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Sample records for benthic quality change

  1. Effect of Logging Activities on Water Quality and Benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of logging activities on water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages for the Madek River basin. The study area was situated in Kluang, Johor, Malaysia. Two sampling stations 500 meters apart are upstream and the other, downstream located at Madek River ...

  2. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMBI,

  3. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and

  4. Changes of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries Under Polluted Conditions with Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollution on the Thi Vai River has been spreading out rapidly over the two lasted decades caused by the wastewater from the industrial parks in the left bank of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The evaluation of the benthic macroinvertebrate changes was very necessary to identify the consequences of the industrial wastewater on water quality and aquatic ecosystem of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. In this study, the variables of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality were investigated in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries, Southern Vietnam. The monitoring data of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters covered the period from 1989 to 2015 at 6 sampling sites in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The basic water quality parameters were also tested including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The biodiversity indices of benthic macroinvertebrates were applied for water quality assessment. The results showed that pH ranged from 6.4 – 7.6 during the monitoring. The DO concentrations were in between 0.20 - 6.70 mg/L. The concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorous ranged from 0.03 - 5.70 mg/L 0.024 - 1.380 mg/L respectively. Macroinvertebrate community in the study area consisted of 36 species of polychaeta, gastropoda, bivalvia, and crustacea, of which, species of polychaeta were dominant in species number. The benthic macroinvertebartes density ranged from 0 - 2.746 individuals/m−1 with the main dominant species of Neanthes caudata, Prionospio malmgreni, Paraprionospio pinnata, Trichochaeta carica, Maldane sarsi, Capitella capitata, Terebellides stroemi, Euditylia polymorpha, Grandidierella lignorum, Apseudes vietnamensis. The biodiversity index values during the monitoring characterized for aquatic environmental conditions of mesotrophic to polytrophic. Besides, species richness positively correlated with DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The results

  5. Research regarding the changes that occur in the structure of benthic macro invertebrates communities as a result of anthropogenic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Andreea Marin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An important role in the monitoring of the water quality is represented by the benthic macro invertebrates. They are a key component in the transfer of matter and energy in the aquatic ecosystems. In May 2015, 20 quantitative samples of benthic sample were collected at different seasons in the Bega River water. Samples were collected from the upstream, middle and downstream of Timisoara city. The aim of this paper is to identify the changes that occur in the structure of benthic macro invertebrates communities due to anthropogenic activities. Once the identification of  saprobionte organisms has done, it have been performed the density, abundance and frequency of the sample. Based on these values, we can say that the upstream segment waters falls into the category of superior quality compared to the waters of the central segment, especially in the downstream segment.

  6. The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Kadin, Martina; Nascimento, Francisco J. A.

    2017-01-01

    and function is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures, however there are large gaps in our understanding of the responses of inorganic nutrient and organic matter fluxes between benthic habitats and the water column. We illustrate the varied nature of physical and biological benthic-pelagic coupling...... processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study, and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic......Benthic-pelagic coupling is manifested as the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients between benthic and pelagic habitats. It plays a prominent role in aquatic ecosystems and it is crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs. Coastal and estuarine ecosystem structure...

  7. Six decades of change in pollution and benthic invertebrate biodiversity in a southern New England estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution has led to a decline of benthic invertebrate biodiversity of Narragansett Bay, raising questions about effects on ecosystem functions and services including shellfish production, energy flow to fishes, and biogeochemical cycles. Changes in community composition and taxo...

  8. BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE UPPER HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF CERNA RIVER IN RELATION TO WATER QUALITY (WEST AND SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

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    CORINA TUDORESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an hydrographic basin may be reflected by the composition of benthic macroinvertebrates communities as they can be influenced by the quality degradations of physical and chemical water parameters. The structure of the benthic community in the upper basin of the Cerna river was characterized by the presence of 13 groups. Abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Amphipoda were influenced by changes in water quality, changes that were reflected in the composition and structure of such communities with low levels of abundance, reaching extinction in some areas of the basin.

  9. Application of Water Quality and Ecology Indices of Benthic Macroinvertebrate to Evaluate Water Quality of Tertiary Irrigation in Malang District

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    Desi Kartikasari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the water quality of tertiary irrigation in several subdistricts in Malang, namely Kepanjen, Karangploso, and Tumpang. The water quality depends on the water quality indices (National Sanitation Foundation’s-NSF Indices and O’Connor’s Indices based on variables TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and Nitrate concentrate and ecological indices of benthic macroinvertebrate (Diversity Indices Shannon-Wiener, Hilsenhof Biotic Indices-HBI, Average Score per Taxon-ASPT which is calculated by Biological Monitoring Working Party-BMWP, Ephemeroptera Indices, Plecoptera, Trichoptera-EPT. Observation of the physico-chemical water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate on May 2012 to April 2013. The sampling in each subdistrict was done at two selected stations in tertiary irrigation channel with three plot at each station. The data of physico-chemical quality of water were used to calculate the water quality indices, while the benthic macroinvertebrate data were used to calculate the ecological indices. The research findings showed that 27 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belong 10 classes were found in the three subdistrict. The pH, DO, Nitrate, TSS and TDS in six tertiary irrigation channels in Malang still met the water quality standards based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001 on Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control Class III. Based on NSF-WQI indices and O'Connor's Indices, water qualities in these irrigation channels were categorized into medium or moderate (yellow to good (green category. However, based on benthic macroinvertebrate communities which was used to determine the HBI, the water quality in the irrigation channels were categorized into the fair category (fairly significant organic pollution to fairly poor (significant organic pollution, while based on the value of ASPT, the water were categorized into probable moderate pollution to probable severe pollution. The irrigation water which was

  10. Estimates the Effects of Benthic Fluxes on the Water Quality of the Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Huh, I. A.; Park, S.; Choi, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs located in highly populated and industrialized regions receive discharges of nutrients and pollutants from the watershed that have great potential to impair water quality and threaten aquatic life. The Euiam reservoir is a multiple-purpose water body used for tourism, fishery, and water supply and has been reported as eutrophic since 1990s. The external nutrients loading is considered to be the main cause of eutrophication of water bodies, and control strategies therefore focus on its reduction. However, algae blooms often continue even after external nutrients loading has been controlled, being benthic nutrient loading the main source of nutrients in the water column. Attempts to quantify benthic nutrients fluxes and their role as a source of nutrients to the water column have produced ambiguous results. Benthic flux is dependent on the upward flow of pore water caused by hydrostatic pressure, molecular diffusion, and mixing of sediment and water. In addition, it is controlled by dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, pH values and temperature in the overlying water. Therefore, linking a benthic flux to a water quality model should give us more insight on the effects of benthic fluxes to better quantify nutrient concentration within an entire reservoir system where physical, chemical, biological properties are variable. To represent temporal and spatial variations in the nutrient concentrations of the reservoir, a three-dimensional time variable model, Generalized Longitudinal-Lateral-Vertical Hydrodynamic and Transport (GLLVHT) was selected. The GLLVHT model is imbedded within the Generalized Environmental Modeling System for Surface waters (GEMSS). The computational grid of the three-dimensional model was developed using the GIS. The horizontal grid is composed of 580 active cells at the surface layer with spacing varies from 54.2 m to 69.8 m. There are 15 vertical layers with uniform thickness of 1.9 m resolution. To calibrate the model, model prediction for

  11. The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Kadin, Martina; Nascimento, Francisco J A; Tamelander, Tobias; Törnroos, Anna; Bonaglia, Stefano; Bonsdorff, Erik; Brüchert, Volker; Gårdmark, Anna; Järnström, Marie; Kotta, Jonne; Lindegren, Martin; Nordström, Marie C; Norkko, Alf; Olsson, Jens; Weigel, Benjamin; Žydelis, Ramunas; Blenckner, Thorsten; Niiranen, Susa; Winder, Monika

    2017-06-01

    Benthic-pelagic coupling is manifested as the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients between benthic and pelagic habitats. It plays a prominent role in aquatic ecosystems, and it is crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs. Coastal and estuarine ecosystem structure and function are strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures; however, there are large gaps in our understanding of the responses of inorganic nutrient and organic matter fluxes between benthic habitats and the water column. We illustrate the varied nature of physical and biological benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic-pelagic coupling processes (e.g., nutrient exchange and sedimentation of organic material) are to some extent quantifiable, but the magnitude and variability of biological processes are rarely assessed, preventing quantitative comparisons. Changing oxygen conditions will continue to have widespread effects on the processes that govern inorganic and organic matter exchange among habitats while climate change and nutrient load reductions may have large effects on organic matter sedimentation. Many biological processes (predation, bioturbation) are expected to be sensitive to anthropogenic drivers, but the outcomes for ecosystem function are largely unknown. We emphasize how improved empirical and experimental understanding of benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their variability are necessary to inform models that can quantify the feedbacks among processes and ecosystem responses to a changing world. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Benthic Algae Communities in the Rivers of Different Water Quality in Lithuania

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    Irma Vitonytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into benthic algae communities was carried out in the Lithuanian rivers of different water quality during the period 2004–2006. The structure of benthic algae communities in the rivers of different water quality slightly differs. The community of Cladophora glomerata–Vaucheria sessilis–Fontinalis antipyretica mainly dominated in the rivers. Algae communities reiterate in unpolluted rivers (II class, according to biogenes such as Akmena, Babrungas, Bražuolė and Siesartis where Cladophora glomerata–Fontinalis antipyretica, Amblystegium riparium–Cladophora glomerata, and Fontinalis antipyretica–Cladophora glomerata communities predominate. In slightly and moderately polluted rivers, algae communities are unreiteratable. Differences in river water quality could be better determined by frequently appearing algae species in algae communities: in unpolluted rivers – Hildenbrandia rivularis, Audouinella chalybea and A. Hermanii, in slightly polluted – Vaucheria sessilis and Fontinalis antipyretica, and in moderately polluted – Stigeoclonium nanum, S. tenue, Aulacoseira islandica and Melosira varians.The variety of the structure of benthic algae communities could be determined by abiotic environmental factors such as the heterogenity of substratum, stream velocity and depth, the intensity of light and biogenes concentration.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Potential impact of global climate change on benthic deep-sea microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Rastelli, Eugenio

    2017-12-15

    Benthic deep-sea environments are the largest ecosystem on Earth, covering ∼65% of the Earth surface. Microbes inhabiting this huge biome at all water depths represent the most abundant biological components and a relevant portion of the biomass of the biosphere, and play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Increasing evidence suggests that global climate changes are affecting also deep-sea ecosystems, both directly (causing shifts in bottom-water temperature, oxygen concentration and pH) and indirectly (through changes in surface oceans' productivity and in the consequent export of organic matter to the seafloor). However, the responses of the benthic deep-sea biota to such shifts remain largely unknown. This applies particularly to deep-sea microbes, which include bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes and their viruses. Understanding the potential impacts of global change on the benthic deep-sea microbial assemblages and the consequences on the functioning of the ocean interior is a priority to better forecast the potential consequences at global scale. Here we explore the potential changes in the benthic deep-sea microbiology expected in the coming decades using case studies on specific systems used as test models. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect of Logging Activities on Water Quality and Benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    3Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) ... All the physico-chemical water quality parameters were well below Class I as provided for under Interim National .... Ph.D. Thesis, Annamalai University, India,. P140.

  15. Benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in an Atlantic forest fragment

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    Augusto Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate benthic macroinvertebrate communities as bioindicators of water quality in five streams located in the "Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural" (RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula and its surroundings, in the municipality of Nova Lima near the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. This region has been strongly modified by human activities including mining and urbanization. Samples were collected in the field every three months between August 2004 and November 2005, totaling six samplings in the rainy and dry seasons. This assessment identified one area ecologically altered while the other sampling sites were found to be minimally disturbed systems, with well-preserved ecological conditions. However, according to the Biological Monitoring Work Party (BMWP and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT indices, all sampling sites had excellent water quality. A total of 14,952 organisms was collected, belonging to 155 taxa (148 Insecta, two Annelida, one Bivalvia, one Decapoda, one Planariidae, one Hydracarina, and one Entognatha. The most abundant benthic groups were Chironomidae (47.9%, Simuliidae (12.3%, Bivalvia (7.5%, Decapoda (6.1%, Oligochaeta (5.2%, Polycentropodidae (3.7%, Hydropsychidae (2.5%, Calamoceratidae (1.8%, Ceratopogonidae (1.7%, and Libellulidae (1.2%. The assessment of the benthic functional feeding groups showed that 34% of the macroinvertebrates were collector-gatherers, 29% predators, 24% collector-filterers, 8% shredders, and 5% scrapers. The RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula comprises diversified freshwater habitats that are of great importance for the conservation of many benthic taxa that are intolerant to organic pollution.

  16. Regeneration and abnormality in benthic foraminifer Rosalina leei: Implications in reconstructing past salinity changes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kurtarkar, S.R.; Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.; Linshy, V.N.

    water, especially in regions where rivers meet the ocean. Benthic foraminifera, preferentially marine microorganisms with a hard calcareous or agglutinated exoskeleton known as the test, are one of the most abundant groups of microorganisms... temperature under incubators and under 12 hour light -12 hour dark condition throughout the experiment. In order to avoid evaporation, culture trays were wrapped in thin polythene film, immediately after changing the culture media. Culture media was changed...

  17. The continental shelf benthic ecosystem: Current status, agents for change and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Continental shelf benthic ecosystems play an important role in the economy of many coastal states through the provision of food, non-living resources and through control of climate. Changes in the status of these ecosystems, through either natural or human-induced environmental drivers can be expected to have important economic and social consequences. Agents that could induce change include climate and oceanography, hydrology (river discharge), land-use and waste disp...

  18. Benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in Billings Reservoir fishing sites (SP, Brazil

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    José Ricardo Baroldi Ciqueto Gargiulo

    Full Text Available Abastract: Aim The Billings Reservoir is the largest reservoir in the metropolitan region of São Paulo and has multiple uses, including artisanal fishing. Its surroundings present intense occupation, resulting in various environmental impacts. Although the water is degraded, affecting the composition and quality of the fish, this reservoir supports artisanal fishermen who survive through this activity. This study aimed to analyze the water quality in the main sites of artisanal fishing activity, with an emphasis on the benthic community as a bioindicator. Methods Three sampling sites were selected, in which water and zoobenthos samples were collected monthly from April 2012 to March 2013. Water analyses consisted of the determination of pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and trophic state as well as a principal components analysis. The zoobenthos analysis consisted of determining the relative abundance and total density of taxa, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, taxa richness, uniformity, Simpson’s dominance index, and the benthic community index and conducting a canonical correspondence analysis. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test were used to investigate the existence of significant differences in the abiotic and biotic variables among the sites. Results The studied sites showed a high degree of eutrophication, with nitrogen and phosphorus totals levels above the limits defined by current Brazilian legislation. Taquacetuba (P1 showed the best environmental conditions for the development of fishing activity, with the presence of sensitive organisms (Polymitarcyidae and higher levels of dissolved oxygen. Alvarenga (P2 had the worst water quality, with a predominance of tolerant organisms (Oligochaeta and lower levels of dissolved oxygen. Conclusion In conclusion, the benthic community in association with abiotic

  19. Benthic foraminiferal response to the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and coincident paleoceanographic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.

    1996-01-01

    Late Cenozoic benthic foraminiferal faunas from the Caribbean Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 502 (3052 m) and East Pacific DSDP Site 503 (3572 m) were analyzed to interpret bottom-water masses and paleoceanographic changes occurring as the Isthmus of Panama emerged. Major changes during the past 7 Myr occur at 6.7-6.2, 3.4, 2.0, and 1.1 Ma in the Caribbean and 6.7-6.4, 4.0-3.2, 2.1, 1.4, and 0.7 Ma in the Pacific. Prior to 6.7 Ma, benthic foraminiferal faunas at both sites indicate the presence of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). After 6.7 Ma benthic foraminiferal faunas indicate a shift to warmer water masses: North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in the Caribbean and Pacific Deep Water (PDW) in the Pacific. Flow of NADW may have continued across the rising sill between the Caribbean and Pacific until 5.6 Ma when the Pacific benthic foraminiferal faunas suggest a decrease in bottom-water temperatures. After 5.6 Ma deep-water to intermediate-water flow across the sill appears to have stopped as the bottom-water masses on either side of the sill diverge. The second change recorded by benthic foraminiferal faunas occurs at 3.4 Ma in the Caribbean and 4.0-3.2 Ma in the Pacific. At this time the Caribbean is flooded with cold AABW, which is either gradually warmed or is replaced by Glacial Bottom Water (GBW) at 2.0 Ma and by NADW at 1.1 Ma. These changes are related to global climatic events and to the depth of the sill between the Caribbean and Atlantic rather than the rising Isthmus of Panama. Benthic foraminiferal faunas at East Pacific Site 503 indicate a gradual change from cold PDW to warmer PDW between 4.0 and 3.2 Ma. The PDW is replaced by the warmer, poorly oxygenated PIW at 2.1 Ma. Although the PDW affects the faunas during colder intervals between 1.4 and 0.7 Ma, the PIW remains the principal bottom- water mass in the Guatemala Basin of the East Pacific.

  20. Changes of benthic fauna in the Kattegat - An indication of climate change at mid-latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Several predictions point to changes in the marine benthic macrofauna associated with climate change, but so far only a few and minor changes have been reported. This study relates observed changes in the species composition to climate change by looking on the past decades in the Kattegat between Denmark and Sweden. A reduction of the total number species and a reduction of species with a northern range parallel to an increase of species with a southern range have been observed. The most likely explanation of the changes is the increase in temperature of the bottom water. Increased temperature could change the species distributions but also decrease primary production which impacts recruitment and growth. Hypoxia and bottom trawling could also act synergistic in this process. A sparse occurrence of previously encountered Arctic-Boreal species and critical foundation species, which gives the area its special character, suggests a change in biodiversity and might therefore be designated as early warning signals of a warmer climate. The northern fauna below the halocline with limited capacity of dispersal and low reproduction potential, can be considered as sensitive with low adaptive capacity to climate change. Therefore, not only tropical and high-latitude species, but also benthos on deep bottoms at mid-latitudes, could be vulnerable to warming. As many species live at the edge of their range in the Kattegat, and also are dependent of distant recruitment, large scale changes will probably be detected here at an early stage. It is important to protect relatively undisturbed reference areas in the Kattegat for future studies, but also for preserving a large number of ecosystem services, biotopes, habitats, and fish species.

  1. Impacts of Zayandehroud Dam on the Macro-benthic Invertebrate and Water Quality of Zayandehroud River using BMWP and ASPT Biological Indices

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    H. Ebrahimi Dastgerdi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dams provide benefits for human societies, but now they are considered as one of the most important factors influencing habitat degradation and changing the hydrological water flow. In order to study the ecological effects of Zayandehroud Dam on the benthic communities and water quality of Zayandehroud river, six sampling stations were selected on the river substrate using biological indicators such as BMWP (Biological Monitoring Working Party and ASPT(Average Score Per Taxa. Then, a quantitative survey of the macro- benthic invertebrates fauna was conducted with 3 replications at each station, from July to June 2014 with a 45- day interval period. The identified macro-benthic invertebrates belonged to 31 families, 16 orders and 7 classes. The results of BMWP index showed significant differences among sampling stations (p<0.001, and significant difference between seasons in all stations except Overgan station (p<0.05. ASPT index also revealed significant differences among the stations (p<0.01. In addition, the results of Shannon diversity index indicated that Zayanderoud Dam construction, has changed diversity and composition of downstream benthic communities due to alterations in the depth and speed of the water flow, as well as substrate structure.

  2. Annual changes in Arctic fjord environment and modern benthic foraminiferal fauna: Evidence from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernas, Patrycja; Klitgaard-Kristensen, Dorthe; Husum, Katrine; Koç, Nalan; Tverberg, Vigdis; Loubere, Paul; Prins, Maarten; Dijkstra, Noortje; Gluchowska, Marta

    2018-04-01

    The relationships between modern Arctic benthic foraminifera and their ecological controls, along with their sensitivity to rapid environmental changes, is still poorly understood. This study examines how modern benthic foraminifera respond to annual environmental changes in the glaciated Arctic fjord Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard. Large environmental gradients due to the inflow of warm and saline Atlantic Water and the influence of tidewater glaciers characterise the fjord hydrography. A transect of six multi-corer stations, from the inner to the outer fjord, was sampled in the late summers of 2005 to 2008 to study the distribution of living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera. Physical properties of the water masses were measured concurrently. In general, nearly the entire Kongsfjorden region was dominated by ubiquitous N. labradorica foraminiferal assemblage that successfully exploited the local food resources and thrived particularly well in the presence of Atlantic-derived Transformed Atlantic Water (TAW). Further, the annual investigation revealed that Kongsfjorden underwent large interannual hydrological changes during the studied years related to variable inflow of warm and saline Atlantic Water. This led to a strong fauna variability particularly at the two marginal sites: the glacially influenced inner fjord and marine influenced shelf region. We also observed significant species shift from the 'cold' to 'warm' years and an expansion of widespread and sub-arctic to boreal species into the fjord.

  3. Tools for the development of a benthic quality index for Italian lakes

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    Angelo SOLIMINI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology to develop a benthic quality index useful for Italian lakes. The existing data about benthic macroinvertebrates of the Italian lakes were collected over a period of 50 years, but only a few lakes such as the Maggiore and the Mergozzo have been intensely studied. Some large lakes such as Lake Como are still almost uninvestigated. In total, 570 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were identified; of which 373 belong to Chironomidae and 85 to Oligochaeta. With the aim of relating environmental variables with macrobenthos assemblages, we carried out a canonical correlation analysis (CANON using a database that included 1060 sampling points. Both environmental (13 variables describing morphometry and hydrochemistry and biological data (57 taxa were available, but only taxa present in at least 10 samples were selected for data analysis. Three canonical variates were ecologically significant. The first one was correlated with conductivity, pH and alkalinity and accounted for 20% of the total variation. The second one was positively correlated with total phosphorus and N-NH4, and inversely with dissolved oxygen, and accounted for 18% of the total variation. The third one showed a direct correlation with maximum lake depth and volume and an inverse correlation with water temperature, and accounted for 17% of the total variation. A Trophic Status Index (TSI, based on the table 11 of the Italian Law 152/99 (without including chlorophyll, was calculated by ranking percent oxygen saturation, transparency and total phosphorus. TSI was used to test a Benthic Quality Index for Italian Lakes (BQIL which is proposed in the present paper. The algorithm considered three steps. First, the means of three variables were calculated: percent oxygen saturation, transparency and total phosphorus weighted by the taxa abundances. These values are interpreted as optimum for each taxon and used to assign an indicator weight (BQIW. Second

  4. Bathymetric and regional changes in benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the deep Eastern Brazilian margin, SW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, Angelo Fraga; Berenguer, Vanessa; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Venina P.

    2016-05-01

    Deep-sea continental slopes have valuable mineral and biological resources in close proximity to diverse, undersampled and fragile marine benthic ecosystems. The eastern Brazilian Continental Margin (19.01°S to 21.06°S, 37.88°W to 40.22°W) is an important economic region for both fishing and oil industries, but is poorly understood with respect to the structure of the soft-sediment benthic fauna, their regional distribution and their bathymetric patterns. To identify spatial and temporal patterns of benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the slope (400 to 3000 m), the Espirito Santo Basin Assessment Project (AMBES, coordinated by Cenpes-Petrobras) sampled 42 stations across the Brazilian Eastern Slope during both Summer 2012 and Winter 2013. We found a significant decrease in macrofaunal abundance at the 400 m isobath along the slope near the northern region of the Espirito Santo Basin, suggesting benthic responses to upwelling events towards the south in Campos Basin and southern Espirito Santo Basin. The taxonomic diversity and assemblage composition also changed significantly across depth zones with mid-slope peaks of diversity at 1000-1300 m. In general, macrofaunal assemblages were strongly related to slope depth, suggesting a strong influence of productivity gradients and water mass distribution on this oligotrophic margin. Sediment grain size was marginally important to macrofaunal composition on the upper slope. In general, macrofaunal assemblages on the slope of Espirito Santo Basin are similar to other areas of the SE Brazilian margin, but regional changes in response to productivity and depth need to be considered for management strategies in the face of increasing economic activities off-shore.

  5. Benthic Foraminifera as ecological indicators for water quality on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Nobes, Kristie

    2008-07-01

    Benthic foraminifera are established indicators for Water Quality (WQ) in Florida and the Caribbean. However, nearshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and other Pacific regions are also subjected to increased nutrient and sediment loads. Here, we investigate the use of benthic foraminifera as indicators to assess status and trends of WQ on GBR reefs. We quantified several sediment parameters and the foraminiferan assemblage composition on 20 reefs in four geographic regions of the GBR, and along a water column nutrient and turbidity gradient. Twenty-seven easily recognisable benthic foraminiferan taxa (>63 μm) were distinguished. All four geographic regions differed significantly ( p turbid inner shelf towards clearer outer shelf reefs. A RDA separated symbiotic and aposymbiotic (heterotrophic) taxa. In addition, total suspended solid and water column chlorophyll a concentrations were negatively correlated, and optical depth and distance to the mainland were positively correlated, with the abundance of symbiont-bearing taxa. Several large foraminifera were identified as indicators for offshore, clear water conditions. In contrast, heterotrophic rotaliids and a species retaining plastids ( Elphidium sp.) where highly characteristic for low light, higher nutrient conditions. Application of the FORAM index to GBR assemblage composition showed a significant increase in the value of this index with increased distance from the mainland in the Whitsunday region ( r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001), and therefore with increasing light and decreased nutrient availability. We conclude that it will be possible to apply this index to GBR and possibly other Pacific reefs after some adaptations and additional experimental work on species-specific limiting factors.

  6. Temperature tracking by North Sea benthic invertebrates in response to climate change.

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    Hiddink, Jan G; Burrows, Michael T; García Molinos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity and distributions shifts are one of the most significant threats to global warming, but the extent to which these shifts keep pace with a changing climate is yet uncertain. Understanding the factors governing range shifts is crucial for conservation management to anticipate patterns of biodiversity distribution under future anthropogenic climate change. Soft-sediment invertebrates are a key faunal group because of their role in marine biogeochemistry and as a food source for commercial fish species. However, little information exists on their response to climate change. Here, we evaluate changes in the distribution of 65 North Sea benthic invertebrate species between 1986 and 2000 by examining their geographic, bathymetric and thermal niche shifts and test whether species are tracking their thermal niche as defined by minimum, mean or maximum sea bottom (SBT) and surface (SST) temperatures. Temperatures increased in the whole North Sea with many benthic invertebrates showing north-westerly range shifts (leading/trailing edges as well as distribution centroids) and deepening. Nevertheless, distribution shifts for most species (3.8-7.3 km yr(-1) interquantile range) lagged behind shifts in both SBT and SST (mean 8.1 km yr(-1)), resulting in many species experiencing increasing temperatures. The velocity of climate change (VoCC) of mean SST accurately predicted both the direction and magnitude of distribution centroid shifts, while maximum SST did the same for contraction of the trailing edge. The VoCC of SBT was not a good predictor of range shifts. No good predictor of expansions of the leading edge was found. Our results show that invertebrates need to shift at different rates and directions to track the climate velocities of different temperature measures, and are therefore lagging behind most temperature measures. If these species cannot withstand a change in thermal habitat, this could ultimately lead to a drop in

  7. Historical changes in the structure and functioning of the benthic community in the lagoon of Venice

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    Pranovi, Fabio; Da Ponte, Filippo; Torricelli, Patrizia

    2008-03-01

    One of the main challenges in environmental management is how to manage the dynamics of natural environments. In this context, having information about historical changes of the structure of the biological communities could represent a useful tool to improve management strategies, contributing to refine the policy objectives, since it gives reference states with which to compare the present. The Venice lagoon represents an interesting case study, since it is a highly dynamic, but sensitive, environment which requires the adoption of prudent management. In its recent history the lagoon ecosystem has been exposed to different kinds of disturbance, from the discharge of pollutants and nutrients, to the invasion of alien species and the exploitation of its biological resources by using highly impacting fishing gears. The analysis of available data about the macro-benthic community, from 1935 to 2004, allows the description of changes of the community structure over almost 70 years, showing a sharp decrease in its diversity. In order to obtain information about its functioning, it is necessary to know how these changes have affected processes at the community and system level. In shallow water ecosystems, as the control is mainly due to the benthic compartment, variations in the structure of the benthic community can induce modifications in processes at different hierarchical levels. The trophic structure analysis has revealed major changes during the period; from a well-assorted structure in 1935, to an herbivore-detritivore dominated one in the 1990s, and finally to a filter feeder dominated structure during the last decade. This has produced variations in the secondary production and it has induced modifications in the type of the ecosystem control. These changes are discussed in the light of the dynamics of the main driving forces.

  8. Do Changes in Current Flow as a Result of Arrays of Tidal Turbines Have an Effect on Benthic Communities?

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    Kregting, Louise; Elsaesser, Bjoern; Kennedy, Robert; Smyth, David; O'Carroll, Jack; Savidge, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of tidal energy converters have the potential to provide clean renewable energy for future generations. Benthic communities may, however, be affected by changes in current speeds resulting from arrays of tidal converters located in areas characterised by strong currents. Current speed, together with bottom type and depth, strongly influence benthic community distributions; however the interaction of these factors in controlling benthic dynamics in high energy environments is poorly understood. The Strangford Lough Narrows, the location of SeaGen, the world's first single full-scale, grid-compliant tidal energy extractor, is characterised by spatially heterogenous high current flows. A hydrodynamic model was used to select a range of benthic community study sites that had median flow velocities between 1.5-2.4 m/s in a depth range of 25-30 m. 25 sites were sampled for macrobenthic community structure using drop down video survey to test the sensitivity of the distribution of benthic communities to changes in the flow field. A diverse range of species were recorded which were consistent with those for high current flow environments and corresponding to very tide-swept faunal communities in the EUNIS classification. However, over the velocity range investigated, no changes in benthic communities were observed. This suggested that the high physical disturbance associated with the high current flows in the Strangford Narrows reflected the opportunistic nature of the benthic species present with individuals being continuously and randomly affected by turbulent forces and physical damage. It is concluded that during operation, the removal of energy by marine tidal energy arrays in the far-field is unlikely to have a significant effect on benthic communities in high flow environments. The results are of major significance to developers and regulators in the tidal energy industry when considering the environmental impacts for site licences.

  9. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LOTIC ECOSYSTEMS OF NERA AND CARAS RIVERS CATCHMENTS USING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AS BIOINDICATORS

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    CLAUDIA PETRUCEAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the two watersheds involved the collection of twenty-four benthic samples from the main tributaries of Nera and Caras rivers, but also from the Nera river. The samples were collected in august 2009 with a benthic net, which had the mesh size of 250 μm, by disturbing the substrate upstream for three minutes, being thus qualitative samples. The next stage, working in the laboratory, consisted in separating the invertebrates from the substrate, sorting them to taxonomic categories and counting them. The data was statistically analized and interpreted. It led to the conclusion that the water quality in the two watersheds is good. In most of the sampling points the major groups of benthic macroinvertebrates were found, some of the sampling points were dominated by the EPT groups (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera which is known as a clean freshwater group, sensitive to pollution and human impact.

  10. Water Quality Assessment Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Saigon River and Its Tributaries, Vietnam

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    Duc Pham Anh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study to enhance the discussion about the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates for water quality assessment in Saigon River and its tributaries. Data from 16 sites were used as a representative example for Saigon River and its tributaries in the area of basin over 4,500 km2, the length through provinces of Tay Ninh, Binh Phuoc, Binh Duong, and Ho Chi Minh City of about 280 km. The data covered the period of dry and rainy seasons in 2015, the survey sampled 16 sites (32 events of the Saigon River and its tributaries selected. To implement this evaluation, the analyses were based on MRC methods and classifications these improved by the scientific group.

  11. Analysis of Benthic Foraminiferal Size Change During the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, W.; Keating-Bitonti, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition is a significant global cooling event with the first growth of continental ice on Antarctica. In the geologic record, the size of fossils can be used to indirectly observe how organisms respond to climate change. For example, organisms tend to be larger in cooler environments as a physiological response to temperature. This major global cooling event should influence organism physiology, resulting in significant size trends observed in the fossil record. Benthic foraminifera are protists and those that grow a carbonate shell are both well-preserved and abundant in marine sediments. Here, we used the foraminiferal fossil record to study the relationship between their size and global cooling. We hypothesize that cooler temperatures across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary promoted shell size increase. To test this hypothesis, we studied benthic foraminifera from 10 deep-sea cores drilled at Ocean Drilling Program Site 744, located in the southern Indian Ocean. We washed sediment samples over a 63-micron sieve and picked foraminifera from a 125-micron sieve. We studied the benthic foraminiferal genus Cibicidoides and its size change across this cooling event. Picked specimens were imaged and we measured the diameter of their shells using "imageJ". Overall, we find that Cibicidoides shows a general trend of increasing size during this transition. In particular, both the median and maximum sizes of Cibicidoides increase from the Eocene into the Oligocene. We also analyzed C. pachyderma and C. mundulus for size trends. Although both species increase in median size across the boundary, only C. pachyderma shows a consistent trend of increasing maximum, median, and minimum shell diameter. After the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, we observe that shell diameter decreases following peak cooling and that foraminiferal sizes remain stable into the early Oligocene. Therefore, the Eocene-Oligocene cooling event appears to have strong influence on shell size.

  12. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments

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    Claudia Eiko Yoshida

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P < 0.05 between the diversity of habitat index and the ecological and water quality index attributes in the streams of Jundiai demonstrated that diversity of habitat may be a good predictor of the environmental characteristics evaluated.

  13. Recent changes in estuarine benthic and suprabenthic communities resulting from the development of harbour infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, J C; Desroy, N; Janson, A L; Vallet, C; Duhamel, S

    2006-01-01

    Using a Before/During/After sampling protocol, the effects of the Le Havre harbour extension, which was started at the end of 2001, on the macrobenthic and suprabenthic communities in the eastern Bay of Seine (English Channel) were examined. As the construction phase has not yet been completed, the results presented here reflect only the data collected before and during the operations (September 2000 and 2002 for benthos sampling and March 2001, September 2001, October 2002 and March 2003 for suprabenthos sampling). Although bio-sedimentary changes did occur at the mouth of the Seine river, an analysis of benthic assemblages reveals that the dredging and construction operations do not seem to have influenced assemblage structure or the spatial distribution of organisms. Comparisons of the suprabenthic assemblages at each sampling date indicate that seasonal dynamics was mainly responsible for determining species distribution. We conclude that, 1 year into the harbour management plan, the observed changes in benthic and suprabenthic assemblage abundance do not exceed the range of spatial variability that exists naturally in the Seine estuary. Despite this compensatory actions designed to protect the aquatic habitats and to preserve a sustainable and healthy ecosystem have been added to the infrastructure development plan.

  14. Modeling Benthic Sediment Processes to Predict Water Quality and Ecology in Narragansett Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic sediment acts as a huge reservoir of particulate and dissolved material (within interstitial water) which can contribute to loading of contaminants and nutrients to the water column. A benthic sediment model is presented in this report to predict spatial and temporal ...

  15. Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Foster, Rachel A; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of “new” nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of knowledge on N2 fixation associated with coral reef organisms and their ecosystems. By summarizing the existing literature, we show that benthic N2 fixation is an omnipresent process in tropical reef environments. Highest N2 fixation rates are detected in reef-associated cyanobacterial mats and sea grass meadows, clearly showing the significance of these functional groups, if present, to the input of new N in reef ecosystems. Nonetheless, key benthic organisms such as hard corals also importantly contribute to benthic N2 fixation in the reef. Given the usually high coral coverage of healthy reef systems, these results indicate that benthic symbiotic associations may be more important than previously thought. In fact, mutualisms between carbon (C) and N2 fixers have likely evolved that may enable reef communities to mitigate N limitation. We then explore the potential effects of the increasing human interferences on the process of benthic reef N2 fixation via changes in diazotrophic populations, enzymatic activities, or availability of benthic substrates favorable to these microorganisms. Current knowledge indicates positive effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation and negative effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on the amount of N fixed in coral reefs. Eutrophication may either boost or suppress N2 fixation, depending on the nutrient becoming limiting. As N2 fixation appears to play a fundamental role in nutrient-limited reef ecosystems, these assumptions need to be expanded and confirmed by future research efforts addressing the knowledge gaps identified in this review. PMID:24967086

  16. Phanerozoic changes in hardpart availability and utilization in benthic communities: evolutionary ecology or evolutionary stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Published experiments on modern communities and quantitative data from Miocene assemblages indicate that the accumulation of dead hardparts can drive specific changes in the composition of benthic communities (taphonomic feedback). Both opportunities and pathways of taphonomic feedback have changed over the Phanerozoic, however, owing to the evolution and environmental expansion of hardpart producers, utilizers, and destroyers. These changes were tracked using semi-quantitative estimates of hardpart availability based on familial diversity of the most abundant taxa, scored according to preservation potential at or near the seafloor. The data suggest a dramatic increase in hardpart availability from the Cambrian into the later Paleozoic, with a decline through the Mesozoic and Cenozoic related to the loss or dramatic reduction in calcitic epifauna, recliners on soft substrata, and large shelled nekton/plankton. The reduction in opportunities for taphonomic feedback among epifauna was accompanied by an increase in levels of infaunal interactions in the Cenozoic, which is characterized by fully three-dimensional shell gravels. In addition to evolutionary change in body sizes of hardpart producers and biotically-driven declines in certain benthic life habits, the change in pathways of taphonomic feedback was also a consequence of the large-scale shift from predominantly carbonate sedimentation in the Paleozoic to predominantly terrigenous sedimentation in the Cenozoic. For example, the waning of epifauna-dominated communities is closely associated with the restriction of level-bottom carbonate environments through the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The global evolution of sedimentary environments and their relative representation is important not only in its consequences for sampling but as a driving mechanism of evolutionary ecology of marine benthos.

  17. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, W. M. G. M.; Boon, A. R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D. J. J.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Verschoor, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMBI, as in the multivariate m-AMBI. The latter MMI has been adopted by several European countries in the context of WFD implementation. In contrast to m-AMBI, the BEQI2 calculation procedure has been strongly simplified and consists of two steps, i.e. the separate indicator values are normalized using their long-term reference values resulting in three Ecological Quality Ratios (EQRs), which are subsequently averaged to give one BEQI2 value. Using this method only small numbers of samples need to be analysed by Dutch benthos laboratories annually, without the necessity to co-analyse a larger historical dataset. BEQI2 EQR values appeared to correlate quantitatively very well with m-AMBI EQR values. In addition, a data pooling procedure has been added to the BEQI2 tool which enables the pooling of small core samples (0.01-0.025 m2) into larger standardized data pools of 0.1 m2 in order to meet the data requirements of the AMBI indicator and to obtain comparable reference values. Furthermore, the BEQI2 tool automatically and efficiently converts species synonym names into standardized species names. The BEQI2 tool has been applied to all Dutch benthos data monitored by Rijkswaterstaat in the period of 1991-2010 in the transitional and coastal waters and salt lakes and these results are reported here for the first time. Reference values for species richness and Shannon index (99 percentile values) and AMBI reference values (1 percentile values) were estimated for all water body-ecotopes and are discussed. BEQI2 results for all these water bodies are discussed in view of natural and human pressures. The pressure sensitivity of the BEQI2 for sewage and dredging/dumping, via the

  18. A simple mixing explanation for late Pleistocene changes in the Pacific-South Atlantic benthic δ13C gradient

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    L. E. Lisiecki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The fact that the deep-ocean benthic δ13C minimum shifted from the North Pacific to the South Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum is often interpretted as evidence of a change in deep water circulation, such as the development of deep water ventilation in the North Pacific or a decrease in Southern Ocean overturning. This study re-evaluates the implications of changes in benthic δ13C gradients by comparing Pacific Deep Water (PDW δ13C measurements with the values expected for the null hypothesis that PDW ventilation sources remained unchanged throughout the Late Pleistocene. The δ13C compositions of PDW, Northern Component Water (NCW and Southern Component Water (SCW are estimated from regional benthic δ13C stacks of 3–6 sites. Changes in PDW δ13C and PDW-SCW δ13C gradients over the past 800 kyr are found to be well described by a constant mixture of 60% NCW and 40% SCW plus a constant Pacific remineralization offset of −0.5‰. Thus, a change in PDW ventilation cannot be inferred solely on the basis of changes in the Pacific-South Atlantic benthic δ13C gradient.

  19. Effectiveness of benthic foraminiferal and coral assemblages as water quality indicators on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, S.; Thompson, A.; Schaffelke, B.

    2010-03-01

    Although the debate about coral reef decline focuses on global disturbances (e.g., increasing temperatures and acidification), local stressors (nutrient runoff and overfishing) continue to affect reef health and resilience. The effectiveness of foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages as indicators of changes in water quality was assessed on 27 inshore reefs along the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental variables (i.e., several water quality and sediment parameters) and the composition of both benthic foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages differed significantly between four regions (Whitsunday, Burdekin, Fitzroy, and the Wet Tropics). Grain size and organic carbon and nitrogen content of sediments, and a composite water column parameter (based on turbidity and concentrations of particulate matter) explained a significant amount of variation in the data (tested by redundancy analyses) in both assemblages. Heterotrophic species of foraminifera were dominant in sediments with high organic content and in localities with low light availability, whereas symbiont-bearing mixotrophic species were dominant elsewhere. A similar suite of parameters explained 89% of the variation in the FORAM index (a Caribbean coral reef health indicator) and 61% in foraminiferal species richness. Coral richness was not related to environmental setting. Coral assemblages varied in response to environmental variables, but were strongly shaped by acute disturbances (e.g., cyclones, Acanthaster planci outbreaks, and bleaching), thus different coral assemblages may be found at sites with the same environmental conditions. Disturbances also affect foraminiferal assemblages, but they appeared to recover more rapidly than corals. Foraminiferal assemblages are effective bioindicators of turbidity/light regimes and organic enrichment of sediments on coral reefs.

  20. Ocean acidification induces biochemical and morphological changes in the calcification process of large benthic foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Martina; Uthicke, Sven; Pandolfi, John M

    2015-03-22

    Large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to sediment formation on coral reefs, yet they are vulnerable to ocean acidification. Here, we assessed the biochemical and morphological impacts of acidification on the calcification of Amphistegina lessonii and Marginopora vertebralis exposed to different pH conditions. We measured growth rates (surface area and buoyant weight) and Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities and calculated shell density using micro-computer tomography images. In A. lessonii, we detected a significant decrease in buoyant weight, a reduction in the density of inner skeletal chambers, and an increase of Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities at pH 7.6 when compared with ambient conditions of pH 8.1. By contrast, M. vertebralis showed an inhibition in Mg-ATPase activity under lowered pH, with growth rate and skeletal density remaining constant. While M. vertebralis is considered to be more sensitive than A. lessonii owing to its high-Mg-calcite skeleton, it appears to be less affected by changes in pH, based on the parameters assessed in this study. We suggest difference in biochemical pathways of calcification as the main factor influencing response to changes in pH levels, and that A. lessonii and M. vertebralis have the ability to regulate biochemical functions to cope with short-term increases in acidity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Using sediment profile imagery to quantify water quality and benthic condition relationships in Pensacola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present results from a monthly study in the Pensacola Bay estuary (FL) designed to evaluate the response and recovery in benthic habitats to intermittent, seasonal hypoxia (DO < 2 mg L-1). Samples were collected monthly from June 2015 through October 2017 at seven to nine s...

  2. Benthic ecology of tropical coastal lagoons: Environmental changes over the last decades in the Términos Lagoon, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenz, Christian; Fichez, Renaud; Silva, Carlos Álvarez; Benítez, Laura Calva; Conan, Pascal; Esparza, Adolfo Contreras Ruiz; Denis, Lionel; Ruiz, Silvia Díaz; Douillet, Pascal; Martinez, Margarita E. Gallegos; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Mendieta, Francisco José Gutiérrez; Origel-Moreno, Montserrat; Garcia, Antonio Zoilo Marquez; Caravaca, Alain Muñoz; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Alvarado, Rocío Torres; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The Términos Lagoon is a 2000-km2 wide coastal lagoon linked to the largest river catchment in Mesoamerica. Economic development, together with its ecological importance, led the Mexican government to pronounce the Términos Lagoon and its surrounding wetlands as a Federal protected area for flora and fauna in 1994. It is characterized by small temperature fluctuations, but with two distinct seasons (wet and dry) that control the biological, geochemical, and physical processes and components. This paper presents a review of the available information about the Términos Lagoon. The review shows that the diversity of benthic communities is structured by the balance between marine and riverine inputs and that this structuration strongly influences the benthic metabolism and its coupling with the biogeochemistry of the water column. The paper also presents many specific drivers and recommendations for a long-term environmental survey strategy in the context of the expected Global Change in the Central American region.

  3. THE STUDY OF WATER QUALITY USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS BIOINDICATORS IN THE CATCHMENT AREAS OF THE RIVERS JIU, OLT AND IALOMIŢA

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    Elena Daniela MITITELU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide distribution of benthic invertebrates and their different sensitivity shown upon modifying the qualitative parameters of aquatic ecosystems led to a frequent use of these group as bioindicators in different studies. The present study aims at presenting a list concerning the different macroinvertebrates identified in the larva stage in three watersheds (Jiu, Olt, Ialomiţa and establishing the water quality of the monitored sections using this benthic macroinvertebrates. The sample collecting points were represented by 23 stations. The abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. There were identified 15 groups in total. The most frequent were Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (Chironomidae and others. The deterioration of water quality is marked by the decrease in the biotic index EPT/Ch value.

  4. Ecosystem responses to extreme natural events: impacts of three sequential hurricanes in fall 1999 on sediment quality and condition of benthic fauna in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthis, W Leonard; Hyland, Jeffrey L; Bearden, Daniel W

    2006-08-01

    A study was conducted in November 1999 to assess sediment quality and condition of benthic fauna in the Neuse River Estuary (NRE), North Carolina, USA, following the passage of three Atlantic hurricanes during the two months prior. Samples for analysis of macroinfauna (>0.5 mm sieve size), chemical contamination of sediments, and other abiotic environmental variables (salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, sediment granulometry) were collected at 20 sites from the mouth of the Neuse River at Pamlico Sound to approximately 90 km upstream. Results were compared to those obtained from the same area in July 1998 using similar protocols. Depressed salinity, caused by extreme rainfall and associated high freshwater flow, persisted throughout much of the estuary, which had experienced periods of water-column stratification and hypoxia of underlying waters. Fifteen of the 20 sites, representing 299 km2 (76% of the survey area), also showed signs of benthic stress based on a multi-metric benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI). Benthic impacts included reductions in the abundance, diversity, and numbers of species and shifts in taxonomic composition, with a notable increase in dominance of the opportunistic polychaete Mediomastus ambiseta as other former dominant species declined. There was no significant increase in the extent of chemical contamination compared to pre-hurricane conditions. Storm-related reductions in dissolved oxygen and salinity were the more likely causes of the observed benthic impacts, though it was not possible, based on these results, to separate storm effects from seasonal changes in the benthos and annual episodes of summer anoxia and hypoxia.

  5. Benthic indicators to use in Ecological Quality classification of Mediterranean soft bottom marine ecosystems, including a new Biotic Index

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    N. SIMBOURA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A general scheme for approaching the objective of Ecological Quality Status (EcoQ classification of zoobenthic marine ecosystems is presented. A system based on soft bottom benthic indicator species and related habitat types is suggested to be used for testing the typological definition of a given water body in the Mediterranean. Benthic indices including the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the species richness are re-evaluated for use in classification. Ranges of values and of ecological quality categories are given for the diversity and species richness in different habitat types. A new biotic index (BENTIX is proposed based on the relative percentages of three ecological groups of species grouped according to their sensitivity or tolerance to disturbance factors and weighted proportionately to obtain a formula rendering a five step numerical scale of ecological quality classification. Its advantage against former biotic indices lies in the fact that it reduces the number of the ecological groups involved which makes it simpler and easier in its use. The Bentix index proposed is tested and validated with data from Greek and western Mediterranean ecosystems and examples are presented. Indicator species associated with specific habitat types and pollution indicator species, scored according to their degree of tolerance to pollution, are listed in a table. The Bentix index is compared and evaluated against the indices of diversity and species richness for use in classification. The advantages of the BENTIX index as a classification tool for ECoQ include independence from habitat type, sample size and taxonomic effort, high discriminative power and simplicity in its use which make it a robust, simple and effective tool for application in the Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Benthic foraminifera response to Holocene environmental changes in the ria de Muros (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, P.; Francés, G.; Pena, L. D.; Nombela, M. A.; Alejo, I.

    2003-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera assemblages from the outer sector of the ría de Muros have been analyzed in order to obtain a detailed reconstruction of Holocene environmental evolution. The studied core (EUGC-3B: 42' 45.10'N; 9' 02.23'W, at 38 m.b.s.l. and 410 cm length) consists of muddy sand from the core bottom (8200 cal yr BP) to 200 cm (2700 cal yr BP) and mainly mud from 200 cm to the core top. Measurements of geochemical properties carried out by a XRF core scanner revealed different signatures in the two aforementioned intervals and an enhancing terrigenous influence during the last 2000 yr. The prevalence of Bulimina spp., Nonion fabum, Ammonia beccarii and Cibicides ungerianus along the whole core indicates high organic carbon concentration and/or low oxygenation levels into the sediment. Nevertheless, the percentage of these species shows noticeable changes, indicating the existence of five periods with different environmental conditions. The basal assemblage (8200-7500 cal yr BP) is dominated by epifaunal taxa and it can be interpreted as a low sea level assemblage. An increase of fresh water influence during the Holocene Climate Optimum (7500-5000 cal yr BP) is revealed by maxima percentages of A. beccarii. The oceanic influence increased during the Subboreal period (5000-2750 cal yr BP) leading to an active water interchange between the ría and the open ocean and a higher marine productivity. The oceanic influence is recorded by the increase of typical marine species as Elphidium advenum, Bulimina spp., N. fabum, and Nonionella turgida. The appearance of Rectuvigerina phlegeri at 4000 cal yr BP denotes full marine conditions. Environmental conditions similar to the current ones were achieved during the Subatlantic period (2750-Rec). In a first step an assemblage dominated by Bulimina spp. N. fabum, and C. ungerianus permit us to interpret a relatively stable period with episodic pulses of fluvial influence. Afterwards the appearance and the rapid increase of

  7. Measurement of changes in marine benthic ecosystem function following physical disturbance by dredging

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Hussin, Wan Mohd Rauhan

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the impact of physical disturbance on macrofaunal communities and sediment composition is important given the increased demand for the exploitation and disturbance of marine ecosystems. The aim of the present investigation was to provide a comprehensive study about the extent to which the disturbance (especially aggregate dredging) may affect benthic ecosystem function. The first part of the thesis concerns a field investigation of the impacts of dredging on the be...

  8. WATER QUALITY EVALUATION OF CRIŞUL ALB AND CRIŞUL NEGRU RIVERS CATCHMENTS, FROM CODRU-MOMA MOUNTAINS (WEST OF ROMANIA, USING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea VARGA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality evaluation of the two watersheds involved the collection of thirteen samples from the tributaries of Crişul Alb and Crişul Negru rivers. The samples were collected in june 2010 with a benthic net, which had the mesh size of 250 µm, by disturbing the substrate, being thus qualitative samples. To get an overview, a series of physical-chemical parameters (water temperature, pH, oxygen, conductivity, cyanide, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates was studied in parallel with the study of benthic community. In most of the sampling points the major group of benthic macroinvertebrates were found and in some EPT group (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera prevailed even, which is known as a clean freshwater group, sensitive to pollution and human impact.

  9. Benthic fluxes of mercury during redox changes in pristine coastal marine sediments from the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koron, Neza [National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia). Marine Biological Section; Faganeli, Jadran [National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia). Marine Biological Section; Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) is an example of a coastal environment contaminated with mercury (Hg). Contamination is a consequence of nearly 500 years of activity at the Idrija Mine (western Slovenia), which is the second largest Hg mine in the world. Oxygen depletion can be common in the Gulf of Trieste due to late summer stratification of the water column and accumulation of labile organic matter. Since changing redox conditions can have an impact on Hg transformations, we studied the effect of oxygen depletion, in parallel with sulphide, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability, on total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) fluxes from sediments. Materials and methods: Pore water concentrations and benthic fluxes of total dissolved Hg and MeHg were studied in situ and in microcosm laboratory experiments using flux chambers encompassing three different stages: oxic, anoxic and reoxidation. Results and discussion: Our experiments showed that in the oxic stage there were small effluxes of MeHg to the water column, which increased in the anoxic stage and dropped rapidly in a subsequent reoxic stage, showing influx. Our results support the hypothesis that MeHg desorption from reduced metal hydroxides under anoxic conditions, and co-precipitation with Fe-oxides and MeHg demethylation in the reoxidation stage, may play a major role in determining MeHg benthic fluxes. For Hg and MeHg, it appears that there is little relationship between their pore water distribution and flux and that of FDOM, i.e. humics. Conclusions: The results indicate that there was no significant difference in Hg and MeHg pore water levels and their benthic fluxes between the contaminated northern and central parts of the Gulf of Trieste and the pristine southern part. This suggests that shallow and stratified coastal marine environments, in general, represent areas with a risk of high benthic release of

  10. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  11. Benthic foraminifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.

