling. The model shows that the deposit feeder Neanthes arenaceodentata accumulates approximately 20 times more PCBs in its lipids than the facultative deposit feeder Macoma balthica and up to 130 times more than the filter feeder Mytilus edulis. The comparison of different exposure scenarios suggests that PCB tissue concentrations at HP are two orders of magnitude higher than at the reference sites. At full scale, in situ sorbent amendment with activated carbon may reduce PCB bioaccumulation at HP by up to 85 to 90% under favorable field and treatment conditions. The modeling framework further demonstrates that such expected remedial success corresponds to exposure conditions suggested as the cleanup goal for HP. However, concentrations remain slightly higher than at the reference sites. The present study demonstrates how the remedial success of a sorbent amendment, which lowers the PCB availability, can be compared to reference conditions and traditional cleanup goals, which are commonly based on bulk sediment concentrations.

  1. Tapping Indigenous Knowledge to Time Strategic De-worming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic de-worming is a cost-effective management intervention to which farm animals are subjected at specific times in the year to prevent pasture contamination, reduce infestation rates and eliminate the negative effects of parasitosis to maximize production and economic gain. No studies, on which strategic de-worming ...

  2. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  3. Local structure of numerically generated worm hole spacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siino, M.

    The author investigates the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, he interprets the evolution of the worm hole structure.

  4. Ole Worm-Liv og videnskabTidstavle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One......hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One...

  5. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L.G.; Elissen, Hellen; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30 °C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm

  6. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of total, single and multiple intestinal worm infections among the primary school children in Nairobi City. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to determine the status of intestinal worm infections whose subjects were drawn from ...

  7. An Analysis Of Guinea Worm Infection On Yam Productivity In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea worm infection has been reported to be one of the external diseconomies factors that limit agricultural productivity of the rural farm households. The study examined the determinants of farmers' vulnerability to guineaworm infection and the effect of guinea worm infection on yam yield in the study area. A stratified ...

  8. The isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from dominant benthic macroinvertebrates endemic to Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina; Timofeyev, Maxim; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2016-03-01

    The high demand for new antibacterials fosters the isolation of new biologically active compounds producing actinobacteria. Here, we report the isolation and initial characterization of cultured actinobacteria from dominant benthic organisms' communities of Lake Baikal. Twenty-five distinct strains were obtained from 5 species of Baikal endemic macroinvertebrates of amphipods, freshwater sponges, turbellaria worms, and insects (caddisfly larvae). The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based phylogenic analysis of obtained strains showed their affiliation to Streptomyces, Nocardia, Pseudonocardia, Micromonospora, Aeromicrobium, and Agromyces genera, revealing the diversity of actinobacteria associated with the benthic organisms of Lake Baikal. The biological activity assays showed that 24 out of 25 strains are producing compounds active against at least one of the test cultures used, including Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Complete dereplication of secondary metabolite profiles of two isolated strains led to identification of only few known compounds, while the majority of detected metabolites are not listed in existing antibiotic databases.

  9. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I

    2004-08-22

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  10. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of benthic communities and physical habitat in the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Killen, William D; Anderson, Ronald D

    2006-04-01

    The primary goal of this study was to characterize physical habitat and benthic communities (macroinvertebrates) in the Stanislaus, Tuolumne and Merced Rivers in California's San Joaquin Valley in 2003. These rivers have been listed as impaired water bodies (303 (d) list) by the State of California due to the presence of organophosphate (OP) insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon, Group A pesticides (i.e., organochlorine pesticides), mercury, or unknown toxicity. Based on 10 instream and riparian physical habitat metrics, total physical habitat scores in the Stanislaus River ranged from 124 to 188 (maximum possible total score is 200). The highest total habitat score was reported at the upstream site. Tuolumne River physical habitat scores ranged from 86 to 167. Various Tuolumne River physical habitat metrics, including total habitat score, increased from downstream to upstream in this river. Merced River physical habitat scores ranged from 121 to 170 with a significant increase in various physical habitat metrics, including total habitat score, reported from downstream to upstream. Channel flow (an instream metric) and bank stability (a riparian metric) were the most important physical habitat metrics influencing the various benthic metrics for all three rivers. Abundance measures of benthic macroinvertebrates (5,100 to 5,400 individuals) were similar among the three rivers in the San Joaquin watershed. Benthic communities in all three rivers were generally dominated by: (1) Baetidae species (mayflies) which are a component of EPT taxa generally considered sensitive to environmental degradation; (2) Chironomidae (midges) which can be either tolerant or sensitive to environmental stressors depending on the species; (3) Ephemerellidae (mayflies) which are considered sensitive to pollution stress; and (4) Naididae (aquatic worms) which are generally considered tolerant to environmental stressors. The presence of 117 taxa in the Stanislaus River, 114 taxa in the

  12. A calibration mechanism based on worm drive for space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yaqin; Li, Chuang; Xia, Siyu; Zhong, Peifeng; Lei, Wang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a new type of calibration mechanism based on worm drive is presented for a space telescope. This calibration mechanism based on worm drive has the advantages of compact size and self-lock. The mechanism mainly consists of thirty-six LEDs as the light source for flat calibration, a diffuse plate, a step motor, a worm gear reducer and a potentiometer. As the main part of the diffuse plate, a PTFE tablet is mounted in an aluminum alloy frame. The frame is fixed on the shaft of the worm gear, which is driven by the step motor through the worm. The shaft of the potentiometer is connected to that of the worm gear to measure the rotation angle of the diffuse plate through a flexible coupler. Firstly, the calibration mechanism is designed, which includes the LEDs assembly design, the worm gear reducer design and the diffuse plate assembly design. The counterweight blocks and two end stops are also designed for the diffuse plate assembly. Then a modal analysis with finite element method for the diffuse plate assembly is completed.

  13. De-worming school children and hygiene intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, T V

    2003-06-01

    Helminths or worm infestations refer to worms that live as parasites in the human body and are a fundamental cause of disease associated with health and nutrition problems beyond gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Globally, over 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms, of which 1.47 billion are with roundworm, 1.3 billion people with hookworm and 1.05 billion with whipworm. School children aged 5 - 15 years suffer the highest infection rate and worm burden that attributes to poor sanitation and hygiene. About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide, a large proportion of whom are found in the East Asia region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). These parasites consume nutrients from children they infect, thus retarding their physical development. They destroy tissues and organs, cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, ulcers and other health problems. All of these consequences of infection can slow cognitive development and thus impair learning. De-worming school children by anthelmintic drug treatment is a curative approach for expelling the heavy worm load. However, drug therapy alone is only a short-term measure of reducing worm infection and re-infection is frequent. Control measures through improved sanitation, hygiene and de-worming are needed to prevent infection and re-infection. UNICEF has supported many governments in this (and other) regions to assist in the provision of water supply and sanitary facilities and intensive hygiene education in many schools through the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) programme. The UNICEF supported school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) programme, and other programmes, could effectively enhance behaviour change in children to break the routes of worm transmission and other waterborne diseases.

  14. Fossilization of an ancient (devonian) soft-bodied worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, B

    1967-03-10

    A shell-boring polychaete worm was found replaced by the min eral limonite-goethite; this fossil is probably a limonite-goethite pseudo morph after pyrite, suggesting that the soft-bodied worm was originally re placed by pyrite. External structures such as a prostomium, anterior tentacle like palps, peristomial cirri, parapodia, setae bundles of the parapodia, and dorsal cirri of the parapodia are pre served. This worm resembles living members of the family Spionidae in form and habit. This discovery extends the known range of this family (Cre taceous?, Miocene to Recent) back about 365 million years to the Devo nian period.

  15. The theory and practice of worm gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Dudás, Ilés

    2005-01-01

    Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive other gears. Worm gears, enable two non-touching shafts in a machine to mesh (join) together. This publication, unique in that it combines both theoretical and practical design aspects, including the latest results of research and development, provides detailed treatment of the theory and production of worm drives, as well as the overarching subject of production geometry of helicoidal surfaces.Included are mathematical models for a number of practical applications; a description of dressing equipment r

  16. The offshore benthic fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  17. Is Host-Based Anomaly Detection + Temporal Correlation = Worm Causality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekar, Vyas; Xie, Yinglian; Reiter, Michael K; Zhang, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Epidemic-spreading attacks (e.g., worm and botnet propagation) have a natural notion of attack causality - a single network flow causes a victim host to get infected and subsequently spread the attack...

  18. Mathematical model for spreading dynamics of social network worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Yan-Heng; Han, Jia-Wei; Liu, Xue-Jie; Li, Bin; Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for social network worm spreading is presented from the viewpoint of social engineering. This model consists of two submodels. Firstly, a human behavior model based on game theory is suggested for modeling and predicting the expected behaviors of a network user encountering malicious messages. The game situation models the actions of a user under the condition that the system may be infected at the time of opening a malicious message. Secondly, a social network accessing model is proposed to characterize the dynamics of network users, by which the number of online susceptible users can be determined at each time step. Several simulation experiments are carried out on artificial social networks. The results show that (1) the proposed mathematical model can well describe the spreading dynamics of social network worms; (2) weighted network topology greatly affects the spread of worms; (3) worms spread even faster on hybrid social networks

  19. Basic definitions for discrete modeling of computer worms epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guevara López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The information technologies have evolved in such a way that communication between computers or hosts has become common, so much that the worldwide organization (governments and corporations depends on it; what could happen if these computers stop working for a long time is catastrophic. Unfortunately, networks are attacked by malware such as viruses and worms that could collapse the system. This has served as motivation for the formal study of computer worms and epidemics to develop strategies for prevention and protection; this is why in this paper, before analyzing epidemiological models, a set of formal definitions based on set theory and functions is proposed for describing 21 concepts used in the study of worms. These definitions provide a basis for future qualitative research on the behavior of computer worms, and quantitative for the study of their epidemiological models.

  20. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  1. Studies on the Intestinal Worm (Helminthiasis) infestation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the Intestinal Worm (Helminthiasis) infestation in a Central Nigerian Rural Community. JC Anosike, VO Zaccheaus, CM Adeiyongo, OC Abanobi, EO Dada, EE Oku, IR Keke, JC Uwaezuoke, OU Amajuoyi, CE Obiukwu, DC Nsowu, FI Ogbusu ...

  2. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  3. Improved Gear Shapes for Face Worm Gear Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Shapes different from the traditional ones have been proposed for face worm gears and for conical and cylindrical worms that mesh with them. The proposed shapes are based on the concept of generating a face worm gear surface by use of a tilted head cutter instead of by the traditional use of a hob. (As used here, head cutter is also meant to signify, alternatively, a head grinding tool.) The gear-surface-generation equipment would be similar to that used for generation of spiral bevel and hypoid gears. In comparison with the corresponding traditional hob, a tilted head cutter according to the proposal would be larger, could be fabricated with greater precision, and would enable the generation of gear surfaces with greater precision and greater productivity. A face worm gear would be generated (see figure) by use of a tilted head cutter, the blades or grinding surfaces of which would have straight-line profiles. The tilt of the head cutter would prevent interference with teeth adjacent to the groove being cut or ground. A worm to mesh with the face worm gear would be generated by use of a tilted head cutter mounted on the cradle of a generating machine. The blades or grinding surfaces of the head cutter would have a parabolic profile and would deviate from the straight-line profiles of the head cutter for the face worm gear. The shortest distance between the worm and the cradle would follow a parabolic function during the cycle of meshing in the generating process to provide a parabolic function of transmission errors to the gear drive. The small mismatch between the profiles of the face-worm-gear and worm head cutters would make it possible to localize the bearing contact in the worm gear drive. The parabolic function of transmission errors could absorb discontinuous linear functions of transmission errors caused by errors of alignment; this could afford a significant benefit, in that such errors are main sources of noise and vibration in gear drives. The main

  4. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Development of a WormCAD using Parametric Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Oluwole Agboola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gears as power transmission devices are capable of changing the speed, torque, and direction of a power source and are considered to be one of the most important devices used in many types of machinery owing to their durability and higher power transmission efficiency. Worm gears as a type of gear are widely used for transmitting power at high velocity ratios between non-intersecting shafts. Worm gears are very useful in machine design but its design requires a lot of design assumptions and calculations. To achieve a rapid design devoid of errors, there is need to have a customized computer program capable of designing worm gears using standardized design equations; and that is what WormCAD stands for. The software was designed using JavaScript programming language and the Node.js platform. The WormCAD was tested to be accurate, faster and convenient hence it will be a viable software to be used by worm gear designers.

  6. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  7. Mathematical description of tooth flank surface of globoidal worm gear with straight axial tooth profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połowniak, Piotr; Sobolak, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    In this article, a mathematical description of tooth flank surface of the globoidal worm and worm wheel generated by the hourglass worm hob with straight tooth axial profile is presented. The kinematic system of globoidal worm gear is shown. The equation of globoid helix and tooth axial profile of worm is derived to determine worm tooth surface. Based on the equation of meshing the contact lines are obtained. The mathematical description of globoidal worm wheel tooth flank is performed on the basis of contact lines and generating the tooth side by the extreme cutting edge of worm hob. The presented mathematical model of tooth flank of TA worm and worm wheel can be used e.g. to analyse the contact pattern of the gear.

  8. Refleksion - Worms kabinet og renæssancen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Udstilling om Ole Worms liv og videnskab. Ole Worm var læge og videnskabsmand i renæssancen. Ud over at være medicinsk professor ved Københavns Universitet interesserede han sig indgående for Danmarks fortidsminder og runeskrift. Ole Worm skabte sit eget museum, det såkaldte  Museum Wormianum, som...... alt indhold. Ikke med originale genstande, men med dyr, sten, metal og artefakter, der kom så tæt på det originale som muligt.  Denne installation samt portrætgalleriet af Ole Worms forfædre og efterkommere udgør udstillingens hovedelementer. Dertil kommer eksempler på de naturobjekter, der indgik i hans...... medicinske behandlinger og et udvalg af Ole Worms originale videnskabelige publikationer. Til udstillingen er opbygget et moderne "skab dit eget museum" til brug for de besøgendes egne medbragte genstande, som de opfordres til at forsøge at systematisere og udstille efter behag....

  9. The impact of various distance between axes of worm gear on torque value. Worm gear test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.

    2017-08-01

    Transferring both rotational and translational movements in systems used in the automotive industry is a very important and complex issue. In addition, the situation becomes much more difficult and complicated when the design of the transition system requires a high precision of operation as well as a well definite and long operating life. Such requirements are imposed on all components of today’s motor vehicles. However, particular attention is paid to the elements that directly or indirectly affect the safety of persons traveling in the vehicle. Such components are undoubtedly components included as parts of the steering system of the vehicle. Power steering systems have been present in motor vehicles for more than a century. They go through continuous metamorphosis and they are getting better and better. Current power steering systems are based on an electric motor and some kind of transmission. Depending on the position of the drive relative to the steering column, different configurations of the transmission are used. This article will cover issues related to tests of power steering gearing using a worm drive. The worm drive is a very specific example of a propulsion system that uses twisted axles. Normally, in this type of transition you can find two gear units with the axis mounted with a 90° angle between. The components of the worm drive are a worm and a worm gear, also called a worm wheel. In terms of the geometrical form, the worm resembles a helical spur gear. The shape of the worm is similar to the shape of a screw with a trapezoidal thread. A correct matching of these two components ensures proper operation of the entire transmission. Incorrect positioning of the components in relation to each other can significantly reduce the lifetime of the drive unit, and also lead to abnormal work, eg by raising the noise level. This article describes a test method of finding the appropriate distance between the axles of both worm drive units by testing the

  10. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  11. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  12. Pathway of oxfendazole from the host into the worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina V.A.; Williams, Andrew R.; Denwood, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    , by simultaneously measuring drug concentrations within the worms and the caecal mucosa, caecal tissue, caecal content and plasma of pigs over time after a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg oxfendazole. Additionally, for comparison to the in vivo study, drug uptake and metabolism of oxfendazole by T. suis was examined...... OFZ concentrations in caecal tissue/mucosa and T. suis, suggesting that oxfendazole reaches T. suis after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and enters the worms by the blood-enterocyte pathway. The fenbendazole sulfone level in T. suis was highly affected by the concentrations in plasma...

  13. Structure and flexibility of worm-like micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering experiments have been performed on worm-like micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated iso-octane. The structure and flexibility of the aggregates have been investigated as a function of solution...... composition. The data analysis comprises an application from results of conformation space renormalization group theory and a non-linear least-squares fitting procedure based upon a recently developed numerical expression for the scattering function of a worm-like chain with excluded volume effects....

  14. Chosen aspects of modeling globoid worm in CATIA system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr POŁOWNIAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methods of modelling the globoid worm with rectilinear profile using CATIA system. The methods of modelling of globoid surface, among others throw extending a profile accross the screw lines of globoid (Sweep, by making the surface as multi section (Multi Section Surface are specified. Some steps by modelling the globoid surface are automated by writing macros in the CATIA system. The accuracy of the models of globoid worms obtained by different methods is presented. The capabilities of the CATIA system by modelling are presented.

  15. Mechanisms of temporary adhesion in benthic animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.; Winter, J.C.F.; Dankelman, J.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive systems are ubiquitous in benthic animals and play a key role in diverse functions such as locomotion, food capture, mating, burrow building, and defence. For benthic animals that release adhesives, surface and material properties and external morphology have received little attention

  16. Assessing anthropogenic impacts using benthic macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to establish relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate and common stressor types (siltation, agriculture and paper mill waste) in central highlands of Ethiopia. For analysis environmental variables and benthic invertebrate taxa were collected from four streams from November, 2011 to June, ...

  17. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open intertidal areas on the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania. ... it is recommended that conservation efforts along the Tanzanian coast should focus here. Keywords: benthic macrofauna, community structure, littoral zone, Tanganyika, Western Indian Ocean ...

  18. [Comparison of fecal examinations and worm collection results in an investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Jun; Li, Hua-Zhong; Chen, Ying-Dan; Hong, Xian-Lin; Hu, Sheng-Zhu; Lan, Wei-Min; Chen, Yi-Yang

    2012-10-01

    To explore the relationship between fecal examinations and worm collection results in a community investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 1 019 residents in Zhangxi Village, Nanchang County, Jiangxi Province were investigated with the Kato-Katz technique and worm collection after deworming. Among 1 019 residents investigated, the actual prevalence of A. lumbricoides was 30.23%, and the egg and worm positive rates were 20.41% and 23.75%, respectively. The average burden was 2.64 worms per person, and the heavier worm burden accounted for less proportion. The heavier the worm burden, the higher the probability to got egg in the feces. If one person had 7 worms or more, the probability to got eggs in his feces was 100%. Among people of false negative fecal examination, 61.00% of them were infected with male worms only, whereas 7.00% were infected with immature female worms with or without male worms, and 32.00% were infected with mature female worms with or without male worms. Totally 32.47% of infected people were missed by fecal examination, including 22.08% without egg excreted, and 10.39% missed because of the method itself. The egg positive rate is obviously lower than the actual infection rate, and the egg detection rate is correlated with the worm burden.

  19. Age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in human populations, as indicated by schistosome circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polman Katja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our group determined the relationship between serum CAA levels and fecal egg counts in two foci with very intense Schistosoma mansoni transmission: Maniema (Zaire, an area endemic for S. mansoni since several decades, and Ndombo (Senegal, where transmission has only been established since a few years. The objective was to study and compare age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in these two different endemic settings. Here, we will summarize the most important findings and conclusions of this study.

  20. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... This report was cited in Southern Sudan Integrated Disease. Surveillance and Response Assessment Report, 2007. A paper on the current situation, which takes into account the recommendations listed here, is being prepared by Samuel Makoy. background. Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) is ...

  1. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trichiura infections. Conclusion: Prevalence of total, single and multiple infections showed a downward trend when compared to the previous studies with Ascaris lumbricoides persisting with the highest prevalence. Keywords: Intestinal worms, infections, school children, Nairobi City East African Journal of Public Health Vol.

  2. Ascaris Lumbricoides (Round Worm) in the Upper Airway of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serious airway obstruction occurs when the adult worm obstructs the bronchi or the vocal cords with attending sequaele. We hereby present a case of a 67 year old man with cerebrovascular accident (stroke) admitted and mechanically ventilated in the Intensive Care Unit. However, four days later, a 15cm long adult ascaris ...

  3. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.

    2012-12-01

    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  4. Effects on Packed Cell Volume and Parasitic Worm Load from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their packed cell volumes were estimated with centrifuge hematocrit and stool examined for parasitic worms with saline wet prep microscopy. A dose of Albendazole was administered to the study group. The data presented in Microsoft Excel spread sheet, were then analysed using SPSS version 17, T-test and Chi Square ...

  5. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) is an ancient parasitic disease and is set to be the next disease eradicated from the world and the first to be overcome without a vaccine or treatment. South Sudan and Ghana account for more than 95% of global dracunculiasis. Methods and Materials: We used the ...

  6. Guinea worm disease and its persistence in some rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in six villages of Ogun State, Nigeria, from January to December 2004 to identify the reasons for the persistence of guinea worm disease in spite of eradication measures. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered to 250 head of households in the endemic villages to assess their ...

  7. Irradiation to control the screw-worm fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.

    1988-01-01

    The screw-worm fly, widespread in tropical areas, could pose a threat to Australia's livestock industry. The CSIRO is testing methods for its eradication which involve a radiation dose of 4 kilorads (0.04 kilogray) to render both male and female files permanently sterile

  8. Nutritive potential and utilization of super worm (Zophobas morio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... (Fadiyimu et al., 2003) and grasshopper meal (Ojewola et al., 2005) have been used to replace FM. These studies indicate a reduction in feed cost and increased profit- ability, without compromising performance. Due to the known as best protein animal feeding stuff, super worm. (Zophobas morio) meal is ...

  9. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena

    & iTunes app stores for smartphones. The Vicious Worm provides information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans and its impact on people’s livelihood. Possible control and intervention strategies are provided using different ways of communication according to the audience...

  10. Allozyme variation in two populations of the Mopane worm, Imbrasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study were to determine whether the limited flight ability of moths has an effect on gene flow between two geographically distant I. belina populations, whether there are gene expression differences between moths, worms and pupae and whether staggered generations have different genotypic expressions.

  11. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs of internal parasite control and treatment are potentially very high in grazing sheep. Faecal worm egg count (FEC) has been suggested as a suitable criterion for selection for resistance to nematode infestation in livestock. Genetic parameter estimates for FEC and its relationship with wool traits were assessed in ...

  12. Guinea worm eradication program in Borno state: The need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to update the status of Guinea worm and Eradication Program in Borno State and to demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting appropriate intervention strategies. The assessment of the prevalence of Dracunculus medinensis was carried out by active case search. Three hundred and ten ...

  13. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the

  14. Genetic variation in the Critically Endangered velvet worm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study the genetic variation of the Critically Endangered velvet worm species Opisthopatus roseus is examined. This species is endemic to the Ngele mistbelt forest in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In recent years the forest has been severely impacted by anthropogenic activities such as logging of ...

  15. Prevalence And Disabilities Caused By Guinea-Worm Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out in 2001 to ascertain the status of Guinea worm disease infection among farm households in Ebonyi Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State. A total of 3,777 respondents were randomly sampled from 15 communities that comprised the LGA. The sample respondents were clinically examined ...

  16. Worm Infestation And Anaemia Among Pre-school Children Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worm infection and anaemia are common childhood conditions in Nigeria. We assessed the status of helminthiasis and associated anaemia among pre school children of peasant farmers aged 1-5 years living in a rubber plantation near Calabar, Nigeria. Design: Cross sectional. Method: Three hundred and ...

  17. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits form part of the selection objective in wool sheep enterprises. The present study investigated the genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlations for nematode resistance (using faecal worm egg count (FEC)) with subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits.

  18. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential of this species in vermiculture. The development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at 25°C on urine-free cattle manure with a moisture content of 80% over a period of 200 days. It was found that cocoons are produced at a ...

  19. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes is probably among the most pervasive problems in small-stock production worldwide. Faecal worm egg count (FWEC) has been reported as an indirect measure of parasite resistance in livestock production. Environmental and genetic factors of FWEC were assessed, using data ...

  20. Aquatic worms eating waste sludge in a continuous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic worms are a biological approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced at waste water treatment plants. A new reactor concept was recently introduced in which the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus is immobilised in a carrier material. The current paper describes

  1. Faeco-histological Method of Studying Worm Endemicity with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms are endemic in various parts of the world, the patterns varying from community to community, even in the same country. A rough index of those common among Nigerians of the Igbo ethnic group has been obtained using a histological study of the ova present in the luminal faeces of the vermiform appendix in 559 ...

  2. Screw-worm eradication in the Americas - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Screw-worms (Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel) are found only in the Americas, and are known, therefore, as the New World Screw-worm (NWS). The larval stages of the fly feed on the living flesh of their host. A screw-worm infestation can kill an adult animal in 7-10 days if not treated. All warm-blooded animals are affected including man. Although screw-worms had long been recognised as a severe pest of animals in the southwestern United States, they had never been detected east of the Mississippi River before 1933. In July 1933, screw-worms were transported on infested cattle to Georgia and became established east of the Mississippi River. Screw-worms spread quickly in the southeastern United States and were able to overwinter in southern Florida. Being new to the region, they were quickly recognised as a severe pest with a tremendous economic impact on livestock production. The livestock owners in the southeastern United States immediately noticed an increase in the number of animal deaths and increased costs of insecticides, veterinary medicines, veterinary services, inspection and handling. At the same time, they observed a decrease in animal weights and in milk production. Due to these observations, the livestock industry in the southeastern United States requested help in controlling screw-worms. Because of these requests, the research community became interested in control and eradication measures for this pest. Early work by Crushing and Patton in 1933 recognised that C. hominivorax was an obligatory animal parasite and different from the secondary blowfly, Cochliomyia macellaria. In 1934, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) opened a research station in Valdosa, Georgia, and E.W. Laake and E.F. Knipling were assigned to work there. In September 1935, R.C. Bushland was hired by ARS to do research related to screw-worms at an ARS Research Laboratory in Dallas, Texas. Melvin and Bushland in 1936 developed artificial

  3. The effect of operating conditions on aquatic worms eating waste sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques are available for dealing with the waste sludge produced in biological waste water treatment. A biological approach uses aquatic worms to consume and partially digest the waste sludge. In our concept for a worm reactor, the worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) are immobilised in a

  4. SCOPS and COWS--'worming it out of UK farmers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-05-04

    Infections with gastrointestinal roundworms are an important cause of production losses in sheep and cattle. Worm control is a vital part of health and production management in sheep flocks and cattle herds in the UK, and good control is highly dependent on effective anthelmintics. Unfortunately, a direct and unavoidable consequence of using anthelmintics to control worm populations is selection for individuals that are resistant to the chemicals used. If left unchecked, anthelmintic resistance (AR) could prove to be one of the biggest challenges to sheep and cattle production and animal welfare within the UK. As a consequence of increasing reports of AR in sheep, a working group, "SCOPS" (sustainable control of parasites in sheep) was formed in 2003 with representatives from the UK sheep industry to promote practical guidelines for sheep farmers and their advisors. This led to the production of guidelines for 'sustainable worm control strategies for sheep' intended for veterinarians and sheep advisors, plus ongoing promotional literature aimed at farmers. Whilst there is some evidence of emerging resistance in roundworms of cattle, it appears to still be at a very low level in the UK. However the potential presence of such AR in cattle worms has been seen as a timely warning, which if ignored, could lead to a not dissimilar AR situation to that seen in sheep, and in other cattle areas around the world. Reports of AR in UK cattle nematodes have generally been limited to a small number of anecdotal reports of treatment failure with some macrocyclic lactone (ML) products, especially those formulated as pour-on preparations, and invariably involving the dose-limiting species, Cooperia oncophora. As a consequence of these observations, guidelines have been produced similar to those for sheep, for sustainable worm control strategies for cattle "COWS" (control of worms sustainably), and were launched in May 2010. Uptake and effectiveness of SCOPS recommendations are

  5. QuantWorm: a comprehensive software package for Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Riepe, Celeste; Zhong, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements.

  6. Contaminated Marine Sediments As a Source of Cesium Radioisotopes for Benthic Fauna near Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiyu; Baumann, Zofia; Madigan, Daniel J; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2016-10-04

    Marine animals, seawater, and sediment near Fukushima, Japan have become contaminated with 134 Cs and 137 Cs released in March 2011 from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Radiocesium concentrations in some benthic fauna declined more slowly than in pelagic fish in the same region. We tested the hypothesis that benthic fish remained more contaminated due to the bioavailability of radiocesium in sediments. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the assimilation efficiency of 137 Cs was 16% in polychaetes ingesting Fukushima sediment, up to 55% in crabs ingesting polychaetes, and about 80% in fish ingesting worms. In addition, all animals acquired Cs directly from the aqueous phase, but this accounted for only 1.2-2.5% of their total body burden. Thus, diet accounted for nearly all of the total body burden of Cs in these animals. Rate constants of Cs loss from animal tissues were 20% d -1 for polychaetes, 10% d -1 for crabs, and 6% d -1 for fish after acquisition of Cs from water; rate constants following dietary uptake were 45% d -1 , 14% d -1 , and 5% d -1 for polychaetes, crabs, and fish, respectively. A bioaccumulation model indicated that the transfer factors of Cs from sediments and the trophic transfer factors from worms to predators were about 1. Overall, sediment-bound Cs is sufficiently bioavailable to deposit-feeding polychaetes, and macrofauna assimilate Cs from these polychaetes to account for >90% of their body burden. This helps to explain the longer retention of Cs in bottom-dwelling fish near Fukushima.

  7. Quantification of the Bioturbation Activity of Lumbriculus Variegatus Worms Using Fluorescent Particulate Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. M.; Roche, K. R.; Xie, M.; Packman, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Important biological, physical and chemical processes, such as fluxes of oxygen, nutrients and contaminants, occur across sediment-water interfaces. These processes are influenced by bioturbation activities of benthic animals. Bioturbation is thought to be significant in releasing metals to the water column from contaminated sediments, but metals contamination also affects organism activity. Consequently, the aim of this study was to consider the interactions of biological activity, sediment chemistry, pore water transport, and chemical reactions in sediment mixing and the flux and toxicity of metals in sediments. Prior studies have modeled bioturbation as a diffusive process. However, diffusion models often do not describe accurately sediment mixing due to bioturbation. To this end, we used the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model to assess sediment mixing caused by bioturbation activity of Lumbriculus variegatus worms. We performed experiments using fine-grained sediments with different levels of zinc contamination from Lake DePue, which is a Superfund Site in Illinois. The tests were conducted in an aerated fresh water chamber. Fluorescent particulate tracers were added to the sediment surface to quantify mixing processes and the influence of metals contaminants on L. variegatus bioturbation activity. We observed sediment mixing and organism activity by time-lapse photography over 14 days. Then, we analyzed the images to characterize the fluorescent particle concentration as a function of sediment depth and time. Results reveal that sediment mixing caused by L. variegatus is subdiffusive in time and superdiffusive in space. These results suggest that anomalous sediment mixing is probably a ubiquitous process, as this behavior has only been observed previously in marine sediments. Also, the experiments indicate that bioturbation and sediment mixing decreased in the presence of higher metals concentrations in sediments. This process is expected to decrease

  8. Benthic studies in south Gujarat estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govindan, K.; Varshney, P.K.; Desai, B.N.

    Benthic biomass and faunal composition in relation to various environmental conditions of the four South Gujarat estuaries namely the Auranga, Ambika, Purna and Mindola were studied and compared. Mean population density of benthos in Auranga, Ambika...

  9. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  10. Composition and dynamic of benthic macroinvertebrates community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The canonical correspondance analysis (CCA) revealed a strong correlationship between Chironomidae, Syrphidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, as well as the Pulmonates molluscs and organic nutriments feeding dynamics. These findings showed the sensitivity of benthic macroinvertebrates at different level: sensitivity which ...

  11. Benthic carbonate factories of the Phanerozoic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlager, W.

    2003-01-01

    Marine carbonate precipitation occurs in three basic modes: abiotic (or quasi-abiotic), biotically induced, and biotically controlled. On a geologic scale, these precipitation modes combine to form three carbonate production systems, or "factories" in the benthic environment: (1) tropical

  12. Evaluation of some physicochemical parameters and benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some physicochemical parameters and benthic macroinvertebrates of Ikere Gorge Reservoir in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Reservoir is relatively under stress due to dominance of indicators of pollution. Keywords: Anthropogenic activities, Bioindicator, Ikere Gorge Reservoir, Melanoides tuberculata, Water quality.

  13. Can Parasitic Worms Cure the Modern World's Ills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Margaret M; Harnett, William

    2017-09-01

    There has been increasing recognition that the alarming surge in allergy and autoimmunity in the industrialised and developing worlds shadows the rapid eradication of pathogens, such as parasitic helminths. Appreciation of this has fuelled an explosion in research investigating the therapeutic potential of these worms. This review considers the current state-of-play with a particular focus on exciting recent advances in the identification of potential novel targets for immunomodulation that can be exploited therapeutically. Furthermore, we contemplate the prospects for designing worm-derived immunotherapies for an ever-widening range of inflammatory diseases, including, for example, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and ageing as well as neurodevelopmental disorders like autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The maturity of Nypa palm worm Namalycastis rhodochorde (Nereididae: Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junardi, Anggraeni, Tjandra; Ridwan, Ahmad; Yuwono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    The Nypa Palm Worm Namalycastis rhodochorde has been used as bait for fishing and commercial species in Pontianak. Maturity is one important characteristic to learn the population dynamic and management. The Nypa Palm worm samples were collected from mangrove area in Kapuas Estuary, West Kalimantan. Fresh samples of gametes collected from the coelomic fluid were observed carefully under compound microscope for the initial determination of maturity. The presences of oocyte ≥120μm in diameter and lipid droplet are the indication of female maturity, while free swimming spermatozoon in the body fluid is the indication of male maturity. Morphologically, the maturity of N. rhodochorde was indicated by the change of body color, softer and fragile body, yet no modified chaetae and heteronereid form.

  15. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena

    & iTunes app stores for smartphones. The Vicious Worm provides information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans and its impact on people’s livelihood. Possible control and intervention strategies are provided using different ways of communication according to the audience......The Vicious Worm: A computer-based program advocating for prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis – a zoonotic tapeworm disease - widespread and emerging in many low income countries due to increased pork production and bad hygiene. Available at www.theviciousworm.org + Google Play....... Information is divided in three levels, each level is designed at different target audiences: VILLAGE knowledge relevant to the people living here using animations, short stories, videos, quizzes and games. TOWN information for professionals (medical doctors, veterinarians, meat inspectors & agricultural...

  16. Spread and Control of Mobile Benign Worm Based on Two-Stage Repairing Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in traditional social network and in mobile network environment, the worm is a serious threat, and this threat is growing all the time. Mobile smartphones generally promote the development of mobile network. The traditional antivirus technologies have become powerless when facing mobile networks. The development of benign worms, especially active benign worms and passive benign worms, has become a new network security measure. In this paper, we focused on the spread of worm in mobile environment and proposed the benign worm control and repair mechanism. The control process of mobile benign worms is divided into two stages: the first stage is rapid repair control, which uses active benign worm to deal with malicious worm in the mobile network; when the network is relatively stable, it enters the second stage of postrepair and uses passive mode to optimize the environment for the purpose of controlling the mobile network. Considering whether the existence of benign worm, we simplified the model and analyzed the four situations. Finally, we use simulation to verify the model. This control mechanism for benign worm propagation is of guiding significance to control the network security.

  17. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez; Gerardo Rodríguez-Quiroz; Héctor Manuel Esparza Leal; Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1) and 20% (APL2) worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six we...

  18. Can parasitic worms cure the modern world's ills?

    OpenAIRE

    Harnett, Margaret W.; Harnett, William

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing recognition that the alarming surge in allergy and autoimmunity in the industrialised and developing worlds shadows the rapid eradication of pathogens, such as parasitic helminths. Appreciation of this has fuelled an explosion in research investigating the therapeutic potential of these worms. This review considers the current state-of-play with a particular focus on exciting recent advances in the identification of potential novel targets for immunomodulation that c...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png Glandiceps_hack...si_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  20. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    OpenAIRE

    Traversa, Donato

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarid...

  1. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Temann, Angela U; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De'broski R; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-17

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4⁺ effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation between discharged worms and fecal egg counts in human clonorchiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hwan Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stool examination by counting eggs per gram of feces (EPGs is the best method to estimate worm burden of Clonorchis sinensis in infected humans. The present study investigated a correlation between EPGs and worm burden in human clonorchiasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 60 residents, 50 egg-positive and 10 egg-negative, in Sancheong-gun, Korea, participated in this worm collection trial in 2006-2009. They were diagnosed by egg positivity in feces using the Kato-Katz method. After administration of praziquantel, they were purged with cathartics on the next day, and then discharged adult worms were collected from their feces. Their EPGs ranged from 0 to 65,544. Adult worms of C. sinensis were collected from 17 egg-positive cases, and the number of worms ranged from 1 to 114 in each individual. A positive correlation between EPGs and numbers of worms was demonstrated (r = 0.681, P<0.001. Worm recovery rates were 9.7% in cases of EPGs 1-1,000 and 73.7% in those of EPGs over 1,000. No worms were detected from egg-negative subjects. Maximum egg count per worm per day was roughly estimated 3,770 in a subject with EPGs 2,664 and 106 collected worms. CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of the worms are significantly correlated with the egg counts in human clonorchiasis. It is estimated that at least 110 worms are infected in a human body with EPGs around 3,000, and egg productivity of a worm per day is around 4,000.

  3. Analysis of Two-Worm Interaction Model in Heterogeneous M2M Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of M2M (Machine-to-Machine networks, the damages caused by malicious worms are getting more and more serious. By considering the influences of the network heterogeneity on worm spreading, we are the first to study the complex interaction dynamics between benign worms and malicious worms in heterogeneous M2M network. We analyze and compare three worm propagation models based on different immunization schemes. By investigating the local stability of the worm-free equilibrium, we obtain the basic reproduction number R0 . Besides, by using suitable Lyapunov functions, we prove that the worm-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 ≤ 1 , otherwise unstable. The dynamics of worm models is completely determined by R0 . In the absence of birth, death and users’ treatment, we obtain the final size formula of worms. This study shows that the nodes with higher node degree are more susceptible to be infected than those with lower node degree. In addition, the effects of various immunization schemes are studied. Numerical simulations verify our theoretical results. The research results are meaningful for us to further understand the spread of worms in heterogeneous M2M network, and enact effectual control tactics.

  4. Influence of benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation on the biogeochemical behaviour of uranium within freshwater sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagauzere, S.

    2008-06-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. Secondary, there can also represent endogenous sources of contamination by resuspension (e.g. flood, bioturbation) or changes of metal speciation that acts upon their bioavailability. Indeed, metallic compounds can be transformed in more or less toxic or inert compounds through physico-chemical (e.g. pH, redox conditions, ionic force) and microbiological variations. These conditions are themselves under the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate activities via bioturbation processes. The main objective of this PhD was to determinate the influence of two benthic macro-invertebrate species (Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex) on the distribution and the transfers of uranium within freshwater sediments. To reach this goal, laboratory experiments were performed in order to (i) assess the effects of uranium on benthic macro-invertebrates, more particularly on their bioturbation activity, (ii) determine the influence of these organisms on uranium behaviour through high resolution physico-chemical measurements (e.g. oxygen optodes, DET gel probes), and (iii) estimate the consequences of these interactions on pelagic organisms via genotoxicity measurements (micronuclei assay and molecular bio-markers analysis on Xenopus laevis). The results demonstrate that bioturbation intensity of macro-invertebrates can be affected in uranium-contaminated sediments, but the two species studied in this work show a relative tolerance. For high uranium concentrations (>100 times the geochemical background level), corresponding however to realistic concentrations in highly contaminated sites, T. tubifex worms are able to maintain a sufficient bioturbation activity that induces a high remobilization of uranium initially associated with sediments to the overlying water (factor 2 to 10). That represents therefore a potential risk for the remaining aquatic biocenose. However, by

  5. Benthic foraminiferal biocoenoses in the estuarine regimes of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Benthic Foraminifera are highly responsive to subtle changes in the estuarine environment. Keeping this in view, a qualitative analysis of living benthic Foraminifera was made of the samples collected from the Mandovi-Zuari estuaries...

  6. THE WORMS COMPOST - EFFECTIVE FERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING DEGRADED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa CREMENEAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of organic waste is a difficult, complex and intractable in Moldova, according to international standards. Acute problem of organic matter from livestock sector waste is generated by storing them in unauthorized areas. Organic waste management strategies require different methods. One of them is organic waste bio conversion technology by worm’s cultivation. As the main natural wealth of the Republic of Moldova, soil requires a special care. Agriculture, in particular, should pay attention to the soil’s humus and nutrient status – and restore losses of humus and the nutrients used by crops. This requires measures to improve soil fertility. Land use provides, first of all return losses of humus and nutrients used by plants. Therefore measures required to improve soil fertility. The essence of the research was to highlight the role of worms compost improve the soil. To this end, in ETS "Maximovca" was organized an experiment that included three groups (two - experimental, to fund worms compost and one - control the natural background. Observations on soil fertility have been conducted over three years. The soil samples were collected by usual methods determined values of organic matter and humus. The results of the investigations, to determine the values of organic matter and humus samples collected from surface and depth 15 cm exceeded that of the sample control group to 29,7%; 11,4% and 34,3%; 37,1% in experimental group I and 9,3%; 11,6% and 45,5%; 45,5% in experimental group II. Therefore, worms compost embedded in a dose of 3-4 tons / ha during three years, has improved the fertility of the soil

  7. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversa Donato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  8. Pet roundworms and hookworms: a continuing need for global worming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato

    2012-05-10

    Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png Ptycho...dera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  10. Self-Propagating Worms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Malicious code is defined as software designed to execute attacks on software systems. This work demonstrates the possibility of executing malware on wireless sensor nodes that are based on the von Neumann architecture. This is achieved by exploiting a buffer overflow vulnerability to smash...... the call stack, intrude a remote node over the radio channel and, eventually, completely take control of it. Then we show how the malware can be crafted to become a self-replicating worm that broadcasts itself and propagates over the network hop-by-hop, infecting all the nodes....

  11. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Nordi, Gunnvør; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for b1%. On an annual basis the POC export fromthe euphotic...... resuspension during winter. The POC export from the euphotic zone could not sustain the benthic mineralization rate (10.8 mol C m−2 yr−1) and the calculated burial rate (9.8 mol C m−2 yr−1) of organic material in the central basin. This indicated considerable focusing ofmaterial in the central part...... of the fjord. Thiswas supported by the fact that themeasured benthic mineralization rate – in contrast to most investigations – actually increased with increasing water depth. In August,whenmineralization was at its maximum, the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) release from the sediment increased by 2.2mmolm−2...

  12. Spatial distribution maps for benthic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per S.

    1999-01-01

    simulation, Markov random fields and Boolean models. Geostatistical simulation provides a means of assessing the variability of random field functionals such as the estimated distribution area of a benthic species. The Markov random field allows the spatial distribution of the benthic communities...... to be modelled as a less smooth or regular phenomena than assumed when using geostatistical models. The use of Markov random fields in a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation framework enables an alternative means of assessing variability of image functionals that is based on a sound theoretical basis......-scan sonar for mapping of benthic communities remains an open task to be studied in the future. The data processing methodology developed is a contribution to the emerging field of hydroacoustic marine biology. The method of penalised maximum pseudo-likelihood for estimation of the Ising model under a huge...

  13. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  14. Periorbital dirofilariasis-Clinical and imaging findings: Live worm on ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandre N Gopinath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular dirofilariasis is a zoonotic filariasis caused by nematode worm,Dirofilaria. We present a case of dirofilariasis affecting the upper eyelid in a 2-year-old child presenting as an acutely inflammed cyst, from southern Indian state of Kerala. Live adult worm was surgically removed and confirmed to be Dirofilaria repens. Live worm showing continuous movement was seen on the pre-operative high-resolution ultrasound. Ultrasound can be helpful in pre-operative identification of live worm.Imaging findings reported in literature are very few. We describe the clinical, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings.

  15. Paragonimus worm from a New Guinea native in 1926.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlin; Blair, David; Min, Tian; Li, Fang; Wang, Dianhua

    2011-01-01

    To reobserve and research the specimen of Paragonimus worm found in the left lung of a New Guinea native in 1926, which was previously identified as Paragonimus westermani Kerbert or Paragonimus ringeri Cobbold. Using reconstructive software and microscopy to observe some organs of the worm, and compared with other species of paragonimus. The three dimensional (3D) views of ovary and two testes of New Guinea specimen showed that the ovary was clearly divided into six lobes. These two testes were situated oppositely in the body. One teste was divided into four branches, while another was divided into five. The cuticular spines were arranged in groups over the entire skin covered in a slide, each group was consisted of two to four single spine. Based on 3D views and measurements, we reclassified it as Paragonimus siamensis. This was also the first report of human case infected by Paragonimus siamensis. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-04-22

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  18. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP): Optical Properties of Benthic Marine Organisms and Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazel, Charles

    2002-01-01

    ...). The long-term objective of our research is to gain an understanding of the nature and significance of fluorescence and reflectance characteristics of benthic marine organisms in general, and coral...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BENTHIC (Benthic Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains benthic habitats, including coral reef and hardbottom, seagrass, algae, and others in [for] South Florida. Vector polygons in the data set...

  20. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage composition and distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled and environmental variables measured at Langeni Forest and Kambi Valley, two sites of varying degrees of human impact in the upper Mthatha River, South Africa, in 2010–2011. Four species, Simulium adersi Pomeroy, Baetis harrisoni Barnard, Pseudocloeon sp. and Tricorythus ...

  1. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzhöfer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Hadal trenches are considered to act as depo-centers for organic material at the trench axis and host unique and elevated biomasses of living organisms as compared to adjacent abyssal plains. To explore the diagenetic activity in hadal trench environments we quantified in situ benthic O-2 consump...

  2. Microplastic effect thresholds for freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E.; Dede Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

  3. Benthic freshwater nematode community dynamics under conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of the influence of fish aquaculture on benthic freshwater nematode assemblages are scarce, but could provide a way of gauging environmental effects. The abundance and diversity of nematode assemblages in response to Oreochromis niloticus aquaculture were investigated in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, ...

  4. Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya. ... measures are required to safeguard the environment and ecosystems of Lake Victoria. Keywords: biodiversity index, environmental monitoring, Lake Victoria Basin, species distribution, water quality, Winam Gulf ...

  5. Metal concentrations in water column, benthic macroinvertebrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of some metals in the water, benthic macroinvertebrates and the muscle tissue of the Nile tilapia from river Delimi, Nigeria were investigated from January 1998 to June 1998. Samplings were done monthly at 3 different sites. The concentrations of the metals were determined using the atomic absorption ...

  6. Variation in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Ologe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The community structure, diversity and seasonal variation of the benthic macroinvertebrates in Ologe Lagoon were studied at four sites during the dry and wet seasons of 2003 to provide environmental baseline data for the lagoon. The community comprised 29 taxa from the phyla Insecta, Annelida, Mollusca, and Crustacea ...

  7. Evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage for disturbance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 4. Evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage for disturbance zonation in urban rivers using multivariate analysis: Implications for river management. Ram Devi Tachamo Shah Deep Narayan Shah. Volume 122 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 1125- ...

  8. Lake Ontario benthic prey fish assessment, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Holden, Jeremy P.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Benthic prey fishes are a critical component of the Lake Ontario food web, serving as energy vectors from benthic invertebrates to native and introduced piscivores. Since the late 1970’s, Lake Ontario benthic prey fish status was primarily assessed using bottom trawl observations confined to the lake’s south shore, in waters from 8 – 150 m (26 – 492 ft). In 2015, the Benthic Prey Fish Survey was cooperatively adjusted and expanded to address resource management information needs including lake-wide benthic prey fish population dynamics. Effort increased from 55 bottom trawl sites to 135 trawl sites collected in depths from 8 - 225m (26 – 738 ft). The spatial coverage of sampling was also expanded and occurred in all major lake basins. The resulting distribution of tow depths more closely matched the available lake depth distribution. The additional effort illustrated how previous surveys were underestimating lake-wide Deepwater Sculpin, Myoxocephalus thompsonii, abundance by not sampling in areas of highest density. We also found species richness was greater in the new sampling sites relative to the historic sites with 11 new fish species caught in the new sites including juvenile Round Whitefish, Prosopium cylindraceum, and Mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdii. Species-specific assessments found Slimy Sculpin, Cottus cognatus abundance increased slightly in 2015 relative to 2014, while Deepwater Sculpin and Round Goby, Neogobius melanostomus, dramatically increased in 2015, relative to 2014. The cooperative, lake-wide Benthic Prey Fish Survey expanded our understanding of benthic fish population dynamics and habitat use in Lake Ontario. This survey’s data and interpretations influence international resource management decision making, such as informing the Deepwater Sculpin conservation status and assessing the balance between sport fish consumption and prey fish populations. Additionally a significant Lake Ontario event occurred in May 2015 when a single

  9.  Grunting for worms: reactions of Diplocardia to seismic vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Callaham

    2009-01-01

    Harvesting earthworms by a practice called 'worm grunting' is a widespread and profitable business in the southeastern USA. Although a variety of techniques are used, most involve rhythmically scraping a wooden stake driven into the ground, with a fiat metal object. A common assumption is that vibrations cause the worms to surface, but this phenomenon has not...

  10. Operation of an aquatic worm reactor suitable for sludge reduction at large scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of domestic waste water results in the production of waste sludge, which requires costly further processing. A biological method to reduce the amount of waste sludge and its volume is treatment in an aquatic worm reactor. The potential of such a worm reactor with the oligochaete

  11. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate

  12. Influence of substrate on bioaccumulation of 14C-paraquat in compost worms Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Solange; Langenbach, Tomaz; Luchini, Luiz C; de Andréa, Mara M

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of soil with pesticides can be evaluated using toxicity tests with worms because their ecological niche makes them good bioindicators. Bioaccumulation in compost worms of [methyl-14C] paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) was measured after three-month exposure in two substrates with differing physicochemical characteristics, in particular their organic matter and clay contents. The treatments were 1.2, 12, and 120 microg paraquat g(-1) substrate. The action of the worms did not influence the loss of 14C from the substrates, as the 14C-recovered was essentially quantitative at the end of the study in both the presence and absence of the worms. The organic matter and clay contents of the substrates determined the extent of the paraquat uptake by the worms; worms from the substrate with smaller amounts of clay and organic matter had the higher values of the bioconcentration factor (BCF), these being about 5 (fresh-weight basis) and independent of the application rate. The BCF values in the substrate containing more organic matter and clay were smaller but increased from 1.1 to 3.8 with the increasing rates of application. However, in both substrates the amounts of paraquat bioaccumulated in the worms was always less than 1% of that applied, indicating the very strong binding of paraquat to the substrates and hence low availability to the worms.

  13. The life-cycle of the compost worm Eisenia ietida (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    161. The life-cycle of the compost worm Eisenia ietida (Oligochaeta). J.M. Venter* and A.J. Reinecke. Department of Zoology, Potchefstroom University for CHE, Potchefstroom, 2520 Republic of South Africa. Received 29 January, 1987; accepted 29 January 1988. To determine the full potential of the compost worm Eisenia ...

  14. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  15. Influence of the enchytraeid worm Buchholzia appendiculata on aggregate formation and organic matter decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Didden, W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Enchytraeid worms were kept in <0.3 mm sieved sandy loam subsoil mixed with ground wheat, for 6 weeks at 16°C. Sieved soil with organic matter but without worms was also incubated. The soil was then allowed to air-dry slowly during 6 weeks. Enchytraeid casts were collected from the surface of the

  16. The effect of chloroquine on the male worms of Onchocerca volvulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroqunie is a well-known anti-malaria drug commonly used in the tropics. Chloroquine was in this study, tested on adult male worms of Onchocerca volvulus to assess its possible effect. Male worms were mechanically isolated from nodules of untreated onchocerciasis patients. After 24hours incubation in a drug-free ...

  17. Mechanics and statistics of the worm-like chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2018-02-01

    The worm-like chain model is a simple continuum model for the statistical mechanics of a flexible polymer subject to an external force. We offer a tutorial introduction to it using three approaches. First, we use a mesoscopic view, treating a long polymer (in two dimensions) as though it were made of many groups of correlated links or "clinks," allowing us to calculate its average extension as a function of the external force via scaling arguments. We then provide a standard statistical mechanics approach, obtaining the average extension by two different means: the equipartition theorem and the partition function. Finally, we work in a probabilistic framework, taking advantage of the Gaussian properties of the chain in the large-force limit to improve upon the previous calculations of the average extension.

  18. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  19. A GENERATIVE CAD MODEL OF A WORM GEAR MESHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika WRONKOWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the term of a generative CAD model, its origins and, thus, a need of creating such a type of models. A process of generative model creation as well as specific forms of knowledge recording applied in the implementation phase in various CAD systems are briefly discussed. The example of a worm gear meshing realized by the CATIA software encapsulates the methodology of generative model construction. Sources and types of knowledge for design and construction required for development of the aforementioned model as well as the UML language as a method of formal knowledge recording are presented. The concept of model creation, i.e. assumptions and the structure as well as logic of the model operation are described. Also, the paper addresses selected elements of the project that present the manner in which the model was constructed.

  20. Worm Control in Livestock: Bringing Science to the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Fiona; Hutchings, Fiona; Morgan-Davies, Claire; van Dijk, Jan; Bartley, Dave J

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic roundworm infections are ubiquitous in grazing livestock. Chemical control through the frequent 'blanket' administration of anthelmintics (wormers) has been, and remains, the cornerstone in controlling these infections, but this practice is unsustainable. Alternative strategies are available but, even with the plethora of best practice advice available, have yet to be integrated into routine farming practice. This is probably due to a range of factors, including contradictory advice from different sources, changes to advice following increased scientific understanding, and top-down knowledge exchange patterns. In this article, we discuss the worm control options available, the translation of new best practice advice from science bench to field, and ideas for future work and directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The research of hourglass worm dynamic balancing simulation based on SolidWorks motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuangzhuang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Pingyi; Zhao, Junpeng

    2018-02-01

    Hourglass worm is extensively used in industry due to its characteristic of heavy-load and a large reduction ratio. Varying sizes of unbalanced mass distribution appeared in the design of a single head worm. With machines developing towards higher speed and precision, the vibration and shock caused by the unbalanced mass distribution of rotating parts must be considered. Therefore, the balance grade of these parts must meet higher requirements. A method based on theoretical analysis and SolidWorks motion software simulation is presented in this paper; the virtual dynamic balance simulation test of the hourglass worm was carried out during the design of the product, so as to ensure that the hourglass worm meet the requirements of dynamic balance in the design process. This can effectively support the structural design of the hourglass worm and provide a way of thinking and designing the same type of products.

  2. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  3. Malignant worms: what cancer research can learn from C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, R Mako; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Developmental processes in the nematode C. elegans are controlled by pathways of gene functions that are analogous to those used in mammals. Hence, genetic studies in C. elegans have helped build the frameworks for these regulatory pathways. Many homologs of human genes that are targets for mutation in cancer have been found to function at distinct steps within such genetic pathways. This way, studies in C. elegans have provided important clues about the functions of human oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Understanding how human cancer genes function and act in signaling cascades is of great importance. This information reveals what kind of molecular changes contribute to the process of cell transformation. Moreover, additional candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressors may be revealed by identifying the functional partners of genes with an established role in cancer. Furthermore, identifying a cascade of gene functions increases the number of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, as blocking either one of multiple genes may interfere with signal transduction through the pathway. Simultaneous approaches in a number of different model systems act synergistically in solving pathways of gene functions. By using multiple models, the field takes advantage of the strengths of each system and circumvents its limitations. As one of the most powerful genetic animal systems, C. elegans will continue to reveal new mammalian signaling components. In addition, now that the C. elegans genome sequence has been completed, an increasing number of researchers are likely to discover homologs of human disease genes in the nematode and to analyze gene function in the worm model. Combined with the great potential of this animal in drug screens, it is simple to predict that C. elegans will worm its way deeper and deeper into cancer research.

  4. Nitrous Oxide Production by Abundant Benthic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    screened more than 20 macrofauna species for nitrous oxide production and identified filter-feeders and deposit-feeders that occur ubiquitously and at high abundance (e.g., chironomids, ephemeropterans, snails, and mussels) as the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species...... and temperature. Given the increasing nitrate pollution of freshwater ecosystems, the collective gut of benthic macrofauna might constitute an increasingly important yet hitherto overlooked link in the global nitrous oxide budget....

  5. Worm infestations and development of autoimmunity in children - The ABIS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Ludvigsson

    Full Text Available Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. The parents answered questions on worm infestations when the children were 1, 5 and 8 years of age. The ABIS registry was connected to the National Registry of Drug Prescriptions, and national registries for diagnosis of the studied diseases. We found no differences in incidence of worm infestations at 1, 5 or 8 years of age between children who developed autoimmune disease(s or healthy controls. At 8 years in total 20.0% of the general child population had experienced a worm infestation; children who developed Type 1 diabetes, 21,3%, celiac disease 19,5% and JRA 18,8%. There was no difference in prescriptions of drugs for treatment of worm infestations between those who had and who had not developed Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. We found no associations indicating that worm infestations in childhood does not play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases in Sweden.

  6. [Morphological observation on the adult worms of Taenia saginata in western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Rong; Bao, Huai-En; Qiu, Xue-Li; Chen, Yan; Lang, Shu-Yuan; Huang, Jiang; Li, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Ke; Ling-Hu, Yan

    2007-02-28

    To investigate the morphological characteristics of the adult worms of Taenia saginata from four areas of Western China. 42, 41, 7 and 18 integral worms of Taenia saginata were collected from Duyun and Congjiang of Guizhou Province, Wushi of Xinjiang, and Lhasa of Tibet respectively. The length of worms was measured and the segments were counted. The specimens of scolex, mature and gravid proglottids of the worms were stained, measured and photographed. The mean length of the worms from Duyun, Congjiang, Wushi and Lasa was (1.81+/-0.69) m, (3.84+/-1.32) m, (2.76+/-0.86) m and (3.72+/-1.12) m, and with (574.64+/-189.33), (913.84+/-317.41), (971.29+/-168.30) and (940.38+/-368.26) proglottids, respectively. The mean ratio of the distance between two lateral excretory vessels and the length of vitellarium of the mature proglottids was (1.71+/-0.13), (2.23+/-0.06), (2.03+/-0.21), (2.31+/-0.15) respectively. All the 3 parameters of the worms from Duyun were significantly less than those from other 3 areas (PTaenia saginata asiatica, while those of the worms from Congjiang, Wushi and Lhasa are alike to those of Taenia saginata saginata.

  7. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Aguiar, Daniela; Brunetto Moreira Moscardini, Mayara; Rezende Morais, Enyara; Graciano de Paula, Renato; Ferreira, Pedro Manuel; Afonso, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Tomie Ouchida, Amanda; Curti, Carlos; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2016-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR), a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them. PMID:27875592

  8. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Paula Aguiar

    Full Text Available Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR, a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST, Glutathione reductase (GR, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them.

  9. Sago worms as a nutritious traditional and alternative food for rural children in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Intan R; Trees; Suwarni; Pramono, Mochammad S

    2017-06-01

    The sago worm Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a nutritious food source found in the remaining parts of a sago palm trunk after the removal of sago starch by farmers. The effort to increase sago worm consumption is investigated in an intervention study among children aged eating a usual diet, but without sago worms (n=13). Snacks were served once per day (100 g) for 45 days and designed to contain similar amounts of vegetables (carrots and long beans) and other ingredients including rice, sticky rice, cassava, sweet potato, banana, or tofu with or without sago worms. Food preference was ascertained by interview. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and the endpoint. After mixing all food stuffs into one product for instance nasi gurih, protein and fat content in the intervention group was higher compared to control group (8.8 g and 7.3 g vs 4.7 g and 0.5 g respectively). In the intervention group receiving complementary feeding with sago worms, children's height changed minimally as did the control group (0.3 vs 0.2 cm); no difference was observed between the groups regarding weight or height. Sago worm consumption can diversify the diet through usage in various dishes, so improving its overall nutritional quality. Worm addition in an intervention program does not compromise, but maintains nutritional value. Local use adds affordability and sustainability to the food and health systems in a sago-consuming culture, so contributing to food security.

  10. Comparison of sup(115m)Cd accumulation from sediments and sea water by polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taishi; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    1976-01-01

    To know the role played by marine sediments in influencing the fate of discharged metals, (1) the interaction of metals between sediments and deposit-feeder marine worms (Nereis japonica), and (2) uptake and excretion of metals by worms were examined by laboratory experiments using sup(115m)Cd. Worms directly in contact with sup(115m)Cd-sediments accumulated sup(115m)Cd six times more than worms that were not in contact with the sup(115m)Cd sediments during the 8 days of experimentation and 12% of sup(115m)Cd in sediments were noted to be transfered to worms per unit. Comparing the concentration factor of 22 (from sea water) with accumulation from sediments, it was assumed that sup(115m)Cd in sediments would give the effect of 1/200 to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd by worms in sea water to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd. Further, to simulate these results close to that occuring in the natural ecosystem, the distribution of sup(115m)Cd in sea water, sediments and alga were also examined by means of a curve analysis of the distribution pattern by a three compartment model. It proved that the activity ratios of sup(115m)Cd were 9 for sediments and 21 for alga, which was similar to 22 for worms. (auth.)

  11. Effect of settled diatom‐aggregates on benthic nitrogen cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Marzocchi, Ugo; Thamdrup, Bo; Stief, Peter; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The marine sediment hosts a mosaic of microhabitats. Recently it has been demonstrated that the settlement of phycodetrital aggregates can induce local changes in the benthic O2 distribution due to confined enrichment of organic material and alteration of the diffusional transport. Here, we show how this microscale O2 shift substantially affects benthic nitrogen cycling. In sediment incubations, the settlement of diatom‐aggregates markedly enhanced benthic O2 and NO 3 − consumption a...

  12. Delta13C and delta15N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Kathleen E; Rau, Greg H; Kvitek, Rikk G

    2006-12-01

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  13. δ13C and δ15N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. . E-mail kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Rau, Greg H.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic

  14. Automatic defense against zero-day polymorphic worms in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, Mohssen

    2013-01-01

    Able to propagate quickly and change their payload with each infection, polymorphic worms have been able to evade even the most advanced intrusion detection systems (IDS). And, because zero-day worms require only seconds to launch flooding attacks on your servers, using traditional methods such as manually creating and storing signatures to defend against these threats is just too slow. Bringing together critical knowledge and research on the subject, Automatic Defense Against Zero-day Polymorphic Worms in Communication Networks details a new approach for generating automated signatures for un

  15. An analysis on the re-emergence of SQL Slammer worm using network telescope data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chindipha, SD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Terms—Code-Red, worm, SQL Slammer, network tele- scope, packet. I. INTRODUCTION The SQL Slammer/Sapphire worm takes advantage of the MSSQL Server’s remote stack buffer over flow vulnerability by scanning TCP 1433 or UDP 1434 ports after which it tries... life cycle” was highly Page 222 Southern Africa Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (SATNAC) 2017 likely to happen again, just as it was with the case of Code- Red worm, however, the time frame was not specified [11]. Unlike Code-Red...