    (Nolet and Corliss, 1990). Differences in the abundance of oxygen-sensitive and dissolution-prone benthic foraminiferal species between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene in the abyssal waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico were used... (2009) Deep-sea benthic diversity linked to seasonality of pelagic productivity. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 56: 835-841. Culver S (1988) New foraminiferal depth zonation of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Palaios 3: 69...

  12. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, A.; Rouil, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Schucht, S.; Szopa, S.; Vautard, R.; Menut, L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  13. Carbon isotopic changes in benthic foraminifera from the western South Atlantic: Reconstruction of glacial abyssal circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, W. B.; Lohmann, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Oxygen- and carbon-isotopic analyses have been performed on the benthic foraminifer Planulina wuellerstorfi in seven Late Quaternary cores from the Vema Channel-Rio Grande Rise region. The cores are distributed over the water-depth interval of 2340 to 3939 m, which includes the present transition from North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) to Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). The carbon-isotopic records in the cores vary as a function of water depth. The shallowest and deepest cores show no significant glacial-interglacial difference in δ 13C. Four of the five cores presently located in the NADW have benthic foraminiferal δ 13C that is lower during glacial isotopic stages. Based on bathymetric gradients in δ 13C, we conclude that, like today, there were two water masses present in the Vema Channel during glacial intervals: a water mass enriched in 13C overlying another water mass depleted in 13C. The largest gradient of change of δ 13C with depth, however, occurred at 2.7 km, ˜ 1 km shallower than the present position of this gradient. On the basis of paleontologic and sedimentologic evidence, we consider it unlikely that the NADW:AABW transition shallowed to this level. Reduced carbon-isotopic gradients between the deep basins of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during the last glaciation suggest that production of NADW was reduced. Lower production of NADW may have modified the local abyssal circulation pattern in the Vema Channel region.

  14. Water Quality, Sediment Characteristics and Benthic Status of the Razim-Sinoie Lagoon System, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catianis, Irina; Secrieru, Dan; Pojar, Iulian; Grosu, Dumitru; Scrieciu, Albert; Pavel, Ana Bianca; Vasiliu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Razim Lake is the biggest of Romania's freshwater lakes and along with other basins as Golovita, Zmeica and Sinoie constitutes a system of great ecological significance, playing also an essential role in the supply of water for irrigation, fishery exploitation, farming, flood prevention, recreational navigation and water tourism. Due to their importance, the environmental conditions in the Razim - Sinoie coastal lakes have attracted an increased public attention in contemporary society. To assess the levels, dissemination and potential sources of contamination in the above-mentioned lagoon system, random sampling was used to collect water and sediment samples from every lake and several analytical techniques were performed to investigate their environmental characteristics. The results obtained from this study indicated that, in water, concentrations of various physico-chemical parameters are, mostly, in agreement with correlated environmental standards. Slight variations and/or occasional exceeding of the maximum admissible limits were generally limited to small areas showing levels that would not warrant special concern. In sediments, the mean concentrations of some specific trace metals were below the levels of potential effect. Benthic samples revealed 31 taxa belonging to 16 zoo-benthal subdivisions. The results of this study showed good ecological status despite local several natural and anthropogenic stressors as fishery exploitation, farming, recreational navigation and water tourism.

  15. Assessment of water quality, benthic invertebrates, and periphyton in the Threemile Creek basin, Mobile, Alabama, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Ann K.; Gill, Amy C.; Moreland, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 4-year investigation of water quality and aquatic-community structure in Threemile Creek, an urban stream that drains residential areas in Mobile, Alabama. Water-quality samples were collected between March 2000 and September 2003 at four sites on Threemile Creek, and between March 2000 and October 2001 at two tributary sites that drain heavily urbanized areas in the watershed. Stream samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, and selected organic wastewater compounds. Continuous measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentrations, water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity were recorded at three sites on Threemile Creek during 1999?2003. Aquatic-community structure was evaluated by conducting one survey of the benthic invertebrate community and multiple surveys of the algal community (periphyton). Benthic invertebrate samples were collected in July 2000 at four sites on Threemile Creek; periphyton samples were collected at four sites on Threemile Creek and the two tributary sites during 2000 ?2003. The occurrence and distribution of chemical constituents in the water column provided an initial assessment of water quality in the streams; the structure of the benthic invertebrate and algal communities provided an indication of the cumulative effects of water quality on the aquatic biota. Information contained in this report can be used by planners and resource managers in the evaluation of proposed total maximum daily loads and other restoration efforts that may be implemented on Threemile Creek. The three most upstream sites on Threemile Creek had similar water chemistry, characterized by a strong calcium-bicarbonate component; the most downstream site on Threemile Creek was affected by tidal fluctuations and mixing from Mobile Bay and had a strong sodium-chloride component. The water chemistry at the tributary site on Center Street was characterized by a strong sodium-chloride component

  16. Contribution to the study of the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution to the study of the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates and the biological quality of some rivers in the watershed boumerzoug (east of Algeria) ... benthic macro invertebrates, allows characterizing the biological quality of river water.

  17. Water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate bioassessment of Gallinas Creek, San Miguel County, New Mexico, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, H.S.; Jacobi, G.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Upper Gallinas Creek in north-central New Mexico serves as the public water supply for the City of Las Vegas. The majority of this 84-square-mile watershed is within national forest lands managed by the U.S. Forest Service. In 1985, the Forest Service planned to conduct timber harvesting in the headwaters of Gallinas Creek. The City of Las Vegas was concerned about possible effects from logging on water quality and on water-supply treatment costs. The U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 1987 to (1) assess the baseline water-quality characteristics of Gallinas Creek upstream from the Las Vegas water-supply diversion, (2) relate water quality to State water- quality standards, and (3) determine possible causes for spatial differences in quality. During 1987-90, water-quality constituents and aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and analyzed at five sampling sites in the watershed. Specific conductance, pH, total hardness, total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations increased in a downstream direction, probably in response to differences in geology in the watershed. The water-quality standard for temperature was exceeded at the two most downstream sites probably due to a lack of riparian vegetation and low streamflow conditions. The standards for pH and turbidity were exceeded at all sites except the most upstream one. Concentrations of nitrogen species and phosphorus generally were small at all sites. The maximum total nitrogen concentration of 2.1 milligrams per liter was at the mouth of Porvenir Canyon; only one sample at this site exceeded the water-quality standard for total inorganic nitrogen. At each of the sites, 10 to 15 percent of the samples exceeded the total phosphorus standard of less than 0.1 milligram per liter. Except for aluminum and iron, almost all samples tested for trace elements contained concentrations less than the laboratory detection limit. No trace-element concentrations exceeded the State standard for domestic

  18. Changes in benthic fish assemblages as a consequence of coastal works in a coastal lagoon: The Mar Menor (Spain, Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, A; García-Charton, J A; Barcala, E; Marcos, C

    2006-01-01

    The benthic fish assemblage of the Mar Menor consisted of 37 species. Dominant species are: Gobius cobitis, Lipophrys pavo and Tripterygion tripteronotus on infralittoral rocks; Pomatoschistus marmoratus, Callionymus pussillus, Callionymus risso and Solea vulgaris on sandy bottoms and Gobius niger, Syngnathus abaster, Hippocampus ramulosus and Symphodus cinereus on Cymodocea nodosa-Caulerpa prolifera mixed beds. From 1985 to 1989 tourist development has led to the creation of new beaches and the installation of artificial rocky structures for retaining sediments. Dredging for the extraction of sand and subsequent pumping altered sediment characteristics causing a real stress leading to the substitution of typical sandy bottoms communities with Cymodocea nodosa by Caulerpa prolifera communities on mud. Soft bottom fish assemblages responded to changes in vegetation cover and substratum characteristics mainly changing the species composition, while artificial hard substrata contain a similar fish community than natural ones, harbouring even richer and more diverse assemblages. This positive effect of breakwaters should not obscure their likely negative effects on hydrodynamics and the subsequent changes of sediment quality and vegetation cover on the breakwaters' area of influence.

  19. Temporal change in deep-sea benthic ecosystems: a review of the evidence from recent time-series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, A G; Gooday, A J; Bailey, D M; Billett, D S M; Chevaldonné, P; Colaço, A; Copley, J; Cuvelier, D; Desbruyères, D; Kalogeropoulou, V; Klages, M; Lampadariou, N; Lejeusne, C; Mestre, N C; Paterson, G L J; Perez, T; Ruhl, H; Sarrazin, J; Soltwedel, T; Soto, E H; Thatje, S; Tselepides, A; Van Gaever, S; Vanreusel, A

    2010-01-01

    by stochastic events such as volcanic eruptions, with associated fauna showing complex patterns of community succession. For the slow-spreading centres such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, vent sites appear to be stable over the time periods measured, with no discernable long-term trend. At cold seeps, inferences based on spatial studies in the Gulf of Mexico, and data on organism longevity, suggest that these sites are stable over many hundreds of years. However, at the Haakon Mosby mud volcano, a large, well-studied seep in the Barents Sea, periodic mud slides associated with gas and fluid venting may disrupt benthic communities, leading to successional sequences over time. For chemosynthetic ecosystems of biogenic origin (e.g. whale-falls), it is likely that the longevity of the habitat depends mainly on the size of the carcass and the ecological setting, with large remains persisting as a distinct seafloor habitat for up to 100 years. Studies of shallow-water analogs of deep-sea ecosystems such as marine caves may also yield insights into temporal processes. Although it is obvious from the geological record that past climate change has impacted deep-sea faunas, the evidence that recent climate change or climate variability has altered deep-sea benthic communities is extremely limited. This mainly reflects the lack of remote sensing of this vast seafloor habitat. Current and future advances in deep-ocean benthic science involve new remote observing technologies that combine a high temporal resolution (e.g. cabled observatories) with spatial capabilities (e.g. autonomous vehicles undertaking image surveys of the seabed). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multivariate Analysis of Water Quality and Benthic Macrophyte Communities in Florida Bay, USA Reveals Hurricane Effects and Susceptibility to Seagrass Die-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Cole

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass communities, dominated by Thalassia testudinum, form the principal benthic ecosystem within Florida Bay, Florida USA. The bay has had several large-scale seagrass die-offs in recent decades associated with drought and hypersaline conditions. In addition, three category-5 hurricanes passed in close proximity to the bay during the fall of 2005. This study investigated temporal and spatial trends in macrophyte abundance and water quality from 2006 to 2013 at 15 permanent transect sites, which were co-located with long-term water quality stations. Relationships, by year and by transect location (basin, between antecedent water quality (mean, minimum and maximum for a 6-month period and benthic macrophyte communities were examined using multivariate analyses. Total phosphorus, salinity, pH, turbidity, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, DIN to phosphate ratio (DIN:PO4-3, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen correlated with temporal and spatial variations in the macrophyte communities. Temporal analysis (MDS and LINKTREE indicated that the fall 2005 hurricanes affected both water quality and macrophyte communities for approximately a 2-year period. Spatial analysis revealed that five basins, which subsequently exhibited a major seagrass die-off during summer 2015, significantly differed from the other ten basins in macrophyte community structure and water quality more than 2 years before this die-off event. High total phosphorus, high pH, low DIN, and low DIN:PO4-3, in combination with deep sediments and high seagrass cover were characteristic of sites that subsequently exhibited severe die-off. Our results indicate basins with more mixed seagrass communities and higher macroalgae abundance are less susceptible to die-off, which is consistent with the management goals of promoting more heterogeneous benthic macrophyte communities.

  1. Eutrophication induced changes in benthic community structure of a flow-restricted tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters), India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, G.D.; Nisha, P.A.; Balachandran, K.K.; Madhu, N.V.; Nair, M.; Shaiju, P.; Joseph, T.; Srinivas, K.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    The influence of anthropogenic loading on the distribution of soft bottom benthic organisms of a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters) was examined. The industrial activities were found to be high in the northern and central part of the estuary...

  2. Short-term versus long-term changes in the benthic communities of a small coastal lagoon: implications for ecological status assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Félix, PM; Chainho, P; Costa, Jl; Correia, MJ; Chaves, ML; Medeiros, JP; Cabral, HN; Wouters, N; Bernardo, J; Costa, AM; Cristo, M; Silva, G; Azeda, C; Tavares, P; Costa, MJ

    2013-01-01

    The characteristic high variability and low predictability of coastal lagoons, due to strong changes in marine and freshwater inputs, make these ecosystems an interesting casestudy. The small Melides landlocked coastal lagoon in SW Portugal is a paradigmatic example, with a biological community highly stressed by these phenomena. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected in 1998/99 and 2009 and each year, in different seasons and addressing different environmental conditions i...

  3. Influence of sediment quality on the responses of benthic invertebrates after treatment with the fungicide triphenyltin acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.M.; Roessink, I.; Verbree, B.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2005-01-01

    After decades of pollution, benthic communities in floodplain lake ecosystems are likely to be exposed to a diverse assortment of sediment-bound historical toxicants and nutrients as well as pulses of newly discharged or deposited toxicants. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the effects

  4. Ozone, air quality and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Noije, T.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in climate due to increased greenhouse gas emissions differ per region. Regional climate changes can also be caused by regional changes in air quality, though. On the other hand, global and regional changes in climate also lead to changes in air quality without any changes in sources of pollution. This article discusses the various aspects of the interaction between air quality and climate change with extra focus on the role of ozone. [mk] [nl

  5. Guidelines for the processing and quality assurance of benthic invertebrate samples collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.; Meador, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate samples are collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This is a perennial, multidisciplinary program that integrates biological, physical, and chemical indicators of water quality to evaluate status and trends and to develop an understanding of the factors controlling observed water quality. The Program examines water quality in 60 study units (coupled ground- and surface-water systems) that encompass most of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii. Study-unit teams collect and process qualitative and semi-quantitative invertebrate samples according to standardized procedures. These samples are processed (elutriated and subsampled) in the field to produce as many as four sample components: large-rare, main-body, elutriate, and split. Each sample component is preserved in 10-percent formalin, and two components, large-rare and main-body, are sent to contract laboratories for further processing. The large-rare component is composed of large invertebrates that are removed from the sample matrix during field processing and placed in one or more containers. The main-body sample component consists of the remaining sample materials (sediment, detritus, and invertebrates) and is subsampled in the field to achieve a volume of 750 milliliters or less. The remaining two sample components, elutriate and split, are used for quality-assurance and quality-control purposes. Contract laboratories are used to identify and quantify invertebrates from the large-rare and main-body sample components according to the procedures and guidelines specified within this document. These guidelines allow the use of subsampling techniques to reduce the volume of sample material processed and to facilitate identifications. These processing procedures and techniques may be modified if the modifications provide equal or greater levels of accuracy and precision. The intent of sample processing is to

  6. Effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity changes on benthic foraminifera: A laboratory culture experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Kouthanker, M.; Kurtarkar, S.R.; Nigam, R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Linshy, V.N.

    of adverse effect of such seasonal salinity changes on calcite secreting organisms is, however not clear. The seasonal fresh water influx from the estuaries also affects the pH and alkalinity of the coastal seawater. Therefore, to understand the effect...

  7. Nutrient reduction and climate change cause a potential shift from pelagic to benthic pathways in a eutrophic marine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Blenckner, T.; Stenseth, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which marine ecosystems may support the pelagic or benthic food chain has been shown to vary across natural and anthropogenic gradients for e.g., in temperature and nutrient availability. Moreover, such external forcing may not only affect the flux of organic matter but could trigger...... variables across all trophic levels, we here propose a potential regime shift from pelagic to benthic regulatory pathways; a possible first sign of recovery from eutrophication likely triggered by drastic nutrient reductions (involving both nitrogen and phosphorus), in combination with climate...

  8. Benthic foraminiferal biocoenoses in the estuarine regimes of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Benthic Foraminifera are highly responsive to subtle changes in the estuarine environment. Keeping this in view, a qualitative analysis of living benthic Foraminifera was made of the samples collected from the Mandovi-Zuari estuaries...

  9. Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Sweetman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea encompasses the largest ecosystems on Earth. Although poorly known, deep seafloor ecosystems provide services that are vitally important to the entire ocean and biosphere. Rising atmospheric greenhouse gases are bringing about significant changes in the environmental properties of the ocean realm in terms of water column oxygenation, temperature, pH and food supply, with concomitant impacts on deep-sea ecosystems. Projections suggest that abyssal (3000–6000 m ocean temperatures could increase by 1°C over the next 84 years, while abyssal seafloor habitats under areas of deep-water formation may experience reductions in water column oxygen concentrations by as much as 0.03 mL L–1 by 2100. Bathyal depths (200–3000 m worldwide will undergo the most significant reductions in pH in all oceans by the year 2100 (0.29 to 0.37 pH units. O2 concentrations will also decline in the bathyal NE Pacific and Southern Oceans, with losses up to 3.7% or more, especially at intermediate depths. Another important environmental parameter, the flux of particulate organic matter to the seafloor, is likely to decline significantly in most oceans, most notably in the abyssal and bathyal Indian Ocean where it is predicted to decrease by 40–55% by the end of the century. Unfortunately, how these major changes will affect deep-seafloor ecosystems is, in some cases, very poorly understood. In this paper, we provide a detailed overview of the impacts of these changing environmental parameters on deep-seafloor ecosystems that will most likely be seen by 2100 in continental margin, abyssal and polar settings. We also consider how these changes may combine with other anthropogenic stressors (e.g., fishing, mineral mining, oil and gas extraction to further impact deep-seafloor ecosystems and discuss the possible societal implications.

  10. Shifting baselines in the Ems Dollard estuary: A comparison across three decades reveals changing benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Holthuijsen, Sander; Mulder, Maarten; van Arkel, Maarten; Schaars, Loran Kleine; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; ten Horn, Job; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; van der Meer, Jaap; Piersma, Theunis; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2017-09-01

    At a time when there is a growing discussion about the natural state of estuaries, a comparison of macrozoobenthos communities from two surveys conducted 30 years apart in the Ems Dollard estuary, in the eastern Wadden Sea, The Netherlands, provides a unique opportunity to compare changes over time. As expected, our comparison revealed a gradient in species composition from land (the Dollard) to sea (the Outer Ems) at both points in time, with brackish species in the Dollard and more marine species in the Outer Ems (Wadden Sea). Total richness increased over time; however, this mainly reflected the immigration of new species and sampling differences. In the Dollard, total biomass declined over time, most likely reflecting de-eutrophication in this area. Strikingly, at the meeting point between the sea and the brackish Dollard, i.e. the Inner Ems, the community composition changed from one dominated by bivalves (1970s) to one dominated by worms (since 2009). This change involved a reduction in total biomass, mainly of Mya arenaria, and immigration of polychaete worms (Marenzellaria viridis and Alitta succinea). In the Outer Ems, an increase in total biomass was observed, associated with the recent successful recruitment of Cerastoderma edule. This comparison highlights that historical data provides useful insights at large spatial scales. However, a full understanding of the complex dynamics of estuaries requires an analysis of continuous long-term monitoring series.

  11. PCB-induced changes of a benthic community and expected ecosystem recovery following in situ sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Elisabeth M.-L.; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The benthic community was analyzed to evaluate pollution-induced changes for the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site at Hunters Point (HP) relative to 30 reference sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. An analysis based on functional traits of feeding, reproduction, and position in the sediment shows that HP is depauperate in deposit feeders, subsurface carnivores, and species with no protective barrier. Sediment chemistry analysis shows that PCBs are the major risk drivers at HP (1,570 ppb) and that the reference sites contain very low levels of PCB contamination (9 ppb). Different feeding traits support the existence of direct pathways of exposure, which can be mechanistically linked to PCB bioaccumulation by biodynamic modeling. The model shows that the deposit feeder Neanthes arenaceodentata accumulates approximately 20 times more PCBs in its lipids than the facultative deposit feeder Macoma balthica and up to 130 times more than the filter feeder Mytilus edulis. The comparison of different exposure scenarios suggests that PCB tissue concentrations at HP are two orders of magnitude higher than at the reference sites. At full scale, in situ sorbent amendment with activated carbon may reduce PCB bioaccumulation at HP by up to 85 to 90% under favorable field and treatment conditions. The modeling framework further demonstrates that such expected remedial success corresponds to exposure conditions suggested as the cleanup goal for HP. However, concentrations remain slightly higher than at the reference sites. The present study demonstrates how the remedial success of a sorbent amendment, which lowers the PCB availability, can be compared to reference conditions and traditional cleanup goals, which are commonly based on bulk sediment concentrations.

  12. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling.Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater-treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition.Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  13. Benthic Foraminiferal Stable Isotope and Dinocyst Assemblages in Sediments of the Trondheimfjord Area (Mid-Norway): Proxies for Regional Oceanographic and Climate Changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milzer, G.; Giraudeau, J.; Faust, J.; Knies, J.; Schmidt, S.; Rühlemann, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Trondheimfjord is located at the west coast of Mid-Norway and is characterized by local environmental and hydrological changes that are linked to regional oceanographic and atmospheric processes in the Norwegian Sea. The North Atlantic Current (NAC) and the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC), two major northward flowing sea surface/intermediate currents, strongly contribute to the oceanography of the Norwegian Sea and thus, to the hydrological settings of the fjord. Instrumental records indicate that the renewal of the fjord water by Atlantic-derived water masses occurs twice a year and that bottom water temperature and salinity changes reflect NAC variability. Sedimentation rates in the fjord basin exceed several mm/yr. Hence, the Trondheimfjord is an ideal location for high resolution studies of important climate-sensitive parameters such as characteristics of Atlantic-derived waters, freshwater discharge and sedimentary patterns. We measured stable isotope ratios in tests of the benthic foraminifera Melonis barleanus from surface sediments of the Trondheimfjord; δ18O ratios vary according to circulation and stratification patterns in the fjord which are linked to the topography. Based on these surface sediment measurements, as well as previous sediment core studies (Milzer et al, unpublished), we assume that benthic δ18O ratios in sedimentary archives from the Trondheimfjord reflect ocean circulation changes in the Norwegian Sea. In order to examine to which extent physico-chemical characteristics of the prevailing water masses are affecting the benthic signal in the Trondheimfjord, and how these findings can be related to oceanographic changes in the Norwegian Sea, we analyze benthic δ18O ratios from three multi-cores distributed along the fjord axis. According to 210Pb and 137Cs chronology these multi-cores contain undisturbed sedimentary records for the last 10 to 50 years, with sedimentation rates ranging from 2.5 to 7 mm/yr. We perform this analysis by

  14. Recent oxygen depletion and benthic faunal change in shallow areas of Sannäs Fjord, Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Kjell; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Gallagher, Timothy M.; Robijn, Ardo

    2017-09-01

    Sannäs Fjord is a shallow fjord (European Union. Yet, observations during the summers of 2008-2011 show that the shallow inner fjord inlet experiences severe oxygen depletion at 5-12 m water depth. To explore if the oxygen depletion is only a recent phenomenon and to evaluate the potential of fjord sediments to archive such environmental changes, in 2008 and 2009 seven sediment cores were taken along a transect oriented lengthwise in the fjord. The cores were analysed for organic carbon, C/N, benthic foraminifera and lead pollution records (as relative age marker). Carbon content increases in most of the cores since the 1970-80s, while C/N ratio decreases from the core base upward since 1995. Foraminiferal assemblages in most core stratigraphies are dominated by agglutinated species. Calcareous species (mainly elphidiids) have become dominant in the upper part of the records since the late 1990s or 2000 (the inner fjord and the deepest basin) and since the 1950-70s (the outer fjord). In the inner Sannäs Fjord, an increase of agglutinated foraminiferal species (e.g. Eggerelloides scaber) and organic inner linings occurred since the 1970s, suggesting an intensification of taphonomic processes affecting postmortem calcareous shell preservation. A study of living vs. dead foraminiferal assemblages undertaken during June-August 2013 demonstrates that in the shallow inner fjord, strong carbonate dissolution occurs within 1-3 months following the foraminiferal growth. The dissolution is linked to corrosive conditions present within the sediment - bottom water interface, and is likely caused by the organic matter decay, resulting in severe hypoxia to anoxia. Oxygen depletion at < 10 m w.d. develops fast due to the small water volume and limited bottom water exchange caused by a close proximity of pycnocline to the fjord bottom. Sediment cores from the deep fjord basin and the outer fjord are, on the contrary, characterized by good to excellent preservation of

  15. The changing role of the quality professional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the historic role of the quality professionals in a Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) contractor's organization. The quality professional's changing role is presented

  16. Monitoring of coastal coral reefs near Dahab (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea) indicates local eutrophication as potential cause for change in benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Malik S; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Ferse, Sebastian C A; Niggl, Wolfgang; Wild, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Coral reef ecosystems fringing the coastline of Dahab (South Sinai, Egypt) have experienced increasing anthropogenic disturbance as an emergent international tourism destination. Previous reports covering tourism-related impacts on coastal environments, particularly mechanical damage and destructive fishing, have highlighted the vital necessity for regular ecosystem monitoring of coral reefs near Dahab. However, a continuous scientific monitoring programme of permanent survey sites has not been established to date. Thus, this study conducted in situ monitoring surveys to investigate spatio-temporal variability of benthic reef communities and selected reef-associated herbivores along with reef health indicator organisms by revisiting three of the locally most frequented dive sites during expeditions in March 2010, September 2011 and February 2013. In addition, inorganic nutrient concentrations in reef-surrounding waters were determined to evaluate bottom-up effects of key environmental parameters on benthic reef community shifts in relation to grazer-induced top-down control. Findings revealed that from 2010 to 2013, live hard coral cover declined significantly by 12 % at the current-sheltered site Three Pools (TP), while showing negative trends for the Blue Hole (BH) and Lighthouse (LH) sites. Hard coral cover decline was significantly and highly correlated to a substantial increase in turf algae cover (up to 57 % at TP) at all sites, replacing hard corals as dominant benthic space occupiers in 2013. These changes were correlated to ambient phosphate and ammonium concentrations that exhibited highest values (0.64 ± 0.07 μmol PO4 (3-) l(-1), 1.05 ± 0.07 μmol NH4 (+) l(-1)) at the degraded site TP. While macroalgae appeared to respond to both bottom-up and top-down factors, change in turf algae was consistent with expected indications for bottom-up control. Temporal variability measured in herbivorous reef fish stocks reflected seasonal impacts by

  17. Spatial and temporal changes in benthic communities of the Galician continental shelf after the Prestige oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Alberto . E-mail aserrano@st.ieo.es; Sanchez, Francisco; Preciado, Izaskun; Parra, Santiago; Frutos, Inmaculada

    2006-01-01

    Two years after the Prestige oil spill (POS) an assessment of the effects on benthic fauna was carried out using the data obtained in five multidisciplinary surveys. Otter trawl, beam trawl, suprabenthic sled and box corer were used to study the main benthic compartments, along eight transects perpendicular to the coastline. Beam trawl was also employed to quantify the amount of tar aggregates on the continental shelf. No significant correlations between tar aggregates and species richness, biomass and diversity of benthic communities were found. This result was corroborated when the role of depth, season, latitude and sediment characteristics was examined by canonical ordination, in which POS-related variables had low influence on spatial distribution patterns. Depth and sediment grain diameter profoundly influence epibenthic communities. Sediment organic content is a third key variable for the infaunal, suprabenthic and lower-sized epibenthic communities, but not for the larger epibenthic communities. Nevertheless, a decrease in the densities of several epibenthic indicators was detected the first year after spill, followed by a noteworthy recovery in 2004. Non-macroscopic toxicity and some oceanographic agents are suggested as possible causes of these shifts

  18. Spatial and temporal changes in benthic communities of the Galician continental shelf after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alberto [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain)]. E-mail aserrano@st.ieo.es; Sanchez, Francisco [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain); Preciado, Izaskun [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain); Parra, Santiago [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 130, 15080 La Coruna (Spain); Frutos, Inmaculada [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 130, 15080 La Coruna (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Two years after the Prestige oil spill (POS) an assessment of the effects on benthic fauna was carried out using the data obtained in five multidisciplinary surveys. Otter trawl, beam trawl, suprabenthic sled and box corer were used to study the main benthic compartments, along eight transects perpendicular to the coastline. Beam trawl was also employed to quantify the amount of tar aggregates on the continental shelf. No significant correlations between tar aggregates and species richness, biomass and diversity of benthic communities were found. This result was corroborated when the role of depth, season, latitude and sediment characteristics was examined by canonical ordination, in which POS-related variables had low influence on spatial distribution patterns. Depth and sediment grain diameter profoundly influence epibenthic communities. Sediment organic content is a third key variable for the infaunal, suprabenthic and lower-sized epibenthic communities, but not for the larger epibenthic communities. Nevertheless, a decrease in the densities of several epibenthic indicators was detected the first year after spill, followed by a noteworthy recovery in 2004. Non-macroscopic toxicity and some oceanographic agents are suggested as possible causes of these shifts.

  19. The Bering Strait Region: A Window into Changing Benthic Populations in Response to Varying Subarctic-Arctic Connectivity and Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Moore, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    A key ecological organizing principle for the northern Bering Sea and the adjoining southern Chukchi Sea just north of Bering Strait is that the shallow, seasonally productive waters lead to strong pelagic-benthic coupling to the sea floor, with deposition of fresh chlorophyll coinciding with the spring bloom as sea ice retreats. Both in situ production and advection of upstream phytodetritus to these regions support persistent biological hotspots that connect benthic prey to upper trophic benthivores. This northern marine ecosystem is dominated by marine macroinvertebrates (e.g. clams, polychaetes, sipunculids, and amphipods) that feed on the high production deposited rapidly to the seafloor, which in turn serve as food resources for diving mammals and seabirds, such as gray whales, bearded seals, eiders, and walruses. Between St. Lawrence Island and Bering Strait and northwards into the Chukchi Sea, the persistence of seasonal sea ice has significantly declined over the past two decades, and along with warming seawater temperatures, these changes have potential ramifications to ecosystem structure. Times-series data over the last 25 years indicate that these regions have experienced a northward shift in macrofaunal composition and a decline in core benthic biomass that matches patterns of reduced sea ice, warming seawater, and changing sediment grain size that relates to varying current patterns. This presentation will discuss these data in the context of both process studies from the region and results from the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO), an international network of time series transects that is providing a framework to evaluate status and trends on a latitudinal bases in the Pacific Arctic region.

  20. Bioassessment of Choghakhor Wetland using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fathi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, besides investigating benthic communities and their demographics in Choghakhor wetland, the water quality has been evaluated and classified. Then, 10 stations were selected and sampling of benthos was done every 45 days since April 2010 to March 2011, with 3 replications at each station. Samples were obtained by Ekman grab Sampler (surface 400 cm2. The collected samples were separated and fixed by formalin (4%. The Macroinvertebrates samples were identified and counted in laboratory. Generally 25 families of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 5 classes and 12 orders were identified. The results were calculated as community measures, including total richness, Shannon - Wiener diversity index and Hilsenhoff Biological index at family level. The results obtained from temporal and spatial changes of data (Statgeraphics software and water qualitative classification using Shannon diversity index conformed to biological Hilsenhoff index. And finally, water quality of wetland was assessed to be polluted in average to high level. According to this study findings, it seems that, these indicators could be used as useful tools for evaluating water supplies quality.

  1. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Streambank fencing along stream channels in pastured areas and the exclusion of pasture animals from the channel are best-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment yields from drainage basins. Establishment of vegetation in the fenced area helps to stabilize streambanks and provides better habitat for wildlife in and near the stream. This study documented the effectiveness of a 5- to 12-foot-wide buffer strip on the quality of surface water and near-stream ground water in a 1.42-mi2 treatment basin in Lancaster County, Pa. Two miles of stream were fenced in the basin in 1997 following a 3- to 4-year pre-treatment period of monitoring surface- and ground-water variables in the treatment and control basins. Changes in surface- and ground-water quality were monitored for about 4 years after fence installation. To alleviate problems in result interpretation associated with climatic and hydrologic variation over the study period, a nested experimental design including paired-basin and upstream/downstream components was used to study the effects of fencing on surface-water quality and benthic-macroinvertebrate communities. Five surface-water sites, one at the outlet of a 1.77-mi2 control basin (C-1), two sites in the treatment basin (T-3 and T-4) that were above any fence installation, and two sites (one at an upstream tributary site (T-2) and one at the outlet (T-1)) that were treated, were sampled intensively. Low-flow samples were collected at each site (approximately 25-30 per year at each site), and stormflow was sampled with automatic samplers at all sites except T-3. For each site where stormflow was sampled, from 35 to 60 percent of the storm events were sampled over the entire study period. Surface-water sites were sampled for analyses of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal streptococcus (only low-flow samples), with field parameters (only low-flow samples) measured during sample collection. Benthic-macroinvertebrate samples

  2. Reefs under Siege—the Rise, Putative Drivers, and Consequences of Benthic Cyanobacterial Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K. Ford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Benthic cyanobacteria have commonly been a small but integral component of coral reef ecosystems, fulfilling the critical function of introducing bioavailable nitrogen to an inherently oligotrophic environment. Though surveys may have previously neglected benthic cyanobacteria, or grouped them with more conspicuous benthic groups, emerging evidence strongly indicates that they are becoming increasingly prevalent on reefs worldwide. Some species can form mats comprised by a diverse microbial consortium which allows them to exist across a wide range of environmental conditions. This review evaluates the putative driving factors of increasing benthic cyanobacterial mats, including climate change, declining coastal water quality, iron input, and overexploitation of key consumer and ecosystem engineer species. Ongoing global environmental change can increase growth rates and toxin production of physiologically plastic benthic cyanobacterial mats, placing them at a considerable competitive advantage against reef-building corals. Once established, strong ecological feedbacks [e.g., inhibition of coral recruitment, release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC] reinforce reef degradation. The review also highlights previously overlooked implications of mat proliferation, which can extend beyond reef health and affect human health and welfare. Though identifying (opportunistic consumers of mats remains a priority, their perceived low palatability implies that herbivore management alone may be insufficient to control their proliferation and must be accompanied by local measures to improve water quality and watershed management.

  3. Analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices to evaluate water quality in rivers impacted by mining activities in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvial I.E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Catchments in the semiarid regions are especially susceptible to environmental perturbation associated with water scarcity, hydrological variations and overuse by anthropogenic activities. Using multivariate analysis to relate environmental and biological data, and diversity and biotic indices (ChBMWP, ChIBF, we analyzed the macroinvertebrate composition of 12 rivers of the semiarid region of northern Chile. A non-metric multidimensional scaling for macroinvertebrate taxa and a principal component analysis for environmental variables strongly separated upstream sites (e.g. Vacas Heladas and Malo Rivers, which presented low pH and high dissolved metal concentrations, from other sites. Effectively, CCA showed that metals and low pH, associated with the altitudinal gradient, determined the distributional patterns of macroinvertebrates in the Elqui catchment. The causes of these particular conditions could be related to geological processes and human impact. The biotic indices applied to the sampling sites corroborated and reflected these characteristics, with La Laguna and Turbio Rivers showing a diverse macroinvertebrate community and moderate to good water quality, and the Claro River showing favorable conditions for the development of aquatic biota, indicating its better quality relative to other stations. To the middle and low part of the basin, a change in the composition of the community was observed, with species that suggest an impact by an increase in organic matter, due to agricultural activities and urban settlements concentrated in this area. Our results suggest that macroinvertebrate taxa in northern Chile may be exceptional species, adapted to unfavorable geochemical conditions, and emphasize the need for protection of the semiarid basins of the region.

  4. The offshore benthic fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  5. Contrasting responses to long-term climate change of carbon flows to benthic consumers in two different sized lakes in the Baltic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Simon; Freiberg, Rene; Poska, Anneli; Agasild, Helen; Alliksaar, Tiiu; Tõnno, Ilmar

    2018-05-01

    The study of lake sediments and archived biological remains is a promising approach to better understand the impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems. Small lakes have been shown to be strongly sensitive to past climate change, but similar information is lacking for large lakes. By identifying responses to climate change of carbon flows through benthic food web in two different sized lakes, we aimed to understand how lake morphometry can mediate the effects of climate change. We reconstructed the dynamics of phytoplankton community composition and carbon resources sustaining chironomid biomass during the Holocene from the combined analysis of sedimentary pigment quantification and carbon stable isotopic composition of subfossil chironomid head capsules (δ13CHC) in a large lake in the Baltic area (Estonia). Our results showed that chironomid biomass in the large lake was mainly sustained by phytoplankton, with no significant relationship between δ13CHC values and temperature fluctuations. We suggest that lake morphometry (including distance of the sampling zone to the shoreline, and lake volume for primary producers) mediates the effects of climate change, making large lakes less sensitive to climate change. Complementary studies are needed to better understand differences in organic matter dynamics in different sized lakes and to characterize the response of the aquatic carbon cycle to past climate change.

  6. High dietary quality of non-toxic cyanobacteria for a benthic grazer and its implications for the control of cyanobacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2017-05-18

    Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consumption of non-toxic cyanobacteria may be improved when complemented with other high quality prey. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which we fed the herbivorous freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis single non-toxic cyanobacterial and unialgal diets or a mixed diet to test if diet-mixing may enable these herbivores to control non-toxic cyanobacterial mass abundances. The treatments where L. stagnalis were fed non-toxic cyanobacteria and a mixed diet provided a significantly higher shell and soft-body growth rate than the average of all single algal, but not the non-toxic cyanobacterial diets. However, the increase in growth provided by the non-toxic cyanobacteria diets could not be related to typical determinants of dietary quality such as toxicity, nutrient stoichiometry or essential fatty acid content. These results strongly contradict previous research which describes non-toxic cyanobacteria as a low quality food resource for freshwater herbivores in general. Our findings thus have strong implications to gastropod-cyanobacteria relationships and suggest that freshwater gastropods may be able to control mass occurrences of benthic non-toxic cyanobacteria, frequently observed in eutrophied water bodies worldwide.

  7. Comparative efficacy of benthic biotic indices in assessing the Ecological Quality Status (EcoQS) of the stressed Ulhas estuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulik, Jyoti; Sukumaran, Soniya; Srinivas, Tatiparthi; Vijapure, Tejal

    2017-07-15

    Ecostatus of Ulhas estuary, one of the most polluted estuaries along the industrialized and urbanized northwest coast of India, was evaluated by six widely accepted benthic indices viz. H'(log 2 ), AMBI, M-AMBI, BENTIX, BOPA and BO2A to test their efficiency in a tropical setting. The mesohaline zone, which presented eutrophic conditions, was classified as 'bad' by all indices due to the azoic status. Despite significant correlations obtained between indices, there were discrepancies in the accurate level of EcoQS assigned to each station. AMBI was observed to be most efficient in indicating a clear spatial variability from a 'poor' to 'bad' ecological quality status in the middle and upstream zones to an improved status in the downstream region. Limitations of all indices are discussed in light of their suitability for assessing the estuarine environmental condition. The present results could provide a fillip to environmental improvement initiatives currently being undertaken in the estuary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Upwelling and Other Environmental Influences on Growth of a Nearshore Benthic Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, V. R.; Zimmerman, C. E.; Kruse, G. H.; Mueter, F. J.; Black, B.; Douglas, D. C.; Bodkin, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    The role of upwelling in nearshore benthic systems is more uncertain compared to the relatively strong positive associations with pelagic production. To understand how upwelling and other environmental conditions influence nearshore benthic production, we developed an annual index of production from growth increments recorded in otoliths of kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) at nine sites in the seasonally-upwelling California Current and downwelling Alaska Coastal currents. Kelp greenling are a benthic-feeding fish common in kelp forests with food webs sustained by both kelp and phytoplankton primary production. We explored the influence of basin- and local-scale conditions, including upwelling, across all seasons at lags up to two years taken to represent changes in the quantity and quality of prey. Upwelling strength was positively related to fish growth in both current systems, although relationships in the Alaska Coastal Current were indicative of faster growth with relaxed downwelling, rather than upwelling. Looking across a suite of basin- and local-scale environmental indicators, complex relationships emerged in the California Current, with faster growth related to within-year warm conditions and lagged-year cool conditions. In contrast, fish in the downwelling system grew faster both during and subsequent to warm conditions. The complex lag-dependent dynamics in the upwelling system may reflect differences in conditions that promote quantity versus quality of benthic invertebrate prey. Thus, we hypothesize that benthic production is maximized when cool and warm years alternate during periods of high frequency climate variability in the California Current. Such a pattern is consistent with previous findings suggesting that benthic invertebrate abundance (e.g., recruitment) is food-limited during warm years with reduced upwelling, while quality (e.g., energy content) is temperature-limited during cool years.

  9. Limits to benthic feeding by eiders in a vital Arctic migration corridor due to localized prey and changing sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, James R.; Rocha, Aariel R.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Dasher, Douglas; Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby

    2015-01-01

    Four species of threatened or declining eider ducks that nest in the Arctic migrate through the northeast Chukchi Sea, where anticipated industrial development may require prioritizing areas for conservation. In this nearshore corridor (10–40 m depth), the eiders’ access to benthic prey during the spring is restricted to variable areas of open water within sea ice. For the most abundant species, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis), stable isotopes in blood cells, muscle, and potential prey indicate that these eiders ate mainly bivalves when traversing this corridor. Bivalves there were much smaller than the same taxa in deeper areas of the northern Bering Sea, possibly due to higher mortality rates caused by ice scour in shallow water; future decrease in seasonal duration of fast ice may increase this effect. Computer simulations suggested that if these eiders forage for >15 h/day, they can feed profitably at bivalve densities >200 m−2 regardless of water depth or availability of ice for resting. Sampling in 2010–2012 showed that large areas of profitable prey densities occurred only in certain locations throughout the migration corridor. Satellite data in April–May over 13 years (2001–2013) indicated that access to major feeding areas through sea ice in different segments of the corridor can vary from 0% to 100% between months and years. In a warming and increasingly variable climate, unpredictability of access may be enhanced by greater effects of shifting winds on unconsolidated ice. Our results indicate the importance of having a range of potential feeding areas throughout the migration corridor to ensure prey availability in all years. Spatial planning of nearshore industrial development in the Arctic, including commercial shipping, pipeline construction, and the risk of released oil, should consider these effects of high environmental variability on the adequacy of habitats targeted for conservation.

  10. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-12-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  11. The intriguing relationship between coiling direction and reproductive mode in benthic foraminifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Rao, A

    direction changes. The relationship between mode of reproduction and coiling directions in benthic foraminifera is explored. Benthic foraminiferal species Cavarotalia annectens (Paarker & Jones) in 58 samples obtained from a core off Karwar, west coast...

  12. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to

  13. Climate Change and Global Wine Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.V. [Department of Geography, Southern Oregon University, 1250 Siskiyou Blvd, Ashland, Oregon, 97520 (United States); White, M.A. [Department of Aquatic, Watershed, and Earth Resources, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 84322 (United States); Cooper, O.R. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences CIRES, University of Colorado/NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, 80305 (United States); Storchmann, K. [Department of Economics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    From 1950 to 1999 the majority of the world's highest quality wine-producing regions experienced growing season warming trends. Vintage quality ratings during this same time period increased significantly while year-to-year variation declined. While improved winemaking knowledge and husbandry practices contributed to the better vintages it was shown that climate had, and will likely always have, a significant role in quality variations. This study revealed that the impacts of climate change are not likely to be uniform across all varieties and regions. Currently, many European regions appear to be at or near their optimum growing season temperatures, while the relationships are less defined in the New World viticulture regions. For future climates, model output for global wine producing regions predicts an average warming of 2C in the next 50 yr. For regions producing high-quality grapes at the margins of their climatic limits, these results suggest that future climate change will exceed a climatic threshold such that the ripening of balanced fruit required for existing varieties and wine styles will become progressively more difficult. In other regions, historical and predicted climate changes could push some regions into more optimal climatic regimes for the production of current varietals. In addition, the warmer conditions could lead to more poleward locations potentially becoming more conducive to grape growing and wine production.

  14. The impact of sediment bioturbation by secondary organisms on metal bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity to target organisms in benthic bioassays: Implications for sediment quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remaili, Timothy M.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Amato, Elvio D.; Spadaro, David A.; Jarolimek, Chad V.; Jolley, Dianne F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioturbation alters the properties of sediments and modifies contaminant bioavailability to benthic organisms. These naturally occurring disturbances are seldom considered during the assessment of sediment quality. We investigated how the presence (High bioturbation) and absence (Low bioturbation) of a strongly bioturbating amphipod within three different sediments influenced metal bioavailability, survival and bioaccumulation of metals to the bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. The concentrations of dissolved copper decreased and manganese increased with increased bioturbation. For copper a strong correlation was observed between increased bivalve survival (53–100%) and dissolved concentrations in the overlying water. Increased bioturbation intensity resulted in greater tissue concentrations for chromium and zinc in some test sediments. Overall, the results highlight the strong influence that the natural bioturbation activities from one organism may have on the risk contaminants pose to other organisms within the local environment. The characterisation of field-based exposure conditions concerning the biotic or abiotic resuspension of sediments and the rate of attenuation of released contaminants through dilution or readsorption may enable laboratory-based bioassay designs to be adapted to better match those of the assessed environment. - Highlights: • Bioturbation intensity modifies metal exposure and outcomes of sediment bioassays. • Sediment fluxes of Cu decrease and Mn and Zn increase with increased bioturbation. • Strong correlations between bioaccumulated and dissolved Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. • Weak correlations between bioaccumulated and particulate metals. - This study investigated the impact of sediment bioturbation intensity on metal bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms, and the implications of this to toxicity test design.

  15. ADKAR MODEL VS. QUALITY MANAGEMENT CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana Boca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted through different countries to identify dimensions and antecedents of buyer-seller relationships quality. In light of the findings dimensions of relationship quality have emerged: mutual trust, partners’ commitment in the relationship, cooperation and creativity and innovation. Also, the research identifies several key success factors in business relationships that are grouped into different categories: factors related to relational behaviours and factors related to characteristics of the offer. These results serve as valuable indicators, allowing managers to evaluate, adjust and develop their relationships marketing strategies. The ADKAR model provides a tool for improving the connection between individual performance, organizational change management and business results. This study provides a significant contribution to the relationship quality literature and present few ideas for future management in a new manufacture vision for MANU-FUTURE.

  16. History of benthic research in the English Channel: From general patterns of communities to habitat mosaic description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2015-06-01

    Benthic studies in the English Channel (EC), a shallow megatidal and epicontinental sea, began in the 1960s and 1970s with the work of teams led by Norman Holme (UK) and Louis Cabioch (F). During this period, benthic sampling was mainly qualitative, i.e. using a device such as the 'Rallier du Baty' dredge in the case of the French team and a modified anchor dredge in the case of the British team. Studies were focused on acquiring knowledge of the main distributions of benthic communities and species. Surveys on the scale of the whole EC led to the recognition of general features and two main patterns were identified: 1) the role of hydrodynamics on the spatial distribution of sediment, benthic species and communities; 2) the presence of a west-east climatic gradient of faunal impoverishment. Benthic studies in the 1980s-1990s were focused on the beginning of the implementation of long-term survey at a limited number of sites to identify seasonal and multi-annual changes. In the first decade of the 2000s, the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive to define the Ecological Quality Status of marine environments increased the need to acquire better information of the structure and functioning of benthic communities, since benthic species and habitats were recognised as good indicators of human pressure on marine ecosystems. Faced with the increase of human maritime activities, the appearance of invasive species and the need to preserve sensitive marine habitats, benthic studies have been focused on developing a 'toolkit' to help in the decision-making and planning for both sound governance and sustainable management of marine resources and human activities in the English Channel. Multidisciplinary approaches were used to differentiate habitats in a more precise detail. Both indirect (side-scan sonar, ROV) and direct (grab sampling with benthos identification and grain-size analyses) approaches were used and

  17. Rapid ecological assessment of benthic indicators of water quality: a successful capacity-building experience for Brazilian postgraduate students in ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available Rapid Ecological Assessment protocols are important tools for the training of postgraduate students, as well as the collection of data on poorly-known and protected areas with the potential for the preservation of water supplies for urban areas. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of water quality and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in two sub-basins at the Mata do Junco Wildlife Refuge in the Brazilian state of Sergipe. The collection of data in the field, laboratory processing, and the interpretation and discussion of data were conducted in groups by students from two postgraduate programmes in Ecology and Conservation (UFMG and UFS, personnel of the state environment agency (SEMARH, school teachers from the local town of Capela, and members of the reserve's voluntary fire brigade. The results of the assessment were organised, analysed, and presented at the reserve headquarters in the form of posters, for the development of environmental education activities with pupils from local schools, as well as contributing to a SEMARH seminar. Samples were characterised by distinct taxonomic compositions and diversity, as confirmed by MDS and additive partitioning of diversity analyses. The gravel substrate presented the lower mean taxonomic richness in each sampling unit (a1 = 28%, while the average difference among samples (b1 diversity was elevated for both substrates (39% for leaf litter, 41% for gravel, reflecting the pronounced variation among samples, even adjacent ones within the same stream. Diversity between streams was lower in the case of leaf litter in comparison with gravel (b2 = 21 and 31%, respectively. A total of 57 fish specimens were collected with a predominance of individuals of the orders Characiformes (62% and Perciformes (21%. This rapid ecological assessment confirmed the importance of the conservation unit and emphasised the need for its continuation, given its importance for the maintenance of water

  18. Species diversity variations in Neogene deep-sea benthic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some species of benthic foraminifera are sensitive to changes in water mass properties whereas others are sensitive to organic fluxes and deep-sea oxygenation. Benthic faunal diversity has been found closely linked to food web, bottom water oxygen levels, and substrate and water mass stability. The present study is ...

  19. Evaluation of some Physicochemical Parameters and Benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    studied to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on this man-made lake by collecting surface water and benthic samples. ... activities like domestic and industrial (Banetti and. Garrido, 2010). ... of organic matter and also in assessing the quality of ... Ogun River. ... wastes waters from washing of clothes, sewage.

  20. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer (km) south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2014. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974, and serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. 

  1. What happened to gray whales during the Pleistocene? The ecological impact of sea-level change on benthic feeding areas in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Pyenson

    Full Text Available Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how.We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity.Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their primary feeding ground by employing generalist filter-feeding modes

  2. Ways that Social Change Predicts Personal Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Leung, Kwok

    2010-01-01

    A notable way that social change affects personal quality of life would rely on the person's experience with social change. This experience may influence societal quality of life and quality of work life, which may in turn affect personal quality of life. Additionally, the experience of social change is possibly less detrimental to personal…

  3. Late Glacial–Holocene record of benthic foraminiferal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Verma

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... influence of oxygen-rich Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Keywords. Paleontology; benthic ..... nent changes at millennial scale are noticed during certain intervals ...... become environmental change? The proxy record of ...

  4. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community

  5. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a

  6. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area

  7. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Parchaso, Francis; Pearson, Sarah; Stewart, Robin; Turner, Mathew; Barasch, David; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2017-10-30

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in south San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2016. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974. A major focus of the report is an integrated description of the 2016 data within the context of the longer, multi-decadal dataset. This dataset supports the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994.Significant reductions in silver and copper concentrations in sediment and M. petalum occurred at the site in the 1980s following the implementation by PARWQCP of advanced wastewater treatment and source control measures. Since the 1990s, concentrations of these elements appear to have stabilized at concentrations somewhat above (silver) or near (copper) regional background concentrations Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2016, concentrations of silver and copper in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. This record suggests that legacy contamination and regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of silver and copper, as well as other elements of

  8. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...... contains papers which cover other themes thus continuing with the spirit of the meetings in the Nordic Benthological Society (NORBS) by being an open forum for exchanging knowledge on all aspects of benthic ecology. Overall, we feel the proceeding contains a wide selection of very interesting papers...... representing the state-of-the-art of benthic ecology research within, and to a lesser degree, outside the Nordic countries. We wish to thank all the authors for their inspirational contributions to the proceeding, but we feel that a special thanks is due to the invited speakers for their readiness to produce...

  9. Composition and dynamic of benthic macroinvertebrates community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the purpose to analyze the taxonomic composition, the structure of benthic macroinvertebrates community and the composite ... differences relative to the spatial and temporal variation in the taxonomic composition. ... changes in the structure of macroinvertebrates community ... 2007) with an annual growth rate of 2.4% rely.