  16. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Comparative Finite Element Method Analysis of Spiroid Worm Gear Drives Having Arched Profile and Having Linear Profile in Axial Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor BODZÁS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the knowledge of the advantageous characteristics of the cylindrical worm gear drives having arched profile in axial section and the conical worm gear drives having linear profile in axial section, a new geometric type conical worm gear drive has been designed and then manufactured, that is the conical worm gear drive having arched profile in axial section. Beside similar charging and marginal conditions in case of the same geometric spiroid worm gear drives having arched profile and having linear profile in axial section we have done comparative finite element method analysis for awarding of the strains, deformations and stresses of this gear drives.

  18. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  19. Semiflexible Chains at Surfaces: Worm-Like Chains and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Baschnagel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We give an extended review of recent numerical and analytical studies on semiflexible chains near surfaces undertaken at Institut Charles Sadron (sometimes in collaboration with a focus on static properties. The statistical physics of thin confined layers, strict two-dimensional (2D layers and adsorption layers (both at equilibrium with the dilute bath and from irreversible chemisorption are discussed for the well-known worm-like-chain (WLC model. There is mounting evidence that biofilaments (except stable d-DNA are not fully described by the WLC model. A number of augmented models, like the (super helical WLC model, the polymorphic model of microtubules (MT and a model with (strongly nonlinear flexural elasticity are presented, and some aspects of their surface behavior are analyzed. In many cases, we use approaches different from those in our previous work, give additional results and try to adopt a more general point of view with the hope to shed some light on this complex field.

  20. Do We Need Worms to Promote Immune Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Joel V

    2015-10-01

    Many immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, asthma, and food allergy appeared to have increased in frequency in developed countries in the latter part of the twentieth century. Reports from less developed countries suggest that the "epidemic" of immune-mediated diseases now is spreading into these regions as well. The "hygiene hypothesis" was developed to partly explain this phenomenon. It has been proposed that modern-day sanitary living has altered our exposure to organisms that provided protection from these diseases in the past. Alternations in the composition of our intestinal flora and fauna could play a role. Helminths are a group of worm-like parasitic organisms that have adapted to live in various regions of their hosts. Epidemiological and some clinical data suggest that these organisms can protect people from developing immune-mediated diseases. Animal experimentation has shown that helminths stimulate the production of regulatory cytokines, activate regulatory T cells, and induce regulatory dendritic cells and macrophages. This could be the mechanism by which they protect the host from these diseases. Early clinical studies also suggest that helminths may prove useful for treating immunological diseases. More sophisticated clinical studies are underway, testing live helminth agents as therapeutic agents. Also, a strong effort is ongoing to discover the agents produced by helminths that modulate host immune responses with an eye on developing new, highly effective immune modulatory therapeutic agent.

  1. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  2. A SEM study of the reindeer sinus worm (Linguatula arctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Nikander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are a group of peculiar parasitic arthropods, often referred to as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a tongue. Linguatula arctica is the sinus worm of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, being the only pentastomid to have a direct life cycle and an ungulate as a definite host. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of adult L. arctica are described as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sinus worms were collected in the winter 1991-92 in Finnish Lapland. Paranasal cavities of about 80 reindeer were examined and 30 sinus worms were found. The sinus worms had typical Linguatula sp. morphology, being paddle-shaped, transparent, pale yellow, dorsoventrally flattened and pseudosegmented with a long tapering end. Present at the anteroventral part of the cephalothorax was an oral opening with a large, conspicuous, head-like papillar structure. Bilaterally, on both sides of this opening, was a pair of strong curved hooks. The cephalothorax and abdomen had a segmented appearance, as they showed distinct annulation. There was a small cup-shaped sensory organ present at the lateral margin on each annula. The posterior edge of each annula was roughened by tiny spines projecting backwards. Throughout the cuticular surface, small, circular depressions that represented the apical portion of chloride cells. The genital opening of the male was located medioventrally between the tips of the posterior pair of hooks, and that of the female posteroventrally and subterminally. In both sexes, the genital opening was bilaterally flanked by papillar (in males or leaf-like (in females structures. One copulating couple was present, with the male attached to the posteroventral part of the female with its anteroventral hooks and papillae. Several structures typical of arthropods and other pentastomids were identified. Because SEM allows only surfaces to be studied, the morphology and especially the sense organs of L. arctica

  3. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  4. Modeling and Stability Analysis of Worm Propagation in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved SIRS model considering communication radius and distributed density of nodes is proposed. The proposed model captures both the spatial and temporal dynamics of worms spread process. Using differential dynamical theories, we investigate dynamics of worm propagation to time in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Reproductive number which determines global dynamics of worm propagation in WSNs is obtained. Equilibriums and their stabilities are also found. If reproductive number is less than one, the infected fraction of the sensor nodes disappears and if the reproduction number is greater than one, the infected fraction asymptotically stabilizes at the endemic equilibrium. Based on the reproduction number, we discuss the threshold of worm propagation about communication radius and distributed density of nodes in WSNs. Finally, numerical simulations verify the correctness of theoretical analysis.

  5. Kilima-mrota is not a worm: the effect of conservation education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kilima-mrota is not a worm: the effect of conservation education and a local naming contest on the perspectives held by the peoples of Sagalla Hill, Kenya toward the Sagalla Caecilian Boulengerula niedeni.

  6. Worm structure piezoelectric energy harvester using ionotropic gelation of barium titanate-calcium alginate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Selvarajan, Sophia; Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Lee, Gae Myoung; Jeong, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-01-01

    A laterally aligned flexible composite linear worm-based piezoelectric energy harvester made up of piezoelectric barium titanate nanoparticles and a three dimensional gel network of calcium alginate biopolymer was aimed to harness the low frequency mechanical energy. It is highly desirable to fabricate innovative micro/nanostructures for high performance energy harvesting beyond the conventional thin films, and small scale fabrication of nanowires (or rods). The open circuit voltage of a single composite worm-based energy harvester (diameter ≈ 550 μm, length ≈ 2.5 cm) increases up to 5 times by increasing the frequency of mechanical load (11 N) from 3 to 20 Hz. Similarly, 1.5 times voltage increment was observed by increasing the length of the composite worm from 1.5 to 3.5 cm upon the bio-mechanical hand force. The energy harvester can function as an efficient portable/wearable self-powered device due to its good flexibility, and multiple lengths of composite linear worms can be utilized to drive low-power electronic devices. In this work, the composite worms were prepared by an ionotropic gelation approach, which is eco-friendly, non-toxic, having low processing temperature/time, and potential for cost-effective, large-scale fabrication, making it suitable for low frequency based self-powered devices. - Highlights: • Portable energy harvester was developed using composite linear worm structure. • Real time power generating shoe insole was demonstrated by two energy harvesters. • Energy harvested from the applied mechanical load, air and human body motions. • The relation between composite worm length and generated energy was identified. • Eco-friendly, Mass production of worms developed by ionotropic gelation method.

  7. Optimal synthesis of the worm-lever mechanism for humanoid robots shrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penčić Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions represent a significant means of nonverbal communication and their expression represents an important aspect of social robots functionality. There are two basic ways of expressing emotions. The first one is based on facial expressions that can be realized by moving a particular part of face or by displaying a picture on the screen that represents a face with characteristic features such as eyebrows, eyes, nose and mouth. Combining them is also possible. The second way of nonverbal communication is based on gestures, especially using arms. This paper presents an optimal synthesis of shrug mechanism for humanoid robots. Based on the set requirements the worm-lever mechanism is proposed. It has 1 DOF and enables simultaneous shrug of both shoulders. It consists of a worm which is meshed with two worm gears having different directions of rotation and two four-bar lever mechanisms whose input links are rigidly connected to the worm gears. Based on the kinematic-dynamic analysis the dynamic model is formed, the objective function is defined, the constraints are prescribed and the optimal synthesis is performed. The maximum torque on the input link of the lever mechanism, the driving torque of the complete worm-lever mechanism, the range of transmission angle and the rotation range of the worm gears are determined. The lever mechanism has high efficiency in all positions because the transmission angle has a high value during the whole movement. The worm mechanism enables a significant reduction of driving torque and has acceptable efficiency. The rotation range of the worm gear is small – the mechanism movement is very quick and therefore the shrug speed is large, which was the basic requirement for realization. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III44008

  8. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp. in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp. in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis. The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greatest in the greenhouse treatment, at 100% for CM and 96% for KW. Similarly, the greatest number of worms hatched from cocoons was in the greenhouse treatment, with 2 immature worms for CM and 3.5 for KW, and the greatest number of immature worms was registered in the greenhouse treatment with 123 individuals in CM and 16 in KW. The lowest mortality rate due to environment was in the greenhouse treatment, with 3.90% mortality with CM and 88.64% with KW. The greatest number of mature worms (with clitella was in the unsheltered treatment, with 15 in CM and 21 in KW. The greatest biomass of immature worms was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 1.41 g of worms for CM and 0.185 g for KW; however, the greatest biomass of mature worms was in the KW treatment, with 7.98 g for the greenhouse treatment and 6.93 g for the unsheltered treatment. The phytotoxicity from CM vermicompost in the two environments was lowest, exhibiting a 66.6% rate of germination, and the opposite was true for KW, which was the most toxic in both environments. Macronutrient content in vermicompost obtained was: nitrogen at 2.45% and 2.31%, phosphorus at 500 mg kg-1 and 220 mg kg-1 and potassium at 27.43 and 2.76 cmol(+ kg-1 of dry substrate in KW and CM respectively.

  9. Effects of bottom fishing on the benthic megafauna of Georges Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, J.S.; Escanero, G.A.; Valentine, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses ongoing concerns ever the effects of mobile fishing gear on benthic communities. Using side-scan sonar, bottom photographs and fishing records, we identified a set of disturbed and undisturbed sites on the gravel pavement area of northern Georges Bank in the northwest Atlantic. Replicate samples of the megofauna were collected with a 1 m Naturalists' dredge on 2 cruises in 1994. Compared with the disturbed sites, the undisturbed sites had higher numbers of organisms, biomass, species richness and species diversity; evenness was higher at the disturbed sites. Undisturbed sites were characterized by an abundance of bushy epifaunal taxa (bryozoans, hydroids, worm tubes) that provide a complex habitat for shrimps, polychaetes, brittle stars, mussels and small fish. Disturbed sites were dominated by larger, hard-shelled molluscs, and scavenging crabs and echinoderms. Many of the megafaunal species in our samples have also been identified in stomach contents of demersal fish on Georges Bank; the abundances of at feast some of these species were reduced at the disturbed sites.

  10. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-05-10

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %). The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  11. An Epidemic Model of Computer Worms with Time Delay and Variable Infection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of Internet, network security issues become increasingly serious. Temporary patches have been put on the infectious hosts, which may lose efficacy on occasions. This leads to a time delay when vaccinated hosts change to susceptible hosts. On the other hand, the worm infection is usually a nonlinear process. Considering the actual situation, a variable infection rate is introduced to describe the spread process of worms. According to above aspects, we propose a time-delayed worm propagation model with variable infection rate. Then the existence condition and the stability of the positive equilibrium are derived. Due to the existence of time delay, the worm propagation system may be unstable and out of control. Moreover, the threshold τ0 of Hopf bifurcation is obtained. The worm propagation system is stable if time delay is less than τ0. When time delay is over τ0, the system will be unstable. In addition, numerical experiments have been performed, which can match the conclusions we deduce. The numerical experiments also show that there exists a threshold in the parameter a, which implies that we should choose appropriate infection rate β(t to constrain worm prevalence. Finally, simulation experiments are carried out to prove the validity of our conclusions.

  12. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  13. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  14. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Il Seo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %. The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  15. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  16. Effects of Feeding Strategy, Sediment Characteristics, and Chemical Properties on Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Bioaccumulation from Marine Sediments in Two Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, H; Jackman, P; Dangerfield, N D; Ross, P S

    2017-08-01

    Shellfish and sediment invertebrates have been widely used to assess pollution trends over space and time in coastal environments around the world. However, few studies have compared the bioaccumulation potential of different test species over a range of sediment-contaminant concentrations and profiles. The bioavailability of sediment-related contaminants was evaluated using sediments collected from sites (n = 12) throughout the Salish Sea, British Columbia, Canada. Two benthic marine invertebrates-the Baltic clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata-were exposed for 28 days in a controlled environment to these field-collected coastal sediments. The congener-specific uptake of legacy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and emergent polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in sediments and in invertebrates after the experimental exposure. The polychaete Neanthes accumulated lower concentrations of PCBs but higher concentrations of PBDEs. The present study indicates that differences in bioaccumulation between these two invertebrates shape the accumulation of PCB and PBDE congeners, reflect differences in feeding strategies, and reveal the physicochemical properties of the contaminants and sediment properties. Because biota-sediment accumulation factor values are often calculated for environmental monitoring or site-specific impact assessments, our results provide insight into potentially confounding factors and the need for caution when selecting indicator species for coastal marine pollution.

  17. Impact of Hypoxia on the Community Structure of Benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of the Lagos lagoon was conducted for two years to investigate the impact of hypoxia on the benthic macroinvertebrates. Water and benthic samples were collected monthly along the study stretch and analysed in a standard laboratory. Temporal variation in water physico-chemistry was largely controlled by rainfall ...

  18. Impact of Effluents on Water Quality and Benthic Macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the impact of effluent discharge on water quality and the benthic macro invertebrate fauna of the Awba stream and reservoir was carried out between April 2007 and May 2008. Benthic macro invertebrate and sediment samples were collected with a Van Veen grab, while physico-chemical parameters were ...

  19. Species diversity variations in Neogene deep-sea benthic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    climatic turnovers. Some species of benthic foraminifera are sensitive to changes in water mass proper- ties whereas others are sensitive to organic fluxes and deep-sea oxygenation. Benthic faunal diversity has been found closely linked to food web, bottom water oxygen levels, and substrate and water mass sta- bility.

  20. Assessment of benthic molluscs diversity and distribution in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The urban reservoirs n° 2 and n°3 of Ouagadougou, located in the middle of the city are subject to multiple anthropogenic pressures which threaten the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates community group like molluscs. This study was initiated to assess the diversity and distribution of benthic molluscs in these ...

  1. Species diversity variations in Neogene deep-sea benthic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some species of benthic foraminifera are sensitive to changes in water mass properties whereas others are sensitive to organic fluxes and deep-sea oxygenation. Benthic faunal diversity has been found closely linked to food web, bottom water oxygen levels, and substrate and water mass stability. The present study is ...

  2. An inconvenient truth: global worming and anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ray M; Vidyashankar, Anand N

    2012-05-04

    Over the past 10-15 years, we have witnessed a rapid increase in both the prevalence and magnitude of anthelmintic resistance, and this increase appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. In addition, since the introduction of ivermectin in 1981, no novel anthelmintic classes were developed and introduced for use in livestock until recently with the launch of monepantel in New Zealand. Thus, livestock producers are often left with few options for effective treatment against many important parasite species. While new anthelmintic classes with novel mechanisms of action could potentially solve this problem, new drugs are extremely expensive to develop, and can be expected to be more expensive than older drugs. Thus, it seems clear that the "Global Worming" approach that has taken hold over the past 40-50 years must change, and livestock producers must develop a new vision for parasite control and sustainability of production. Furthermore, parasitologists must improve methods for study design and data analysis that are used for diagnosing anthelmintic resistance, especially for the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Currently, standards for diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance using FECRT exist only for sheep. Lack of standards in horses and cattle and arbitrarily defined cutoffs for defining resistance, combined with inadequate analysis of the data, mean that errors in assigning resistance status are common. Similarly, the lack of standards makes it difficult to compare data among different studies. This problem needs to be addressed, because as new drugs are introduced now and in the future, the lack of alternative treatments will make early and accurate diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance increasingly important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 14C as a tracer of labile organic matter in Antarctic benthic food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Brett L.; DeMaster, David J.; Thomas, Carrie J.; Smith, Craig R.

    2008-11-01

    14C measurements were made on surface plankton, particle-trap material, surface sediment, benthic invertebrate gut contents, and body tissue samples to assess the effectiveness of this radioisotope as a tracer of labile organic carbon in Antarctic benthic food webs. Samples were collected on five cruises to the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf between November 1999 and March 2001 as part of the Food for Benthos on the ANtarctic Continental-Shelf (FOODBANCS) Project. The 14C contents of the body tissues from a variety of deposit feeders (-126±13 per mil) were substantially enriched relative to the surface sediment (-234±13 per mil) and statistically similar to the organic matter collected in plankton tows (-135±10 per mil), indicating that recently produced marine plankton are the primary source of nutrition for these deposit feeders on the West Antarctic shelf. Selective ingestion was the primary feeding strategy used by echiuran worms and certain holothurians (i.e. Peniagone vignoni) for incorporating labile organic carbon into their tissues as demonstrated by the large differences (105±13 per mil) between surface sediment and gut content 14C activities. In contrast, digestive and/or assimilatory selection was the predominant strategy used by an irregular urchin ( Amphipneustes lorioli) and several other holothurians ( Protelpidia murrayi, Bathyplotes fuscivinculum and the head-down conveyor belt feeder, Molpadia musculus), as demonstrated by large differences (42±7 per mil) between the 14C activities of their foregut or whole-gut organic contents and their body tissues. Despite large fluctuations in carbon export from the euphotic zone, benthic feeding strategies remained essentially constant over the 15-month sampling period. No seasonal variation was evident in either the 14C abundance of the deposit-feeder body tissues, or in the 14C abundance of their gut contents. The mean 14C abundance in the body tissues of the two sub-surface deposit feeders ( A

  4. Bioassessment of Choghakhor Wetland using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fathi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, besides investigating benthic communities and their demographics in Choghakhor wetland, the water quality has been evaluated and classified. Then, 10 stations were selected and sampling of benthos was done every 45 days since April 2010 to March 2011, with 3 replications at each station. Samples were obtained by Ekman grab Sampler (surface 400 cm2. The collected samples were separated and fixed by formalin (4%. The Macroinvertebrates samples were identified and counted in laboratory. Generally 25 families of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 5 classes and 12 orders were identified. The results were calculated as community measures, including total richness, Shannon - Wiener diversity index and Hilsenhoff Biological index at family level. The results obtained from temporal and spatial changes of data (Statgeraphics software and water qualitative classification using Shannon diversity index conformed to biological Hilsenhoff index. And finally, water quality of wetland was assessed to be polluted in average to high level. According to this study findings, it seems that, these indicators could be used as useful tools for evaluating water supplies quality.

  5. Benthic macroinvertebrate field sampling effort required to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This multi-year pilot study evaluated a proposed field method for its effectiveness in the collection of a benthic macroinvertebrate sample adequate for use in the condition assessment of streams and rivers in the Neuquén Province, Argentina. A total of 13 sites, distributed across three rivers, were sampled. At each site, benthic macroinvertebrates were collected at 11 transects. Each sample was processed independently in the field and laboratory. Based on a literature review and resource considerations, the collection of 300 organisms (minimum) at each site was determined to be necessary to support a robust condition assessment, and therefore, selected as the criterion for judging the adequacy of the method. This targeted number of organisms was collected at all sites, at a minimum, when collections from all 11 transects were combined. Subsequent bootstrapping analysis of data was used to estimate whether collecting at fewer transects would reach the minimum target number of organisms for all sites. In a subset of sites, the total number of organisms frequently fell below the target when fewer than 11 transects collections were combined.Site conditions where <300 organisms might be collected are discussed. These preliminary results suggest that the proposed field method results in a sample that is adequate for robust condition assessment of the rivers and streams of interest. When data become available from a broader range of sites, the adequacy of the field

  6. Perceptions of a literate community regarding causation, presentation and treatment practices of intestinal worms among children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubeen, S.M.; Subhani, A.; Hassan, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    To find out the perceived common causes of intestinal worms, their presentations and treatment options taken by the respondents, among children. A total of 2000 families responded to a self-administered questionnaire that was designed to obtain the study objectives. A single adult individual from each family was asked to respond to the questionnaire. Families having health care workers or health professionals were excluded. Medical students were properly trained to ensure competence in collecting a reliable data. The majority of the total respondents were females (66.3%) and were between 15-25 years of age (mean age = 25.4 years) with 100% literacy rate. A noticeable number of respondents (31%) revealed that overeating of sugar causes intestinal worms and that they mainly presented as altered eating habits / appetite (51.8%), abdominal pain (40.8%) and generalized weakness (26.3%). Regarding perceptions of drug treatment, nearly 2/3 of the respondents felt that the de-worming agent should be given to suspected child only (p < 0.001), whereas 65% of the participants expected to observe worms after de-worming treatment (p < 0.001). Contrary to the common use of self-medication in most other illnesses, self-treatment of worms on suspicion was declared by only 21.5% of the respondents (p < 0.0001). This study confirms that misconceptions about intestinal worms in children were prevalent within the community. In addition to the issue of environmental sanitation, removal of the mistaken beliefs is a prerequisite for an effective and long-lasting parasitic control among children. (author)

  7. Quality assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates under the scope of WFD using BAT, the Benthic Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Heliana; Magalhães Neto, João; Patrício, Joana; Veríssimo, Helena; Pinto, Rute; Salas, Fuensanta; Marques, João Carlos

    2009-10-01

    Assessing the health of ecosystems has become a focal point among researchers worldwide. Recently, the European Water Framework Directive intensified the development of approaches to assess ecosystems' ecological quality. The Benthic Assessment Tool (BAT) is a multimetric approach to evaluate condition of subtidal soft bottom macroinvertebrates of coastal and transitional waters. The effects of anthropogenic disturbances on benthic macroinvertebrate communities, from 1990 to 2006, allowed testing BAT performance in Mondego estuary (Portugal). The method was able to detect decrease on ecological quality, induced essentially by eutrophication and physical disturbances, and follow communities' subsequent recovery. It evidenced, nevertheless, some limitations associated with the unstable nature of estuaries. The ecological classification of key species in the community and the balance expected between ecological groups of estuarine communities had great influence in the final ecological assessment. Shortcomings of the method were discussed in the light of its suitability for assessing transitional waters' condition.

  8. Associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of meningeal worm infection increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold for each 1-cm and 1-C increase in summer precipitation and spring temperature, respectively. Similarly, probability of infection increased 1.2-fold for each 1% increase in wetland habitat. Our findings highlight the importance of wetland habitat in predicting meningeal worm infection across eastern South Dakota. Future research is warranted to evaluate the relationships between climatic conditions (e.g., drought, wet cycles) and deer habitat selection in maintaining P. tenuis along the western boundary of the parasite.

  9. Worm grunting, fiddling, and charming--humans unknowingly mimic a predator to harvest bait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Catania

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis. This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called "worm grunting". In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that "worm grunters" unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. CONCLUSIONS: Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of "rare predators" in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race.

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  11. Benthic percent cover derived from analysis of benthic images collected at coral reef sites in Timor-Leste in 2013 and 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic cover data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) in hard bottom shallow...

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Marianas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  15. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  16. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy for the analysis of the biochemical composition of C. elegans worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ming; Gorzsás, András; Tuck, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Changes in intermediary metabolism have profound effects on many aspects of C. elegans biology including growth, development and behavior. However, many traditional biochemical techniques for analyzing chemical composition require relatively large amounts of starting material precluding the analysis of mutants that cannot be grown in large amounts as homozygotes. Here we describe a technique for detecting changes in the chemical compositions of C. elegans worms by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. We demonstrate that the technique can be used to detect changes in the relative levels of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in one and the same worm. We suggest that Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy represents a useful addition to the arsenal of techniques for metabolic studies of C. elegans worms.

  17. Centimeter-wide worm-like fossils from the lowest Cambrian of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingliang; Liu, Wei; Isozaki, Yukio; Sato, Tomohiko

    2017-11-06

    The trace fossil record implies that large worm-like animals were in place along with the skeletonizing organisms during the initial stage of the Cambrian explosion. Body fossils of large worms, however, have so far not been found. Here, we describe a large, soft-bodied, worm-like organism, Vittatusivermis annularius gen. et sp. nov. from the lowest Cambrian of South China, which is constrained to the Fortunian Age (541-529 Ma) of the Cambrian Period. The elongate body of Vittatusivermis was large enough to have supported organ systems and a fluid skeleton that facilitated peristaltic locomotion, thus allowing for more complex patterns of movement than those of flatworms. Its occurrence on the same bedding surface as trace fossils suggests that Vittatusivermis might have produced epichnial trails and shallow burrows on and within sediments. Therefore, Vittatusivermis is likely to have been one of the long expected producers of trace fossils in the earliest Cambrian.

  18. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency

  19. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  20. Association between nematode larvae and "low worm egg count diarrhoea" in sheep in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin; Forshaw, David; Besier, Brown

    2009-10-28

    Nine flocks of sheep with a high prevalence (>30%) of diarrhoea and severe breech faecal soiling were investigated over a three-year period to examine the causes of diarrhoea in sheep with low mean faecal worm egg counts (WEC). All nine flocks were located in the southwest of Western Australia in areas with a winter rainfall pattern (Mediterranean climate). There was no difference (p=0.304) in WEC of diarrhoeic sheep (loose faeces and severe breech faecal soiling) and "normal sheep" (pelleted faeces and mild or no breech faecal soiling). Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. were the nematodes most commonly identified by total worm counts and differentiation of larvae recovered from faeces and pasture. Larval stages of strongyle worms accounted for the largest proportion of total worm counts in both diarrhoeic and normal sheep. Adult worm burdens were small in most sheep. Diarrhoeic sheep had higher numbers of fourth stage larvae than normal sheep (p=0.046). There was no histopathological evidence of bacterial or viral causes of diarrhoea in any of the flocks or bacteriological evidence of bacterial infections associated with diarrhoea. Two flocks had marginal selenium glutathione peroxidase (selenium) levels. One flock was diagnosed with helminthosis based on rising WEC and high total worm counts. Larval hypersensitivity diarrhoea, nutritional factors or a combination of these two factors were the most likely causes of diarrhoea in the other eight flocks based on exclusion of other known causes of diarrhoea. Treatment with moxidectin and an ivermectin controlled-release capsule did not change faecal moisture content of treated sheep compared to untreated sheep three to five weeks after treatment. The findings suggest that the immune response to strongyle larvae may explain some cases of low WEC diarrhoea observed during winter-spring in immunocompetent mature sheep grazing in Mediterranean environments.

  1. Mortality of rocky mountain elk in Michigan due to meningeal worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Schmitt, S.M.; Carlson, E.; Haufler, J.B.; Beyer, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Elk were reintroduced into Michigan (USA) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (???12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. We monitored 100 radio-collared elk of all age and sex classes from 1981-94, during which time we documented 76 mortalities. Meningeal worm was a minor mortality factor for elk in Michigan and accounted for only 3% of mortalities, fewer than legal harvest (58%), illegal kills (22%), other diseases (7%), and malnutrition (4%). Across years, annual cause-specific mortality rates due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis were 0.033 (SE=0.006), 0.029 (SE=0.005), 0.000 (SE=0.001), and 0.000 (SE=0.000) for calves, 1-yr-old, 2-yr-old, and ???3-yr-old, respectively. The overall population-level mortality rate due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis was 0.009 (SE=0.001). Thus, meningeal worm had little impact on elk in Michigan during our study despite greater than normal precipitation (favoring gastropods) and record (???14 km2) deer densities. Further, elk in Michigan have shown sustained population rates-of-increase of ???18%/yr and among the highest levels of juvenile production and survival recorded for elk in North America, indicating that elk can persist in areas with meningeal worm at high levels of population productivity. it is likely that local ecologic characteristics among elk, white-tailed deer, and gastropods, and degree of exposure, age of elk, individual and population experience with meningeal worm, overall population vigor, and moisture determine the effects of meningeal worm on elk populations. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2005.

  2. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  3. Ecology of intertidal benthic algae of Northern Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Deshmukhe, G.V.

    The intertidal benthic marine algal flora has been studied for distribution, phenology, biomass and zonation along with the environmental conditions. About 65 species belonging to 42 genera of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta have been recorded. Rhodophyta...

  4. USVI Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  5. Shallow-water Benthic Habitats in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  6. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  7. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  8. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  9. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  10. Evidence for complete denitrification in a benthic foraminifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Langezaal, Alexandra; Ingvardsen, Signe

    2006-01-01

    Benthic foraminifera are unicellular eukaryotes found abundantly in many types of marine sediments. Many species survive and possibly reproduce in anoxic habitats1, but sustainable anaerobic metabolism has not been previously described. Here we demonstrate that the foraminifer Globobulimina pseud...

  11. Atlantic Deep-Water Canyons (Benthic Landers) 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Each benthic lander contains a programmable sediment trap which can take 12 monthly samples, plus instruments to record temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen,...

  12. Reproductive behaviour of benthic foraminifera: A key to palaeoclimate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Many benthic foraminiferal species exhibit dimorphism associated with reproduction. The two resultant forms are known as microspheric and megalospheric forms. Culture studies, though limited in number, show that ratios of these forms are affected...

  13. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  14. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island - Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  15. NEFSC 2015 Benthic Habitat Survey (HB1507, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey collects benthic samples using acoustics, nets, and grab samplers. The survey monitors and maps the geological, physical, and biological habitats of the...

  16. St. John Benthic Habitat Mapping - Moderate Depth Ground Validation Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitats of the moderate-depth marine environment in and around the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument were mapped using a combination of...

  17. Vieques, Puerto Rico Benthic Habitat Map - Ground Validation Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  18. Ecology of benthic production in the coastal zone of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    biomass was mainly contributed by the brown mussel Perna indica It is deduced that the benthic standing crop could possibly sustain a high yield of demersal fish catch than what is being exploited at present...

  19. Organic enrichment and benthic fauna–Some ecological consideration.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    and quantity, could act as a food source or as a stress source for the benthic community. Present study further demonstrated the general trend of modeled hypothesis with some variation in tropical condition....

  20. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  1. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuikka, A.I., E-mail: anitat@student.uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Leppänen, M.T., E-mail: Matti.T.Leppanen@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Laboratories/Research and Innovation Laboratory, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Akkanen, J., E-mail: jarkko.akkanen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Sormunen, A.J., E-mail: Arto.Sormunen@mamk.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Leonards, P.E.G., E-mail: pim.leonards@vu.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hattum, B. van, E-mail: bert.vanhattum@deltares.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vliet, L.A. van, E-mail: lavanvliet@hotmail.com [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZ, P.O. Box 207, 9750 AE Haren (Netherlands); Brack, W., E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Smedes, F., E-mail: smedes@recetox.muni.cz [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZ, P.O. Box 207, 9750 AE Haren (Netherlands); and others

    2016-09-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in sediment dry matter or pore water. The predicted tissue concentrations were compared to the measured ones after 28-day laboratory test using oligochaeta worms (Lumbriculus variegatus). The second objective was to compare the bioaccumulation of PAHs and PCBs in the laboratory test with the in situ bioaccumulation of these compounds. Using the traditional organic carbon-water partitioning model, tissue concentrations were greatly overestimated, based on the concentrations in the sediment dry matter. Use of an additional correction factor for black carbon with a two-carbon model, significantly improved the bioaccumulation predictions, thus confirming that black carbon was important in binding the chemicals and reducing their accumulation. The predicted PAH tissue concentrations were, however, high compared to the observed values. The chemical concentrations were most accurately predicted from their freely dissolved pore water concentrations, determined using equilibrium passive sampling. The patterns of PCB and PAH accumulation in sediments for laboratory-exposed L. variegatus were similar to those in field-collected Lumbriculidae worms. Field-collected benthic invertebrates and L. variegatus accumulated less PAHs than PCBs with similar lipophilicity. The biota to sediment accumulation factors of PAHs tended to decrease with increasing sediment organic carbon normalized concentrations. The presented data yields bioconcentration factors (BCF) describing the chemical water-lipid partition, which were found to be higher than the octanol-water partition coefficients, but on a similar level with BCFs drawn from relevant literature. In conclusion, using the two-carbon model method

  2. Worm burden and leukocyte response in Angiostrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats: the influence of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1992-01-01

    Gonadectomized male albino rats aged 7 weeks were given 1.5 mg/kg testosterone propionate daily and inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. The treatment significantly increased the number of larvae and adult worms recovered from the brain and pulmonary arteries, respectively, and the rats exhibited smaller thymus glands. The total numbers of leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and especially eosinophils increased significantly post-infection, but the counts were higher in the untreated infected controls. Presumably, immunosuppressive effects of testosterone may at least partly be responsible for the higher loads of A. malaysiensis worms found in male rats as compared with females in the field.

  3. Acute phase proteins in dogs naturally infected with the Giant Kidney Worm (Dioctophyme renale)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Thomas, Funmilola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dioctophyme renale is a nematode parasite of dogs, usually found in the right kidney, causing severe damage to the renal parenchyma. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the acute phase response in dogs naturally infected with this Giant Kidney Worm and the possible effects...... of nephrectomy on circulating concentrations of select acute phase proteins (APP) such as serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin(HP). Methods: Nephrectomy was performed in infected dogs and the worms were collected for identification. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before surgery...

  4. Shells, holes, worms, high-velocity gas and the z-distribution of gas in galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, R. J.

    The author gives an overview of the current observational understanding of vertically extended gas components in spiral galaxies and the various phenomena which come under such names as shells, holes, worms, and high-velocity gas. For the most part, the focus is on recent high-resolution interferometric studies. The author concentrates on cold gas, and briefly on warm ionized gas, in the Milky Way and a few nearby spirals. Along the way, it is seen how phenomena such as worms and shells may be related to the formation and maintenance of the vertically extended components.

  5. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown ingredie......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown...

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity in selected Antarctic benthic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Moles, Juan; Torrent, Anna; Alcaraz, M. José; Ruhí, Ramon; Avila, Conxita

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic benthos was prospected in search for anti-inflammatory activity in polar benthic invertebrates, in two different geographical areas: deep-bottoms of the Eastern Weddell Sea and shallow-waters of the South Shetland Islands. A total of 36 benthic algae and invertebrate species were selected to perform solubility tests in order to obtain extracts that were soluble at an innocuous ethanol concentration (0.2%) for cell culture, and further test them for anti-inflammatory activity. From t...

  7. Identification of threshold body burdens of metals for the protection of the aquatic ecological status using two benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bervoets, Lieven; De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    In this study accumulated concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in two benthic invertebrate taxa, Chironomus sp. and Tubificidae are related to ecological responses expressed as changes in macro invertebrate communities. In addition critical body burdens were estimated above which ecological quality was always lower than a certain threshold. Data from existing studies on bioaccumulation of the metals in both taxa were combined with different biological water quality indices. For all metal-endpoint combinations threshold values could be calculated above which ecological quality was always low. Safe threshold body burdens could be estimated for both species for all metals although the data set was more extended for Chrionomus sp. with estimated threshold values being 65, 3.2, 10, 57, 6.5, 73 and 490 μg/g dw for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. This study demonstrated that metal accumulation in resistant species such as chironomids and tubificid worms have the potential to be used as predictors of ecological effects in aquatic ecosystems. However, the estimated threshold values have to be validated and supported by more lines of evidence before they can be used by regulators. - Highlights: • Chironomid larvae and Tubificid worms can be used to relate accumulated metals to ecological endpoints. • Ecological water quality, calculated with biotic indices, is always low at high accumulated metal concentrations. • Critical body burdens in chironomids and tubificds could be estimated for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. - Maximal body burdens of metals in two invertebrate species could be estimated above which ecological quality was always low.

  8. Benthic contributions to Adriatic and Mediterranean biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Lazzari, Paolo; Spagnoli, Federico; Bolzon, Giorgio; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2017-04-01

    The 3D biogeochemical BFM-OGSTM implementation currently exploited operationally in the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Services Mediterranean Sea Monitoring and Forecasting Centre (CMEMS-Med-MFC; Lazzari et al., 2010) has been complemented with a benthic component. The approach followed that of (Capet et al 2016) and involved a vertically integrated benthic module accounting for the effect of environmental bottom conditions on diagenetic rates (aerobic mineralization, denitrification, nitrification) through transfer functions as well as the effect of waves and bottom currents on sediment deposition and resuspension. A balanced climatological year is simulated for various values of the resuspension parameters, using specifically calibrated transfer functions for the Adriatic Sea and generic formulations for the rest of the Mediterranean basin. The results serves the mapping of distinct provinces of the Adriatic Sea based on the benthic contributions biogeochemical budgets and the seasonal variability of benthic-pelagic fluxes. The differences with the non-benthic reference simulation are highlighted in details regarding the Adriatic, and more generally for the entire Mediterranean Sea. Lazzari, P., Teruzzi, A., Salon, S., Campagna, S., Calonaci, C., Colella, S., Tonani, M., Crise, A. (2010). Pre-operational short-term forecasts for Mediterranean Sea biogeochemistry. Ocean Science, 6(1), 25-39. Capet, A., Meysman, F. J., Akoumianaki, I., Soetaert, K., & Grégoire, M. (2016). Integrating sediment biogeochemistry into 3D oceanic models: A study of benthic-pelagic coupling in the Black Sea. Ocean Modelling, 101, 83-100.

  9. Modelling benthic biophysical drivers of ecosystem structure and biogeochemical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicholas; Bruggeman, Jorn; Lessin, Gennadi; Allen, Icarus

    2016-04-01

    The fate of carbon deposited at the sea floor is ultimately decided by biophysical drivers that control the efficiency of remineralisation and timescale of carbon burial in sediments. Specifically, these drivers include bioturbation through ingestion and movement, burrow-flushing and sediment reworking, which enhance vertical particulate transport and solute diffusion. Unfortunately, these processes are rarely satisfactorily resolved in models. To address this, a benthic model that explicitly describes the vertical position of biology (e.g., habitats) and biogeochemical processes is presented that includes biological functionality and biogeochemical response capturing changes in ecosystem structure, benthic-pelagic fluxes and biodiversity on inter-annual timescales. This is demonstrated by the model's ability to reproduce temporal variability in benthic infauna, vertical pore water nutrients and pelagic-benthic solute fluxes compared to in-situ data. A key advance is the replacement of bulk parameterisation of bioturbation by explicit description of the bio-physical processes responsible. This permits direct comparison with observations and determination of key parameters in experiments. Crucially, the model resolves the two-way interaction between sediment biogeochemistry and ecology, allowing exploration of the benthic response to changing environmental conditions, the importance of infaunal functional traits in shaping benthic ecological structure and the feedback the resulting bio-physical processes exert on pore water nutrient profiles. The model is actively being used to understand shelf sea carbon cycling, the response of the benthos to climatic change, food provision and other societal benefits.

  10. Toxicity and toxicokinetics for benthic organisms ; II: QSARs for base-line toxicity to the midge Chironomus riparius and the tubificid oligochaete worm Branchiura sowerbyi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roghair CJ; Buijze A; Huys MPA; Wolters-Balk MAH; Yedema ESE; Hermens JLM; ECO; RITOX

    1996-01-01

    Acute toxiciteitstoetsen werden uitgevoerd met larven van de dansmug Chironomius riparius en de oligochaet Branchiura sowerbyi en negen narcotisch werkende organische stoffen. Om LC50-waarden te kunnen voorspellen werden Kwantitatieve Structuur Activiteit Relaties (QSARs) afgeleid. De gevonden

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BENTHIC (Benthic habitat polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains known locations of patchy and continuous seagrass and oyster reef habitat for the Upper Coast of Texas benthic habitat data. This data set...

  12. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water

  13. Biology and ecology of the ``Pompeii worm'' (Alvinella pompejana Desbruyères and Laubier), a normal dweller of an extreme deep-sea environment: A synthesis of current knowledge and recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbruyères, D.; Chevaldonné, P.; Alayse, A.-M.; Jollivet, D.; Lallier, F. H.; Jouin-Toulmond, C.; Zal, F.; Sarradin, P.-M.; Cosson, R.; Caprais, J.-C.; Arndt, C.; O'Brien, J.; Guezennec, J.; Hourdez, S.; Riso, R.; Gaill, F.; Laubier, L.; Toulmond, A.

    1998-01-01

    Alvinella pompejana, the "Pompeii worm" lives on active hydrothermal edifices at deep-sea vents of the East Pacific Rise. The physical and chemical patterns of its microhabitat were determined from temperature probe measurements, temperature time series, and on-board and shore-based chemical analyses based on discrete sampling (pH, H 2S, CO 2, CH 4, S 2O 2-3, Ca, Mg, Cu, Cd, Zn). The microhabitat is characterised by high temporal and microscale spatial variability, with temperature values in the range of 20°-45°C at the immediate periphery of tubes but reaching higher, still undetermined, values inside the tubes. The difference observed between in vitro temperature limits for the stability of biomolecules and metabolic rates, and suggested in situ conditions seems to indicate a significant protective role of biological interfaces (tubes and cuticle). Temporal instability possibly also plays an important role in the ability for these worms to colonise such an extreme habitat. The functional role of dominant epibiotic bacteria is discussed in the light of recent biochemical and molecular data: the tube-worm-bacteria system can be considered as a symbiotic entity where carbon is probably metabolised and recycled. Sulphide detoxification occurs by oxidation at the gill level and possibly at the intracellular haemoglobin level. Heavy metals, ingested or absorbed, are trapped in spherocrystals and bound to metallothionein-like proteins. Anatomical, physiological and molecular adaptations to hypoxia allow the worm to successfully colonise the chimneys. A. pompejana lives in an ephemeral environment and must reproduce and disperse accordingly. It is a gonochoric species that displays a pseucopulatory behaviour allowing transfer of sperm to female spermathecae, thus avoiding dispersion of the gametes. The size of the oocytes suggests a lecithotrophic or benthic development. The population size structure is polymodal, indicating discontinuous recruitment. Population

  14. {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N shifts in benthic invertebrates exposed to sewage from McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, Kathleen E. [Canadian Musem of Nature, P.O. Box 3443 Station D, Ottawa, Ont., K1P 6P4 (Canada)]. E-mail kconlan@mus-nature.ca; Rau, Greg H. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kvitek, Rikk G. [Earth Systems Science and Policy, California State University Monterey Bay, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    In an effort to identify biomonitors for contamination of Antarctic marine benthos by sewage, this study determines whether the US Antarctic Program's McMurdo Station produces a benthic sewage footprint and whether resident megafauna are assimilating sewage-derived material. We identified strong C and N isotopic gradients in benthic sediment as a function of downstream distance from McMurdo Station's point-source sewage addition. Sediment C and N isotope ratios approached marine background levels at the sampling end-point 612 m downcurrent. Based on isotope abundances in their tissues, at least some sewage C and N were assimilated by the sedentary, suspension feeding soft coral Alcyonium antarcticum, ascidian Cnemidocarpa verrucosa and bivalve Laternula elliptica. However, as inferred by tissue-sediment differences in downstream isotope trends, such assimilation was not in proportion to sewage exposure and input, therefore implying non-generalist feeding behavior by these species. In contrast, the motile, generalist feeding sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, sea star Odontaster validus and ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus showed isotopic evidence of sewage C and N assimilation roughly in proportion to sewage input. We recommend these generalist feeders for further use as biomonitors at this site now that sewage treatment has been implemented. As these species are circumpolar in distribution, they may also prove useful elsewhere in the Antarctic.

  15. Initial Studies on Worm Propagation in Manets for Future Army Combat Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Robert G

    2004-01-01

    ...). According to the recent DARPA BAA - Defense Against Cyber Attacks on MANETS (DARPA, 2004), One of the most severe cyber threats is expected to be worms with arbitrary payload that can infect and saturate MANET-based networks on the order of seconds...

  16. Part 4: Plan of shaking table test of worm tank model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The major purpose of the shaking table test described was to measure the sloshing characteristics of a worm tank. The outline of worm tank model is shown it this presentation. The tank walls consist of 240 degree arc and 60 degree arc. These arc walls, roof and base are made in clear plastics which have the thickness of 5 mm. and 10 mm (base). These plastic plates are connected with welding. The worm tank model is 125 cm length in long, 50 cm wide, 30 cm high. The capacity is 166.4 cubic cm. The tank is set on shaking table. The horizontal shaking directions are changeable. In the tests, the water pressures and accelerations, are measured. The sensor positions are chosen and shown and video records are used to observe the sloshing modes. The water heights were chosen as follows: 6 cm, 12 m, 15 cm, 18 cm, 21 cm, 24 cm, 27 cm for each shaking direction. The worm tank model is excited by sloshing resonance sinusoidal waves, manual sweep waves, earthquake waves etc. The test data, such as sloshing frequencies and modes are compared with the theoretical data of rectangular tanks that have same water height

  17. Schistosomicidal Activity of Alkyl-phenols from the Cashew Anacardium occidentale against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Tavane A; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; de Souza, Julia M; Tavares, Denise C; Andrade E Silva, Márcio L; Cunha, Wilson R; Groppo, Milton; Januário, Ana H; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2016-11-23

    Bioassay-guided study of the ethanol extract from the cashew Anacardium occidentale furnished cardol triene (1), cardol diene (2), anacardic acid triene (3), cardol monoene (4), anacardic acid diene (5), 2-methylcardol triene (6), and 2-methylcardol diene (7). 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments and HRMS analysis confirmed the structures of compounds 1-7. Compounds 2 and 7 were active against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms in vitro, with LC 50 values of 32.2 and 14.5 μM and selectivity indices of 6.1 and 21.2, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of the tegument of male worms in the presence of compound 7 at 25 μM after 24 h of incubation showed severe damage as well as peeling and reduction in the number of spine tubercles. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed swollen mitochondrial membrane, vacuoles, and altered tegument in worms incubated with compound 2 (25 μM after 24 h). Worms incubated with compound 7 (25 μM after 24 h) had lysed interstitial tissue, degenerated mitochondria, and drastically altered tegument. Together, the results indicated that compound 7 presents promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity.

  18. Molecular Phylogeny of Echiuran Worms (Phylum: Annelida) Reveals Evolutionary Pattern of Feeding Mode and Sexual Dimorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Yoichi; Kato, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI) of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs). Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms. PMID:23457618

  19. Glycogen metabolism in Schistosoma mansoni worms after their isolation from the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiolens, A.G.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms rapidly degrade their endogenous glycogen stores immediately after isolation from the host. In NCTC 109 or in a diphasic culture medium the glycogen levels slowly recovered again after the initial decrease. The rapid degradation of glycogen could be prevented, even in

  20. Synthesis of PbTe nanocubes, worm-like structures and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 5. Synthesis of PbTe nanocubes, worm-like structures and nanoparticles by simple thermal evaporation method. L Kungumadevi ... Sathyamoorthy1. PG and Research Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, India ...

  1. School based mass de-worming initiative in south-west Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several studies have assessed the impacts of mass de-worming with conflicting results. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antihelminthic mass chemotherapy on changes in growth indices and school absenteeism. Materials and methods: Albendazole tablets were administered by school teachers to pupils ...

  2. In vivo assay of IgE activities on the expulsion of intestinal adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    A physiological role of immunoglobulin E (IgE) is to promote parasitic helminth expulsion. This assertion is largely based on a series of studies carried out by Capron's laboratory. They observed that IgE is an essential component of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni larvae both in vitro and in vivo. Then, another group reported that IgE-deficient mice show higher worm burdens than wild-type (WT) mice when mice are infected with Trichinella spiralis. Although these studies indicate anti-helminth activities of IgE targeted on larvae forms, they do not prove the fighting effects of IgE on adult worms. In contrast, a recent study demonstrates an expelling activity of IgE for adult worms through an adoptive transfer of immune serum-derived IgE into Strongyloides venezuelensis-infected mice. Here, I describe how IgE is purified from S. venezuelensis-immune sera and is transferred into infected mice to examine its effect on worm expulsion. This method will be used to advance our understanding the mechanism of S. venezuelensis expulsion and explore S. venezuelensis antigens recognized by IgE. Moreover, adoptive transfers of IgE purified from immune sera will be applicable to other helminth infection models to investigate physiological roles of IgE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Survey of the impact of Guinea worm eradication program in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campaign for the eradication of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) began in Ebonyi State in the 1980s. A combination of interventions consisting of construction of bore holes,chemical treatment of unsafe water sources with temephos, distribution of filters, health education, social mobilization and active surveillance ...

  4. A new worm infiltrating the human cornea: A report of 3 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To characterize a new species of parasitic nematode that triggers uveitis. Observations: Three previously healthy, relatively young people each contracted a corneal stromal nematode that, upon surgical removal and examination of one of the worms, did not match any known nematodes. Clinical...

  5. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) in the Bume (Nyangaton) people of South Omo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemaneh, L; Taticheff, S

    1993-07-01

    A village-to-village search for active dracunculiasis cases was carried out in an endemic area of the Bume (Nyangaton) tribe of South Omo Region, Ethiopia. A total of 21 cases, of which 6, 5, and 10 had pre-emergent, emergent and complicated Guinea worm disease, respectively, were identified. Twenty-two worms, ranging from 1-3 per patient, were removed mainly from the lower limbs; worm appearance seems to be associated more with the right limb. Adults between the ages of 20-30 years are highly affected and infection appears to be sex-related as 14/21 (66.7%) of the cases are females. Water procured from water-holes drug in dry river beds provides an ideal situation for the transmission of dracunculiasis amongst the tribesmen. The knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the Bume people towards the disease and the public health significance of dracunculiasis are discussed in relation to the current goal of the national and global Guinea worm eradication programme.

  6. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J M

    1997-07-01

    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  7. Worm Algorithm simulations of the hole dynamics in the t-J model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokof'ev, Nikolai; Ruebenacker, Oliver

    2001-03-01

    In the limit of small J 0.4t there is an ongoing argument that at smaller J spin-charge separation is still possible. Worm algorithm Monte Carlo simulations of the hole Green function for 0.1 hole spectral function in the thermodynamic limit.

  8. The World of the Worm-2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. The World of the Worm - 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. S Mahadevan. Research News Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 89-94. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. From early lessons to new frontiers: the worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngman, Elaine M; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the tiny soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNA interference pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology.

  10. A case of Fasciola hepatica infection mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and ITS-1 sequencing of the worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Kyun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Yoon Suk; Hwang, In Kyeom; Lim, Hyemi; Cho, Jaeeun; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.

  11. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  12. The life-cycle of the compost worm (Oligochaeta) | Venter | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the full potential of the compost worm Eisenia fetida as waste processor and as source of protein, the life-cycle of this species had to be studied thoroughly. The development, growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida were studied on cattle manure under favourable conditions of moisture, temperature and ...

  13. From early lessons to new frontiers: The worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Youngman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past twenty years, the tiny soil nematode C. elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNAi pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology.

  14. Working towards New Drugs against Parasitic Worms in a Public-Development Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Sarah; Gasser, Robin B

    2018-01-01

    There is a clear need to develop new and inexpensive drugs to alleviate diseases caused by parasitic worms in animals and humans worldwide. In this article we discuss the roles and advantages of working in public-private partnerships (PPPs) - among academia, industry, and philanthropy - to enable anthelmintic drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Worms under stress: C. elegans stress response and its relevance to complex human disease and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.; Snoek, L.B.; Bono, de M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms have stress response pathways, components of which share homology with players in complex human disease pathways. Research on stress response in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has provided detailed insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex human

  16. Fabrication of worm-like Ag2S nanocrystals under mediation of protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabrication of worm-like Ag2S nanocrystals under mediation of protein. DEZHI QIN1, LI ZHANG1,∗, XIAN DU1, GUANGRUI YANG2 and QIUXIA ZHANG1. 1College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Pingdingshan University, Pingdingshan 467000, China. 2Institute of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, North ...

  17. Unravelling the protein preference of aquatic worms during waste activated sludge degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, S.L.; Khadem, A.F.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Worm predation (WP) by Tubifex tubifex was investigated using waste activated sludge (WAS) as the substrate. In order to better understand the sludge degradation mechanisms during WP, the activity of five common hydrolytic enzymes was determined and compared among the initial feed activated

  18. Some parasitic worms in freshwater fishes and fish-predators from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report concerns a collection of parasitic worms from South Africa, and contains a new species of monogenean, Gyrodactylus transvaalensis, six species of adult trematodes, including a new species of Phyllodistomum.P. van der waali, two metacercariae of the Family Clinostomidae and three of the Order Strigeida, ...

  19. Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa l. lapponica eat polychaete worms wherever they winter in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; Hidayati, Nur Annis; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Capsule: Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability. Aims: To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  20. WormQTL—public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, L.B.; Velde, van der K.J.; Arends, D.; Li, Y.; Beyer, A.; Elvin, M.; Fisher, J.; Hajnal, A.; Hengartner, M.; Poulin, G.; Rodriguez Sanchez, M.; Schmid, T.; Schrimpf, S.; Xue, F.; Jansen, R.C.; Kammenga, J.E.; Swertz, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the

  1. In-vitro antihelmintic effects of two Kenyan plant extracts against Heamonchus contortus adult worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gachoki Kareru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was on evidence based information that Entada leptostachya Harms and Rapanea rhododendroides (Gil Mez were used by the herbalists in Mbeere County, Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal worms. The plants’ aqueous and solvent extracts were tested for their in-vitro antihelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus adult worms. Of the eight plant extracts investigated, four extracts exhibited adult worm mortality greater than 50% while the other four afforded mortality ranging between 60-77%. E. leptostachya methanol extract was the most active (77%. Albendazole was used as a positive control drug while Goodwin’s physiological solution was used as negative control. Methanol extracts for both plants exhibited the highest anthelmintic activity at the test concentrations of 25mg/ml. Although R. rhododendroides was ranked third in general usage by the herbalists, E. leptostachya was solely used for the treatment of intestinal worms. The present results demonstrated that E. leptostachya and R. rhododendroides plant extracts had antihelmintic agents, and justified their traditional use as alternative drugs for the treatment of heamonchosis in ruminants.

  2. Benthic algal communities : recovery from experimental acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.A.; Findlay, D.L.; Kasian, S.E.M. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.; Baulch, H.M. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada); Armstrong, L.M. [Ducks Unlimited Canada, Stonewall, MB (Canada). Inst. for Wetland and Waterfowl Research; McNicol, D.K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Vinebrooke, R.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2009-11-15

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that chemical recovery promotes the rapid recovery of benthic algal communities in formerly acidified lakes. The study was conducted at an experimental lake in Ontario over a 10 year period of pH recovery that followed a 10 year period of experimental acidification from a pH of 6.7 to 4.5. A reference lake in the region was also studied to account for regional changes during the study period. Changes in the epilithon on rock surfaces included lower cyanobacterial biomass following the acidification as well as increases in diatoms and greens. Acidification-induced increases in respiration prevented epilithic metabolic recovery. Prior declines in photosynthesis were reversed. Blooms of metaphytic filamentous green algae with a higher pH occurred during the recovery period. The recovery of many aggregate functional and taxonomic properties lagged behind reductions in acidity. Incomplete chemical recovery and the absence of functionally important biota were attributed to incomplete algal recovery at the lake. 59 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Microplastic Effect Thresholds for Freshwater Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers, and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates with different species traits, using a wide range of microplastic concentrations. Standardized 28 days single species bioassays were performed under environmentally relevant exposure conditions using polystyrene microplastics (20–500 μm) mixed with sediment at concentrations ranging from 0 to 40% sediment dry weight (dw). Microplastics caused no effects on the survival of Gammarus pulex, Hyalella azteca, Asellus aquaticus, Sphaerium corneum, and Tubifex spp. and no effects were found on the reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus. No significant differences in growth were found for H. azteca, A. aquaticus, S. corneum, L. variegatus, and Tubifex spp. However, G. pulex showed a significant reduction in growth (EC10 = 1.07% sediment dw) and microplastic uptake was proportional with microplastic concentrations in sediment. These results indicate that although the risks of environmentally realistic concentrations of microplastics may be low, they still may affect the biodiversity and the functioning of aquatic communities which after all also depend on the sensitive species. PMID:29337537

  4. WormSizer: high-throughput analysis of nematode size and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Moore

    Full Text Available The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or optical density as it only assumes radial symmetry. This open source software is written as a plugin for the well-known image-processing framework Fiji/ImageJ. It may therefore be extended easily. We evaluated the technical performance of this framework, and we used it to analyze growth and shape of several canonical Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in a developmental time series. We confirm quantitatively that a Dumpy (Dpy mutant is short and fat and that a Long (Lon mutant is long and thin. We show that daf-2 insulin-like receptor mutants are larger than wild-type upon hatching but grow slow, and WormSizer can distinguish dauer larvae from normal larvae. We also show that a Small (Sma mutant is actually smaller than wild-type at all stages of larval development. WormSizer works with Uncoordinated (Unc and Roller (Rol mutants as well, indicating that it can be used with mutants despite behavioral phenotypes. We used our complete data set to perform a power analysis, giving users a sense of how many images are needed to detect different effect sizes. Our analysis confirms and extends on existing phenotypic characterization of well-characterized mutants, demonstrating the utility and robustness of WormSizer.

  5. PCB concentrations in intertidal sipunculan (Phylum Sipuncula) marine worms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spongberg, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Specimens of the sipunculans Phascolosoma perlucens, Antillesoma antillarum, and Sipunculus nudus, were collected for PCB analysis in three coastal embayments of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in October 2005. After collection the worms were kept in cool sea water and transferred to the laboratory for freeze drying. Half of the specimens of S. nudus were purified in filtered sea water for 72 h before freeze drying. The whole worm sample was ground, using a mortar and pestle prior to being extracted with dichloromethane solvent. The extract was cleaned using a florisil column and analyzed using a 6890 Hewlett-Packard gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Recovery efficiencies averaged between 72 and 80 %. Data are not corrected for blank or recovery efficiencies. Concentration data were calculated based on comparison with standards for Arochlor 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254 (Supelco, Inc.). No worm samples were identified with six of more chlorine atoms. However, the higher chlorinated congeners were identified in the standards. Therefore, the lack of chlorination in the worms was not an analytical artifact. The sum of identifiable PCBs ranged from a barely discernible 0.01 ng/g dry wt in an A. antillarum sample from Bahia de Culebra to 67.71 ng/g dry wt in a P. perlucens sample obtained near the Rio Rincon in the inner Golfo Dulce. S. nudus worm samples from the Cocorocas sand flat in the Golfo de Nicoya had relatively high concentrations of PCBs whether they were purified or not. The samples from Costa Rica are low in PCBs, especially compared to the marine sediment samples measured previously in Costa Rica. This was the first attempt to identify and quantify the presence of PCBs in any marine organisms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. (author) [es

  6. The ecology and distribution of benthic foraminifera at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (SW Barents Sea slope)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenburg, J. E.; Mackensen, A.

    2009-08-01

    To investigate a possible influence of submarine methane seepage on benthic foraminiferal communities, Rose Bengal stained ("live") and empty tests of benthic foraminifera were studied from the sediment surface down to 15 cm sub-bottom depth of 12 sites at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV). In addition, one reference site well away from the seep sites, but from similar water depths and the same general hydrographic setting was occupied for comparison. The HMMV is located at 1265 m water depth on the SW Barents Sea continental slope. Distinct living foraminiferal associations at the HMMV are linked to specific sedimentary, microbial, and macrofaunal habitats. In the center of the crater, and in crater areas completely covered by bacterial mats, Cassidulina reniforme is the only, albeit rare, living species. Below the top few millimeters, sediments are anoxic and devoid of living specimens. At the rim of the mud volcano, at sites densely populated by pogonophoran tube worms, three benthic foraminiferal associations are found; (i) a Fontbotia wuellerstorfi-Lobatula lobatula association living attached to the upper parts of pogonophoran tubes, which protrude into oxic water, (ii) a diverse Cassidulina neoteretis association populating dysoxic sediments of the surface centimeter, and (iii) a species-poor Bolivina pseudopunctata association colonizing the subsurface sediments down to four centimeters. Generally, we did not find endemic or seep indicative species or associations at the HMMV. However, the HMMV live faunas dominated by B. pseudopunctata are not found at the reference site nor are they described from comparable water depths and environments without gas seepages from the Norwegian-Greenland Seas. In the center and outer rim of the mud volcano, a C. neoteretis-Reophax guttifer dead association, similar to the one at the reference site, characterizes an assemblage of strongly corroded and partly displaced tests. At bacterial mat sites, a C. reniforme dead

  7. Marine benthic faunal successional stages and related sedimentary activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Rosenberg

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief review of successional stages and activity of benthic soft-bottom communities. Benthic communities was first described by Petersen in the 1910s and further developed by Molander, Thorson and Margalef. Successional stages of benthic communities chance in a predictable way in relation to environmental disturbance and food availability. Food supply to the bottom can occur as a vertical flux, but transport through lateral advection is more important in some areas. While at the bottom, the infauna processes the food in many different ways, and the feeding modes can be categorised into more than 20 functional groups, but fewer are present in brackish water. This categorisation is based on animal mobility and where and how they ingest the food. Animal activity in the sediment, bioturbation, has a significant effect on redox conditions and diagenetic processes. Structures in the sediment due to infaunal presence and activity can be observed in situ by sediment profile imaging, and the biogenic structures and redox conditions can be parameterised and have been shown to correlate to benthic community successional stages. The largest threat to benthic faunal biodiversity is the spread of near-bottom oxygen deficiency in many enclosed are stratified coastal areas.

  8. Benthic Habitat Maps for Rose Atoll Marine National Monument in American Samoa from 2004 to 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps for Rose Atoll, American Samoa were derived from high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery for 2004, 2006, and 2010. The benthic habitat...

  9. Benthic ecological mapping of the Ayeyarwady delta shelf off Myanmar, using foraminiferal assemblages

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.

    Information on benthic ecologies is a prerequisite to evaluate marine resources, their management and monitoring the impact arising from their exploitation. In the present study, benthic foraminiferal distributions from 124 surface sediment samples...

  10. [Chronobiological studies on effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) against adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Chappell, L H

    1998-01-01

    To study the action mode of cyclosporin A (CsA) against Schistosoma mansoni in vitro. MF1 mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for 6 weeks when the adult worms were recovered by portal perfusion. The male worms of S. mansoni recovered were exposed to varying concentrations of CsA at 8, 16, and 24 h in vitro. Drug induced damage to the male worm surface was chrono-biologically observed throughout these experiments by SEM. After the male worms of S. mansoni were incubated with 1 microgram/ml CsA for 8-24 h, the tegument showed swelling of ridges with appearance of holes on their surface and detachment of a part of spines. The above damage of the tegument became more evident in male worms after incubation with 10, 15, 20 micrograms/ml CsA for 8-24 h. Moreover, incubation of male worms with 25 micrograms/ml CsA for 8-24 h resulted in significant deformation and disruption of tegument, rupture of ridges and detachment of spines. The tegumental damage of male worms of S. mansoni was dose- and time-dependent. The antischistosomal action of CsA is direct, the schistosome tegument appears to be the main site for CsA attack.

  11. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  12. Effects of temperature on the rheological behavior of worm-like micelles in a mixed nonionic surfactant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizaki, Kaname; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on the rheological behavior of worm-like micelles in a nonionic surfactant system consisting of polyoxyethylene (10) phytosterol (PhyEO(10))/glyceryl monocaprylate (GFA-C(8))/Water. First, the phase diagram of a PhyEO(10)/GFA-C(8)/Water system was examined when the weight ratio, R, of GFA-C(8) to the total surfactants was changed keeping the total concentration of the surfactants at 5 wt%. The formation of worm-like micelles was confirmed over a wide temperature range. Next, the effect of temperature on the rheological properties of the worm-like micelles was examined. From steady-flow viscosity measurements of the worm-like micelles, it was found that the zero-shear viscosity (eta(0)) gave a maximum value more than 1,000 times greater than the minimum value in the temperature range 20-50 degrees C. Further, the temperature at which the maximum eta(0) was observed decreased with increasing R value. These results indicate that there is an optimal temperature at which the entanglement of worm-like micelles is at its greatest. From dynamic viscoelasticity measurements, it was shown that the viscoelastic behavior observed for the worm-like micelles was consistent with the Maxwell model, which is the basic model for a viscoelastic body. In addition, the plateau modulus (G(0)), which reflects the volume fraction of entangled worm-like micelles, gradually increased with increasing temperature, while the relaxation time (tau), which reflects the disentanglement time of the worm-like micelles, rapidly decreased with increasing temperature. From these results, it was clarified that, for a nonionic worm-like micelle, tau influences the change in eta(0) more strongly than G(0).