  10. BRACKISH MARSH BENTHIC MICROFAUNA AND PALEOENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES DURING THE LAST 6000 YEARS AT THE COASTAL PLAIN OF MARATHON (SE GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA V.TRIANTAPHYLLOU

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study, based mainly on the analysis of foraminifers and ostracodes, provides evidence of paleoenvironmental changes on the coastal plain of Marathon (E. Greece during the last 6.000 yrs. Three sedimentary units -lagoonal formations - were recognized and identified as A, B and C. They range in time between before 5500BP-3500BP, 3500BP-2500BP and 2500BP-recent, respectively. The study of the brackish marsh microfauna of the Marathon plain Holocene sediments reveals the presence, during the last 5500 yrs., of three distinct biofacies in the sedimentary units already established. Alternating mesohaline - oligohaline (MO, oligohaline - fresh water (OFW and mesohaline - oligohaline to oligohaline - fresh water (MO-OFW biofacies in the framework of the sedimentary units indicate a general trend landward along the plain suggesting a slowing of sea-level rise probably correlated with a relevant tectonic uplift. One prominent feature of this study is the clarification of the ecological preference of the species Trichohya1us aguayoi (Bermudez, 1935, which is dominant in oligohaline conditions under an influence of fresh water input (salinity less than 15 ‰. 

  11. 14 CFR 21.147 - Changes in quality control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in quality control system. 21.147 Section 21.147 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... quality control system. After the issue of a production certificate, each change to the quality control...

  12. Benthic-pelagic coupling: effects on nematode communities along southern European continental margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Pape

    Full Text Available Along a west-to-east axis spanning the Galicia Bank region (Iberian margin and the Mediterranean basin, a reduction in surface primary productivity and in seafloor flux of particulate organic carbon was mirrored in the in situ organic matter quantity and quality within the underlying deep-sea sediments at different water depths (1200, 1900 and 3000 m. Nematode standing stock (abundance and biomass and genus and trophic composition were investigated to evaluate downward benthic-pelagic coupling. The longitudinal decline in seafloor particulate organic carbon flux was reflected by a reduction in benthic phytopigment concentrations and nematode standing stock. An exception was the station sampled at the Galicia Bank seamount, where despite the maximal particulate organic carbon flux estimate, we observed reduced pigment levels and nematode standing stock. The strong hydrodynamic forcing at this station was believed to be the main cause of the local decoupling between pelagic and benthic processes. Besides a longitudinal cline in nematode standing stock, we noticed a west-to-east gradient in nematode genus and feeding type composition (owing to an increasing importance of predatory/scavenging nematodes with longitude governed by potential proxies for food availability (percentage of nitrogen, organic carbon, and total organic matter. Within-station variability in generic composition was elevated in sediments with lower phytopigment concentrations. Standing stock appeared to be regulated by sedimentation rates and benthic environmental variables, whereas genus composition covaried only with benthic environmental variables. The coupling between deep-sea nematode assemblages and surface water processes evidenced in the present study suggests that it is likely that climate change will affect the composition and function of deep-sea nematodes.

  13. Air quality and climate change co-benefits in Durban

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between air quality and climate change provides a scientific basis for developing integrative policies. Emission control measures implemented can have varying counteracting influences, simultaneously affecting air quality pollutants...

  14. Changing professional autonomy through quality development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    An analysis of quality development i helath care in Denmark and Norway and a discussion of the reactions of the medical professions.......An analysis of quality development i helath care in Denmark and Norway and a discussion of the reactions of the medical professions....

  15. Downstream impacts of dams: shifts in benthic invertivorous fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzotti, Rafaela Vendrametto; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, Angelo A.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Impoundments alter connectivity, sediment transport and water discharge in rivers and floodplains, affecting recruitment, habitat and resource availability for fish including benthic invertivorous fish, which represent an important link between primary producers and higher trophic levels in tropical aquatic ecosystems. We investigated long-term changes to water regime, water quality, and invertivorous fish assemblages pre and post impoundment in three rivers downstream of Porto Primavera Reservoir in south Brazil: Paraná, Baía and Ivinhema rivers. Impacts were distinct in the Paraná River, which is fully obstructed by the dam, less evident in the Baía River which is partially obstructed by the dam, but absent in the unimpounded Ivinhema River. Changes in water regime were reflected mainly as changes in water-level fluctuation with little effect on timing. Water transparency increased in the Paraná River post impoundment but did not change in the Baía and Ivinhema rivers. Changes in fish assemblages included a decrease in benthic invertivorous fish in the Paraná River and a shift in invertivorous fish assemblage structure in the Baía and Paraná rivers but not in the unimpounded Ivinhema River. Changes in water regime and water transparency, caused by impoundment, directly or indirectly impacted invertivorous fish assemblages. Alterations of fish assemblages following environmental changes have consequences over the entire ecosystem, including a potential decrease in the diversity of mechanisms for energy flow. We suggest that keeping existing unimpounded tributaries free of dams, engineering artificial floods, and intensive management of fish habitat within the floodplain may preserve native fish assemblages and help maintain functionality and ecosystem services in highly impounded rivers.

  16. ADKAR MODEL VS. QUALITY MANAGEMENT CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Gratiela Dana Boca

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted through different countries to identify dimensions and antecedents of buyer-seller relationships quality. In light of the findings dimensions of relationship quality have emerged: mutual trust, partners’ commitment in the relationship, cooperation and creativity and innovation. Also, the research identifies several key success factors in business relationships that are grouped into different categories: factors related to relational behaviours and factors related t...

  17. Temporal variability of live (stained benthic foraminiferal faunas in a river-dominated shelf – Faunal response to rapid changes of the river influence (Rhône prodelta, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Legrand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the French research project CHACCRA (Climate and Human-induced Alterations in Carbon Cycling at the River-seA connection, living (rose Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera were investigated at two stations (24 and 67 m depth in the Rhône prodelta (NW Mediterranean, Gulf of Lions. The aim of this study was to precise the response of benthic foraminiferal faunas to temporal changes of the Rhône River inputs (e.g. organic and terrigeneous material. Each site was sampled in April 2007, September 2007, May 2008 and December 2008, permitting to observe foraminiferal faunas of the 63–150 and >150 μm size fractions under a wide range of environmental conditions. Obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition were observed during the four investigated periods at the shallowest Station A located in the close vicinity of the Rhône River mouth. After major Rhône River flood events, different colonisation stages were observed with foraminiferal faunas responding with an opportunistic strategy few days to weeks after the creation of a peculiar sedimentary environment (Leptohalysis scottii, May 2008 or high organic matter supplies (Ammonia tepida, December 2008. Under more stable conditions, relatively diverse and equilibrated faunas grew in the sediments. Species benefited from noticeable input of riverine phytodetritus to the sediment during spring bloom conditions (April 2007; e.g. Bolivina dilatata, Nonionella stella, Stainforthia fusiformis, or high amounts of still bio-available organic matter under more oligotrophic conditions (September 2007; e.g. Ammonia tepida, Psammosphaera fusca. The reduced influence of the Rhône River input at the farther Station N led to less contrasted environmental conditions during the four sampling periods, and so to less obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition. During reduced riverine influence (i.e. low Rhône discharge, species able to feed on fresh phytodetritus (e

  18. Modelling benthic biophysical drivers of ecosystem structure and biogeochemical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicholas; Bruggeman, Jorn; Lessin, Gennadi; Allen, Icarus

    2016-04-01

    The fate of carbon deposited at the sea floor is ultimately decided by biophysical drivers that control the efficiency of remineralisation and timescale of carbon burial in sediments. Specifically, these drivers include bioturbation through ingestion and movement, burrow-flushing and sediment reworking, which enhance vertical particulate transport and solute diffusion. Unfortunately, these processes are rarely satisfactorily resolved in models. To address this, a benthic model that explicitly describes the vertical position of biology (e.g., habitats) and biogeochemical processes is presented that includes biological functionality and biogeochemical response capturing changes in ecosystem structure, benthic-pelagic fluxes and biodiversity on inter-annual timescales. This is demonstrated by the model's ability to reproduce temporal variability in benthic infauna, vertical pore water nutrients and pelagic-benthic solute fluxes compared to in-situ data. A key advance is the replacement of bulk parameterisation of bioturbation by explicit description of the bio-physical processes responsible. This permits direct comparison with observations and determination of key parameters in experiments. Crucially, the model resolves the two-way interaction between sediment biogeochemistry and ecology, allowing exploration of the benthic response to changing environmental conditions, the importance of infaunal functional traits in shaping benthic ecological structure and the feedback the resulting bio-physical processes exert on pore water nutrient profiles. The model is actively being used to understand shelf sea carbon cycling, the response of the benthos to climatic change, food provision and other societal benefits.

  19. Quality Climate Change Professional Development Translates into Quality Climate Change Education (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Perhaps one of the reasons we have so many climate change deniers in the United States is that to them climate change is not occurring. This is a valid claim about climate change deniers considering that the effects of climate change in the mid-latitudes are quite subtle as compared to those found in low-latitude and high-latitude regions. A mid-latitude classroom teacher is saddled with the challenge of enlightening students about our changing climate and empowering students to assist in making necessary lifestyle changes, all the while the students don't understand the urgency in doing so. Quality climate change data and resources from the Polar Regions and low latitudes, as well as connections to researchers from these regions help to bridge the understanding of our changing climate from the extreme latitudes to the mid-latitudes. Connecting science teachers with data, resources, and researchers is one way of ensuring our mid-latitude students understand the urgency in taking appropriate actions to adapt, mitigate, and show resilience. This presentation will highlight a few of the many impacts of an authentic research experience for teachers that not only provides teachers with data, resources, and researchers, but changes the way a science teacher teaches where the methods they use mirror the methods used by scientists. National projects like PolarTREC connect educators with the science of climate change as well as the reality of impacts of climate change. For example, research expeditions in the Arctic and in Antarctica connect teachers with the content and practices of climate change science preparing them to replicate their experiences with their students. A PolarTREC experience does not end with the close of the expedition. Teachers continue their connections with the program through their educator network, the integration of PolarTREC resources into their curriculums, and communications with their principal investigators either virtually or with school

  20. Global modelling of river water quality under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Franssen, Wietse H. P.; Yearsley, John R.

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will pose challenges on the quality of freshwater resources for human use and ecosystems for instance by changing the dilution capacity and by affecting the rate of chemical processes in rivers. Here we assess the impacts of climate change and induced streamflow changes on a selection of water quality parameters for river basins globally. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and a newly developed global water quality module for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. The modelling framework was validated using observed records of streamflow, water temperature, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand for 1981-2010. VIC and the water quality module were then forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 to study water quality trends and identify critical regions (hotspots) of water quality deterioration for the 21st century.

  1. Quality criteria for phase change materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Nuno; Abrantes, João C.C.; Frade, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Selection criteria of phase change materials for representative applications. • Selection criteria based on reliable solutions for latent heat transfer. • Guidelines for the role of geometry and heat transfer mechanisms. • Performance maps based on PCM properties, operating conditions, size and time scales. - Abstract: Selection guidelines are primary criterion for optimization of materials for specific applications in order to meet simultaneous and often conflicting requirements. This is mostly true for technologies and products required to meet the main societal needs, such as energy. In this case, gaps between supply and demand require strategies for energy conversion and storage, including thermal storage mostly based on phase change materials. Latent heat storage is also very versatile for thermal management and thermal control by allowing high storage density within narrow temperature ranges without strict dependence between stored thermal energy and temperature. Thus, this work addressed the main issues of latent heat storage from a materials selection perspective, based on expected requirements of applications in thermal energy storage or thermal regulation. Representative solutions for the kinetics of latent heat charge/discharge were used to derive optimization guidelines for high energy density, high power, response time (from fast response to thermal inertia), etc. The corresponding property relations were presented in graphical forms for a wide variety of prospective phase change materials, and for wide ranges of operating conditions, and accounting for changes in geometry and mechanisms.

  2. Air Quality: its impact on climate change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available immediate and local impacts on human health and ecosystems, whereas the effects of the greenhouse gases are more long-term, as they are able to absorb sunlight and thus contribute toward long-term changes in surface temperatures and have impacts...

  3. Regional monitoring of temporal changes in groundwater quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broers, H.P.; Grift, B. van der

    2004-01-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are expected to affect groundwater quality by changing the loads of nutrients and salts in recharging groundwater, but regional monitoring networks installed to register the changes often fail to detect them and interpretation of trend analysis results is difficult.

  4. The impact of an industrial effluent on the water quality, submersed macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates in a dammed river of Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Cristina; Camargo, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    This research was conducted in the middle Duratón River (Central Spain), in the vicinity of Burgomillodo Reservoir. An industrial effluent enters the river 300 m downstream from the dam. Fluoride and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the effluent, these levels being to some extent affected by differential water releases from the dam. The community of submersed macrophytes exhibited slighter responses and, accordingly, lower discriminatory power than the community of benthic macroinvertebrates, this indicating that metrics and indices based on macroinvertebrates may be more suitable for the biological monitoring of water pollution and habitat degradation in dammed rivers receiving industrial effluents. However, in relation to fluoride bioaccumulation at the organism level, macrophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton pectinatus) were as suitable bioindicators of fluoride pollution as macroinvertebrates (Ancylus fluviatilis and Pacifastacus leniusculus). Fluoride bioaccumulation in both hard and soft tissues of these aquatic organisms could be used as suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution (even lower than 1 mg F(-)L(-1)) in freshwater ecosystems. Echinogammarus calvus exhibited a great sensitivity to the toxicity of fluoride ions, with a 96 h LC₅₀ of 7.5 mg F(-)L(-1) and an estimated safe concentration of 0.56 mg F(-)L(-1). The great capacity of E. calvus to take up and retain fluoride during exposures to fluoride ions would be a major cause of its great sensitivity to fluoride toxicity. It is concluded that the observed fluoride pollution might be partly responsible for the absence of this native amphipod downstream from the industrial effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of pelagic-benthic coupling in structuring littoral benthic communities at Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea and in the Straits of Magellan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In Antarctic and peri-Antarctic regions, benthic communities are persistent in time and show high biomass and large numbers of individuals, mainly consisting of suspension and deposit feeders. In fact, apart from recruitment, the major factor structuring these communities is the high flow of organic matter from the pelagic domain to the bottom, representing an important energy source for the benthic organisms. The aim of this paper is to review, compile and compare the data from earlier investigations in Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea and the Straits of Magellan, in order to come to a more general conclusion about the role of the pelagic-benthic coupling in structuring littoral benthic communities in southern coastal areas. Few measurements of flux rates and the biochemical composition of the sinking particles occurring in Antarctic and peri-Antarctic shallow waters are available, but a compilation of our own data and others allows a comparison of these two systems. The different environmental conditions between Antarctica and the Straits of Magellan lead to differences in the origin of the particulate organic matter and in its biochemical composition, and consequently in the coupling between pelagic and benthic domains. At Terra Nova Bay the summer particulate matter shows a high labile fraction of a good food value: its flux has been evaluated at about 0.67 g m-2d-1. Conversely, the Straits of Magellan show multi-structured ecosystems where the quality and quantity of the organic matter flux towards the bottom change according to the local geomorphology and current dynamics. Moreover, the three-dimensional assemblages of suspension-feeders, so common in Antarctic shallow waters, seem to be absent in the Magellan area. In particular sponges, gorgonarians and bryozoans play a secondary role inside the Straits of Magellan, where polychaetes (60% and molluscs (9-10% are dominant on soft bottoms, and where they reach high values in density and biomass

  6. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  7. The Economic Value of Changes in Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    Water quality is from both a European and Danish perspective challenged by private use of the resource. The public good characteristics of the resource require that regulation should internalize the non-market values of water quality, in order to reach an optimal level from a welfare economic...... perspective. Valuation using stated preference techniques to value changes in ecosystem services has been widely used to estimate values of water quality. However, heterogeneity in values exists across different groups in the population. The objective of this PhD-thesis is to explore two different kinds...... of preference heterogeneity, when valuing changes in water quality. The PhD thesis consists of four papers all related to heterogeneity in the public preferences for water quality improvements. Papers referred to as 1, 2 and 3 are based on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) on water quality improvements...

  8. Louisiana waterthrush and benthic macroinvertebrate response to shale gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Frantz, Mack W.; Becker, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Because shale gas development is occurring over large landscapes and consequently is affecting many headwater streams, an understanding of its effects on headwater-stream faunal communities is needed. We examined effects of shale gas development (well pads and associated infrastructure) on Louisiana waterthrush Parkesia motacilla and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 12 West Virginia headwater streams in 2011. Streams were classed as impacted (n = 6) or unimpacted (n = 6) by shale gas development. We quantified waterthrush demography (nest success, clutch size, number of fledglings, territory density), a waterthrush Habitat Suitability Index, a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol habitat index, and benthic macroinvertebrate metrics including a genus-level stream-quality index for each stream. We compared each benthic metric between impacted and unimpacted streams with a Student's t-test that incorporated adjustments for normalizing data. Impacted streams had lower genus-level stream-quality index scores; lower overall and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness; fewer intolerant taxa, more tolerant taxa, and greater density of 0–3-mm individuals (P ≤ 0.10). We then used Pearson correlation to relate waterthrush metrics to benthic metrics across the 12 streams. Territory density (no. of territories/km of stream) was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores; greater density of all taxa and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa; and greater biomass. Clutch size was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores. Nest survival analyses (n = 43 nests) completed with Program MARK suggested minimal influence of benthic metrics compared with nest stage and Habitat Suitability Index score. Although our study spanned only one season, our results suggest that shale gas development affected waterthrush and benthic communities in the headwater streams we studied. Thus, these ecological effects of

  9. Changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the physicochemical and microbial quality of wastewater from a ... different points of a treatment plant and bacterial isolates were obtained from them. ... The biological oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, turbidity, ...

  10. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  11. National Benthic Infaunal Database (NBID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NBID is a quantitative database on abundances of individual benthic species by sample and study region, along with other synoptically measured environmental...

  12. Benthic fauna of mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    distribution of benthic communities in mangrove environment is governEd. by tidal amplitude, light penetration, nature of substratum and distance from the sea. The littoral zone, neritic zone, Barnacle-oyster zone, Uca zone, Polychaeta zone have been delineated...

  13. Modelling the regional effects of climate change on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, F.; Meleux, F.

    2007-01-01

    The life cycle of pollutants is affected by chemical as well as meteorological factors, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, solar radiation. Therefore, climatic changes induced by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases may be expected to have significant effects on air quality. Because of the spatial variability of the pollutant emissions and climate-change signals, these effects are particularly relevant at the regional to local scales. This paper first briefly reviews modelling tools and methodologies used to study regional climate-change impacts on air quality. Patterns of regional precipitation, temperature, and sea-level changes emerging from the latest set of general circulation model projections are then discussed. Finally, the specific case of climate-change effects on summer ozone concentrations over Europe is presented to illustrate the potential impacts of climate change on pollutant amounts. It is concluded that climate change is an important factor that needs to be taken into account when designing future pollution-reduction policies. (authors)

  14. Anticipated water quality changes in response to climate change and potential consequences for inland fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Todd, Andrew S.; Murphy, Margaret H.; Lomnicky, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Healthy freshwater ecosystems are a critical component of the world's economy, with a critical role in maintaining public health, inland biological diversity, and overall quality of life. Globally, our climate is changing, with air temperature and precipitation regimes deviating significantly from historical patterns. Healthy freshwater ecosystems are a critical component of the world's economy, with a critical role in maintaining public health, inland biological diversity, and overall quality of life. Globally, our climate is changing, with air temperature and precipitation regimes deviating significantly from historical patterns. Changes anticipated with climate change in the future are likely to have a profound effect on inland aquatic ecosystems through diverse pathways, including changes in water quality. In this brief article, we present an initial discussion of several of the water quality responses that can be anticipated to occur within inland water bodies with climate change and how those changes are likely to impact fishes.

  15. A decline in benthic foraminifera following the deepwater horizon event in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T; Romero, Isabel C; Brooks, Gregg R; Hastings, David W; Larson, Rebekka A; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from three sites (1000-1200 m water depth) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from December 2010 to June 2011 to assess changes in benthic foraminiferal density related to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event (April-July 2010, 1500 m water depth). Short-lived radioisotope geochronologies (²¹⁰Pb, ²³⁴Th), organic geochemical assessments, and redox metal concentrations were determined to relate changes in sediment accumulation rate, contamination, and redox conditions with benthic foraminiferal density. Cores collected in December 2010 indicated a decline in density (80-93%). This decline was characterized by a decrease in benthic foraminiferal density and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rate (BFAR) in the surface 10 mm relative to the down-core mean in all benthic foraminifera, including the dominant genera (Bulimina spp., Uvigerina spp., and Cibicidoides spp.). Cores collected in February 2011 documented a site-specific response. There was evidence of a recovery in the benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR at the site closest to the wellhead (45 NM, NE). However, the site farther afield (60 NM, NE) recorded a continued decline in benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR down to near-zero values. This decline in benthic foraminiferal density occurred simultaneously with abrupt increases in sedimentary accumulation rates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, and changes in redox conditions. Persistent reducing conditions (as many as 10 months after the event) in the surface of these core records were a possible cause of the decline. Another possible cause was the increase (2-3 times background) in PAH's, which are known to cause benthic foraminifera mortality and inhibit reproduction. Records of benthic foraminiferal density coupled with short-lived radionuclide geochronology and organic geochemistry were effective in quantifying the benthic response and will continue to be a valuable tool in determining the long

  16. Fertilization of Earth Ponds. III: Effects on Benthic Macro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic fertilizers in form of cow and chicken manure were applied in oligotrophic or unproductive pond water over a period of one year to stimulate the production of benthic macro invertebrates for the benefit of trout culture, while maintaining adequate water quality. Development of aquatic macrophytes during both ...

  17. Application of quality assurance to a company in change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, G.F.; Smith, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of change, particularly in the field of quality assurance, is examined for NNC, an engineering design, project management and consultancy company formed from the industrial group responsible for nuclear power station construction in the United Kingdom. The role of the company has changed over the past six years moving from being a single supplier for turnkey cost-plus nuclear power station projects to competing in the open market for contracts in diverse nuclear and non-nuclear projects. Changes in working practices needed to accommodate new business roles has been driven, in part, by the development and application of the company's quality system, described in this article. (UK)

  18. Survival under stress : benthic foraminiferal patterns and Cenozoic biotic crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    A principal conclusion of this thesis is, that benthic foraminifera are excellent recorders of paleoenvironments and paleoenvironmental change. Insight in their community structure, and changes in this through time, is still increasing and will add to their usefulness in the reconstruction of past

  19. Survival under stress : benthic foraminiferal patterns and Cenozoic biotic crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    A principal conclusion of this thesis is, that benthic foraminifera are excellent recorders of paleoenvironments and paleoenvironmental change. Insight in their community structure, and changes in this through time, is still increasing and will add to their usefulness in the reconstruction of

  20. Benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway using foraminiferal metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the salmon industry necessitates the development of fast and accurate tools to assess its environmental impact. Macrobenthic monitoring is commonly used to measure the impact of organic enrichment associated with salmon farm activities. However, classical benthic monitoring can...... of macrofauna-based benthic monitoring. Here, we tested the application of foraminiferal metabarcoding to benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway. We analysed 140 samples of eDNA and environmental RNA (eRNA) extracted from surface sediment samples collected at 4 salmon farming sites in Norway. We sequenced...... of Foraminifera as bioindicators of organic enrichment associated with salmon farming. The foraminiferal diversity increased with the distance to fish cages, and metabarcoding provides an assessment of the ecological quality comparable to the morphological analyses. The foraminiferal metabarcoding approach...

  1. [Effects of cascading hydropower dams operation on the structure and distribution pattern of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Manwan Reservoir, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Peng; Dong, Shi Kui; Peng, Ming Chun; Wu, Xuan; Zhou, Fang; Yu, Yin

    2017-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are one of the biological groups in aquatic ecosystem most sensitive to the habitat change and degradation, and can be a biological indicator for the aquatic ecosystem change and succession in cascading hydropower dam reservoir. The middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River are key spot for international biodiversity conservation and ecological studies on the effects of cascading hydropower dam exploitation. In this study, the reservoir of Manwan hydropower dam, the first dam in Lancang-Mekong river main stream, was selected as the study site. The benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled in 2011 and 2016 respectively. Meanwhile, the survey data before impounding (natural river, 1996) and early stage of single dam (1997) were collected to conduct the overall analysis for structure, distribution pattern and evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. The results showed that the dominant biological group was gradually changed from the Oligochaeta and Insecta to the Mollusca. Along the longitudinal gradient, the density and biomass of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were remarkably increased in reservoir, especially in the lacustrine zone. As for the functional feeding group, the predator and gatherer-collector changed into filter-collector predominantly in lacustrine zone. With the cascading dams operation, the biotic index indicated that the water quality of reservoir in 2016 was better than in 2011. The evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Manwan Reservoir was related to the operation of Xiaowan dam in the upper reach, the hydrological regime and siltation in the reservoir, and would continue with dynamic changes with the operation of the cascading hydropower dam.

  2. Relationship between benthic foraminifera and sediment in the estuarine complex of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.

    Two indices of community association were used to elucidate the relationship between changes in species composition of benthic foraminifera and changes in the grain size composition of the sediment in estuarine complex of Goa. The degree...

  3. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  4. Landsat change detection can aid in water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, H. C.; Steele, K. F.; Waite, W. P.; Shinn, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Comparison between Landsat-1 and -2 imagery of Arkansas provided evidence of significant land use changes during the 1972-75 time period. Analysis of Arkansas historical water quality information has shown conclusively that whereas point source pollution generally can be detected by use of water quality data collected by state and federal agencies, sampling methodologies for nonpoint source contamination attributable to surface runoff are totally inadequate. The expensive undertaking of monitoring all nonpoint sources for numerous watersheds can be lessened by implementing Landsat change detection analyses.

  5. Benthic foraminifera baseline assemblages from a coastal nearshore reef complex on the central Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie; Perry, Chris; Smithers, Scott; Morgan, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    Declining water quality due to river catchment modification since European settlement (c. 1850 A.D.) represents a major threat to the health of coral reefs on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), particularly for those located in the coastal waters of the GBR's inner-shelf. These nearshore reefs are widely perceived to be most susceptible to declining water quality owing to their close proximity to river point sources. Despite this, nearshore reefs have been relatively poorly studied with the impacts and magnitudes of environmental degradation still remaining unclear. This is largely due to ongoing debates concerning the significance of increased sediment yields against naturally high background sedimentary regimes. Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as tools for monitoring environmental and ecological change on coral reefs. On the GBR, the majority of studies have focussed on the spatial distributions of contemporary benthic foraminiferal assemblages. While baseline assemblages from other environments (e.g. inshore reefs and mangroves) have been described, very few records exist for nearshore reefs. Here, we present preliminary results from the first palaeoecological study of foraminiferal assemblages of nearshore reefs on the central GBR. Cores were recovered from the nearshore reef complex at Paluma Shoals using percussion techniques. Recovery was 100%, capturing the entire Holocene reef sequence of the selected reef structures. Radiocarbon dating and subsequent age-depth modelling techniques were used to identify reef sequences pre-dating European settlement. Benthic foraminifera assemblages were reconstructed from the identified sequences to establish pre-European ecological baselines with the aim of providing a record of foraminiferal distribution during vertical reef accretion and against which contemporary ecological change may be assessed.

  6. Climate change and water quality in the Great Lakes Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Great Lakes Basin is subjected to several stresses, such as land use changes, chemical contamination, nutrient over-enrichment, alien invasive species, and acid precipitation. Climate change is now added to this list. The Water Quality Board was asked to provide advice concerning the impacts of climate change on the water quality of the Great Lakes and on how to address the issue. A White Paper was commissioned by the Board to address four key questions: (1) what are the Great Lakes water quality issues associated with climate change, (2) what are potential impacts of climate change on beneficial uses, (3) how might impacts vary across the Great Lakes region, and (4) what are the implications for decision making. The conclusions and findings of the White Paper were then discussed at a workshop held in May 2003. Part 1 of the document provides an executive summary. The advice of the Water Quality Board was based on the findings of the White Paper and presented in Part 2. Part 3 presented the White Paper, while a summary of the workshop was provided in Part 4. A presentation on cross border tools and strategies was also presented by a workshop participant.

  7. High dietary quality of non-toxic cyanobacteria for a benthic grazer and its implications for the control of cyanobacterial biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consu...

  8. Long-Term Changes in the Water Quality and Macroinvertebrate Communities of a Subtropical River in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical rivers support a highly diverse array of benthic macroinvertebrates. In this study, by combining historical data and new data, we identified specific changes in the Guanlan River, in South China, from 1981 to 2011, and evaluated the effectiveness of an ecological restoration project under highly polluted conditions. From 1981 to 2011, the water quality in the Guanlan River underwent three major stages. With the deterioration of water quality, there was an overall decrease in the species number of macroinvertebrates in the Guanlan River, an increase in macroinvertebrate density, and a reduction of the biodiversity, and a reduction of functional feeding groups. In 2011, after five years of comprehensive remediation, the Guanlan River was somewhat improved. Macroinvertebrate biodiversity in the middle reach of the Guanlan River, where a key ecological restoration engineering project was implemented, did not differ significantly from other sites. This finding indicates that the effectiveness of ecological restoration measures in highly polluted rivers, particularly at the reach-scale, is very limited and even ineffective.

  9. Impact of Dynamics of Planned Change on Employees Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we determined the impact of organizational planned change programmes on the quality of worklife (QWL) of employees. The study involved four organizations selected from both the private and public sector establishments in Port Harcourt. Two organizations were randomly selected from each sector.

  10. Quality Changes During Long Term Farmers’ Stock Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2012, U.S. annual peanut production has increased 44% from an average of 2.6 million MT compared with 1.8 million MT (1997 and 2012). This production increase has resulted in longer storage times between harvest and shelling. A study was conducted to observe the changes in quality of farmers...

  11. Changes in the quality of zobo beverages produced from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality changes in zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdarifa during storage and the effects of extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) alone or in combination with refrigeration at 6C were evaluated for six (6) weeks duration. Results shows that the total viable bacterial count increased from 0.9 ± 0.01 log10 cfu/ml to ...

  12. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  13. The quality of political news in a changing media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    What do ongoing changes in the media environment, notably the perceived popularization of news and the shift towards individualized online media, mean for political news quality, both in terms of what it is, as well as how we measure it? This dissertation firstly argues, based on a literature review

  14. How to Sustain Change and Support Continuous Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Samuel A; McQuillan, Rory; Harel, Ziv; Weizman, Adam V; Thomas, Alison; Nesrallah, Gihad; Bell, Chaim M; Chan, Christopher T; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-05-06

    To achieve sustainable change, quality improvement initiatives must become the new way of working rather than something added on to routine clinical care. However, most organizational change is not maintained. In this next article in this Moving Points in Nephrology feature on quality improvement, we provide health care professionals with strategies to sustain and support quality improvement. Threats to sustainability may be identified both at the beginning of a project and when it is ready for implementation. The National Health Service Sustainability Model is reviewed as one example to help identify issues that affect long-term success of quality improvement projects. Tools to help sustain improvement include process control boards, performance boards, standard work, and improvement huddles. Process control and performance boards are methods to communicate improvement results to staff and leadership. Standard work is a written or visual outline of current best practices for a task and provides a framework to ensure that changes that have improved patient care are consistently and reliably applied to every patient encounter. Improvement huddles are short, regular meetings among staff to anticipate problems, review performance, and support a culture of improvement. Many of these tools rely on principles of visual management, which are systems transparent and simple so that every staff member can rapidly distinguish normal from abnormal working conditions. Even when quality improvement methods are properly applied, the success of a project still depends on contextual factors. Context refers to aspects of the local setting in which the project operates. Context affects resources, leadership support, data infrastructure, team motivation, and team performance. For these reasons, the same project may thrive in a supportive context and fail in a different context. To demonstrate the practical applications of these quality improvement principles, these principles are

  15. Benthic macroinvertebrate community and chlorophyll a (chl-a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    consequences of climate change are some of the most visible warning signals ... present; spatial and temporal mobility of species is quite restricted, hence .... taxonomic groups using suitable identification manuals ... describe the structure and composition of benthic .... pollution respond to polluted environment by increase.

  16. Historical data reveal 30-year persistence of benthic fauna associations in heavily modified waterbody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Callaway

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline surveys form the cornerstone of coastal impact studies where altered conditions, for example through new infrastructure development, are assessed against a temporal reference state. They are snapshots taken before construction. Due to scarcity of relevant data prior to baseline surveys long-term trends can often not be taken into account. Particularly in heavily modified waterbodies this would however be desirable to control for changes in anthropogenic use over time as well as natural ecological variation. Here, the benthic environment of an industrialized embayment was investigated (Swansea Bay, Wales, UK where it is proposed to build a tidal lagoon that would generate marine renewable energy from the tidal range. Since robust long-term baseline data was not available, the value of unpublished historical benthos information from 1984 by a regional water company was assessed with the aim to improve certainty about the persistence of current benthic community patterns. A survey of 101 positions in 2014 identified spatially discrete benthic communities with areas of high and low diversity. Habitat characteristics including sediment properties and the proximity to a sewage outfall explained 17-35% of the variation in the community structure. Comparing the historical information from 1984 with 2014 revealed striking similarity in the benthic communities between those years, not just in their spatial distribution but also to a large extent in the species composition. The 30-year-old information confirmed spatial boundaries of discrete species associations and pinpointed a similar diversity hotspot. A group of five common species was found to be particularly persistent over time (Nucula nitidosa, Spisula elliptica, Spiophanes bombyx, Nephtys hombergii, Diastylis rathkei. According to the Infauna Quality Index (IQI linked to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD the average ecological status for 2014 was ‘moderate’, but eleven samples

  17. How changing quality management influenced PGME accreditation: a focus on decentralization and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Nesibe; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H; Paternotte, Emma; Schreuder, Bas; Scheele, Fedde

    2017-06-02

    Evaluating the quality of postgraduate medical education (PGME) programs through accreditation is common practice worldwide. Accreditation is shaped by educational quality and quality management. An appropriate accreditation design is important, as it may drive improvements in training. Moreover, accreditors determine whether a PGME program passes the assessment, which may have major consequences, such as starting, continuing or discontinuing PGME. However, there is limited evidence for the benefits of different choices in accreditation design. Therefore, this study aims to explain how changing views on educational quality and quality management have impacted the design of the PGME accreditation system in the Netherlands. To determine the historical development of the Dutch PGME accreditation system, we conducted a document analysis of accreditation documents spanning the past 50 years and a vision document outlining the future system. A template analysis technique was used to identify the main elements of the system. Four themes in the Dutch PGME accreditation system were identified: (1) objectives of accreditation, (2) PGME quality domains, (3) quality management approaches and (4) actors' responsibilities. Major shifts have taken place regarding decentralization, residency performance and physician practice outcomes, and quality improvement. Decentralization of the responsibilities of the accreditor was absent in 1966, but this has been slowly changing since 1999. In the future system, there will be nearly a maximum degree of decentralization. A focus on outcomes and quality improvement has been introduced in the current system. The number of formal documents striving for quality assurance has increased enormously over the past 50 years, which has led to increased bureaucracy. The future system needs to decrease the number of standards to focus on measurable outcomes and to strive for quality improvement. The challenge for accreditors is to find the right

  18. Distribution and habitat use of the Missouri River and Lower Yellowstone River benthic fishes from 1996 to 1998: A baseline for fish community recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Arab, A.

    2011-01-01

    Past and present Missouri River management practices have resulted in native fishes being identified as in jeopardy. In 1995, the Missouri River Benthic Fishes Study was initiated to provide improved information on Missouri River fish populations and how alterations might affect them. The study produced a baseline against which to evaluate future changes in Missouri River operating criteria. The objective was to evaluate population structure and habitat use of benthic fishes along the entire mainstem Missouri River, exclusive of reservoirs. Here we use the data from this study to provide a recent-past baseline for on-going Missouri River fish population monitoring programmes along with a more powerful method for analysing data containing large percentages of zero values. This is carried out by describing the distribution and habitat use of 21 species of Missouri River benthic fishes based on catch-per-unit area data from multiple gears. We employ a Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson model expanded to include continuous measures of habitat quality (i.e. substrate composition, depth, velocity, temperature, turbidity and conductivity). Along with presenting the method, we provide a relatively complete picture of the Missouri River benthic fish community and the relationship between their relative population numbers and habitat conditions. We demonstrate that our single model provides all the information that is often obtained by a myriad of analytical techniques. An important advantage of the present approach is reliable inference for patterns of relative abundance using multiple gears without using gear efficiencies.

  19. Agents for change: nonphysician medical providers and health care quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Nathan A; Mcmillen, Marvin A; Gould, James S

    2015-01-01

    Quality medical care is a clinical and public health imperative, but defining quality and achieving improved, measureable outcomes are extremely complex challenges. Adherence to best practice invariably improves outcomes. Nonphysician medical providers (NPMPs), such as physician assistants and advanced practice nurses (eg, nurse practitioners, advanced practice registered nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives), may be the first caregivers to encounter the patient and can act as agents for change for an organization's quality-improvement mandate. NPMPs are well positioned to both initiate and ensure optimal adherence to best practices and care processes from the moment of initial contact because they have robust clinical training and are integral to trainee/staff education and the timely delivery of care. The health care quality aspects that the practicing NPMP can affect are objective, appreciative, and perceptive. As bedside practitioners and participants in the administrative and team process, NPMPs can fine-tune care delivery, avoiding the problem areas defined by the Institute of Medicine: misuse, overuse, and underuse of care. This commentary explores how NPMPs can affect quality by 1) supporting best practices through the promotion of guidelines and protocols, and 2) playing active, if not leadership, roles in patient engagement and organizational quality-improvement efforts.

  20. Benthic status of near-shore fishing grounds in the central Philippines and associated seahorse densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, J E; Samoilys, M A; Meeuwig, J J; Villongco, Z A D; Vincent, A C J

    2007-09-01

    Benthic status of 28 near-shore, artisanal, coral reef fishing grounds in the central Philippines was assessed (2000-2002) together with surveys of the seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Our measures of benthic quality and seahorse densities reveal some of the most degraded coral reefs in the world. Abiotic structure dominated the fishing grounds: 69% of the benthos comprised rubble (32%), sand/silt (28%) and dead coral (9%). Predominant biotic structure included live coral (12%) and Sargassum (11%). Rubble cover increased with increasing distance from municipal enforcement centers and coincided with substantial blast fishing in this region of the Philippines. Over 2 years, we measured a significant decrease in benthic 'heterogeneity' and a 16% increase in rubble cover. Poor benthic quality was concomitant with extremely low seahorse densities (524 fish per km(2)). Spatial management, such as marine reserves, may help to minimize habitat damage and to rebuild depleted populations of seahorses and other reef fauna.

  1. A preliminary study of an eastern Mediterranean coastal ecosystem: Summer Resorts and Benthic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. REIZOPOULOU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether coastal benthic communities are affected by tourist activities along the coast, which persist for a limited time period. The analysis of benthic macrofauna is based on the ecological parameters (quantitative analyses as well as on the ecological identity of the species (qualitative analyses. Microbial contamination and some population statistics are correlated with ecological parameters. The disturbance of benthic communities in the vicinity of summer resorts is summarized by a reduction in species number and dominance of opportunistic species characteristic of disturbed and polluted environments. It is found that community diversity and evenness of distribution decrease with the deterioration of water quality, expressed as grade of microbial contamination, which implies that benthic community is also a significant element in assessing the quality of coastal waters. The above parameters were statistically negatively correlated with the number of tourists.

  2. Environmental Drivers of Benthic Flux Variation and Ecosystem Functioning in Salish Sea and Northeast Pacific Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rénald Belley

    Full Text Available The upwelling of deep waters from the oxygen minimum zone in the Northeast Pacific from the continental slope to the shelf and into the Salish Sea during spring and summer offers a unique opportunity to study ecosystem functioning in the form of benthic fluxes along natural gradients. Using the ROV ROPOS we collected sediment cores from 10 sites in May and July 2011, and September 2013 to perform shipboard incubations and flux measurements. Specifically, we measured benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients to evaluate potential environmental drivers of benthic flux variation and ecosystem functioning along natural gradients of temperature and bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations. The range of temperature and dissolved oxygen encountered across our study sites allowed us to apply a suite of multivariate analyses rarely used in flux studies to identify bottom water temperature as the primary environmental driver of benthic flux variation and organic matter remineralization. Redundancy analysis revealed that bottom water characteristics (temperature and dissolved oxygen, quality of organic matter (chl a:phaeo and C:N ratios and sediment characteristics (mean grain size and porosity explained 51.5% of benthic flux variation. Multivariate analyses identified significant spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes, demonstrating key differences between the Northeast Pacific and Salish Sea. Moreover, Northeast Pacific slope fluxes were generally lower than shelf fluxes. Spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes in the Salish Sea were driven primarily by differences in temperature and quality of organic matter on the seafloor following phytoplankton blooms. These results demonstrate the utility of multivariate approaches in differentiating among potential drivers of seafloor ecosystem functioning, and indicate that current and future predictive models of organic matter remineralization and ecosystem functioning of soft-muddy shelf and

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across American Samoa in...

  4. Ecotoxicological effect of grounded MV River Princess on the intertidal benthic organisms off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sivadas, S.; Goltekar, R.; Clemente, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Sawant, R.; DeSilva, C.; Sarkar, A.; Ansari, Z.A.

    –biomass curves showed significant negative impact of TPH on macrofauna. The benthic community structure also showed measurable changes, as there was significant decrease (60%) in the number of species. Given that the microalgal counts were low in sediment...

  5. Bone quality changes associated with aging and disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Adele L; Imbert, Laurianne

    2017-12-01

    Bone quality encompasses all the characteristics of bone that, in addition to density, contribute to its resistance to fracture. In this review, we consider changes in architecture, porosity, and composition, including collagen structure, mineral composition, and crystal size. These factors all are known to vary with tissue and animal ages, and health status. Bone morphology and presence of microcracks, which also contribute to bone quality, will not be discussed in this review. Correlations with mechanical performance for collagen cross-linking, crystallinity, and carbonate content are contrasted with mineral content. Age-dependent changes in humans and rodents are discussed in relation to rodent models of disease. Examples are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), and osteopetrosis in both humans and animal models. Each of these conditions, along with aging, is associated with increased fracture risk for distinct reasons. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Effects of freezing conditions on quality changes in blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuehui; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhao, Dongyu; Zhu, Danshi; Li, Jianrong

    2018-03-12

    Freezing preservation is one of the most effective methods used to maintain the flavour and nutritional value of fruit. This research studied the effects of different freezing conditions, -20 °C, -40 °C, -80 °C, and immersion in liquid nitrogen, on quality changes of freeze-thawed blueberries. The water distribution estimates of blueberries were measured based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis. The pectin content, drip loss, and fruit texture were also detected to evaluate quality changes in samples. The freezing curves of blueberry showed super-cooling points at -20 °C and - 40 °C, whereas super-cooling points were not observed at -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen. After freeze-thaw treatment, the relaxation time of the cell wall water (T 21 ), cytoplasm water and extracellular space (T 22 ), and vacuole water (T 23 ) were significantly shortened compared to fresh samples, which suggested a lower liquidity. Although the freezing speed for samples immersed in liquid nitrogen was faster than other treatments, samples treated at -80 °C showed better quality regarding vacuole water holding, drip loss, and original pectin content retention. This study contributed to understanding how freezing temperature affects the qualities of blueberries. The super-fast freezing rate might injure fruit, and an appropriate freezing rate could better preserve blueberries. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Consequences of increasing hypoxic disturbance on benthic communities and ecosystem functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Villnäs

    Full Text Available Disturbance-mediated species loss has prompted research considering how ecosystem functions are changed when biota is impaired. However, there is still limited empirical evidence from natural environments evaluating the direct and indirect (i.e. via biota effects of disturbance on ecosystem functioning. Oxygen deficiency is a widespread threat to coastal and estuarine communities. While the negative impacts of hypoxia on benthic communities are well known, few studies have assessed in situ how benthic communities subjected to different degrees of hypoxic stress alter their contribution to ecosystem functioning. We studied changes in sediment ecosystem function (i.e. oxygen and nutrient fluxes across the sediment water-interface by artificially inducing hypoxia of different durations (0, 3, 7 and 48 days in a subtidal sandy habitat. Benthic chamber incubations were used for measuring responses in sediment oxygen and nutrient fluxes. Changes in benthic species richness, structure and traits were quantified, while stress-induced behavioral changes were documented by observing bivalve reburial rates. The initial change in faunal behavior was followed by non-linear degradation in benthic parameters (abundance, biomass, bioturbation potential, gradually impairing the structural and functional composition of the benthic community. In terms of ecosystem function, the increasing duration of hypoxia altered sediment oxygen consumption and enhanced sediment effluxes of NH(4(+ and dissolved Si. Although effluxes of PO(4(3- were not altered significantly, changes were observed in sediment PO(4(3- sorption capability. The duration of hypoxia (i.e. number of days of stress explained a minor part of the changes in ecosystem function. Instead, the benthic community and disturbance-driven changes within the benthos explained a larger proportion of the variability in sediment oxygen- and nutrient fluxes. Our results emphasize that the level of stress to the

  8. Benthic macrofaunal structure and secondary production in tropical estuaries on the Eastern Marine Ecoregion of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoli, Lorena B; Bernardino, Angelo F

    2018-01-01

    Tropical estuaries are highly productive and support diverse benthic assemblages within mangroves and tidal flats habitats. Determining differences and similarities of benthic assemblages within estuarine habitats and between regional ecosystems may provide scientific support for management of those ecosystems. Here we studied three tropical estuaries in the Eastern Marine Ecoregion of Brazil to assess the spatial variability of benthic assemblages from vegetated (mangroves) and unvegetated (tidal flats) habitats. A nested sampling design was used to determine spatial scales of variability in benthic macrofaunal density, biomass and secondary production. Habitat differences in benthic assemblage composition were evident, with mangrove forests being dominated by annelids (Oligochaeta and Capitellidae) whereas peracarid crustaceans were also abundant on tidal flats. Macrofaunal biomass, density and secondary production also differed between habitats and among estuaries. Those differences were related both to the composition of benthic assemblages and to random spatial variability, underscoring the importance of hierarchical sampling in estuarine ecological studies. Given variable levels of human impacts and predicted climate change effects on tropical estuarine assemblages in Eastern Brazil, our data support the use of benthic secondary production to address long-term changes and improved management of estuaries in Eastern Brazil.

  9. How Will Air Quality Change in South Asia by 2050?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Barth, Mary C.; Pfister, G. G.; Delle Monache, L.; Lamarque, J. F.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Tilmes, S.; Ghude, S. D.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Naja, M.; Walters, S.

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to unhealthy air causes millions of premature deaths and damages crops sufficient to feed a large portion of the South Asian population every year. However, little is known about how future air quality in South Asia will respond to changing human activities. Here we examine the combined effect of changes in climate and air pollutant emissions projected by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 and RCP6.0 on air quality of South Asia in 2050 using a state-of-the-science Nested Regional Climate model with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem). RCP8.5 and RCP6.0 are selected to represent scenarios of highest and lowest air pollution in South Asia by 2050. NRCM-Chem shows the ability to capture observed key features of variability in meteorological parameters, ozone and related gases, and aerosols. NRCM-Chem results show that surface ozone and particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter will increase significantly by midcentury in South Asia under the RCP8.5 but remain similar to present day under RCP6.0. No RCP suggest an improvement in air pollution in South Asia by midcentury. Under RCP8.5, the frequency of air pollution events is predicted to increase by 20-120 days per year in 2050 compared to the present-day conditions, with particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter predicted to breach the World Health Organization ambient air quality guidelines on an almost daily basis in many parts of South Asia. These results indicate that while the RCP scenarios project a global improvement in air quality, they generally result in degrading air quality in South Asia.

  10. Changing the image of quality assurance in research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melroy, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The traditional image of quality assurance (QA) in a research and development (R and D) institution has been that of paper work. QA was often perceived as focusing on documentation rather than on contributions to productive work. The recent emphasis on regulation by outside groups and independent verification of QA systems has created an opportunity to reevaluate and change this image. The desired change is to create an understanding that when properly utilized, QA is essential to good project management and fully contributes to the success of technical programs. The change is being accomplished by sharpening the definition of QA systems of improved understanding by line organizations, developing a project QA in a structure that allows selective use of the NQA-1 standard, formation of a graded approach that simplifies QA for R and D projects, and an intense campaign to communicate the value of QA to laboratory personnel

  11. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Sustainable Water Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pin Tung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of sustainable water quality management is to keep total pollutant discharges from exceeding the assimilation capacity of a water body. Climate change may influence streamflows, and further alter assimilation capacity and degrade river sustainability. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the effect of climate change on sustainable water quality management and design an early warning indicator to issue warnings on river sustainability. A systematic assessment procedure is proposed here, including a weather generation model, the streamflow component of GWLF, QUAL2E, and an optimization model. The Touchen creek in Taiwan is selected as the study area. Future climate scenarios derived from projections of four global climate models (GCMs and two pollutant discharge scenarios, as usual and proportional to population, are considered in this study. The results indicate that streamflows may very likely increase in humid seasons and decrease in arid seasons, respectively. The reduction of streamflow in arid seasons may further degrade water quality and assimilation capacity. In order to provide warnings to trigger necessary adaptation strategies, an early warning indicator is designed and its 30-year moving average is calculated. Finally, environmental monitoring systems and methods to prioritize adaptation strategies are discussed for further studies in the future.

  12. Changes in Quality of Health Care Delivery after Vertical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Caroline S; Dowd, Bryan; Feldman, Roger

    2015-08-01

    To fill an empirical gap in the literature by examining changes in quality of care measures occurring when multispecialty clinic systems were acquired by hospital-owned, vertically integrated health care delivery systems in the Twin Cities area. Administrative data for health plan enrollees attributed to treatment and control clinic systems, merged with U.S. Census data. We compared changes in quality measures for health plan enrollees in the acquired clinics to enrollees in nine control groups using a differences-in-differences model. Our dataset spans 2 years prior to and 4 years after the acquisitions. We estimated probit models with errors clustered within enrollees. Data were assembled by the health plan's informatics team. Vertical integration is associated with increased rates of colorectal and cervical cancer screening and more appropriate emergency department use. The probability of ambulatory care-sensitive admissions increased when the acquisition caused disruption in admitting patterns. Moving a clinic system into a vertically integrated delivery system resulted in limited increases in quality of care indicators. Caution is warranted when the acquisition causes disruption in referral patterns. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Evaluation of the impact of transportation changes on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titos, G.; Lyamani, H.; Drinovec, L.; Olmo, F. J.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2015-08-01

    Transport regulation at local level for the abatement of air pollution has gained significant traction in the EU. In this work, we analyze the effect of different transportation changes on air quality in two similarly sized cities: Granada (Spain) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Several air pollutants were measured at both sites before and after the implementation of the changes. In Ljubljana, a 72% reduction of local black carbon (BC), from 5.6 to 1.6 μg/m3, was observed after the restriction was implemented. In Granada, statistically significant reductions of 1.3 μg/m3 (37%) in BC and of 15 μg/m3 (33%) in PM10 concentrations were observed after the public transportation re-organization. However, the improvement observed in air quality was very local since other areas of the cities did not improve significantly. We show that closing streets to private traffic, renewal of the bus fleet and re-organization of the public transportation significantly benefit air quality.

  14. Exploring the consequences of climate change for indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, William W

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will affect the concentrations of air pollutants in buildings. The resulting shifts in human exposure may influence public health. Changes can be anticipated because of altered outdoor pollution and also owing to changes in buildings effected in response to changing climate. Three classes of factors govern indoor pollutant levels in occupied spaces: (a) properties of pollutants; (b) building factors, such as the ventilation rate; and (c) occupant behavior. Diversity of indoor conditions influences the public health significance of climate change. Potentially vulnerable subpopulations include not only the young and the infirm but also those who lack resources to respond effectively to changing conditions. Indoor air pollutant levels reflect the sum of contributions from indoor sources and from outdoor pollutants that enter with ventilation air. Pollutant classes with important indoor sources include the byproducts of combustion, radon, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Outdoor pollutants of special concern include particulate matter and ozone. To ensure good indoor air quality it is important first to avoid high indoor emission rates for all pollutants and second to ensure adequate ventilation. A third factor is the use of air filtration or air cleaning to achieve further improvements where warranted. (letter)

  15. Regulation of nitrous oxide emission associated with benthic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    1. A number of freshwater invertebrate species emit N2O, a greenhouse gas that is produced in their gut by denitrifying bacteria (direct N2O emission). Additionally, benthic invertebrate species may contribute to N2O emission from sediments by stimulating denitrification because of their bioirrig......1. A number of freshwater invertebrate species emit N2O, a greenhouse gas that is produced in their gut by denitrifying bacteria (direct N2O emission). Additionally, benthic invertebrate species may contribute to N2O emission from sediments by stimulating denitrification because...... of their bioirrigation behaviour (indirect N2O emission). 2. Two benthic invertebrate species were studied to determine (i) the dependence of direct N2O emission on the preferred diet of the animals, (ii) the regulation of direct N2O emission by seasonally changing factors, such as body size, temperature and NO3...... emitted by benthic invertebrates can be partially consumed in the sediment (E. danica), non-emitting species can still indirectly contribute to total N2O emission from sediment (S. lutaria)....