  13. Evaluation of integrated sludge worm and catfish farming with biofloc system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Pardiansyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCurrently, supply of sludge worm (Tubifex sp. merely came from wild, so that it could not meet demand for fish hatchery. Additionally, harvest from the wild did not have a quality assurance, due to the possibility of sludge worm becoming an agent of disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the production of sludge worm culture by utilizing catfish culture waste (Clarias sp. in bioflok system. In this system, water from catfish culture media flowed into sludge worm culture media using recirculation systems. This study used a completely randomized design with four treatments and two replications, in which treatment A (addition of catfish culture waste from intensive system, treatment B (addition of catfish culture waste from biofloc system, treatment C (the addition of fermented chicken manure at the beginning of experiment as negative control, and treatment D (addition of fermented chicken manure at the beginning of experiment and then every five days as positive control. The results showed that the highest production was obtained by treatment B at biomass growth of 0.97 kg/m2 and sludge worm density of 388.000 individu/m2. Keywords: sludge worm, biofloc, chicken manure, catfish, catfish culture waste  ABSTRAK Saat ini pasokan cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. hanya berasal dari alam, sehingga belum mencukupi permintaan untuk kegiatan pembenihan ikan. Selain itu, hasil tangkapan dari alam tidak memiliki jaminan kualitas, karena cacing sutra dapat menjadi agen penyakit. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi hasil produksi budidaya cacing sutra dengan memanfaatkan limbah budidaya ikan lele (Clarias sp. sistem bioflok. Pada sistem ini, air dari media budidaya ikan lele dialirkan ke media pemeliharaan cacing sutra menggunakan sistem resirkulasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan dua ulangan, yaitu perlakuan A (pemberian limbah ikan lele sistem intensif, perlakuan B (pemberian limbah ikan lele

  14. Freshwater springs on intertidal sand flats cause a switch in dominance among polychaete worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zipperle, A; Reise, K

    Effects of freshwater seepage on benthic macrofauna were investigated on the sandy tidal flats near the island of Sylt (German Wadden Sea) in 2002. Several permanent seepage areas (50 to 200 m offshore; up to 200 m 2 in area) were examined, in which salinity ranged from 22-29 outside to 0-16 psu

  15. Benthic plastic debris in marine and fresh water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Patricia L

    2015-08-01

    This review provides a discussion of the published literature concerning benthic plastic debris in ocean, sea, lake, estuary and river bottoms throughout the world. Although numerous investigations of shoreline, surface and near-surface plastic debris provide important information on plastic types, distribution, accumulation, and degradation, studies of submerged plastic debris have been sporadic in the past and have become more prominent only recently. The distribution of benthic debris is controlled mainly by combinations of urban proximity and its association with fishing-related activities, geomorphology, hydrological conditions, and river input. High density plastics, biofouled products, polymers with mineral fillers or adsorbed minerals, and plastic-metal composites all have the potential to sink. Once deposited on the bottoms of water basins and channels, plastics are shielded from UV light, thus slowing the degradation process significantly. Investigations of the interactions between benthic plastic debris and bottom-dwelling organisms will help shed light on the potential dangers of submerged plastic litter.

  16. Clinch River remedial investigation task 9 -- benthic macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, E.M. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of Task 9 of the TVA/Department of Energy (DOE) Interagency Agreement supporting DOE`s Clinch River Remedial Investigation. Species lists and densities (numbers/m{sup 2}) of benthic macroinvertebrates sampled at 16 sites in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek embayments of upper Watts Bar Reservoir near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in March, 1994, are presented and briefly discussed. Data are also analyzed to assess and compare quality of benthic communities at each site, according to methods developed for TVA`s Reservoir Vital Signs Monitoring Program. Results of this study will be incorporated with other program tasks in a comprehensive report prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1995, which will, in part, assess the effect of sediment contaminants on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Watts Bar Reservoir.

  17. Effect of settled diatom-aggregates on benthic nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Ugo; Thamdrup, Bo; Stief, Peter; Glud, Ronnie N

    2018-01-01

    The marine sediment hosts a mosaic of microhabitats. Recently it has been demonstrated that the settlement of phycodetrital aggregates can induce local changes in the benthic O 2 distribution due to confined enrichment of organic material and alteration of the diffusional transport. Here, we show how this microscale O 2 shift substantially affects benthic nitrogen cycling. In sediment incubations, the settlement of diatom-aggregates markedly enhanced benthic O 2 and NO3- consumption and stimulated NO2- and NH4+ production. Oxygen microprofiles revealed the rapid development of anoxic niches within and underneath the aggregates. During 120 h following the settling of the aggregates, denitrification of NO3- from the overlying water increased from 13.5 μmol m -2 h -1 to 24.3 μmol m -2 h -1 , as quantified by 15 N enrichment experiment. Simultaneously, N 2 production from coupled nitrification-denitrification decreased from 33.4 μmol m -2 h -1 to 25.9 μmol m -2 h -1 , probably due to temporary inhibition of the benthic nitrifying community. The two effects were of similar magnitude and left the total N 2 production almost unaltered. At the aggregate surface, nitrification was, conversely, very efficient in oxidizing NH4+ liberated by mineralization of the aggregates. The produced NO3- was preferentially released into the overlying water and only a minor fraction contributed to denitrification activity. Overall, our data indicate that the abrupt change in O 2 microdistribution caused by aggregates stimulates denitrification of NO3- from the overlying water, and loosens the coupling between benthic nitrification and denitrification both in time and space. The study contributes to expanding the conceptual and quantitative understanding of how nitrogen cycling is regulated in dynamic benthic environments.

  18. Effect of settled diatom‐aggregates on benthic nitrogen cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamdrup, Bo; Stief, Peter; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The marine sediment hosts a mosaic of microhabitats. Recently it has been demonstrated that the settlement of phycodetrital aggregates can induce local changes in the benthic O2 distribution due to confined enrichment of organic material and alteration of the diffusional transport. Here, we show how this microscale O2 shift substantially affects benthic nitrogen cycling. In sediment incubations, the settlement of diatom‐aggregates markedly enhanced benthic O2 and NO3− consumption and stimulated NO2− and NH4+ production. Oxygen microprofiles revealed the rapid development of anoxic niches within and underneath the aggregates. During 120 h following the settling of the aggregates, denitrification of NO3− from the overlying water increased from 13.5 μmol m−2 h−1 to 24.3 μmol m−2 h−1, as quantified by 15N enrichment experiment. Simultaneously, N2 production from coupled nitrification‐denitrification decreased from 33.4 μmol m−2 h−1 to 25.9 μmol m−2 h−1, probably due to temporary inhibition of the benthic nitrifying community. The two effects were of similar magnitude and left the total N2 production almost unaltered. At the aggregate surface, nitrification was, conversely, very efficient in oxidizing NH4+ liberated by mineralization of the aggregates. The produced NO3− was preferentially released into the overlying water and only a minor fraction contributed to denitrification activity. Overall, our data indicate that the abrupt change in O2 microdistribution caused by aggregates stimulates denitrification of NO3− from the overlying water, and loosens the coupling between benthic nitrification and denitrification both in time and space. The study contributes to expanding the conceptual and quantitative understanding of how nitrogen cycling is regulated in dynamic benthic environments. PMID:29456269

  19. Benthic Light Availability Improves Predictions of Riverine Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, L.; Cohen, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Light is a fundamental control on photosynthesis, and often the only control strongly correlated with gross primary production (GPP) in streams and rivers; yet it has received far less attention than nutrients. Because benthic light is difficult to measure in situ, surrogates such as open sky irradiance are often used. Several studies have now refined methods to quantify canopy and water column attenuation of open sky light in order to estimate the amount of light that actually reaches the benthos. Given the additional effort that measuring benthic light requires, we should ask if benthic light always improves our predictions of GPP compared to just open sky irradiance. We use long-term, high-resolution dissolved oxygen, turbidity, dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and irradiance data from streams and rivers in north-central Florida, US across gradients of size and color to build statistical models of benthic light that predict GPP. Preliminary results on a large, clear river show only modest model improvements over open sky irradiance, even in heavily canopied reaches with pulses of tannic water. However, in another spring-fed river with greater connectivity to adjacent wetlands - and hence larger, more frequent pulses of tannic water - the model improved dramatically with the inclusion of fDOM (model R2 improved from 0.28 to 0.68). River shade modeling efforts also suggest that knowing benthic light will greatly enhance our ability to predict GPP in narrower, forested streams flowing in particular directions. Our objective is to outline conditions where an assessment of benthic light conditions would be necessary for riverine metabolism studies or management strategies.

  20. Louisiana waterthrush and benthic macroinvertebrate response to shale gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Frantz, Mack W.; Becker, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Because shale gas development is occurring over large landscapes and consequently is affecting many headwater streams, an understanding of its effects on headwater-stream faunal communities is needed. We examined effects of shale gas development (well pads and associated infrastructure) on Louisiana waterthrush Parkesia motacilla and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 12 West Virginia headwater streams in 2011. Streams were classed as impacted (n = 6) or unimpacted (n = 6) by shale gas development. We quantified waterthrush demography (nest success, clutch size, number of fledglings, territory density), a waterthrush Habitat Suitability Index, a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol habitat index, and benthic macroinvertebrate metrics including a genus-level stream-quality index for each stream. We compared each benthic metric between impacted and unimpacted streams with a Student's t-test that incorporated adjustments for normalizing data. Impacted streams had lower genus-level stream-quality index scores; lower overall and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness; fewer intolerant taxa, more tolerant taxa, and greater density of 0–3-mm individuals (P ≤ 0.10). We then used Pearson correlation to relate waterthrush metrics to benthic metrics across the 12 streams. Territory density (no. of territories/km of stream) was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores; greater density of all taxa and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa; and greater biomass. Clutch size was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores. Nest survival analyses (n = 43 nests) completed with Program MARK suggested minimal influence of benthic metrics compared with nest stage and Habitat Suitability Index score. Although our study spanned only one season, our results suggest that shale gas development affected waterthrush and benthic communities in the headwater streams we studied. Thus, these ecological effects of

  1. DNA extraction from benthic Cyanobacteria: comparative assessment and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaget, V; Keulen, A; Lau, M; Monis, P; Brookes, J D

    2017-01-01

    Benthic Cyanobacteria produce toxic and odorous compounds similar to their planktonic counterparts, challenging the quality of drinking water supplies. The biofilm that benthic algae and other micro-organisms produce is a complex and protective matrix. Monitoring to determine the abundance and identification of Cyanobacteria, therefore, relies on molecular techniques, with the choice of DNA isolation technique critical. This study investigated which DNA extraction method is optimal for DNA recovery in order to guarantee the best DNA yield for PCR-based analysis of benthic Cyanobacteria. The conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compared with five commercial kits, with the addition of chemical and physical cell-lysis steps also trialled. The efficacy of the various methods was evaluated by measuring the quantity and quality of DNA by UV spectrophotometry and by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using Cyanobacteria-specific primers. The yield and quality of DNA retrieved with the commercial kits was significantly higher than that of DNA obtained with the phenol-chloroform protocol. Kits including a physical cell-lysis step, such as the MO BIO Power Soil and Biofilm kits, were the most efficient for DNA isolation from benthic Cyanobacteria. These commercial kits allow greater recovery and the elimination of dangerous chemicals for DNA extraction, making them the method of choice for the isolation of DNA from benthic mats. They also facilitate the extraction of DNA from benthic Cyanobacteria, which can help to improve the characterization of Cyanobacteria in environmental studies using qPCRs or population composition analysis using next-generation sequencing. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Fish stomach contents in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TH. Tupinambás

    Full Text Available The choice of sampling gears to assess benthic macroinvertebrate communities depends on environmental characteristics, study objectives, and cost effectiveness. Because of the high foraging capacity and diverse habitats and behaviors of benthophagous fishes, their stomach contents may offer a useful sampling tool in studies of benthic macroinvertebrates, especially in large, deep, fast rivers that are difficult to sample with traditional sediment sampling gear. Our objective was to compare the benthic macroinvertebrate communities sampled from sediments with those sampled from fish stomachs. We collected benthic macroinvertebrates and fish from three different habitat types (backwater, beach, riffle in the wet season, drying season, and dry season along a single reach of the Grande River (Paraná River Basin, southeast Brazil. We sampled sediments through use of a Petersen dredge (total of 216 grabs and used gill nets to sample fish (total of 36 samples. We analyzed the stomach contents of three commonly occurring benthophagous fish species (Eigenmannia virescens, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus amblyrhynchus. Chironomids dominated in both sampling methods. Macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and abundances from fish stomachs differed from those from sediment samples, but less so from riffles than from backwater and beach habitats. Macroinvertebrate taxa from E. virescens stomachs were more strongly correlated with sediment samples from all three habitats than were those from the other two species. The species accumulation curves and higher mean dispersion values, compared with with sediment samples suggest that E. virescens is more efficient than sediment samples and the other fish studied at collecting benthic taxa. We conclude that by analyzing the stomach contents of benthophagous fishes it is possible to assess important characteristics of benthic communities (dispersion, taxonomic composition and diversity. This is especially true

  3. Benthic foraminifera as proxy for oxygen-depleted conditions off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Saraswat, R.

    collected from a water depth of 15 m to 3300 m were studied for the benthic foraminiferal content. A total of 383 recent benthic foraminiferal species were identified. Out of the total 383 benthic foraminiferal species identified in the study area, 65...

  4. Benthic primary production and mineralization in a High Arctic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attard, Karl; Hancke, Kasper; Sejr, Mikael K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal and shelf systems likely exert major influence on Arctic Ocean functioning, yet key ecosystem processes remain poorly quantified. We employed the aquatic eddy covariance (AEC) oxygen (O2) flux method to estimate benthic primary production and mineralization in a High Arctic Greenland fjord...... light data, we estimate an annual Arctic Ocean benthic GPP of 11.5 × 107 t C yr−1. On average, this value represents 26% of the Arctic Ocean annual net phytoplankton production estimates. This scarcely considered component is thus potentially important for contemporary and future Arctic ecosystem...

  5. Preliminary results from a shallow water benthic grazing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N.L.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2005-01-01

    The nutrient-rich, shallow waters of San Francisco Bay support high rates of primary production, limited not by nutrients but by light availability and benthic grazing (Alpine and others 1992; Cloern 1982). Phytoplankton blooms are an important food source for upper trophic levels. Consequently animal populations, such as fish, may suffer under conditions of high benthic bivalve grazing. It has been hypothesized that several species of fish are suffering as a result of severe decreases in available phytoplankton since the introduction of Potamocorbula amurensis into San Francisco Bay (Feyrer 2003).

  6. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite DNA loci from the peanut worm, Sipunculus nudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q H; Guo, Y S; Wang, Z D; Du, X D; Deng, Y W

    2012-06-15

    Sipunculus nudus, the peanut worm, is the best known species in its genus. This unsegmented subtidal marine worm is consumed in some parts of Asia and is also used as fish bait. We found 20 microsatellite DNA markers for S. nudus. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from two to seven in a sample of 39 individuals. Observed and expected heterozygosities per polymorphic locus varied from 0.103 to 1.000 and from 0.307 to 0.771, respectively. Five loci showed significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after sequential Bonferroni's correction. No significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci was found. These microsatellite markers will provide useful tools for investigating genetic population structure, population history and conservation management of S. nudus.

  7. Effects of estradiol on worm burden and peripheral leukocytes in Parastrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1994-01-01

    Gonadectomized male laboratory rats were given 0.06 mg/kg estradiol benzoate daily for 14 days before being inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis. Hormone treatment was continued until the rats were killed. The numbers of larvae in the brain and of adult worms in the pulmonary area of the rats were determined every 7 days after the inoculation. It was found that the rats treated daily with estradiol benzoate had significantly and consistently higher numbers of larvae and adult worms as compared with the controls. The number of total leukocytes increased significantly after the rats were infected. The results show that estradiol-treated rats become susceptible to P. malaysiensis infection, which may indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone observed in earlier studies may partly be caused by estradiol that was peripherally aromatized from testosterone.

  8. CAD AND CAE METHODS IN COMPUTER ASSISTED DESIGN OF WORM MESHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk SABINIAK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of worm gear meshes is their complex geometry and now the application of computer aided design allows for mapping their real construction patterns with great affinity. Modelling of worm meshes with the use of CAD (Computer Aided Design and CAE (Computer Aided Engineering methods enables tracking the design process from the very beginning, i.e. from the concept or specific assumptions, until the final stage only by using appropriate software, thereby lowering the costs and eliminating common errors. Owing to this, just before the manufacturing process of the first meshing elements begins, one can conduct geometric analysis and correct or modify working profiles of the teeth in order to improve the operation properties of future gear. Visualizing such a geometric modelling process can also serve didactic purposes when used in education of future engineers, technologists and operators of this type of gears.

  9. Tongue worm (Pentastomida) infection in ball pythons (Python regius) – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Dudek, Agnieszka

    Tongue worms (Pentastomida) are endoparasites causing pentastomiasis, an invasive disease representing a threat to exotic animals and humans. Animals acquire infection via the alimentary tract. In reptiles, the parasite is present in the lungs, resulting in symptoms from the respiratory system. Pentastomiasis may be asymptomatic, but nonspecific symptoms may occur at high parasite concentrations. Due to the harmful effects of many antiparasitic substances, tongue worm invasion in reptiles remains not fully treatable. Although pentasomiasis is rarely diagnosed in Poland, pentastomids were diagnosed in two ball pythons, who were patients of the “Poliklinika Weterynaryjna” veterinary clinic. They demonstrated problems with the respiratory system and a significant deterioration of health. Fenbendazole at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., repeated after 7 days was shown to be effective.

  10. Host resistance and tolerance of parasitic gut worms depend on resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutie, Sarah A; Wilkinson, Christina L; Wu, Qiu Chang; Ortega, C Nicole; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-04-01

    Resource availability can significantly alter host-parasite dynamics. Abundant food can provide more resources for hosts to resist infections, but also increase host tolerance of infections by reducing competition between hosts and parasites for food. Whether abundant food favors host resistance or tolerance (or both) might depend on the type of resource that the parasite exploits (e.g., host tissue vs. food), which can vary based on the stage of infection. In our study, we evaluated how low and high resource diets affect Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) resistance and tolerance of a skin-penetrating, gut nematode Aplectana sp. at each stage of the infection. Compared to a low resource diet, a high resource diet enhanced frog resistance to worm penetration and tolerance while worms traveled to the gut. In contrast, a low resource diet increased resistance to establishment of the infection. After the infection established and worms could access food resources in the gut, a high resource diet enhanced host tolerance of parasites. On a high resource diet, parasitized frogs consumed significantly more food than non-parasitized frogs; when food was then restricted, mass of non-parasitized frogs did not change, whereas mass of parasitized frogs decreased significantly. Thus, a high resource diet increased frog tolerance of established worms because frogs could fully compensate for energy lost to the parasites. Our study shows that host-parasite dynamics are influenced by the effect of resource availability on host resistance and tolerance, which depends on when parasites have access to food and the stage of infection.

  11. Smart worm-like micelles responsive to CO2/N2 and light dual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Wang, Guozheng; Ma, Yuxuan; Cui, Zhenggang; Binks, Bernard P

    2017-04-12

    CO 2 /N 2 and light dual stimuli-responsive worm-like micelles (WLMs) were obtained by addition of a relatively small amount of a switchable surfactant, 4-butyl-4'-(4-N,N-dimethylhexyloxy-amine) azobenzene bicarbonate (AZO-B6-CO 2 ), sensitive to the same triggers to a binary aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal).

  12. Hook worm caused chronic anemia found during the procedure of acute gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Upper gastrointestinal bleeding with complicated factors is always difficult to find the primary origin. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 74-year-old male farmer suffered from acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by gastric ulcer and Mallory-Weiss syndrome and chronic anemia which was at last found caused by hook worm infection. Conclusion It tells us that considering multi-possibility when can not explain the symptom with monophyletism is very important for clinicians. PMID:19178754

  13. On accretion of dark energy onto black- and worm-holes

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid, José A. Jiménez; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2010-01-01

    We review some of the possible models that are able to describe the current Universe which point out the future singularities that could appear. We show that the study of the dark energy accretion onto black- and worm-holes phenomena in these models could lead to unexpected consequences, allowing even the avoidance of the considered singularities. We also review the debate about the approach used to study the accretion phenomenon which has appeared in literature to demonstrate the advantages ...

  14. Anthelmintic Activity In Vivo of Epiisopiloturine against Juvenile and Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria A.; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N.; Véras, Leiz M. C.; Lima, David F.; Campelo, Yuri D. M.; Campos, Stefano Augusto; Kuckelhaus, Selma A. S.; Pinto, Pedro L. S.; Eaton, Peter; Mafud, Ana C.; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; de Moraes, Josué; Lolić, Aleksandar; Verbić, Tatjana; Leite, José Roberto S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI) against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported. PMID:25816129

  15. Use of Fruit Beetles, Waxworms Larvae and Tiger Worms in Waste Conditioning for Composting

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed S. Alwaneen

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, cow dung is used as farm manure and for biogas production. Several bacterial strains associated with cow dung such as Campylobacter, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli cause serious human diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of insect larvae including fruit beetle, waxworms and tiger worms to improve the breakdown of agricultural wastes and reduce their pathogen loads. Fresh cow faeces were collected from a cattle farm and distributed int...

  16. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliana T Almeida

    Full Text Available Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ, and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis.We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay.We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females, indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect.Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with either drug alone.

  17. Geophysical Conceptual Model for Benthic Flux and Submarine Groundwater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. N.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous investigators characterize benthic flux and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) using a geochemical conceptual model that relies on the estimation of tracer fluxes into and out of a control volume. (Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of any water body, per unit area of bed. Benthic flux is a vector that includes both discharge and recharge components. SGD is a benthic water discharge flux to a marine water body.) For the geochemical approach, benthic discharge flux or SGD is estimated by summing the flux of tracer into or out of the control volume---a water body or portion of a water body---and deducing that tracer deficiency within the control volume must be explained by SGD. Typically, estimated or measured fluxes include advection and mixing in surface-water, diffusion, evasion across the air-water interface, production, and decay. The geochemical model, however, does not account for fluxes that do not transport tracer. For example, investigators found equivalent (the upper 30 cm of sediment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, in June and July 2003. At this location, a surface-gravity wave with a five-centimeter amplitude and one-second period in 0.5 m of water forced a 12-cm-per-day SGD. The radon tracer technique may not characterize SGD forced by the one-second wave due to the time scale of the wave, the absence of a radon activity gradient between bed medium and surface water, and the the wave affects the flow field within the porous medium. A new geophysical conceptual model for benthic flux is proposed. The model parses benthic flux into components driven by individual forcing mechanisms. The model recognizes that benthic flux components may interact in a constructive or destructive manner, such that benthic flux generated by multiple forcing mechanisms at the same location may not be equivalent to the linear sum of benthic flux generated by single forcing mechanisms. Restated: the whole may be different than the sum of the parts

  18. Chemical Composition and Nutrient Digestibility of Super Worm Meal in Red Tilapia Juvenile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Abd Rahman Jabir*, S. A. Razak and S. Vikineswary

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and nutrient digestibility of super worm (Zophobas morio meal were determined for fish feed formulations. Experiments were conducted to compare super worm meal (SWM with fish meal (FM as main protein sources for fish diets. Super worm had lower protein content (42.83% compared to fish meal (52.64%. SWM contained high percentage (40.01% of lipids along with quality protein and this made it a suitable replacement for FM. SWM contained seventeen amino acids including the essential amino acids. All eight essential amino acids present were similar in values except for methionine which showed a large difference with 5.75 (mg/g crude protein and 21.17 (mg/g crude protein for SWM and FM respectively. SWM contained higher percentage of arginine and glutamic acid while the rest of the essential amino acids were lower than those present in FM. The fatty acid profile of SWM also showed a good polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (0.87. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of protein in SWM diet was lowest (50.53±6.08% and significantly different (P<0.05 from that of FM diet (77.48±0.53%. Lipid digestibility of SWM based diet was significantly lower (69.76±3.72% than that of FM value (91.51±0.21%. However, SWM-based diets fulfilled the requirements of fish recommended by FAO.

  19. Potential Test of Irradiated Vaccine for Haemonchus Contortus Worm and Food Supplement on Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukardji Partodiharjo; Arifin, M.; Endang Yuliawati; Enuh Rahardjo

    2004-01-01

    An experiment of vaccines was carried out is one of Nematoda worm present in abomasums or stomach of sheep or goat. The case in the field was high enough, may teach 60% the aim of this study is on observe the effect of gastric worm vaccination irradiated 5000 L 3 post challenge wild strain 5000 L 3 , The parameter of observe were clinic, blood twice description number of adult worms, with 3 treatments as follows; control (K), V 2 = twice vaccinations without challenge V 1 twice vaccinations with challenge. The result of the study the average of gain (gram); V 1 =97, V 2 =91 and K=31.20 (P 6 ), V 1 =6.50, V 2 =5.90 and K=6.10 (P 1 =29.30, V 2 =35.30 and K=27.50 (P 3 ), V 1 =9.30, V 2 =9.00 and K=7.40 (P 1 =8.30, V 2 =9.50 and K=6.20 (P 1 immunity respond of weight gain, erythrocyte and leucocyte to have immunity which is better than the respond of other treatments. (author)

  20. Edible peanut worm ( Sipunculus nudus) in the Beibu Gulf: Resource, aquaculture, ecological impact and counterplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Xie, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Changbo; Guo, Yongjian; Chen, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    Sipunculus nudus is an important economic species because of its high nutritional and medicinal values. The exploitation and utilization of S. nudus primarily occur in the coastal regions of the Beibu Gulf. However, wild resource of S. nudus is rapidly decreasing because of the overexploitation, which has led to considerable developments of artificial breeding techniques. The cultivation scale of S. nudus has increased in response to successful artificial breeding; however, methods for culturing S. nudus in tidal flats or ponds require further study. Most studies have focused on the breeding, nutrition, medical value and ecological impact of these worms. Studies on the distribution, sediment requirements, nutrition characteristics, breeding techniques and aquaculture ecology of this species are summarized in this paper to promote the development of the aquaculture industry for S. nudus. The high biomass of S. nudus in the Beibu Gulf is positively correlated with the sediment characteristics and water quality of the region. The production of peanut worm has improved to some extent through culturing; however, the nutrient value and ecological environment problems have been observed, which reflect the over exploitation of trace elements and the sediment. These problems will worsen unless they are resolved, and the release of organic materials, nitrogen and phosphorus during harvesting impacts the coastal environment. Moreover, genetic erosion is a potential risk for larvae in artificial breeding programs in tidal flats. Therefore, culturing and collecting methods should be improved and the wild resource conservation should be implemented to promote the sustainable development of the peanut worm.

  1. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Packet Payload Monitoring for Internet Worm Content Detection Using Deterministic Finite Automaton with Delayed Dictionary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet content scanning is one of the crucial threats to network security and network monitoring applications. In monitoring applications, payload of packets in a network is matched against the set of patterns in order to detect attacks like worms, viruses, and protocol definitions. During network transfer, incoming and outgoing packets are monitored in depth to inspect the packet payload. In this paper, the regular expressions that are basically string patterns are analyzed for packet payloads in detecting worms. Then the grouping scheme for regular expression matching is rewritten using Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. DFA achieves better processing speed during regular expression matching. DFA requires more memory space for each state. In order to reduce memory utilization, decompression technique is used. Delayed Dictionary Compression (DDC is applied for achieving better speeds in the communication links. DDC achieves decoding latency during compression of payload packets in the network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides better time consumption and memory utilization during detection of Internet worm attacks.

  3. Anisakis simplex: from obscure infectious worm to inducer of immune hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audicana, M Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2008-04-01

    Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites ("gastroallergic anisakiasis"), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive.

  4. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbance on polychaete worm tubes and age-0 flatfish distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a field experiment that examined how juvenile flatfish distribution changed with worm tube heterogeneity, i.e. density and patchiness.

  5. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... unreported 10 kDa band, specific to the L2 larval stage and egg hatch fluid, emerged in all pigs after challenge, while the major adult body fluid constituent, ABA-1, remained unrecognized. No significant effect of an intestinal adult worm burden on the larval recovery after a challenge inoculation...... or on the immune response before or after challenge inoculation could be detected. These results indicate that a significant protective memory immune response to A. suum challenge inoculation can be induced in pigs, and that this protective immunity is not significantly modulated by the presence of adult parasites...

  6. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  7. Although the benthic macrofauna of sandy environ- ments around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Although the benthic macrofauna of sandy environ- ments around tidal inlets has been extensively studied around the world, e.g. sandbars (Holland and Dean. 1977), estuarine sandflats (Reise 1985, Dittmann 1995), bays (Jones 1997) and harbours (Parker 1975, Prid- more et al. 1990), there is a paucity of data that ...

  8. Temporal variability of benthic macrofauna on Cassino beach, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano P. das Neves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variability of benthic macrofauna on Cassino beach, southernmost Brazil, was studied for a period of one year (June 2004 to May 2005 based on monthly sampling. Three sites were selected distant 50m from each other. At each site, 3 transects were established, 2m equidistant from one another. Each transect extended from the base of the primary dunes to the inner surf zone at approximately 1m in depth, with 7 or 8 sampling levels. Within transects, the distance between the levels was 20m until the upper swash zone, from which distance was 10m until the 1-meter isobath. The temporal variation in the abundance of benthic macrofauna observed in the present study can be attributed to (1 the positive effects of the recruitment peaks and migration of particular species to the swash zone and (2 negative effects of the migration of some species to deeper waters, as well (3 as mortality through natural causes (stranding and action of predators and (4 human causes (harvesting and vehicle transit. We attribute the expressive abundance increase of benthic macrofauna to recruitment. The stranding, that is, the trapping of the organisms on the upper parts of the beach, is likely the main cause of abrupt drops in benthic macrofauna abundance.

  9. Benthic foraminifera from the Adriatic Sea : principles of phenotypic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and morphology of the benthic foraminifera in the Adriatic Sea appear to be strongly dependent on two primary controlling environmental parameters, oxygen concentration and food availability. These factors are both governed by the runoff from the Po and other Italian rivers, and

  10. Regulation of nitrous oxide emission associated with benthic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    1. A number of freshwater invertebrate species emit N2O, a greenhouse gas that is produced in their gut by denitrifying bacteria (direct N2O emission). Additionally, benthic invertebrate species may contribute to N2O emission from sediments by stimulating denitrification because of their bioirrig...

  11. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope study on benthic foraminifera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study is pursued on isotopic values of different pairs of benthic foraminifera from the Krishna–Godavari basin and Peru offshore to understand habitat-wise isotopic variation and ... Department of Applied Geology, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826 004, India.

  12. The Macroevolutionary Interplay Between Planktic Larvae and Benthic Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K. J.

    2004-12-01

    Many marine invertebrates have a complex life cycle whereby the egg, rather than developing directly to the juvenile stage, develops instead into a intermediate larval form which may spend weeks to months feeding in the plankton before it becomes competent to undergo metamorphosis into the benthic juvenile. Because the selective advantages provided to the animal by having a planktotrophic larval stage are largely unknown, the reasons behind their origin and subsequent maintenance over geological time are not well understood. Using both a molecular clock and the fossil record, I show that four primitively non-feeding larval forms evolved sometime between the late Ediacaran and Early Cambrian, and feeding larvae appear to have evolved from non-feeding ancestors sometime between the Late Cambrian and Middle Ordovician in at least five, if not eight, of eight different clades analyzed. Thus, the initial exploitation of the predator-free pelagos by larvae was achieved independently multiple times by the end of the Early Cambrian, most likely driven by benthic predation pressures upon developing eggs and embryos. Then, because the evolution of larval planktotrophy from lecithotrophic ancestors correlates with the dramatic rise in the generic number of benthic suspension feeders in the Early Ordovician, it seems likely that benthic suspension feeding selected for fecundity, and thus indirectly for planktotrophy, in multiple lineages of marine invertebrates by the end of the Middle Ordovician.