  16. Benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Barbers Point ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna in the vicinity of the Barbers Point (Honouliuli) ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size...

  17. Benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Sand Island ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna in the vicinity of the Sand Island ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size and sediment...

  18. Estimating benthic secondary production from aquatic insect emergence in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining recountours the Appalachian landscape, buries headwater stream channels, and degrades downstream water quality. The goal of this study was to compare benthic community production estimates, based on seasonal insect emergen...

  19. Marine and coastal environmental education in the context of global climate changes - synthesis and subsidies for ReBentos (Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto S. Berchez

    Full Text Available Abstract As changes in coastal and marine environments are expected to negatively affect Brazilian ecosystems, the importance of Marine Environmental Education (MEE comes to the fore. However, so far only 32 contributions related to this issue have been published in Brazil. The MEE workgroup of ReBentos aims at promoting EE and the communication of marine ecological research to the scholastic public as a whole, as well as to groups which exert an influence on general perception, such as the media, politicians, and scientists. This paper presents an overview of the initiatives of MEE in Brazil, with emphasis on the ReBentos projects and guidelines. The conceptual background of action is based on the Rio'92 Treaty on Environmental Education, thereby implying an MEE with Transdisciplinar, emancipatory and reflexive characteristics, directed to changes in values, principles and attitudes. During the period 2011 to 2015, 10 projects were developed from Alagoas to Santa Catarina States, involving the development, implementation and testing through scientific research of 16 MEE activity-models. The didactic material subsequently produced comprised three books and 21 book-chapters. A public of around 6,500 Conservation Unit visitors, 250 public school teachers and 800 high school students have been impacted to date. To act as monitors and multipliers, 250 undergraduate students and professionals were trained. Research project evaluation generated the publication of nine papers. As a further step, the need for protocol elaboration for each model is placed in evidence, in order to direct and facilitate future initiatives.

  20. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and distribution in the Ayeyarwady continental shelf, Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari Z.A.; Furtado, R.; Badesab, S.; Mehta, P.; Thwin, S.

    water, Myanmar] Introduction Abundance of benthic fauna is one of the biological indices that support the food chain hypothesis of overall productivity in marine ecosystem1. Changes in benthic community may occur on different spatial scale..., biomass and species diversity of macrobenthos was more in the inshore waters than in the offshore areas of Malaysia and Gulf of Thailand. As indicated earlier, a significant amount of the variation in faunal abundances, not unexpectedly, is a function...

  1. Macroinvertebrados bentónicos como indicadores de calidad de agua de ríos del sur de Chile Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality of southern Chile rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO FIGUEROA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La Cuenca Hidrográfica del Río Damas (40°39' S, 72°23' O, presenta una intensa actividad agrícola y ganadera en un 78,2 % de su superficie, lo cual se ha traducido en importantes aportes de nutrientes al ecosistema acuático. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: (a analizar la distribución espacial de la macrofauna bentónica en la cuenca y (b determinar la viabilidad de utilizar el Índice Biótico de Familias (IBF para evaluación de la calidad de las aguas. Los muestreos se realizaron en enero de 1998 con una red Surber (0,09 m², en 15 sitios distribuidos en el curso principal y sus tributarios. Se registró un total de 77 taxa, siendo los grupos más diversos Plecoptera (16 %, Trichoptera (16 %, Diptera (14 % y Ephemeroptera (12 %. Se observó una marcada tendencia a la disminución de riqueza específica desde la cabecera de la cuenca hacia aguas abajo. Las abundancias, biomasas y el IBF, presentaron una tendencia inversa a la riqueza específica. IBF se correlacionó significativa y positivamente con el fósforo total (r² = 0,71, temperatura (r² = 0,66, nitrito (r² = 0,56, conductividad eléctrica (r² = 0,50, demanda biológica de oxígeno (r² = 0,46 y nitrógeno total (r² = 0,46, y negativamente con oxígeno disuelto (r² = 0,53, variables estrechamente asociadas al uso intensivo de fertilizantes en la cuenca. Los resultados sugieren que el IBF es un buen indicador de la calidad de las aguas de los ríos de cuencas agrícolas y ganaderas del sur de ChileThe Damas River Hydrographic Basin (40°39'S, 72°23' W presents an intense agricultural and cattle ranching activities in 78.2 % of its surface, which has resulted in important inputs of nutrients into the aquatic ecosystem. The objectives of this study were: (a to analyze the spatial distribution of the benthic macrofauna in the Damas basin, and (b to determine the feasibility of using the Families Biotic Index (FBI for the evaluation of water quality. The samplings were

  2. Assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates at Nile tilapia production using artificial substrate samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. G. Moura e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomonitoring is a cheap and effective tool for evaluation of water quality, and infer on the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The benthic macroinvertebrates are bioindicators sensitive to environmental changes, and can assist in detecting and preventing impacts such as organic enrichment and imbalance in the food chain. We compared the structure of benthic communities on artificial substrate samplers located in places near and far from net cages for production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Samplers were manufactured with nylon net, using substrates such as crushed stone, gravel, loofah and cattail leaves. Samples were collected after 30 days of colonization, rinsed and then the specimens were identified and quantified. The following metrics were calculated: richness of Operational Taxonomic Units, Margalef richness, abundance of individuals, Shannon index and evenness index. The macrobenthic community structure was strongly modified according to the proximity of the net cages. Metrics showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between near and distant sites, for both periods (dry and rainy seasons. The position of the samplers significantly affected the structure of macroinvertebrate community, as near sites showed higher values for the community metrics, such as richness and diversity. Near sites presented a larger number of individuals, observed both in the dry and rainy seasons, with a predominance of Chironomidae (Diptera in the dry season and Tubificidae (Oligochaeta in the rainy season.

  3. Phytoplankton community indicators of changes associated with dredging in the Tagus estuary (Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This work reports changes in suspended particulate matter, turbidity, dissolved Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass and composition during a 5-month period dredging operation, in a trace element contaminated area of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). Phytoplankton biomass, diatom:other groups ratio, benthic:pelagic diatom ratio, Margalef's, Simpson's diversity, Shannon–Wiever's, and Warwick and Clarke's taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices, and individual taxa were investigated as indicators of dredging induced changes. Significant rise in sediment resuspension and trace element mobilisation caused by dredging influenced the community structure but not the overall biomass. Benthic diatom displacement into the water column maintained species diversity, and therefore, none of the indices highlighted community changes. Contrastingly, diatom:other groups ratio and benthic:pelagic diatom ratio were reliable indicators for the assessment of dredging induced changes. A shift in composition towards species less susceptible to trace elements was observed, disclosing some individual taxa as potential indicators. - Highlights: • Phytoplankton community indicators of dredging induced changes were investigated. • Increased resuspension and trace element mobilisation changed community structure. • Diversity indices unsuitable to detect changes because species richness was maintained. • Diatom:other groups and benthic:pelagic diatom ratios were efficient indicators. • Individual taxa may be potential indicators but require site-specific validation. - Diatom:other groups ratio, benthic:pelagic diatom ratio and individual taxa were identified as efficient indicators for the assessment of water quality changes associated with dredging

  4. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open intertidal areas on the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania. ... it is recommended that conservation efforts along the Tanzanian coast should focus here. Keywords: benthic macrofauna, community structure, littoral zone, Tanganyika, Western Indian Ocean ...

  5. Benthic protists: the under-charted majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Dominik; Dunthorn, Micah; Mahé, Fréderic; Dolan, John R; Audic, Stéphane; Bass, David; Bittner, Lucie; Boutte, Christophe; Christen, Richard; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Decelle, Johan; Edvardsen, Bente; Egge, Elianne; Eikrem, Wenche; Gobet, Angélique; Kooistra, Wiebe H C F; Logares, Ramiro; Massana, Ramon; Montresor, Marina; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pawlowski, Jan; Pernice, Massimo C; Romac, Sarah; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Simon, Nathalie; Richards, Thomas A; Santini, Sébastien; Sarno, Diana; Siano, Raffaele; Vaulot, Daniel; Wincker, Patrick; Zingone, Adriana; de Vargas, Colomban; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2016-08-01

    Marine protist diversity inventories have largely focused on planktonic environments, while benthic protists have received relatively little attention. We therefore hypothesize that current diversity surveys have only skimmed the surface of protist diversity in marine sediments, which may harbor greater diversity than planktonic environments. We tested this by analyzing sequences of the hypervariable V4 18S rRNA from benthic and planktonic protist communities sampled in European coastal regions. Despite a similar number of OTUs in both realms, richness estimations indicated that we recovered at least 70% of the diversity in planktonic protist communities, but only 33% in benthic communities. There was also little overlap of OTUs between planktonic and benthic communities, as well as between separate benthic communities. We argue that these patterns reflect the heterogeneity and diversity of benthic habitats. A comparison of all OTUs against the Protist Ribosomal Reference database showed that a higher proportion of benthic than planktonic protist diversity is missing from public databases; similar results were obtained by comparing all OTUs against environmental references from NCBI's Short Read Archive. We suggest that the benthic realm may therefore be the world's largest reservoir of marine protist diversity, with most taxa at present undescribed. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Will seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) quality change in a warmer ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Vera; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Alves, Ricardo N; Anacleto, Patrícia; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Rosa, Rui; Marques, António

    2017-07-01

    The impacts of climate change on seafood quality, safety and human health are still unknown. The present study investigated the effect of warming on fatty acids and elements content in two tissues (muscle and liver) of the relevant commercial seabass species (Dicentrarchus labrax). After exposing fish to increased seawater temperature for a period of 60days, higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) levels were observed in fish muscle (2.16% increase); whereas lower SFA levels were observed in fish liver (5.42% decrease). On the other hand, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents decreased in both muscle (1.77% and 0.39%, respectively) and liver (10.54% and 8.11%, respectively) of fish subjected to warmer conditions. Additionally, warming promoted changes in fish elemental profiles, leading to significantly higher levels of Cl in the muscle and lower levels of Rb in the liver. Overall, data showed that fatty acids and elemental contents were affected by temperature, though representing small implications to human health. Moreover, this preliminary study highlights the importance of conducting further seafood risk-benefit assessments under climate change contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A conceptual framework for effectively anticipating water-quality changes resulting from changes in agricultural activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Paul D.; Wolock, David M.; Coupe, Richard H.; Roth, Jason L.

    2018-01-10

    Agricultural activities can affect water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems; many water-quality issues originate with the movement of water, agricultural chemicals, and eroded soil from agricultural areas to streams and groundwater. Most agricultural activities are designed to sustain or increase crop production, while some are designed to protect soil and water resources. Numerous soil- and water-protection practices are designed to reduce the volume and velocity of runoff and increase infiltration. This report presents a conceptual framework that combines generalized concepts on the movement of water, the environmental behavior of chemicals and eroded soil, and the designed functions of various agricultural activities, as they relate to hydrology, to create attainable expectations for the protection of—with the goal of improving—water quality through changes in an agricultural activity.The framework presented uses two types of decision trees to guide decision making toward attainable expectations regarding the effectiveness of changing agricultural activities to protect and improve water quality in streams. One decision tree organizes decision making by considering the hydrologic setting and chemical behaviors, largely at the field scale. This decision tree can help determine which agricultural activities could effectively protect and improve water quality in a stream from the movement of chemicals, or sediment, from a field. The second decision tree is a chemical fate accounting tree. This decision tree helps set attainable expectations for the permanent removal of sediment, elements, and organic chemicals—such as herbicides and insecticides—through trapping or conservation tillage practices. Collectively, this conceptual framework consolidates diverse hydrologic settings, chemicals, and agricultural activities into a single, broad context that can be used to set attainable expectations for agricultural activities. This framework also enables

  8. Influence of land-use patterns on benthic diatom communities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of land-use patterns on both diatom community composition and water quality in tropical streams during the dry season. Benthic diatom collections and water quality sampling were done 4 times at 10 sites. A suite of environmental variables that varied with human ...

  9. Metal contamination in benthic macroinvertebrates in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAC Chiba

    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrates have many useful properties that make possible the use of these organisms as sentinel in biomonitoring programmes in freshwater. Combined with the characteristics of the water and sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates are potential indicators of environmental quality. Thus, the spatial occurrence of potentially toxic metals (Al, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni in the water, sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates samples were investigated in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil in the city of São Carlos, São Paulo state, with the aim of verifying the metals and environment interaction with benthic communities regarding bioaccumulation. Hypothetically, there can be contamination by metals in the aquatic environment in the city due to lack of industrial effluent treatment. All samples were analysed by the USEPA adapted method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The sub-basin studied is contaminated by toxic metals in superficial water, sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates. The Bioaccumulation Factor showed a tendency for metal bioaccumulation by the benthic organisms for almost all the metal species. The results show a potential human and ecosystem health risk, contributing to metal contamination studies in aquatic environments in urban areas.

  10. Quality changes of Antarctic krill powder during long term storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, Inge

    2017-01-01

    of packaging in vacuum was observed. The stability was assessed by changes in concentrations of lipid classes, antioxidants, pyrroles and lipid, and Strecker-derived volatiles. Some degradation occurred during storage at room temperature. Thus, a minor increase in volatiles, an increase in free fatty acids...... and a concomitant decrease in antioxidants, tocopherol, and astaxanthin was observed. In addition, there was a minor decrease in phospholipids and n-3 fatty acids; however, storage at vacuum improved the oxidative stability of krill powder. Practical applications: For the use of krill powder in human nutrition......, it is important, that the quality and stability is sufficiently high to retain the nutritional value during storage. This study contributes with information about the stability during storage up to 12 months at room temperature and the effect of packaging the powder in vacuum. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba...

  11. Benthic boundary layer modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed to study the factors which control the height of the benthic boundary layer in the deep ocean and the dispersion of a tracer within and directly above the layer. This report covers tracer clouds of horizontal scales of 10 to 100 km. The dispersion of a tracer has been studied in two ways. Firstly, a number of particles have been introduced into the flow. The trajectories of these particles provide information on dispersion rates. For flow conditions similar to those observed in the abyssal N.E. Atlantic the diffusivity of a tracer was found to be 5 x 10 6 cm 2 s -1 for a tracer within the boundary layer and 8 x 10 6 cm 2 s -1 for a tracer above the boundary layer. The results are in accord with estimates made from current meter measurements. The second method of studying dispersion was to calculate the evolution of individual tracer clouds. Clouds within and above the benthic boundary layer often show quite different behaviour from each other although the general structure of the clouds in the two regions were found to have no significant differences. (author)

  12. Influence of climate change on air quality in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoeur, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is the result of high emissions of pollutants (and pollutant precursors) and unfavorable meteorological conditions. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is one of the pollutants of great concern for human health. Every year, a repeated or continuous exposure to such particles is responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the concerned populations and leads to premature deaths. Climate change is expected to impact meteorological variables (temperature, wind, precipitation,...). Those variables will influence numerous factors, which will affect air quality (emissions, precipitation scavenging, gas/particle equilibrium,...). A large body of studies have already investigated the effects of climate change on ozone, whereas only a few have addressed its effects on PM 2.5 concentrations, especially over Europe. This is the subject we investigate in this thesis. Large-scale circulation is closely linked to surface meteorological variables. Therefore, it is expected that it will impact PM 2.5 concentrations too. In this thesis, we develop a statistical algorithm to estimate future PM 2.5 concentrations from present PM 2.5 observations, selected meteorological variables and tools to represent this circulation (weather regimes and weather types). The lack of daily observations of PM 2.5 and its components over Europe prevents us to used observations. Consequently, we have created a pseudo-observed PM 2.5 data set, by using the Polyphemus/Polair3D air quality Chemical-Transport Model. Both operational and dynamic evaluations were conducted against EMEP measurements, to ensure that the influence of meteorological variables on PM 2.5 concentrations is correctly reproduced by the model. As far as we know, this dynamic evaluation of an air quality model with respect to meteorology is the first conducted to date. Future PM 2.5 concentrations display an increase over the U.K., northern France, Benelux, and in the Balkans, and a decrease over northern

  13. Evaluation of Water Quality Change of Brackish Lake in Snowy Cold Regions Accompanying Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Nakatsugawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study addresses evaluation of water quality change of brackish lake based on the estimation of hydrological quantities resulting from long-term hydrologic process accompanying climate change. For brackish lakes, such as Lake Abashiri in Eastern Hokkaido, there are concerns about water quality deterioration due to increases in water temperature and salinity. For estimating some hydrological quantities in the Abashiri River basin, including Lake Abashiri, we propose the following methods: 1) MRI-NHRCM20, a regional climate model based on the Representative Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC AR5, 2) generalized extreme value distribution for correcting bias, 3) kriging adopted variogram for downscaling and 4) Long term Hydrologic Assessment model considering Snow process (LoHAS). In addition, we calculate the discharge from Abashiri River into Lake Abashiri by using estimated hydrological quantities and a tank model, and simulate impacts on water quality of Lake Abashiri due to climate change by setting necessary conditions, including the initial conditions of water temperature and water quality, the pollution load from the inflow rivers, the duration of ice cover and salt pale boundary. The result of the simulation of water quality indicates that climate change is expected to raise the water temperature of the lake surface by approximately 4°C and increase salinity of surface of the lake by approximately 4psu, also if salt pale boundary in the lake raises by approximately 2-m, the concentration of COD, T-N and T-P in the bottom of the lake might increase. The processes leading to these results are likely to be as follows: increased river water flows in along salt pale boundary in lake, causing dynamic flow of surface water; saline bottom water is entrained upward, where it mixes with surface water; and the shear force acting at salt pale boundary helps to increase the supply of salts from bottom saline water to the surface water. In the future, we will

  14. Hexabromocyclododecane affects benthic-pelagic coupling in an experimental ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, Clare; Näslund, Johan; Hansen, Joakim; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina; Sundström, Bo; Gustafsson, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is an additive brominated flame retardant and a recognized PBT chemical. However, little is known about its effects on coastal species, and even less on ecosystem effects. We investigated the dose–response effects of HBCDD over 8 months in 1000 L experimental mesocosms assembled from coastal Baltic Sea ecosystem components. HBCDD was added via spiked plankton material and a range of structural and functional endpoints were measured during the experiment. Increasing HBCDD concentration decreased the biomass of large Macoma balthica, resulting in a decreased recirculation of nutrients to the water. Changes in plankton communities were also observed, either due to direct toxic HBCDD effects or indirect via changes in benthic-pelagic coupling of nutrients. Such complex ecosystem responses can only be quantified and understood by using realistic experimental set-ups, and including knowledge of system-specific ecological interactions. This is the first study of HBCDD effects on ecosystem level. - Graphical abstract: HBCDD caused direct effects on the population structure of sediment-dwelling Macoma balthica and on the plankton community. Indirect HBCDD effects via reduced nutrient remineralization by M. balthica affected nutrient levels in the water, likely leading to additional changes in plankton community structure. Seasonal effects were large and affected the whole system including nutrient dynamics as well as plankton community structure. Display Omitted - Highlights: • HBCDD caused effects on benthic population structure and ecosystem function. • Large seasonal effects highlight the importance of using relevant experimental conditions. • A realistic exposure pathway was applied by using HBCDD enriched plankton material. • This is the first study of HBCDD effects on ecosystem level, coupling benthic and pelagic communities. - HBCDD has a dose-dependent effect on benthic-pelagic coupling.

  15. Does proximity to urban centres affect the dietary regime of marine benthic filter feeders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Eleonora; Noyon, Margaux; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2016-02-01

    Threats to marine ecosystems include habitat destruction and degradation of water quality, resulting from land- and ocean-based human activities. Anthropogenic input causing modification of water quality, can affect primary productivity and thus food availability and quality for higher trophic levels. This is especially important for sedentary benthic intertidal communities, which rely on local food availability. We investigated the effect of urbanization on the dietary regime of four species of intertidal filter feeders (three barnacles and one mussel) at sites close to high-density cities and at sites far from heavily urbanized areas using fatty acid and stable isotope techniques. δ15N was significantly higher at urbanized sites compared to their corresponding control sites for all species with few exceptions, while no effect on δ13C was recorded. Barnacle fatty acid profiles were not affected by cities, while mussels from sites close to cities had fatty acid signatures with a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We suggest that the enrichment in δ15N at urbanised sites reflects the influence of anthropogenically derived nitrogen directly linked to wastewater input from domestic and industrial sewage. Linked to this, the high proportion of PUFA in mussels at urbanized sites may reflect the influence of increased nitrogen concentrations on primary production and enhanced growth of large phytoplankton cells. The results indicate that anthropogenic effects can strongly influence the diets of benthic organisms, but these effects differ among taxa. Changes in the diet of such habitat forming species can affect their fitness and survival with potential effects on the populations associated with them.

  16. QUALITY CHANGES OF SARDINES (Sardinella neopilchardus AT INDONESIAN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Ariyani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical countries such as Indonesia, high ambient temperature and a lack of icing cause very rapid spoilage of fish. Leaving fish uniced while waiting for processing is a common practice resulting in lower quality of the end products, and consequently lower price of the products. To study the spoilage pattern of sardines (Sardinella neophilchardus in a tropical region, and to investigate a simple and quick method to judge the degree of spoilage, observations on the deterioration of sardines were carried out by incubating fish in a humidity chamber adjusted to 28-30oC. RH 70-80% for up to 14 h. The changes of sensory attributes based on demerit point score. pH, and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N were monitored to determine the degree of spoilage. Although the appearance of sardines was still bright after 6-h incubation time, fish were not as fresh as those without incubation and the belly and tissue were softened. After incubation time of 10 h, fish showed slight to moderate signs of spoilage with demerit point score of 25 out of the maximum score of 39, and a TVB-N content of 20 mg%N. This is similar to the fish quality commonly used in the commercial production of dried-salted fish in Indonesia. Fish incubated for 12 h or more appeared completely spoiled and were rejected by sensory panel. A high correlation between demerit point score and TVB-N was noted, therefore the demerit point system which was more suitable, quicker, and easier could be used to determine the degree of fish spoilage.

  17. Influence of benthic macrofauna community shifts on ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eKristensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We identify how ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries is affected by shifts in benthic fauna communities. We use the shallow estuary, Odense Fjord, Denmark, as a case study to test our hypotheses that (1 shifts in benthic fauna composition and species functional traits affect biogeochemical cycling with cascading effects on ecological functioning, which may (2 modulate pelagic primary productivity with feedbacks to the benthic system. Odense Fjord is suitable because it experienced dramatic shifts in benthic fauna community structure from 1998 to 2008. We focused on infaunal species with emphasis on three dominating burrow-dwelling polychaetes: the native Nereis (Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis. The impact of functional traits in the form of particle reworking and ventilation on biogeochemical cycles, i.e. sediment metabolism and nutrient dynamics, was determined from literature data. Historical records of summer nutrient levels in the water column of the inner Odense Fjord show elevated concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- (DIN during the years 2004-2006, exactly when the N. diversicolor population declined and A. marina and M. viridis populations expanded dramatically. In support of our first hypothesis, we show that excess NH4+ delivery from the benthic system during the A. marina and M. viridis expansion period enriched the overlying water in DIN and stimulated phytoplankton concentration. The altered benthic-pelagic coupling and stimulated pelagic production may, in support of our second hypothesis, have feedback to the benthic system by changing the deposition of organic material. We therefore advice to identify the exact functional traits of the species involved in a community shift before studying its impact on ecosystem functioning. We also suggest studying benthic community shifts in shallow environments to obtain knowledge about the drivers and controls before exploring deep

  18. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrates community in a hypersaline estuary (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlinda Railly Ferreira Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The estuarine community of benthic macroinvertebrates spatially varies in response to changes in environmental variables in these ecosystems. Understanding this variability helps our understanding the mechanisms structuring these communities. Aim Assess the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in a hypersaline estuary, and to relate to environmental variables that influence the community structure along the estuary. Methods The study was conducted at Tubarão river estuary in May 2015. We sampled two estuarine areas (upper and lower, and in each zone were sampled six points composed of two replicas, one sampled in sandy bottom and the other in muddy bottom. Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates and estuarine environmental variables were collected. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrate community were determined by Distance-based Linear Models analysis. The contribution of individual species to the dissimilarity between the areas and substrate types were determined by analysis of the percentage of similarity. Results The composition of benthic macroinvertebrate community differed between the upper and lower areas, although it was similar between the muddy and sandy bottoms. The variation in the benthic community between areas was mainly related to the influence of salinity in the upper area. In the lower area, the variation of the macroinvertebrates was related to salinity, associated with other variables in the sandy (temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen and muddy (temperature, total dissolved solids and dissolved oxygen substrates. Taxa which contributed most to the dissimilarity between the upper and lower areas were Nereididae (17.89%, Anomalocardia brasiliana (15% and Cirratulidae (10.43%. Conclusions Salinity was the main driver of the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the upper area of the estuary, although in the lower area a set of

  19. Importance of benthic production to fish populations in Lake Mead prior to the establishment of quagga mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, John; Chandra, Sudeep; Rosen, Michael; Wittmann, Marion; Sullivan, Joe; Orsak, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Limnologists recently have developed an interest in quantifying benthic resource contributions to higher-level consumers. Much of this research focuses on natural lakes with very little research in reservoirs. In this study, we provide a contemporary snapshot of the food web structure of Lake Mead to evaluate the contribution of benthic resources to fish consumers. In addition, we document the available food to fishes on soft sediments and changes to the invertebrate community over 2 time periods. Benthic invertebrate food availability for fishes is greater in Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Las Vegas Bay is dominated by oligochaetes, whose biomass increased with depth, while Overton Arm is dominated by chironomids, whose biomass did not change with depth. Diet and isotopic measurements indicate the fish community largely relies on benthic resources regardless of basin (Las Vegas Bay >80%; Overton Arm >92%); however, the threadfin shad likely contribute more to largemouth and striped bass production in Overton Arm versus Las Vegas Bay. A 2-time period analysis, pre and post quagga mussel establishment and during lake level declines, suggests there is no change in the density of benthic invertebrates in Boulder Basin, but there were greater abundances of select taxa in this basin by season and depth than in other basins. Given the potential of alterations as a result of the expansion of quagga mussel and the reliance of the fishery on benthic resources, future investigation of basin specific, benthic processes is recommended.

  20. Do benthic biofilters contribute to sustainability and restoration of the benthic environment impacted by offshore cage finfish aquaculture?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado-Gimenez, F.; Piedecausa, M.A.; Carrasco, C.; Gutierrez, J.M.; Aliaga, V.; Garcia-Garcia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Benthic biofilters were deployed under an offshore fish farm and in control locations. → We checked the farm influence on fouling, wild fish and sediment near the biofilters. → Fouling under the cages used fish farm-derived wastes, but at low efficiency. → Wild fish were more abundant in the biofilters located below the cages. → Despite these clear benefits, sediment quality around the biofilters did not improve. - Abstract: Benthic biofilters were deployed under a cage fish farm and in two reference locations to assess the influence of the farm on the biofilters and the surroundings, as well as to verify the usefulness of this technology as a mitigation tool. The biofilters underneath the farm recruited a fouling community practically identical to that of the control biofilters, which included a variety of trophic strategies. The former showed a higher 15 N enrichment, indicating that fouling beneath the farm was benefiting from the farm waste. The waste retention efficiency was low (0.02 g N m -2 month -1 ) beneath the farm. Benthic biofilters aggregated demersal wild fish around and within them. Pelagic wild fish also frequently used the biofilters beneath the farm, forming compact shoals around them. The increased complexity of the habitat below the fish farm enhanced biodiversity, but this improvement did not lead to the recovery of the sediments around the biofilters.

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Hawaiian...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014 (NCEI Accession 0157759)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  4. Temporal changes in water quality at a childhood leukemia cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1997, 15 cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia and one case of acute myelocytic leukemia have been diagnosed in children and teenagers who live, or have lived, in an area centered on the town of Fallon, Nevada. The expected rate for the population is about one case every five years. In 2001, 99 domestic and municipal wells and one industrial well were sampled in the Fallon area. Twenty-nine of these wells had been sampled previously in 1989. Statistical comparison of concentrations of major ions and trace elements in those 29 wells between 1989 and 2001 using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicate water quality did not substantially change over that period; however, short-term changes may have occurred that were not detected. Volatile organic compounds were seldom detected in ground water samples and those that are regulated were consistently found at concentrations less than the maximum contaminant level (MCL). The MCL for gross-alpha radioactivity and arsenic, radon, and uranium concentrations were commonly exceeded, and sometimes were greatly exceeded. Statistical comparisons using the nonparametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test indicate gross-alpha and -beta radioactivity, arsenic, uranium, and radon concentrations in wells used by families having a child with leukemia did not statistically differ from the remainder of the domestic wells sampled during this investigation. Isotopic measurements indicate the uranium was natural and not the result of a 1963 underground nuclear bomb test near Fallon. In arid and semiarid areas where trace-element concentrations can greatly exceed the MCL, household reverse-osmosis units may not reduce their concentrations to safe levels. In parts of the world where radon concentrations are high, water consumed first thing in the morning may be appreciably more radioactive than water consumed a few minutes later after the pressure tank has been emptied because secular equilibrium between radon and its immediate daughter

  5. Benthic cyanobacteria: A source of cylindrospermopsin and microcystin in Australian drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaget, Virginie; Humpage, Andrew R; Huang, Qiong; Monis, Paul; Brookes, Justin D

    2017-11-01

    Cyanobacteria represent a health hazard worldwide due to their production of a range of highly potent toxins in diverse aquatic environments. While planktonic species have been the subject of many investigations in terms of risk assessment, little is known about benthic forms and their impact on water quality or human and animal health. This study aimed to purify isolates from environmental benthic biofilms sampled from three different drinking water reservoirs and to assess their toxin production by using the following methods: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Microscopic observation of the isolates allowed the identification of various filamentous cyanobacterial genera: Anabaena (benthic form), Calothrix and Nostoc from the Nostocales and Geitlerinema, Leptolyngbya, Limnothrix, Lyngbya, Oxynema, Phormidium and Pseudanabaena representing non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria. The Phormidium ambiguum strain AWQC-PHO021 was found to produce 739 ng/mg of dry weight (d/w) of cylindrospermopsin and 107 ng/mg (d/w) of deoxy-cylindrospermopsin. The Nostoc linckia strain AWQC-NOS001 produced 400 ng/mg (d/w) of a microcystin analogue. This is the first report of hepatotoxin production by benthic cyanobacteria in temperate Australian drinking water reservoirs. These findings indicate that water quality monitoring programs need to consider benthic cyanobacteria as a potential source of toxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Traditional alcoholic beverages of Tanzania: production, quality and changes in quality attributes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüsekwa, A B; Mosha, T C; Laswai, H S; Towo, E E

    2000-03-01

    Traditional alcoholic beverages of Tanzania play an important role in the daily social, economic, nutritional and cultural life of the people. Production, quality and changes in quality attributes during ambient temperature storage were investigated in traditional Tanzanian beers (Mbege and Komoni) and wines (Mnanasi, Wanzuki and Mofru). The quality attributes of the alcoholic beverages indicated that pH levels were in the range of 4.15-4.20 and 3.9-5.5 for the beers and wines respectively. Total, fixed and volatile acidity in the beers were in the range of 0.41-0.62, 0.28-0.38 and 0.06-0.09 g/100 mL respectively while in the wines acidity levels were in the range of 0.23-0.66, 0.13-0.33 and 0.05-0.06 g/100 mL for the total, fixed and volatile acidity respectively. Concentration of total solids in the beers ranged between 7.00 and 12.80 degrees Brix while in the wines ranged between 3.45 and 6.65 degrees Brix. Specific gravity of the beers ranged between 1.0097 and 1.0374 while for wines the specific gravity was lower, ranging between 0.9971 and 0.9989. Alcohol concentration was higher in wines (range 3.84-9.75 g/100 mL) than in beers (range 1.72-2.76 g/100 mL). Storage of the beverages under ambient temperatures for various lengths of time resulted in significant (P Wines were more stable during storage than beers, with Mofru wine being the most stable. The rates of total acid production per hour were Mnanasi (0.0196 g/100 mL), Wanzuki (0.0047 g/100 mL) and Mofru (0.0005 g/100 mL). Use of low brewing technologies involving uncontrolled fermentation, unsanitary conditions and use of rudimentary equipment for processing, packaging and storage resulted in beers and wines of low quality and short shelf-life. To foster commercial exploitation of the products, there is a need to develop appropriate small and medium-level brewing technologies that will improve the quality of the traditional alcoholic beverages and extend their shelf-life through hygienic and controlled

  7. Determining Changes in Groundwater Quality during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, T.; Houlihan, M.; Fakhreddine, S.; Dadakis, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an increasingly prevalent technology for improving the sustainability of freshwater supply. However, recharge water can alter the geochemical conditions of the aquifer, mobilizing contaminants native to the aquifer sediments. Geochemical alterations on deep (>300 m) injection of highly treated recycled wastewater for MAR has received limited attention. We aim to determine how residual disinfectants used in water treatment processes, specifically the strong oxidants chloramine and hydrogen peroxide, affect metal mobilization within deep injection wells of the Orange County Water District. Furthermore, as the treated recharge water has very low ionic strength (44.6 mg L-1 total dissolved solids), we tested how differing concentrations of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride affected metal mobilization within deep aquifers. Continuous flow experiments were conducted on columns dry packed with sediments from a deep injection MAR site in Orange County, CA. The effluent was analyzed for shifts in water quality, including aqueous concentrations of arsenic, uranium, and chromium. Interaction between the sediment and oxic recharge solution causes naturally-occurring arsenopyrite to repartition onto iron oxides. The stability of arsenic on the newly precipitated iron oxides is dependent on pH changes during recharge.

  8. Changing lamp type and position to improve lighting quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anizar; Syahputri, K.; Sari, RM; Rizkya, I.; Hardianti, DA

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the lighting quality on the production floor in a cigarette paper industry by measuring illumination level and luminance. Cigarette paper inspection is performed manually by operators, and the criteria of defects are the cigarette paper has a hole, is rough and dirty. Operators complain that the room is pretty dark, which makes them unable to see clearly the cigarette paper defect. The government of Indonesia Health Ministerial Decree No 1405 The Year 2002 states that illumination level for continuous manual labor is 200 lux. Illumination level is measured for four days at 08.00, 10.00, 12.30, and 14.00 o’clock with 4 in 1 environmental meter. From the measurement result, it is found that using 7 LED lamps of 60 Watts can produce average illumination level of 70 lux. Low illuminance is caused by illumination level that does not meet the need 0f 569.759 lumen. Alternatives that can be used to increase lumen number are changing lamp type and position. One of the possibilities is using 24 LED of 138 Watts set 5.7 meters apart from one another can meet this demand. Another is using 5 LED of 150 Watts installed above the field of work.

  9. How changing quality management influenced PGME accreditation: a focus on decentralization and quality improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdemir, Nesibe; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Paternotte, Emma; Schreuder, Bas; Scheele, Fedde

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the quality of postgraduate medical education (PGME) programs through accreditation is common practice worldwide. Accreditation is shaped by educational quality and quality management. An appropriate accreditation design is important, as it may drive improvements in training.

  10. Examination of water quality changes during transportation of different fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Nemeth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The growth of population is increasing intensively (7.3 billion people in 2015 and it generates growing importance of fish farming. Primarily, fish meat could provide protein requirements for population so more and more attention must be paid to each sections of farming, for example fish transportation. A badly organized transportation technology can significantly reduce high quality stocks which were produced over several years. Deterioration of transport may occur on each fish distinctly. Bacterial or fungal diseases appear either immediately or days later. During our work, changes in several freshwater (peaceful or predator fish species (of different ages were monitored and analyzed during transport. There were two reasons why we examined the main physical and chemical parameters of the water. On one hand, we were curious to know how much the individuals exposed to heavy loads, which we tried to identify with some stress tests. On the other hand, we would develop a national water carrier monitoring system for the practice. Materials and methods Delivery technologies (foil sack and transport tankers used in practice was applied in the experiment of the study in a real road transport. The physical and chemical data were monitored and checked with the use of multiparameter instruments and photometrial tests. Physiological and stress tests were analyzed from blood plasma of each fish, primarily plasma glucose determination was used. Results After analysis of examined fish species and each ages, it is obvious that either short or long delivery times we choose physical and chemical properties of the transport water would change dramatically, even adequate oxygen balance was ensured. Values of individuals exposed to stress were more significant compared to baseline values. Conclusion We could define concrete changes in key parameters of the transport water with the number of realtime transport implementation which is a good help to

  11. Spatial Patterns in Water Quality Changes during Dredging in Tropical Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter; Jones, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Dredging poses a potential risk to tropical ecosystems, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs, filter feeding communities and seagrasses. There is little detailed observational time-series data on the spatial effects of dredging on turbidity and light and defining likely footprints is a fundamental task for impact prediction, the EIA process, and for designing monitoring projects when dredging is underway. It is also important for public perception of risks associated with dredging. Using an extensive collection of in situ water quality data (73 sites) from three recent large scale capital dredging programs in Australia, and which included extensive pre-dredging baseline data, we describe relationships with distance from dredging for a range of water quality metrics. Using a criterion to define a zone of potential impact of where the water quality value exceeds the 80th percentile of the baseline value for turbidity-based metrics or the 20th percentile for the light based metrics, effects were observed predominantly up to three km from dredging, but in one instance up to nearly 20 km. This upper (~20 km) limit was unusual and caused by a local oceanographic feature of consistent unidirectional flow during the project. Water quality loggers were located along the principal axis of this flow (from 200 m to 30 km) and provided the opportunity to develop a matrix of exposure based on running means calculated across multiple time periods (from hours to one month) and distance from the dredging, and summarized across a broad range of percentile values. This information can be used to more formally develop water quality thresholds for benthic organisms, such as corals, filter-feeders (e.g. sponges) and seagrasses in future laboratory- and field-based studies using environmentally realistic and relevant exposure scenarios, that may be used to further refine distance based analyses of impact, potentially further reducing the size of the dredging

  12. Spatial Patterns in Water Quality Changes during Dredging in Tropical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter; Jones, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Dredging poses a potential risk to tropical ecosystems, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs, filter feeding communities and seagrasses. There is little detailed observational time-series data on the spatial effects of dredging on turbidity and light and defining likely footprints is a fundamental task for impact prediction, the EIA process, and for designing monitoring projects when dredging is underway. It is also important for public perception of risks associated with dredging. Using an extensive collection of in situ water quality data (73 sites) from three recent large scale capital dredging programs in Australia, and which included extensive pre-dredging baseline data, we describe relationships with distance from dredging for a range of water quality metrics. Using a criterion to define a zone of potential impact of where the water quality value exceeds the 80th percentile of the baseline value for turbidity-based metrics or the 20th percentile for the light based metrics, effects were observed predominantly up to three km from dredging, but in one instance up to nearly 20 km. This upper (~20 km) limit was unusual and caused by a local oceanographic feature of consistent unidirectional flow during the project. Water quality loggers were located along the principal axis of this flow (from 200 m to 30 km) and provided the opportunity to develop a matrix of exposure based on running means calculated across multiple time periods (from hours to one month) and distance from the dredging, and summarized across a broad range of percentile values. This information can be used to more formally develop water quality thresholds for benthic organisms, such as corals, filter-feeders (e.g. sponges) and seagrasses in future laboratory- and field-based studies using environmentally realistic and relevant exposure scenarios, that may be used to further refine distance based analyses of impact, potentially further reducing the size of the dredging

  13. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9459-7] Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change... entitled, Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi- stressor... vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems across the United States to the potential impacts of...

  14. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  15. Benthic studies in south Gujarat estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govindan, K.; Varshney, P.K.; Desai, B.N.

    Benthic biomass and faunal composition in relation to various environmental conditions of the four South Gujarat estuaries namely the Auranga, Ambika, Purna and Mindola were studied and compared. Mean population density of benthos in Auranga, Ambika...

  16. Benthic carbonate factories of the Phanerozoic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlager, W.

    2003-01-01

    Marine carbonate precipitation occurs in three basic modes: abiotic (or quasi-abiotic), biotically induced, and biotically controlled. On a geologic scale, these precipitation modes combine to form three carbonate production systems, or "factories" in the benthic environment: (1) tropical

  17. Viewpoints on impacts of climate change on soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    soil quality in ecosystems based on modern respiratory approaches. In: Cenci R., Sena F. (eds.) Biodiversity-bioindication to evaluate soil health. European Commission EUR 22245EN, p. 59-64 Dilly O., Blume H.-P., Munch J.C., 2003. Soil microbial activities in Luvisols and Anthrosols during 9 years of region-typical tillage and fertilisation practices in northern Germany. Biogeochemistry 65, 319-339 IPPC 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Solomon, S. et al.) (Cambridge University Press, 2007). Kirschbaum, M.U.F., 1995. The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storage. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27, 753-760 Knorr W., Prentice I.C., House J.I., Holland E.A. 2005. Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon to warming. Nature 433, 298-301 Mamilov, A. Sh., Dilly, O., 2002. Soil microbial eco-physiology as affected by short-term variations in environmental conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34, 1283-1290

  18. Benthic algal vegetation in Isfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Fredriksen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic algal vegetation was investigated at 10 sites in Isfjorden, Svalbard. Five sites were visited during summer 2010 and five during summer 2012. Both the littoral and sublittoral vegetation were sampled, the littoral by hand-picking and use of a throwable rake and the sublittoral using a triangular dredge. A total of 88 different taxa were registered, comprising 17 Chlorophyta, 40 Ochrophyta, 30 Rhodophyta and the Xantophyceae Vaucheria sp. The green algae Ulvaria splendens (Ruprecht Vinogradova was recorded in Svalbard for the first time. Most of the sites consisted of hard bottom substrate, but one site, Kapp Wijk, consisted of loose-lying calcareous red algae (rhodoliths and had species not recorded elsewhere. The sublittoral at the other sites was dominated by kelp. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of the red alga Ceramium virgatum and a dwarf form of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This study provides a baseline for future studies investigating changes in the vegetation due to environmental changes.

  19. The Association of Departmental Quality Infrastructure and Positive Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody E. Hooper MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A vertically and horizontally well-integrated quality improvement team is essential for effective quality data collection and implementation of improvement measures. We outline the quality structure of a large academic pathology department and describe successful projects across multiple divisions made possible by this tightly integrated structure. The physician vice chair for quality organizes departmental quality efforts and provides representation at the hospital level. The department has an independent continuous quality improvement unit and each laboratory of the department has a staff quality improvement representative. Faculty and staff experts have interacted to produce improvements such as accurate container labeling, efficient triage of specimens, and reduction of unnecessary testing. Specialized task forces such as the Courier Task Force are producing concrete recommendations for process improvement. All phases of pathology patient care are represented by faculty and staff who are trained in quality improvement, and each position touches and communicates actively with levels above and below itself. The key to the department’s approach has been the daily attention to quality efforts in all of its activities and the close association of faculty and staff to accomplish the goals of greater efficiency, safety, and cost savings.

  20. Summary Report for the Workshop on Integrating Climate Change Adaption into Air Quality Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past few decades, air quality planners have forecasted future air pollution levels based on information about changing emissions from stationary and mobile sources, population trends, transportation demand, natural sources of emissions, and other pressures on air quality...

  1. Educational Quality, Outcomes Assessment, and Policy Change: The Virginia Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The higher education system in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States provides a case model for how discussions regarding educational quality and assessment of that quality have affected institutions' policy decisions and implementation. Using Levin's (1998) policy analysis framework, this essay explores how assessment of student…

  2. Characterizing Air Quality in a Rapidly Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this paper is to 1) highlight projects collecting large volumes of unique air quality data; 2) explore how the collection of big data fits into the overall picture of air quality management and characterization; 3) provide an update on the E-Enterprise advanced mon...

  3. Climate Change Impacts on US Water Quality using two Models: HAWQS and US Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and freshwater quality are well-linked. Changes in climate result in changes in streamflow and rising water temperatures, which impact biochemical reaction rates and increase stratification in lakes and reservoirs. Using two water quality modeling systems (the Hydr...

  4. Effects of land use change on streamflow and stream water quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to link land cover/use change to water quality in an important water supply coastal catchment. The approach followed a spatial and temporal analysis of historical catchment land use change to assess how changes influenced water quality and river flow in the Touws and Duiwe Rivers, southwestern Cape, ...

  5. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomonitoring programs based on benthic macroinvertebrates are well-established worldwide. Their value, however, depends on the appropriateness of the analytical techniques used. All United States State, benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs were surveyed regarding the purposes of their programs, quality-assurance and quality-control procedures used, habitat and water-chemistry data collected, treatment of macroinvertebrate data prior to analysis, statistical methods used, and data-storage considerations. State regulatory mandates (59 percent of programs), biotic index development (17 percent), and Federal requirements (15 percent) were the most frequently reported purposes of State programs, with the specific tasks of satisfying the requirements for 305b/303d reports (89 percent), establishment and monitoring of total maximum daily loads, and developing biocriteria being the purposes most often mentioned. Most states establish reference sites (81 percent), but classify them using State-specific methods. The most often used technique for determining the appropriateness of a reference site was Best Professional Judgment (86 percent of these states). Macroinvertebrate samples are almost always collected by using a D-frame net, and duplicate samples are collected from approximately 10 percent of sites for quality assurance and quality control purposes. Most programs have macroinvertebrate samples processed by contractors (53 percent) and have identifications confirmed by a second taxonomist (85 percent). All States collect habitat data, with most using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol visual-assessment approach, which requires ~1 h/site. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity are measured in more than 90 percent of programs. Wide variation exists in which taxa are excluded from analyses and the level of taxonomic resolution used. Species traits, such as functional feeding groups, are commonly used (96 percent), as are tolerance values for organic pollution

  6. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was initiated in fall 2005 to assess potential effects on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama following Hurricane Katrina, which struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Bioloxi, Mississippi on August 29...

  7. Food and disturbance effects on Arctic benthic biomass and production size spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Barbara; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Body size is a fundamental biological unit that is closely coupled to key ecological properties and processes. At the community level, changes in size distributions may influence energy transfer pathways in benthic food webs and ecosystem carbon cycling; nevertheless they remain poorly explored in benthic systems, particularly in the polar regions. Here, we present the first assessment of the patterns of benthic biomass size spectra in Arctic coastal sediments and explore the effects of glacial disturbance and food availability on the partitioning of biomass and secondary productivity among size-defined components of benthic communities. The samples were collected in two Arctic fjords off west Spitsbergen (76 and 79°N), at 6 stations that represent three regimes of varying food availability (indicated by chlorophyll a concentration in the sediments) and glacial sedimentation disturbance intensity (indicated by sediment accumulation rates). The organisms were measured using image analysis to assess the biovolume, biomass and the annual production of each individual. The shape of benthic biomass size spectra at most stations was bimodal, with the location of a trough and peaks similar to those previously reported in lower latitudes. In undisturbed sediments macrofauna comprised 89% of the total benthic biomass and 56% of the total production. The lower availability of food resources seemed to suppress the biomass and secondary production across the whole size spectra (a 6-fold decrease in biomass and a 4-fold decrease in production in total) rather than reshape the spectrum. At locations where poor nutritional conditions were coupled with disturbance, the biomass was strongly reduced in selected macrofaunal size classes (class 10 and 11), while meiofaunal biomass and production were much higher, most likely due to a release from macrofaunal predation and competition pressure. As a result, the partitioning of benthic biomass and production shifted towards meiofauna

  8. Trawling disturbance on benthic ecosystems and consequences on commercial species: a northwestern Mediterranean case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Muntadas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trawling is known to disturb benthic communities and habitats, which may in turn indirectly affect populations of commercial species that live in close association with the seabed. The degree of impact on both benthic communities and demersal species depends on the fishing effort level. This may vary over the year because of the fleet dynamics, which are in turn normally driven by the main target species’ life cycle. In this study we describe changes in benthic functional components of a northwestern Mediterranean fishing ground that represents a recruitment area for an important target species (red mullet, Mullus barbatus. This fishing ground experiences a varying intensity of fishing effort over the year and benthic functional components under different levels of trawling were compared with an unfished, control area. Traits related to sexual maturity and life span for infauna and body size and life span for epifauna were found to vary with fishing activity. Potential effects of these changes on ecological functioning and the impact on red mullet population are discussed. The development of fisheries management plans under an ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM requires the links between target species and benthic communities’ disturbance due to fishing practices to be explicitly considered.

  9. Variation in sensitivity of large benthic Foraminifera to the combined effects of ocean warming and local impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Martina; Roberts, T Edward; Pandolfi, John M

    2017-03-23

    Large benthic foraminifera (LBF) are crucial marine calcifiers in coral reefs, and sensitive to environmental changes. Yet, many species successfully colonise a wide range of habitats including highly fluctuating environments. We tested the combined effects of ocean warming, local impacts and different light levels on populations of the common LBF Amphistegina lobifera collected along a cross-shelf gradient of temperature and nutrients fluctuations. We analysed survivorship, bleaching frequency, chlorophyll a content and fecundity. Elevated temperature and nitrate significantly reduced survivorship and fecundity of A. lobifera across populations studied. This pattern was exacerbated when combined with below optimum light levels. Inshore populations showed a consistent resistance to increased temperature and nitrate levels, but all populations studied were significantly affected by light reduction. These findings demonstrated the capacity of some populations of LBF to acclimate to local conditions; nonetheless improvements in local water quality can ultimately ameliorate effects of climate change in local LBF populations.

  10. Changing Diet Quality in China during 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Wang, Hui; Tian, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Currently, under- and over-nutrition problems co-exist in China. However, systematic studies on the diet quality of Chinese residents have been scant. This study described the trend in diet quality of Chinese residents over a recent eight-year period and investigated the relevant influential factors. The data of Chinese adults aged 20–59 years was extracted from 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. The China diet quality index (DQI) was employed to assess the diet quality of Chinese adults. The dietary consumption data of each individual was collected using a 24-h dietary recall and weighed food records implemented for three consecutive days. A mixed ordinary least squares regression model was applied to analyze the factors influencing the DQI scores of Chinese residents. Results showed that the diet quality of Chinese residents increased from 2004 to 2006, followed by a decrease in 2009 and 2011. The income, urbanicity index, and southern dummy were positively associated with DQI scores, whereas the size of household and labor intensity were negative predictors of DQI scores. The DQI scores also varied over BMI values. With an increase of the average income level in the future, the diet quality of Chinese residents is estimated to further improve. Moreover, urbanization could also contribute to reaching a more balanced diet. PMID:28029128

  11. Changing Diet Quality in China during 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Wang, Hui; Tian, Xu

    2016-12-24

    Currently, under- and over-nutrition problems co-exist in China. However, systematic studies on the diet quality of Chinese residents have been scant. This study described the trend in diet quality of Chinese residents over a recent eight-year period and investigated the relevant influential factors. The data of Chinese adults aged 20-59 years was extracted from 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. The China diet quality index (DQI) was employed to assess the diet quality of Chinese adults. The dietary consumption data of each individual was collected using a 24-h dietary recall and weighed food records implemented for three consecutive days. A mixed ordinary least squares regression model was applied to analyze the factors influencing the DQI scores of Chinese residents. Results showed that the diet quality of Chinese residents increased from 2004 to 2006, followed by a decrease in 2009 and 2011. The income, urbanicity index, and southern dummy were positively associated with DQI scores, whereas the size of household and labor intensity were negative predictors of DQI scores. The DQI scores also varied over BMI values. With an increase of the average income level in the future, the diet quality of Chinese residents is estimated to further improve. Moreover, urbanization could also contribute to reaching a more balanced diet.

  12. Sediment monitoring and benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Sand Island ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna and sediment in the vicinity of the Sand Island ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size and...

  13. Sediment Monitoring and Benthic Faunal Sampling Adjacent to the Barbers Point Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna and sediment in the vicinity of the Barbers Point (Honouliuli) ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment...

  14. Multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing of tropical marine benthic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Deepak R.

    Tropical marine benthic habitats such as coral reef and associated environments are severely endangered because of the environmental degradation coupled with hurricanes, El Nino events, coastal pollution and runoff, tourism, and economic development. To monitor and protect this diverse environment it is important to not only develop baseline maps depicting their spatial distribution but also to document their changing conditions over time. Remote sensing offers an important means of delineating and monitoring coral reef ecosystems. Over the last twenty years the scientific community has been investigating the use and potential of remote sensing techniques to determine the conditions of the coral reefs by analyzing their spectral characteristics from space. One of the problems in monitoring coral reefs from space is the effect of the water column on the remotely sensed signal. When light penetrates water its intensity decreases exponentially with increasing depth. This process, known as water column attenuation, exerts a profound effect on remotely sensed data collected over water bodies. The approach presented in this research focuses on the development of semi-analytical models that resolves the confounding influence water column attenuation on substrate reflectance to characterize benthic habitats from high resolution remotely sensed imagery on a per-pixel basis. High spatial resolution satellite and airborne imagery were used as inputs in the models to derive water depth and water column optical properties (e.g., absorption and backscattering coefficients). These parameters were subsequently used in various bio-optical algorithms to deduce bottom albedo and then to classify the benthos, generating a detailed map of benthic habitats. IKONOS and QuickBird multispectral satellite data and AISA Eagle hyperspectral airborne data were used in this research for benthic habitat mapping along the north shore of Roatan Island, Honduras. The AISA Eagle classification was

  15. Influência de um cultivo de camarão sobre o metabolismo bêntico e a qualidade da água Influence of shrimp cultivation on the benthic metabolism and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan de Freitas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Atividades de cultivo de camarão tendem a aumentar a taxa de sedimentação de matéria orgânica nos corpos hídricos receptores de seus efluentes, devido à excessiva produção de produtos de excreção e sobras de ração. Dependendo das condições ambientais, o sistema pode não apresentar condições de autodepuração, gerando um grande acúmulo de nutrientes ao longo da camada sedimentar e intensificação do metabolismo bêntico levando, muitas vezes, o ambiente a um processo de eutrofização e possível situação de anoxia. Utilizaram-se, no presente estudo, incubações in situ com câmaras bentônicas transparentes e opacas, para avaliar o metabolismo bêntico em uma área de cultivo de camarão no estuário da Lagoa dos Patos, RS. Ficou evidente a existência de uma clara interferência do cultivo nos processos de regeneração bêntica de nutrientes, incrementando os fluxos de nitrogênio (na forma de amônio e fósforo (fosfato. Embora a interferência desta atividade se tenha mostrado de abrangência local e temporária (apenas 4 a 5 meses do ano, é conveniente salientar que ela ganha maior importância em locais rasos e de circulação restrita, como é o caso de baías e enseadas, locais em que o cultivo de camarão é desenvolvido no estuário da Lagoa dos Patos.Shrimp farming activities tend to increase the organic matter sedimentation rate, by extreme inputs of excreta products and shrimp food (commercial shrimp diet into the environment. In certain environmental conditions, the auto-depuration system can be surpassed, generating a high production of nutrients at the sedimentary layer as a result of benthic metabolism intensification. Consequently the system can be induced to a eutrophication processes and anoxia. In the present study, in situ incubations with transparent and opaque chambers have been used to evaluate the benthic metabolism in semi-intensive shrimp farming areas in the Patos Lagoon Estuary (pen

  16. Land-based salmon aquacultures change the quality and bacterial degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamjunke, Norbert; Nimptsch, Jorge; Harir, Mourad; Herzsprung, Peter; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Neu, Thomas R.; Graeber, Daniel; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Carlos Reyes, Juan; Woelfl, Stefan; Hertkorn, Norbert

    2017-03-01

    Aquacultures are of great economic importance worldwide but pollute pristine headwater streams, lakes, and estuaries. However, there are no in-depth studies of the consequences of aquacultures on dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and structure. We performed a detailed molecular level characterization of aquaculture DOM quality and its bacterial degradation using four salmon aquacultures in Chile. Fluorescence measurements, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the DOM revealed specific and extensive molecular alterations caused by aquacultures. Aquacultures released large quantities of readily bioavailable metabolites (primarily carbohydrates and peptides/proteins, and lipids), causing the organic matter downstream of all the investigated aquacultures to deviate strongly from the highly processed, polydisperse and molecularly heterogeneous DOM found in pristine rivers. However, the upstream individual catchment DOM signatures remained distinguishable at the downstream sites. The benthic algal biovolume decreased and the bacterial biovolume and production increased downstream of the aquacultures, shifting stream ecosystems to a more heterotrophic state and thus impairing the ecosystem health. The bacterial DOM degradation rates explain the attenuation of aquaculture DOM within the subsequent stream reaches. This knowledge may aid the development of improved waste processing facilities and may help to define emission thresholds to protect sensitive stream ecosystems.

  17. Effects of Management Legacies on Stream Fish and Aquatic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Michael C.; Schultz, Randall D.

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  18. Stable aesthetic standards delusion: changing 'artistic quality' by elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M

    2014-01-01

    The present study challenges the notion that judgments of artistic quality are based on stable aesthetic standards. We propose that such standards are a delusion and that judgments of artistic quality are the combined result of exposure, elaboration, and discourse. We ran two experiments using elaboration tasks based on the repeated evaluation technique in which different versions of the Mona Lisa had to be elaborated deeply. During the initial task either the version known from the Louvre or an alternative version owned by the Prado was elaborated; during the second task both versions were elaborated in a comparative fashion. After both tasks multiple blends of the two versions had to be evaluated concerning several aesthetic key variables. Judgments of artistic quality of the blends were significantly different depending on the initially elaborated version of the Mona Lisa, indicating experience-based aesthetic processing, which contradicts the notion of stable aesthetic standards.

  19. Antioxidant allocation modulates sperm quality across changing social environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Mora, Alfonso; Meniri, Magali; Gning, Ophélie; Glauser, Gaëtan; Vallat, Armelle; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    In promiscuous species, male reproductive success depends on their ability to mate with fertile females and on the fertilizing ability of their sperm. In such species, theory predicts that, owing to a trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory reproductive traits, males with lesser access to females should increase resource investment into those sperm traits that enhance fertilization success-usually referred to as ejaculate quality. This prediction has been validated in several taxa, yet studies on the physiological mechanisms modulating ejaculate quality are lacking. Sperm cells are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress, which impairs male fertility. Therefore, males that better protect their sperm from oxidative stress are expected to achieve higher ejaculate quality. Based on theoretical expectations, and since social dominance is a major determinant of mating opportunity, we predicted that subordinate males should invest more into the antioxidant protection of their sperm in order to achieve higher ejaculate quality. We maintained 60 male and 60 female wild-caught house sparrows Passer domesticus in outdoor aviaries, where we experimentally manipulated male social status to test our predictions. We measured cellular oxidative stress and enzymatic antioxidant activity in blood and sperm both before and after manipulating social ranks. Before manipulating the social status, we found that ejaculate viability correlated with oxidative stress level in sperm, with dominant males producing more oxidized and less viable ejaculates. Further, males at the lower end of the hierarchy produced ejaculates of similar quality to those of dominant males, suggesting that restricted access to resources might limit male reproductive strategies. After experimentally manipulating the social status, males matched their ejaculate quality to their new rank, while increases in antioxidant investment into ejaculates paralleled increases in ejaculate viability. Oxidative stress has been

  20. The changing importance of quality aspects in food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    in the pricing of foods. Five scales from the Food-related Lifestyle instrument (FRL) were used in replication surveys in Germany in 1993 and 1996 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1042), France in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), and the UK in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), measuring the importance of health, price....../quality relation, novelty, organic products, and freshness to consumers' food choices. Trends in the importance of these quality aspects were modeled using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. Results indicate that, contrary to widespread expectations, the importance of healthy...

  1. The changing importance of quality aspects in food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    in the pricing of foods. Five scales from the Food-related Lifestyle instrument (FRL) were used in replication surveys in Germany in 1993 and 1996 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1042), France in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), and the UK in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), measuring the importance of health, price....../quality relation, novelty, organic products, and freshness to consumers' food choices. Trends in the importance of these quality aspects were modeled using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. Results indicate that, contrary to widespread expectations, the importance of healthy...

  2. The impact of climate change on the water quality of the Rhine river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bokhoven, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this research the effect of hydrological extremes on water quality are studied for the Rhine River, in order to assess potential water quality effects of climate change. The water quality of the Rhine was studied for the periods 1975-1977 and 1987-2005. During these periods eight hydrological

  3. 76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ...: EPA is announcing the release of the draft report titled, ``Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and... relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the potential... mailing address, and the document title, ``Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change...

  4. Adapting Buildings for Indoor Air Quality in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change presents many challenges, including the production of severe weather events. These events and efforts to minimize their effects through weatherization can adversely affect indoor environments.

  5. Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Reflection, Criticism, and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingqiang, Zhang; Yongjian, Su

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance in modern higher education is both an accountability-oriented ideology and a technological method. It has also evolved into a increasingly rationalist and professionalized power mechanism. Its advocacy of compliance, technological mythology, and imbalance between power and responsibility are inherent disadvantages of higher…

  6. Total Quality Management: A Mindset and Method to Stimulate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Janet A.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a review of the total quality management movement and process, and advocates applying it to higher education as a solution to current problems. Customer emphasis, continuous improvement, developing human resources, and using tools for process development are described; and examples from specific academic institutions are included.…

  7. Leadership Qualities for Successful School Change and Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗文

    2013-01-01

      It is well acknowledged that school leadership plays a vital role in the management and development of a school. While what is good leadership? Based on the previous findings, this essay aims at probing into the possible qualities which can make sound school leadership.

  8. Determining storage related egg quality changes via digital image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Area and length measurements related to exterior and interior egg quality were determined by digital image analysis. In general, excluding the outer thin albumen area, all of the area measurements such as total egg content area and inner thick albumen area were larger in stored eggs than in fresh eggs (52.28 vs.

  9. Quality Assured Assessment Processes: Evaluating Staff Response to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau-Aduli, Bunmi S.; Zimitat, Craig; Malau-Aduli, Aduli E. O.

    2011-01-01

    Medical education is not exempt from the increasing societal expectations of accountability and this is evidenced by an increasing number of litigation cases by students who are dissatisfied with their assessment. The time and monetary costs of student appeals makes it imperative that medical schools adopt robust quality assured assessment…

  10. Appendix U: benthic biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessler, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Characterization of the biology and standing crop of the benthic organisms is divided into two major categories: (1) those organisms (sessile or with limited mobility) that live on or within the sediment (infauna); and (2) highly mobile organisms that have contact (if only occasionally) with the sediment (benthopelagic organisms). At this time our studies of benthopelagic organisms are restricted to amphipods. The amphipods trapped at MPG-I (30 to 31 0 N, 159 0 W) in 1978 have been sorted to species and compared with those trapped at Climax II (28 0 N, 155 to 156 0 W) in 1977. The species composition is the same at both stations and the numerical representation of the various species appears to be equivalent. Instar categories based on morphological and size criteria have been determined for Eurythenes gryllus. Comparison of the size range of the instar categories, morphological characters and female to male ratio show no detectable differences in E. gryllus from the two areas. Individuals of one of the smaller species of amphipods (Paralicella caperesca) were trapped at 710 m above the sediment, demonstrating that although the primary range of this species is 0-1 m off the bottom, it is capable of wide bathymetric movements. Males mature at a much smaller size (7 cm vs 11.5 cm) than females. Females appear to breed only once while males seem to be reproductively mature for several instars. After attaining maturity, male growth decreases to almost half the previous rate, and the time interval between molts appears to increase substantially. Females approximate a linear growth rate throughout their instar stages. The data are insufficient to determine if a decrease in growth rate occurs at the molt to maturity (female 14). The apparent difference in the time to maturity for males and females results in a high number of mature males present in the population to fertilize relatively few females

  11. From movement to mechanism : exploring expressive movement qualities in shape-change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, M.; Frens, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    This one-day studio revolves around the exploration of expressive movement qualities in shape-change by means of physical sketching and prototyping. It is a hands-on studio where participants first explore expressive movement qualities and interaction scenarios with a generic shape-changing platform

  12. Response of deep-sea benthic foraminifera to Miocene paleoclimatic events, DSDP site 289

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, F.; Douglas, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in the Miocene deep-sea benthic foraminifera at DSDP Site 289 closely correlate to the climatically induced variations in deep and bottom waters in the Pacific Ocean. In early Miocene time, oxygen and carbon isotopes indicate that bottom waters were relatively warm and poorly oxygenated. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages are characterized by various species inherited from the Oligocene. Expansion of the Antarctic icecap in the early middle Miocene, 14-16 m.y. ago, increased oxygen isotope values, produced cold, more oxygenated bottom waters and lead to a turnover in the benthic foraminifera. An Oligocene-early Miocene assemblage was replaced by a cibicidoid-dominated assemblage. Some species became extinct and benthic faunas became more bathymetrically restricted with the increased stratification of deep waters in the ocean. In mid-Miocene time, Epistominella exigua and E. umbonifera, indicative of young, oxygenated bottom waters, are relatively common at DSDP Site 289. Further glacial expansion 5-9 m.y. ago lowered sealevel, increased oceanic upwelling and associated biological productivity and intensified the oxygen minima. Abundant hispid and costate uvigerines become a dominant faunal element at shallow depths above 2500 m as E. umbonifera becomes common to abundant below 2500 m. By late Miocene time, benthic faunas similar in species composition and proportion to modern faunas on the Ontong-Java plateau, had become established. (Auth.)

  13. The UK National Air Quality Strategy: the effects of the proposed changes on Local Air Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, C.I.; Ling, K.; Longhurst, J.W.S. [Univ. of the West of England, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Bristol (GB)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    The UK has implemented a system of Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) to tackle the many contemporary sources of air pollution, notably transport, industry and domestic fuel burning, in a holistic manner. The current legislation stems from the Environment Act 1995, which required a National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published outlining the Governments policies with respect to the assessment and management of air quality. The NAQS, originally published in March 1997, is on a rolling programme of reviews in order to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the economic and social issues involved. Following the first review (currently at consultation state), this paper will comment on how the proposed changes may affect the LAQM process. The proposed changes will also be summarised and discussed in the context of European Union air quality objectives and the economic analysis of NAQS.

  14. Implementing quality assurance with multiple contractors under changing regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the tools and techniques used to establish the responsibilities for quality implementation on the California Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project. The project is structured to use the traditional nuclear-oriented quality assurance criteria in the non-traditional application of scientific investigations required for site characterization activities. It has required a careful blending of approaches and mentalities from backgrounds in both nuclear QA and EPA QA as well as the selective application of guidance from both of the agencies. As a significant portion of the work was subcontracted to organizations which ranged from a small group of college professors to a multi-national corporation, the program needed to be versatile, easy to implement but yet definitive. The author describes some of the misconceptions encountered and areas of weakness to be identified and strengthened

  15. Deep-sea benthic foraminiferal record of the paleoceanography in the southern Okinawa Trough over the last 20 000 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翦知湣; 陈荣华; 李保华

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative analyses have been carried out on benthic foraminifera from 66 samples of Core 255 in the southern Okinawa Trough, in combination with the stable isotopic analyses of planktonic and benthic foraminifera and AMS 14C dating, in order to reconstruct the history of change under deep water conditions and surface paleoproduclivity over the last 20 000 years. The variations in the ratio of agglutinants in benthic foraminiferal fauna and the ratio of fragments in planktonic foraminifera] fauna indicate higher carbonate dissolution during the postglacial stage than during the glacial stage. The distribution of species and the results of Q-mode factor analysis show that there are three distinctly different benthic foraminiferal assemblages during the glacial, deglacial and postglacial stages in the Okinawa Trough over the last 20000 years: the glacial Bulimina aculeata assemblage (especially the dominant species Uvigerina pereyrina) is associated with high surface primary productivity and organic mat

  16. QUALITY CHANGES OF SARDINES (Sardinella neopilchardus) AT INDONESIAN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Ariyani

    2018-01-01

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia, high ambient temperature and a lack of icing cause very rapid spoilage of fish. Leaving fish uniced while waiting for processing is a common practice resulting in lower quality of the end products, and consequently lower price of the products. To study the spoilage pattern of sardines (Sardinella neophilchardus) in a tropical region, and to investigate a simple and quick method to judge the degree of spoilage, observations on the deterioration of sardi...

  17. SOIL QUALITY CHANGES FOLLOWING FOREST CLEARANCE IN BENGKULU, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. HANDAYANI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense destruction and degradation of tropical forests is recognized as one of the environmental threats and tragedies. These have increased the need to assess the effects of subsequent land-use following forest extraction on soil quality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of land-use type on soil quality properties in Bengkulu Province, Sumatra. Soil samples were collected from adjacent sites including natural secondary forest, bare land, cultivated land and grassland. The results show that land-use following forest clearance lowered saturated hydraulic conductivity (85%, porosity (10.50%, soil water content at field capacity (34%,C organic (27%, N total (26%, inorganic N (37%, soil microbial biomass C (32%, mineralizable C (22%, and particulate organic matter (50%, but slightly increased water soluble organic C. Specific respiration activi ty rates increased about 14% in cultivated soils compared to natural forest soils, indicating greater C turnover per labile C pool in the form of soil microbial biomass, thus decreased biologically active soil organic matter. Forest conversion tends to reduce the C,ffg/Crer for all deforested sites. All of deforested areas relatively have infertile soil, with the worst case found in cultivated field. The C^g/Crd of cultivated field s was about 24% less than that of remnant fo rest (1.07. Grassland apparently mainta ins only slightly higher soil C levels than the bare land. On average, degradation index of so il following forest clearance was 35% with the highest deterioration occurred in the bare land (38%. Fallowing the fields by naturally growth of Imperata cylindrica for about 15 yr in abandoned land after 3-5 years of cultivation did not improve the soil quality. Moreover, forest clearance has an impact on soil quality as resulted in the loss of a physically protected organic matter and reduction in some labile C pools, thus declined biological activity at disturbed

  18. Assessment of stream quality using biological indices at selected sites in the Schuylkill River basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    IntroductionIn 1970, the Chester County Water Resources Authority (Pennsylvania) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a long-term water-quality network with the goal of assessing the quality of streams in the county and understanding stream changes in response to urbanization using benthic-macroinvertebrate data. This database represents one of the longest continuous water-quality data sets in the country. Benthic macroinvertebrates are aquatic insects, such as mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, and midges, and other invertebrates that live on the stream bottom. Benthic macroinvertebrates are useful in evaluating stream quality because their habitat preferences and low motility cause them to be affected directly by substances that enter the aquatic system. By evaluating the diversity and community structure of benthic-macroinvertebrate populations, a determination of stream quality can be made.Between 1981 and 1997, the network consisted of 43 sites in 5 major basins in Chester County—Delaware, Schuylkill, Brandywine, Big Elk and Octoraro, and Red and White Clay. Benthic-macroinvertebrate, water-chemistry, and habitat data were collected each year in October or November during base-flow conditions. Using these data, Reif evaluated the overall water-quality condition of Chester County streams. This Fact Sheet summarizes the key findings from Reif for streams in the Schuylkill River Basin. These streams include Pigeon Creek (site 10), Stony Run (site 6), French Creek (sites 12-16), Pickering Creek (sites 1-5), Little Valley Creek (site 49), and Valley Creek (site 50). This summary includes an analysis of stream conditions based on benthic-macroinvertebrate samples and an analysis of trends in stream conditions for the 17-year study period.

  19. Global occurrence of pyrethroid insecticides in sediment and the associated toxicological effects on benthic invertebrates: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; Cheng, Fei; Wei, Yanli; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2017-02-15

    Pyrethroids are the third most applied group of insecticides worldwide and are extensively used in agricultural and non-agricultural applications. Pyrethroids exhibit low toxicity to mammals, but have extremely high toxicity to fish and non-target invertebrates. Their high hydrophobicity, along with pseudo-persistence due to continuous input, indicates that pyrethroids will accumulate in sediment, pose long-term exposure concerns to benthic invertebrates and ultimately cause significant risk to benthic communities and aquatic ecosystems. The current review synthesizes the reported sediment concentrations of pyrethroids and associated toxicity to benthic invertebrates on a global scale. Geographically, the most studied area was North America, followed by Asia, Europe, Australia and Africa. Pyrethroids were frequently detected in both agricultural and urban sediments, and bifenthrin and cypermethrin were identified as the main contributors to toxicity in benthic invertebrates. Simulated hazard quotients (HQ) for sediment-associated pyrethroids to benthic organisms ranged from 10.5±31.1 (bifenthrin) to 41.7±204 (cypermethrin), suggesting significant risk. The current study has provided evidence that pyrethroids are not only commonly detected in the aquatic environment, but also can cause toxic effects to benthic invertebrates, and calls for better development of accurate sediment quality criteria and effective ecological risk assessment methods for this emerging class of insecticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of salt pond restoration on benthic flux: Sediment as a source of nutrients to the water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Carter, James L.; Garrettt, Krista K.; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sarah; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding nutrient flux between the benthos and the overlying water (benthic flux) is critical to restoration of water quality and biological resources because it can represent a major source of nutrients to the water column. Extensive water management commenced in the San Francisco Bay, Beginning around 1850, San Francisco Bay wetlands were converted to salt ponds and mined extensively for more than a century. Long-term (decadal) salt pond restoration efforts began in 2003. A patented device for sampling porewater at varying depths, to calculate the gradient, was employed between 2010 and 2012. Within the former ponds, the benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus and that of dissolved ammonia were consistently positive (i.e., moving out of the sediment into the water column). The lack of measurable nitrate or nitrite concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface suggested negligible fluxes for dissolved nitrate and nitrite. The dominance of ammonia in the porewater indicated anoxic sediment conditions, even at only 1 cm depth, which is consistent with the observed, elevated sediment oxygen demand. Nearby openestuary sediments showed much lower benthic flux values for nutrients than the salt ponds under resortation. Allochthonous solute transport provides a nutrient advective flux for comparison to benthic flux. For ammonia, averaged for all sites and dates, benthic flux was about 80,000 kg/year, well above the advective flux range of −50 to 1500 kg/year, with much of the variability depending on the tidal cycle. By contrast, the average benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus was about 12,000 kg/year, of significant magnitude, but less than the advective flux range of 21,500 to 30,000 kg/year. These benthic flux estimates, based on solute diffusion across the sediment-water interface, reveal a significant nutrient source to the water column of the pond which stimulates algal blooms (often autotrophic). This benthic source may be

  1. Effects of Exposed Artificial Substrate on the Competition between Phytoplankton and Benthic Algae: Implications for Shallow Lake Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton and benthic algae coexist in shallow lakes and the outcome of the competition between these two photoautotrophs can markedly influence water clarity. It is well established that exposed artificial substrate in eutrophic waters can remove nutrients and fine particles from the water column via the attached periphyton canopy. However, the effects of the introduction of artificial substrate on the competition between planktonic and benthic primary producers remain to be elucidated. We conducted a short-term outdoor mesocosm experiment to test the hypothesis that the nutrient and light changes induced by exposed artificial substrate (polythene nets would benefit the benthic algae. Artificial substrate significantly reduced total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and water clarity improved, the latter due to the substrate-induced reduction of both organic and inorganic suspended solids. Consequently, as judged from changes in chlorophyll a (Chl-a concentrations in water and sediment, respectively, exposed artificial substrate significantly reduced the phytoplankton biomass, while benthic algae biomass increased. Our results thus indicate that exposed artificial substrate may be used as a tool to re-establish benthic primary production in eutrophic shallow lakes after an external nutrient loading reduction, paving the way for a benthic- or a macrophyte-dominated system. Longer term and larger scale experiments are, however, needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn on this.

  2. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eiko Yoshida

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre

  3. Ecological attributes of the benthic community and indices of water quality in urban, rural and preserved environments Atributos ecológicos da comunidade bentônica e índices de qualidade da água de ambientes urbanos, rurais e preservados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eiko Yoshida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reference streams are pristine streams, untouched or unaltered by man, it being possible to use their environmental characteristics as quality threshold values. Besides the organic impacts measured via water quality biological monitoring programs, it has become necessary to evaluate the relationship between alterations in the landscape of streams and surrounding areas and changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community; AIM: The objective of the present study was to correlate the changes in the landscape with the ecological attributes of the community and indices of water quality, and to recommend reference condition values for the integrity of streams in the region of Jundiai (SP; METHODS: The benthic fauna were sampled in three urban streams, three rural streams and three preserved streams during July 2010, using a Surber-type sampler. The characteristics of the landscape were evaluated by means of Diversity of Habitat; the community, analyzed for several biodiversity indices, and; the water quality assessed using the indices River-BCI, BMWP-CETEC (CETEC - Science and Technology Center, ASPT and SOMI (SOMI - Serra dos Órgãos Multimetric Index (Serra dos Órgãos is a mountain range national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro; RESULTS: The structure and the composition of the communities varied according to the stream and this was reflected in the values of the biological and environmental quality indices. The best conditions were found in preserved streams, intermediate streams and rural streams while the worst conditions were found in the urban streams. The significant Pearson correlations (r > 0.73 and P INTRODUÇÃO: Riachos de referência dizem respeito a ambientes íntegros, sendo possível utilizar suas características ambientais como valores patamares de qualidade. Além dos impactos orgânicos medidos pelos programas de biomonitoramento da qualidade da água, se faz necessário avaliar as relações entre

  4. Benthic meiofaunal community response to the cascading effects of herbivory within an algal halo system of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Quinn R; Hammill, Edward; Booth, David J; Madin, Elizabeth M P; Hinchliffe, Charles; Harborne, Alastair R; Lovelock, Catherine E; Macreadie, Peter I; Atwood, Trisha B

    2018-01-01

    Benthic fauna play a crucial role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling at the sediment-water boundary in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial systems, grazing herbivores have been shown to influence below-ground communities through alterations to plant distribution and composition, however whether similar cascading effects occur in aquatic systems is unknown. Here, we assess the relationship between benthic invertebrates and above-ground fish grazing across the 'grazing halos' of Heron Island lagoon, Australia. Grazing halos, which occur around patch reefs globally, are caused by removal of seagrass or benthic macroalgae by herbivorous fish that results in distinct bands of unvegetated sediments surrounding patch reefs. We found that benthic algal canopy height significantly increased with distance from patch reef, and that algal canopy height was positively correlated with the abundances of only one invertebrate taxon (Nematoda). Both sediment carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N) and mean sediment particle size (μm) demonstrated a positive correlation with Nematoda and Arthropoda (predominantly copepod) abundances, respectively. These positive correlations indicate that environmental conditions are a major contributor to benthic invertebrate community distribution, acting on benthic communities in conjunction with the cascading effects of above-ground algal grazing. These results suggest that benthic communities, and the ecosystem functions they perform in this system, may be less responsive to changes in above-ground herbivorous processes than those previously studied in terrestrial systems. Understanding how above-ground organisms, and processes, affect their benthic invertebrate counterparts can shed light on how changes in aquatic communities may affect ecosystem function in previously unknown ways.

  5. Subtidal Benthic Invertebrates Shifting Northward Along the U.S. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous marine and terrestrial species have shifted their ranges poleward in response to warming from global climate change. However, few studies have examined range shifts of subtidal benthic communities in estuarine and nearshore waters. This study examined 20 years (1990–2010...

  6. Biological control of trace metal and organometal benthic fluxes in a eutrophic lagoon (Thau Lagoon, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, D.; Monperrus, M.; Tessier, E.; Amouroux, D.; Chauvaud, L.; Thouzeau, G.; Jean, F.; Amice, E.; Grall, J.; Leynaert, A.; Clavier, J.; Donard, O. F. X.

    2007-04-01

    In situ benthic chamber experiments were conducted in the Thau Lagoon that allowed the simultaneous determination of the benthic exchanges of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and U) and mercury species (iHg and MMHg). Fluxes of organotin compounds (MBT, DBT and TBT) were also investigated for the first time. The benthic incubations were performed during two campaigns at four stations that presented different macrobenthic and macrophytic species distribution and abundance (see [Thouzeau, G., Grall, J., Clavier, J., Chauvaud, L., Jean, F., Leynaert, A., Longpuirt, S., Amice, E., Amouroux, D., 2007. Spatial and temporal variability of benthic biogeochemical fluxes associated with macrophytic and macrofaunal distributions in the Thau lagoon (France). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 72 (3), 432 446.]). The results indicate that most of the flux intensity as well as the temporal and spatial variability can be explained by the combined influence of microscale and macroscale processes. Microscale changes were identified using Mn flux as a good indicator of the redox conditions at the sediment water interface, and by extension, as an accurate proxy of benthic fluxes for most trace metals and mercury species. We also observed that the redox gradient at the interface is promoted by both microbial and macrobenthic species activity that governs O2 budgets. Macroscale processes have been investigated considering macrobenthic organisms activity (macrofauna and macroalgal cover). The density of such macroorganisms is able to explain most of the spatial and temporal variability of the benthic metal fluxes within a specific site. A tentative estimation of the flux of metals and organometals associated with deposit feeder and suspension feeder activity was found to be in the range of the flux determined within the chambers for most considered elements. Furthermore, a light/dark incubation investigating a dense macroalgal cover present at the sediment surface illustrates the role

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BENTHIC (Benthic Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains benthic habitats, including coral reef and hardbottom, seagrass, algae, and others in [for] South Florida. Vector polygons in the data set...

  8. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP): Optical Properties of Benthic Marine Organisms and Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazel, Charles

    2002-01-01

    ...). The long-term objective of our research is to gain an understanding of the nature and significance of fluorescence and reflectance characteristics of benthic marine organisms in general, and coral...

  9. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  10. Evaluating Process Quality Based on Change Request Data - An Empirical Study of the Eclipse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackmann, Holger; Schaefer, Henning; Lichter, Horst

    The information routinely collected in change request management systems contains valuable information for monitoring of the process quality. However this data is currently utilized in a very limited way. This paper presents an empirical study of the process quality in the product portfolio of the Eclipse project. It is based on a systematic approach for the evaluation of process quality characteristics using change request data. Results of the study offer insights into the development process of Eclipse. Moreover the study allows assessing applicability and limitations of the proposed approach for the evaluation of process quality.

  11. Antarctic sea ice losses drive gains in benthic carbon drawdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D K A

    2015-09-21

    Climate forcing of sea-ice losses from the Arctic and West Antarctic are blueing the poles. These losses are accelerating, reducing Earth's albedo and increasing heat absorption. Subarctic forest (area expansion and increased growth) and ice-shelf losses (resulting in new phytoplankton blooms which are eaten by benthos) are the only significant described negative feedbacks acting to counteract the effects of increasing CO2 on a warming planet, together accounting for uptake of ∼10(7) tonnes of carbon per year. Most sea-ice loss to date has occurred over polar continental shelves, which are richly, but patchily, colonised by benthic animals. Most polar benthos feeds on microscopic algae (phytoplankton), which has shown increased blooms coincident with sea-ice losses. Here, growth responses of Antarctic shelf benthos to sea-ice losses and phytoplankton increases were investigated. Analysis of two decades of benthic collections showed strong increases in annual production of shelf seabed carbon in West Antarctic bryozoans. These were calculated to have nearly doubled to >2x10(5) tonnes of carbon per year since the 1980s. Annual production of bryozoans is median within wider Antarctic benthos, so upscaling to include other benthos (combined study species typically constitute ∼3% benthic biomass) suggests an increased drawdown of ∼2.9x10(6) tonnes of carbon per year. This drawdown could become sequestration because polar continental shelves are typically deeper than most modern iceberg scouring, bacterial breakdown rates are slow, and benthos is easily buried. To date, most sea-ice losses have been Arctic, so, if hyperboreal benthos shows a similar increase in drawdown, polar continental shelves would represent Earth's largest negative feedback to climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Water Quality and Management Changes Over the History of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalinska, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries distinguished by a long and colorful past. Undergoing numerous turbulent socio-economic changes forced by the course of history, Poland is now one of the member states of the European Union. Experiencing low water quantity and high contamination levels in surface waters, Poland is following other EU countries in the effort to reach a "good" water status. Herein are presented impacts of changes in Polish history on water legislation, management, and research, as well as explanations for the perceptible split between engineering and scientific approaches to the aquatic issues. Drawbacks caused by unsatisfactory state research funding for the sciences and division of the water related contemporary scientific interests are also discussed.

  13. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordi, Gunnvor A.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for b1%. On an annual basis the POC export fromthe euphotic...

  14. Microplastic effect thresholds for freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E.; Dede Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

  15. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzhofer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, M.

    2016-01-01

    Hadal trenches are considered to act as depo-centers for organic material at the trench axis and host unique and elevated biomasses of living organisms as compared to adjacent abyssal plains. To explore the diagenetic activity in hadal trench environments we quantified in situ benthic O-2 consump...

  16. Benthic freshwater nematode community dynamics under conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of the influence of fish aquaculture on benthic freshwater nematode assemblages are scarce, but could provide a way of gauging environmental effects. The abundance and diversity of nematode assemblages in response to Oreochromis niloticus aquaculture were investigated in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, ...

  17. Residual concentrations of micropollutants in benthic mussels in the coastal areas of Bohai Sea, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenxin; Chen Jianglin; Lin Xiumei; Fan Yongsheng; Tao Shu

    2007-01-01

    Studies of heavy metals and organic pollutants in different benthic mussel species from Bohai Sea show that concentrations of Cd in mussels commonly exceed national biological quality standards. In addition, a site located in Laizhou Bay exhibits higher average concentrations of As, Hg and Pb with respect to the other sites. Residual levels of petroleum hydrocarbons at several sites in Liaodong Bay also exceed quality guidelines. Contents and compositional characteristics of DDT and its metabolites in mussels suggest the probability of recent inputs and potential ecological risks to the local benthic environment. - Residual Cd contents of mussels at many sites in Bohai Sea exceed national marine biological quality standard and compositions of DDT metabolites indicate recent inputs and potential risk

  18. Evaluating clinically significant changes in health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate change and predictors of change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during rehabilitation, and to analyse associations between changes in HRQoL and symptoms of anxiety...

  19. Lake Ontario benthic prey fish assessment, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Holden, Jeremy P.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Benthic prey fishes are a critical component of the Lake Ontario food web, serving as energy vectors from benthic invertebrates to native and introduced piscivores. Since the late 1970’s, Lake Ontario benthic prey fish status was primarily assessed using bottom trawl observations confined to the lake’s south shore, in waters from 8 – 150 m (26 – 492 ft). In 2015, the Benthic Prey Fish Survey was cooperatively adjusted and expanded to address resource management information needs including lake-wide benthic prey fish population dynamics. Effort increased from 55 bottom trawl sites to 135 trawl sites collected in depths from 8 - 225m (26 – 738 ft). The spatial coverage of sampling was also expanded and occurred in all major lake basins. The resulting distribution of tow depths more closely matched the available lake depth distribution. The additional effort illustrated how previous surveys were underestimating lake-wide Deepwater Sculpin, Myoxocephalus thompsonii, abundance by not sampling in areas of highest density. We also found species richness was greater in the new sampling sites relative to the historic sites with 11 new fish species caught in the new sites including juvenile Round Whitefish, Prosopium cylindraceum, and Mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdii. Species-specific assessments found Slimy Sculpin, Cottus cognatus abundance increased slightly in 2015 relative to 2014, while Deepwater Sculpin and Round Goby, Neogobius melanostomus, dramatically increased in 2015, relative to 2014. The cooperative, lake-wide Benthic Prey Fish Survey expanded our understanding of benthic fish population dynamics and habitat use in Lake Ontario. This survey’s data and interpretations influence international resource management decision making, such as informing the Deepwater Sculpin conservation status and assessing the balance between sport fish consumption and prey fish populations. Additionally a significant Lake Ontario event occurred in May 2015 when a single

  20. A review of current knowledge on toxic benthic freshwater cyanobacteria--ecology, toxin production and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Quiblier; Susanna, Wood; Isidora, Echenique-Subiabre; Mark, Heath; Aurélie, Villeneuve; Jean-François, Humbert

    2013-10-01

    Benthic cyanobacteria are found globally in plethora of environments. Although they have received less attention than their planktonic freshwater counterparts, it is now well established that they produce toxins and reports of their involvement in animal poisonings have increased markedly during the last decade. Most of the known cyanotoxins have been identified from benthic cyanobacteria including: the hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsins, the neurotoxic saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a and dermatotoxins, such as lyngbyatoxin. In most countries, observations of toxic benthic cyanobacteria are fragmented, descriptive and in response to animal toxicosis events. Only a limited number of long-term studies have aimed to understand why benthic proliferations occur, and/or how toxin production is regulated. These studies have shown that benthic cyanobacterial blooms are commonly a mixture of toxic and non-toxic genotypes and that toxin concentrations can be highly variable spatially and temporally. Physiochemical parameters responsible for benthic proliferation vary among habitat type with physical disturbance (e.g., flow regimes, wave action) and nutrients commonly identified as important. As climatic conditions change and anthropogenic pressures on waterways increase, it seems likely that the prevalence of blooms of benthic cyanobacteria will increase. In this article we review current knowledge on benthic cyanobacteria: ecology, toxin-producing species, variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation, their impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms and current monitoring and management strategies. We suggest research needs that will assist in filling knowledge gaps and ultimately allow more robust monitoring and management protocols to be developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting estuarine benthic production using functional diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dolbeth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We considered an estuarine system having naturally low levels of diversity, but attaining considerable high production levels, and being subjected to different sorts of anthropogenic impacts and climate events to investigate the relationship between diversity and secondary production. Functional diversity measures were used to predict benthic production, which is considered as a proxy of the ecosystem provisioning services. To this end, we used a 14-year dataset on benthic invertebrate community production from a seagrass and a sandflat habitat and we adopted a sequential modeling approach, where abiotic, trait community weighted means (CWM and functional diversity indices were tested by generalized linear models (GLM, and their significant variables were then combined to produce a final model. Almost 90% of variance of the benthic production could be predicted by combining the number of locomotion types, the absolute maximum atmospheric temperature (proxy of the heat waves occurrence, the type of habitat and the mean body mass, by order of importance. This result is in agreement with the mass ratio hypothesis, where ecosystem functions/services can be chiefly predicted by the dominant trait in the community, here measured as CWM. The increase of benthic production with the number of locomotion types may be seen as greater possibility of using the resources available in the system. Such greater efficiency would increase production. The other variables were also discussed in line of the previous hypothesis and taking into account the general positive relationship obtained between production and functional diversity indices. Overall, it was concluded that traits representative of wider possibilities of using available resources and higher functional diversity are related with higher benthic production.

  2. Benthic ecological status of Algerian harbours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, J C; Bakalem, A; Baffreau, A; Grimes, S

    2017-12-15

    This work is an overview of all available benthic data collected in the Algerian harbours between 1983 and 2001. So, total of 571 stations were reported in the 10 major Algerian harbours along the Algerian coast (1200km). Two main categories of harbours were distinguished according to their hydrodynamic regime and volume of water exchange between inner harbour basins and the entrance of the harbours. Univariate, multivariate, benthic indices and Biological Traits of Life approaches were applied on stations sampled in the late 1990s and long-term observations in six out of these ten harbours. These approaches assessed the main characteristics and ecological statuses from these south Mediterranean harbours. One of the main characteristics of the Algerian harbours was the very high species diversity (847 species). Although all the fauna was dominated by pollution-tolerant species; some harbours such as Bethioua and Djendjen hosted normal benthic communities as found in the open sea, but also included some pollution indicator species typical of a slight polluted system. On the contrary, the newly constructed port of Skikda showed perturbed benthic communities in relation to hydrocarbon pollution. Biological Traits of Life analysis reinforced the separation of benthic species along a gradient reflecting their sensitivity or tolerance to pollution. This response was related to an increase in organic matter content, probably associated with a general organic and metal contamination, from the entrance of the harbour to the innermost basins in areas with weak circulation, high sedimentation rate and concentrations of pollutants. Except for Oran harbour, where the poor to moderate ecological status remained unchanged with time, the other harbours showed an improvement or a slight degradation. A strategy of long-term monitoring should be promoted, based on a restricted and selected number of stations characteristic of the different basins and water masses occupying the

  3. Temporal changes in groundwater quality of the Saloum coastal aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndeye Maguette Dieng

    2017-02-01

    High variation in rainfall between the 2 reference years (2003 and 2012 also changes chemical patterns in the groundwater. Chemical evolution of the groundwater is geographically observed and is due to a combination of dilution by recharge, anthropic contamination and seawater intrusion. The results of environmental isotopes (δ18O, δ2H compared with the local meteoric line indicate that the groundwater has been affected by evaporation processes before and during infiltration. The results also clearly indicate mixing with saltwater and an evolution towards relative freshening between 2003 and 2012 in some wells near the Saloum River.

  4. Benthic Foraminifera, Food in the Deep Sea, and Limits to Bentho-Pelagic Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E.; Boscolo-Galazzo, F.; Arreguin-Rodrigu, G. J.; Ortiz, S.; Alegret, L.

    2015-12-01

    The deep-sea is the largest habitat on Earth, contains highly diverse biota, but is very little known. Many of its abundant benthic biota (e.g., nematodes) are not preserved in the fossil record. Calcareous and agglutinated benthic foraminifera (unicellular eukaryotes, Rhizaria; efficient dispersers) and ostracodes (Animalia, Crustacea; non-efficient dispersers) are the most common organisms providing a fossil record of deep-sea environments. Very little food is supplied to the deep-sea, because organic matter produced by photosynthesis is largely degraded before it arrives at the seafloor. Only a few % of organic matter is carried to the ocean bottom by 'marine snow', with its particle size and behavior in the water column controlled by surface ecosystem structure, including type of dominant primary producers (diatoms, cyanobacteria). Food supply and its seasonality are generally seen as the dominant control on benthic assemblages (combined with oxygenation), providing bentho-pelagic coupling between primary and benthic productivity. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages (composition and density) thus are used widely to estimate past productivity, especially during episodes of global climate change, ocean acidification, and mass extinction of primary producers. We show that some environmental circumstances may result in interrupting bentho-pelagic coupling, e.g. through lateral supply of organic matter along continental margins (adding more refractory organic matter), through trophic focusing and/or fine particle winnowing on seamounts (giving an advantage to suspension feeders), and through carbonate undersaturation (giving advantage to infaunal over epifaunal calcifyers). In addition, increased remineralization of organic matter combined with increased metabolic rates may cause assemblages to reflect more oligotrophic conditions at stable primary productivity during periods of global warming. As a result, benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates must be carefully

  5. Dissolved organic carbon concentration controls benthic primary production: results from in situ chambers in north-temperate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Sean C.; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated several potential drivers of primary production by benthic algae (periphyton) in north-temperate lakes. We used continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from in situ benthic chambers to quantify primary production by periphyton at multiple depths across 11 lakes encompassing a broad range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorous (TP) concentrations. Light-use efficiency (primary production per unit incident light) was inversely related to average light availability (% of surface light) in 7 of the 11 study lakes, indicating that benthic algal assemblages exhibit photoadaptation, likely through physiological or compositional changes. DOC alone explained 86% of the variability in log-transformed whole-lake benthic production rates. TP was not an important driver of benthic production via its effects on nutrient and light availability. This result is contrary to studies in other systems, but may be common in relatively pristine north-temperate lakes. Our simple empirical model may allow for the prediction of whole-lake benthic primary production from easily obtained measurements of DOC concentration.

  6. Benthic Foraminifera as bio-indicators of anthropogenic impacts in coastal environments: Acqua dei Corsari area case study (Palermo, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musco, Marianna; Cuttitta, Angela; Bicchi, Erica; Quinci, Enza Maria; Sprovieri, Mario; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Traina, Anna; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Gherardi, Serena; Mercurio, Pietro; Siragusa, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2017-04-15

    This study investigates living benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of anthropogenic activities in a coastal area within the Gulf of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), affected by industrial and urban activities, and evaluates the environmental quality through the calibration of a Tolerant Species index (%TS std ). Sediments from 6 stations were sampled along a bathymetric transect from the coast to offshore. Sediment grain size, TOC, major, minor and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were compared to benthic foraminiferal assemblages and species at each station. Diversity and density of benthic foraminiferal assemblages were not affected by the presence of pollutants, while tolerant species increased with organic (TOC and PAHs) or chemical (As and Pb) concentrations. Moreover, the calibration of the %TS std formula to >125μm foraminiferal assemblage, gives a detailed description of environmental quality along the transect, representing a good and sensitive tool to evaluate marine coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perttu Seppä

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  8. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: benthic images collected from climate stations across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-16 to 2016-09-21 (NCEI Accession 0164296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Hawaiian...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-19 (NCEI Accession 0159139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Pacific Remote...

  11. Soil quality attributes induced by land use changes in the Fincha'a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil quality attributes induced by land use changes in the Fincha'a ... from the upstream to the downstream irrigated land by water soil erosion. ... The main degradation process overcome the study area was waterlogging and soil compaction.

  12. Impact of water quality change on corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundChanges in water qualities have been associated with an increase in lead release from full and partial lead service lines (LSLs), such as the cases of Washington D.C. or more recently of Flint (Mi). Water qualities affect the mineralogy of the scales. Furthermore, follo...

  13. Defensive technology and welfare analysis of environmental quality change with uncertain consumer health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.K.; Moffitt, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measuring the ex post losses from environmental quality change is an important issue when environmental contamination creates health risks, liability is assigned, and private compensation efforts are required. This paper proposes a methodology for measuring the ex post welfare impact of environmental quality change using market behavior from defensive expenditures. Conditions under which a defensive technology can provide a bound on welfare estimates are identified

  14. Major Change in the Quality Management of the Qualitative Market Research

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to explore a major change in the quality management of a distinct category of services, respectively the qualitative research. The essence of the change consists in the creation of an international standard aiming to increase the quality and professionalism of the market, opinion and social research, also including the qualitative research. The approach is entirely focused on the services provided by companies specialized in this field to all the organizatio...

  15. Does Quality Matter in Labour Input? The Changing Pattern of Labour Composition in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Kam Leong Szeto; Simon McLoughlin

    2008-01-01

    The composition of the New Zealand workforce has changed considerably over the past two decades. Qualification levels have risen, labour force participation has trended upwards for women, immigrants have increasingly been sourced from Asia, and the large baby-boom cohort has contributed to an ageing of the workforce. The question is whether such compositional changes have affected the quality of labour. Our estimates show a large rise in labour quality since 1988 as a result of increasing qua...

  16. Linking the effects of land use change with water quality and discharge :an integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fauss, Lynn Michael

    1992-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality equilibria are greatly affected by changing land use. This study presents a methodology that integrates the use of remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS) and water-quality modeling. Archived aerial photography proved to be a valuable source of historical land use data. GIS technology was used to compile and analyze spatial data. A comprehensive watershed model was used to link the effects of land use change to water quali...

  17. Simulating climate change and socio-economic change impacts on flows and water quality in the Mahanadi River system, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul G; Rodda, Harvey; Macadam, Ian; Sarkar, Sananda

    2018-05-12

    Delta systems formed by the deposition of sediments at the mouths of large catchments are vulnerable to sea level rise and other climate change impacts. Deltas often have some of the highest population densities in the world and the Mahanadi Delta in India is one of these, with a population of 39 million. The Mahanadi River is a major river in East Central India and flows through Chattisgarh and Orissa states before discharging into the Bay of Bengal. This study uses an Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) to simulate flow dynamics and water quality (nitrogen and phosphorus) and to analyze the impacts of climate change and socio-economic drivers in the Mahanadi River system. Future flows affected by large population growth, effluent discharge increases and changes in irrigation water demand from changing land uses are assessed under shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Model results indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates at 2050s (2041-2060) and 2090s (2079-2098) which greatly enhances flood potential. The water availability under low flow conditions will be worsened because of increased water demand from population growth and increased irrigation in the future. Decreased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are expected due to increased flow hence dilution. Socio-economic scenarios have a significant impact on water quality but less impact on the river flow. For example, higher population growth, increased sewage treatment discharges, land use change and enhanced atmospheric deposition would result in the deterioration of water quality, while the upgrade of the sewage treatment works lead to improved water quality. In summary, socio-economic scenarios would change future water quality of the Mahanadi River and alter nutrient fluxes transported into the delta region. This study has serious implications for people's livelihoods in the deltaic area and could impact coastal and Bay of Bengal water ecology. Copyright © 2018

  18. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts.

  19. Changes in the relationship between nursing home financial performance and quality of care under public reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyoung; Werner, Rachel M

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between financial performance and quality of care in nursing homes is not well defined and prior work has been mixed. The recent focus on improving the quality of nursing homes through market-based incentives such as public reporting may have changed this relationship, as public reporting provides nursing homes with increased incentives to engage in quality-based competition. If quality improvement activities require substantial production costs, nursing home profitability may become a more important predictor of quality under public reporting. This study explores the relationship between financial performance and quality of care and test whether this relationship changes under public reporting. Using a 10-year (fiscal years 1997-2006) panel data set of 9444 skilled nursing facilities in the US, this study employs a facility fixed-effects with and without instrumental variables approach to test the effect of finances on quality improvement and correct for potential endogeneity. The results show that better financial performance, as reflected by the 1-year lagged total profit margin, is modestly associated with higher quality but only after public reporting is initiated. These findings have important policy implications as federal and state governments use market-based incentives to increase demand for high-quality care and induce providers to compete based on quality. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of anthropogenic impacts on benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages in subtropical mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M. Mesa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the riparian and surrounding landscape has been modified by anthropogenic activities, which may subsequently alter the composition and functional structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages. The effect of these changes on function of benthic fauna is difficult to assess due to the scarce knowledge on functional structures in tropical streams. In this study we evaluate whether sites impacted and unimpacted by anthropogenic alterations differed in assemblage composition and density, richness and diversity of each functional feeding group. The selection of the sites was related to their distinct riparian characteristics, following the QBRy riparian quality index. Collector-gatherer was the dominant functional feeding group, comprising 91% of total density, whereas the proportion of shredders was very low, representing less of 0.5% of total density. Asemblage composition of macroinvertebrates differed between impacted and unimpacted sites. Predators were dominant in taxa number, representing about 60% of total taxa richness. In addition, the diversity and richness of collector-gatherers differed significantly between degraded and unimpacted sites, reflecting the sensitivity of this group to environmental changes and the utility to be used in the assessment of anthropogenic modifications. The results of this study reinforce the idea that riparian corridor management is critical for the distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages as well as functional organization of lotic streams.

  1. Inorganic carbon availability in benthic diatom communities: photosynthesis and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Jorge; Cruz, Sónia; Cartaxana, Paulo

    2017-09-05

    Diatom-dominated microphytobenthos (MPB) is the main primary producer of many intertidal and shallow subtidal environments, being therefore of critical importance to estuarine and coastal food webs. Owing to tidal cycles, intertidal MPB diatoms are subjected to environmental conditions far more variable than the ones experienced by pelagic diatoms (e.g. light, temperature, salinity, desiccation and nutrient availability). Nevertheless, benthic diatoms evolved adaptation mechanisms to these harsh conditions, including the capacity to move within steep physical and chemical gradients, allowing them to perform photosynthesis efficiently. In this contribution, we will review present knowledge on the effects of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability on photosynthesis and productivity of diatom-dominated MPB. We present evidence of carbon limitation of photosynthesis in benthic diatom mats and highly productive MPB natural communities. Furthermore, we hypothesize that active vertical migration of epipelic motile diatoms could overcome local depletion of DIC in the photic layer, providing the cells alternately with light and inorganic carbon supply. The few available longer-term experiments on the effects of inorganic carbon enrichment on the productivity of diatom-dominated MPB have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, further studies are needed to properly assess the response of MPB communities to increased CO 2 and ocean acidification related to climate change.This article is part of the themed issue 'The peculiar carbon metabolism in diatoms'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. The influence of coral reef benthic condition on associated fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Chong-Seng

    Full Text Available Accumulative disturbances can erode a coral reef's resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian corals by macroalgae or other non-coral organisms. These degraded reef systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the reef benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the reef ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing reefs around the inner Seychelles islands. Specifically, relationships between benthic composition and the underlying substrata, as well as the associated fish assemblages were assessed. High variability in benthic composition was found among reefs, with a gradient from high coral cover (up to 58% and high structural complexity to high macroalgae cover (up to 95% and low structural complexity at the extremes. This gradient was associated with declining species richness of fishes, reduced diversity of fish functional groups, and lower abundance of corallivorous fishes. There were no reciprocal increases in herbivorous fish abundances, and relationships with other fish functional groups and total fish abundance were weak. Reefs grouping at the extremes of complex coral habitats or low-complexity macroalgal habitats displayed markedly different fish communities, with only two species of benthic invertebrate feeding fishes in greater abundance in the macroalgal habitat. These results have negative implications for the continuation of many coral reef ecosystem processes and services if more reefs shift to extreme degraded conditions dominated by macroalgae.

  3. Streamflow characteristics and benthic invertebrate assemblages in streams across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Anne M.D.; Konrad, Chris P.; May, Jason T.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Close, Rebecca N.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrographic characteristics of streamflow, such as high-flow pulses, base flow (background discharge between floods), extreme low flows, and floods, significantly influence aquatic organisms. Streamflow can be described in terms of magnitude, timing, duration, frequency, and variation (hydrologic regime). These characteristics have broad effects on ecosystem productivity, habitat structure, and ultimately on resident fish, invertebrate, and algae communities. Increasing human use of limited water resources has modified hydrologic regimes worldwide. Identifying the most ecologically significant hydrographic characteristics would facilitate the development of water-management strategies.Benthic invertebrates include insects, mollusks (snails and clams), worms, and crustaceans (shrimp) that live on the streambed. Invertebrates play an important role in the food web, consuming other invertebrates and algae and being consumed by fish and birds. Hydrologic alteration associated with land and water use can change the natural hydrologic regime and may affect benthic invertebrate assemblage composition and structure through changes in density of invertebrates or taxa richness (number of different species).This study examined associations between the hydrologic regime and characteristics of benthic invertebrate assemblages across the western United States and developed tools to identify streamflow characteristics that are likely to affect benthic invertebrate assemblages.