  13. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope study on benthic foraminifera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajoy K Bhaumik

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... Stable isotopes of benthic foraminifera have widely been applied in micropalaeontological research to understand vital effects in foraminifera. Isotopic fractionations are mainly controlled by ontogeny, bottom/pore water chemistry, habitat preference, kinetic effect and respiration. Discontinuous abundance.

  14. Benthic fauna around Mauritius island, southwest Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Distribution of benthic fauna in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius was studied during September-October 1987. Mean faunal density (macro+meio) and dry weight biomass was 10848 no.m/2 and 228.8 mg.m/2, respectively. The macrofauna was dominat...

  15. Assessing the suitability of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hypersaline deeper waters with low dissolved oxygen, indicating a low energy environment. The agglu- tinated foraminifera, Asterorotalids and Nonions dominate shallow water, low salinity regions, whereas the calcareous benthic foraminiferal abundance increases away from the riverine influx regions. Food availability, as ...

  16. Benthic Species Richness of U.S. Pacific Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the spatial distribution of biodiversity is of paramount importance due to the potential consequences of its loss on human welfare. We demonstrate that biodiversity of soft-bottomed estuarine benthic organisms can be predicted with relatively high accuracy at multi...

  17. Assessing the suitability of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Foodavailability, as estimated from organic carbon abundance in sediments, has comparatively less influenceon faunal distribution in the northwestern Bay of Bengal, as compared to dissolved oxygen, temperatureand salinity. We conclude that the factors associated with freshwater influx affect the distributionof benthic ...

  18. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected ...

  19. Studies on the benthic fauna of Cochin backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    Studies on the macrofauna from the five selected stations spread over a distance of about 25 km in the Cochin backwaters showed that the benthic biomass was greater in the region which were near the sea The abundance of organisms decreased...

  20. Survival under stress : benthic foraminiferal patterns and Cenozoic biotic crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    A principal conclusion of this thesis is, that benthic foraminifera are excellent recorders of paleoenvironments and paleoenvironmental change. Insight in their community structure, and changes in this through time, is still increasing and will add to their usefulness in the reconstruction of past

  1. Survival under stress : benthic foraminiferal patterns and Cenozoic biotic crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    A principal conclusion of this thesis is, that benthic foraminifera are excellent recorders of paleoenvironments and paleoenvironmental change. Insight in their community structure, and changes in this through time, is still increasing and will add to their usefulness in the reconstruction of

  2. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koho, K.A.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Fontanier, C.; Toyofuku, T.; Oguri, K.; Kitazato, H.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata) were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn) concentrations for the first time along a

  3. Studies on benthic denitrification in the Chwaka Bay mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variations in denitrification rates were due to variations in concentration levels of organic matter and possibly to disproportionate competition for inorganic nitrogen between denitrifiers and benthic autotrophs among sites. There were no seasonal differences in denitrification rates. Results from the present study ...

  4. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 3. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India. Abhijit Mazumder Rajiv Nigam. Volume 123 Issue 3 April 2014 pp 633-639 ...

  5. Assessing the suitability of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    salinity, suggesting a preference for high energy environment, whereas AABF dominate relatively cold, hypersaline deeper waters with low dissolved oxygen, indicating a low energy environment. The agglu- tinated foraminifera ...... 1998 Living (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera from the Pakistan continental margin ...

  6. On the coupling of benthic and pelagic biogeochemical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Buis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Mutual interaction of water column and sediment processes is either neglected or only crudely approximated in many biogeochemical models. We have reviewed the approaches to couple benthic and pelagic biogeochemical models. It is concluded that they can be classified into a hierarchical set

  7. Benthic macroinvertebrate community of a fourth order stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    Full Length Research Paper. Benthic macroinvertebrate community of a fourth order stream in Kashmir Himalaya, India. Shazia Habib1* and A.R. Yousuf2. 1Department of Environmental Science, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. 2National Green Tribunal, Government of India, India. Received 31 December, 2013; ...

  8. Holocene record of benthic foraminiferal morphogroups from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    35

    changes at millennial scale are noticed during certain intervals corresponding to northern. 18. Hemispheric climatic events (Fig. 2). The buliminids account for an average of 28 % of the benthic. 19 population in the examined core. The percentage abundance of this group varies between its. 20 minimum 5 % and maximum ...

  9. Response of benthic invertebrate communities to a land use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical land use farming (e.g., tea, maize, cabbage) have significant impacts on the benthic invertebrate assemblages of highland streams in Nigeria. However, not all crop and plantation streams had highly impacted communities because some have wider riparian buffer zones. This study further highlight the importance of ...

  10. Growth form defines physiological photoprotective capacity in intertidal benthic diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alexandre; Méléder, Vona; Blommaert, Lander; Lepetit, Bernard; Gaudin, Pierre; Vyverman, Wim; Sabbe, Koen; Dupuy, Christine; Lavaud, Johann

    2015-01-01

    In intertidal marine sediments, characterized by rapidly fluctuating and often extreme light conditions, primary production is frequently dominated by diatoms. We performed a comparative analysis of photophysiological traits in 15 marine benthic diatom species belonging to the four major morphological growth forms (epipelon (EPL), motile epipsammon (EPM-M) and non-motile epipsammon (EPM-NM) and tychoplankton (TYCHO)) found in these sediments. Our analyses revealed a clear relationship between growth form and photoprotective capacity, and identified fast regulatory physiological photoprotective traits (that is, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and the xanthophyll cycle (XC)) as key traits defining the functional light response of these diatoms. EPM-NM and motile EPL showed the highest and lowest NPQ, respectively, with EPM-M showing intermediate values. Like EPL, TYCHO had low NPQ, irrespective of whether they were grown in benthic or planktonic conditions, reflecting an adaptation to a low light environment. Our results thus provide the first experimental evidence for the existence of a trade-off between behavioural (motility) and physiological photoprotective mechanisms (NPQ and the XC) in the four major intertidal benthic diatoms growth forms using unialgal cultures. Remarkably, although motility is restricted to the raphid pennate diatom clade, raphid pennate species, which have adopted a non-motile epipsammic or a tychoplanktonic life style, display the physiological photoprotective response typical of these growth forms. This observation underscores the importance of growth form and not phylogenetic relatedness as the prime determinant shaping the physiological photoprotective capacity of benthic diatoms.

  11. Ecological Assessment of Lake Hora, Ethiopia, Using Benthic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    rift-valley lakes, and the Bishoftu crater lakes are in the vicinity of the flourishing city of Debre-. Zeit. Diversion of the inflows ... distribution, composition and abundance of benthic fauna in relation to the type of bottom sediment organic pollution and ... Abebaw Wondie (2007) for a central station. Stations A and B were faced ...

  12. Benthic polychaetes as good indicators of anthropogenic impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Nanajkar, M.

    and SIVADAS et al. : BENTHIC POLYCHAETES AN ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT 211 reclamation for berths 5A and 6A at Mormugao harbour. NIO/SP-32/2004. 18 Rivero M S, Elías R & Vallarino E A, First survey of macroinfauna in the Mar del Plata harbour (Argentina...

  13. Benthic fauna of Ungwana Bay, Mombassa (Kenya) - A preliminary account

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    Studies on the benthic fauna of African waters have largely been limited to that of South Africa coast [3,5;7,9,15,18]. Although, the Mombassa Coast is considered importanat for the exploitation of fishery resources. Very little is known about its...

  14. Effects of abattoir wastes on benthic macroinvertebrates of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Values of microbial analysis ranged from 1600 to 2400 MPN/100ml for total coliform count while faecial coliform count ranged from 4 to 2400MPN/100ml. The results indicated that abattoir wastes have adverse effect on the benthic macroinvertebrates. This observation showed that with a continuous discharge of waste into ...

  15. Late Glacial–Holocene record of benthic foraminiferal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Verma

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... influence of oxygen-rich Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Keywords. Paleontology; benthic foraminifera; oxygen minimum zone; Arabian Sea. 1. Introduction. Seasonally reversing monsoon winds produce seasonal and spatial patterns in the Arabian Sea surface circulation, hydrography and biological.

  16. Production of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates from pig dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each bucket was seeded in benthic macroinvertebrates with an initial density of 9 individual/dm3 (D0). The results revealed that the utilization of pig dung improved the water chemical properties in the production medium as well as the macroinvertebrates density (p < 0.05). The optimal production of the latter was obtained ...

  17. Diversity and response of Benthic Macroinvertebrates to Natural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity and response of benthic macroinvertebartes were used in assessing the biological water quality and health status of the stream. Samples were collected from four different stations using the Kick Sampling Technique. All the specimens collected were preserved in 70% alcohol solution and later identified in the ...

  18. The ecological impact of stream regulation using benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the benthic macroinvertebrates of a fourth order stream in southern Nigeria was carried out to assess the ecological impact of stream regulation. Three stations, 1, 2, and 3 were selected from upstream of the impoundment, the impoundment (reservoir) and it's downstream respectively. Among the physical and ...

  19. Ecology of benthic macroinvertebrates in the depositional biotope of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of benthic macroinvertebrates was studied in the depositional biotope of a river in southern Nigeria in two contrasting tidally influenced fresh and brackish water stations. Forty five taxa in nineteen families representing seven major groups of benthos were recorded. The molluscan families, dominated by ...

  20. Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of environmental quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For a period of 2 years (from July, 1997 to June, 1999), 87 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa, composed of 12,078 individuals were collected from four stations of Bindare stream and one station on River Galma. Samples were collected monthly, using a Van Veen grap. Physicochemical variables were also determined using ...

  1. Benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway using foraminiferal metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the salmon industry necessitates the development of fast and accurate tools to assess its environmental impact. Macrobenthic monitoring is commonly used to measure the impact of organic enrichment associated with salmon farm activities. However, classical benthic monitoring ca...

  2. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Ramakrishna U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%. In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes. Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion. Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron

  3. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2001-01-01

    The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease.

  4. Benthic nitrogen loss in the Arabian Sea off Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eSokoll

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A pronounced deficit of nitrogen (N in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ of theArabian Sea suggests the occurrence of heavy N-loss that is commonly attributed to pelagicprocesses. However, the OMZ water is in direct contact with sediments on three sides of thebasin. Contribution from benthic N-loss to the total N-loss in the Arabian Sea remains largelyunassessed. In October 2007, we sampled the water column and surface sediments along atransect cross-cutting the Arabian Sea OMZ at the Pakistan continental margin, covering arange of station depths from 360 to 1430 m. Benthic denitrification and anammox rates weredetermined by using 15N-stable isotope pairing experiments. Intact core incubations showeddeclining rates of total benthic N-loss with water depth from 0.55 to 0.18 mmol N m-2 d-1.While denitrification rates measured in slurry incubations decreased from 2.73 to 1.46 mmolN m-2 d-1 with water depth, anammox rates increased from 0.21 to 0.89 mmol N m-2 d-1.Hence, the contribution from anammox to total benthic N-loss increased from 7% at 360 m to40% at 1430 m. This trend is further supported by the quantification of nirS, the biomarkerfunctional gene encoding for cytochrome cd1-nitrite reductases of microorganisms involved inboth N-loss processes. Anammox-like nirS genes within the sediments increased in proportionto total nirS gene copies with water depth. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of nirS revealeddifferent communities of both denitrifying and anammox bacteria between shallow and deepstations. Together, rate measurement and nirS analyses showed that anammox, determined forthe first time in the Arabian Sea sediments, is an important benthic N-loss process at thecontinental margin off Pakistan, especially in the sediments at deeper water depths.Extrapolation from the measured benthic N-loss to all shelf sediments within the basinsuggests that benthic N-loss may be responsible for about half of the overall N-loss in theArabian Sea.

  5. Floating mucus aggregates derived from benthic microorganisms on rocky intertidal reefs: Potential as food sources for benthic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Y.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2011-09-01

    Mucus films, flocs or foams consisting of fine sand, algae and detritus frequently occur in the surface waters of rocky intertidal reef flats during incoming tide. These masses are referred to as mucus aggregates. We examined the developmental process of mucus aggregates and their abundance, distribution, migration and trophic composition. The trophic composition of mucus aggregates was then compared to those of sediments to evaluate their potential nutritional value for benthic animals. The organic matter content, chlorophyll a concentration, microalgal density and bacteria-derived fatty acid contents of mucus aggregates were higher than those observed in sediment, suggesting that mucus aggregates contain not only high levels of organic matter but also dense concentrations of microalgae and bacteria; therefore, mucus aggregates may serve as a qualitatively more energetic food source for benthic fauna compared to sediments. Benthic diatoms were the most abundant organisms in mucus aggregates. Large numbers of diatoms were trapped in fine mineral particles and mucilage-like strings, suggesting that a portion of the mucus is secreted by these benthic microalgae. Mucus aggregate accounted for only 0.01-3.9% of the daily feeding requirements of the dominant detritivore, Ophiocoma scolopendrina (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) over the entire sampling area. In contrast, for the species population on the back reef, where mucus aggregates ultimately accumulate, mucus aggregates provided from 0.4 to 113.3% of food for this species. These results suggest that mucus aggregate availability varies spatiotemporally and that they do not always provide adequate food sources for O. scolopendrina populations.

  6. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum.

  7. In vitro effects of amodiaquine on paired Schistosoma mansoni adult worms at concentrations of less than 5 µg/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the in vitro effects of amodiaquine (AQ monotherapy on the egg output of paired adult Schistosoma mansoni worms and their survival during in vitro culture were assessed. In addition, the gross morphological alterations of male and female worms caused by AQ were visually observed under a dissecting microscope. AQ significantly reduced the daily egg output of paired adult S. mansoni worms following incubation for 14 days at 1-5 µg/mL, but not at 0.5 µg/mL, compared with the control group. AQ also reduced the survival of male and female worms at concentrations of 2 and 5 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, exposure to 5 µg/mL AQ caused severe swelling and/or localisation of black content in the body of all male and female worms within one or two days of incubation; subsequently, shrinkage in the male worms and elongation in the female worms were observed. The initial morphological alterations caused by AQ occurred along the intestinal tract of the male and female worms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report not only the efficacy of AQ at concentrations lower than 5 µg/mL on paired adult S. mansoni worms, but also the effects of AQ on the intestinal tracts of worms in in vitro culture.

  8. Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, T.C.M., E-mail: theo.brock@wur.nl [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bas, D.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belgers, J.D.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bibbe, L. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerwinkel, M-C.; Crum, S.J.H. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Diepens, N.J. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kraak, M.H.S.; Vonk, J.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roessink, I. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • In outdoor microcosms constructed with lufenuron-spiked sediment we observed that this insecticide persistent in the sediment compartment. • Sediment exposure to lufenuron caused population-level declines (insects and crustaceans) and increases (mainly oligochaete worms) of benthic invertebrates. • The direct and indirect effects observed in the microcosms were supported by results of sediment-spiked single species tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus. • The tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms recommended by the European Food Safety Authority is protective for the treatment-related responses observed in the microcosm test. - Abstract: Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79 μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79 μg a.s./g OC. The treatment

  9. Worm peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Husson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are present in all metazoan species where they orchestrate diverse functions. In the last decade, high-throughput approaches based on mass spectrometry helped the identification of endogenously occurring peptides in different species. We here review biochemical strategies to obtain sequence information of natural (non-tryptic peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans and in the related nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Ascaris suum with particular attention for sample preparation and methodology. In addition, we describe seven new C. elegans neuropeptides that we recently discovered by sequencing additional peptides. Finally, we explain how differential peptidomics approaches were used to characterize key neuropeptide processing enzymes.

  10. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijie Jason; Wang, Zhao-Wen

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage), custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in other labs.

  11. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Jason Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage, custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in

  12. Insurance against an Old World screw-worm fly invasion of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweddle, Neil; Mahon, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    Australia is fortunate that neither the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (NWSWF) nor the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (OWSWF), have become established within our country, although much of the northern areas are environmentally suitable (Suthurst et al. 1989). The OWSWF is a substantial threat as it is prevalent in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Perhaps more importantly, it is also present in many of our trading partners in Southeast Asia. The export of live cattle from northern Australian ports to Southeast Asian nations has become an important and rapidly expanding trade. The fly is also present near ports in the Middle East which receive considerable numbers of live sheep exported from various Australian ports. In both situations, there is the ever-present opportunity for the screw-worm fly (SWF) to return to Australia as larvae, pupae or adults on stock carrying vessels. While this means of transport probably represents the most likely route for the pest to gain access to Australia, accidental transport on aircraft and active myiases on humans or companion animals remain possibilities. The introduction of the NWSWF into Australia is considered unlikely, but not impossible. Indeed, in 1992, an Australian tourist returning from South America carried live NWSWF larvae into Australia in a neck wound. Fortunately, the diagnosis was made early and the wound was treated, preventing any larvae evacuating. This was in southern Australia in May, where climatic conditions are unlikely to favour survival at that time of the year, but it demonstrates the potential for inadvertent introduction. Models of the impact of the OWSWF indicate that the cost of an invasion would be high. It has been estimated by Anaman et al. (1993), that the annual cost in an average climate year to beef cattle, sheep and dairy producers of an endemic establishment would be A$281 million. These costs would be

  13. Source of drinking water supply and transmission of guinea worm disease in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilegbodu, V A; Christensen, B L; Wise, R A; Ilegbodu, A E; Kale, O O

    1987-12-01

    During 1982, ecological factors associated with freshwater pollution were investigated in Idere, a rural Nigerian community with endemic guinea worm infection. Data were collected on the quality of all pond water sources, and on rainfall patterns and potable piped water available in the community. Pond water provided 76% of the total water used in Idere. This source of drinking water provided the classical ecological environment for the transmission of Dracunculus medinensis, other helminth parasites and bacterial enteric infections. The bacteriological analysis of drinking water from the ponds reflects the absence of sanitary arrangements for human waste disposal in the community, as the ponds are collectors of storm run-offs. Okina, the spring-fed pond which was nearest to the households, was the most reliable year-round source of water to the community; however, Okina also contained the highest density of infective Thermocyclops and the highest faecal coliform (FC) to faecal Streptococcus (FS) ratio (FC/FS), thus providing a central reservoir for guinea worm and bacterial infections. The transmission season of guinea worm infection corresponded with the period of greatest water scarcity in Idere. The amount of portable water available to Idere residents in 1981 was 3.6 litres per person per day. Frequent mechanical breakdowns, electric power failures, lack of fuel to run the water pumping engines and the direct link of the water pipeline supplying water to Idere with a water pipeline serving another major city in the same district were some of the reasons for potable water shortage in the community.

  14. [Construction of phage display cDNA library from adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Jia, Ren-chu; Liu, Jin-ming; Yuan, Chun-xiu; Shi, Yao-jun; Lu, Ke; Fu, Zhi-qiang; Sun, Huan; Cai, You-min; Lin, Jiao-jiao

    2007-10-01

    To screen protective antigen genes and construct the T7 phage display library from adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum. Total RNA was extracted from adult worms of S. japonicum by Trizol reagent anti mRNA was isolated from the total RNA. The ds cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription using random primer. Directional EcoR I/ Hind III linkers were ligated into the ends of ds cDNA and the ds cDNA was digested with EcoR I anti Hind III, which resulted in ds cDNA with EcoR I and Hind III adhering ends. The digested ds cDNA fragments longer than 300 bp in length were fractionated and ligated into T7 Select 10-3b vector. After packaging in citro, the T7 Select 10-3b vector was transformed into BLT5403 to construct the T7 phage display cDNA library. Plaque assay and PCR were used to evaluate the library. Seven known objective genes of S. japonicum were screened by PCR to detect the representation of the library. Primary library capacity was 4.98 x 10(6) pfu, and the titer of amplified library was 3.85 x 10(11) pfu/mL. The PCR identification result of 96 clones picked at random showed that recombination rate was 93.8%, in which 95.6% inserted cDNA fragments were longer than 300 bp in length. All the seven known objective genes of S. japonicum were amplified from the library. The T7 phage display library from adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum was constructed.

  15. Molecular evidence of curcumin-induced apoptosis in the filarial worm Setaria cervi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ananya; Gayen, Prajna; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Niladri; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2012-09-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is a major curcuminoid from Curcuma longa that exhibits various pharmacological effects and has shown multiple beneficial activities. Our understanding of its anticarcinogenic and other activities occurring through curcumin-induced apoptosis in several cancer cells has greatly expanded in recent years. Lymphatic filariasis is a worldwide health problem causing global disability in humans and is caused by filarial nematodes. Development of efficient strategies to promote programmed cell death in filarial worms remains a key challenge for anti-filarial drug developing research and a crucial unmet medical need. In this study, we have taken molecular and biochemical approaches toward understanding the molecular basis for curcumin-mediated anti-filarial activity in the filarial nematode Setaria cervi. Results of MTT assay showed that curcumin causes a significant reduction in viability of Mf and adults and thus acts as a potent macro- and micro-filaricidal agent. Hoechst staining, TUNEL staining, showed several apoptotic nuclei in different parts of curcumin-treated adults. At 25 μM concentration it showed chromosomal DNA fragmentation in adult worms. Our results indicate that curcumin decreases protein and mRNA expression levels of anti-apoptotic gene ced-9 and enhances both the levels of pro-apoptotic genes ced-3 and ced-4 in a dose-dependent manner. All these observations ascertained the apoptogenicity of curcumin at a minimum concentration of 50 μM in this filarial worm. Furthermore, we showed that curcumin causes depletion of parasitic glutathione level, enhances the activities of glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase and stimulates rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we present molecular evidence on curcumin-induced apoptosis in the filarial nematode S. cervi with probable involvement of ROS in a caspase-dependent manner.

  16. WormScan: a technique for high-throughput phenotypic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Mathew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are four main phenotypes that are assessed in whole organism studies of Caenorhabditis elegans; mortality, movement, fecundity and size. Procedures have been developed that focus on the digital analysis of some, but not all of these phenotypes and may be limited by expense and limited throughput. We have developed WormScan, an automated image acquisition system that allows quantitative analysis of each of these four phenotypes on standard NGM plates seeded with E. coli. This system is very easy to implement and has the capacity to be used in high-throughput analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our system employs a readily available consumer grade flatbed scanner. The method uses light stimulus from the scanner rather than physical stimulus to induce movement. With two sequential scans it is possible to quantify the induced phototactic response. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we measured the phenotypic response of C. elegans to phosphine gas exposure. We found that stimulation of movement by the light of the scanner was equivalent to physical stimulation for the determination of mortality. WormScan also provided a quantitative assessment of health for the survivors. Habituation from light stimulation of continuous scans was similar to habituation caused by physical stimulus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are existing systems for the automated phenotypic data collection of C. elegans. The specific advantages of our method over existing systems are high-throughput assessment of a greater range of phenotypic endpoints including determination of mortality and quantification of the mobility of survivors. Our system is also inexpensive and very easy to implement. Even though we have focused on demonstrating the usefulness of WormScan in toxicology, it can be used in a wide range of additional C. elegans studies including lifespan determination, development, pathology and behavior. Moreover, we have even adapted the

  17. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12 in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63 were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the

  18. First record of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion caupo Hendrix, 1975 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. FERRERO-VICENTE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion caupo Hendrix, 1975 have been collected for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, thus increasing the number of known sipunculan species of up to 36 in this area. They were encountered on soft bottoms from the coast of San Pedro del Pinatar (Western Mediterranean. Thirty specimens were collected at a depth ranging from 32.6 to 37.2 m, mainly in sandy substrata with high load of silt and clays. 80% of the individuals were found inhabiting empty shells of gastropods or empty tubes of serpulid polychaetes.

  19. Ultrastructural investigation of spermatogenesis in the nemerine worm Procephalothrix sp. (Palaeonemertini, Anopla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunov, A. A.; Klepal, W.

    1997-08-01

    Spermatogenesis and sperm structure of the nemertine worm Procephalothrix sp. were studied by transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that a flagellum and proacrosomal vesicles are common in spermatogonia and spermatocytes as in spermatogenesis of a number of marine invertebrates with external fertilization. Originally, the animals were collected as Procephalothrix spiralis but they were found to have a type of spermatozoon different from that of P. spiralis as described by Turbeville & Ruppert (1985). The re-identification of the material collected in the Japan Sea has shown that the features are characteristic, of P. spiralis (Coe, 1930). This finding suggests that P. spiralis shows variations in different parts of the world.

  20. Defense role of the cocoon in the silk worm Bombyx mori L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Cathrin, Britto P; Pratheep, Thangaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2011-11-15

    Silk from the domesticated silk worm Bombyx mori procures foreign body response naturally, so it has been utilized as a biomaterial for decades. In India the prime focus of the sericulture industry is to improve silk production with high quality silk. Naturally, the silk worm builds its cocoon not only with silk proteins, but also with antimicrobial proteins to avoid infection since the cocoon is non-motile and non-feeding. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the antimicrobial proteins that persist in the cocoon of the silk worm Bombyx mori. At the pupal stage, the silk worm cocoon shell extract was prepared from the day of pupation (P0) to the day of natural rupture of the cocoon for the eclosion of moth (NR). Using the cocoon shell extract a microbial susceptibility test was performed by the disc diffusion method against the microbes Escherchia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The development of a zone of inhibition against the microbes confirmed the presence of antimicrobial/immunogenic activity of the cocoon shell extract. For further analysis, the cocoon shell extract was subjected to 7-15% sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The protein profile of the cocoon extract revealed the coomassie blue stained bands resolved from the 150-15 kDa molecular range. Interestingly, a polypeptide localized at around 29 kDa showed remarkable expressional changes during the development of pupa. To characterize the 29 kDa protein, it was eluted from the gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The trypsin-digested peptide peaks were analyzed through MASCOT and peptides were matched with the NCBI nr database. The peptides were very well matched with the 18 wheeler protein, which is reported to be responsible for innate immunity, belonging to the Toll family in insects and responsible for cellular

  1. Developmental anatomy of the central nervous system of the cotton leaf worm, spodoptera littoralis boisd.

    OpenAIRE

    El Banhawy, M. A [محمود احمد البنهاوي; Anwar, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    The central nervous system, C. N. S., of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (B.) develops from a median row of embryonic neuroblasts which divide repeatedly to form a double ganglionic chain. The two chains fuse together laterally giving rise to the larval C.N.S. which is differentiated into a brain, a frontal, a suboesophageal, three thoracic and seven abdominal ganglia. During the pupation period, the larval C.N.S. undergoes marked changes leading to the formation of the C.N.S. ...

  2. A review of benthic fauna biodiversity in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Japoshvili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes information on diversity of benthic fauna of Georgia based on the literature sources. 126 publications were analyzed published after 1899. Our investigation showed that 15 lotic and 20 lentic ecosystems were studied out of which 21 (5 rivers and 16 lakes belongs to the Caspian Sea basin and 14 (10 rivers and 4 lakes to the Black Sea basin. As a result, 206 benthic animal taxa were described. From the described groups 81 are identified to the species level, 61 to the genus level, 28 to the family level, 16 to the order level, 10 to the class level, 10 to the phylum level. Since the most of observed freshwater systems are poorly studied, Paravani and Saghamo Lakes, Tsalka and Tbilisi Reservoirs and Kura (Mtkvari and Rioni Rivers are rather well investigated. Our meta-analyses clearly show that in overall freshwater biodiversity of Georgia are significantly understudied.

  3. Unified Geomorphological Analysis Workflows with Benthic Terrain Modeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Walbridge

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High resolution remotely sensed bathymetric data is rapidly increasing in volume, but analyzing this data requires a mastery of a complex toolchain of disparate software, including computing derived measurements of the environment. Bathymetric gradients play a fundamental role in energy transport through the seascape. Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM uses bathymetric data to enable simple characterization of benthic biotic communities and geologic types, and produces a collection of key geomorphological variables known to affect marine ecosystems and processes. BTM has received continual improvements since its 2008 release; here we describe the tools and morphometrics BTM can produce, the research context which this enables, and we conclude with an example application using data from a protected reef in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands.

  4. 2010 NCCA oligochaete trophic index results to inform benthic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 400 sites were sampled in the nearshore of the U.S. Great Lakes during the National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010. To assess benthic ecological condition, 393 PONARs were attempted, and collected macroinvertebrates were identified and enumerated. Biological condition at each site was classified as good, fair or poor using the Oligochaete Trophic Index (OTI). The Great Lakes coasts were then classified by calculating percent area within a condition class: good (20.3%), fair (11.6%), and poor (18.0%). Due to unsuccessful PONARs, unclassified oligochaetes or no oligochaetes captured, 50.1% of the sampled area was classified as missing. In order to help focus future discussion and development of a Great Lakes benthic index, OTI results were compared to other traditional biotic integrity indices. In addition, unclassified sites were examined to determine possible methods or metrics that could prevent missing data in a newly developed index. not applicable

  5. Approach to the resistance of exportation tebo worms when irradiated with gamma ray through a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva R, Samy; Zarate S, Herman; Aguirre H, Paulina; Aburto, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The tebo worms or butterworms (Chilecomadia moorei) are widely used in Chile in fishing, and so are in the international markets although there are some countries, that use these species, to a less extent for preparing food reptiles. Some foreign countries requirements demand, from the exporters, to carry out quarantine treatments related to the sterilization by ionizing energy, however customers need to make sure about their products safety and that is why it is compulsory to establish limits in connection with worms' irradiation resistance. The irradiation effect on a worms sample using doses of 0.3; 0.45; 0.6 and 0.9 kGy was studied macroscopically, after 1 hour, and then 30, 60 and 90 days after the treatment. One of the equipment utilized had a Cobalt 60 source, where as the other one had Cesium 137 irradiators, with a dose rate of 42.7 Gy minute (min) -1 and 37.1 Gy min -1 , respectively. The results concluded that tebo worms can resist more than 3 times the doses suggested by the meta countries without reducing the population drastically, nevertheless it is required to increase the number of worms to be analyzed in order to validate the findings. (author)

  6. Effect of gamma-rays on some technologic properties of cocoon and filament of the silk worm (Bombyx mori L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkh, T.T.; Petkov, N.; Malinova, K.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of irradiation of silk worm eggs with 1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00, 5.00, 6.00 and 7.00 Gy gamma-rays on some major technologic properties of cocoons and filament of the mulbery silk worm was studied. Single irradiation of silk worm during the phase of highest lengthening of nucleus development causes both stimulating and inhibitory effect on the technologic properties of the cocoons and the filament. The degree of stimulation or inhibition is dependent on the irradiation dose, the specificity of technologic processes and biologic characteristics of silk worm species and hybrids. Gamma-irradiation with doses 2.00 and 3.00 Gy stimulates the increase in weight of silk covering by 2.07-8.28%, raw cocoon silkness by 0.38-3.21 points and length of cocoon filament by 40-151 m. Irradiation of silk worm eggs with 2.00-4.00 Gy gamma-rays decreases by 1.4-2.3 kg (12.61-21.91%) the quantity of raw cocoons, required for production of 1 kg grege. 9 refs., 4 tabs. (author)

  7. Mapping of marine benthic invertebrates in the Oslofjord and the Skagerrak: sampling data of museum collections from 1950-1955 and from recent investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Oug

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from large sampling programmes for the mapping of marine invertebrates in the Oslofjord, Norway, and the Skagerrak, spanning more than six decades, are compiled and digitized to provide easy access in modern data repositories. Two sampling programmes undertaken in the period 1950–55 are still the most extensive mapping of marine benthic fauna in the area. Information from a total of more than 900 localities, or sampling events, covering all benthic habitats in the Oslofjord and coastal waters to Kvitsøy in Rogaland county, have been carefully digitized from field notes, original sea charts, and primary observations from sample handling in the field. Geographical coordinates referred to WGS84 chart datum have been fixed with a general accuracy of 20 m in the Oslofjord and 100–250 m in coastal areas, based on precise map sketches with cross-bearings to land objects and chart annotations. Most samples were collected using triangular, Agassiz and lightweight dredges. The collected material has been deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo. Two recent projects, ‘Polyskag’ and ‘Bioskag’ (2006–2014, are briefly described. The projects focused on the diversity of marine bristle worms (Polychaeta, inter alia providing material for molecular genetic analyses. Type localities for early described species and generally understudied biotopes were visited. The data from the 1950s, together with recent studies, constitute a considerable resource for studies of biodiversity, facilitated through the sharing of species records from the museum collections in modern data repositories. The accurate positioning of sampling localities in the 1950s is of particular value for documenting species distributions over long time spans, thus providing a reference base for studying present and future species changes and assessing the effects of human influence and environmental changes in the Oslofjord and the Skagerrak.