  4. The Impacts of Spatiotemporal Landscape Changes on Water Quality in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhuan; Yang, Haiyan

    2018-05-22

    The urban landscape in China has changed rapidly over the past four decades, which has led to various environmental consequences, such as water quality degradation at the regional scale. To improve water restoration strategies and policies, this study assessed the relationship between water quality and landscape change in Shenzhen, China, using panel regression analysis. The results show that decreases in natural and semi-natural landscape compositions have had significant negative effects on water quality. Landscape composition and configuration changes accounted for 39⁻58% of the variation in regional water quality degradation. Additionally, landscape fragmentation indices, such as patch density (PD) and the number of patches (NP), are important indicators of the drivers of water quality degradation. PD accounted for 2.03⁻5.44% of the variability in water quality, while NP accounted for -1.63% to -4.98% of the variability. These results indicate that reducing landscape fragmentation and enhancing natural landscape composition at the watershed scale are vital to improving regional water quality. The study findings suggest that urban landscape optimization is a promising strategy for mitigating urban water quality degradation, and the results can be used in policy making for the sustainable development of the hydrological environment in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  5. Assessment of sediment quality in dredged and undredged areas of the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, Michigan USA, using the sediment quality triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Giesy, John P.; Kubitz, Jody A.; Verbrugge, David A.; Coon, Thomas G.; Braselton, W. Emmett

    1996-01-01

    The “sediment quality triad” approach was used to assess the effects of dredging on the sediment quality of a new marina in the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, and to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel. Samples were collected in November of 1993 (10 months after dredging) and characterized by chemical analysis, sediment bioassays, and assessment of benthic invertebrate communities. The three study components indicated little difference in sediment quality at dredged sites in the marina relative to nearby areas in the Trenton Channel, and little change in sediment quality of Trenton Channel sites relative to conditions reported in the mid-1980s. These results suggest that improvement in sediment quality in the Trenton Channel, due to dredging or natural processes, will depend on elimination of sediment “hot spots” and other upstream contaminant sources. Concentrations of chemical contaminants, especially metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, exceeded concentrations associated with effects on biota and were significantly correlated with results of sediment bioassays and characteristics of benthic communities. Laboratory sediment bioassays with Hyalella azteca andChironomus tentans produced better discrimination among sites with differing degrees of contamination than did characterization of benthic communities, which were dominated by oligochaetes at all sites in the marina and the Trenton Channel.

  6. Public concern for air quality: explaining change in Toronto, Canada, 1967-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworkin, J M [Univ of Arizona, Tucson; Pijawka, K D

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an empirical study of the change in perception of air quality in Toronto, Canada from 1968-1978. The data show a shift in public concern with and awareness of air quality. Despite the fact that the 1978 population regarded air quality as degraded, air pollution declined as a public concern, requiring a less serious response by government than other societal problems. The results of the study were reviewed in the context of existing perception studies. In explaining change, the study found: (1) perception of ambient air quality was not related to air pollution levels; (2) air pollution declines as a public concern as other socioeconomic problems surface; and (3) the mass media has an important role in affecting public attitudes and behavior over environmental quality issues.

  7. The Quality of Accounting Earnings and Change in Political Power Map: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harymawan Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the earnings quality of politically connected firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006-2010. This study compare two definition (Soeharto Dependency Index (SDI and Politically Exposed Person (PEP of political connections to capture the effect of the changes of political power map on the earnings quality of politically connected firms in Indonesia. The finding shows that the quality of accounting earnings of politically connected firms which were formerly closely related to President Soeharto in 1998 are not significantly different to other firms. Furthermore, when this study employ politically exposed person as a proxy of political connections, the findings shows that connected firms have significantly lower quality accounting earnings. Consistent with prior findings, this study shows that change in political power map in Indonesia affect the level of earnings quality of politically connected firms.

  8. [Changes of regional environment quality pattern in China since 1986-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Hua; Sun, Ming-Kun; Lu, Yu-Qi

    2011-03-01

    For further study of regional differences and the pattern of changes in environmental quality in China since 1986-2008, we perform the principal component analysis, standard deviation, Mann-Kendall and cluster analysis on 18 environmental quality indexes in 28 provinces of China in this paper. Those indexes refer to pollutant emission, pollutants treatment capacities and pollutant emission of per unit land area, etc. The paper indicates that regional environmental quality in China has been increased slightly during this period. It can be divided into four stages: 1986-2000, 2000-2001, 2001-2005 and 2005-2008. The overall patterns of regional environmental quality is the West is higher than the East in general, while the environmental quality of the eastern part have been changed somewhat. For more details, the regional environmental quality in China in 1986 is composed of two parts, the eastern part and the western part, while in 2000 and 2001 the eastern part, the middle part and the western part appears as the overall pattern. For the year of 2005, the regional environmental quality in the western is higher than that of the eastern; meanwhile, the eastern can be divided into the northern part, the middle part and the southern part, and the environmental quality in northern part is better than that of the southern part, southern part is better than that of the middle part. This pattern hardly changed in 2008, except that the area with poor environment quality region had expanded. Pollutant emission of per unit land area played as a main factor; yet both the pollutant emission and the reuse of pollutants impacted the pattern specifically. In addition, the national macro policies, the regional policies, the regional economic and the industrial structure can be primary reason for the change of regional environmental quality pattern in China as well.

  9. Benthic harpacticoid copepods of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-09-01

    The species richness of benthic harpacticoid copepod fauna in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, on the southern coast of Shandong Peninsula, has not been comprehensively studied. We present a preliminary inventory of species for this region based on material found in nine sediment samples collected from 2011 to 2012. Our list includes 15 species belonging to 15 genera in 9 families, the most speciose family was the Miraciidae Dana, 1846 (seven species); all other families were represented by single species only. Sediment characteristics and depth are determined to be important environmental determinants of harpacticoid distribution in this region. We briefly detail the known distributions of species and provide a key to facilitate their identification. Both harpacticoid species richness and the species/genus ratio in Jiaozhou Bay are lower than in Bohai Gulf and Gwangyang Bay. The poor knowledge of the distribution of benthic harpacticoids, in addition to low sampling effort in Jiaozhou Bay, likely contribute to low species richness.

  10. Changes in water quality at Cochin harbour dredging site, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    The water quality in the vicinity of the dredging did not show any appreciable change. All dissolved nutrients recorded sharp changes in the water column. After 20 minutes and 2 hours, the conditions at the dredging were much different from the pre...

  11. Frameworks for Change: Four Recurrent Themes for Quality in Early Childhood Curriculum Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jennifer; Fleet, Alma

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase of a case study that investigated how early childhood teachers experience organisational change. As one of three levels of quality improvement, State government-funded curriculum initiatives were developed with an aim to promote change. Three curriculum documents, one each focusing on literacy, pedagogy and…

  12. Review of scientific linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientific understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due...

  13. Post-traumatic stress symptom development as a function of changing witnessing in-home violence and changing peer relationship quality: Evaluating protective effects of peer relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Aura A; Christ, Sharon L; Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Nair, Nayantara

    2018-07-01

    In the present study, witnessing in-home violence and peer relationship quality are evaluated as to their relative impact on Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms among children aged 8 to 17 investigated by child protective services (CPS) for maltreatment exposure. The sample included 2151 children from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II). Linear growth models were estimated to assess associations between changes in PTS symptoms, witnessing in-home violence, and peer relationship quality over time. Greater frequency of witnessing in-home violence at baseline (i.e. wave 1) was associated with higher baseline PTS symptoms (β = 0.44). Increases in witnessing in-home violence frequency over time (average annual change across three years) had a strong association with increases in PTS symptoms over time (β = 0.88). Baseline peer relationship quality was associated with fewer PTS symptoms at baseline (β = -0.45). Increases in peer relationship quality over time were strongly associated with declines in PTS symptoms over time (β = -0.68). Peer relationship quality at baseline did not moderate baseline or over time associations between witnessing in-home violence and PTS symptoms. The average decline in PTS symptoms due to decreases in witnessing in-home violence and increases in peer relationship quality was 0.51 and 0.65 standard deviations respectively, over the three-year study period. Reducing chronic witnessing in-home violence and promoting the development of healthy social relationships with peers are critical for PTS symptom recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Benthic algae of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Barbara C.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic algae were collected from 20 streams in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages by the U.S. Geological Survey in May and June of 1993 as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. These streams were selected to represent "benchmark" streams that were minimally affected by human activities, especially agriculture, for comparison to other streams in similar environmental settings. Streams were chosen from four relatively homogeneous units (RHU's) in agricultural areas with differing texture of surficial deposits and bedrock type.

  15. Auditor tenure and auditor change: does mandatory auditor rotation improve audit quality?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cameran; A. Prencipe; M. Trombetta

    2009-01-01

    We test the effects of auditor tenure and auditor change on audit quality in a unique mandatory audit firm rotation environment, where the rotation rule has been effective for more than 20 years. We first study the effect of audit tenure on audit quality. Our results show that audit quality—measured in terms of earnings management—tends to improve rather than worsen over time. We also examine the effects of voluntary auditor change vs. those resulting from mandatory auditor changes. Our resul...

  16. Multivariate benthic ecosystem functioning in the Arctic – benthic fluxes explained by environmental parameters in the southeastern Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Link

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on Arctic marine ecosystems and their biogeochemical cycles are difficult to predict given the complex physical, biological and chemical interactions among the ecosystem components. We studied benthic biogeochemical fluxes in the Arctic and the influence of short-term (seasonal to annual, long-term (annual to decadal and other environmental variability on their spatial distribution to provide a baseline for estimates of the impact of future changes. In summer 2009, we measured fluxes of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, soluble reactive phosphate and silicic acid at the sediment–water interface at eight sites in the southeastern Beaufort Sea at water depths from 45 to 580 m. The spatial pattern of the measured benthic boundary fluxes was heterogeneous. Multivariate analysis of flux data showed that no single or reduced combination of fluxes could explain the majority of spatial variation, indicating that oxygen flux is not representative of other nutrient sink–source dynamics. We tested the influence of eight environmental parameters on single benthic fluxes. Short-term environmental parameters (sinking flux of particulate organic carbon above the bottom, sediment surface Chl a were most important for explaining oxygen, ammonium and nitrate fluxes. Long-term parameters (porosity, surface manganese and iron concentration, bottom water oxygen concentrations together with δ13Corg signature explained most of the spatial variation in phosphate, nitrate and nitrite fluxes. Variation in pigments at the sediment surface was most important to explain variation in fluxes of silicic acid. In a model including all fluxes synchronously, the overall spatial distribution could be best explained (57% by the combination of sediment Chl a, phaeopigments, δ13Corg, surficial manganese and bottom water oxygen concentration. We conclude that it is necessary to consider long-term environmental variability along with

  17. Long-term (1998 vs. 2010) large-scale comparison of soft-bottom benthic macrofauna composition in the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Paulo; Grémare, Antoine; Gauthier, Olivier; Romero-Ramirez, Alicia; Bichon, Sabrina; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Labrune, Céline

    2018-01-01

    We achieved a long term (i.e., 1998 vs. 2010) large scale (i.e., whole Gulf of Lions) study of benthic macrofauna composition in the Gulf of Lions based on the resampling of 91 stations located along 21 inshore-offshore transects. Results show that the 3 main benthic communities identified in 1998 were still present in 2010 although their composition changed. Using only year and station of sampling we found a significant space-time interaction explaining changes in macrofaunal community composition, and, in this study, stations differ primarily in terms of depth and distance to the Rhône river mouth. Temporal changes in benthic macrofauna composition were clearly most important at shallow stations (i.e., in the Littoral Fine Sand community) than at deep ones (i.e., Terrigenous Coastal Mud community). These results are in good agreement with the current paradigm according to which climatic oscillations such as NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and WeMO (Western Mediterranean Oscillation) are indirectly (i.e., through changes in the frequency of occurrence and the intensity of storms) controlling benthic macrofauna composition in the Gulf of Lions. This hypothesis is further supported by a meta-analysis of changes in the average and maximal yearly abundances of the polychaete Ditrupa arietina. At last, the spatial modelling of 1998 and 2010 benthic macrofauna compositions both suggested a significant effect of Rhône River inputs on the spatial distribution of benthic macrofauna in the Gulf of Lions.

  18. Simulated response of water quality in public supply wells to land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P. B.; Burow, K. R.; Kauffman, L. J.; Eberts, S. M.; BöHlke, J. K.; Gurdak, J. J.

    2008-07-01

    Understanding how changes in land use affect water quality of public supply wells (PSW) is important because of the strong influence of land use on water quality, the rapid pace at which changes in land use are occurring in some parts of the world, and the large contribution of groundwater to the global water supply. In this study, groundwater flow models incorporating particle tracking and reaction were used to analyze the response of water quality in PSW to land use change in four communities: Modesto, California (Central Valley aquifer); York, Nebraska (High Plains aquifer); Woodbury, Connecticut (Glacial aquifer); and Tampa, Florida (Floridan aquifer). The water quality response to measured and hypothetical land use change was dependent on age distributions of water captured by the wells and on the temporal and spatial variability of land use in the area contributing recharge to the wells. Age distributions of water captured by the PSW spanned about 20 years at Woodbury and >1,000 years at Modesto and York, and the amount of water <50 years old captured by the PSW ranged from 30% at York to 100% at Woodbury. Short-circuit pathways in some PSW contributing areas, such as long irrigation well screens that crossed multiple geologic layers (York) and karst conduits (Tampa), affected age distributions by allowing relatively rapid movement of young water to those well screens. The spatial component of land use change was important because the complex distribution of particle travel times within the contributing areas strongly influenced contaminant arrival times and degradation reaction progress. Results from this study show that timescales for change in the quality of water from PSW could be on the order of years to centuries for land use changes that occur over days to decades, which could have implications for source water protection strategies that rely on land use change to achieve water quality objectives.

  19. A review of scientifc linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirusha Thambiran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientifc understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due to impacts on pollution sources and meteorology. Climate-induced changes to sources of tropospheric ozone precursor gases and to atmospheric circulation are likely to lead to changes in both the concentration and dispersion of near-surface ozone that could act to offset improvements in air quality. The control of air pollutants through air quality management is also likely to impact on climate change, with reductions in ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide being of particular interest. The improved understanding of the relationship between air quality and climate change provides a scientific basis for policy interventions. After a review of the scientific linkages, the potential to include climate change considerations in air quality management planning processes in South Africa was examined.

  20. Successional trends of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in a new southeastern cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.A.; Herring, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Lakes created by river impoundments provide new lentic habitats for benthic macroinvertebrates. As new lakes age, benthic macroinvertebrate succession proceeds as first colonizers are replaced and stable populations eventually become established. L Lake, a 400 ha reservoir, was constructed in 1985 on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to receive heated effluent from a nuclear production reactor. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected in L Lake with a ponar grab sampler at 2 and 4 meters at 10 locations in 5 lake regions. Monthly collections were made from 1986 through 1989. Annual average densities of benthic macroinvertebrates increased substantially during the study (ranging from 3955.5--4471.6 organisms/m 2 in 1986 to 8948.1--11,694.1 organisms/m 2 in 1988). Annual mean biomass also increased (ranging from 0.749--0.907g AFDM/m 2 in 1986 to 2074--11,322 g AFDM/m 2 in 1988). Mean annual taxa richness ranged from 9.3--12.2 per ponar in 1986 to 11.8--15.3 per ponar in 1988. Some early colonizers (Chironomidae: Chironomini) dominated throughout the study (ranging from 60.3--79.1% of all organisms). Other chironomids (Tanytarsini and Tanypodinae) declined while slower colonizers (oligochaetes and nematodes) generally increased from 1986 through 1988. The increases in macroinvertebrate density, biomass and changes in community composition observed are typical of early reservoir succession. 14 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  1. Paleoecology of benthic foraminifera from the Miocene of the San Jacinto Basin, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, John Sebastian; Fiorini, Flavia; Andres Trejos, Raul; Vallejo, Diego Felipe; Pardo, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative benthic foraminifera analysis was conducted on 34 samples collected from a borehole core (393.72m deep) drilled by Colombian Hydrocarbon Agency (ANH) on 2009 in the San Jacinto basin (Northern Colombia). The aims of the research were to define a taxonomical data-bank of Miocene benthic foraminifera for this region, to use the benthic foraminifera assemblages to interpret the paleoenvironment and to identify paleoenvironmental changes. The bottom of the section was dated between lowest Burdigalian to middle Langhian (20.393-17.721 Ma) based on calcareous nannofossils bioevents: LO Helicosphaera ampliaperta, HCO Sphenolithus belemnos and LCO Sphenolithus heteromorphus. The benthic foraminifera fauna identified in the studied samples is composed for the majority of calcareous hyaline tests and is dominated by infaunal taxas. Species belonging to the genera Uvigerina and Lenticulina are commonly occurring in the studied section together with other species typical of outer-shelf upper-bathyal environment. Cibicidoides spp., abundant in the lower part of the section, abruptly decreases in abundance in the upper part. Species belonging to the opportunistic genera Bulimina and Bolivina are more abundant in the upper part of the section. Variability in the abundance of opportunistic species can be associated with tectonic disturbance on the Sinu-San Jacinto fold belt (NW of Colombia) as a result of collision of the Caribbean plate against NW of South America. The tectonics could lead a perturbation on deep ocean sedimentation and circulation.

  2. Tracing the incorporation of carbon into benthic foraminiferal calcite following the Deepwater Horizon event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Romero, Isabel C; Hollander, David J; Goddard, Ethan A; Brooks, Gregg R; Larson, Rebekka A

    2018-06-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event in 2010, hydrocarbons were deposited on the continental slope in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico through marine oil snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that benthic foraminiferal δ 13 C would record this depositional event. From December 2010 to August 2014, a time-series of sediment cores was collected at two impacted sites and one control site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Short-lived radioisotopes ( 210 Pb and 234 Th) were employed to establish the pre-DWH, DWH, and post-DWH intervals. Benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides spp. and Uvigerina spp.) were isolated from these intervals for δ 13 C measurement. A modest (0.2-0.4‰), but persistent δ 13 C depletion in the DWH intervals of impacted sites was observed over a two-year period. This difference was significantly beyond the pre-DWH (background) variability and demonstrated that benthic foraminiferal calcite recorded the depositional event. The longevity of the depletion in the δ 13 C record suggested that benthic foraminifera may have recorded the change in organic matter caused by MOSSFA from 2010 to 2012. These findings have implications for assessing the subsurface spatial distribution of the DWH MOSSFA event. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gray whale distribution relative to benthic invertebrate biomass and abundance: Northeastern Chukchi Sea 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Amelia A.; Ferguson, Megan C.; Schonberg, Susan V.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Clarke, Janet T.

    2017-10-01

    The shallow continental shelf waters of the Bering and Chukchi seas are the northernmost foraging grounds of North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). Benthic amphipods are considered the primary prey of gray whales in these waters, although no comprehensive quantitative analysis has been performed to support this assumption. Gray whale relative abundance, distribution, and behavior in the northeastern Chukchi Sea (69°-72°N, 155-169°W) were documented during aerial surveys in June-October 2009-2012. Concurrently, vessel-based benthic infaunal sampling was conducted in the area in July-August 2009-10, September 2011, and August 2012. Gray whales were seen in the study area each month that surveys were conducted, with the majority of whales feeding. Statistical analyses confirm that the highest densities of feeding gray whales were associated with high benthic amphipod abundance, primarily within 70 km of shore from Point Barrow to Icy Cape, in water whales were not seen in 40-km×40-km cells containing benthic sampling stations with 85 m-2 or fewer amphipods. Continuing broad-scale aerial surveys in the Chukchi Sea and prey sampling near feeding gray whales will be an important means to monitor and document ongoing and predicted ecosystem changes.

  4. Decline in the deepwater benthic communities abundance in the Onego Lake under multifactor influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Nataliya Michailovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of deepwater benthic communities state between 1988 and 2015 was analyzed. In the last decade the decline in the deepwater benthic communities development indicators is observed in Petrozavodskaya Bay and contiguous central area of the Lake Onego. The abundance of benthos decreased by 6-7 times, biomass dropped in 2-4 times. At the same time the changes in sedimentation processes of organic matter, nutrients, iron and manganese are observed in the water ecosystem. This has resulted in an increase in the concentrations of Fe and Mn in the sediment surface layers; in pore waters up to 13 mg Fe/l and 7 mg Mn/l. The sharp increase in the content of iron and manganese in the bottom sediment can be considered as a possible factor of benthos oppression. Another reason of the benthos decrease is the reduction of anthropogenic load. Now Petrozavodskaya bay receives 3 times less light organic substances than 10 years ago. The third possible reason for the reduction of benthic communities is invasion of baikalian amphipods Gmelinoides fasciatus, resulting in the redistribution of organic matter flow from the littoral zone to the pelagic zone and depletion of deepwater benthic food resources.

  5. Leachates and elemental ratios of macrophytes and benthic algae of an Andean high altitude wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz MODENUTTI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In wetlands, macrophytes and filamentous algae constitute an important carbon source for the total content of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM of the environment. Mallín wetland meadows are highly diverse and rare habitats in Patagonia, that can be characterized as wet meadows with a dense cover mainly dominated by herbaceous plants. We carried out a field study comparing elemental composition (C:N:P of benthic algae (Spirogyra sp. and Zygnema sp. and the submerged macrophyte (Myriophyllum quitense from a high latitude wetland (local name: mallín. Besides we performed laboratory experiments in order to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR on the optical properties and nutrient release of DOM from leachates of these benthic algae and submerged macrophyte. The obtained results indicated that macrophyte leachates could contribute significantly to changes in the optical characteristics of the wetlands while benthic algae contribute with leachates with low photoreactivity. Finally, nutrient release differs among plant species and season: benthic algae leachates release more P in spring, while M. quitense releases more of this nutrient in autumn. These results suggested that the different colonization may contribute differentially to the chemical environment of the wetland.

  6. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, A., E-mail: anita.evenset@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Hallanger, I.G. [University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Tessmann, M. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Research, University of Hamburg (Germany); Warner, N. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Ruus, A. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Borgå, K. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern 0316, Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, G.W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ{sup 15}N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ{sup 15}N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ{sup 15}N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  7. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, A.; Hallanger, I.G.; Tessmann, M.; Warner, N.; Ruus, A.; Borgå, K.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Christensen, G.; Renaud, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ"1"5N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ"1"5N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ"1"5N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  8. Field experiments on responses of a freshwater, benthic macroinvertebrate community to vertebrate predators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, J.H.; Bergey, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The seasonal importance of vertebrate predators in potentially regulating the abundance and diversity of the benthic macroinvertebrates in the littoral zone of a soft-bottom reservoir that receives thermal effluent from a nuclear production reactor was examined. Thirty-six predator (fish and turtle) exclusion cages (4 m 2 ) were placed in shallow water at six locations along a thermal gradient in Par Pond, a 1100-ha cooling reservoir on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An additional 36 control plots (4 m 2 ) were also set up. Cages were in place during three, 3-mo test periods beginning in September 1977. Estimates of benthic density, taxon richness, and distribution within functional groups (defined by feeding mechanism) were calculated for each test period. Effects of temperature on predator-prey relationships were also determined. Experimental results of this study suggest that vertebrate predation was not the fundamental parameter organizing the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the littoral zone of this reservoir. Neither taxon richness nor density of total macroinvertebrates was conclusively related to predator treatment. Relationships between predator treatment and community response (changes in density and taxon richness) were generally unaffected by either plot locality, temperature fluctuations from thermal effluent, or seasonal changes. When data from caged and control plots were pooled, however, both location and water temperature individually had direct impacts on the benthic community. From these results and other field studies it is hypothesized that individual species of keystone benthic predators do not occur in the littoral zone of freshwater lentic environments with soft bottoms

  9. Potential impacts of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Lai, Shiyu; Gao, Xueping; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-01

    To study the potential effects of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China, the field data analysis method is applied to data collected over a given monitoring period. Nine water quality parameters (water temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen) and three climate indicators for 20 years (1992-2011) are considered. The annual trends exhibit significant trends with respect to certain water quality and climate parameters. Five parameters exhibit significant seasonality differences in the monthly means between the two decades (1992-2001 and 2002-2011) of the monitoring period. Non-parametric regression of the statistical analyses is performed to explore potential key climate drivers of water quality in the reservoir. The results indicate that seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall may have positive impacts on water quality. However, an extremely cold spring and high wind speed are likely to affect the self-stabilising equilibrium states of the reservoir, which requires attention in the future. The results suggest that land use changes have important impact on nitrogen load. This study provides useful information regarding the potential effects of climate change on water quality in developing countries.

  10. Corroborating the Land Use Change as Primary Determinant of Air Quality Degradation in a Concentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bandung City is characterized by concentric land use pattern as found in many naturally grown cities. It radiates from mixed commercial areas in the center to low density residential areas in the periphery. This pattern generates significant traffic volume towards city center. The gener-ated traffic releases emissions and degrades urban air quality since fossil fuel is predominantly used by vehicles in Bandung. In the absence of air polluting industries as well as construction and demolition activities, traffic load generated by land use changes is the only major contribu-tor to air quality degradation in the city. The land use change can therefore be seen as primary determinant of air pollution in Bandung. This study analyses land use changes and its impacts on traffic pattern and air quality. Multivariate correlation between traffic load and land use changes is employed as tool to substantiate the proposition. Relationships between the degree of chang-es in land use, as reflected in traffic loads, and the quantity of two principal air pollutants, namely SO2 and HC are also established to validate the argument. The result of analysis sub-stantiates the correlation between land use changes and air quality degradation.

  11. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  12. Change in quality management in diabetes care groups and outpatient clinics after feedback and tailored support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J; Baan, Caroline A; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Rutten, Guy E

    2015-02-01

    To assess the change in level of diabetes quality management in primary care groups and outpatient clinics after feedback and tailored support. This before-and-after study with a 1-year follow-up surveyed quality managers on six domains of quality management. Questionnaires measured organization of care, multidisciplinary teamwork, patient centeredness, performance results, quality improvement policy, and management strategies (score range 0-100%). Based on the scores, responders received feedback and a benchmark and were granted access to a toolbox of quality improvement instruments. If requested, additional support in improving quality management was available, consisting of an elucidating phone call or a visit from an experienced consultant. After 1 year, the level of quality management was measured again. Of the initially 60 participating care groups, 51 completed the study. The total quality management score improved from 59.8% (95% CI 57.0-62.6%) to 65.1% (62.8-67.5%; P quality management score (P = 0.001). Of the 44 participating outpatient clinics, 28 completed the study. Their total score changed from 65.7% (CI 60.3-71.1%) to 67.3% (CI 62.9-71.7%; P = 0.30). Only the results in the domain multidisciplinary teamwork improved (P = 0.001). Measuring quality management and providing feedback and a benchmark improves the level of quality management in care groups but not in outpatient clinics. The questionnaires might also be a useful asset for other diabetes care groups, such as Accountable Care Organizations. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Gibert, Oriol [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Marti, Vicens [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)]. E-mail: vicens.marti@upc.edu; Diez, Sergi [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Environmental Geology Department, ICTJA-CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Romo, Javier [Environmental Service of Barcelona Harbour Authority, Carretera de la Circumval.lacio, s/n, Tram VI, Sector 6, Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep Maria [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, Joan de [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour.

  14. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier; Gibert, Oriol; Marti, Vicens; Diez, Sergi; Romo, Javier; Bayona, Josep Maria; Pablo, Joan de

    2007-01-01

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour

  15. Fringing reefs exposed to different levels of eutrophication and sedimentation can support similar benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzé, H.; Lecellier, G.; Langlade, M.J.; Planes, S.; Berteaux-Lecellier, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess anthropogenic pressures on coral reef health. • We present a spatio-temporal survey of environmental parameters as bio-indicators. • Poor water quality (e.g. high turbidity and high sediments) was not correlated with lower coral cover. • Phytoplankton community size-composition and habitat stability were important predictors of coral reef health. - Abstract: Benthic communities are sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances which can result in changes in species assemblages. A spatio-temporal survey of environmental parameters was conducted over an 18-month period on four different fringing reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, with unusual vs. frequent human pressures. This survey included assessment of biological, chemical, and physical parameters. First, the results showed a surprising lack of a seasonal trend, which was likely obscured by short-term variability in lagoons. More frequent sampling periods would likely improve the evaluation of a seasonal effect on biological and ecological processes. Second, the three reef habitats studied that were dominated by corals were highly stable, despite displaying antagonistic environmental conditions through eutrophication and sedimentation gradients, whereas the reef dominated by macroalgae was relatively unstable. Altogether, our data challenge the paradigm of labelling environmental parameters such as turbidity, sedimentation, and nutrient-richness as stress indicators

  16. [An analysis of the effectiveness of external quality assurance programmes using changes in quality indicators of individual hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Nicholas; Gerhardinger, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Judging the effectiveness of external quality assurance programmes by comparing current performance with unadjusted regional or national crude averages is misleading because the influence of the actual size of the populations under consideration as well as the variance of performance between hospitals is underestimated. Not only do these artefacts lead to a general overestimation of changes in regional averages. They also may lead to a ranking confounded by regional size. An assessment at unit level circumvents these difficulties. The differential grading of degree of departure of a unit's performance from national targets available from funnel plots allows, in addition, for the discrimination between effects due to the monitoring institution and achievements attributable to the hospital under surveillance. A central role is played by the scoring system adopted for evaluating incremental changes of performance indicator values in successive years. The following proposal is intended to both assist the assessment of effectiveness of quality assurance programmes and identify areas requiring urgent improvement. Bavarian quality assurance data (BAQ 1995) are used to illustrate the method. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Economic Valuation on Change of Tourism Quality in Rawapening, Indonesia: An Application of Random Utility Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Irawan, B. R. M. B.; Sasongko, G.; Hakim, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine the profit (loss) earned economic actors tourism activities if the condition or quality of tourism in Rawapening be improved (deteriorated). Change condition or quality can be seen by traveling expenses, natural environment, Japanese cultural performances, and traditional markets. The method used to measure changes in the economic benefits or economic loss with a random utility approach. The study was found that travel cost, natural environment, Japanese cultural performances, and traditional markets have significant factors about respondent preferences to choose the change of tourism condition. The value of compensation received by visitors as a result of changes in conditions improved by 2,932 billion, while the change in the condition worsens by 2,628 billion. Recommendation of this study is the local government should consider environmental factors in the formulation of tourism development in Rawapening.

  18. Changing Policy, Changing Culture: Steps toward Early Learning Quality Improvement in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler, Collette

    2011-01-01

    Across Australia a combined government effort is underway to reform early childhood education and care (ECEC) provision. A National Law Bill passed in 2010 heralds a new legal, regulatory and accountability framework that embraces all types ECEC provision. As a result, service providers face rapid change to address a new orientation and higher…

  19. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rozalli, N. H.; Chin, N. L.; Yusof, Y. A.; Mahyudin, N.

    2015-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectiv...

  20. Changes in bacterial profiles after periodontal treatment associated with respiratory quality of asthmatic children

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyarni Pambudi; Imelda Fabiola; Retno Indrawati; Haryono Utomo; Anang Endaryanto; Ariyanto Harsono

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the reduction phenomenon of asthma exacerbation after dental plaque control, no scientific report has been found to describe the link between bacterial profiles and respiratory quality in children with asthma. Objective To investigate association between bacterial profiles changes and improvement in respiratory quality after periodontal treatment. Methods Asthmatic children with FEV1 reversibility ~ 12% and dental plaque index ~ 2 who qualified for incl...

  1. Beyond yields: Climate change effects on specialty crop quality and agroecological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change is impacting the sustainability of food systems through shifts in natural and human dimensions of agroecosystems that influence farmer livelihoods, consumer choices, and food security. This paper highlights the need for climate studies on specialty crops to focus not only on yields, but also on quality, as well as the ability of agroecological management to buffer climate effects on quality parameters. Crop quality refers to phytonutrient and secondary metabolite profiles and associated health and sensory properties that influence consumer buying decisions. Through two literature reviews, we provide examples of specialty crops that are vulnerable to climate effects on quality and examples of climate-resilient agroecological strategies. A range of specialty crops including fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, stimulants, and herbs were identified to respond to climate variables with changes in quality. The review on climate-resilient strategies to mitigate effects on crop quality highlighted a major gap in the literature. However, agricultural diversification emerged as a promising strategy for climate resilience more broadly and highlights the need for future research to assess the potential of diversified agroecosystems to buffer climate effects on crop quality. We integrate the concepts from our literature review within a socio-ecological systems framework that takes into account feedbacks between crop quality, consumer responses, and agroecosystem management. The presented framework is especially useful for two themes in agricultural development and marketing, nutrition-sensitive agriculture and terroir, for informing the design of climate-change resilient specialty crop systems focused on management of quality and other ecosystem services towards promoting environmental and human wellbeing.

  2. Longitudinal change in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, John; Gibson, G John; Bourke, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for management of patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend that clinical decisions, including escalation to assisted ventilation, be informed by an estimate of the patients’ likely postdischarge quality of life. There is little evidence to inform predictions of outcome in terms of quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status. Undue nihilism might lead to denial of potentially life-saving therapy, while undue optimism might prolong suffering when alternative palliation would be more appropriate. This study aimed to detail longitudinal changes in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD. Methods We prospectively recruited two cohorts (exacerbations requiring assisted ventilation during admission and exacerbations not ventilated). Admission clinical data, and mortality and readmission details were collected. Quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status were formally assessed over the subsequent 12 months. Time-adjusted mean change in quality of life was examined. Results 183 patients (82 ventilated; 101 not ventilated) were recruited. On average, overall quality of life improved by a clinically important amount in those not ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Both groups showed clinically important improvements in respiratory symptoms and an individual's sense of control over their condition, despite the tendency for functional status to decline. Conclusions On average, postdischarge quality of life improved in non-ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Certain quality of life domains (ie, symptoms and mastery) improved significantly. Better understanding of longitudinal change in postdischarge quality of life should help to inform decision-making. PMID:25628892

  3. Modeling Effects of Climate Change on Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Planning Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gidhagen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ a nested system of global and regional climate models, linked to regional and urban air quality chemical transport models utilizing detailed inventories of present and future emissions, to study the relative impact of climate change and changing air pollutant emissions on air quality and population exposure in Stockholm, Sweden. We show that climate change only marginally affects air quality over the 20-year period studied. An exposure assessment reveals that the population of Stockholm can expect considerably lower NO2 exposure in the future, mainly due to reduced local NOx emissions. Ozone exposure will decrease only slightly, due to a combination of increased concentrations in the city centre and decreasing concentrations in the suburban areas. The increase in ozone concentration is a consequence of decreased local NOx emissions, which reduces the titration of the long-range transported ozone. Finally, we evaluate the consequences of a planned road transit project on future air quality in Stockholm. The construction of a very large bypass road (including one of the largest motorway road tunnels in Europe will only marginally influence total population exposure, this since the improved air quality in the city centre will be complemented by deteriorated air quality in suburban, residential areas.

  4. Value for money of changing healthcare services? Economic evaluation of quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severens, J

    2003-01-01

    

 There are many instances of perceived or real inefficiencies in health service delivery. Both healthcare providers and policy makers need to know the impact and cost of applying strategies to change the behaviour of individuals or organisations. Quality improvement or implementation research is concerned with evaluating the methods of behavioural change. Addressing inefficiencies in healthcare services raises a series of issues, beginning with how inefficiency itself should be defined. The basic concepts of cost analysis and economic evaluations are explained and a model for working through the economic issues of quality improvement is discussed. This model combines the costs and benefits of corrected inefficiency with the costs and degree of behavioural change achieved by a quality improvement method in the policy maker's locality. It shows why it may not always be cost effective for policy makers to address suboptimal behaviour. Both the interpretation of quality improvement research findings and their local application need careful consideration. The limited availability of applicable quality improvement research may make it difficult to provide robust advice on the value for money of many behavioural quality improvement strategies. PMID:14532369

  5. PALEOENVIRONMENTAL RECONSTRUCTION FROM BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL ASSEMBLAGES OF EARLY HOLOCENE, SHALLOW MARINE DEPOSITS IN GOMBONG, CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luli Gustiani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 30m-long sediment core covering the Holocene period was taken from the area of Gombong in the southern part of Central Java. The sediments were deposited in a shallow marine to lagoonal environment that was confirmed by the dominance of Ammonia beccarii along the core intervals. In addition, the species Quinqueloculina poeyana, Miliolinella lakemacquariensis, and Miliolinella subrotunda were also found in the sediments that are typical of normal shallow marine conditions. The decrease and increase in the abundance of these species throughout the core is an expression of sea level change in the area, which results the environmental changes. Low sea level is expressed by the dominance of Ammonia beccarii, and the low abundances or absence of the other three species. In contrast, high sea level stands are reflected by the presence of all four species. The high sea level would imply favorable conditions for benthic foraminifera because it would result in normal shallow marine conditions in the area. Finally, from this benthic assemblages study, it can be assumed that the environmental transformation from the originally shallow marine environment into land was occurred at level 5.5m depths of the sediment core, when all benthic foraminifera were terminated, including Ammonia beccarii. These new results from the shallow marine deposits in the Gombong area are a new contribution to the understanding of paleoenvironmental change in the region, which in turn is important for understanding sea level change as well as climate change in the region.

  6. Changes in Subjective Sleep Quality Before a Competition and Their Relation to Competitive Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Erlacher, Daniel; Ziegler, Matthias

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of competitions on subjective sleep quality. Previous studies have been inconclusive and lack differentiated and standardized measurements of subjective sleep quality. Furthermore the temporal relation between precompetitive anxiety and sleep quality was investigated. Anxiety and nervousness associated with competitions are considered to cause sleep impairments. A convenience sample of N = 79 elite male athletes from various sports participated. In a time-to-event paradigm, sleep quality and competitive anxiety were assessed via standardized self-report measurements 4 days before a competition and on the day of the competition. Univariate analyses were used to examine differences between time points. To examine cross-lagged effects between anxiety and sleep quality a latent change score model (LCSM) was specified that tested an effect of anxiety on changes in sleep quality. Evaluations of nocturnal sleep deteriorated significantly from 4 days before competition to the day of competition, but there were no differences regarding perceptions of the restorative value of sleep. LCSM revealed that athletes who reported more intense worry symptoms 4 days before competition also reported greater deterioration in evaluations of nocturnal sleep. The findings support earlier reports of impaired subjective sleep quality before competitions. Precompetitive sleep impairments appear also to be preceded by cognitive anxiety. Whereas interventions should thus address worry-cognitions associated with competition and sleep, research should address the practical importance of these perceptions of sleep impairments.

  7. Characterizing the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposures to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Kathie L; Nolte, Christopher G; Spero, Tanya L; Graham, Stephen; Caraway, Nina; Foley, Kristen M; Isaacs, Kristin K

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure. Human exposure results from the Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX) for 12 US cities show differences in daily maximum 8-h (DM8H) exposure patterns and levels by sex, age, and city for all scenarios. When climate is held constant and population demographics are varied, minimal difference in O 3 exposures is predicted even with the most extreme demographic change scenario. In contrast, when population is held constant, we see evidence of substantial changes in O 3 exposure for the most extreme change in climate. Similarly, we see increases in the percentage of the population in each city with at least one O 3 exposure exceedance above 60 p.p.b and 70 p.p.b thresholds for future changes in climate. For these climate and population scenarios, the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposure to O 3 are much larger than the impacts of changing demographics. These results indicate the potential for future changes in O 3 exposure as a result of changes in climate that could impact human health.

  8. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon: A seasonal study from Faroe Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    á Norði, Gunnvør; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud; Gaard, Eilif

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for rates were associated to the spring bloom. The dynamics in the benthic solute exchange were governed by stratification that isolated the bottom water during summer and intensified sediment resuspension during winter. The POC export from the euphotic zone could not sustain the benthic mineralization rate (10.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1) and the calculated burial rate (9.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1) of organic material in the central basin. This indicated considerable focusing of material in the central part of the fjord. This was supported by the fact that the measured benthic mineralization rate - in contrast to most investigations - actually increased with increasing water depth. In August, when mineralization was at its maximum, the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) release from the sediment increased by 2.2 mmol m- 2 d- 1 for every m increase in water depth at 30-60 m depth. Due to sediment focusing, the OC burial in the deepest part of the fjord was 9.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1. This was 2.4 times higher than the average OC burial in the fjord, estimated from the total sedimentation, and benthic mineralization accounting for the water depth related changes in activity. The study in Kaldbaksfjørður underscore that fjords are important sites for long time OC burial, but emphasize the need for accounting for spatial variations when extrapolating results from a single or few stations to the scale of the entire fjord.

  9. Study the Soil Quality Changes Indicators Using Nemoro and Integrated Quality Index Models in Some Khuzestan’s Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramezani

    2016-09-01

    IQITDS - IQIMDS and between NQITDS -NQIMDS. The results show that the NQITDS model can be saved in compire with IQI models. This can decrease the time and costs in this method. But in some regions due to low correlation with Using a set of MDS, which comprise more limited number of soil characteristics You cannot reliably determine soil quality indicators are acceptable and should use the same set of TDS. Also, the results show that the soil was compacted due to heavy traffic, and this has reduced soil quality. The most important limiting factor of quality soil was reduced soil organic matter and porosity and increased bulk density. None of the subjects in the study area are not very stable and unstable. According to the research, increased of cultivation in most soils were clay and silt and decreased sand content. The burning of sugarcane after harvesting, can be to cause reduce organic matter, Finally, reduced the cation exchange capacity related of the soil organic matter and thus increased the bulk density of soil and reduced the soil structural stability. Decreased the electrical conductivity of the saturation extract and sodium adsorption ratio under cultivation and showed increasing trend pH of soil in all the samples. Finally reduced under cultivation soil quality. Nevertheless, we can better manage the effects can be even more improved soil quality grade. Therefore, a special management operations, such as changing the way farming, plowing, residue management, fertilizer use and the presence of organic matter the optimum, Reduce negative environmental effects such as the effect of insecticides and heavy metals... By creating a suitable building could be Prevent the destruction of the building and therefore the distribution of pores. Conclusion: This investigation showed the efficiency of soil quality studies for the evaluation of present conditions of soil in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Therefore, these soils need to special management, such as minimum

  10. Influence of invasive Acer negundo leaf litter on benthic microbial abundance and activity in the littoral zone of a temperate river in Lithuania

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    Krevš Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forests are known as important source of allochthonous organic matter entering to water ecosystems via fallen leaves. However, leaf litter, depending on their quality, may create different conditions for benthic microorganisms functioning in littoral zone of water bodies. In order to evaluate the impact of riparian invasive Acer negundo on littoral water zone of the River Neris (Lithuania, we performed physicochemical and microbiological investigations in bottom sediments of three different sites of the river. One sampling site was close by riparian A. negundo, another close by native Alnus glutinosa location and a third zone was near the shore without riparian vegetation. Content of nutrients in the littoral sediments differed between invasive and native trees leaf litter accumulation sites, while not always significantly. The highest microbial densities as well as benthic community respiratory activity (expressed as the rate of organic carbon mineralization occurred in A. negundo leaves accumulation site. In sediments of this site, the most intensive anaerobic terminal organic carbon mineralization process − sulfate reduction and the highest concentration of hydrogen sulfide were also observed. Differences in the intensity of mineralization processes between sites suggest that the replacement of the riparian native species such as dominant A. glutinosa by invasive A. negundo with higher biodegradability leaves may induce local changes in organic matter processing in the littoral zone of the river. The increase of littoral bioproductivity in the accumulation zone of A. negundo leaf litter can occur due to the inflow of available organic matter and its intensive mineralization.

  11. Quality of life and severity of skin changes in the dynamics of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Owczarek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with periods of recurrence and remission. The skin changes which are typical of this disease can have a considerable effect on the patient’s psychological state, self-esteem and body image. It can also affect the patient’s functioning in all areas of life and quality of life. Aim : The present study characterized the patient needs to improve the quality of life in specified areas in patients depending on the severity of psoriatic changes. Material and methods: The study was conducted in two stages on 100 patients aged from 18 to 66. A dermatological examination was conducted in stage one. Patients’ dermatological condition was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Clinical and socio-economic information was collected in stage two using a questionnaire, a medical interview and a standardized questionnaire measuring quality of life, the WHOQOL-BREF. Results: The following factors had the greatest effect on the general quality of life and quality of health ratings in the studied sample: severity of psoriatic changes, duration of the most recent recurrence and sex. Severity of psoriatic changes had a negative effect on the patient’s somatic, psychological, environmental and social functioning. Duration of the most recent recurrence had a negative effect on social functioning. Practical implications of this study allow dermatologists to determine the appropriate therapeutic intervention which improves the quality of life of these patients on the one hand, and will increase patient’s involvement in the process of treatment on the other hand. Conclusions : Quality of life is more impaired by more severe chronic skin disease.

  12. Changes in quality of life after elective surgery: an observational study comparing two measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronzer, Vanessa L; Jerry, Michelle R; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Wildes, Troy S; McKinnon, Sherry L; Sharma, Anshuman; Avidan, Michael S

    2017-08-01

    Our main objective was to compare the change in a validated quality of life measure to a global assessment measure. The secondary objectives were to estimate the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) and to describe the change in quality of life by surgical specialty. This prospective cohort study included 7902 adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Changes in the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12), composed of a physical component summary (PCS) and a mental component summary (MCS), were calculated using preoperative and postoperative questionnaires. The latter also contained a global assessment question for quality of life. We compared PCS and MCS to the global assessment using descriptive statistics and weighted kappa. MCID was calculated using an anchor-based approach. Analyses were pre-specified and registered (NCT02771964). By the change in VR-12 scores, an equal proportion of patients experienced improvement and deterioration in quality of life (28% for PCS, 25% for MCS). In contrast, by the global assessment measure, 61% reported improvement, while only 10% reported deterioration. Agreement with the global assessment was slight for both PCS (kappa = 0.20, 57% matched) and MCS (kappa = 0.10, 54% matched). The MCID for the overall VR-12 score was approximately 2.5 points. Patients undergoing orthopedic surgery showed the most improvement in quality of life measures, while patients undergoing gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary or urologic surgery showed the most deterioration. Subjective global quality of life report does not agree well with a validated quality of life instrument, perhaps due to patient over-optimism.

  13. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

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    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  14. Evaluation of potential relationships between benthic community structure and toxic metals in Laizhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang

    2014-10-15

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between benthic community structure and toxic metals using bivariate/multivariate techniques at 17 sediment locations in Laizhou Bay, North China. Sediment chemical data were evaluated against geochemical background values and sediment quality guidelines, which identified Cu and As as contaminants of concern with a moderate potential for adverse effects. Benthic community data were subjected to non-metric multidimensional scaling, which generated four groups of stations. Spearman rank correlation was then employed to explore the relationships between the major axes of heavy metals and benthic community structure. However, weak and insignificant correlations were found between these axes, indicating that contaminants of concern may not be the primary explanatory factors. Polychaeta were abundant in southern Laizhou Bay, serving as a warning regarding the health status of the ecosystem. Integrated sediment quality assessment showed sediments from northern central locations were impaired, displaying less diverse benthos and higher metal contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in Air Terjun Asahan, Asahan, Melaka, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhafizah-Azwa, S.; Ahmad A., K.

    2016-11-01

    A study on benthic macroinvertebrate diversity was conducted at Air Terjun Asahan, Asahan, Melaka. Five stations were selected with distance intervals of approximately 500 metres. Three replicates of benthic macroinvertebrate and water samples were taken. Results classified Air Terjun Asahan in class II, which indicated good water quality based on WQI recommended by the Department of Environment. A total of 1 phylum, 2 classes, 6 order, 30 families, and 2183 individuals were successfully sampled and recorded. The analysis showed that the average value of Shannon Diversity Index, H' (2.19), Pielou Evenness Index, J' (0.30), and Margaleff Richness Index, DMG (3.77) described that Air Terjun Asahan was in moderate condition and the distribution of macroinvertebrates was uniform between stations. Correlation test showed that the WQI had a strong relationship with the diversity indices involved. BMWP, and FBI showed that Air Terjun Asahan was in good water quality. CCA test was conducted to show environmental factors towards benthic macroinvertebrate distribution. The presence of Leptophlebiidae, Baetidae, Heptageniidae and Chironomidae with high abundance of the families showed the potential as biological indicators of a clean ecosystem.

  16. Organizational change in quality management aspects: a quantitative proposal for classification

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    André Tavares de Aquino

    Full Text Available Abstract Periodically, organizations need to change the quality management aspects of processes and products in order to suit the demands of their internal and external (consumer and competitor market environments. In the context of the present study, quality management changes involve tools, programs, methods, standards and procedures that can be applied. The purpose of this study is to help senior management to identify types of change and, consequently, determine how it should be correctly conducted within an organization. The methodology involves a classification model, with multicriteria support, and three organizational change ratings were adopted (the extremes, type I and type II, as confirmed in the literature, and the intermediary, proposed herein. The multicriteria method used was ELECTRE TRI and the model was applied to two companies of the Textile Local Productive Arrangement in Pernambuco, Brazil. The results are interesting and show the consistency and coherence of the proposed classification model.

  17. Seasonal rates of benthic primary production in a Greenland fjord measured by aquatic eddy correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Attard, Karl; Glud, Ronnie; McGinnis, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    -quality multiple-day EC data sets document the presence of a year-round productive benthic phototrophic community. The shallow-water sites were on average autotrophic during the spring and summer months, up to 43.6 mmol O2 m22 d21, and heterotrophic or close to metabolic balance during the autumn and winter....... Substantial benthic gross primary production (GPP) was measured year-round. The highest GPP rates were measured during the spring, up to 5.7 mmol O2 m22 h21 (136.8 mmol O2 m22 d21), and even at low light levels (, 80 mmol quanta m22 s21) during late autumn and winter we measured rates of up to 1.8 mmol O2 m22...

  18. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  19. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration, and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 is reduced by ∼ 2 µg m−3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ∼ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (∼ 74 200 lives saved. The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone, leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is  ∼ 0.04 W m−2 over the globe, and ∼ 0.8 W m−2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22

  20. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  1. U.S. ozone air quality under changing climate and anthropogenic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racherla, Pavan N; Adams, Peter J

    2009-02-01

    We examined future ozone (O3) air quality in the United States (U.S.) under changing climate and anthropogenic emissions worldwide by performing global climate-chemistry simulations, utilizing various combinations of present (1990s) and future (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 2050s) climates, and present and future (2050s; IPCC SRES A2 and B1) anthropogenic emissions. The A2 climate scenario is employed here because it lies at the upper extreme of projected climate change for the 21st century. To examine the sensitivity of U.S. O3 to regional emissions increases (decreases), the IPCC SRES A2 and B1 scenarios, which have overall higher and lower O3-precursor emissions for the U.S., respectively, have been chosen. We find that climate change, by itself, significantly worsens the severity and frequency of high-O3 events ("episodes") over most locations in the U.S., with relatively small changes in average O3 air quality. These high-O3 increases due to climate change alone will erode moderately the gains made under a U.S. emissions reduction scenario (e.g., B1). The effect of climate change on high- and average-O3 increases with anthropogenic emissions. Insofar as average O3 air quality is concerned, changes in U.S. anthropogenic emissions will play the most important role in attaining (or not) near-term U.S. O3 air quality standards. However, policy makers must plan appropriately for O3 background increases due to projected increases in global CH4 abundance and non-U.S. anthropogenic emissions, as well as potential local enhancements that they could cause. These findings provide strong incentives for more-than-planned emissions reductions at locations that are currently O3-nonattainment.

  2. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  3. Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willacker, James J; von Hippel, Frank A; Wilton, Peter R; Walton, Kelly M

    2010-11-01

    Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fisher's linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology.

  4. Potentiality of benthic dinoflagellate cultures and screening of their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taken together, this is the first report on the growth potential and biomass production of benthic dinoflagellate strains isolated from Jeju Island in appropriate culture medium as well as their importance in potential pharmacological applications. Key words: Amphidinium carterae, benthic dinoflagellates, biomass, bioactivities, ...

  5. Integrated Modelling on Flow and Water Quality Under the Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHI, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on flooding in the UK, inducing more intense and prolonged storms. Frequent flooding due to climate change already exacerbates catchment water quality. Land use is another contributing factor to poor water quality. For example, the move to intensive farming could cause an increase in faecal coliforms entering the water courses. In an effort to understand better the effects on water quality from land use and climate change, the hydrological and estuarine processes are being modelled using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), linked to a 2-D hydrodynamic model DIVAST(Depth Integrated Velocity and Solute Transport). The coupled model is able to quantify how much of each pollutant from the catchment reaches the harbour and the impact on water quality within the harbour. The work is focused on the transportation and decay of faecal coliforms from agricultural runoff into the rivers Frome and Piddle in the UK. The impact from the agricultural land use and activities on the catchment river hydrology and water quality are evaluated. The coupled model calibration and validation showed the good model performance on flow and faecal coliform in the watershed and estuary.

  6. Temporal Changes in the Quality of Acute Stroke Care in Five National Audits across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Hillmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data on potential variations in delivery of appropriate stroke care over time are scarce. We investigated temporal changes in the quality of acute hospital stroke care across five national audits in Europe over a period of six years. Methods. Data were derived from national stroke audits in Germany, Poland, Scotland, Sweden, and England/Wales/Northern Ireland participating within the European Implementation Score (EIS collaboration. Temporal changes in predefined quality indicators with comparable information between the audits were investigated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate adherence to quality indicators over time. Results. Between 2004 and 2009, individual data from 542,112 patients treated in 538 centers participating continuously over the study period were included. In most audits, the proportions of patients who were treated on a SU, were screened for dysphagia, and received thrombolytic treatment increased over time and ranged from 2-fold to almost 4-fold increase in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy in 2009 compared to 2004. Conclusions. A general trend towards a better quality of stroke care defined by standardized quality indicators was observed over time. The association between introducing a specific measure and higher adherence over time might indicate that monitoring of stroke care performance contributes to improving quality of care.

  7. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  8. Benthic prey fish assessment, Lake Ontario 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Connerton, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 benthic fish assessment was delayed and shortened as a result of the U.S. Government shutdown, however the assessment collected 51 of the 62 planned bottom trawls. Over the past 34 years, Slimy Sculpin abundance in Lake Ontario has fluctuated, but ultimately decreased by two orders of magnitude, with a substantial decline occurring in the past 10 years. The 2013 Slimy Sculpin mean bottom trawl catch density (0.001 ind.·m-2, s.d.= 0.0017, n = 52) and mean biomass density (0.015 g·m-2 , s.d.= 0.038, n = 52) were the lowest recorded in the 27 years of sampling using the original bottom trawl design. From 2011-2013, the Slimy Sculpin density and biomass density has decreased by approximately 50% each year. Spring bottom trawl catches illustrate Slimy Sculpin and Round Goby Neogobius melanostoma winter habitat overlaps for as much as 7 months out of a year, providing opportunities for competition and predation. Invasive species, salmonid piscivory, and declines in native benthic invertebrates are likely all important drivers of Slimy Sculpin population dynamics in Lake Ontario. Deepwater Sculpin Myoxocephalus thompsonii, considered rare or absent from Lake Ontario for 30 years, have generally increased over the past eight years. For the first time since they were caught in this assessment, Deepwater Sculpin density and biomass density estimates declined from the previous year. The 2013 abundance and density estimates for trawls covering the standard depths from 60m to 150m was 0.0001 fish per square meter and 0.0028 grams per square meter. In 2013, very few small (recruitment. Nonnative Round Gobies were first detected in the USGS/NYSDEC Lake Ontario spring Alewife assessment in 2002. Since that assessment, observations indicate their population has expanded and they are now found along the entire south shore of Lake Ontario, with the highest densities in U.S. waters just east of the Niagara River confluence. In the 2013 spring-based assessment, both the

  9. Status of and changes in water quality monitored for the Idaho statewide surface-water-quality network, 1989—2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A.; Parliman, Deborah J.; O'Dell, Ivalou

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho statewide surface-water-quality monitoring network consists of 56 sites that have been monitored from 1989 through 2002 to provide data to document status and changes in the quality of Idaho streams. Sampling at 33 sites has covered a wide range of flows and seasons that describe water-quality variations representing both natural conditions and human influences. Targeting additional high- or low-flow sampling would better describe conditions at 20 sites during hydrologic extremes. At the three spring site types, sampling covered the range of flow conditions from 1989 through 2002 well. However, high flows at these sites since 1989 were lower than historical high flows as a result of declining ground-water levels in the Snake River Plain. Summertime stream temperatures at 45 sites commonly exceeded 19 and 22 degrees Celsius, the Idaho maximum daily mean and daily maximum criteria, respectively, for the protection of coldwater aquatic life. Criteria exceedances in stream basins with minimal development suggest that such high temperatures may occur naturally in many Idaho streams. Suspended-sediment concentrations were generally higher in southern Idaho than in central and northern Idaho, and network data suggest that the turbidity criteria are most likely to be exceeded at sites in southern Idaho and other sections of the Columbia Plateaus geomorphic province. This is probably because this province has more fine-grained soils that are subject to erosion and disturbance by land uses than the Northern Rocky Mountains province of northern and central

  10. The influence of multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors on benthic communities in a mid-west agricultural stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Killen, Willian D; Anderson, Ronald D; Alden, Raymond W

    2017-08-24

    The objective of this 3-year study was to characterize benthic communities and physical habitat in an agricultural stream in the mid-west area of the United States (Big Bureau Creek, Illinois). Concurrent basic water quality parameters and seven nutrients were measured in the water column. Sediment measurements from depositional areas were conducted for bifenthrin, Total Organic Carbon, grain size, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and eight metals. All parameters were measured at 12 sites annually during the late summer for a 3-year period (2014, 2015 and 2016). Univariate regressions, stepwise multiple regressions and canonical correlation statistical analyses were used to determine the relationship between various benthic metrics (i.e., taxa richness and abundance) and all the measured parameters for the 3-year database. Benthic communities comprising 108-110 taxa were collected annually, and were generally dominated by sensitive caddisflies and mayflies. These communities were rated as good to exceptional using the Ohio Invertebrate Community Index. Physical habitat for the various sites was rated as good using the Ohio Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index, thus suggesting that habitat is not a significant stressor that would likely impact resident benthic communities. Based on a comparison of measured in-stream total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations and criterion value exceedances, it appears that the in-stream nutrient concentrations could be potentially stressful to resident benthic biota. Metal concentrations were below established NOAA Threshold Effects Levels at all sites. Measured PCB concentrations were below levels of detection at all sites. Toxic units' (TUs) calculations based on using sensitive laboratory strains of Hyalella were less than 0.1 for bifenthrin, thus suggesting that bifenthrin sediment toxicity was unlikely. Thirty significant relationships reported between benthic metrics and the various environmental variables based on the

  11. Potential Impacts of Future Climate Change on Regional Air Quality and Public Health over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change would affect public health through changing air quality. Climate extremes and poor weather conditions are likely to occur at a higher frequency in China under a changing climate, but the air pollution-related health impacts due to future climate change remain unclear. Here the potential impacts of future climate change on regional air quality and public health over China is projected using a coupling of climate, air quality and epidemiological models. We present the first assessment of China's future air quality in a changing climate under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario using the dynamical downscaling technique. In RCP4.5 scenario, we estimate that climate change from 2006-2010 to 2046-2050 is likely to adversely affect air quality covering more than 86% of population and 55% of land area in China, causing an average increase of 3% in O3 and PM2.5 concentrations, which are found to be associated with the warmer climate and the more stable atmosphere. Our estimate of air pollution-related mortality due to climate change in 2050 is 26,000 people per year in China. Of which, the PM2.5-related mortality is 18,700 people per year, and the O3-related mortality is 7,300 people per year. The climate-induced air pollution and health impacts vary spatially. The climate impacts are even more pronounced on the urban areas where is densely populated and polluted. 90% of the health loss is concentrated in 20% of land areas in China. We use a simple statistical analysis method to quantify the contributions of climate extremes and find more intense climate extremes play an important role in climate-induced air pollution-related health impacts. Our results indicate that global climate change will likely alter the level of pollutant management required to meet future air quality targets as well as the efforts to protect public health in China.

  12. Technology change priorities influencing competition quality promotion: Case study of Iran Keaton Polyester Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Nour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the changing world with various customers’ demands the businesses tend to improve their advantages to beat their rivals by means of better quality, lower prices and so. For Iranian polyester market quality is of crucial importance and is achieved through changing and updating technologies. According to highly regarded model of CAPTECH, which is recommended by UNIDO, technology parameters are defined in each phase and not generally as a whole. In the end the biggest gaps are defined. The main goal is to prioritize the main parameters affecting Iranian polyester company's quality. In order to fulfill our goal, 20 high and medium managers were questioned for this paper. The questions were gathered according to UNIDO samples. After a qualitative and quantitative test we concluded that the biggest gap is for supply chain(56.91 and the lowest gap is for combination phase(43.97.

  13. Have Nursing Home Compare quality measure scores changed over time in response to competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas G; Engberg, John; Liu, Darren

    2007-06-01

    Currently, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services report on 15 Quality Measures (QMs) on the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) website. It is assumed that nursing homes are able to make improvements on these QMs, and in doing so they will attract more residents. In this investigation, we examine changes in QM scores, and whether competition and/or excess demand have influenced these change scores over a period of 1 year. Data come from NHC and the On-line Survey Certification And Recording (OSCAR) system. QM change scores are calculated using values from January 2003 to January 2004. A series of regression analyses are used to examine the association of competition and excess demand on QM scores. Eight QMs show an average decrease in scores (ie, better quality) and six QMs show an average increase in scores (ie, worse quality). However, for 13 of the 14 QMs these average changes averaged less than 1%. The regression analyses show an association between higher competition and improving QM scores and an association between lower occupancy and improving QM scores. As would be predicted based on the market-driven mechanism underlying quality improvements using report cards, we show that it is in the most competitive markets and those with the lowest average occupancy rates that improvements in the QM scores are more likely.

  14. Teacher Education around the World: Changing Policies and Practices. Teacher Quality and School Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda, Ed.; Lieberman, Ann, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers are the most important single element of the education system but what does it take to create high quality teachers in today's world? Around the world, countries are struggling to understand how to change their schools to meet global demands. International comparisons have shown that schools in Finland lead the league tables, but why is…

  15. Sustainable development and quality of life : expected effects of prospective changes in economic and environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.; Skolnik, M; Gatersleben, B.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the context of "sustainable development", we studied which attributes are important to people's quality of life (QoL) and which changes in QoL people would expect from future economic and environmental improvements or deteriorations. About 200 adult subjects evaluated the relative importance of

  16. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling benthic oxygen consumption and benthic-pelagic coupling at a shallow station in the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, P.; Braeckman, U.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Moodley, L.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2013-01-01

    A time-series of benthic oxygen consumption, water-column and sediment chlorophyll concentrations, and temperature in the southern North Sea was subjected to inverse modelling in order to study benthic-pelagic coupling in this coastal marine system. The application of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo

  19. Change in quality of life and predictors of change among patients with multiple sclerosis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Stojsavljevic, Nebojsa; Kostic, Jelena; Basuroski, Irena Dujmovic; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and predictors of change among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) at 3 and 6 years during the follow-up period. A group of 109 consecutive MS patients (McDonald's criteria) referred to the Clinic of Neurology, Belgrade, were enrolled in the study. At three time points during the study (baseline, and at 3 and 6 years during the follow-up period), the HRQoL (measured by MSQoL-54), Expanded Disability Status Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Fatigue Severity Scale were assessed. During the study period, 93 patients provided both follow-up assessments. Statistically significant deterioration in the HRQoL at each subsequent time point was detected for all scales of the MSQoL-54 except for the pain and change in health scales. A higher level of education was a significant prognostic factor for a better HRQoL on the cognitive function scale throughout the entire period of observation, while marital status (single, including divorced and widowed) and increased age at the onset of MS had significant predictive values of poorer quality-of-life scores on the overall quality-of-life scale at 6-year follow-up. Higher levels of physical disability and depression at baseline were statistically significant prognostic markers for deterioration in HRQoL for the majority of MSQoL-54 scales during the entire follow-up period. Our study suggests that baseline demographic and clinical characteristics could be applied as prognostic markers of the HRQOL for patients diagnosed with MS.

  20. Water quality under increased biofuel production and future climate change and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, biofuel has emerged as an important renewable energy source to supplement gasoline and reduce the associated greenhouse gas emission. Many countries, for instant, have adopted biofuel production goals to blend 10% or more of gasoline with biofuels within 10 to 20 years. However, meeting these goals requires sustainable production of biofuel feedstock which can be challenging under future change in climate and extreme weather conditions, as well as the likely impacts of biofuel feedstock production on water quality and availability. To understand this interrelationship and the combined effects of increased biofuel production and climate change on regional and local water resources, we have performed watershed hydrology and water quality analyses for the Ohio River Basin. The basin is one of the major biofuel feedstock producing region in the United States, which also currently contributes about half of the flow and one third of phosphorus and nitrogen loadings to the Mississippi River that eventually flows to the Gulf of Mexico. The analyses integrate future scenarios and climate change and biofuel development through various mixes of landuse and agricultural management changes and examine their potential impacts on regional and local hydrology, water quality, soil erosion, and agriculture productivity. The results of the study are expected to provide much needed insight about the sustainability of large-scale biofuel feedstock production under the future climate change and uncertainty, and helps to further optimize the feedstock production taking into consideration the water-use efficiency.

  1. Impact of global climate change on regional air quality: Introduction to the thematic issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautard, R.; Hauglustaine, D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the major international efforts devoted to the understanding and to the future estimate of global climate change and its impact on regional scale processes, the evolution of the atmospheric composition in a changing climate is far to be understood. In particular, the future evolution of the concentration of near-surface pollutants determining air quality at a scale affecting human health and ecosystems is a subject of intense scientific research. This thematic issue reviews the current scientific knowledge of the consequences of global climate change on regional air quality and its related impact on the biosphere and on human mortality. This article provides a presentation of the key issues, summarizes the current knowledge, and introduces the thematic issue. (authors)

  2. Climate change impacts on German cities and actions for preserving quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schetke Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Also German cities -as many other cities worldwide- will be affected by impacts of climate change. Starting from the German Adaptation Strategy to climate change, the paper presents a short literature review on impacts of climate change and on fields of action for German municipalities and urban planners to adapt to it. The literature review shows that main negative impacts of climate change in Germany are due to rising temperatures and cities will also need to cope with altered precipitation regimes. But also positive impacts such as reduced heating costs are reported. Additionally, the paper highlights a second phenomenon, which also causes specific demands for urban planners regarding human health and quality of life in German cities: demographic change. Altering demographic patterns within the society will lead to altered demands for healthy living conditions. Moreover, findings from the literature show that specific groups of the society - such as the elderly - are especially vulnerable towards impacts of climate change. A concrete sensitivity towards overheating or bad air is reported. Both phenomena may simultaneously impact on German urban structures and will demand closer attention now and in the future. Consequently, specific fields of action to adapt to climate change will be presented highlighting their possible contribution sustaining quality of life in cities.

  3. Temporal and spatial changes in water quality of the indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, M.N.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, M.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Total useable water supply for agriculture is essentially fixed and is a limiting factor for increasing agriculture production. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate water quality of rivers, drains and groundwater. Suggestions are made for controlling pollution and for sustainable use of water. The scope of the paper is limited to the Indus Basin. The criteria based on TDS, SAR and RSC was used to categorize water as useable, marginal and hazardous quality for agricultural use. Data of different water quality surveys from 1959 to 2003 were used for the study. Spatial changes of groundwater quality indicate saline water intrusion towards fresh groundwater pockets. Temporal changes of groundwater quality also show deterioration of water quality over long periods. Canal supplies need to be increased to reduce reliance on groundwater which indirectly help sustainable use of groundwater. River water quality at Kotri, the lowest point in the Indus River system, is suitable for irrigation through out the year, However, pollution is a serious issue particularly during low flow periods. During the year 2004 about 40 persons died in Hyderabad due to pollution in drinking water the source of which was the River Indus. Municipal and Industrial effluents are being disposed into rivers, drains and canals without treatment which is not only detrimental to crops, human beings, livestock and marine life but also a potential threat to environment. Out of 143 outfall drains of the Indus Basin, the effluent quality of 53 drains is useable, 46 marginal and 44 hazardous. A large number of farmers are using drainage effluent for agriculture. There is no monitoring of land and water for such use. Provincial irrigation department and environment protection agencies should provide technical guidance and support to the farmers, using the drainage effluent. The Environment Act should be strictly implemented. Provincial Irrigation and Drainage Authorities (PIDA's) must work with

  4. Carbon cycling in the deep eastern North Pacific benthic food web: Investigating the effect of organic carbon input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunlop, K.M.; Van Oevelen, D.; Ruhl, H.A.; Huffard, C.L.; Kuhnz, L.A.; Smith, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    The deep ocean benthic environment plays a role in long-term carbon sequestration. Understanding carbon cycling in the deep ocean floor is critical to evaluate the impact of changing climate on the oceanic systems. Linear inverse modeling was used to quantify carbon transfer between compartments in

  5. Benthic macrofauna variations and community structure in Cenomanian cyclic chalk-marl from Southerham Grey Pit, SE England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bodil Wesenberg; Gale, A. S.; Surlyk, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Cenomanian chalk-marl couplets from England represent the 20 ka Milankovitch precession cycle. Fossil communities from both chalk and marl are identified to test if the orbital fluctuations and the associated changes in substrate lithology and climate exerted any control on the benthic macrofauna...

  6. Sources of beta diversity in estuarine benthic macro-invertebrate communities in the Baltic Sea - North Sea transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefson, Alf B.; Göke, Cordula

    Identification of sources of beta diversity, the change of diversity, is important to understand regulation of overall diversity. Additive partitioning of diversity (species richness and expH) compared to random, was performed on a quantitative benthic macro-invertebrate collection of > 400 speci...

  7. Study of Water Quality Changes due to Offshore Dike Development Plan at Semarang Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, M.; Hakim, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    Now, coast of Semarang Gulf is experiencing rapid growth because Semarang as a center economic growth in Central Java. On the other hand, coast of Gulf Semarang also experience a variety of very complex problems, such as tidal flood, land subsidence, as well as coastal damage due to erosion and sedimentation process. To overcome these problems BPPT and other institutions proposed construction of offshore dike. Construction of the offshore dike is a technology intervention to the marine environment that will certainly affect the hydrodynamic balance in coastal water including water quality in the Gulf of Semarang. Therefore, to determine changes in water quality that will happen is necessary to study the water quality modeling. The study was conducted by using a computational modeling software MIKE-21 Eco Lab Module from DHI. Based on this study result knowed that development offshore dike will change water quality in the west and east dam that formed. In west dam the average value of the DO decline 81.56% - 93.32 % and the average value of BOD rise from 22.01 to 31.19% and in the east dam, there is an increase average value DO of 83.19% - 75.80%, while the average value of BOD decrease by 95,04% - 96.01%. To prevent the downward trend in water quality due to the construction of the offshore dike, its necessary precautions at the upstream area before entering the Gulf of Semarang.

  8. Changes of Groundwater Quality in the Sorrounding Pollution Sources Due to Earthquake Dissaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main domestic water supply of the population of the Yogyakarta Special Region, both in the urban and as well as in the rural area due to its quantity and quality advantages. The rapid population growth has caused an increase of groundwater demand, consequently it is facing some problems to the sustainability of groundwater supply. Lowering of groundwater level has been observed in some places, as well as the degradation of groundwater quality. Earthquake which stroke Yogyakarta on 27 May 2006, damaged buildings and other infrastructures in the area, including roads and bridges. It might also damage the underground structures such as septic tanks, and pipes underneath the earth surface. It might cause cracking of the geologic structures. Furthermore, the damage of underneath infrastructures might create groundwater quality changes in the area. Some complains of local community on lowering and increasing groundwater level and groundwater quality changes were noted. Field observation and investigation were conducted, including collection of groundwater samples close to (the pollution sources. Laboratory analyses indicated that some parameters increased to exceed the drinking water quality standards. The high content of Coli form bacteria possibly was caused by contamination of nearby septic tanks or other pollution sources to the observed groundwater in the dug well.

  9. Change regularity of water quality parameters in leakage flow conditions and their relationship with iron release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Shentu, Huabin; Chen, Huanyu; Ye, Ping; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yifu; Bastani, Hamid; Peng, Hongxi; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Tuqiao

    2017-11-01

    The long-term stagnation in metal water supply pipes, usually caused by intermittent consumption patterns, will cause significant iron release and water quality deterioration, especially at the terminus of pipelines. Another common phenomenon at the terminus of pipelines is leakage, which is considered helpful by allowing seepage of low-quality drinking water resulting from long-term stagnation. In this study, the effect of laminar flow on alleviating water quality deterioration under different leakage conditions was investigated, and the potential thresholds of the flow rate, which can affect the iron release process, were discussed. Based on a galvanized pipe and ductile cast iron pipe pilot platform, which was established at the terminus of pipelines, this research was carried out by setting a series of leakage rate gradients to analyze the influence of different leakage flow rates on iron release, as well as the relationship with chemical and biological parameters. The results showed that the water quality parameters were obviously influenced by the change in flow velocity. Water quality was gradually improved with an increase in flow velocity, but its change regularity reflected a diversity under different flow rates (p water distribution system, when the bulk water was at the critical laminar flow velocity, the concentration of total iron, the quantity and rate of total iron release remain relatively in an ideal and safe situation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Distributions of Benthic Foraminifera in the Salisbury Embayment before and after the PETM Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, M. M.; Robinson, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Abrupt climatic perturbations associated with the onset of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) caused major disruptions to the shallow shelf ecology along the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain. Several studies examine the changes in benthic foraminiferal assemblages across the PETM in neritic sediments in New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia and describe a hydrological and sedimentological paradigm shift that marks the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. In the Salisbury Embayment, a flexural low between the South Jersey High and the Norfolk Arch, this shift is seen in the transition between the upper Paleocene Aquia Formation and the lower Eocene Marlboro Clay. Here we map the abundance of seven benthic foraminifera species from five sites within the Salisbury Embayment from both the uppermost Aquia Formation and the lowermost Marlboro Clay. In addition to the benthic foraminiferal turnover at the PETM onset, we show a geographic distribution of species that highlights a past latitudinal biogeographic zonation not unlike what is found on the modern shelf in this region. Sites document a change in the abundance of species between the late Paleocene and early Eocene, showing a decrease in biodiversity of benthic species along the U.S. Atlantic Coast. Spatial extent of the different species also changed across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. On the modern Atlantic shelf, a biogeographic zonation is due to the path of the Gulf Stream marking a boundary between relatively cold sea-surface temperatures to the north and warmer temperatures to the south, guided by the geomorphic expression of the mid-Atlantic coastline. During the Paleocene-Eocene transition, we suspect a similar boundary likely existed between the New Jersey sites and the Maryland and Virginia sites. We speculate that with the addition of more assemblage data, we will be able to partially reconstruct the geomorphic expression of the PETM coastline and/or the path of major coastal ocean currents.

  11. Ademe et Vous. Research Newsletter No. 13, December 2015. Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, Anne; Guignard, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This Research letter is the last in a series of three letters dedicated to climate change, produced in the run up to COP21. It covers the research carried out and the results obtained, with the support of ADEME, in terms of air quality and climate change. Content: - Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues; - Significant Results: Implementing solutions to improve air quality in a wider context of climate change; - Meeting...: Vincent-Henri Peuch and Nathalie Poisson: 'Air and climate quality - developing joint solutions: a necessity'

  12. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  13. Integration of climate change considerations into local air quality management plans in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available & Technology, 39 (13) 4685-4691. Williams, M. and Chiotti, Q. (2006). Emerging Challenges and Opportunities in the Development of Clean Air Policy Strategies. NERAM Guidance Document on Air Quality Risk Management. NERAM V Colloquium Strategic Policy... Directions for Air Quality Risk Management (16-18 October, 2006). Available at: http://www.irr-neram.ca/Guidance%20Documents/GD_Chapt_5.pdf Date accessed 28 May 2007 Wuebbles, D.J. and Hayhoe, K. (2002). Atmospheric methane and global change. Earth...

  14. Pork quality with special emphasis on colour and its changes during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Bocian; Hanna Jankowiak; Patrycja Reszka; Sandra Banaszak

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of pork meat, including its colour after 24, 48, and 72 hours from the slaughter and its changes during storage. The meat was obtained from 52 crossbreed porkers F1 (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace), gilts and hogs in equal amounts. The assessment of the quality of the meat was performed in 48 hours after slaughter on the samples of the longissimus lumborum muscle. The meat was analysed in respect to its acidity (pH45 and pH48h), technolog...

  15. Changes in quality of life and impact on patients′ perception of esthetics after orthognathic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavin, Thangavelu; Jagadesan, Anbuselvan Gobichetty Palayam; Venkataraman, Siva Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of our study is to determine the changes in quality of life and patient′s perception of esthetic improvement after anterior maxillary osteotomy. Materials and Methods: Our prospective study consisted of 14 patients who had been diagnosed of skeletal orthodontic deformity and underwent anterior maxillary osteotomy, along with orthodontic correction. The quality of life was evaluated using questionnaires based on Oral Health Impact Profile-14 questionnaire (OHIP-14) and a 22-item orthognathic quality of life questionnaire. They were evaluated at baseline pre-surgical, 8 weeks postoperatively, and 24 weeks postoperatively. Results: Our results showed mild improvement in generic health related quality of life immediately following surgery, while condition-specific quality of life and patient′s perception of esthetic improvement were noted only at 24 weeks following anterior maxillary osteotomy. Conclusion: We conclude that anterior maxillary osteotomy had a positive impact on the quality of life. The improvement in patient's perception of esthetics is seen only 2 months after surgery, while improvements in oral health and function were seen within 2 months following surgery. The acceptance and satisfaction of patient toward surgery was more positive 2 months after surgery. PMID:23066273

  16. Relationship between image quality and changes in spatial resolution for the gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hozumi; Kishimoto, Kenji; Shimonishi, Yoshihiro; Ohmura, Masahiro; Kosakai, Kazuhisa; Hamada, Kunio; Ochi, Hironobu.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine quantitatively the relationship between visual image quality and degradation in spatial resolution for a gamma camera by the increase in distance from collimator. The relationship between the proportion (p) of images identified the difference of image quality and the difference (δFWHM) in FWHM between paired images was showed in a sigmoid curve. Using Dendy's method, minimum level to be correctly identified the difference of image quality on three out of four occasions (p=0.75) was corresponded to 0.4 mm in δFWHM. Using fuzzy theory, the level to be identified the difference of image quality was examind under various conditions. The truth-value of fuzzy sets-degraded or slightly degraded and not-degraded in image quality between paired images-was gained the peak at 0.5 mm of δFWHM. It was founded that changes of 0.4-0.5 mm in FWHM-corresponding about 2 cm distance from collimator-could be sufficiently identified in the difference of image quality. (author)

  17. Association of Changes in Diet Quality with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Mattei, Josiemer; Fung, Teresa T; Li, Yanping; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B

    2017-07-13

    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between changes in diet quality over time and the risk of death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for total and cause-specific mortality among 47,994 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 25,745 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1998 through 2010. Changes in diet quality over the preceding 12 years (1986-1998) were assessed with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 score, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. The pooled hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among participants who had the greatest improvement in diet quality (13 to 33% improvement), as compared with those who had a relatively stable diet quality (0 to 3% improvement), in the 12-year period were the following: 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.97) according to changes in the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 0.84 (95 CI%, 0.78 to 0.91) according to changes in the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95) according to changes in the DASH score. A 20-percentile increase in diet scores (indicating an improved quality of diet) was significantly associated with a reduction in total mortality of 8 to 17% with the use of the three diet indexes and a 7 to 15% reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular disease with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet. Among participants who maintained a high-quality diet over a 12-year period, the risk of death from any cause was significantly lower - by 14% (95% CI, 8 to 19) when assessed with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 11% (95% CI, 5 to 18) when assessed with the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 9% (95% CI, 2 to 15) when assessed with the DASH score - than the risk among participants with consistently low diet scores over time. Improved diet quality over 12 years was

  18. Quality changes of 'Sanguinello' oranges wrapped with different plastic films under simulated marketing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Malinconico, M; Avella, M; Di Lorenzo, M L; Mura; Palma, A

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and eating quality of citrus fruit changes slowly after harvest, and quality alteration is mainly due to shrinkage, loss of firmness, excessive weight loss and decay rather than a reduction of nutritional value and taste features. Film wrapping may be a suitable means to reduce transpiration and preserve market quality provided film permeability to gases does not lead to: 1) a reduction of in-package O2 partial pressure at a point that would induce anaerobic respiration; 2) an increase of CO2 concentration to toxic levels. This experiment was carried out to study quality changes of 'Sanguinello' oranges treated or not treated with 500 mg/L imazalil (IMZ) and wrapped with continuous, macro- or micro-perforated polyolefinic films. Wrapped and no-wrapped fruit were stored at 20 degrees C and 60% RH for 20 or 30 days. In-package gas composition of the macro-perforated film showed no significant difference compared to air composition, while in-package partial pressure of CO2 and O2 ranged between 4 (continuous film) and 9.8 kPa (micro-perforated films), and 14.8 (continuous film) and 5 kPa (micro-perforated films), respectively. After 30 days of storage weight loss in fruit wrapped with the macro-perforated film was (4.3%) slightly lowerthan un-packed fruit (5%), while in all other packages weight loss never exceeded 0.7%.Quality changes were quite stable over storage in all treatments, although slight but significantly lower levels of total soluble solids and ascorbic acid were detected in micro-perforated films with the lowest degree of perforation. However, the sensory analysis denoted a remarkable decrease of firmness in un-wrapped or wrapped fruit with macro-perforated film, while a moderate build-up of off-flavour, which reduced the eating quality, developed in micro-perforated films. Decay ranged between 6 and 12% in not treated fruit, with the lowest incidence detected in un-wrapped fruit, whereas differences among the different films were not

  19. Effects of future land use and ecosystem changes on boundary-layer meteorology and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Wang, L.; Sadeke, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land vegetation plays key roles shaping boundary-layer meteorology and air quality via various pathways. Vegetation can directly affect surface ozone via dry deposition and biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Transpiration from land plants can also influence surface temperature, soil moisture and boundary-layer mixing depth, thereby indirectly affecting surface ozone. Future changes in the distribution, density and physiology of vegetation are therefore expected to have major ramifications for surface ozone air quality. In our study, we examine two aspects of potential vegetation changes using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in the fully coupled land-atmosphere configuration, and evaluate their implications on meteorology and air quality: 1) land use change, which alters the distribution of plant functional types and total leaf density; and 2) ozone damage on vegetation, which alters leaf density and physiology (e.g., stomatal resistance). We find that, following the RCP8.5 scenario for 2050, global cropland expansion induces only minor changes in surface ozone in tropical and subtropical regions, but statistically significant changes by up to +4 ppbv in midlatitude North America and East Asia, mostly due to higher surface temperature that enhances biogenic VOC emissions, and reduced dry deposition to a lesser degree. These changes are in turn to driven mostly by meteorological changes that include a shift from latent to sensible heat in the surface energy balance and reduced soil moisture, reflecting not only local responses but also a northward expansion of the Hadley Cell. On the other hand, ozone damage on vegetation driven by rising anthropogenic emissions is shown to induce a further enhancement of ozone by up to +6 ppbv in midlatitude regions by 2050. This reflects a strong localized positive feedback, with severe ozone damage in polluted regions generally inducing stomatal closure, which in turn reduces transpiration, increases

  20. Predictions of potential geographical distribution and quality of Schisandra sphenanthera under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will significantly affect plant distribution as well as the quality of medicinal plants. Although numerous studies have analyzed the effect of climate change on future habitats of plants through species distribution models (SDMs, few of them have incorporated the change of effective content of medicinal plants. Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. is an endangered traditional Chinese medical plant which is mainly located in the Qinling Mountains. Combining fuzzy theory and a maximum entropy model, we obtained current spatial distribution of quality assessment for S. spenanthera. Moreover, the future quality and distribution of S. spenanthera were also projected for the periods 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under three different climate change scenarios (SRES-A1B, SRES-A2 and SRES-B1 emission scenarios described in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The results showed that the moderately suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera under all climate change scenarios remained relatively stable in the study area. The highly suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera would gradually decrease in the future and a higher decline rate of the highly suitable habitat area would occur under climate change scenarios SRES-A1B and SRES-A2. The result suggested that in the study area, there would be no more highly suitable habitat areas for S. sphenanthera when the annual mean temperature exceeds 20 °C or its annual precipitation exceeds 1,200 mm. Our results will be influential in the future ecological conservation and management of S. sphenanthera and can be taken as a reference for habitat suitability assessment research for other medicinal plants.

  1. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John

    2013-01-01

    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  2. Microphytobenthos in ecotoxicology: a review of the use of marine benthic diatoms in bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Blasco, Julián; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio

    2010-08-01

    Contamination in coastal zones is an increasing problem that adversely affects biological diversity and the functioning of coastal ecosystems. Sediment is an important compartment of these zones since large quantities of diverse contaminants can accumulate there. Whole-sediment toxicity assays are of increasing importance, and several assay methods using mainly invertebrates have been developed. However, an important part of the benthic community, the microphytobenthos (represented principally by benthic diatoms and cyanobacteria), has surprisingly been neglected. Recently, comprehensive studies have been conducted using benthic marine microalgae with the object of establishing a toxicity assay method for sediment samples. The main results published to date in the literature and obtained by our own team have been compiled and are discussed in this review. The value and feasibility of using certain organisms of the microphytobenthos group in ecotoxicology studies are also discussed, and a sediment quality guideline based on multivariate procedure has been derived from data obtained in previous studies. Finally, future perspectives for research in this field are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in health care spending and quality for Medicare beneficiaries associated with a commercial ACO contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, J Michael; Landon, Bruce E; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-08-28

    In a multipayer system, new payment incentives implemented by one insurer for an accountable care organization (ACO) may also affect spending and quality of care for another insurer's enrollees served by the ACO. Such spillover effects reflect the extent of organizational efforts to reform care delivery and can contribute to the net impact of ACOs. We examined whether the Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) of Massachusetts' Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), an early commercial ACO initiative associated with reduced spending and improved quality for BCBS enrollees, was also associated with changes in spending and quality for Medicare beneficiaries, who were not covered by the AQC. Quasi-experimental comparisons from 2007-2010 of elderly fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in Massachusetts (1,761,325 person-years) served by 11 provider organizations entering the AQC in 2009 or 2010 (intervention group) vs beneficiaries served by other providers (control group). Using a difference-in-differences approach, we estimated changes in spending and quality for the intervention group in the first and second years of exposure to the AQC relative to concurrent changes for the control group. Regression and propensity score methods were used to adjust for differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The primary outcome was total quarterly medical spending per beneficiary. Secondary outcomes included spending by setting and type of service, 5 process measures of quality, potentially avoidable hospitalizations, and 30-day readmissions. Before entering the AQC, total quarterly spending per beneficiary for the intervention group was $150 (95% CI, $25-$274) higher than for the control group and increased at a similar rate. In year 2 of the intervention group's exposure to the AQC, this difference was reduced to $51 (95% CI, -$109 to $210; P = .53), constituting a significant differential change of -$99 (95% CI, -$183 to -$16; P = .02) or a 3.4% savings

  4. How and why is aquatic quality changing at Nahanni National Park Reserve, NWT, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Douglas R; Catto, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Nahanni National Park Reserve is located at southwestern NWT-Yukon border. One of the first UNESCO World Heritage sites, Nahanni lies within Taiga Cordillera and Taiga Shield Ecozones. Base and precious metal mining occurred upstream of Nahanni prior to park establishment. Nahanni waters, sediments, fish, and caribou have naturally elevated metals levels. Baseline water, sediment and fish tissue quality data were collected and analyzed throughout Nahanni during 1988-91 and 1992-97. These two programs characterized how aquatic quality variables are naturally varying in space and time, affected by geology, stream flow, seasonality, and extreme meteorological and geological events. Possible anthropogenic causes of aquatic quality change were examined. Measured values were compared to existing Guidelines and site-specific objectives were established.

  5. Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life During Rehabilitation in Patients With Operable Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Maja S.; Trier, Karen; Vibe-Petersen, Jette

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 73% of whom completed rehabilitation. Results on emotional well-being (P mental health component score (P = .0004) showed an overall statistically significant improvement during the study. CONCLUSION: This feasibility...... study demonstrated that global quality of life, mental health, and emotional well-being improved significantly during the study, from time of diagnosis until 1 year after resection, in patients with NSCLC participating in rehabilitation.......INTRODUCTION: Surgical resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be associated with significant morbidity, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. OBJECTIVES: The objective is to present health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes over time before and 1...

  6. Quality of friendships and motivation to change in adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmendier-Muehlschlegel, Anja; Rosewall, Juliet K; Smith, Jared G; Hugo, Pippa; Lask, Bryan

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the relationship between quality of friendships, motivation to change and peer support among young people receiving inpatient treatment for Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Thirty participants were recruited from three inpatient wards. Questionnaires assessed motivational stage, friendship functions and characteristics of friendships specific to AN. Three friendship functions - Help, Intimacy and Self-Validation - were significantly and positively correlated with greater motivational stage. Describing friends on the ward as supportive of adherence to the treatment program was positively associated with greater motivational stage and higher quality friendships. The association between motivation, friendship quality and peer support in treatment identifies close and supportive friendships among young people with AN as a potential target to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Job Quality and Gender Inequality: Key Changes in Québec over the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Cloutier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a new typology based on information available from the Labour Force Survey, the authors analyse how job quality evolved in Québec for both women and men over the last decade (1997-2007. Results show that family situation and educational attainment are two important factors in the determination of gender inequality in the labour market. The analysis emphasizes the very significant decline in gender differences with regard to job quality (from 23% to 35% according to groups, especially for persons without children and individuals who achieved higher education. The changes represent a definite progress in the status of women in general, although some indicators also reveal degradation with respect to job quality in some of the sub-groups.  

  8. Job Quality and Gender Inequality: Key Changes in Québec over the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a new typology based on information available from the Labour Force Survey, the authors analyse how job quality evolved in Québec for both women and men over the last decade (1997-2007. Results show that family situation and educational attainment are two important factors in the determination of gender inequality in the labour market. The analysis emphasizes the very significant decline in gender differences with regard to job quality (from 23% to 35% according to groups, especially for persons without children and individuals who achieved higher education. The changes represent a definite progress in the status of women in general, although some indicators also reveal degradation with respect to job quality in some of the sub-groups.  

  9. Benthic community structures in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heip, C.; Craeymeersch, J. A.

    1995-03-01

    Coherent assemblages of marine benthic species have been recognized from the early twentieth century, and the classical papers of Petersen (1914, 1918) were based on studies of limited areas in the North Sea. In 1986, a synoptic survey of the North Sea north to 57°N was undertaken by a group of ten laboratories from seven North Sea countries. The results of this survey have recently been published (Heip et al., 1992a, b; Künitzer et al., 1992; Huys et al., 1992), and some of the results are summarized in this paper. The analysis of the macrofauna is based on slightly more than 700 taxa. In general, the North Sea macrofauna consists of northern species extending south to the northern margins of the Dogger Bank, and southern species extending north to the 100 m depth line. The central North Sea is an area of overlap of southern and northern species, especially around the 70 m depth contour. Consistent groupings of species are recognized that were summarized in seven faunal groupings. Macrofaunal body weight, density and diversity increase linearly towards the north. Macrofaunal biomass for the whole area averages 7 g adwt. m-2 and decreases from south to north. Distribution patterns and trends within the meiofauna were very different. Nematodes, which are the dominant taxon overall, are least abundant in the sandy sediments of the Southern Bight, then increase to a maximum around 53° 30' N and slowly decrease again towards the north. Copepod density and diversity are highest in the Southern Bight, due to the presence of many interstitial species. A large number of species new to science were recorded by the North Sea Benthos Survey and about 1500 species are expected to occur. Copepods show very distinct assemblages according to water depth and sediment type. The contrasting patterns in latitudinal gradients of body weight and number of species of macro- and meiofauna can be only partially explained. Latitude and sediment characteristics, such as grain size and

  10. Physicochemical Constraints on the Distribution of Benthic Foraminiferal Cell Morphology in the Modern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating-Bitonti, C.; Payne, J.

    2016-02-01

    Patterns in the sizes and shapes of marine organisms often occur across latitude and water depth gradients as a function of metabolic constraints dictated by the physical environment. However, the environmental factors that maintain these gradients in morphology remain incompletely understood because several oceanographic variables of biological importance are intimately correlated, such as temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, particulate organic carbon (POC) flux, and carbonate saturation. Benthic foraminifera, a diverse group of single-celled protists that occur in nearly all marine environments, provide an ideal opportunity to test statistically among the various hypothesized environmental controls on cell morphology. Here, we use over 7,000 occurrences of 541 species of recent benthic foraminifera that span more than 60 degrees of latitude and 1,600 meters of water depth around the North American continental margin to assess the relative contributions of temperature, oxygen availability, carbonate saturation, and POC flux on their size and volume-to-surface area ratio in the modern ocean. Seawater temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations best predict both measures of benthic foraminiferal cell morphology from the North American continental margin. These same variables also explain morphological variations from the Pacific continental margin in isolation, but dissolved oxygen is absent from the best model for the Atlantic. Because our results concur with predictions from first principles of cell physiology, we interpret these findings to reflect the physiological selective pressures on cell morphology as determined by the physical environment. Moreover, these findings suggest that warming waters and the expansion of hypoxic zones associated with anthropogenic-induced climate change are more likely to impact benthic foraminiferal communities than changes in primary productivity or ocean acidification.

  11. Bacterial Liasons: Bacteria Associated With Marine Benthic Meiofauna in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, K. S.; Sevigny, J.; Leasi, F.; Thomas, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    All macroorganisms are colonized by and harbor microbial associates that form their microbiome. Some microbial associates establish predictable symbioses across a host species. Other microbial assemblages, such as the human gut microbiome, exhibit semi-predictable patterns dependent on various factors such as host habitat and diet. Host species typically share core microbiota that remain temporally and spatially stable, but turnover of accessory microbiota due to to environmental change often confers adaptive advantage to the host would not receive from its own genome or core microbiome. Benthic meiofauna, microscopic eukaryotes that live in marine sediments, harbor bacterial associates that may confer functional advantages in the face of environmental perturbation that allow the host to persist and adapt during an environmental disturbance such as an oil spill. However, benthic meiofauna and their microbiota represent relatively unknown components of marine environments. In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill poured over 0.5 million metric tons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Now, much of the oil has dispersed, but some still lingers in environments such as marine sediments. Benthic meiofauna remain affected by these lingering hydrocarbons. Their inability to simply leave their habitat makes them ideal sentinels of environmental change that can factor into understanding oil spill impacts and inform response and mitigation of similar future events. Binning bacterial sequences from host whole shotgun genomes allows for analysis of microbiome gene coding and functional potentials that may assist the host through environmental disturbances, such as genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation pathways. 16S rRNA gene surveys reveal of microbiome composition of diverse meiofaunal taxa collected throughout the Gulf of Mexico. This work will examine structure and distribution of benthic meiofauna microbiomes in the Gulf of Mexico. Thus far, 16S surveys display

  12. Aura-biomes are present in the water layer above coral reef benthic macro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Walsh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As coral reef habitats decline worldwide, some reefs are transitioning from coral- to algal-dominated benthos with the exact cause for this shift remaining elusive. Increases in the abundance of microbes in the water column has been correlated with an increase in coral disease and reduction in coral cover. Here we investigated how multiple reef organisms influence microbial communities in the surrounding water column. Our study consisted of a field assessment of microbial communities above replicate patches dominated by a single macro-organism. Metagenomes were constructed from 20 L of water above distinct macro-organisms, including (1 the coral Mussismilia braziliensis, (2 fleshy macroalgae (Stypopodium, Dictota and Canistrocarpus, (3 turf algae, and (4 the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum and were compared to the water microbes collected 3 m above the reef. Microbial genera and functional potential were annotated using MG-RAST and showed that the dominant benthic macro-organisms influence the taxa and functions of microbes in the water column surrounding them, developing a specific “aura-biome”. The coral aura-biome reflected the open water column, and was associated with Synechococcus and functions suggesting oligotrophic growth, while the fleshy macroalgae aura-biome was associated with Ruegeria, Pseudomonas, and microbial functions suggesting low oxygen conditions. The turf algae aura-biome was associated with Vibrio, Flavobacterium, and functions suggesting pathogenic activity, while zoanthids were associated with Alteromonas and functions suggesting a stressful environment. Because each benthic organism has a distinct aura-biome, a change in benthic cover will change the microbial community of the water, which may lead to either the stimulation or suppression of the recruitment of benthic organisms.

  13. Aura-biomes are present in the water layer above coral reef benthic macro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin; Haggerty, J Matthew; Doane, Michael P; Hansen, John J; Morris, Megan M; Moreira, Ana Paula B; de Oliveira, Louisi; Leomil, Luciana; Garcia, Gizele D; Thompson, Fabiano; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    As coral reef habitats decline worldwide, some reefs are transitioning from coral- to algal-dominated benthos with the exact cause for this shift remaining elusive. Increases in the abundance of microbes in the water column has been correlated with an increase in coral disease and reduction in coral cover. Here we investigated how multiple reef organisms influence microbial communities in the surrounding water column. Our study consisted of a field assessment of microbial communities above replicate patches dominated by a single macro-organism. Metagenomes were constructed from 20 L of water above distinct macro-organisms, including (1) the coral Mussismilia braziliensis , (2) fleshy macroalgae ( Stypopodium , Dictota and Canistrocarpus ), (3) turf algae, and (4) the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum and were compared to the water microbes collected 3 m above the reef. Microbial genera and functional potential were annotated using MG-RAST and showed that the dominant benthic macro-organisms influence the taxa and functions of microbes in the water column surrounding them, developing a specific "aura-biome". The coral aura-biome reflected the open water column, and was associated with Synechococcus and functions suggesting oligotrophic growth, while the fleshy macroalgae aura-biome was associated with Ruegeria , Pseudomonas, and microbial functions suggesting low oxygen conditions. The turf algae aura-biome was associated with Vibrio, Flavobacterium, and functions suggesting pathogenic activity, while zoanthids were associated with Alteromonas and functions suggesting a stressful environment. Because each benthic organism has a distinct aura-biome, a change in benthic cover will change the microbial community of the water, which may lead to either the stimulation or suppression of the recruitment of benthic organisms.

  14. Water quality changes as a result of coalbed methane development in a Rocky mountain watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Melesse, A.M.; McClain, M.E.; Yang, W. [Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX (USA)

    2007-12-15

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development raises serious environmental concerns. In response, concerted efforts have been made to collect chemistry, salinity, and sodicity data on CBM produced water. However, little information on changes of stream water quality resulting from directly and/or indirectly received CBM produced water is available in the literature. The objective of this study was to examine changes in stream water quality, particularly sodicity and salinity, due to CBM development in the Powder River watershed, which is located in the Rocky Mountain Region and traverses the states of Wyoming and Montana. To this end, a retrospective analysis of water quality trends and patterns was conducted using data collected from as early as 1946 up to and including 2002 at four U.S. Geological Survey gauging stations along the Powder River. Trend analysis was conducted using linear regression and Seasonal Kendall tests, whereas, Tukey's test for multiple comparisons was used to detect changes in the spatial pattern. The results indicated that the CBM development adversely affected the water quality in the Powder River. First, the development elevated the stream sodicity, as indicated by a significant increase trend of the sodium adsorption ratio. Second, the development tended to shrink the water quality differences among the three downstream stations but to widen the differences between these stations and the farthest upstream station. In contrast, the development had only a minor influence on stream salinity. Hence, the CBM development is likely an important factor that can be managed to lower the stream sodicity. The management may need to take into account that the effects of the CBMdevelopment were different from one location to another along the Powder River.

  15. Short-term Responses of Posidonia australis to Changes in Light Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Strydom

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows are highly productive ecosystems that provide ecosystem services to the coastal zone but are declining globally, particularly due to anthropogenic activities that reduce the quantity of light reaching seagrasses, such as dredging, river discharge and eutrophication. Light quality (the spectral composition of the light is also altered by these anthropogenic stressors as the differential attenuation of wavelengths of light is caused by materials within the water column. This study addressed the effect of altered light quality on different life-history stages of the seagrass Posidonia australis, a persistent, habitat-forming species in Australia. Aquarium-based experiments were conducted to determine how adult shoots and seedlings respond to blue (peak λ = 451 nm; green (peak λ = 522 nm; yellow (peak λ = 596 nm and red (peak λ = 673 nm wavelengths with a control of full-spectrum light (λ = 400 – 700 nm, at 200 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Posidonia australis adults did not respond to changes in light quality relative to full-spectrum light, demonstrating a capacity to obtain enough photons from a range of wavelengths across the visible spectrum to maintain short-term growth at high irradiances. Posidonia australis seedlings (<4 months old grown in blue light showed a significant increase in xanthophyll concentrations when compared to plants grown in full-spectrum, demonstrating a pigment acclimation response to blue light. These results differed significantly from negative responses to changes in light quality recently described for Halophila ovalis, a colonizing seagrass species. Persistent seagrasses such as P. australis, appear to be better at tolerating short-term changes in light quality compared to colonizing species when sufficient PPFD is present.

  16. Cross shelf benthic biodiversity patterns in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne; Anlauf, Holger; Kurten, Saskia; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Alsaffar, Zahra Hassan Ali; Curdia, Joao; Jones, Burton; Carvalho, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of coral reef and soft sediment ecosystems in the Red Sea has to date received limited scientific attention. This study investigates changes in the community composition of both reef and macrobenthic communities along a cross shelf gradient. Coral reef assemblages differed significantly in species composition and structure with location and depth. Inner shelf reefs harbored less abundant and less diverse coral assemblages with higher percentage macroalgae cover. Nutrient availability and distance from the shoreline were significantly related to changes in coral composition and structure. This study also observed a clear inshore offshore pattern for soft sediment communities. In contrast to the coral reef patterns the highest diversity and abundance of soft sediment communities were recorded at the inshore sites, which were characterized by a higher number of opportunistic polychaete species and bivalves indicative of mild disturbance. Sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment were important variables explaining the variability. This study aims to contribute to our understanding of ecosystem processes and biodiversity in the Red Sea region in an area that also has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics, such as the capacity of reef systems and benthic macrofaunal organisms to adapt to global climate change.

  17. Sensitivity of heterogeneous marine benthic habitats to subtle stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván F Rodil

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the consequences of low level disturbances on the functioning of ecological communities because of the pervasiveness and frequency of this type of environmental change. In this study we investigated the response of a heterogeneous, subtidal, soft-sediment habitat to small experimental additions of organic matter and calcium carbonate to examine the sensitivity of benthic ecosystem functioning to changes in sediment characteristics that relate to the environmental threats of coastal eutrophication and ocean acidification. Our results documented significant changes between key biogeochemical and sedimentary variables such as gross primary production, ammonium uptake and dissolved reactive phosphorus flux following treatment additions. Moreover, the application of treatments affected relationships between macrofauna communities, sediment characteristics (e.g., chlorophyll a content and biogeochemical processes (oxygen and nutrient fluxes. In this experiment organic matter and calcium carbonate showed persistent opposing effects on sedimentary processes, and we demonstrated that highly heterogeneous sediment habitats can be surprisingly sensitive to subtle perturbations. Our results have important biological implications in a world with relentless anthropogenic inputs of atmospheric CO2 and nutrients in coastal waters.

  18. Cross shelf benthic biodiversity patterns in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne

    2017-03-21

    The diversity of coral reef and soft sediment ecosystems in the Red Sea has to date received limited scientific attention. This study investigates changes in the community composition of both reef and macrobenthic communities along a cross shelf gradient. Coral reef assemblages differed significantly in species composition and structure with location and depth. Inner shelf reefs harbored less abundant and less diverse coral assemblages with higher percentage macroalgae cover. Nutrient availability and distance from the shoreline were significantly related to changes in coral composition and structure. This study also observed a clear inshore offshore pattern for soft sediment communities. In contrast to the coral reef patterns the highest diversity and abundance of soft sediment communities were recorded at the inshore sites, which were characterized by a higher number of opportunistic polychaete species and bivalves indicative of mild disturbance. Sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment were important variables explaining the variability. This study aims to contribute to our understanding of ecosystem processes and biodiversity in the Red Sea region in an area that also has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics, such as the capacity of reef systems and benthic macrofaunal organisms to adapt to global climate change.

  19. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Erickson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  20. [Research on quality changes in ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Ma, Shuang; Cai, En-Bo; Liu, Shuang-Li; Yang, He; Zhang, Lian-Xue; Wang, Shi-Jie

    2014-08-01

    The present study is to investigate the quality changes of ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost. The contents changes of ginsenoside, free amino acid, and total phenolic compounds, as well as DPPH radical scavenging effect before and after frost were measured. The content of 9 ginsenoside monomer in ginseng stems was decreased except for Rg, and Re after frost, but in ginseng leaves was all decreased. The total content of amino acids was decreased in ginseng stems after frost, while increased in ginseng leaves. The content of phenolic compounds in ginseng stems and leaves were both decreased after frost while the ability of DPPH radical scavenging was improved. The factor of frost has great impact on the quality of ginseng stems and leaves.

  1. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Larry E; Jennings, Merrisa

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  2. Minimizing quality changes of cloudy apple juice: The use of kiwifruit puree and high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Junjie; Kebede, Biniam; Kristiani, Kristiani; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2018-05-30

    Cloud loss, enzymatic browning, and flavor changes are important quality defects of cloudy fruit juices determining consumer acceptability. The development of clean label options to overcome such quality problems is currently of high interest. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of kiwifruit puree (clean label ingredient) and high pressure homogenization on quality changes of cloudy apple juice using a multivariate approach. The use of kiwifruit puree addition and high pressure homogenization resulted in a juice with improved uniformity and cloud stability by reducing particle size and increasing viscosity and yield stress (p < 0.01). Furthermore, kiwifruit puree addition reduced enzymatic browning (ΔE ∗  < 3), due to the increased ascorbic acid and contributed to a more saturated and bright yellow color, a better taste balance, and a more fruity aroma of juice. This work demonstrates that clean label options to control quality degradation of cloudy fruit juice might offer new opportunities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying individual changes in performance with composite quality indicators while accounting for regression to the mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Byron J; Dunton, Nancy

    2013-04-01

    Almost a decade ago Morton and Torgerson indicated that perceived medical benefits could be due to "regression to the mean." Despite this caution, the regression to the mean "effects on the identification of changes in institutional performance do not seem to have been considered previously in any depth" (Jones and Spiegelhalter). As a response, Jones and Spiegelhalter provide a methodology to adjust for regression to the mean when modeling recent changes in institutional performance for one-variable quality indicators. Therefore, in our view, Jones and Spiegelhalter provide a breakthrough methodology for performance measures. At the same time, in the interests of parsimony, it is useful to aggregate individual quality indicators into a composite score. Our question is, can we develop and demonstrate a methodology that extends the "regression to the mean" literature to allow for composite quality indicators? Using a latent variable modeling approach, we extend the methodology to the composite indicator case. We demonstrate the approach on 4 indicators collected by the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. A simulation study further demonstrates its "proof of concept."

  4. Ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term Solar Radiation Management (SRM). Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks such as ozone changes under this scenario. Including the composition changes, we find large reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, with implications for vitamin D production, and increases in surface ozone concentrations, both of which could be important for human health. We highlight that both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone changes should be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  5. Identification of threshold body burdens of metals for the protection of the aquatic ecological status using two benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bervoets, Lieven; De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    In this study accumulated concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in two benthic invertebrate taxa, Chironomus sp. and Tubificidae are related to ecological responses expressed as changes in macro invertebrate communities. In addition critical body burdens were estimated above which ecological quality was always lower than a certain threshold. Data from existing studies on bioaccumulation of the metals in both taxa were combined with different biological water quality indices. For all metal-endpoint combinations threshold values could be calculated above which ecological quality was always low. Safe threshold body burdens could be estimated for both species for all metals although the data set was more extended for Chrionomus sp. with estimated threshold values being 65, 3.2, 10, 57, 6.5, 73 and 490 μg/g dw for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. This study demonstrated that metal accumulation in resistant species such as chironomids and tubificid worms have the potential to be used as predictors of ecological effects in aquatic ecosystems. However, the estimated threshold values have to be validated and supported by more lines of evidence before they can be used by regulators. - Highlights: • Chironomid larvae and Tubificid worms can be used to relate accumulated metals to ecological endpoints. • Ecological water quality, calculated with biotic indices, is always low at high accumulated metal concentrations. • Critical body burdens in chironomids and tubificds could be estimated for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. - Maximal body burdens of metals in two invertebrate species could be estimated above which ecological quality was always low.

  6. Quality indicators in subtropical soils of Formosa, Argentina: Changes for agriculturization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Baridón

    2014-12-01

    The changes produced in the Typic Hapludolls and Typic Argiudolls after 25 years of continuously using native forests, agriculture, fruit plantations and pastures were analyzed. These changes were in pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, total nitrogen, structural stability, hydraulic conductivity, respiration and dehydrogenase and urease and enzyme activity. Variables with significant differences between diverse uses were evaluated by multivariate methods, Principal Component Analysis, and Correlation Analysis. The results of this study showed that total organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, structural stability and dehydrogenase activity are the quality indicators most affected by agriculturization. All are related to organic matter.

  7. Longitudinal study of diet quality and change in asthma symptoms in adults, according to smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Dumas, Orianne; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Pison, Christophe; Le Moual, Nicole; Romieu, Isabelle; Siroux, Valérie; Camargo, Carlos A; Nadif, Rachel; Varraso, Raphaëlle

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that increased asthma prevalence in westernised countries is associated with changes in lifestyle factors, including a poorer diet. However, little is known regarding the association between diet quality and asthma. In the diet-asthma association, the role of BMI as a potential mediator needs clarification; moreover, potential effect modification by non-diet sources of oxidants, such as smoking, merits investigation. We investigated the association between diet quality and change in asthma symptoms, as well as assessed effect modification by smoking, while accounting for BMI as a potential mediator. Using data from the French prospective Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma study, we assessed diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) at baseline and change in asthma symptoms (stable (reference), worsening, improved; mean follow-up time: 7 years). Mediation analysis was used to disentangle total and direct effects and the indirect effect mediated by BMI. The analyses included 969 adults (mean age 43 years; 49 % men; 42 % ever asthma). We observed a significant interaction between smoking and AHEI-2010 on change in asthma symptoms (P for interaction=0·04). Among never smokers (n 499), we observed a positive total effect (multivariable OR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·80) and a positive direct effect (OR 1·41; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·80) of the AHEI-2010 (per ten-point increment) on improved symptoms. No indirect effect mediated through BMI was observed (OR 0·99; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·07). Among former and current smokers, all effects were statistically non-significant. Better diet quality was associated with improved asthma symptoms over time in never smokers, independently of BMI.

  8. Relationship among chelator adherence, change in chelators, and quality of life in thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Gerstenberger, Eric; Xu, Yan; Mednick, Lauren; Sobota, Amy; Ware, Hannah; Thompson, Alexis A; Neufeld, Ellis J; Yamashita, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Thalassemia, a chronic blood disease, necessitates life-long adherence to blood transfusions and chelation therapy to reduce iron overload. We examine stability of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in thalassemia and adherence to chelation therapy over time, especially after changes in chelator choice. Thalassemia Longitudinal Cohort participants in the USA, UK, and Canada completed the SF-36v2 (ages 14+) and the PF-28 CHQ (parents of children health status) at baseline who made a single change in chelator, but declined among participants with multiple changes and/or high iron burden (worse health status). Mental health improved among participants with lower iron burden, but iron overload was negatively associated with social functioning. Adherence did not significantly change over follow-up except for an increase after a change from deferoxamine (DFO) infusion to oral deferasirox (p = 0.03). Predictors of lower adherence for adults/adolescents at follow-up included side effects, smoking, younger age, problems preparing DFO, increased number of days per week DFO prescribed, and lower physical quality of life . Strategies to balance medical needs with family, work, and personal life may assist in adherence.

  9. Complex interactions among climate change, sanitation, and groundwater quality: A case study from Ramotswa, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, B. M.; Altchenko, Y.; Kenabatho, P. K.; Sylvester, S. R.; Villholth, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    With population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate change, groundwater is becoming an increasingly important source of drinking water around the world, including southern Africa. This is an investigation into the coupled human and natural system linking climate change, droughts, sanitation, and groundwater quality in Ramotswa, a town in the semi-arid southeastern Botswana. During the recent drought from 2013-2016, water shortages from reservoirs that supply the larger city of Gaborone resulted in curtailed water supply to Ramotswa, forcing people with flush toilets to use pit latrines. Pit latrines have been suspected as the cause of elevated nitrate in the Ramotswa groundwater, which also contributes to the town's drinking water supply. The groundwater pollution paradoxically makes Ramotswa dependent on Gaborone's water, supplied in large part by surface reservoirs, which are vulnerable to drought. Analysis of long-term rainfall records indicates that droughts like the one in 2013-2016 are increasing in likelihood due to climate change. Because of the drought, many more people used pit latrines than under normal conditions. Analysis of the groundwater for nitrate and using caffeine as an indicator, human waste leaching from pit latrines is implicated as the major culprit for the nitrate pollution. The results indicate a critical indirect linkage between climate change, sanitation, groundwater quality and water security in this area of rapid urbanization and population growth. Recommendations are offered for how Ramotswa's water security could be made less vulnerable to climate change.

  10. Quality of life and BMI changes in youth participating in an integrated pediatric obesity treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Lazorick, Suzanne; Lamson, Angela L; Ivanescu, Andrada; Collier, David N

    2013-07-10

    Changes in Quality of Life (QOL) measures over time with treatment of obesity have not previously been described for youth. We describe the changes from baseline through two follow up visits in youth QOL (assessed by the Pediatric Quality Life Inventory, PedsQL4.0), teen depression (assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ9A), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score. We also report caregiver proxy ratings of youth QOL. A sample of 267 pairs of youth and caregiver participants were recruited at their first visit to an outpatient weight-treatment clinic that provides care integrated between a physician, dietician, and mental health provider; of the 267, 113 attended a visit two (V2) follow-up appointment, and 48 attended visit three (V3). We investigated multiple factors longitudinally experienced by youth who are overweight and their caregivers across up to three different integrated care visits. We determined relationships at baseline in QOL, PHQ9A, and BMI z-score, as well as changes in variables over time using linear mixed models with time as a covariate. Overall across three visits the results indicate that youth had slight declines in relative BMI, significant increases in their QOL and improvements in depression. We encourage clinicians and researchers to track youth longitudinally throughout treatment to investigate not only youth's BMI changes, but also psychosocial changes including QOL.

  11. Impacts of Biofuel-Induced Agricultural Land Use Changes on Watershed Hydrology and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Zheng, H.

    2015-12-01

    The US Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 has contributed to widespread changes in agricultural land uses. The impact of these land use changes on regional water resources could also be significant. Agricultural land use changes were evaluated for the Red River of the North Basin (RRNB), an international river basin shared by the US and Canada. The influence of the land use changes on spring snowmelt flooding and downstream water quality was also assessed using watershed modeling. The planting areas for corn and soybean in the basin increased by 62% and 18%, while those for spring wheat, forest, and pasture decreased by 30%, 18%, and 50%, from 2006 to 2013. Although the magnitude of spring snowmelt peak flows in the Red River did not change from pre-EISA to post-EISA, our uncertainty analysis of the normalized hydrographs revealed that the downstream streamflows had a greater variability under the post-EISA land use scenario, which may lead to greater uncertainty in predicting spring snowmelt floods in the Red River. Hydrological simulation also showed that the sediment and nutrient loads at the basin's outlet in the US and Canada border increased under the post-EISA land use scenario, on average sediment increasing by 2.6%, TP by 14.1%, nitrate nitrogen by 5.9%, and TN by 9.1%. Potential impacts of the future biofuel crop scenarios on watershed hydrology and water quality in the RRNB were also simulated through integrated economic-hydrologic modeling.

  12. From student to graduate: longitudinal changes in the qualities of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Leanne S; Johnson, Maree

    2015-12-01

    To examine the development of perceived qualities of nursing from student to graduate nurse over time. Researchers continue to explore student nurse and new graduate nurse attrition, particularly in the light of a looming crisis in nursing recruitment and retention. Qualities of nurses represent the job fit of nursing from student to graduate years. A prospective longitudinal design with a convenience sample was used for this study. Data were collected annually from 2009-2012 through the completion of a short on-line survey. The sample size of undergraduate nurses in year 1 was 676, with 527 in year 2, 339 in year 3 and 190 in year 4. Only 136 participants completed the survey each year forming the complete data set for analysis. Most qualities of nursing differed significantly across time with the qualities of Caring, Empathetic, Knowledge and Respectful demonstrating strong changes. Most declines in scores occurred on graduation. Caring, the central tenet of nursing increased during the student years and declined slightly on graduation. This unique longitudinal study of Australian nurses suggests that the clinical experience and theoretical grounding provided in our University programs, has resulted in an increasing cumulative effect in the third year supporting most qualities of nurses/nursing understood in year 1, that is, the career fit to perceptions, has been achieved. The decline in the 1(st) year of graduation, where the concept of workplace misfit is occurring, is where further nurse graduate support is urgently required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Integrated Management of Residential Indoor Air Quality: A Call for Stakeholders in a Changing Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Marie-Eve; Poulin, Patrick; Campagna, Céline; Leclerc, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-25

    A paradigm change in the management of environmental health issues has been observed in recent years: instead of managing specific risks individually, a holistic vision of environmental problems would assure sustainable solutions. However, concrete actions that could help translate these recommendations into interventions are lacking. This review presents the relevance of using an integrated indoor air quality management approach to ensure occupant health and comfort. At the nexus of three basic concepts (reducing contaminants at the source, improving ventilation, and, when relevant, purifying the indoor air), this approach can help maintain and improve indoor air quality and limit exposure to several contaminants. Its application is particularly relevant in a climate change context since the evolving outdoor conditions have to be taken into account during building construction and renovation. The measures presented through this approach target public health players, building managers, owners, occupants, and professionals involved in building design, construction, renovation, and maintenance. The findings of this review will help the various stakeholders initiate a strategic reflection on the importance of indoor air quality and climate change issues for existing and future buildings. Several new avenues and recommendations are presented to set the path for future research activities.

  14. Spatial distribution maps for benthic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per S.

    1999-01-01

    ecosystems, were selected. These species are supposed to be good indicators of marine ecosystem health. The hydroacoustic measurements comprise preprocessed echo sounder recordings and side-scan sonar data forming a large and unique collection of datasets based on 4 field campaigns in Øresund...... of the distribution maps and to be combined with biogeochemical models describing spatiotemporal population dynamics. Finally, the use of side-scan sonar data is illustrated in a data fusion exercise combining side-scan sonar data with the results based on echo sounder measurements. The feasible use of side......-scan sonar for mapping of benthic communities remains an open task to be studied in the future. The data processing methodology developed is a contribution to the emerging field of hydroacoustic marine biology. The method of penalised maximum pseudo-likelihood for estimation of the Ising model under a huge...

  15. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzhöfer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    consumption rates and sediment characteristics from the trench axis of two contrasting trench systems in the Pacific Ocean; the Izu-Bonin Trench underlying mesotrophic waters and the Tonga Trench underlying oligotrophic waters. In situ oxygen consumption at the Izu-Bonin Trench axis site (9200 m; 746 +/- 103...... mu mol m(-2) d(-1); n=27) was 3-times higher than at the Tonga Trench axis site (10800 m; 225 +/- 50 pmol m(-2) d(-1); n=7) presumably reflecting the higher surface water productivity in the Northern Pacific. Comparing benthic O-2 consumption rates measured in the central hadal Tonga Trench...... to that of nearby (60 km distance) abyssal settings (6250 m; 92 +/- 44 mu mol m(-2) d(-1); n=16) revealed a 2.5 higher activity at the trench bottom. Onboard investigations on recovered sediment furthermore revealed that the prokaryotic abundance and concentrations of phytopigments followed this overall trend (i...

  16. Climate change impacts on human health over Europe through its effect on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Ruth M; Heal, Mathew R; O'Connor, Fiona M

    2017-12-05

    This review examines the current literature on the effects of future emissions and climate change on particulate matter (PM) and O 3 air quality and on the consequent health impacts, with a focus on Europe. There is considerable literature on the effects of climate change on O 3 but fewer studies on the effects of climate change on PM concentrations. Under the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th assessment report (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), background O 3 entering Europe is expected to decrease under most scenarios due to higher water vapour concentrations in a warmer climate. However, under the extreme pathway RCP8.5 higher (more than double) methane (CH 4 ) abundances lead to increases in background O 3 that offset the O 3 decrease due to climate change especially for the 2100 period. Regionally, in polluted areas with high levels of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), elevated surface temperatures and humidities yield increases in surface O 3 - termed the O 3 climate penalty - especially in southern Europe. The O 3 response is larger for metrics that represent the higher end of the O 3 distribution, such as daily maximum O 3 . Future changes in PM concentrations due to climate change are much less certain, although several recent studies also suggest a PM climate penalty due to high temperatures and humidity and reduced precipitation in northern mid-latitude land regions in 2100.A larger number of studies have examined both future climate and emissions changes under the RCP scenarios. Under these pathways the impact of emission changes on air quality out to the 2050s will be larger than that due to climate change, because of large reductions in emissions of O 3 and PM pollutant precursor emissions and the more limited climate change response itself. Climate change will also affect climate extreme events such as heatwaves. Air pollution episodes are associated with stagnation events and sometimes heat waves. Air quality during

  17. How is the River Water Quality Response to Climate Change Impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Willems, P.

    2015-12-01

    Water quality and its response to climate change have been become one of the most important issues of our society, which catches the attention of many scientists, environmental activists and policy makers. Climate change influences the river water quality directly and indirectly via rainfall and air temperature. For example, low flow decreases the volume of water for dilution and increases the residence time of the pollutants. By contrast, high flow leads to increases in the amount of pollutants and sediment loads from catchments to rivers. The changes in hydraulic characteristics, i.e. water depth and velocity, affect the transportation and biochemical transformation of pollutants in the river water body. The high air temperature leads to increasing water temperature, shorter growing periods of different crops and water demands from domestic households and industries, which eventually effects the level of river pollution. This study demonstrates the quantification of the variation of the water temperature and pollutant concentrations along the Molse Neet river in the North East of Belgium as a result of the changes in the catchment rainfall-runoff, air temperature and nutrient loads. Firstly, four climate change scenarios were generated based on a large ensemble of available global and regional climate models and statistical downscaling based on a quantile perturbation method. Secondly, the climatic changes to rainfall and temperature were transformed to changes in the evapotranspiration and runoff flow through the conceptual hydrological model PDM. Thirdly, the adjustment in nutrient loads from agriculture due to rainfall and growing periods of crops were calculated by means of the semi-empirical SENTWA model. Water temperature was estimated from air temperature by a stochastic model separating the temperature into long-term annual and short-term residual components. Next, hydrodynamic and water quality models of the river, implemented in InfoWorks RS, were

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Marianas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, and Marine Debris Sightings of the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  2. Benthic percent cover derived from analysis of benthic images collected at coral reef sites in Timor-Leste in 2013 and 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic cover data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) in hard bottom shallow...

  3. Tolerance of benthic macroinvertebrates to organic enrichment in highland streams of northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Mazzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: the aim of this study was to determine the ecological valence of benthic macroinvertebrates at different pollution levels in highland rivers and streams of Rio Grande do Sul; METHODS: the dataset proceeds from samplings performed between 2002-2011 in 35 lotic ecosystems. The Chemical Index was used to determine pollution levels. Indices of richness and Shannon diversity were applied to characterize the structure of benthic communities. The descriptors used to determine taxa's ecological valence were selected according to Coefficient of Variation and regression analyses. Groups of tolerance were identified using Interquartile range and cluster analysis; RESULTS: Conductivity and Chemical Index were the descriptors best related with diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate community. These metrics were used to determine the tolerance range of 38 taxa. Interquartile range and cluster analysis revealed three groups of taxa, according to their occurrence in different levels of pollution: taxa with narrow amplitudes, present at sites with very low or very high load of organic enrichment; taxa with moderate amplitude, found until moderately polluted sites; and taxa with occurrence in widespread environmental conditions. The results, when compared to other studies in Brazil, showed differences in some taxa's tolerance. This observation indicates the need to assess the bioindication potential of these taxa in genus and species level; CONCLUSION: the present study contributes to increase knowledge about the bioindicator potential of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, the study supports an advanced biomonitoring of ecological quality in mountain streams of southern Brazil.

  4. Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of environmental quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catchment areas of Bindare upstream (stations 1 and 2) are farmlands, with few isolated human settlements suggesting a less polluted water environment. The BOD which ranged between 1.88 ± 1.67 mg/l to 8.0 ± 4.76 mg/l increased downstream of the point of discharge. This allowed the survival of sensitive species ...

  5. Changes of Organic Carbon Quantity and Quality in Temperate Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Anna; Satwika Lestari, Annisa; Schubert, Alfred; Wiesmeier, Martin; Spörlein, Peter; Schilling, Bernd; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will have profound impacts on organic matter stocks and thus on the functionality of soils. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil is mainly regulated by the fluxes of organic matter which are highly associated with the aboveground and root litter production and their decompositions into CO2 by soil microorganism. The predicted rising temperatures in Bavaria might lead to an increased decomposition and release of soil carbon into the atmosphere, which would deteriorate a number of important soil functions. Here, we present an assessment of SOC stocks in three temperate forest sites over the last 30 years. Soil to a depth of 30 cm was analysed with density fractionation to evaluate SOC stocks and distribution in different pools. Additionally, tree-aboveground organic carbon (OC) stocks were measured to assess their influence on SOC. SOC stocks decreased between 1988 and 2004 and increased between 2004 and 2016. OC changes of litter + O layer and mineral soil differed. Highest changes of SOC occurred in the light fractions, followed by the mineral fractions. Tree-aboveground biomass, stand composition, and changing climate had an influence on SOC stocks. Precipitation change was correlated with the litter + O layer OC stocks. Further studies on the changes of each SOC fraction and the influence of other edaphic factors are needed to better understand the changes in SOC stocks and quality.

  6. Effects of sediment organic matter quality on bioaccumulation, degradation, and distribution of pyrene in two macrofaunal species and their surrounding sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granberg, M. E.; Selck, H.

    2007-01-01

    Sediment dwelling macrofauna (infauna) are important vectors for the transfer of sediment-associated contaminants to higher trophic levels. Sedimenting organic matter constitutes an important food source for all benthic organisms and changes seasonally in terms of quantity and quality. Sediment...... organic matter (SOM) quality affects organism activity and feeding behaviour, and is therefore also likely to affect contaminant fate in benthic systems. We investigated the impact of SOM quality (enrichment with either labile Tetraselmis sp. or refractory lignin) on the accumulation and metabolism...... imply that bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of sediment-associated PAH should increase following fresh organic matter input, e.g. after sedimentation of phytoplankton blooms. We stress the importance of considering behavioural characteristics of infauna and the trophic situation of the system when...

  7. Seafloor Mapping and Benthic Habitats off Assateague Island National Seashore: can we Resolve any Effects of Superstorm Sandy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D.; Trembanis, A. C.; Kennedy, E.; Rusch, H.; Rothermel, E.

    2016-02-01

    The National Park Service has partnered with faculty and students at the University of Delaware to map the length of Assateague Island and sample benthic communities there for two purposes: (1) to provide a complete inventory of benthic habitats and their biota, and (2) to determine if any changes from a pre-storm survey can be ascribed to Superstorm Sandy in 2012. During the 2014 and 2015 field seasons over 75 km2 of high-resolution ( 50 cm/pixel) side-scan sonar and collocated bathymetry were collected with a surface vessel mounted bathy side-scan sonar (EdgeTech 6205), spanning the shore from depths of less than 2 m out to a distance of approximately 1 nautical mile and depths of 10-12 m. Furthermore, we have resampled using standard methodology (modified Young grab and 0.5-mm sieve) a subset of the previously sampled benthic stations that represent all sediment classes identified in prior studies. Additionally, we have obtained novel data with our ROV and AUV assets, including finer scale bottom video and multibeam bathymetry, at specifically chosen locations in order to enhance understanding of the benthic habitat and bottom type changes. In addition to providing a habitat and faunal inventory for resource management purposes, we will compare our side scan and benthic survey data to the pre-storm 2011 data products with comparable coverage. To date we have found that ArcGIS and ENVI sediment classifications agree well with those from the 2011 study, but spatially we note more areas of finer sediments and less of gravel. As was expected, 2014 benthic assemblages differ significantly among sediment classes (PRIMER ANOSIM), and sediment class is the best predictor of the benthic community (PERMANOVA+ distance-based RDA). Our goal here is to use consistent analytical approaches to characterize changes that occur over season and inter-annual time scales. This is a critical step toward attributing sediment, habitat and biological changes to Superstorm Sandy.

  8. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    ). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite measure of both a soil's ability to function and how well it functions, relative to a specific use." Increasingly, contemporary discussion of soil quality includes the environmental cost of production and the potential for reclamation of degraded soils (Várallyay, 2005). Reasons for assessing soil quality in an agricultural or managed system may be somewhat different than reasons for assessing soil quality in a natural ecosystem. In an agricultural context, soil quality may be managed, to maximize production without adverse environmental effect, while in a natural ecosystem, soil quality may be observed, as a baseline value or set of values against which future changes in the system may be compared (Várallyay, 1994; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Soil quality has historically been equated with agricultural productivity, and thus is not a new idea. Soil conservation practices to maintain soil productivity are as old as agriculture itself, with documentation dating to the Roman Empire (Jenny, 1961). The Storie Index (Storie, 1932) and USDA Land Capability Classification (Klingebiel and Montgomery, 1973) were developed to separate soils into different quality classes. Soil quality is implied in many decisions farmers make about land purchases and management, and in the economic value rural assessors place on agricultural land for purposes of taxation. Beginning in the 1930s, soil productivity ratings were developed in the United States and elsewhere to help farmers select crops and management practices that would maximize production and minimize erosion or other adverse environmental effects (Huddleston, 1984). These rating systems are important predecessors of recent attempts to quantitatively assess soil quality. In the 1970s, attempts were made to identify and protect soils of the highest productive capacity by defining "prime agricultural lands" (Miller, 1979

  9. Massive land system changes impact water quality of the Jhelum River in Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Mohmmad Irshad; Rashid, Irfan; Shahi, Nuzhat; Murtaza, Khalid Omar; Hassan, Khalida; Yousuf, Abdul Rehman; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Shah, Irfan Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    The pristine aquatic ecosystems in the Himalayas are facing an ever increasing threat from various anthropogenic pressures which necessitate better understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of pollutants, their sources, and possible remedies. This study demonstrates the multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the multivariate statistical techniques, data from remote sensing, lab, and field-based observations for assessing the impact of massive land system changes on water quality of the river Jhelum. Land system changes over a period of 38 years have been quantified using multi-spectral satellite data to delineate the extent of different anthropogenically driven land use types that are the main non-point sources of pollution. Fifteen water quality parameters, at 12 sampling sites distributed uniformly along the length of the Jhelum, have been assessed to identify the possible sources of pollution. Our analysis indicated that 18% of the forested area has degraded into sparse forest or scrublands from 1972 to 2010, and the areas under croplands have decreased by 24% as people shifted from irrigation-intensive agriculture to orchard farming while as settlements showed a 397% increase during the observation period. One-way ANOVA revealed that all the water quality parameters had significant spatio-temporal differences (p < 0.01). Cluster analysis (CA) helped us to classify all the sampling sites into three groups. Factor analysis revealed that 91.84% of the total variance was mainly explained by five factors. Drastic changes in water quality of the Jhelum since the past three decades are manifested by increases in nitrate-nitrogen, TDS, and electric conductivity. The especially high levels of nitrogen (858 ± 405 μgL(-1)) and phosphorus (273 ± 18 μgL(-1)) in the Jhelum could be attributed to the reckless application of fertilizers, pesticides, and unplanned urbanization in the area.

  10. Impact of Past Land Use Changes on Drinking Water Quantity and Quality in Ljubljana Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Cencur Curk, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    Most of the practical problems that we face today with the on-site management of drinking water sources and distribution of healthy drinking water, originate from past actions, interventions and political decisions. In Ljubljana, the capital of the Republic of Slovenia, underlying groundwater is the main drinking water source. The main threat to drinking water sources is constant input of pollutant loads from roads, roofs, sewers, industry and agricultural areas. The main problems are directly and indirectly related to the significant decrease of groundwater level and deterioration of groundwater quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices under varying climate conditions. The Vodovod-Kanalizacija Public Utility is responsible for water supply of the city residents as well as for management of the water supply system, its surveillance and maintenance. In the past, the Ljubljana Municipality was responsible for the protection of water resources and the first delineation of groundwater protection areas was issued in Decree in 1955. In 2004 a Decree on the water protection zones for the aquifer of Ljubljansko polje on the state level was issued and passed the competences of proclamation of the water protection zones to the state. Spatial planning is a domain of The Municipality and land use is limited according to water protection legislation. For several observation wells long-time data sets about groundwater levels and quality are available, which enable us to analyse changes in groundwater quantity and quality parameters. From the data it is obvious that climate variations are affecting groundwater recharge. In addition, changing of land use affects groundwater quality. In spite of the Decree on the water protection there is a heavy pressure of investors to change land use plans and regulations on protection zones, which causes every day problems in managing the drinking water source. Groundwater management in Ljubljana demands strong

  11. Assessing the Impacts of Atmospheric Conditions under Climate Change on Air Quality Profile over Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei Tong, Cheuk

    2017-04-01

    Small particulates can cause long term impairment to human health as they can penetrate deep and deposit on the wall of the respiratory system. Under the projected climate change as reported by literature, atmospheric stability, which has strong effects on vertical mixing of air pollutants and thus air quality Hong Kong, is also varying from near to far future. In addition to domestic emission, Hong Kong receives also significant concentration of cross-boundary particulates that their natures and movements are correlated with atmospheric condition. This study aims to study the relation of atmospheric conditions with air quality over Hong Kong. Past meteorological data is based on Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. Radiosonde data provided from HKO are also adopted in testing and validating the data. Future meteorological data is simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), which dynamically downscaled the past and future climate under the A1B scenario simulated by ECHAM5/MPIOM. Air quality data is collected on one hand from the ground station data provided by Environment Protection Department, with selected stations revealing local emission and trans-boundary emission respectively. On the other hand, an Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), which operates using the radar principle to detect Rayleigh and Mie scattering from atmospheric gas and aerosols, has also been adopted to measure vertical aerosol profile, which has been observed tightly related to the high level meteorology. Data from scattered signals are collected, averaged or some episode selected for characteristic comparison with the atmospheric stability indices and other meteorological factors. The relation between atmospheric conditions and air quality is observed by statistical analysis, and statistical models are built based on the stability indices to project the changes in sulphur dioxide, ozone and particulate

  12. Change in Image Quality According to the 3D Locations of a CBCT Phantom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Joon Hwang

    Full Text Available A patient's position changes in every CBCT scan despite patient alignment protocols. However, there have been studies to determine image quality differences when an object is located at the center of the field of view (FOV. To evaluate changes in the image quality of the CBCT scan according to different object positions, the image quality indexes of the Alphard 3030 (Alphard Roentgen Ind., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan and the Rayscan Symphony (RAY Ind., Ltd., Suwon, Korea were measured using the Quart DVT_AP phantom at the center of the FOV and 6 peripheral positions under four types of exposure conditions. Anterior, posterior, right, left, upper, and lower positions 1 cm offset from the center of the FOV were used for the peripheral positions. We evaluated and compared the voxel size, homogeneity, contrast to noise ratio (CNR, and the 10% point of the modulation transfer function (MTF10% of the center and periphery. Because the voxel size, which is determined by the Nyquist frequency, was within tolerance, other image quality indexes were not influenced by the voxel size. For the CNR, homogeneity, and MTF10%, there were peripheral positions which showed considerable differences with statistical significance. The average difference between the center and periphery was up to 31.27% (CNR, 70.49% (homogeneity, and 13.64% (MTF10%. Homogeneity was under tolerance at some of the peripheral locations. Because the CNR, homogeneity, and MTF10% were significantly affected by positional changes of the phantom, an object's position can influence the interpretation of follow up CBCT images. Therefore, efforts to locate the object in the same position are important.

  13. How to plan workflow changes: a practical quality improvement tool used in an outpatient hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Christine; Chau, Connie; Giridharan, Neha; Huh, Youchin; Cooley, Janet; Warholak, Terri L

    2013-06-01

    A quality improvement tool is provided to improve pharmacy workflow with the goal of minimizing errors caused by workflow issues. This study involved workflow evaluation and reorganization, and staff opinions of these proposed changes. The study pharmacy was an outpatient pharmacy in the Tucson area. However, the quality improvement tool may be applied in all pharmacy settings, including but not limited to community, hospital, and independent pharmacies. This tool can help the user to identify potential workflow problem spots, such as high-traffic areas through the creation of current and proposed workflow diagrams. Creating a visual representation can help the user to identify problem spots and to propose changes to optimize workflow. It may also be helpful to assess employees' opinions of these changes. The workflow improvement tool can be used to assess where improvements are needed in a pharmacy's floor plan and workflow. Suggestions for improvements in the study pharmacy included increasing the number of verification points and decreasing high traffic areas in the workflow. The employees of the study pharmacy felt that the proposed changes displayed greater continuity, sufficiency, accessibility, and space within the pharmacy.

  14. Ontario's changing electrical sector : implications for air quality and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrota, K.; De Leon, F.

    1999-03-01

    Concerns regarding the changes to Ontario's electricity sector and the impacts that these changes may have on the environment and public health are discussed. Two of the major changes include the implementation of the Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan, and the introduction of competition to Ontario's electrical market. Both changes could have profound impacts on air quality in Toronto and the rest of Ontario. This report recommends that the Ontario Minister of Environment and the Ontario Minister of Energy, Science and Technology establish: a regulatory framework to ensure that competition in Ontario's electrical sector does not lead to greater reliance on coal-fired generating stations and further degradation of air quality, human health and the environment in Toronto and the rest of southern Ontario; annual air emission caps for the entire electrical sector to limit the volume of air pollutants released each year; a renewable energy standard which defines the percentage of electricity that must be generated with renewable energies by electrical suppliers serving Ontario consumers; and a public benefit fund to support the promotion of energy conservation and the development of renewable energies with a surcharge on the transmission of electricity. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Reprocessed DOQQ Aerial Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to reprocess existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  16. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Lower Laguna Madre 2004 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  17. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - San Antonio Bay 2007 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  18. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Lower Laguna Madre 2004 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  19. Shallow-water Benthic Habitats in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  20. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island - Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  1. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  2. Assessing the suitability of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Food availability, as estimated from organic carbon abundance in sediments, has comparatively less influence on faunal .... procedure was followed for the processing of sedi- ...... Microhabitat selection of benthic foraminifera in sedi- ments off ...

  3. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  4. Quantifying tidally driven benthic oxygen exchange across permeable sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinnis, Daniel F.; Sommer, Stefan; Lorke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Continental shelves are predominately (approximate to 70%) covered with permeable, sandy sediments. While identified as critical sites for intense oxygen, carbon, and nutrient turnover, constituent exchange across permeable sediments remains poorly quantified. The central North Sea largely consists...... of permeable sediments and has been identified as increasingly at risk for developing hypoxia. Therefore, we investigate the benthic O-2 exchange across the permeable North Sea sediments using a combination of in situ microprofiles, a benthic chamber, and aquatic eddy correlation. Tidal bottom currents drive...... the variable sediment O-2 penetration depth (from approximate to 3 to 8 mm) and the concurrent turbulence-driven 25-fold variation in the benthic sediment O-2 uptake. The O-2 flux and variability were reproduced using a simple 1-D model linking the benthic turbulence to the sediment pore water exchange...

  5. Atlantic Deep-Water Canyons (Benthic Landers) 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Each benthic lander contains a programmable sediment trap which can take 12 monthly samples, plus instruments to record temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen,...

  6. USVI Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  7. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  8. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  9. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  10. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat - Espiritu Santo Bay 2007 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to process existing and new digital multi-spectral imagery and create digital benthic...

  11. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (OMZ), both shallow marine (50–60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150–1500 m water depth) ... depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for ..... in processing the samples.

  12. Ecology of intertidal benthic algae of Northern Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Deshmukhe, G.V.

    The intertidal benthic marine algal flora has been studied for distribution, phenology, biomass and zonation along with the environmental conditions. About 65 species belonging to 42 genera of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta have been recorded. Rhodophyta...

  13. Estimation of sediment properties during benthic impact experiments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yamazaki, T.; Sharma, R

    Sediment properties, such as water content and density, have been used to estimate the dry and wet weights, as well as the volume of sediment recovered and discharged, during benthic impact experiments conducted in the Pacific and Indian Oceans...

  14. St. John Benthic Habitat Mapping - Moderate Depth Ground Validation Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitats of the moderate-depth marine environment in and around the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument were mapped using a combination of...

  15. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  16. Ecological Assessment of Lake Hora, Ethiopia, Using Benthic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Lake Hora needs protection management strategies to maintain its sustainable use. Key words: Benthic Fauna, Ethiopia, Lake Hora, Specimens, Weed-bed. 1. ..... Loam soils often contain a good amount of organic matter. 3.3. Ecological ...

  17. Variation in composition of macro-benthic invertebrates as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    1 Makerere University Institute of Environment & Natural Resources, P.O. Box 7062 Kampala-Uganda ... benthic macro-invertebrates communities were evaluated using GIS techniques along an ...... Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa.

  18. NEFSC Benthic Habitat Survey (AL0304, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey will collect benthic samples using acoustics, nets, and grab samplers. The survey will monitor and map the geological, physical, and biological habitats...

  19. NEFSC 2015 Benthic Habitat Survey (HB1507, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey collects benthic samples using acoustics, nets, and grab samplers. The survey monitors and maps the geological, physical, and biological habitats of the...

  20. Persistent natural acidification drives major distribution shifts in marine benthic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, C.; Vidal, M.; Canals, M.; Kersting, D. K.; Amblas, D.; Aspillaga, E.; Cebrián, E.; Delgado-Huertas, A.; Díaz, D.; Garrabou, J.; Hereu, B.; Navarro, L.; Teixidó, N.; Ballesteros, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification is receiving increasing attention because of its potential to affect marine ecosystems. Rare CO2 vents offer a unique opportunity to investigate the response of benthic ecosystems to acidification. However, the benthic habitats investigated so far are mainly found at very shallow water (less than or equal to 5 m depth) and therefore are not representative of the broad range of continental shelf habitats. Here, we show that a decrease from pH 8.1 to 7.9 observed in a CO2 vent system at 40 m depth leads to a dramatic shift in highly diverse and structurally complex habitats. Forests of the kelp Laminaria rodriguezii usually found at larger depths (greater than 65 m) replace the otherwise dominant habitats (i.e. coralligenous outcrops and rhodolith beds), which are mainly characterized by calcifying organisms. Only the aragonite-calcifying algae are able to survive in acidified waters, while high-magnesium-calcite organisms are almost completely absent. Although a long-term survey of the venting area would be necessary to fully understand the effects of the variability of pH and other carbonate parameters over the structure and functioning of the investigated mesophotic habitats, our results suggest that in addition of significant changes at species level, moderate ocean acidification may entail major shifts in the distribution and dominance of key benthic ecosystems at regional scale, which could have broad ecological and socio-economic implications. PMID:26511045

  1. Ecological diversification associated with the benthic-to-pelagic transition by North American minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, E D; Holcomb, J M; Tan, M; Armbruster, J W

    2017-03-01

    Ecological opportunity is often regarded as a key factor that explains why diversity is unevenly distributed across life. Colonization of novel environments or adaptive zones may promote diversification. North American minnows exhibit an ancestral benthic-to-pelagic habitat shift that coincided with a burst in diversification. Here, we evaluate the phenotypic and ecological implications of this habitat shift by assessing craniofacial and dietary traits among 34 species and testing for morphology-diet covariation, convergence and adaptive optima. There were several instances of morphology-diet covariation such as correlations between mouth angle and the consumption of terrestrial insects and between relative gut length and the consumption of algae. After accounting for size and phylogenetic nonindependence, benthic species had longer heads, longer snouts, eyes positioned higher on their head, smaller mouth angles and longer digestive tracts than pelagic minnows. Benthic minnows also consumed more algae but less terrestrial insects, by volume, than pelagic minnows. Lastly, there were three distinct evolutionary regimes and more convergence in morphology and dietary characteristics than expected under a Brownian motion model of evolution. These findings indicate that colonization of the pelagic zone by minnows involved myriad phenotypic and dietary changes associated with exploitation of terrestrial subsidies. Thus, minnows exhibit phenotype-dietary covariation, an expansion of ecological roles and a burst in diversification rates in response to the ecological opportunity afforded by the colonization of a novel habitat. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael; Naar, Jerome P; Tomas, Carmelo; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2012-01-15

    Blooms of the toxic alga Karenia brevis occur along coastlines where sessile suspension feeding invertebrates are common components of benthic communities. We studied the effects of K. brevis on four benthic suspension feeding invertebrates common to the coast of the SE United States: the sponge Haliclona tubifera, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Styela plicata. In controlled laboratory experiments, we determined the rate at which K. brevis was cleared from the seawater by these invertebrates, the effect of K. brevis on clearance rates of a non-toxic phytoplankton species, Rhodomonas sp., and the extent to which brevetoxins bioaccumulated in tissues of invertebrates using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All four invertebrate species cleared significant quantities of K. brevis from seawater, with mean clearance rates ranging from 2.27 to 6.71 L g h⁻¹ for H. tubifera and S. plicata, respectively. In the presence of K. brevis, clearance rates of Rhodomonas sp. by B. neritina and S. plicata were depressed by 75% and 69%, respectively, while clearance rates by H. tubifera and M. mercenaria were unaffected. Negative effects of K. brevis were impermanent; after a recovery period of 13 h, B. neritina and S. plicata regained normal clearance rates. All four invertebrates accumulated high concentrations of brevetoxin after a 4h exposure to K. brevis, but when animals were transferred to filtered seawater for 15 h after exposure, brevetoxin concentrations in the tissues of H. tubifera and B. neritina decreased by ∼80%, while there was no change in toxin concentration in the tissues of S. plicata and M. mercenaria. High cell concentrations of K. brevis may cause a suppression of clearance rates in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates, resulting in a positive feedback for bloom formation. Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may

  3. Rhythmic behaviour of marine benthopelagic species and the synchronous dynamics of benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Tecchio, Samuele; Navarro, Joan; Company, Joan B.

    2015-01-01

    Light-intensity cycles drive the relentless motion of species in the oceans, and water column migrants may cyclically make contact with the seabed, hence influencing the temporal dynamism of benthic ecosystems. The influence of light on this process remains largely unknown to date. In this study, we focus on the occurrence of day-night changes in benthic communities on the western Mediterranean continental shelf (100 m depth) and slope (400 m depth) as a potential result of a behaviourally sustained benthopelagic coupling. We analysed fluctuations in species abundance based on trawling at hourly intervals over a 4-day period as a proxy of activity rhythms at the seabed. We also measured light in situ to assess how the depth-related decrease of its intensity influences species rhythms and the occurrence of the putative benthopelagic synchronisation. Temporal similarities in the catch patterns for different species were screened by dendrogram analysis. On the continental shelf, species performing diel migrations (i.e., over a 24 h period) that were either vertical (i.e., benthopelagic) or horizontal across depths (i.e., nektobenthic) clustered together separately from the more sedentary endobenthic and epibenthic species. At the same depth, waveform analysis showed a significant diurnal increase in the catch of water column species and benthic species at night. Such coupling was absent on the continental slope, where light intensity was several orders of magnitude lower than that on the shelf. Our data indicate that diel activity rhythms, which are well known for vertical pelagic migrators, are also evident in the benthos. We discuss the role of light as a major evolutionary driver shaping the composition and biodiversity of benthic communities via visual predation.

  4. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate communities to highway construction in an Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, L.-S.; Chen, Y.; Wei, X.

    2010-01-01

    Highway construction in mountainous areas can result in sedimentation of streams, negatively impacting stream habitat, water quality, and biotic communities. We assessed the impacts of construction of a segment of Corridor H, a four-lane highway, in the Lost River watershed, West Virginia, by monitoring benthic macroinvertebrate communities and water quality, before, during, and after highway construction and prior to highway use at upstream and downstream sites from 1997 through 2007. Data analysis of temporal impacts of highway construction followed a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study design. Highway construction impacts included an increase in stream sedimentation during the construction phase. This was indicated by an increase in turbidity and total suspended solids. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics indicated a community more tolerant during and after construction than in the period before construction. The percent of Chironomidae and the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) increased, while percent of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) decreased. Our 10-year study addressed short-term impacts of highway construction and found that impacts were relatively minimal. A recovery of the number of EPT taxa collected after construction indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate community may be recovering from impacts of highway construction. However, this study only addressed a period of 3 years before, 3 years during, and 4 years post construction. Inferences cannot be made concerning the long-term impacts of the highway, highway traffic, runoff, and other factors associated with highway use. Continual monitoring of the watershed is necessary to determine if the highway has a continual impact on stream habitat, water quality, and biotic integrity. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. A quality control method for detecting energy changes of medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    A description is presented of a simple and sensitive method for detecting a change in the energy of the electrons bombarding the target of medical accelerators. This technique is useful for x-ray beams with end point energy in the range of 15.7 to 25 MeV. The method is based on the photoactivation of 16 O and 14 N in a small sample of ammonium nitrate. It was found that the ratio of the activity induced in the oxygen divided by that produced in the nitrogen can be used as a quality control technique to detect a change in the energy of the electrons that bombard the target of the accelerator. An electron energy change of the order of 0.2 MeV can be determined using this method. (author)

  6. Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis

    OpenAIRE

    Willacker, James J.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Wilton, Peter R.; Walton, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have b...

  7. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  8. Managed aquifer recharge of treated wastewater: water quality changes resulting from infiltration through the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Elise; Toze, Simon; Patterson, Bradley; Higginson, Simon

    2011-11-01

    Secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated through a 9 m-thick calcareous vadose zone during a 39 month managed aquifer recharge (MAR) field trial to determine potential improvements in the recycled water quality. The water quality improvements of the recycled water were based on changes in the chemistry and microbiology of (i) the recycled water prior to infiltration relative to (ii) groundwater immediately down-gradient from the infiltration gallery. Changes in the average concentrations of several constituents in the recycled water were identified with reductions of 30% for phosphorous, 66% for fluoride, 62% for iron and 51% for total organic carbon when the secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated at an applied rate of 17.5 L per minute with a residence time of approximately four days in the vadose zone and less than two days in the aquifer. Reductions were also noted for oxazepam and temazepam among the pharmaceuticals tested and for a range of microbial pathogens, but reductions were harder to quantify as their magnitudes varied over time. Total nitrogen and carbamazepine persisted in groundwater down-gradient from the infiltration galleries. Infiltration does potentially offer a range of water quality improvements over direct injection to the water table without passage through the unsaturated zone; however, additional treatment options for the non-potable water may still need to be considered, depending on the receiving environment or the end use of the recovered water. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in the Quality of Black Mulberry and Blueberry Sherbets During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsen Rayman Ergün

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was evaluated the quality properties of traditional drink sherbets that are prepared from black mulberry and blueberry fruits. After production sherbets were investigated to determine their pH, acidity, °brix and colour values, total sugar, phenolic, anthocyanin and antioxidant contents. Moreover the sherbets stored at 4°C during 2 months and the changes in these quality properties were examined per month. As a result statistically significant changes were observed in the quality properties of these sherbets of black mulberry and blueberry fruits which are known with their rich content of phytochemical compounds. The results show that in blueberry sherbet the degradation of phenolics was faster than black mulberry sherbet. Anthocyanins that are higher in black mulberry sherbets after production were preserved better in blueberry sherbets at the end of 2nd month. L*and a* values decreased for blackberry and blueberry sherbets during storage. b* value decreased from 5.59 to 4.92 for blackberry sherbet while it increased from 0.62 to 0.79 for blueberry sherbet at the end of the storage time.

  10. Variable infiltration and river flooding resulting in changing groundwater quality - A case study from Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotliński, Konrad; Postma, Dieke; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe changes in groundwater quality occurring in a buried valley aquifer following a reduction in groundwater exploitation and enhanced infiltration due to extensive flooding of the Odra River in 1997 were investigated. Long-time series data for the chemical composition of groundwater in a large well field for drinking water supply indicated the deterioration of groundwater quality in the wells capturing water from the flooded area, which had been intensively cultivated since the 1960s. Infiltration of flooded river water into the aquifer is suggested by an elevated chloride concentration, although salt flushing from the rewatered unsaturated zone due to the enhanced recharge event is much more feasible. Concomitantly with chloride increases in the concentrations of sulphate, ferrous iron, manganese, and nickel imply the oxidation of pyrite (FeS 2) which is abundant in the aquifer. The proton production resulting from pyrite oxidation is buffered by the dissolution of calcite, while the Ca:SO 4 stoichiometry of the groundwater indicates that pyrite oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction is the dominant process occurring in the aquifer. The pyritic origin of SO42- is confirmed by the sulphur isotopic composition. The resultant Fe 2+ increase induces Mn-oxide dissolution and the mobilisation of Ni 2+ previously adsorbed to Mn-oxide surfaces. The study has a major implication for groundwater quality prediction studies where there are considerable variations in water level associated with groundwater management and climate change issues.

  11. QUANTITATIVE AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF TESTIS AND SEMEN QUALITY PARAMETERS CHANGES CAUSED BY PERORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DIAZINON IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svätoslav Hluchý

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the quantitative and structural changes in the rat testis and changes of semen quality after a diazinon administration. METHODS: Rats received diazinon (99% purity in thier drinking water (40 mg.l-1 with free access. Age of rats at the beginning of the experiment was 30 days and experiment lasted for next 90 days. The histological samples were evaluated by histological and morphometric methods in light microscopy and the samples of semen were evaluated with CASA method. RESULTS: Disintergation of cellular associations in the seminiferous epithelium, germ cells evacuation into the tubule lumen and thier necrosis were mostly observed. Rarely vacuolisation and cracks of epithelium and fibrotisation of interstitial tissue were noted. Morphometric methods have shown extension of epithelium (P subcellular structures and their functions may be damaged which can lead to subfertility. Further investigation of diazinon is needed for verification of our hypothesis.doi:10.5219/188

  12. SSB taxes and diet quality in US preschoolers: estimated changes in the 2010 Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C N; Poti, J M; Ng, S W; Popkin, B M

    2017-04-01

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed as a strategy to combat child obesity. Yet it is unclear how a tax on SSBs might influence the overall quality of diet in preschool children. Thus, we use simulated price increases and the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) to explore the relationship between SSB taxes and diet quality in preschool children. Price and purchase data from the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel and a two-part marginal effects model were used to estimate relative changes in purchases with a 20% increase in the price of SSBs. Demand elasticities were applied to dietary intake data for children ages 2-5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010 and 2011-2012) to estimate the impact of a 20% SSB tax on dietary intake and quality (HEI-2010). A 20% increase in the price of SSBs was associated with lower total caloric intake (-28 kcal d -1 , p diet quality as an isolated intervention among US preschool children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Who is leading the change?. U.S. dietary quality comparison between 1965 and 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Zizza, Claire; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2003-07-01

    Many studies have examined rapidly changing trends in U.S. dietary intake, but not as they correspond to other health inequalities among black and white Americans. The purpose of this study was to explore 30-year trends in diet quality and to examine whether income or education is the key socioeconomic factor linked with these shifts. The 1965 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey and the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals were used and included, respectively, 6476 and 9241 respondents who were aged > or =18 years. The Revised Diet Quality Index (DQI-R), an instrument that provides a summary assessment of a diet's overall healthfulness, was also used. Between 1965 and 1996, improvements were found in both the overall DQI-R and its components across all education levels, with the exception of calcium intake. Conversely, improvements linked with income effects were inconsistent and less clear. In 1965, the effect of college attendance resulted in a 1.8 point higher DQI-R, higher calcium intake, and increased servings of fruits and vegetables. In 1994-1996, there were consistently improved diets for the overall DQI-R and its components, particularly among college attendees. Diet quality has improved across both race and socioeconomic status groupings between 1965 and 1994-1996; however, education provides a much clearer differentiation. Education efforts must be emphasized to eliminate disadvantages in diet quality.

  14. Lake Malawi cichlid evolution along a benthic/limnetic axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, C D; Roberts, R J; Loh, Y-H E; Rupp, M F; Streelman, J T

    2013-07-01

    Divergence along a benthic to limnetic habitat axis is ubiquitous in aquatic systems. However, this type of habitat divergence has largely been examined in low diversity, high latitude lake systems. In this study, we examined the importance of benthic and limnetic divergence within the incredibly species-rich radiation of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Using novel phylogenetic reconstructions, we provided a series of hypotheses regarding the evolutionary relationships among 24 benthic and limnetic species that suggests divergence along this axis has occurred multiple times within Lake Malawi cichlids. Because pectoral fin morphology is often associated with divergence along this habitat axis in other fish groups, we investigated divergence in pectoral fin muscles in these benthic and limnetic cichlid species. We showed that the eight pectoral fin muscles and fin area generally tended to evolve in a tightly correlated manner in the Lake Malawi cichlids. Additionally, we found that larger pectoral fin muscles are strongly associated with the independent evolution of the benthic feeding habit across this group of fish. Evolutionary specialization along a benthic/limnetic axis has occurred multiple times within this tropical lake radiation and has produced repeated convergent matching between exploitation of water column habitats and locomotory morphology.

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BENTHIC (Benthic habitat polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains known locations of patchy and continuous seagrass and oyster reef habitat for the Upper Coast of Texas benthic habitat data. This data set...

  16. Impact of intertidal oyster trestle cultivation on the Ecological Status of benthic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, James; O'Beirn, Francis X; O'Carroll, Jack Pj; Patterson, Adrian; Kennedy, Robert

    2015-06-15

    A considerable number of Ireland's shellfish production areas co-occur with or are adjacent to Natura 2000 sites which are protected under European legislation. To investigate the general interaction between trestle oyster cultivation and the surrounding intertidal environment, six sites were selected within designated Natura 2000 sites. At each trestle site three Treatment areas were sampled. One Treatment area corresponded to potential impacts associated with cultivation activities occurring at trestle structures (designated the Trestle Treatment) while one Treatment area corresponded to potential impacts due to cultivation activities occurring along access routes (the Access Treatment). An area not subject to any known anthropogenic activity was used as a control (the Control Treatment). Potential impacts associated with Trestle Treatment areas included changes in sediment total organic ma