  8. An assessment of benthic condition in several small watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, Andrew K; Slacum, Ward H; Wirth, Ed F; Fulton, Mike H

    2011-05-01

    We examined benthic condition in three small watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay. Characterization of benthic condition was based on the combined measurements of benthic fauna, sediment toxicity, and sediment contaminant loads. Significant differences between watersheds were detected for sediment contaminant concentrations and water quality. The intensity of benthic impairment was greatest in the river surrounded by the most developed watershed. Spatial patterns of benthic condition were detected within all three watersheds. In contrast to current, intense focus on nutrient pollution in the Chesapeake Bay, qualitative comparison of our findings to land-use patterns supports findings of other studies that suggest benthic condition in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay may more closely relate to urbanization than agricultural land uses.

  9. A benthic quality index for European alpine lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossaro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of benthic quality indices for European lakes is hindered by the lack of information concerning many national lake types and pressures. Most information is from north European lakes stressed by acidification and from deep lakes subjected to eutrophication; for other lake types (the ones included in the Mediterranean areas for example and for other pressures (hydro-morphological alteration, toxic stress there is practically no information about the response of benthic macro-invertebrates; this hinders the possibility of an intercalibration of the indices among the member states (MS in the EU. In the present communication three benthic quality indices are proposed considering the littoral, sublittoral and profundal zone in 5 reference and 7 non reference lakes from the Alpine region in response to eutrophication. The sensitivity values of the 177 species found in these lakes were calculated taking a weighted average of the values of environmental variables from lakes in which the species were present. The indicator taxa which prevailed in these lakes were Chironomids and Oligochaetes. A coinertia analysis emphasized the importance of trophic variables (transparency, nitrates, total phosphorous in explaining the species distribution, but geographic (altitude and morphometric (depth, volume variables were also important. The indices enabeled a separation of reference from non-reference lakes and to assign the non-reference lakes to different quality classes in agreement with the Water Framework Directive.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1364.Published online: 17 October 2012. 

  10. Macroevolutionary interplay between planktic larvae and benthic predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin J.

    2005-12-01

    Many marine invertebrates have a complex life cycle in which the egg develops into an intermediate planktic larval form rather than developing directly to the benthic juvenile stage. Because of the evolutionary and ecological complexity of pelagic-benthic life cycles, the reasons behind the origin of larvae and their subsequent maintenance over geological time are not well understood. Using both a molecular clock and the fossil record, I show that the initial exploitation of the predator-free pelagic realm by lecithotrophic larvae was achieved independently multiple times by the end of the Early Cambrian, and that the convergent evolution of planktotrophy from lecithotrophic ancestors evolved between the latest Cambrian and Middle Ordovician at least four, and possibly as many as eight, times. Both the exploitation of the pelagic realm by nonfeeding larvae and the acquisition of planktotrophy correlate in time with novel modes of benthic predation, including the dramatic rise in the number and type of epifaunal suspension feeders in the Early Ordovician.

  11. BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA IN SOUTH WAIGEO WATERS, RAJA AMPAT, WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartini M. Natsir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Waigeo Island is one of four large islands of the Raja Ampat group, West Papua Province. This area lies in the heart of the coral triangle region as the most marine bio-diversity on Earth. Coral reef ecosystem of the Waigeo is a favorable habitat for various organisms including foraminifera. Foraminifera have been proven as useful indicator of water quality surrounding the coral reef environment since FORAM Index was formulated. It gives additional importance of foraminifera beside their common uses on micropalaeontology for petroleum industry and palaeoecology. Therefore, it is very important to obtain data of the benthic foraminifera from various coral reef environments in Indonesia, such as around Waigeo Island. Sediment samples of this study were collected from 12 sites in southern part off Waigeo Island, on July 2011. Observation on benthic foraminifera shows that the study area is dominated by symbiotic bearing benthic foraminifera, Amphistegina lessonii, belongs to Suborder Rotaliina. This occurrence increases the values of FORAM Index (FI at certain sites. Generally, the values of FI from most sites are high (FI>4 that provide a good indication for reef growth or recovery. The values of FI less than 2 are found at RJ3 and RJ4 indicate stress environment for reef growth and they are dominated by opportunistic and heterotrophic functional groups of Elphidium and Quinqueloculina.

  12. Modelling temporal and spatial dynamics of benthic fauna in North-West-European shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Bruggeman, Jorn; Artioli, Yuri; Butenschön, Momme; Blackford, Jerry

    2017-04-01

    Benthic zones of shallow shelf seas receive high amounts of organic material. Physical processes such as resuspension, as well as complex transformations mediated by diverse faunal and microbial communities, define fate of this material, which can be returned to the water column, reworked within sediments or ultimately buried. In recent years, numerical models of various complexity and serving different goals have been developed and applied in order to better understand and predict dynamics of benthic processes. ERSEM includes explicit parameterisations of several groups of benthic biota, which makes it particularly applicable for studies of benthic biodiversity, biological interactions within sediments and benthic-pelagic coupling. To assess model skill in reproducing temporal (inter-annual and seasonal) dynamics of major benthic macrofaunal groups, 1D model simulation results were compared with data from the Western Channel Observatory (WCO) benthic survey. The benthic model was forced with organic matter deposition rates inferred from observed phytoplankton abundance and model parameters were subsequently recalibrated. Based on model results and WCO data comparison, deposit-feeders exert clear seasonal variability, while for suspension-feeders inter-annual variability is more pronounced. Spatial distribution of benthic fauna was investigated using results of a full-scale NEMO-ERSEM hindcast simulation of the North-West European Shelf Seas area, covering the period of 1981-2014. Results suggest close relationship between spatial distribution of biomass of benthic faunal functional groups in relation to bathymetry, hydrodynamic conditions and organic matter supply. Our work highlights that it is feasible to construct, implement and validate models that explicitly include functional groups of benthic macrofauna. Moreover, the modelling approach delivers detailed information on benthic biogeochemistry and food-web at spatial and temporal scales that are unavailable

  13. Biogeography of worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) driven by end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Vinther, Jakob; Pyron, R Alexander; Pisani, Davide; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2015-05-07

    Worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) are burrowing squamates that live as subterranean predators. Their underground existence should limit dispersal, yet they are widespread throughout the Americas, Europe and Africa. This pattern was traditionally explained by continental drift, but molecular clocks suggest a Cenozoic diversification, long after the break-up of Pangaea, implying dispersal. Here, we describe primitive amphisbaenians from the North American Palaeocene, including the oldest known amphisbaenian, and provide new and older molecular divergence estimates for the clade, showing that worm lizards originated in North America, then radiated and dispersed in the Palaeogene following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) extinction. This scenario implies at least three trans-oceanic dispersals: from North America to Europe, from North America to Africa and from Africa to South America. Amphisbaenians provide a striking case study in biogeography, suggesting that the role of continental drift in biogeography may be overstated. Instead, these patterns support Darwin and Wallace's hypothesis that the geographical ranges of modern clades result from dispersal, including oceanic rafting. Mass extinctions may facilitate dispersal events by eliminating competitors and predators that would otherwise hinder establishment of dispersing populations, removing biotic barriers to dispersal. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphological allometry and intersexuality in horsehair-worm-infected mantids, Hierodula formosana (Mantodea: Mantidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2015-07-01

    Parasitic castration is a strategy used by parasites to minimize damage to the host by consuming its reproductive system, which results in the morphological alteration of the host. We determined that the forewing shape and density of the antennal sensilla of field-collected adult male mantids (Hierodula formosana), infected by horsehair worms (Chordodes formosanus) was partially feminized (intersexuality), and both male and female mantids infected by horsehair worms exhibited allometric changes in their wings and walking legs. In addition, the testes of most infected male adults disappeared or reduced in size, whereas the number of ovarioles in infected female adults was unaffected. The infection mainly influenced the structures related to host reproduction and locomotion, suggesting unbalanced energy exploitation and the reduction of parasitic virulence. In addition, the intersexuality of infected male adults indicated that sexual differentiation in insects, which researchers have considered to be an autonomous process, was influenced by the infection. The similarity of the antennae of infected male adults with those of last-instar female nymphs suggested that parasitic juvenilization may cause such feminization, but the mechanism of parasitic influence on insect sex characteristics should be studied further.

  15. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-02

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Composition of the Schistosoma mansoni worm secretome: Identification of immune modulatory Cyclophilin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achilleas Floudas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The helminth Schistosoma mansoni modulates the infected host's immune system to facilitate its own survival, by producing excretory/secretory molecules that interact with a variety of the host's cell types including those of the immune system. Herein, we characterise the S. mansoni adult male worm secretome and identify 111 proteins, including 7 vaccine candidates and several molecules with potential immunomodulatory activity. Amongst the molecules present in the secretome, a 17-19kDa protein analogous to human cyclophilin A was identified. Given the ability of cyclophilin A to modulate the immune system by regulating antigen presenting cell activity, we sought to determine whether recombinant S. mansoni Cyclophilin A (rSmCypA is capable of modulating bone-marrow derived dendritic cell (BMDC and T cell responses under in vitro conditions. rSmCypA was enzymatically active and able to alter the pro-inflammatory cytokine profile of LPS-activated dendritic cells. rSmCypA also modulated DC function in the induction of CD4+ T cell proliferation with a preferential expansion of Treg cells. This work demonstrates the unique protein composition of the S. mansoni male worm secretome and immunomodulatory activity of S. mansoni Cyclophilin A.

  17. Antischistosomal activity of a calcium channel antagonist on schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Silva-Moraes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current schistosomiasis control strategies are largely based on chemotherapeutic agents and a limited number of drugs are available today. Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug currently used in schistosomiasis control programs. Unfortunately, this drug shows poor efficacy in patients during the earliest infection phases. The effects of PZQ appear to operate on the voltage-operated Ca2+channels, which are located on the external Schistosoma mansoni membrane. Because some Ca2+channels have dihydropyridine drug class (a class that includes nifedipine sensitivity, an in vitro analysis using a calcium channel antagonist (clinically used for cardiovascular hypertension was performed to determine the antischistosomal effects of nifedipine on schistosomula and adult worm cultures. Nifedipine demonstrated antischistosomal activity against schistosomula and significantly reduced viability at all of the concentrations used alone or in combination with PZQ. In contrast, PZQ did not show significant efficacy when used alone. Adult worms were also affected by nifedipine after a 24 h incubation and exhibited impaired motility, several lesions on the tegument and intense contractility. These data support the idea of Ca2+channels subunits as drug targets and favour alternative therapeutic schemes when drug resistance has been reported. In this paper, strong arguments encouraging drug research are presented, with a focus on exploring schistosomal Ca2+channels.

  18. Application of TSL Underwater Robots (AUV) for Investigation of Benthic Ecosystems and Quantification of Benthic Invertebrate Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golikov, S. Yu; Dulepov, V. I.; Maiorov, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    The issues on the application of autonomous underwater vehicles for assessing the abundance, biomass, distribution and reserves of invertebrates in the marine benthic ecosystems and on the environmental monitoring are discussed. An example of the application of methodology to assess some of the quantitative characteristics of macrobenthos is provided based upon using the information obtained from the TSL AUV in the Peter the Great Gulf (the Sea of Japan) in the Bay of Paris and the Eastern Bosphorus Strait within the area of the bridge leading to the Russian island. For the quantitative determination of the benthic invertebrate reserves, the values of biomass density of specific species are determined. Based on the data of direct measurements and weightings, the equations of weight dependencies on the size of animals are estimated according to the studied species that are well described by the power law dependence.

  19. [Epidemiological investigation of Taenia saginata asiatica in Duyun, Guizhou and detection of amino acids and elements of adult worms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Bao, Huai-en; Li, Jin-fu; Lang, Shu-yuan; Qiu, Xue-li; Huang, Jiang; Wu, Yuan-ming; Zhang, Chao-yun

    2003-01-01

    To study epidemiological factors of taeniasis and to detect amino acid and element components of adult worms in Duyun of Guizhou Province. 1. Traditional methods were used for epidemiological investigation. 2. Automatic amino acid analyzer and bioassay were applied for the detection. Among 70 persons with clinical symptoms, 25 patients (24 men and 1 woman) were found to have adult taenia worms in their faeces after taking Areca catechu L. and other drugs. Sixteen amino acids and 12 elements were determined in adult worms. Duyun area in Guizhou is a highly endemic area of taeniasis. The pathogenic parasite is identified as Taenia saginata asiatica. Its clinical symptoms are similar to that of Taenia saginata saginata.

  20. Turbidites and Benthic Faunal Succession in the Deep Sea: An Ecological Paradox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, David

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of benthic faunal succession following turbidity flows in the deep sea will vary according to the composition of turbidite materials, the spatial scales of deposition, the structure...

  1. Distribution of benthic foraminifera along the Iranian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amao, Abduljamiu; Kaminski, Michael

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on the distribution of benthic foraminifera along the Iranian coast of the Gulf from the northeast close to Shatt Al-Arab/Arvand Rud to the southeast near the Strait of Hormuz where it connects to the Indian Ocean. The Gulf is a naturally stressed environment due to extremes of salinity, temperatures and anthropogenic influences such as rapid urbanization projects, maritime transport, large numbers of desalination plants and oil platforms. These activities over time continue to compound the already stressed environment. Historical records on foraminiferal diversity and distribution in the Gulf commonly underestimate its benthic foraminiferal composition and diversity. Thirty-two samples collected from depths ranging between 20 to 45 m were analyzed for total foraminiferal assemblages. A total of 224 benthic foraminiferal species and subspecies belonging to 63 genera, 34 families, 22 superfamilies and 6 orders were recognized. The assemblages are dominated by hyaline taxa (45.3%) and porcelaneous foraminiferal (35.3%), while agglutinated foraminiferal groups are comprise a lower proportion (19.4%). The ten most abundant genera include Asterorotalia (13.3%), Quinqueloculina (12.4%), Bolivina (9.8%), Nonion (8.6%), Ammonia (5.5%), Textularia (5.4%), Elphidium (5.2%), Cibicides (3.9%), Challengerella (3.6%) and Hanzawaia (3.4%). The most common species are Nonion sp. 1 (5.45%), Asterorotalia dentata (5.03%), Quinqueloculina sp. 1 (4.8%), Nonion sp. 2 (4.5%), Rotalinoides cf. R. gaimardii (3.3%), Asterorotalia sp. 3 (3.2%), Quinqueloculina sp. 8 (3.1%), Bolivina cf. B. persiensis (3.0%), Bolivina cf. B. striatula (2.9%), and Ammonia sp. 1 (2.9%). We speculate that feeding strategy, e.g., herbivore (Nonion, Ammonia, Elphidium and Asterorotalia), the proportion of finer sediments (mud), availability of nutrients and presence of oxygen are factors controlling the diversity and distribution of benthic foraminifera in the Gulf. Due to the importance of

  2. Do benthic biofilters contribute to sustainability and restoration of the benthic environment impacted by offshore cage finfish aquaculture?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado-Gimenez, F.; Piedecausa, M.A.; Carrasco, C.; Gutierrez, J.M.; Aliaga, V.; Garcia-Garcia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Benthic biofilters were deployed under an offshore fish farm and in control locations. → We checked the farm influence on fouling, wild fish and sediment near the biofilters. → Fouling under the cages used fish farm-derived wastes, but at low efficiency. → Wild fish were more abundant in the biofilters located below the cages. → Despite these clear benefits, sediment quality around the biofilters did not improve. - Abstract: Benthic biofilters were deployed under a cage fish farm and in two reference locations to assess the influence of the farm on the biofilters and the surroundings, as well as to verify the usefulness of this technology as a mitigation tool. The biofilters underneath the farm recruited a fouling community practically identical to that of the control biofilters, which included a variety of trophic strategies. The former showed a higher 15 N enrichment, indicating that fouling beneath the farm was benefiting from the farm waste. The waste retention efficiency was low (0.02 g N m -2 month -1 ) beneath the farm. Benthic biofilters aggregated demersal wild fish around and within them. Pelagic wild fish also frequently used the biofilters beneath the farm, forming compact shoals around them. The increased complexity of the habitat below the fish farm enhanced biodiversity, but this improvement did not lead to the recovery of the sediments around the biofilters.

  3. A Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program for National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Christopher S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Beavers, Rebecca; Brock, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program directed the initiation of a benthic habitat mapping program in ocean and coastal parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. With 74 ocean and Great Lakes parks stretching over more than 5,000 miles of coastline across 26 States and territories, this Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) is essential. This program will deliver benthic habitat maps and their associated inventory reports to NPS managers in a consistent, servicewide format to support informed management and protection of 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. The NPS and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop June 3-5, 2008, in Lakewood, Colo., to discuss the goals and develop the design of the NPS SBMP with an assembly of experts (Moses and others, 2010) who identified park needs and suggested best practices for inventory and mapping of bathymetry, benthic cover, geology, geomorphology, and some water-column properties. The recommended SBMP protocols include servicewide standards (such as gap analysis, minimum accuracy, final products) as well as standards that can be adapted to fit network and park unit needs (for example, minimum mapping unit, mapping priorities). SBMP Mapping Process. The SBMP calls for a multi-step mapping process for each park, beginning with a gap assessment and data mining to determine data resources and needs. An interagency announcement of intent to acquire new data will provide opportunities to leverage partnerships. Prior to new data acquisition, all involved parties should be included in a scoping meeting held at network scale. Data collection will be followed by processing and interpretation, and finally expert review and publication. After publication, all digital materials will be archived in a common format. SBMP Classification Scheme. The SBMP will map using the Coastal and Marine Ecological

  4. The relationship between seal abundance and cod worm (Phocanema decipiens) infestation in cod in Norwegian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørge, Arne

    1985-01-01

    A sample of 52 cods, Gadus morhua, caught close to a grey seal, Halichoerus grypus, haul out site, and a total of 652 cods from 18 commercial catches (average sample size 36 cods) were examined with regard to cod worm infestation. The sampling was carried out from July 1978 to January 1981 in Norwegian coastal waters between 62° and 66° North. The presence of larval cod worm was recorded in 64% of the examined fishes, and the average infestation in all 704 fishes was 8.5 ...

  5. Bifurcation Analysis for an SEIRS-V Model with Delays on the Transmission of Worms in a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopf bifurcation for an SEIRS-V model with delays on the transmission of worms in a wireless sensor network is investigated. We focus on existence of the Hopf bifurcation by regarding the diverse delay as a bifurcation parameter. The results show that propagation of worms in the wireless sensor network can be controlled when the delay is suitably small under some certain conditions. Then, we study properties of the Hopf bifurcation by using the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Finally, we give a numerical example to support the theoretical results.

  6. [The singular story of Doctor Worm -Nicholas Andry de Boisregard- and of his daughters Parasitology and Orthopaedics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Walter

    2012-10-01

    Homini verminoso or Dr. Worm were the nicknames that Nicholas Aindry won in life for his consecration to the study of intestinal worms and for his bad temper, which led him to fiercely attack the surgeons. The article reassumes the studies and contributions that gave Andry the title of Father of Parasitology and the candidacy to Father of Orthopaedics, and mentions some other candidates to this honor. Quite a man, he had -besides his biological one- two famous daughters, growing till our days; wrote at least three valuable books; and planted the immortal "tree of Andry", the symbol of Orthopaedics.

  7. Study on the effect of gamma-radiation on the development of silk worm (Bombyx mori L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grekov, D.

    1995-01-01

    These investigations are of special interest to the breeding practice considering the lack of profound research activity. The main purpose was to find out possibilities of using gamma-rays as a mutagenic factor in sericulture. The results obtained show that the irradiation of silk worm eggs at b 2 stage of embryo development with 5 Gy stimulates the biological development. The irradiation doses of 10-25 Gy inhibit mulberry silk worm development. The different species react in different way. Probably mutation forms are to be sought within 10-25 Gy doses. 10 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitats, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-20 (NCEI Accession 0164023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  9. Benthic cover derived from analysis of benthic images collected at coral reef sites in Batangas, Philippines from 2015-05-23 to 2015-06-03 (NCEI Accession 0162828)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic cover data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) in 2015 along transects at...

  10. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of American Samoa from 2015-02-15 to 2015-03-23 (NCEI Accession 0157566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  12. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitats, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000-09-09 to 2012-05-19 (NCEI Accession 0163745)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-26 (NCEI Accession 0157565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-26 (NCEI Accession 0157564)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitats, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-04 to 2017-06-20 (NCEI Accession 0166629)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  16. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  17. Fluorescent sperm in a transparent worm: validation of a GFP marker to study sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Orleach, Lucas; Janicke, Tim; Vizoso, Dita B; Eichmann, Micha; Schärer, Lukas

    2014-06-30

    Sexual selection has initially been thought to occur exclusively at the precopulatory stage in terms of contests among males and female mate choice, but research over the last four decades revealed that it often continues after copulation through sperm competition and cryptic female choice. However, studying these postcopulatory processes remains challenging because they occur internally and therefore are often difficult to observe. In the transparent free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano, a recently established transgenic line that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in all cell types, including sperm, offers a unique opportunity to non-invasively visualise and quantify the sperm of a GFP-expressing donor inside the reproductive tract of wild-type recipients in vivo. We here test several aspects of the reproductive performance of the transgenic individuals and the accuracy of the techniques involved in assessing the GFP-expressing worms and their sperm. We then show the usefulness of these methods in a study on sperm displacement. GFP-expressing worms do not differ from wild-type worms in terms of morphology, mating rate and reproductive success. In addition, we show that the GFP signal is reliably and unequivocally expressed by all GFP-expressing individuals observed under epifluorescence illumination. However, the intensity of the GFP signal emitted by sperm of GFP expressing donors can vary (which we show to be at least in part due to sperm ageing) and the GFP marker is inherited according to Mendel's laws in most, but not all, of the individuals. Nevertheless, we argue these two issues can be addressed with an appropriate experimental design. Finally, we demonstrate the value of the GFP-techniques by comparing the number of GFP-expressing sperm in a wild-type recipient before and after mating with a competing sperm donor, providing clear experimental evidence for sperm displacement in M. lignano. This result suggests that sperm donors can displace

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Stratified Random Sites (StRS) across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here are benthic habitat imagery that result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across...

  19. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the US nearshore zone of Lake Erie, 2009: Status and linkages to landscape-derived stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  20. Study of the stability of a SEIRS model for computer worm propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Guillén, J. D.; Martín del Rey, A.; Hernández Encinas, L.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, malware is the most important threat to information security. In this sense, several mathematical models to simulate malware spreading have appeared. They are compartmental models where the population of devices is classified into different compartments: susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, etc. The main goal of this work is to propose an improved SEIRS (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible) mathematical model to simulate computer worm propagation. It is a continuous model whose dynamic is ruled by means of a system of ordinary differential equations. It considers more realistic parameters related to the propagation; in fact, a modified incidence rate has been used. Moreover, the equilibrium points are computed and their local and global stability analyses are studied. From the explicit expression of the basic reproductive number, efficient control measures are also obtained.

  1. Lessons from "lower" organisms: what worms, flies, and zebrafish can teach us about human energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnon Schlegel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic of metabolic diseases (atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and obesity, unleashed by multiple social and economic factors beyond the control of most individuals, threatens to diminish human life span for the first time in the modern era. Given the redundancy and inherent complexity of processes regulating the uptake, transport, catabolism, and synthesis of nutrients, magic bullets to target these diseases will be hard to find. Recent studies using the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the zebrafish Danio rerio indicate that these "lower" metazoans possess unique attributes that should help in identifying, investigating, and even validating new pharmaceutical targets for these diseases. We summarize findings in these organisms that shed light on highly conserved pathways of energy homeostasis.

  2. WorMachine: machine learning-based phenotypic analysis tool for worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Adam; Mor, Yael; Toker, Itai Antoine; Levine, Amir; Neuhof, Moran; Markovitz, Yishai; Rechavi, Oded

    2018-01-16

    Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are powerful model organisms, yet quantification of visible phenotypes is still often labor-intensive, biased, and error-prone. We developed WorMachine, a three-step MATLAB-based image analysis software that allows (1) automated identification of C. elegans worms, (2) extraction of morphological features and quantification of fluorescent signals, and (3) machine learning techniques for high-level analysis. We examined the power of WorMachine using five separate representative assays: supervised classification of binary-sex phenotype, scoring continuous-sexual phenotypes, quantifying the effects of two different RNA interference treatments, and measuring intracellular protein aggregation. WorMachine is suitable for analysis of a variety of biological questions and provides an accurate and reproducible analysis tool for measuring diverse phenotypes. It serves as a "quick and easy," convenient, high-throughput, and automated solution for nematode research.

  3. Worm crawling inside my brain”: a rare case of delusional parasitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekh Afrar Alam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Delusional parasitosis is a disorder in which persons suffering have a firm and unshakeable belief of harbouring some parasite or worm in his/her body. In today’s nosology, it has been placed under delusional disorder-somatic type in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 (297.1 and under persistent delusional disorders in the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10 (F22. Existing literature has extensively described this condition to affect mainly the skin with some instances of affecting the oral mucosa and the intestine. We are reporting a rare case of delusional disorder of parasite infestation in the brain.

  4. Economic impact of eradicating the New World screw-worm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) from Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Trang T.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the economic feasibility of eradicating the New World screw-worm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, from Jamaica. The endemic presence of the NWS in Jamaica has caused the livestock sector to incur recurrent economic costs and losses. Eradication of the pest utilising the environmentally-benign sterile insect technique (SIT) has proved technologically feasible on other islands and other parts of the world. Based on these successful experiences, the proposed project to eradicate the NWS from Jamaica is expected to be similarly effective in eliminating the pest from Jamaica in a relatively short period of time. The elimination of the pest from the Caribbean would lessen the significant risk of re-infestation of eradicated areas and pest-free countries in the region

  5. Chemically programmed ink-jet printed resistive WORM memory array and readout circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, H; Manuilskiy, A; Sidén, J; Gao, J; Kunninmel, G V; Nilsson, H-E; Hummelgård, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an ink-jet printed write once read many (WORM) resistive memory fabricated on paper substrate is presented. The memory elements are programmed for different resistance states by printing triethylene glycol monoethyl ether on the substrate before the actual memory element is printed using silver nano particle ink. The resistance is thus able to be set to a broad range of values without changing the geometry of the elements. A memory card consisting of 16 elements is manufactured for which the elements are each programmed to one of four defined logic levels, providing a total of 4294 967 296 unique possible combinations. Using a readout circuit, originally developed for resistive sensors to avoid crosstalk between elements, a memory card reader is manufactured that is able to read the values of the memory card and transfer the data to a PC. Such printed memory cards can be used in various applications. (paper)

  6. Incidence of Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taweel, Ayad A.; Al-Izzi, Mohammed A.J.; Jassim, Fadhil A.

    2000-01-01

    The Old World screw-worm fly (OWSWF), Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve, is a member of the insect family Calliphoridae and is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals in the tropics and sub-tropics (Norris and Murray 1964). Flies lay their eggs on the edge of wounds or body orifices; the resulting larvae invade the host tissues and produce lesions and infertility if the genitals become infested (Humphrey et al. 1980). Recorded hosts include cattle (Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Caprus hircus), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus) and man (Homo sapiens) (Patton 1920, 1922, Stoddar and Peck 1962, Norris and Murray 1964). This investigation describes the incidence of myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iraq from September 1996 to March 1998

  7. Mass rearing the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, R.J.; Hamdan bin Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    Many countries within the tropics are afflicted with one of two species of screw-worm, either the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel (NWSWF), or the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve (OWSWF). In nature, larvae of both species are obligate parasites and feed on the living flesh of mammals and to a lesser extent, birds. Female flies lay eggs at the site of a pre-existing wound or near body orifices of the host. First instar larvae feed superficially on the wound; however, larger larvae use their hooked mouthparts to burrow deep into the flesh of the host. Damaged blood vessels provide a steady stream of blood and plasma that typically oozes from the infested wound. The wound also acquires a characteristic odour. Presumably, some of the volatile components emanating from the wound, also provide strong signals to gravid female flies, as once infested, wounds become far more attractive as a site to lay eggs than uninfested wounds. As the number of larvae increases, the myiasis enlarges and the well-being of the host is threatened. In areas where gravid female SWF are numerous, the wound has little chance to heal, thus death of the host is likely unless the wound is treated and re-infestation prevented. While New and Old World species are distantly related, they are remarkably similar ecologically and in their biological characteristics. Wherever either species occurs, it is considered a serious pest of livestock. Australia is fortunate that neither species of the screw-worm is present despite evidence that extensive areas appear environmentally suitable. The OWSWF is considered the most serious threat to Australia as it is present in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. It is envisaged that the sterile insect release method (SIRM) will be employed to eradicate the OWSWF if it becomes established in Australia. To facilitate such a programme, and to reduce delays in constructing a suitable mass rearing

  8. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  9. Transparent and flexible write-once-read-many (WORM) memory device based on egg albumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Lin, Qianru; Wan, Tao; Du, Haiwei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-08-01

    Egg albumen, as an important protein resource in nature, is an interesting dielectric material exhibiting many fascinating properties for the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices. Taking advantage of their extraordinary transparency and flexibility, this paper presents an innovative preparation approach for albumen thin film based write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices in a simple, cost-effective manner. The fabricated device shows superior data retention properties including non-volatile character (over 105 s) and promising great read durability (106 times). Furthermore, our results suggested that the electric-field-induced trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction is responsible for the observed resistance switching effect. The present study may likely reveal another pathway towards complete see-through electrical devices.

  10. Transparent and flexible write-once-read-many (WORM) memory device based on egg albumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Bo; Lin, Qianru; Wan, Tao; Du, Haiwei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-01-01

    Egg albumen, as an important protein resource in nature, is an interesting dielectric material exhibiting many fascinating properties for the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices. Taking advantage of their extraordinary transparency and flexibility, this paper presents an innovative preparation approach for albumen thin film based write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices in a simple, cost-effective manner. The fabricated device shows superior data retention properties including non-volatile character (over 10 5 s) and promising great read durability (10 6 times). Furthermore, our results suggested that the electric-field-induced trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction is responsible for the observed resistance switching effect. The present study may likely reveal another pathway towards complete see-through electrical devices. (paper)

  11. WormGUIDES: an interactive single cell developmental atlas and tool for collaborative multidimensional data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Anthony; Catena, Raúl; Kovacevic, Ismar; Shah, Pavak; Yu, Zidong; Marquina-Solis, Javier; Kumar, Abhishek; Wu, Yicong; Schaff, James; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari; Mohler, William A; Bao, Zhirong

    2015-06-09

    Imaging and image analysis advances are yielding increasingly complete and complicated records of cellular events in tissues and whole embryos. The ability to follow hundreds to thousands of cells at the individual level demands a spatio-temporal data infrastructure: tools to assemble and collate knowledge about development spatially in a manner analogous to geographic information systems (GIS). Just as GIS indexes items or events based on their spatio-temporal or 4D location on the Earth these tools would organize knowledge based on location within the tissues or embryos. Developmental processes are highly context-specific, but the complexity of the 4D environment in which they unfold is a barrier to assembling an understanding of any particular process from diverse sources of information. In the same way that GIS aids the understanding and use of geo-located large data sets, software can, with a proper frame of reference, allow large biological data sets to be understood spatially. Intuitive tools are needed to navigate the spatial structure of complex tissue, collate large data sets and existing knowledge with this spatial structure and help users derive hypotheses about developmental mechanisms. Toward this goal we have developed WormGUIDES, a mobile application that presents a 4D developmental atlas for Caenorhabditis elegans. The WormGUIDES mobile app enables users to navigate a 3D model depicting the nuclear positions of all cells in the developing embryo. The identity of each cell can be queried with a tap, and community databases searched for available information about that cell. Information about ancestry, fate and gene expression can be used to label cells and craft customized visualizations that highlight cells as potential players in an event of interest. Scenes are easily saved, shared and published to other WormGUIDES users. The mobile app is available for Android and iOS platforms. WormGUIDES provides an important tool for examining developmental

  12. Concluding comments: from the worm's view, eco-pharmacodynamics and 2000 A.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbehenn, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    There may be zoonoses to study (or avoid) in your own backyard but, in any event, a closer look at parasitic worms may shed some light on processes affecting mammalian populations. Here I offer some speculation with varying degrees of empirical and theoretical support. Endoparasites of mammals have different functional relationships with their hosts than do ecotoparasites and insect parasitoids. Since death of the host usually terminates life for the endoparasite, some such parasites may have evolved mechanisms for preventing diseases in their hosts. Parasites may also promote apparent competitive exclusion among similar host species and a likely example is found among the flying squirrels in Eastern United States. Conceivably, parasites may mediate some predator-prey interactions but no examples are available. Adverse impacts of man-made organochlorine compounds, especially on predatory birds and mammals, have been documented, but the associated processes of bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification have not been clarified much beyond the stage of operational definitions

  13. The Effect of Some Additives on the Bioproductive Performances of SilkWorm Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Benţea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, worldwide in sericulture domain, researches are aimed to find new efficient alternatives for the feeding of mulberry silk worm through the use of some fodder additives which allow the improvement of bioproductive parameters and silk line quality. The present work represents a review of the use of such substances (mineral and vitamin additives and of the experiments carried out to point out their effects on silkworms (Bombyx mori L.. Research conducted worldwide revealed the fact that the use of mineral and vitamin additives in silkworm Bombyx mori L., improve the growth rate of larvae, protein and mineral content of haemolymph, the protein content, DNA and RNA content of the sericigen glands, and the quality parameters of cocoon and silk line. Researches showed that the use of these additives doesn’t affect the quality of the silk.

  14. Accounting for Film-Forming and Damping Properties of Lubricants in Worm Gear Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Polyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers to use a curve of changing vibration amplitude of the rotating moment on the worm shaft of reducer in the process of growing brake (loading moment as one of criteria of the worm reducer operability. A condition of reducer operability at the nominal moment is lack of vibrations of the rotating moment with a critical value of amplitude.It is shown that vibrations of rotating moment on a shaft of the electric engine, by their nature, are self-vibrations in the system with "negative friction". Values of the brake moment at which there is a sharp increase of vibration amplitude leading to operability loss correspond to the nominal moment for this reducer or to the brake moment, corresponding to the maximum efficiency. It is shown that different lubricants differently influence on the generation of self-vibrations. The most efficient damping occurs when using oil with the additive "Striboil", and the reason of falling efficiency at the excess of the nominal moment is essentially increased energy losses at generation of vibrations with "negative friction", especially when approaching to the resonance area. Thus, taking into account a nature of damping vibrations, with using different lubricants, allows us to increase the permissible tension since the more is a damping value the more is a brake moment corresponding to the maximum efficiency. It is noted that, when using the additives to oils, a growth of the permissible tension is caused by the processes of film formation increasing the real contact area, which increases its share of the nominal contact area determined by the Hertz formula.

  15. The Yoruba farm market as a communication channel in guinea worm disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, W R; Kendall, C

    1996-01-01

    Disease eradication programmes are by definition time bound and require strategies that facilitate timely intervention. Surveillance, which undergirds eradication, also requires timely strategies. Finding such strategies is especially challenging when the target disease is endemic in remote areas, e.g. guinea worm disease, the focus of this study. A strategy of market based surveillance was pilot tested in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The project goal was to design a surveillance system that both fit into the natural communication network of rural people, and also enlisted their active involvement. Ethnographic research methods were employed to learn about market location, structure, catchment area and attendance pattern. Four larger farm markets (serving 164 hamlets with 17,000 population) were chosen. Each hamlet was visited and a volunteer 'reporter' was recruited. Reporters were trained on case recognition and detection, first aid and prevention, with a sensitivity to distinguishing indigenous and clinical perceptions of guinea worm. The market cycle was based on the traditional four-day week. Field workers visited every second market 16 times between October 1990 and February 1991. The reporter was expected to identify correctly the first case of the season and thus label the village as endemic for the season. Reporters gave oral reports, and positive indications were followed up within 48 hr by field workers, who verified the case and administered first aid. All hamlets were visited once a month to verify negative reports. Reporter attendance was monitored. Those who had a formal role in the market, e.g. sales agents, had better attendance than ordinary farmers who came only to sell their own produce. Knowledge of market structure and attender roles offers a guide for adapting this surveillance approach to other cultural systems and health issues.

  16. Housing tubes from the marine worm Chaetopterus sp.: biomaterials with exceptionally broad thermomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Darshil U; Vollrath, Fritz; Porter, David; Stires, John; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2014-09-06

    The housing tube material of the marine worm Chaetopterus sp. exhibits thermal stability up to 250°C, similar to other biological materials such as mulberry silkworm cocoons. Interestingly, however, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis conducted in both air and water elucidated the lack of a glass transition in the organic tube wall material. In fact, the viscoelastic properties of the anhydrous and undried tube were remarkably stable (i.e. constant and reversible) between -75°C and 200°C in air, and 5°C and 75°C in water, respectively. Moreover, it was found that hydration and associated-water plasticization were key to the rubber-like flexible properties of the tube; dehydration transformed the material behaviour to glass-like. The tube is made of bionanocomposite fibrils in highly oriented arrangement, which we argue favours the biomaterial to be highly crystalline or cross-linked, with extensive hydrogen and/or covalent bonds. Mechanical property characterization in the longitudinal and transverse directions ascertained that the tubes were not quasi-isotropic structures. In general, the higher stiffness and strength in the transverse direction implied that there were more nanofibrils orientated at ± 45° and ± 65° than at 0° to the tube axis. The order of the mechanical properties of the soft-tough tubes was similar to synthetic rubber-like elastomers and even some viscid silks. The complex structure-property relations observed indicated that the worm has evolved to produce a tubular housing structure which can (i) function stably over a broad range of temperatures, (ii) endure mechanical stresses from specific planes/axes, and (iii) facilitate rapid growth or repair. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrologic controls on basin-scale distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Ceola, S.; Singer, G. A.; Battin, T. J.; Montanari, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation deals with the role of streamflow variability on basin-scale distributions of benthic macroinvertebrates. Specifically, we present a probabilistic analysis of the impacts of the variability along the river network of relevant hydraulic variables on the density of benthic macroinvertebrate species. The relevance of this work is based on the implications of the predictability of macroinvertebrate patterns within a catchment on fluvial ecosystem health, being macroinvertebrates commonly used as sensitive indicators, and on the effects of anthropogenic activity. The analytical tools presented here outline a novel procedure of general nature aiming at a spatially-explicit quantitative assessment of how near-bed flow variability affects benthic macroinvertebrate abundance. Moving from the analytical characterization of the at-a-site probability distribution functions (pdfs) of streamflow and bottom shear stress, a spatial extension to a whole river network is performed aiming at the definition of spatial maps of streamflow and bottom shear stress. Then, bottom shear stress pdf, coupled with habitat suitability curves (e.g., empirical relations between species density and bottom shear stress) derived from field studies are used to produce maps of macroinvertebrate suitability to shear stress conditions. Thus, moving from measured hydrologic conditions, possible effects of river streamflow alterations on macroinvertebrate densities may be fairly assessed. We apply this framework to an Austrian river network, used as benchmark for the analysis, for which rainfall and streamflow time-series and river network hydraulic properties and macroinvertebrate density data are available. A comparison between observed vs "modeled" species' density in three locations along the examined river network is also presented. Although the proposed approach focuses on a single controlling factor, it shows important implications with water resources management and fluvial

  18. Antarctic sea ice losses drive gains in benthic carbon drawdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D K A

    2015-09-21

    Climate forcing of sea-ice losses from the Arctic and West Antarctic are blueing the poles. These losses are accelerating, reducing Earth's albedo and increasing heat absorption. Subarctic forest (area expansion and increased growth) and ice-shelf losses (resulting in new phytoplankton blooms which are eaten by benthos) are the only significant described negative feedbacks acting to counteract the effects of increasing CO2 on a warming planet, together accounting for uptake of ∼10(7) tonnes of carbon per year. Most sea-ice loss to date has occurred over polar continental shelves, which are richly, but patchily, colonised by benthic animals. Most polar benthos feeds on microscopic algae (phytoplankton), which has shown increased blooms coincident with sea-ice losses. Here, growth responses of Antarctic shelf benthos to sea-ice losses and phytoplankton increases were investigated. Analysis of two decades of benthic collections showed strong increases in annual production of shelf seabed carbon in West Antarctic bryozoans. These were calculated to have nearly doubled to >2x10(5) tonnes of carbon per year since the 1980s. Annual production of bryozoans is median within wider Antarctic benthos, so upscaling to include other benthos (combined study species typically constitute ∼3% benthic biomass) suggests an increased drawdown of ∼2.9x10(6) tonnes of carbon per year. This drawdown could become sequestration because polar continental shelves are typically deeper than most modern iceberg scouring, bacterial breakdown rates are slow, and benthos is easily buried. To date, most sea-ice losses have been Arctic, so, if hyperboreal benthos shows a similar increase in drawdown, polar continental shelves would represent Earth's largest negative feedback to climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and the mapping of benthic marine habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, João Batista; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Secchin, Nelio Augusto; Leão de Moura, Rodrigo; Bastos, Alex Cardoso

    2013-01-30

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is the empirically accumulated knowledge of local communities whose livelihoods depend directly on natural resources. TEK has a considerable potential as a reliable, rapid and low cost information source. However, its use for decision making in environmental management is frequently challenged due to the lack of scientific validation and the multiple and poorly understood biases deriving from measurement and analytical errors, as well as from political, cultural and religious sources. During the planning stage of a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Southeastern Brazil we assessed fisherfolk TEK regarding seabed features, comparing it with results from a conventional oceanographic assessment. TEK was acquired and synthesized during a survey involving 19 fishing villages and a consensus analysis that minimized variation among individual fisherfolks and communities. The oceanographic survey included high resolution benthic habitat mapping tools such as sidescan sonar and ground-truthing with SCUBA near the interfaces of benthic features identified by fisherfolk. Nearly 3000 km(2) of seafloor were mapped by local fisherfolk as "gravel", "sand", "mud" and "reef structures", while side-scan sonar surveys covered approximately 360 km with an average 400 m swath. Analyses of overlap and proximity showed that TEK is relatively cost-effective and accurate for large-scale benthic surveys, especially as a starting point for planning oceanographic surveys. Moreover, including TEK in the planning stage of MPAs may increase communities' participation and understanding of the costs and benefits of the new access and fishing effort regulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Montagna

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer.

  1. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and

  2. Human exploitation and benthic community structure on a tropical intertidal mudflat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    Human exploitation of intertidal marine invertebrates is known to alter benthic community structure. This study describes the impact that harvesting by women and children has on the intertidal community structure of the mudflats of the Saco on Inhaca Island, Mozambique, by comparing the benthic

  3. Intertidal benthic community ecology of sand-dwelling macroinvertebrates of Goa beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    , is relatively unstable, less productive, and supports a poor benthic fauna. In contrast, an estuarine beach at Siridao, having fine sand-grain size, is comparatively stable, more productive, and exhibits a rich fauna. This indicates the richness of benthic life...

  4. Modeling food web interactions in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Van Oevelen, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological

  5. Benthic dinitrogen fixation traversing the oxygen minimum zone off Mauritania (NW Africa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gier, Jessica; Löscher, Carolin R.; Dale, Andrew W.

    2017-01-01

    Nespite its potential to provide new nitrogen (N) to the environment, knowledge on benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation remains relatively sparse, and its contribution to the marine N budget is regarded as minor. Benthic N2 fixation is often observed in organic-rich sediments coupled to heterotrophic...

  6. Competition for shelter between four invasive gobiids and two native benthic fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kessel, N.; Dorenbosch, M.; De Boer, M.R.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Van der Velde, G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent invasions by non-native gobiid fish species that are ongoing in the Western European rivers Rhine and Meuse, will lead to interactions with native benthic fish species. Since both non-native gobiids and native benthic species are bottom dwelling species with a preference for shelter during at

  7. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMBI,

  8. Distribution of benthic foraminifera within oxygen minima zone, off central west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Nigam, R.

    and analyzed to study the effect of oxygen minima zone on benthic foraminiferal habitat. Benthic foraminifera were studied upto specific level of identification. However, to get a better picture, and keeping in mind that oxygen minima zone in the Arabian Sea...

  9. Carbon flows in the benthic food web at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN (Fram Strait)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oevelen, D.; Bergmann, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Bauerfeind, E.; Hasemann, C.; Klages, M.; Schewe, I.; Soltwedel, T.; Budaeva, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    The HAUSGARTEN observatory is located in the eastern Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) and used as long-term monitoring site to follow changes in the Arctic benthic ecosystem. Linear inverse modelling was applied to decipher carbon flows among the compartments of the benthic food web at the central

  10. WormClassroom.org: An Inquiry-Rich Educational Web Portal for Research Resources of "Caenorhabditis elegans"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Stewart, James; White, John G.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of biology research resources, coupled with a "learning by inquiry" approach, has great potential to aid students in gaining an understanding of fundamental biological principles. To help realize this potential, we have developed a Web portal for undergraduate biology education, WormClassroom.org, based on current research…

  11. A rabbit eye model for in vivo transformation of progenetic metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum into ovigerous adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, A; Zaidi, Z A; Alam, M M; Zafar, A; Shareef, P A A; Saifullah, M K; Saleemuddin, M; Abidi, S M A

    2014-03-01

    Clinostomum complanatum is a digenetic trematode that causes yellow grub disease in some fish species and also shows zoonotic potential by sporadically infecting humans. In this study, progenetic metacercariae of C. complanatum were obtained from the fish Trichogaster fasciatus, and were aseptically placed in conjunctival incisions made in the superior and inferior fornices of the eye of rabbits, which served as the experimental hosts. Worms were harvested without necropsy of the host on days 4 and 8 post infection, to observe in vivo transformation of the progenetic metacercariae into ovigerous adult worms. The worms appeared to cause minimal damage to the host although they were tenaciously attached. In vivo maturation was evident by the development of the vitellaria, enlargement of gonads, the presence of a large number of shelled eggs in a distended uterus and ramifications of the intestinal caeca. Obtaining mature ovigerous worms without sacrificing the host clearly gives the rabbit eye model an advantage over those described previously. Due to the relative advantage of the short time required for maturation and the prolific egg production by C. complanatum, it is suggested that this host-parasite system could be used as an excellent model for classroom teaching of trematode biology and to investigate the cues involved in in vivo transformation and host-parasite interactions.

  12. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden). Swedish Environmental Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  13. Worm burdens in outbred and inbred laboratory rats with morphometric data on Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris worm burdens were evaluated in the rat Rattus norvegicus of the strains Wistar (outbred, Low/M and AM/2/Torr (inbred, maintained conventionally in institutional animal houses in Brazil. Morphometrics and illustration data for S. muris recovered from Brazilian laboratory rats are provided for the first time since its proposition in 1935.

  14. Using experimental de-worming to measure the immunological and pathological impacts of lungworm infection in cane toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Finnerty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunological and pathological consequences of parasite infection can be more rigorously assessed from experimental manipulation than from correlational studies of natural infections. We used anthelmintic treatment to experimentally decrease intensities of lungworm infection in captive and free-ranging wild cane toads to assess parasite impacts on host immune responses. First, we administered the anthelmintic drug Ivermectin to both infected and uninfected toads, to distinguish drug effects per se from the impacts of killing lungworms. Worms began dying and decomposing <48 h after injection. The only immunological variables that were affected by anthelmintic treatment were bactericidal capacity of the blood which increased in parasitized toads (presumably triggered by decomposing worms in the lungs, and the phagocytic capacity of blood (which increased in both infected and uninfected toads; the latter effect presumably was caused by the injection of Ivermectin per se rather than removal of parasites. Second, we looked at correlates of variation in the infection intensity induced by de-worming (in both captive and free-ranging toads over an eight-week period. Heavier lungworm infection was associated with increased phagocytic ability of the host's blood, and a reduction in the host's liver mass (and hence, energy stores. Experimental de-worming thus revealed pathological and immunological costs of the presence of lungworms, and of their removal by anthelmintic injection. Keywords: Rhinella marina, Bufo marinus, Host, Parasite, Nematode

  15. Toxic effects of heavy metals in three worm species exposed in artificially contaminated soil substrates and contaminated field soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma L; Notenboom J; ECO

    1996-01-01

    The toxicity of chemicals is often determined in standardised laboratory experiments. OECD artificial soil (artisoil) is often used to determine chemical toxicity for soil organisms. This report presents exposure and effect assessments of metals for three worm species (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus

  16. BALB/c Mice Immunity to Hydatidosis Induced by In-vitro Reared Echinococcus granulosus Adult Worm Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Sarkari, Bahador; Zahabiun, Farzaneh

    2017-06-01

    Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Several native and recombinant antigens, derived from different stages of E. granulosus life cycle, have been used for vaccine trials. In vitro reared adult worms are good candidates for vaccination as they do not produce fertile egg/s and do not have any risk of contamination for researchers. To evaluate different antigens derived from in vitro reared E. granulosus adult worms for the immunization of BALB/c mice against secondary hydatidosis. Viable protoscoleces (PCSs) of sheep hydatid cyst were cultivated in S.10E.H media. Excretory secretory (E/S) and crude antigens were prepared from reared adult worms. A total of fifty BALB/c mice, each 8-weeks-old, were divided into 5 groups of 10 mice. Three groups were subcutaneously immunized with crude, E/S and immunodominant antigens on days 1 and 28. The fourth group received only PBS and the fifth group had no injection. Three weeks following the second immunization, all groups were challenged, intraperitoneal, with viable PSCs. After the autopsy of the mice and opening their abdominal wall, cysts were counted and measured followed by histopathological observations. The highest protective immunity (98.7%) against hydatidosis was induced by crude antigen, followed by E/S and immunodominant antigens. Antigens (crude antigens in particular) derived from in vitro reared E. granulosus adult worms, and their different protein components are suitable candidates for the vaccination of intermediate hosts against hydatidosis.

  17. Abundance and population structure of eastern worm snakes in forest stands with various levels of overstory tree retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary I. Felix; Yong Wang; Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    In-depth analyses of a species’ response to canopy retention treatments can provide insight into reasons for observed changes in abundance. The eastern worm snake (Carphophis amoenus amoenus Say) is common in many eastern deciduous forests, yet little is known about the ecology of the species in managed forests. We examined the relationship between...

  18. Stakeholder perceptions in fisheries management - Sectors with benthic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soma, K.; Nielsen, J. R.; Papadopoulou, N.

    2018-01-01

    The capture fishing sector causes direct and indirect impacts on benthic habitats and associated fauna and flora. Effectiveness of new mitigation measures depends on fishermen's perceptions; their acceptance of, and compliance to, those measures. Accordingly, by means of Advisory Councils (ACs......), fisheries stakeholders are encouraged by the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) reform to contribute to policy formulations. Still, the CFP reform remains unclear about how to possibly incorporate perceptions of specific conservation measures and objectives in practice. Against this background, this article aims....... In this way the ACs could better facilitate bottom-up participation in fisheries management by representing a wide range of stakeholder perceptions....

  19. Procedures for Radioecological Studies with Marine Benthic Invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilquin, A.; Fowler, S.W.; Renfro, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the collection transportation, and pre-experimental handling are briefly described. In designing radioecological experiments on marine benthic invertebrates it is important to prevent overcrowding and to choose healthy, well-acclimated animals. Feeding of the animals and presence or absence of sediments in the aquaria are critical variables in many experiments. Length of time the experiment is run and interim growth of the experimental animals may result in significant variability in results. The physico-chemical form of the radiotracer is another important experimental variable. (author)

  20. Procedures for radioecological studies with marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilquin, A.; Fowler, S.W.; Renfro, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for the collection, transportation, and pre-experimental handling are briefly described. In designing radioecological experiments on marine benthic invertebrates it is important to prevent overcrowding and to choose healthy, well-acclimated animals. Feeding of the animals and presence or absence of sediments in the aquaria are critical variables in many experiments. Length of time the experiment is run and interim growth of the experimental animals may result in significant variability in results. The physico-chemical form of the radiotracer is another important experimental variable. (author)

  1. Distribution pattern of benthic invertebrates in Danish estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Delefosse, Matthieu; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a common statistical approach describing the distribution and dispersion pattern of marine benthic animals has often hampered the comparability among studies. The purpose of this study is therefore to apply an alternative approach, Taylor's power law, to data on spatial and temporal...... that this relationship is an inherent characteristic of Taylor's power law, and that b as a dispersion index may be biased by e.g. sampling errorswhen this relationship is weak. The correlation strength between b and log(a) could therefore be envisioned as a data quality check....

  2. Complexity and simplification in understanding recruitment in benthic populations

    KAUST Repository

    Pineda, Jesús

    2008-11-13

    Research of complex systems and problems, entities with many dependencies, is often reductionist. The reductionist approach splits systems or problems into different components, and then addresses these components one by one. This approach has been used in the study of recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic (bottom-dwelling) species. Another approach examines benthic population dynamics by looking at a small set of processes. This approach is statistical or model-oriented. Simplified approaches identify "macroecological" patterns or attempt to identify and model the essential, "first-order" elements of the system. The complexity of the recruitment and population dynamics problems stems from the number of processes that can potentially influence benthic populations, including (1) larval pool dynamics, (2) larval transport, (3) settlement, and (4) post-settlement biotic and abiotic processes, and larval production. Moreover, these processes are non-linear, some interact, and they may operate on disparate scales. This contribution discusses reductionist and simplified approaches to study benthic recruitment and population dynamics of bottom-dwelling marine invertebrates. We first address complexity in two processes known to influence recruitment, larval transport, and post-settlement survival to reproduction, and discuss the difficulty in understanding recruitment by looking at relevant processes individually and in isolation. We then address the simplified approach, which reduces the number of processes and makes the problem manageable. We discuss how simplifications and "broad-brush first-order approaches" may muddle our understanding of recruitment. Lack of empirical determination of the fundamental processes often results in mistaken inferences, and processes and parameters used in some models can bias our view of processes influencing recruitment. We conclude with a discussion on how to reconcile complex and simplified approaches. Although it

  3. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvea, R.C.; Branco, M.E.C.; Santos, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of polonium 210 Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210 Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210 Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  4. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Ulrike; Sommer, Stefan; Dale, Andrew W.; Löscher, Carolin R.; Noffke, Anna; Wallmann, Klaus; Hensen, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P at six stations, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments, and pore fluids, as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid-phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15). This suggests that the relative burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under low-oxygen conditions and that the sediments underlying the anoxic waters on the Peru margin are not depleted in P compared to Redfield. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1), however, showing that a lack of oxygen promotes the intensified release of dissolved P from sediments, whilst preserving the POC / TPP burial ratio. Benthic dissolved P fluxes were always higher than the TPP rain rate to the seabed, which is proposed to be caused by transient P release by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments, indicating ongoing phosphorite formation. This is further supported by decreasing porewater phosphate concentrations with sediment depth, whereas solid-phase P concentrations were comparatively

  5. Bipolar gene flow in deep-sea benthic foraminifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, J.; Fahrni, J.; Lecroq, B.

    2007-01-01

    Despite its often featureless appearance, the deep-ocean floor includes some of the most diverse habitats on Earth. However, the accurate assessment of global deep-sea diversity is impeded by a paucity of data on the geographical ranges of bottom-dwelling species, particularly at the genetic level....... Here, we present molecular evidence for exceptionally wide distribution of benthic foraminifera, which constitute the major part of deep-sea meiofauna. Our analyses of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes revealed high genetic similarity between Arctic and Antarctic populations of three common deep...

  6. ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BENTHIC COMMUNITIES FROM SOMESUL CALD CATCHMENT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Battes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a preliminary study of periphyton and zoobenthos community from the Someşul Cald catchment area. Zoobenthos was sampled seasonally during 2000. Benthic community structure was similar at the five sampling sites. Thus, mayflies and chironomids recorded high numerical percentage abundances and densities. Oligochaetes, water mites and caddisflies were identified to species level. 38 Oligochaeta, 28 water mite and 12 caddis fly species were found in the sampling period. The samplings collected in the year 2001 included 80 algal species belonging to 5 phyla. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta dominated both qualitatively and quantitatively at all sampling sites.

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Percent Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected for Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Percent Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected for Climate Stations across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Percent Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected for Climate Stations across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and...

  10. Benthic Percent Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Towed-diver Surveys of the U.S. Pacific Reefs Since 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data products described herein are part of the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) funded projects aimed at documenting the status and trends for benthic...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across American Samoa in 2015 as a part of...

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Percent Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected for Climate Stations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected for Climate Stations across American Samoa in 2015 (NCEI Accession 0157753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and...

  14. Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS and related databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Costello

    Full Text Available The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies, 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive, of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved

  15. Global Coordination and Standardisation in Marine Biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and Related Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Philippe; Boxshall, Geoff; Fauchald, Kristian; Gordon, Dennis; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Poore, Gary C. B.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Stöhr, Sabine; Walter, T. Chad; Vanhoorne, Bart; Decock, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the

  16. Urban pollution of sediments: Impact on the physiology and burrowing activity of tubificid worms and consequences on biogeochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigneret, M., E-mail: mathilde.pigneret@univ-lyon1.fr [LEHNA, UMR CNRS 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, ENTPE, 6 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Mermillod-Blondin, F.; Volatier, L.; Romestaing, C. [LEHNA, UMR CNRS 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, ENTPE, 6 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Maire, E.; Adrien, J. [MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, INSA de Lyon, 25 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Guillard, L.; Roussel, D.; Hervant, F. [LEHNA, UMR CNRS 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, ENTPE, 6 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-10-15

    In urban areas, infiltration basins are designed to manage stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces and allow the settling of associated pollutants. The sedimentary layer deposited at the surface of these structures is highly organic and multicontaminated (mainly heavy metals and hydrocarbons). Only few aquatic species are able to maintain permanent populations in such an extreme environment, including the oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. Nevertheless, the impact of urban pollutants on these organisms and the resulting influence on infiltration basin functioning remain poorly studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine how polluted sediments could impact the survival, the physiology and the bioturbation activity of L. hoffmeisteri and thereby modify biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface. To this end, we conducted laboratory incubations of worms, in polluted sediments from infiltration basins or slightly polluted sediments from a stream. Analyses were performed to evaluate physiological state and burrowing activity (X-ray micro-tomography) of worms and their influences on biogeochemical processes (nutrient fluxes, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} degassing rates) during 30-day long experiments. Our results showed that worms exhibited physiological responses to cope with high pollution levels, including a strong ability to withstand the oxidative stress linked to contamination with heavy metals. We also showed that the presence of urban pollutants significantly increased the burrowing activity of L. hoffmeisteri, demonstrating the sensitivity and the relevance of such a behavioural response as biomarker of sediment toxicity. In addition, we showed that X-ray micro-tomography was an adequate technique for accurate and non-invasive three-dimensional investigations of biogenic structures formed by bioturbators. The presence of worms induced stimulations of nutrient fluxes and organic matter recycling (between + 100% and 200% of CO

  17. The influence of reduced light intensity on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rebecca J; Mitrovic, Simon M; Lim, Richard P; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-09-01

    Herbicide pollution events in aquatic ecosystems often coincide with increased turbidity and reduced light intensity. It is therefore important to determine whether reduced light intensity can influence herbicide toxicity, especially to primary producers such as benthic diatoms. Benthic diatoms collected from 4 rivers were exposed to herbicides in 48 h rapid toxicity tests under high light (100 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) ) and low light (20 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) ) intensities. The effects of 2 herbicides (atrazine and glyphosate) were assessed on 26 freshwater benthic diatom taxa. There was no significant interaction of light and herbicide effects at the community level or on the majority (22 of 26) of benthic diatom taxa. This indicates that low light levels will likely have only a minor influence on the response of benthic diatoms to herbicides. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2252-2260. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Benthic microalgal production in the Arctic: Applied methods and status of the current database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Woelfel, Jana; Karsten, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    the often very confusing terminology in the existing literature. Our compilation demonstrates that i) benthic microalgae contribute significantly to coastal ecosystem production in the Arctic, and ii) benthic microalgal production on average exceeds pelagic productivity by a factor of 1.5 for water depths......The current database on benthic microalgal production in Arctic waters comprises 10 peer-reviewed and three unpublished studies. Here, we compile and discuss these datasets, along with the applied measurement approaches used. The latter is essential for robust comparative analysis and to clarify...... down to 30 m. We have established relationships between irradiance, water depth and benthic microalgal productivity that can be used to extrapolate results from quantitative experimental studies to the entire Arctic region. Two different approaches estimated that current benthic microalgal production...

  19. Influence of tubificid worms on nutrient fluxes across water-sediment interface in fish farm settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigagut J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of tubificid worms on nutrient translocation from water to fish farm sediments accumulating in settling ponds was addressed under laboratory conditions. Small microcosms of 0.5 L were filled up with 35 g of sludge from a fish farm settling pond and 0.15 L of filtered settling pond water. The experimental set up consisted of one control line (no worms added, a second experimental line with 1 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (550 individuals·m-2 and a third experimental line with 40 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (22 000 individuals·m-2. Nutrients translocation was determined by monitoring overlaying water concentration of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate for ten days. Results showed that abundances of 550 individuals·m-2 had no significant influence on the fluxes of nutrients here considered. However, the influence of higher abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2 was of significant extent on the translocation of nitrate and phosphate. Accordingly, bioturbation of tubificids caused 55% lower nitrate uptake by the sediment when compared to control conditions. Phosphorus released by the sediments of the control condition was ca. 90% higher than that recorded under abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2. Results obtained allowed us to estimate that fish farm settling ponds highly colonized by tubificid worms (22 000 individuals·m-2 may contribute to decrease phosphorus discharge (in terms of soluble phosphorus in ca. 5 g of P·ton-1 of fish produced.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity in selected Antarctic benthic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eMoles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic benthos was prospected in search for anti-inflammatory activity in polar benthic invertebrates, in two different geographical areas: deep-bottoms of the Eastern Weddell Sea and shallow-waters of the South Shetland Islands. A total of 36 benthic algae and invertebrate species were selected to perform solubility tests in order to test them for anti-inflammatory activity. From these, ethanol extracts of ten species from five different phyla resulted suitable to be studied in cell macrophage cultures (RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity (MTT method and production of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, interleukin-1 were determined at three extract concentrations (50, 125, 250 g/mL. Bioassays resulted in four different species showing anti-inflammatory activity corresponding to three sponges: Mycale (Oxymycale acerata, Isodictya erinacea, and I. toxophila; and one hemichordate: Cephalodiscus sp. These results show that Antarctic sessile invertebrates may have great value as a source of lead compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications.