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Sample records for benthic quality change

  1. Impact of Effluents on Water Quality and Benthic Macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the impact of effluent discharge on water quality and the benthic macro invertebrate fauna of the Awba stream and reservoir was carried out between April 2007 and May 2008. Benthic macro invertebrate and sediment samples were collected with a Van Veen grab, while physico-chemical parameters were ...

  2. Quality assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates under the scope of WFD using BAT, the Benthic Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Heliana; Magalhães Neto, João; Patrício, Joana; Veríssimo, Helena; Pinto, Rute; Salas, Fuensanta; Marques, João Carlos

    2009-10-01

    Assessing the health of ecosystems has become a focal point among researchers worldwide. Recently, the European Water Framework Directive intensified the development of approaches to assess ecosystems' ecological quality. The Benthic Assessment Tool (BAT) is a multimetric approach to evaluate condition of subtidal soft bottom macroinvertebrates of coastal and transitional waters. The effects of anthropogenic disturbances on benthic macroinvertebrate communities, from 1990 to 2006, allowed testing BAT performance in Mondego estuary (Portugal). The method was able to detect decrease on ecological quality, induced essentially by eutrophication and physical disturbances, and follow communities' subsequent recovery. It evidenced, nevertheless, some limitations associated with the unstable nature of estuaries. The ecological classification of key species in the community and the balance expected between ecological groups of estuarine communities had great influence in the final ecological assessment. Shortcomings of the method were discussed in the light of its suitability for assessing transitional waters' condition.

  3. A benthic quality index for European alpine lakes

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    Bruno Rossaro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of benthic quality indices for European lakes is hindered by the lack of information concerning many national lake types and pressures. Most information is from north European lakes stressed by acidification and from deep lakes subjected to eutrophication; for other lake types (the ones included in the Mediterranean areas for example and for other pressures (hydro-morphological alteration, toxic stress there is practically no information about the response of benthic macro-invertebrates; this hinders the possibility of an intercalibration of the indices among the member states (MS in the EU. In the present communication three benthic quality indices are proposed considering the littoral, sublittoral and profundal zone in 5 reference and 7 non reference lakes from the Alpine region in response to eutrophication. The sensitivity values of the 177 species found in these lakes were calculated taking a weighted average of the values of environmental variables from lakes in which the species were present. The indicator taxa which prevailed in these lakes were Chironomids and Oligochaetes. A coinertia analysis emphasized the importance of trophic variables (transparency, nitrates, total phosphorous in explaining the species distribution, but geographic (altitude and morphometric (depth, volume variables were also important. The indices enabeled a separation of reference from non-reference lakes and to assign the non-reference lakes to different quality classes in agreement with the Water Framework Directive.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1364.Published online: 17 October 2012. 

  4. Benthic foraminifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.

    sensitive to the changes in ambient environment. The response of benthic foraminifera to the changes in the ambient environment is incorporated in their tests, which have high preservation potential. Therefore, the characteristics of the benthic...

  5. Benthic macroinvertebrate as biological indicator for water quality in Sungai Penchala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahazar, Akmal; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    Sungai Penchala is one of the main tributaries for Sungai Klang which flows through the urban area of Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur before merging with Sungai Klang in the Petaling Jaya district. As urban river, Sungai Penchala is polluted because of anthropogenic activities and this include direct garbage load, untreated drainage system from nearby residential area and also runoff from frequent heavy rain as the country located in tropical area. Currently, there are efforts from government and educational sectors to monitor and rehabilitate the river with vision to return it into its former natural function and not as a sink for urban population. Unlike pristine or recreational river, the water quality of urban river changes drastically over day even hours. Thus there is need for a procedure that can be used for water quality inspection in time of sampling but also provides reliable information that can resemble past event. Therefore, to do that the river monitoring was carried out by employing the traditional physical-chemical parameter by using Hydrolab Quanta® multi parameter reader. The benthic macroinvertebrate was collected using Surber's sampler and preserved in 95% ethanol for identification purposes. The data collected was analyzed for Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) to determine the river condition. The system used has its own strength and weakness but when employed together, it is expected to give better knowledge in evaluating river condition. Thus, increase the accuracy of evaluation process. In this study, the biological monitoring shows that changes in water quality influence the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate. This study prove that biological monitoring by utilizing benthic macroinvertebrate can also be used in determining water quality of urban type river. It is also produced result that more readily interprets as it reveal past event disturbance which sometimes missed by physical

  6. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and

  7. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, W.M.G.M.; Boon, A.R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Verschoor, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMBI,

  8. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP) of Coral Reef Environments: Effects of Changes in the Spectral Quality and Quantity of the Underwater Light Field and Elevated Temperatures on Small Scale (0.01 to 0.1 m) Optical Properties of Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-30

    Utilization by Colonies of the Congeneric Hermatypic Corals , Montastraea faveolata and Montastraea cavernosa. (Limnology and Oceanography, in press) ...1 Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP) of Coral Reef Environments: Effects of Changes in the Spectral Quality and Quantity of the Underwater...Light Field and Elevated Temperatures on Small Scale (0.01 to 0.1 m) Optical Properties of Corals Dr. Michael P. Lesser University of New Hampshire

  9. Changes of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries Under Polluted Conditions with Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollution on the Thi Vai River has been spreading out rapidly over the two lasted decades caused by the wastewater from the industrial parks in the left bank of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The evaluation of the benthic macroinvertebrate changes was very necessary to identify the consequences of the industrial wastewater on water quality and aquatic ecosystem of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. In this study, the variables of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality were investigated in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries, Southern Vietnam. The monitoring data of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters covered the period from 1989 to 2015 at 6 sampling sites in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The basic water quality parameters were also tested including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The biodiversity indices of benthic macroinvertebrates were applied for water quality assessment. The results showed that pH ranged from 6.4 – 7.6 during the monitoring. The DO concentrations were in between 0.20 - 6.70 mg/L. The concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorous ranged from 0.03 - 5.70 mg/L 0.024 - 1.380 mg/L respectively. Macroinvertebrate community in the study area consisted of 36 species of polychaeta, gastropoda, bivalvia, and crustacea, of which, species of polychaeta were dominant in species number. The benthic macroinvertebartes density ranged from 0 - 2.746 individuals/m−1 with the main dominant species of Neanthes caudata, Prionospio malmgreni, Paraprionospio pinnata, Trichochaeta carica, Maldane sarsi, Capitella capitata, Terebellides stroemi, Euditylia polymorpha, Grandidierella lignorum, Apseudes vietnamensis. The biodiversity index values during the monitoring characterized for aquatic environmental conditions of mesotrophic to polytrophic. Besides, species richness positively correlated with DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The results

  10. Research regarding the changes that occur in the structure of benthic macro invertebrates communities as a result of anthropogenic activities

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    Anca-Andreea Marin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An important role in the monitoring of the water quality is represented by the benthic macro invertebrates. They are a key component in the transfer of matter and energy in the aquatic ecosystems. In May 2015, 20 quantitative samples of benthic sample were collected at different seasons in the Bega River water. Samples were collected from the upstream, middle and downstream of Timisoara city. The aim of this paper is to identify the changes that occur in the structure of benthic macro invertebrates communities due to anthropogenic activities. Once the identification of  saprobionte organisms has done, it have been performed the density, abundance and frequency of the sample. Based on these values, we can say that the upstream segment waters falls into the category of superior quality compared to the waters of the central segment, especially in the downstream segment.

  11. Benthic foraminifera and environmental changes in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E.; Gapotchenko, T.; Varekamp, J.C.; Mecray, E.I.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.

    2000-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal faunas in Long Island Sound (LIS) in the 1940s and 1960s were of low diversity, and dominated by species of the genus Elphidium, mainly Elphidium excavatum clavatum, with common Buccella frigida and Eggerella advena. The distribution of these species was dominantly correlated with depth, but it was not clear which depth-related environmental variable was most important. Differences between faunas collected in 1996 and 1997, and in the 1940s and 1960s include a strong decrease in relative abundance of Eggerella advena over all LIS, an increase in relative abundance of Ammonia beccarii in western LIS, and a decrease in species diversity. The decreased diversity suggests that environmental stress caused the faunal changes. Oxygen isotope data for E. excavatum clavatum indicate that a change in salinity is not a probable cause. Carbon isotope data suggest that the supply of organic matter to the benthos increased since the early 1960s, with a stronger increase in western LIS where algal blooms have occurred since the early 1970s, possibly as a result of nutrient input by waste water treatment plants. These blooms or the resulting episodes of anoxia/hypoxia may have played a role in the increased relative abundance of A. beccarii. There is no clear explanation for the decreased abundance of E. advena, but changes in the phytoplankton composition (thus food supply) are a possible cause. Benthic foraminiferal faunal and stable isotope data have excellent potential as indicators of physicochemical environmental changes and their effects on the biota in LIS.

  12. BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AS PAPAGAIO RIVER WATER QUALITY INDICATOR – CAMPO MOURÃO – PR

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    Alexandre Monkolski, Janet Higuti, Luiz Alberto Vieira, Roger Paulo Mormul e Sidnei Pressinatte Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollutant substance poured in the environment causes negative impacts for life forms that inhabit the sources. The biological monitoring of aquatic ecosystems has as objective the evaluation of the quality of water, in function of alterations of the community of macroinvertebrates. Among these communities Benthic is distinguished, because it reflects the state of conservation or degradation of the sources, changing their morphophysiological characteristics and its presence or absence in water. The quality of Papagaios’ river water was evaluated by physical-chemistry analysis and by density of Benthic macroinvertebrates. Four colleting stations from a stretch of the river were analyzed and samples of sediment and water were collected. At 2nd and 3rd stations there are two cold storage rooms installed at the river’s margins, which treat their effluents in stabilizing lagoons. The 4th station receives the ousting directly from a textile after it has passed by a treatment. Results obtained by biological methods indicated the presence of polluting elements in water. The river’s longitudinal gradient showed a typical sucessorial process of macroinvertebrates from polluted environments, with a significant increase in the density of Oligochaeta and Chironidade, organisms that are tolerant to impacts in water. Considering the four stations that were analyzed, the unwished impacts are occurring in three last ones with more intensity.

  13. Benthic Foraminifera in the Changing Ecosystem of Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, B.; Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.

    2004-05-01

    Long Island Sound (LIS) is an estuary in a heavily urbanized region; Long Island lies to its South, New York City (NYC) to its West and Connecticut to its North. The Connecticut River contributes >70% of the fresh water influx. LIS has a narrow opening to the West (into East River), but exchange with the ocean occurs dominantly at its eastern end, resulting in an east-west gradient in salinity. An east-west gradient is also present in indicators of anthropogenic contamination in the surface sediments (e.g., trace metals) because western LIS is close to the major source of anthropogenic input (NYC). In addition, bottom currents focus fine-grained, contaminant-loaded sediments there. Since the early 1970's western LIS and parts of central LIS have suffered summer hypoxia, probably as a result of increased algal growth caused by anthropogenic nitrogen input. Benthic foraminifera are eukaryote heterotrophic organisms with a calcareous or agglutinated test. We investigated changes in their populations over time in about 2m-long gravity cores in westernmost (WLIS75GGC1; 73o 40'W, 40o 52'N, 19m waterdepth) and coastal central LIS (B1GGC1; 73o 4'W, 41o 10'N, 8m water depth), to document environmental changes over the last millennium, including the time of European settlement and the industrial revolution and population increase. An age model was derived from metal pollution records and 14C dating. Before European settlement, the low-diversity benthic faunas in core B1GGC1, at a depth within the zone of light penetration, were dominated by Elphidium excavatum, a species feeding on living diatoms. In western LIS (below the zone of light penetration) this species was less abundant and Elphidium incertum and Buccella frigida were common. In both cores, the absolute abundance of benthic foraminifera and the relative abundance of Elphidium excavatum increased in the early 1800's, coinciding with a time of rapid increase in human population around LIS and slightly before an

  14. Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of environmental quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For a period of 2 years (from July, 1997 to June, 1999), 87 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa, composed of 12,078 individuals were collected from four stations of Bindare stream and one station on River Galma. Samples were collected monthly, using a Van Veen grap. Physicochemical variables were also determined using ...

  15. Benthic macroinvertebrates diversity and water quality assessment at Sungai Congkak recreational area, Hulu Langat, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaqim-Alias, M.; Ahmad, A. K.

    2013-11-01

    A study on benthic macroinvertebrates diversity and water quality assessment was conducted at Sungai Congkak recreational area in Hulu Langat, Selangor. Sums of eight sampling stations were selected with a distance of 100-200 m interval between each station. Benthic macroinvertebrates was sampled using a Surber net, while water sampling and analysis were undertaken according to HACH standard methods. A total of 3754 individuals from 40 families of benthic macroinvertebrates were recorded at this river. Ecological indices namely Shannon diversity index (2.49), Pielou evenness index (0.77) and Margalef richness index (4.06) demonstrate that Sungai Congkak is at good condition and benthic macroinvertebrates has homogeneous distribution along the sampling sites. Elmidae, Hydrophilidae, Baetidae and Perlidae were most dominant families present in that area and adapted progressively with excellent water quality (> 300 individuals). As regards to Malaysian's Water Quality Index (WQI), the study area at Sungai Congkak is classified in class I which has good water quality conditions. The Pearson correlation test indicates that ecological indices have strong correlation toward WQI at all sampling stations. As a conclusion, the benthic macroinvertebrates and WQI data demonstrated that Sungai Congkak is clean and suitable as recreational stream based on this study.

  16. BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE UPPER HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF CERNA RIVER IN RELATION TO WATER QUALITY (WEST AND SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

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    CORINA TUDORESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an hydrographic basin may be reflected by the composition of benthic macroinvertebrates communities as they can be influenced by the quality degradations of physical and chemical water parameters. The structure of the benthic community in the upper basin of the Cerna river was characterized by the presence of 13 groups. Abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Amphipoda were influenced by changes in water quality, changes that were reflected in the composition and structure of such communities with low levels of abundance, reaching extinction in some areas of the basin.

  17. Using Sediment Profile Imagery (SPI) to Quantify Relationships Between Water Quality and Benthic Habitat Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the results of monthly sediment and water quality surveys to evaluate the impact of intermittent, seasonal hypoxia on benthic habitat condition. This study was conducted in the Pensacola Bay (Florida) estuary across nine sites extending from the mouth of the Escambia ...

  18. Application of Water Quality and Ecology Indices of Benthic Macroinvertebrate to Evaluate Water Quality of Tertiary Irrigation in Malang District

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    Desi Kartikasari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the water quality of tertiary irrigation in several subdistricts in Malang, namely Kepanjen, Karangploso, and Tumpang. The water quality depends on the water quality indices (National Sanitation Foundation’s-NSF Indices and O’Connor’s Indices based on variables TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and Nitrate concentrate and ecological indices of benthic macroinvertebrate (Diversity Indices Shannon-Wiener, Hilsenhof Biotic Indices-HBI, Average Score per Taxon-ASPT which is calculated by Biological Monitoring Working Party-BMWP, Ephemeroptera Indices, Plecoptera, Trichoptera-EPT. Observation of the physico-chemical water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate on May 2012 to April 2013. The sampling in each subdistrict was done at two selected stations in tertiary irrigation channel with three plot at each station. The data of physico-chemical quality of water were used to calculate the water quality indices, while the benthic macroinvertebrate data were used to calculate the ecological indices. The research findings showed that 27 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belong 10 classes were found in the three subdistrict. The pH, DO, Nitrate, TSS and TDS in six tertiary irrigation channels in Malang still met the water quality standards based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001 on Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control Class III. Based on NSF-WQI indices and O'Connor's Indices, water qualities in these irrigation channels were categorized into medium or moderate (yellow to good (green category. However, based on benthic macroinvertebrate communities which was used to determine the HBI, the water quality in the irrigation channels were categorized into the fair category (fairly significant organic pollution to fairly poor (significant organic pollution, while based on the value of ASPT, the water were categorized into probable moderate pollution to probable severe pollution. The irrigation water which was

  19. Estimates the Effects of Benthic Fluxes on the Water Quality of the Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Huh, I. A.; Park, S.; Choi, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs located in highly populated and industrialized regions receive discharges of nutrients and pollutants from the watershed that have great potential to impair water quality and threaten aquatic life. The Euiam reservoir is a multiple-purpose water body used for tourism, fishery, and water supply and has been reported as eutrophic since 1990s. The external nutrients loading is considered to be the main cause of eutrophication of water bodies, and control strategies therefore focus on its reduction. However, algae blooms often continue even after external nutrients loading has been controlled, being benthic nutrient loading the main source of nutrients in the water column. Attempts to quantify benthic nutrients fluxes and their role as a source of nutrients to the water column have produced ambiguous results. Benthic flux is dependent on the upward flow of pore water caused by hydrostatic pressure, molecular diffusion, and mixing of sediment and water. In addition, it is controlled by dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, pH values and temperature in the overlying water. Therefore, linking a benthic flux to a water quality model should give us more insight on the effects of benthic fluxes to better quantify nutrient concentration within an entire reservoir system where physical, chemical, biological properties are variable. To represent temporal and spatial variations in the nutrient concentrations of the reservoir, a three-dimensional time variable model, Generalized Longitudinal-Lateral-Vertical Hydrodynamic and Transport (GLLVHT) was selected. The GLLVHT model is imbedded within the Generalized Environmental Modeling System for Surface waters (GEMSS). The computational grid of the three-dimensional model was developed using the GIS. The horizontal grid is composed of 580 active cells at the surface layer with spacing varies from 54.2 m to 69.8 m. There are 15 vertical layers with uniform thickness of 1.9 m resolution. To calibrate the model, model prediction for

  20. The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Kadin, Martina; Nascimento, Francisco J A; Tamelander, Tobias; Törnroos, Anna; Bonaglia, Stefano; Bonsdorff, Erik; Brüchert, Volker; Gårdmark, Anna; Järnström, Marie; Kotta, Jonne; Lindegren, Martin; Nordström, Marie C; Norkko, Alf; Olsson, Jens; Weigel, Benjamin; Žydelis, Ramunas; Blenckner, Thorsten; Niiranen, Susa; Winder, Monika

    2017-06-01

    Benthic-pelagic coupling is manifested as the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients between benthic and pelagic habitats. It plays a prominent role in aquatic ecosystems, and it is crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs. Coastal and estuarine ecosystem structure and function are strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures; however, there are large gaps in our understanding of the responses of inorganic nutrient and organic matter fluxes between benthic habitats and the water column. We illustrate the varied nature of physical and biological benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic-pelagic coupling processes (e.g., nutrient exchange and sedimentation of organic material) are to some extent quantifiable, but the magnitude and variability of biological processes are rarely assessed, preventing quantitative comparisons. Changing oxygen conditions will continue to have widespread effects on the processes that govern inorganic and organic matter exchange among habitats while climate change and nutrient load reductions may have large effects on organic matter sedimentation. Many biological processes (predation, bioturbation) are expected to be sensitive to anthropogenic drivers, but the outcomes for ecosystem function are largely unknown. We emphasize how improved empirical and experimental understanding of benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their variability are necessary to inform models that can quantify the feedbacks among processes and ecosystem responses to a changing world. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Potential impact of global climate change on benthic deep-sea microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Rastelli, Eugenio

    2017-12-15

    Benthic deep-sea environments are the largest ecosystem on Earth, covering ∼65% of the Earth surface. Microbes inhabiting this huge biome at all water depths represent the most abundant biological components and a relevant portion of the biomass of the biosphere, and play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Increasing evidence suggests that global climate changes are affecting also deep-sea ecosystems, both directly (causing shifts in bottom-water temperature, oxygen concentration and pH) and indirectly (through changes in surface oceans' productivity and in the consequent export of organic matter to the seafloor). However, the responses of the benthic deep-sea biota to such shifts remain largely unknown. This applies particularly to deep-sea microbes, which include bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes and their viruses. Understanding the potential impacts of global change on the benthic deep-sea microbial assemblages and the consequences on the functioning of the ocean interior is a priority to better forecast the potential consequences at global scale. Here we explore the potential changes in the benthic deep-sea microbiology expected in the coming decades using case studies on specific systems used as test models. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effect of Logging Activities on Water Quality and Benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters such as temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, turbidity and salinity were measured using a multi parameter probe Model YSI 6920 with 650 MDS Display/Logger as well as a single parameter probe. All the physico-chemical water quality parameters were well below Class I as provided for ...

  3. Use of benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unsustainable anthropogenic activities, including intensive agriculture and grazing along River Njoro has resulted in the deterioration of river water quality. This is mainly through runoff and increased effluent discharge to the river. The river is the most important source of freshwater for the riparian communities and Lake ...

  4. Benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in an Atlantic forest fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate benthic macroinvertebrate communities as bioindicators of water quality in five streams located in the "Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural" (RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula and its surroundings, in the municipality of Nova Lima near the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. This region has been strongly modified by human activities including mining and urbanization. Samples were collected in the field every three months between August 2004 and November 2005, totaling six samplings in the rainy and dry seasons. This assessment identified one area ecologically altered while the other sampling sites were found to be minimally disturbed systems, with well-preserved ecological conditions. However, according to the Biological Monitoring Work Party (BMWP and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT indices, all sampling sites had excellent water quality. A total of 14,952 organisms was collected, belonging to 155 taxa (148 Insecta, two Annelida, one Bivalvia, one Decapoda, one Planariidae, one Hydracarina, and one Entognatha. The most abundant benthic groups were Chironomidae (47.9%, Simuliidae (12.3%, Bivalvia (7.5%, Decapoda (6.1%, Oligochaeta (5.2%, Polycentropodidae (3.7%, Hydropsychidae (2.5%, Calamoceratidae (1.8%, Ceratopogonidae (1.7%, and Libellulidae (1.2%. The assessment of the benthic functional feeding groups showed that 34% of the macroinvertebrates were collector-gatherers, 29% predators, 24% collector-filterers, 8% shredders, and 5% scrapers. The RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula comprises diversified freshwater habitats that are of great importance for the conservation of many benthic taxa that are intolerant to organic pollution.

  5. The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Kadin, Martina; Nascimento, Francisco J. A.

    2017-01-01

    processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study, and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic......-pelagic coupling processes (e.g. nutrient exchange and sedimentation of organic material) are to some extent quantifiable but the magnitude and variability of biological processes are rarely assessed, preventing quantitative comparisons. Changing oxygen conditions will continue to have widespread effects...

  6. The continental shelf benthic ecosystem: Current status, agents for change and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Continental shelf benthic ecosystems play an important role in the economy of many coastal states through the provision of food, non-living resources and through control of climate. Changes in the status of these ecosystems, through either natural or human-induced environmental drivers can be expected to have important economic and social consequences. Agents that could induce change include climate and oceanography, hydrology (river discharge), land-use and waste disp...

  7. Benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in Billings Reservoir fishing sites (SP, Brazil

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    José Ricardo Baroldi Ciqueto Gargiulo

    Full Text Available Abastract: Aim The Billings Reservoir is the largest reservoir in the metropolitan region of São Paulo and has multiple uses, including artisanal fishing. Its surroundings present intense occupation, resulting in various environmental impacts. Although the water is degraded, affecting the composition and quality of the fish, this reservoir supports artisanal fishermen who survive through this activity. This study aimed to analyze the water quality in the main sites of artisanal fishing activity, with an emphasis on the benthic community as a bioindicator. Methods Three sampling sites were selected, in which water and zoobenthos samples were collected monthly from April 2012 to March 2013. Water analyses consisted of the determination of pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and trophic state as well as a principal components analysis. The zoobenthos analysis consisted of determining the relative abundance and total density of taxa, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, taxa richness, uniformity, Simpson’s dominance index, and the benthic community index and conducting a canonical correspondence analysis. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test were used to investigate the existence of significant differences in the abiotic and biotic variables among the sites. Results The studied sites showed a high degree of eutrophication, with nitrogen and phosphorus totals levels above the limits defined by current Brazilian legislation. Taquacetuba (P1 showed the best environmental conditions for the development of fishing activity, with the presence of sensitive organisms (Polymitarcyidae and higher levels of dissolved oxygen. Alvarenga (P2 had the worst water quality, with a predominance of tolerant organisms (Oligochaeta and lower levels of dissolved oxygen. Conclusion In conclusion, the benthic community in association with abiotic

  8. Impacts of Zayandehroud Dam on the Macro-benthic Invertebrate and Water Quality of Zayandehroud River using BMWP and ASPT Biological Indices

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    H. Ebrahimi Dastgerdi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dams provide benefits for human societies, but now they are considered as one of the most important factors influencing habitat degradation and changing the hydrological water flow. In order to study the ecological effects of Zayandehroud Dam on the benthic communities and water quality of Zayandehroud river, six sampling stations were selected on the river substrate using biological indicators such as BMWP (Biological Monitoring Working Party and ASPT(Average Score Per Taxa. Then, a quantitative survey of the macro- benthic invertebrates fauna was conducted with 3 replications at each station, from July to June 2014 with a 45- day interval period. The identified macro-benthic invertebrates belonged to 31 families, 16 orders and 7 classes. The results of BMWP index showed significant differences among sampling stations (p<0.001, and significant difference between seasons in all stations except Overgan station (p<0.05. ASPT index also revealed significant differences among the stations (p<0.01. In addition, the results of Shannon diversity index indicated that Zayanderoud Dam construction, has changed diversity and composition of downstream benthic communities due to alterations in the depth and speed of the water flow, as well as substrate structure.

  9. Tools for the development of a benthic quality index for Italian lakes

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    Angelo SOLIMINI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology to develop a benthic quality index useful for Italian lakes. The existing data about benthic macroinvertebrates of the Italian lakes were collected over a period of 50 years, but only a few lakes such as the Maggiore and the Mergozzo have been intensely studied. Some large lakes such as Lake Como are still almost uninvestigated. In total, 570 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were identified; of which 373 belong to Chironomidae and 85 to Oligochaeta. With the aim of relating environmental variables with macrobenthos assemblages, we carried out a canonical correlation analysis (CANON using a database that included 1060 sampling points. Both environmental (13 variables describing morphometry and hydrochemistry and biological data (57 taxa were available, but only taxa present in at least 10 samples were selected for data analysis. Three canonical variates were ecologically significant. The first one was correlated with conductivity, pH and alkalinity and accounted for 20% of the total variation. The second one was positively correlated with total phosphorus and N-NH4, and inversely with dissolved oxygen, and accounted for 18% of the total variation. The third one showed a direct correlation with maximum lake depth and volume and an inverse correlation with water temperature, and accounted for 17% of the total variation. A Trophic Status Index (TSI, based on the table 11 of the Italian Law 152/99 (without including chlorophyll, was calculated by ranking percent oxygen saturation, transparency and total phosphorus. TSI was used to test a Benthic Quality Index for Italian Lakes (BQIL which is proposed in the present paper. The algorithm considered three steps. First, the means of three variables were calculated: percent oxygen saturation, transparency and total phosphorus weighted by the taxa abundances. These values are interpreted as optimum for each taxon and used to assign an indicator weight (BQIW. Second

  10. Annual changes in Arctic fjord environment and modern benthic foraminiferal fauna: Evidence from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernas, Patrycja; Klitgaard-Kristensen, Dorthe; Husum, Katrine; Koç, Nalan; Tverberg, Vigdis; Loubere, Paul; Prins, Maarten; Dijkstra, Noortje; Gluchowska, Marta

    2018-04-01

    The relationships between modern Arctic benthic foraminifera and their ecological controls, along with their sensitivity to rapid environmental changes, is still poorly understood. This study examines how modern benthic foraminifera respond to annual environmental changes in the glaciated Arctic fjord Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard. Large environmental gradients due to the inflow of warm and saline Atlantic Water and the influence of tidewater glaciers characterise the fjord hydrography. A transect of six multi-corer stations, from the inner to the outer fjord, was sampled in the late summers of 2005 to 2008 to study the distribution of living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera. Physical properties of the water masses were measured concurrently. In general, nearly the entire Kongsfjorden region was dominated by ubiquitous N. labradorica foraminiferal assemblage that successfully exploited the local food resources and thrived particularly well in the presence of Atlantic-derived Transformed Atlantic Water (TAW). Further, the annual investigation revealed that Kongsfjorden underwent large interannual hydrological changes during the studied years related to variable inflow of warm and saline Atlantic Water. This led to a strong fauna variability particularly at the two marginal sites: the glacially influenced inner fjord and marine influenced shelf region. We also observed significant species shift from the 'cold' to 'warm' years and an expansion of widespread and sub-arctic to boreal species into the fjord.

  11. Rapid integrated water quality evaluation of Mahisagar river using benthic macroinvertebrates.

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    Bhadrecha, M H; Khatri, Nitasha; Tyagi, Sanjiv

    2016-04-01

    The water quality of Mahisagar river, near Galteshwar in Kheda district of Gujarat, India, was assessed through a rapid integrated technique by physicochemical parameters as well as benthic macroinvertebrates. Physicochemical parameters retrieved were pH, color, conductivity, total solids, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, chlorides, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, alkalinity, turbidity, ammoniacal nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, sulfates, and nitrates. The biological indices calculated were BMWP (Bio Monitoring Working Party) score or saprobic score and sequential comparison index or diversity score. In total, 37 families were encountered along the studied river stretch. The findings indicate that the water quality of Mahisagar river at sampled locations is “slightly polluted.” Moreover, the results of physicochemical analysis are also in consonance with the biological water quality criteria developed by Central Pollution Control Board.

  12. Bathymetric and regional changes in benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the deep Eastern Brazilian margin, SW Atlantic

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    Bernardino, Angelo Fraga; Berenguer, Vanessa; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Venina P.

    2016-05-01

    Deep-sea continental slopes have valuable mineral and biological resources in close proximity to diverse, undersampled and fragile marine benthic ecosystems. The eastern Brazilian Continental Margin (19.01°S to 21.06°S, 37.88°W to 40.22°W) is an important economic region for both fishing and oil industries, but is poorly understood with respect to the structure of the soft-sediment benthic fauna, their regional distribution and their bathymetric patterns. To identify spatial and temporal patterns of benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the slope (400 to 3000 m), the Espirito Santo Basin Assessment Project (AMBES, coordinated by Cenpes-Petrobras) sampled 42 stations across the Brazilian Eastern Slope during both Summer 2012 and Winter 2013. We found a significant decrease in macrofaunal abundance at the 400 m isobath along the slope near the northern region of the Espirito Santo Basin, suggesting benthic responses to upwelling events towards the south in Campos Basin and southern Espirito Santo Basin. The taxonomic diversity and assemblage composition also changed significantly across depth zones with mid-slope peaks of diversity at 1000-1300 m. In general, macrofaunal assemblages were strongly related to slope depth, suggesting a strong influence of productivity gradients and water mass distribution on this oligotrophic margin. Sediment grain size was marginally important to macrofaunal composition on the upper slope. In general, macrofaunal assemblages on the slope of Espirito Santo Basin are similar to other areas of the SE Brazilian margin, but regional changes in response to productivity and depth need to be considered for management strategies in the face of increasing economic activities off-shore.

  13. Temperature tracking by North Sea benthic invertebrates in response to climate change.

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    Hiddink, Jan G; Burrows, Michael T; García Molinos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity and distributions shifts are one of the most significant threats to global warming, but the extent to which these shifts keep pace with a changing climate is yet uncertain. Understanding the factors governing range shifts is crucial for conservation management to anticipate patterns of biodiversity distribution under future anthropogenic climate change. Soft-sediment invertebrates are a key faunal group because of their role in marine biogeochemistry and as a food source for commercial fish species. However, little information exists on their response to climate change. Here, we evaluate changes in the distribution of 65 North Sea benthic invertebrate species between 1986 and 2000 by examining their geographic, bathymetric and thermal niche shifts and test whether species are tracking their thermal niche as defined by minimum, mean or maximum sea bottom (SBT) and surface (SST) temperatures. Temperatures increased in the whole North Sea with many benthic invertebrates showing north-westerly range shifts (leading/trailing edges as well as distribution centroids) and deepening. Nevertheless, distribution shifts for most species (3.8-7.3 km yr(-1) interquantile range) lagged behind shifts in both SBT and SST (mean 8.1 km yr(-1)), resulting in many species experiencing increasing temperatures. The velocity of climate change (VoCC) of mean SST accurately predicted both the direction and magnitude of distribution centroid shifts, while maximum SST did the same for contraction of the trailing edge. The VoCC of SBT was not a good predictor of range shifts. No good predictor of expansions of the leading edge was found. Our results show that invertebrates need to shift at different rates and directions to track the climate velocities of different temperature measures, and are therefore lagging behind most temperature measures. If these species cannot withstand a change in thermal habitat, this could ultimately lead to a drop in

  14. Use of Benthic Macroinvertebrates to Evaluate Stream Water Quality in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

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    Maharaj, L. D.; Alkins-Koo, M.

    2005-05-01

    In order to determine the best method of using benthic macroinvertebrates to monitor water quality in Trinidad and Tobago, 63 sites along 38 streams were sampled in each of the wet and dry seasons from 1999-2001. At each site, 5 benthic samples were collected with a 300μm 'D' frame kicknet, along with data for 14 environmental parameters and habitat data. Principal Components Analyses separated the streams into 3 ecoregions based on substrate type and discharge. Using ANOVA, mean values for each environmental parameter were compared across each ecoregion. Values of dissolved Oxygen, BOD-5, nitrates, total suspended solids and pH varied significantly during the wet season, while dissolved Oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a varied significantly during the dry. Using PRIMER version 5, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analyses were performed on the faunal data for each ecoregion separately and for all sites combined. These analyses indicate that the fauna associated with minimally, moderately and severely impaired sites is similar across all 3 ecoregions. Of the different metrics compared during the study, a modified version of the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) best fit the clusters were produced.

  15. Do Changes in Current Flow as a Result of Arrays of Tidal Turbines Have an Effect on Benthic Communities?

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    Louise Kregting

    Full Text Available Arrays of tidal energy converters have the potential to provide clean renewable energy for future generations. Benthic communities may, however, be affected by changes in current speeds resulting from arrays of tidal converters located in areas characterised by strong currents. Current speed, together with bottom type and depth, strongly influence benthic community distributions; however the interaction of these factors in controlling benthic dynamics in high energy environments is poorly understood. The Strangford Lough Narrows, the location of SeaGen, the world's first single full-scale, grid-compliant tidal energy extractor, is characterised by spatially heterogenous high current flows. A hydrodynamic model was used to select a range of benthic community study sites that had median flow velocities between 1.5-2.4 m/s in a depth range of 25-30 m. 25 sites were sampled for macrobenthic community structure using drop down video survey to test the sensitivity of the distribution of benthic communities to changes in the flow field. A diverse range of species were recorded which were consistent with those for high current flow environments and corresponding to very tide-swept faunal communities in the EUNIS classification. However, over the velocity range investigated, no changes in benthic communities were observed. This suggested that the high physical disturbance associated with the high current flows in the Strangford Narrows reflected the opportunistic nature of the benthic species present with individuals being continuously and randomly affected by turbulent forces and physical damage. It is concluded that during operation, the removal of energy by marine tidal energy arrays in the far-field is unlikely to have a significant effect on benthic communities in high flow environments. The results are of major significance to developers and regulators in the tidal energy industry when considering the environmental impacts for site licences.

  16. Do Changes in Current Flow as a Result of Arrays of Tidal Turbines Have an Effect on Benthic Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregting, Louise; Elsaesser, Bjoern; Kennedy, Robert; Smyth, David; O'Carroll, Jack; Savidge, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of tidal energy converters have the potential to provide clean renewable energy for future generations. Benthic communities may, however, be affected by changes in current speeds resulting from arrays of tidal converters located in areas characterised by strong currents. Current speed, together with bottom type and depth, strongly influence benthic community distributions; however the interaction of these factors in controlling benthic dynamics in high energy environments is poorly understood. The Strangford Lough Narrows, the location of SeaGen, the world's first single full-scale, grid-compliant tidal energy extractor, is characterised by spatially heterogenous high current flows. A hydrodynamic model was used to select a range of benthic community study sites that had median flow velocities between 1.5-2.4 m/s in a depth range of 25-30 m. 25 sites were sampled for macrobenthic community structure using drop down video survey to test the sensitivity of the distribution of benthic communities to changes in the flow field. A diverse range of species were recorded which were consistent with those for high current flow environments and corresponding to very tide-swept faunal communities in the EUNIS classification. However, over the velocity range investigated, no changes in benthic communities were observed. This suggested that the high physical disturbance associated with the high current flows in the Strangford Narrows reflected the opportunistic nature of the benthic species present with individuals being continuously and randomly affected by turbulent forces and physical damage. It is concluded that during operation, the removal of energy by marine tidal energy arrays in the far-field is unlikely to have a significant effect on benthic communities in high flow environments. The results are of major significance to developers and regulators in the tidal energy industry when considering the environmental impacts for site licences.

  17. Water Quality Assessment Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Saigon River and Its Tributaries, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Pham Anh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study to enhance the discussion about the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates for water quality assessment in Saigon River and its tributaries. Data from 16 sites were used as a representative example for Saigon River and its tributaries in the area of basin over 4,500 km2, the length through provinces of Tay Ninh, Binh Phuoc, Binh Duong, and Ho Chi Minh City of about 280 km. The data covered the period of dry and rainy seasons in 2015, the survey sampled 16 sites (32 events of the Saigon River and its tributaries selected. To implement this evaluation, the analyses were based on MRC methods and classifications these improved by the scientific group.

  18. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LOTIC ECOSYSTEMS OF NERA AND CARAS RIVERS CATCHMENTS USING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES AS BIOINDICATORS

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    CLAUDIA PETRUCEAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the two watersheds involved the collection of twenty-four benthic samples from the main tributaries of Nera and Caras rivers, but also from the Nera river. The samples were collected in august 2009 with a benthic net, which had the mesh size of 250 μm, by disturbing the substrate upstream for three minutes, being thus qualitative samples. The next stage, working in the laboratory, consisted in separating the invertebrates from the substrate, sorting them to taxonomic categories and counting them. The data was statistically analized and interpreted. It led to the conclusion that the water quality in the two watersheds is good. In most of the sampling points the major groups of benthic macroinvertebrates were found, some of the sampling points were dominated by the EPT groups (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera which is known as a clean freshwater group, sensitive to pollution and human impact.

  19. Analysis of Benthic Foraminiferal Size Change During the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

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    Zachary, W.; Keating-Bitonti, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition is a significant global cooling event with the first growth of continental ice on Antarctica. In the geologic record, the size of fossils can be used to indirectly observe how organisms respond to climate change. For example, organisms tend to be larger in cooler environments as a physiological response to temperature. This major global cooling event should influence organism physiology, resulting in significant size trends observed in the fossil record. Benthic foraminifera are protists and those that grow a carbonate shell are both well-preserved and abundant in marine sediments. Here, we used the foraminiferal fossil record to study the relationship between their size and global cooling. We hypothesize that cooler temperatures across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary promoted shell size increase. To test this hypothesis, we studied benthic foraminifera from 10 deep-sea cores drilled at Ocean Drilling Program Site 744, located in the southern Indian Ocean. We washed sediment samples over a 63-micron sieve and picked foraminifera from a 125-micron sieve. We studied the benthic foraminiferal genus Cibicidoides and its size change across this cooling event. Picked specimens were imaged and we measured the diameter of their shells using "imageJ". Overall, we find that Cibicidoides shows a general trend of increasing size during this transition. In particular, both the median and maximum sizes of Cibicidoides increase from the Eocene into the Oligocene. We also analyzed C. pachyderma and C. mundulus for size trends. Although both species increase in median size across the boundary, only C. pachyderma shows a consistent trend of increasing maximum, median, and minimum shell diameter. After the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, we observe that shell diameter decreases following peak cooling and that foraminiferal sizes remain stable into the early Oligocene. Therefore, the Eocene-Oligocene cooling event appears to have strong influence on shell size.

  20. Water-quality parameters and benthic algal communities at selected streams in Minnesota, August 2000 - Study design, methods and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality measurements and benthic algal samples were measured or collected from select Minnesota streams as part of a multiagency (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Geological Survey) study. The goal of the multiagency study was to identify quantifiable thresholds of water-quality impairment and establish quantifiable indicators of nutrient enrichment for medium to high-order streams.

  1. Environmental changes during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum in Spitsbergen as reflected by benthic foraminifera

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    Jenö Nagy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with environmental changes during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM and its background conditions in Spitsbergen through analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (FA in a section drilled in the Paleogene Central Basin. The impact of this extreme global warming occurs here in prodelta shelf mudstones composing the lower part of the Gilsonryggen Member (Frysjaodden Formation. The start of the PETM perturbation is marked by a faunal turnover, in which the medium-diversity circumpolar Reticulophragmium assemblage was replaced by a low-diversity Trochammina fauna. During the hyperthermal period, benthic foraminiferal diversity decreased severely, while the dominance of small-sized taxa with epifaunal morphology strongly increased. This low-diversity fauna occurs in sediments with a reduced thorium/uranium ratio (proxy for oxygenation and kaolinite enrichment (proxy for high humidity. The faunal changes were thus caused by the combined effects of hypoxic and hyposaline conditions in a stratified water column, due to extreme warming with its accompanying intensified hydrologic cycle. The PETM acme coincides with the maximum flooding surface (MFS of the Gilsonryggen depositional sequence, composed of the Gilsonryggen Member and the overlying Battfjellet and Aspelintoppen formations. The transgressive phase of the sequence was initiated by local tectonics, while the eustatic sea-level rise of the PETM was superimposed on this transgression.To access the supplementary material for this article, please see supplementary files under Article Tools online.

  2. Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change

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    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Foster, Rachel A; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of “new” nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of knowledge on N2 fixation associated with coral reef organisms and their ecosystems. By summarizing the existing literature, we show that benthic N2 fixation is an omnipresent process in tropical reef environments. Highest N2 fixation rates are detected in reef-associated cyanobacterial mats and sea grass meadows, clearly showing the significance of these functional groups, if present, to the input of new N in reef ecosystems. Nonetheless, key benthic organisms such as hard corals also importantly contribute to benthic N2 fixation in the reef. Given the usually high coral coverage of healthy reef systems, these results indicate that benthic symbiotic associations may be more important than previously thought. In fact, mutualisms between carbon (C) and N2 fixers have likely evolved that may enable reef communities to mitigate N limitation. We then explore the potential effects of the increasing human interferences on the process of benthic reef N2 fixation via changes in diazotrophic populations, enzymatic activities, or availability of benthic substrates favorable to these microorganisms. Current knowledge indicates positive effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation and negative effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on the amount of N fixed in coral reefs. Eutrophication may either boost or suppress N2 fixation, depending on the nutrient becoming limiting. As N2 fixation appears to play a fundamental role in nutrient-limited reef ecosystems, these assumptions need to be expanded and confirmed by future research efforts addressing the knowledge gaps identified in this review. PMID:24967086

  3. Benthic Diatom Based Indices for Water Quality Assessment in Two Subtropical Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiang; Zhang, Quanfa; Burford, Michele A; Sheldon, Fran; Bunn, Stuart E

    2017-01-01

    Benthic diatoms have been universally used as indicators to assess water quality in lotic ecosystems. However, most diatom-based indices developed in Europe have not been widely used or tested in other continents such as Asia or Oceania. This study compared the performance of 14 widely-applied diatom indices in assessing ecological conditions in subtropical streams in South East Queensland (SEQ) in Australia and in the upper Han River in China. Most water quality variables in the upper Han River including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) had strong relationships with at least one diatom index, with the exception of IDAP (Index Diatom Artois-Picardie), and TDI (Trophic Diatom Index). However, in SEQ, most of the environmental variables including DOC, ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N), TN, SRP, and electrical conductivity (EC) showed no significant relationships with diatom indices, and the DI-CH (Swiss Diatom Index) and WAT (Watanabe's Index) were unrelated to any of the variables examined. Only pH and nitrite or nitrate nitrogen (NO X -N) were significant predictors of several diatom indices in SEQ, especially TID (Rott trophic index). In the upper Han River, much of the spatial variation in most diatom indices was explained by proximate determinants alone, including EC, DOC, dissolved oxygen (DO) or SRP, or a combination of ultimate (canopy, forest) and proximate factors ( R 2 in most models> 0.75). Most diatom indices performed as predicted in the upper Han River where nutrient and organic matter pollution was relatively high, and variation in pH low. However, the indices performed poorly in SEQ where the water quality gradient was low and instead most responded to spatial variation in pH. This finding serves as a caution to the application of diatom indices in river basins that fall outside of the range of water quality values of the systems in which they originally developed.

  4. Biomonitoring of water quality of the Osumi, Devolli, and Shkumbini rivers through benthic macroinvertebrates and chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, Sonila; Pepa, Bledar; Keci, Erjola; Paparisto, Anila; Lazo, Pranvera

    2017-04-16

    Environmental monitoring of river water quality in Albania, using biological and chemical parameters, is a fast and effective way to assess the quality of water bodies.The aim of this study was to investigate Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT), Biotic index-Richness using macroinvertebrates to assess the water quality, with special reference to nutrient (phosphorus and nitrogen) levels in the Devolli, Shkumbini and Osumi rivers. Our objective was to investigate the relationships between the measures of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and nutrient concentrations to assess water quality. The rivers' benthic macroinvertebrates were collected during different seasons in 2012. The biological and chemical parameters used in the current study identified them as quick indicators of water quality assessment. The total number of macroinvertebrate individuals (n = 15,006) (Osumi river: n = 5,546 organisms; Devolli river: n = 3,469 organisms; and Shkumbini river: n = 5,991 organisms), together with the EPT group (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), showed that the water quality at the river stations during the above-mentioned period belonged to Classes II and III (fair water quality and good water quality, respectively). The classification of the water quality was also based on the nitrogen and total phosphorus contents. The pollution tolerance levels of macroinvertebrate taxa varied from the non-tolerating forms encountered in environments with low pollution levels to the tolerating forms that are typical of environments with considerable pollution levels.

  5. Understanding the relationships among phytoplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and water quality variables in peri-urban river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Uthpala; Maheshwari, Basant L; Morris, E Charles

    2014-12-01

    In this article, using the Hawkesbury-Nepean River as a case study, the spatial and temporal trends of water quality variables over three sampling surveys in a peri-urban situation are examined for their effect on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and phytoplankton communities and whether phytoplankton and benthic macroinvertebrate species can be used as indicators for river health assessment. For this, the authors monitored the spatial and temporal difference of 10 water quality parameters: temperature, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, oxidation reduction potential, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, manganese, and suspended solids. The variability in water quality parameters clearly indicated a complex pattern, depending on the season (interaction p = 0.001), which highlighted how the river condition is stressed at multiple points as a result of anthropogenic effects. In particular, the downstream locations indicated an accumulation of nutrients, the presence of increased sediments, and phytoplankton related variables such as total counts, bio-volumes, chlorophyll-a, and total phosphorus. The patterns of phytoplankton communities varied in a complex way depending on the season (interaction p = 0.001). Abundances of phytoplankton were also found in low concentrations where the water column is not severely disturbed by flow and tide. However, when the water clarity drops resulting from tidal cycles, inflows from tributaries, and intense boating activities, the phytoplankton abundances also increased considerably. On the other hand, benthic macroinvertebrates compositions were significantly different between locations (p = 0.001) with increased abundances associated with upstream sites. Aphanocapsa holsatica and chironomid larvae appeared as the important indicators for upstream and downstream site differences in water quality. Water temperature influenced the phytoplankton community pattern (ρ(w) = 0.408), whereas pH influenced the

  6. Seasonal changes in phosphorus competition and allelopathy of a benthic microbial assembly facilitate prevention of cyanobacterial blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Wang, Fengwu; Xiao, Xi; Liu, Junzhuo; Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Hong; Kerr, Philip; Shurin, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Interactions among microbes determine the prevalence of harmful algal blooms that threaten water quality. These interactions can be indirectly mediated by shared resources or consumers, or through interference by the production of allelochemicals. Allelopathic interactions and resource competition have been shown to occur among algae and associated microbes. However, little work has considered seasonal influences on ecosystem structure and function. Here, we report results of our investigations on seasonal changes in the interactions between benthic microbial assemblies and the bloom forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. We show that phosphorus (P) competition and allelopathy by the microbial assembly vary seasonally and inhibit growth of M. aeruginosa. The interactions per unit biomass of the microbial assembly are stronger under winter than summer conditions and inhibit the recruitment of the cyanobacteria, thereby preventing the reoccurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in the following summer. The seasonality of these interactions correlates with changes in composition, metabolic activity and functional diversity of the microbial assembly. Our findings highlight the importance of competitive and allelopathic interactions in regulating the occurrence of harmful algal blooms. Our results also imply that seasonal variation of competition and allelopathy of the microbial assembly might be beneficial to adjust aquatic ecosystem structure and function. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effectiveness of benthic foraminiferal and coral assemblages as water quality indicators on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, S.; Thompson, A.; Schaffelke, B.

    2010-03-01

    Although the debate about coral reef decline focuses on global disturbances (e.g., increasing temperatures and acidification), local stressors (nutrient runoff and overfishing) continue to affect reef health and resilience. The effectiveness of foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages as indicators of changes in water quality was assessed on 27 inshore reefs along the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental variables (i.e., several water quality and sediment parameters) and the composition of both benthic foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages differed significantly between four regions (Whitsunday, Burdekin, Fitzroy, and the Wet Tropics). Grain size and organic carbon and nitrogen content of sediments, and a composite water column parameter (based on turbidity and concentrations of particulate matter) explained a significant amount of variation in the data (tested by redundancy analyses) in both assemblages. Heterotrophic species of foraminifera were dominant in sediments with high organic content and in localities with low light availability, whereas symbiont-bearing mixotrophic species were dominant elsewhere. A similar suite of parameters explained 89% of the variation in the FORAM index (a Caribbean coral reef health indicator) and 61% in foraminiferal species richness. Coral richness was not related to environmental setting. Coral assemblages varied in response to environmental variables, but were strongly shaped by acute disturbances (e.g., cyclones, Acanthaster planci outbreaks, and bleaching), thus different coral assemblages may be found at sites with the same environmental conditions. Disturbances also affect foraminiferal assemblages, but they appeared to recover more rapidly than corals. Foraminiferal assemblages are effective bioindicators of turbidity/light regimes and organic enrichment of sediments on coral reefs.

  8. Linking Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Physicochemical Variables for Water Quality Assessment in Saigon River and Its Tributaries, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, A. D.

    2017-10-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrates living on the bottom channels are one of the most promising of the potential indicators of river health for the Saigon River and its tributaries with hydrochemistry playing a supporting role. An evaluation of the interrelationships within this approach deems necessary. This work identified and tested these relationships to improve the method for water quality assessment. Data from over 4,500 km2 watershed were used as a representative example for the Saigon River and its tributaries. The data covered the period March and September, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2015. To implement this evaluation, the analyses were based on accepted the methodology of Mekong River Commission and the studies of scientific group for the biological status assessment. For correlation analyses, the selected environmental variables were compared with the ecological indices, based on benthic macroinvertebrates. The results showed that the metrics of Species Richness, H’, and 1-DS had significant and strong relationships with the water quality variables of DO, BOD5, T_N, and TP (R2 = 0.3751 – 0.8866; P macroinvertebrates did not have a statistically significant relationship with any water quality variables (R2 = 0.0000 – 0.0744; P > 0.05). Additionally, the metrics of Species Richness, H’, and 1-DS had negatively correlated with the pH and TSS. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the ecological quality of the Saigon River and its tributaries using benthic macroinvertebrates seems to be the most sensitive indicator to correlate with physicochemical variables. This demonstrated that it could be applied to describe the water quality in the Saigon River and its tributaries.

  9. Changing chain: past, present and future of the Scotia Arc's and Antarctica's shallow benthic communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K.A. Barnes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scotia Arc links Patagonia to the Antarctic Peninsula. This island chain has changed considerably since Antarctica’s geographic and thermal isolation from other land and water masses. Now its rates of air, land and fresh-water climate change are among the highest measured. This review examines work on the shallow water benthos of this region in the context of climate change. In summer, primary productivity is as intense as anywhere, whilst in winter the water reaches unprecedented clarity. Suspension feeders may eat for just a few months but others feed all year. Growth and reproduction are up to 50x slower than non-polar rates. Life here is in the slow lane. There is intense summer disturbance from ice-scour and wave action. This has erased shore zonation and created it below the surface. In contrast to summer disturbance, the winter is among the calmest and most thermally stable environments, when the area is overlain by fast ice. Whilst few animal phyla or species are represented on land, phyletic richness—and in some groups species richness—rivals that of tropical regions. Data showing clines in benthic richness at several taxonomic levels across the Patagonia-South Georgia-Signy Is.-Adelaide Is. chain and 50 years of ice-sheet retreat are presented.

  10. Cenozoic climate changes: A review based on time series analysis of marine benthic d18O records

    OpenAIRE

    Mudelsee, Manfred; Bickert, T.; Lear, Caroline H.; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    The climate during the Cenozoic era changed in several steps from ice-free poles and warm conditions to ice-covered poles and cold conditions. Since the 1950s, a body of information on ice volume and temperature changes has been built up predominantly on the basis of measurements of the oxygen isotopic composition of shells of benthic foraminifera collected from marine sediment cores. The statistical methodology of time series analysis has also evolved, allowing more information to be extract...

  11. Cenozoic climate changes: A review based on time series analysis of marine benthic δ18O records

    OpenAIRE

    Mudelsee, Manfred; Bickert, Torsten; Lear, Caroline Helen; lohmann, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    The climate during the Cenozoic era changed in several steps from ice-free poles and warm conditions to ice-covered poles and cold conditions. Since the 1950s, a body of information on ice-volume and temperature changes has been built up predominantly on the basis of measurements of the oxygen isotopic composition of shells of benthic foraminifera collected from marine sediment cores. The statistical methodology of time series analysis has also evolved, allowing more information to be extract...

  12. Using sediment profile imagery to quantify water quality and benthic condition relationships in Pensacola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present results from a monthly study in the Pensacola Bay estuary (FL) designed to evaluate the response and recovery in benthic habitats to intermittent, seasonal hypoxia (DO < 2 mg L-1). Samples were collected monthly from June 2015 through October 2017 at seven to nine s...

  13. Structural changes in the benthic diatom community along a eutrophication gradient on a tidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatz, M.; Asmus, R. M.; Deventer, B.

    1999-11-01

    In the mud- and sandflat region of the outer Königshafen off List on Sylt, the effects of the outflow from a sewage treatment plant on the benthic diatom flora were investigated. The spectrum of shapes, biomass, and diversity was determined in relation to the concentrations of phosphate, silicate, and nitrogen compounds in the overlying and pore water. The biomass increased with the available quantities of nutrients, while the diversity reached a maximum at the intermediate concentrations. Every different set of nutrient concentrations is characterized by a different diatom community. Slight inputs of nutrients led to changes in the relative abundances of forms typical of the habitat. Moderate concentrations permitted the species that are normally present in winter to occur in summer as well. In the strongly eutrophic region, nutrient-loving species that are not locally present under normal conditions formed nearly monospecific populations. A relatively constant input of nutrients almost eliminated the seasonal variations. Navicula gregaria, Nitzschia sigma, and Nitzschia tryblionella proved to be tolerant of pollution, while the genera Achnanthes and Amphora were typical in the nutrient-poor regions. The nutrient budget, particularly that of the nitrogen compounds, was found to be predominant among the physical and chemical factors.

  14. Utilization of both benthic macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters for evaluating water quality of the stream Cekerek (Tokat, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Mustafa; Suicmez, Menderes

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the applicability of five European biotic indices and the Gammarus:Asellus ratio (G:A), compared with the measurement of physicochemical parameters, in order to determine the water quality at ten sites along the Tokat part of Cekerek stream, in Anatolia, Turkey, during the period February 2002 to January 2003. The biological and chemical results are in good agreement with respect to the water quality. In particular, the G:A ratio was calculated to be high at the first three stations and this result was correlated with the ETBI and the Chandler scores. Consequently, the water quality of Cekerek stream was classified as class I for biological and physicochemical data, except for phosphate, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate and nitrite at the last seven stations. The high concentrations of these chemicals probably result from agricultural runoff and urban sewage. In total, 55 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates were identified from the Cekerek stream during this study period.

  15. Benthic ecology of tropical coastal lagoons: Environmental changes over the last decades in the Términos Lagoon, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenz, Christian; Fichez, Renaud; Silva, Carlos Álvarez; Benítez, Laura Calva; Conan, Pascal; Esparza, Adolfo Contreras Ruiz; Denis, Lionel; Ruiz, Silvia Díaz; Douillet, Pascal; Martinez, Margarita E. Gallegos; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Mendieta, Francisco José Gutiérrez; Origel-Moreno, Montserrat; Garcia, Antonio Zoilo Marquez; Caravaca, Alain Muñoz; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Alvarado, Rocío Torres; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The Términos Lagoon is a 2000-km2 wide coastal lagoon linked to the largest river catchment in Mesoamerica. Economic development, together with its ecological importance, led the Mexican government to pronounce the Términos Lagoon and its surrounding wetlands as a Federal protected area for flora and fauna in 1994. It is characterized by small temperature fluctuations, but with two distinct seasons (wet and dry) that control the biological, geochemical, and physical processes and components. This paper presents a review of the available information about the Términos Lagoon. The review shows that the diversity of benthic communities is structured by the balance between marine and riverine inputs and that this structuration strongly influences the benthic metabolism and its coupling with the biogeochemistry of the water column. The paper also presents many specific drivers and recommendations for a long-term environmental survey strategy in the context of the expected Global Change in the Central American region.

  16. Scale-dependent effects of river habitat quality on benthic invertebrate communities--Implications for stream restoration practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Stefan; Breyer, Philippa; Tonkin, Jonathan D; Früh, Denise; Haase, Peter

    2016-05-15

    Although most stream restoration projects succeed in improving hydromorphological habitat quality, the ecological quality of the stream communities often remains unaffected. We hypothesize that this is because stream communities are largely determined by environmental properties at a larger-than-local spatial scale. Using benthic invertebrate community data as well as hydromorphological habitat quality data from 1087 stream sites, we investigated the role of local- (i.e. 100 m reach) and regional-scale (i.e. 5 km ring centered on each reach) stream hydromorphological habitat quality (LQ and RQ, respectively) on benthic invertebrate communities. The analyses showed that RQ had a greater individual effect on communities than LQ, but the effects of RQ and LQ interacted. Where RQ was either good or poor, communities were exclusively determined by RQ. Only in areas of intermediate RQ, LQ determined communities. Metacommunity analysis helped to explain these findings. Species pools in poor RQ areas were most depauperated, resulting in insufficient propagule pressure for species establishment even at high LQ (e.g. restored) sites. Conversely, higher alpha diversity and an indication of lower beta dispersion signals at mass effects occurring in high RQ areas. That is, abundant neighboring populations may help to maintain populations even at sites with low LQ. The strongest segregation in species co-occurrence was detected at intermediate RQ levels, suggesting that communities are structured to the highest degree by a habitat/environmental gradient. From these results, we conclude that when restoring riverine habitats at the reach scale, restoration projects situated in intermediate RQ settings will likely be the most successful in enhancing the naturalness of local communities. With a careful choice of sites for reach-scale restoration in settings of intermediate RQ and a strategy that aims to expand areas of high RQ, the success of reach-scale restoration in promoting the

  17. THE STUDY OF WATER QUALITY USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS BIOINDICATORS IN THE CATCHMENT AREAS OF THE RIVERS JIU, OLT AND IALOMIŢA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Daniela MITITELU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide distribution of benthic invertebrates and their different sensitivity shown upon modifying the qualitative parameters of aquatic ecosystems led to a frequent use of these group as bioindicators in different studies. The present study aims at presenting a list concerning the different macroinvertebrates identified in the larva stage in three watersheds (Jiu, Olt, Ialomiţa and establishing the water quality of the monitored sections using this benthic macroinvertebrates. The sample collecting points were represented by 23 stations. The abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. There were identified 15 groups in total. The most frequent were Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (Chironomidae and others. The deterioration of water quality is marked by the decrease in the biotic index EPT/Ch value.

  18. Benthic indicators to use in Ecological Quality classification of Mediterranean soft bottom marine ecosystems, including a new Biotic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A general scheme for approaching the objective of Ecological Quality Status (EcoQ classification of zoobenthic marine ecosystems is presented. A system based on soft bottom benthic indicator species and related habitat types is suggested to be used for testing the typological definition of a given water body in the Mediterranean. Benthic indices including the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the species richness are re-evaluated for use in classification. Ranges of values and of ecological quality categories are given for the diversity and species richness in different habitat types. A new biotic index (BENTIX is proposed based on the relative percentages of three ecological groups of species grouped according to their sensitivity or tolerance to disturbance factors and weighted proportionately to obtain a formula rendering a five step numerical scale of ecological quality classification. Its advantage against former biotic indices lies in the fact that it reduces the number of the ecological groups involved which makes it simpler and easier in its use. The Bentix index proposed is tested and validated with data from Greek and western Mediterranean ecosystems and examples are presented. Indicator species associated with specific habitat types and pollution indicator species, scored according to their degree of tolerance to pollution, are listed in a table. The Bentix index is compared and evaluated against the indices of diversity and species richness for use in classification. The advantages of the BENTIX index as a classification tool for ECoQ include independence from habitat type, sample size and taxonomic effort, high discriminative power and simplicity in its use which make it a robust, simple and effective tool for application in the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Anthropogenic impacts on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina, M Z; Yap, C K; Rahim Ismail, A; Ismail, A; Tan, S G

    2006-07-01

    A study of the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River (Peninsular Malaysia) was conducted. Four pristine stations from the upstream and 4 stations at the downstream receiving anthropogenic impacts were selected along the river. For 4 consecutive months (March-June 1999), based on the Malaysian DOE (Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2000, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment Malaysia. Maskha Sdn. Bhd. Kuala Lumpur, 86pp; Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2001, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment Malaysia) water quality index classes, the upstream stations recorded significantly (Pwater quality indices than those of the downstream. The total number of macrobenthic taxa and their overall richness indices and diversity indices were significantly (Pwater. This study also highlighted the impacts of anthropogenic land-based activities such as urban runoff on the distribution and species diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates in the downstream of the Langat River. The data obtained in this study supported the use of the bioindicator concept for Malaysian rivers. Some sensitive (Trichopteran caddisflies and Ephemeraptera) and resistant species (Oligochaeta such as Limnodrilus spp.) are identified as potential bioindicators of clean and polluted river ecosystems, respectively, for Malaysian rivers.

  20. WATER QUALITY EVALUATION OF CRIŞUL ALB AND CRIŞUL NEGRU RIVERS CATCHMENTS, FROM CODRU-MOMA MOUNTAINS (WEST OF ROMANIA, USING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea VARGA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality evaluation of the two watersheds involved the collection of thirteen samples from the tributaries of Crişul Alb and Crişul Negru rivers. The samples were collected in june 2010 with a benthic net, which had the mesh size of 250 µm, by disturbing the substrate, being thus qualitative samples. To get an overview, a series of physical-chemical parameters (water temperature, pH, oxygen, conductivity, cyanide, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates was studied in parallel with the study of benthic community. In most of the sampling points the major group of benthic macroinvertebrates were found and in some EPT group (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera prevailed even, which is known as a clean freshwater group, sensitive to pollution and human impact.

  1. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, A.; Rouil, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Schucht, S.; Szopa, S.; Vautard, R.; Menut, L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  2. Benthic foraminiferal response to environmental changes across Cenomanian/Turonian boundary (OAE2) in the northeastern Tethys, Kopet-Dagh basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanat, Behnaz; Vahidinia, Mohammad; Vaziri-Moghaddam, Hossein; Mahmudy-Gharaie, Mohamad Hosein; Kumon, Fujio

    2017-10-01

    In order to evaluate Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary and its effects on benthic foraminifera, the Taherabad stratigraphic section in the east of Kopet-Dagh basin was studied for pattern of changes in benthic foraminiferal communities. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentration at the Taherabad section shows that black shale was not deposited in this succession but TOC increases up to 0.68 wt% in the three intervals of Rotalipora cushmani, Whiteinella archaeocretacea and Helvetoglobotruncana helvetica Zones. Also, Total Nitrogen (TN) values were measured in our study succession. High TOC/TN ratios (up to 18) occur in the intervals of TOC enrichment. Foraminiferal assemblages, TOC, TOC/TN and Detrital Index (DI, an index for detrital input) changes in the study section allowed us to divided study section into 4 intervals. Interval A and C are associated with low abundance and diversity of benthic assemblages coeval with lack of planktic foraminifera. Benthic assemblages are strongly dominated by shallow and deep infaunal agglutinated foraminifera including Lagenammina, Saccammina, Reophax and Tritaxia. The foraminiferal composition associated with higher TOC, TOC/TN and DI suggest an influx of fresh water to the basin in the warm-wet periods, which diminished hospitable conditions for planktic foraminifera and probably enhanced land-derived organic matter and/or primary productivity. The hyposaline cap led to development of salinity-stratified water and induce bottom water oxygen depletion. By contrast, the assemblages found in the interval B and D are more diverse and contain high abundance of planktic and calcareous benthic foraminifera. Common benthic taxa in these parts are praebuliminids, lenticulinids, gavelinellids and Valvulineria. These assemblages associated with lower TOC, TOC/TN and DI indicate decreased detrital input and more normal marine condition resulted in improved ventilation of sea-floor, which is favorable for

  3. Development and validation of an experimental life support system for assessing the effects of global climate change and environmental contamination on estuarine and coastal marine benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Rocha, Rui J M; Pires, Ana C C; Ladeiro, Bruno; Castanheira, José M; Costa, Rodrigo; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Lillebø, Ana Isabel; Ribeiro, Rui; Pereira, Ruth; Lopes, Isabel; Marques, Catarina; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Calado, Ricardo; Cleary, Daniel F R; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-08-01

    An experimental life support system (ELSS) was constructed to study the interactive effects of multiple stressors on coastal and estuarine benthic communities, specifically perturbations driven by global climate change and anthropogenic environmental contamination. The ELSS allows researchers to control salinity, pH, temperature, ultraviolet radiation (UVR), tidal rhythms and exposure to selected contaminants. Unlike most microcosms previously described, our system enables true independent replication (including randomization). In addition to this, it can be assembled using commercially available materials and equipment, thereby facilitating the replication of identical experimental setups in different geographical locations. Here, we validate the reproducibility and environmental quality of the system by comparing chemical and biological parameters recorded in our ELSS with those prevalent in the natural environment. Water, sediment microbial community and ragworm (the polychaete Hediste diversicolor) samples were obtained from four microcosms after 57 days of operation. In general, average concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients (NO3 (-) ; NH4 (+) and PO4 (-3) ) in the water column of the ELSS experimental control units were within the range of concentrations recorded in the natural environment. While some shifts in bacterial community composition were observed between in situ and ELSS sediment samples, the relative abundance of most metabolically active bacterial taxa appeared to be stable. In addition, ELSS operation did not significantly affect survival, oxidative stress and neurological biomarkers of the model organism Hediste diversicolor. The validation data indicate that this system can be used to assess independent or interactive effects of climate change and environmental contamination on benthic communities. Researchers will be able to simulate the effects of these stressors on processes driven by microbial communities, sediment and seawater

  4. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  5. Water Quality, Sediment Characteristics and Benthic Status of the Razim-Sinoie Lagoon System, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catianis, Irina; Secrieru, Dan; Pojar, Iulian; Grosu, Dumitru; Scrieciu, Albert; Pavel, Ana Bianca; Vasiliu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Razim Lake is the biggest of Romania's freshwater lakes and along with other basins as Golovita, Zmeica and Sinoie constitutes a system of great ecological significance, playing also an essential role in the supply of water for irrigation, fishery exploitation, farming, flood prevention, recreational navigation and water tourism. Due to their importance, the environmental conditions in the Razim - Sinoie coastal lakes have attracted an increased public attention in contemporary society. To assess the levels, dissemination and potential sources of contamination in the above-mentioned lagoon system, random sampling was used to collect water and sediment samples from every lake and several analytical techniques were performed to investigate their environmental characteristics. The results obtained from this study indicated that, in water, concentrations of various physico-chemical parameters are, mostly, in agreement with correlated environmental standards. Slight variations and/or occasional exceeding of the maximum admissible limits were generally limited to small areas showing levels that would not warrant special concern. In sediments, the mean concentrations of some specific trace metals were below the levels of potential effect. Benthic samples revealed 31 taxa belonging to 16 zoo-benthal subdivisions. The results of this study showed good ecological status despite local several natural and anthropogenic stressors as fishery exploitation, farming, recreational navigation and water tourism.

  6. Carbon isotopic changes in benthic foraminifera from the western South Atlantic: Reconstruction of glacial abyssal circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, W. B.; Lohmann, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Oxygen- and carbon-isotopic analyses have been performed on the benthic foraminifer Planulina wuellerstorfi in seven Late Quaternary cores from the Vema Channel-Rio Grande Rise region. The cores are distributed over the water-depth interval of 2340 to 3939 m, which includes the present transition from North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) to Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). The carbon-isotopic records in the cores vary as a function of water depth. The shallowest and deepest cores show no significant glacial-interglacial difference in δ 13C. Four of the five cores presently located in the NADW have benthic foraminiferal δ 13C that is lower during glacial isotopic stages. Based on bathymetric gradients in δ 13C, we conclude that, like today, there were two water masses present in the Vema Channel during glacial intervals: a water mass enriched in 13C overlying another water mass depleted in 13C. The largest gradient of change of δ 13C with depth, however, occurred at 2.7 km, ˜ 1 km shallower than the present position of this gradient. On the basis of paleontologic and sedimentologic evidence, we consider it unlikely that the NADW:AABW transition shallowed to this level. Reduced carbon-isotopic gradients between the deep basins of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during the last glaciation suggest that production of NADW was reduced. Lower production of NADW may have modified the local abyssal circulation pattern in the Vema Channel region.

  7. Nutrient reduction and climate change cause a potential shift from pelagic to benthic pathways in a eutrophic marine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Blenckner, T.; Stenseth, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    for the occurrence of regime shifts and the relative importance of multiple drivers, e.g., climate change, eutrophication and commercial fishing on ecosystem dynamics and trophic pathways. Using multivariate statistics and nonlinear regression on a comprehensive data set, covering abiotic factors and biotic...... large and abrupt changes, i.e., trophic cascades and ecological regime shifts, which once having occurred may prove potentially irreversible. In this study, we investigate the state and regulatory pathways of the Kattegat; a eutrophied and heavily exploited marine ecosystem, specifically testing...... variables across all trophic levels, we here propose a potential regime shift from pelagic to benthic regulatory pathways; a possible first sign of recovery from eutrophication likely triggered by drastic nutrient reductions (involving both nitrogen and phosphorus), in combination with climate...

  8. Cenozoic climate changes: A review based on time series analysis of marine benthic δ18O records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudelsee, Manfred; Bickert, Torsten; Lear, Caroline H.; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    The climate during the Cenozoic era changed in several steps from ice-free poles and warm conditions to ice-covered poles and cold conditions. Since the 1950s, a body of information on ice volume and temperature changes has been built up predominantly on the basis of measurements of the oxygen isotopic composition of shells of benthic foraminifera collected from marine sediment cores. The statistical methodology of time series analysis has also evolved, allowing more information to be extracted from these records. Here we provide a comprehensive view of Cenozoic climate evolution by means of a coherent and systematic application of time series analytical tools to each record from a compilation spanning the interval from 4 to 61 Myr ago. We quantitatively describe several prominent features of the oxygen isotope record, taking into account the various sources of uncertainty (including measurement, proxy noise, and dating errors). The estimated transition times and amplitudes allow us to assess causal climatological-tectonic influences on the following known features of the Cenozoic oxygen isotopic record: Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Eocene-Oligocene Transition, Oligocene-Miocene Boundary, and the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. We further describe and causally interpret the following features: Paleocene-Eocene warming trend, the two-step, long-term Eocene cooling, and the changes within the most recent interval (Miocene-Pliocene). We review the scope and methods of constructing Cenozoic stacks of benthic oxygen isotope records and present two new latitudinal stacks, which capture besides global ice volume also bottom water temperatures at low (less than 30°) and high latitudes. This review concludes with an identification of future directions for data collection, statistical method development, and climate modeling.

  9. Seasonal patterns in stream periphyton fatty acids and community benthic algal composition in six high quality headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are integral components of periphyton and differ among algal taxa. We examined seasonal patterns in periphyton fatty acids in six minimally disturbed headwater streams in Pennsylvania’s Appalachian Mountains, USA. Environmental data and periphyton were collected across four seasons for fatty acid and algal taxa content. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination suggested significant seasonal differences in fatty acids; an ordination on algal composition revealed similar seasonal patterns, but with slightly weaker separation of summer and fall. Summer and fall fatty acid profiles were driven by temperature, overstory cover, and conductivity and winter profiles by measures of stream size. Ordination on algal composition suggested that summer and fall communities were driven by overstory and temperature, whereas winter communities were driven by velocity. The physiologically important fatty acid 18:3ω6 was highest in summer and fall. Winter samples had the highest 20:3ω3. Six saturated fatty acids differed among the seasons. Periphyton fatty acids profiles appeared to reflect benthic algal species composition. This suggests that periphyton fatty acid composition can be useful in characterizing basal food resources and stream water quality.

  10. Temporal change in deep-sea benthic ecosystems: a review of the evidence from recent time-series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, A G; Gooday, A J; Bailey, D M; Billett, D S M; Chevaldonné, P; Colaço, A; Copley, J; Cuvelier, D; Desbruyères, D; Kalogeropoulou, V; Klages, M; Lampadariou, N; Lejeusne, C; Mestre, N C; Paterson, G L J; Perez, T; Ruhl, H; Sarrazin, J; Soltwedel, T; Soto, E H; Thatje, S; Tselepides, A; Van Gaever, S; Vanreusel, A

    2010-01-01

    by stochastic events such as volcanic eruptions, with associated fauna showing complex patterns of community succession. For the slow-spreading centres such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, vent sites appear to be stable over the time periods measured, with no discernable long-term trend. At cold seeps, inferences based on spatial studies in the Gulf of Mexico, and data on organism longevity, suggest that these sites are stable over many hundreds of years. However, at the Haakon Mosby mud volcano, a large, well-studied seep in the Barents Sea, periodic mud slides associated with gas and fluid venting may disrupt benthic communities, leading to successional sequences over time. For chemosynthetic ecosystems of biogenic origin (e.g. whale-falls), it is likely that the longevity of the habitat depends mainly on the size of the carcass and the ecological setting, with large remains persisting as a distinct seafloor habitat for up to 100 years. Studies of shallow-water analogs of deep-sea ecosystems such as marine caves may also yield insights into temporal processes. Although it is obvious from the geological record that past climate change has impacted deep-sea faunas, the evidence that recent climate change or climate variability has altered deep-sea benthic communities is extremely limited. This mainly reflects the lack of remote sensing of this vast seafloor habitat. Current and future advances in deep-ocean benthic science involve new remote observing technologies that combine a high temporal resolution (e.g. cabled observatories) with spatial capabilities (e.g. autonomous vehicles undertaking image surveys of the seabed). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Response of benthic foraminifera to organic matter quantity and quality and bioavailable concentrations of metals in Aveiro Lagoon (Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virgínia Alves Martins

    Full Text Available This work analyses the distribution of living benthic foraminiferal assemblages of surface sediments in different intertidal areas of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal, a polihaline and anthropized coastal lagoon. The relationships among foraminiferal assemblages in association with environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, Eh and pH, grain size, the quantity and quality of organic matter (enrichment in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, pollution caused by metals, and mineralogical data are studied in an attempt to identify indicators of adaptability to environmental stress. In particular, concentrations of selected metals in the surficial sediment are investigated to assess environmental pollution levels that are further synthetically parameterised by the Pollution Load Index (PLI. The PLI variations allowed the identification of five main polluted areas. Concentrations of metals were also analysed in three extracted phases to evaluate their possible mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the surficial sediment. Polluted sediment in the form of both organic matter and metals can be found in the most confined zones. Whereas enrichment in organic matter and related biopolymers causes an increase in foraminifera density, pollution by metals leads to a decline in foraminiferal abundance and diversity in those zones. The first situation may be justified by the existence of opportunistic species (with high reproduction rate that can live in low oxic conditions. The second is explained by the sensitivity of some species to pressure caused by metals. The quality of the organic matter found in these places and the option of a different food source should also explain the tolerance of several species to pollution caused by metals, despite their low reproductive rate in the most polluted areas. In this study, species that are sensitive and tolerant to organic matter and metal enrichment are identified, as is the differential sensitivity/tolerance of

  12. Legacies of recent environmental change in the benthic communities of Lake Joyce, a perennially ice-covered Antarctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, I; Sumner, D Y; Andersen, D T; Mackey, T J

    2011-09-01

    Many Antarctic lakes provide habitat for extensive microbial mats that respond on various timescales to environmental change. Lake Joyce contains calcifying microbialites and provides a natural laboratory to constrain how environmental changes influence microbialite development. In Lake Joyce, depth-specific distributions of calcitic microbialites, organic carbon, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic potential cannot be explained by current growth conditions, but are a legacy of a 7-m lake level rise between 1973 and 2009. In the well-illuminated margins of the lake, photosynthetically active benthic communities colonised surfaces submerged for just a few years. However, observed increases in accumulated organic material with depth from 5 to 20 m (2-40 mg ash-free dry weight cm(-2)) and the presence of decimetre-scale calcite microbialites at 20-22 m depth, apparently related to in situ photosynthetic growth, are inconsistent with the current distributions of irradiance, photosynthetic pigments and mat photosynthetic potential (as revealed by pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorometry). The microbialites appeared photosynthetically active in 1986 and 1997, but were outside the depth zone where significant phototrophic growth was possible and were weakly photosynthetically competent in 2009. These complex microbial structures have persisted after growth has ceased, demonstrating how fluctuating environmental conditions and the hysteresis between environmental change, biological response and microbialite development can be important factors to consider when interpreting modern, and by inference ancient, microbially mediated structures. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Eutrophication induced changes in benthic community structure of a flow-restricted tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters), India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, G.D.; Nisha, P.A.; Balachandran, K.K.; Madhu, N.V.; Nair, M.; Shaiju, P.; Joseph, T.; Srinivas, K.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    The influence of anthropogenic loading on the distribution of soft bottom benthic organisms of a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters) was examined. The industrial activities were found to be high in the northern and central part of the estuary...

  14. Guidelines for the processing and quality assurance of benthic invertebrate samples collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.; Meador, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate samples are collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This is a perennial, multidisciplinary program that integrates biological, physical, and chemical indicators of water quality to evaluate status and trends and to develop an understanding of the factors controlling observed water quality. The Program examines water quality in 60 study units (coupled ground- and surface-water systems) that encompass most of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii. Study-unit teams collect and process qualitative and semi-quantitative invertebrate samples according to standardized procedures. These samples are processed (elutriated and subsampled) in the field to produce as many as four sample components: large-rare, main-body, elutriate, and split. Each sample component is preserved in 10-percent formalin, and two components, large-rare and main-body, are sent to contract laboratories for further processing. The large-rare component is composed of large invertebrates that are removed from the sample matrix during field processing and placed in one or more containers. The main-body sample component consists of the remaining sample materials (sediment, detritus, and invertebrates) and is subsampled in the field to achieve a volume of 750 milliliters or less. The remaining two sample components, elutriate and split, are used for quality-assurance and quality-control purposes. Contract laboratories are used to identify and quantify invertebrates from the large-rare and main-body sample components according to the procedures and guidelines specified within this document. These guidelines allow the use of subsampling techniques to reduce the volume of sample material processed and to facilitate identifications. These processing procedures and techniques may be modified if the modifications provide equal or greater levels of accuracy and precision. The intent of sample processing is to

  15. Antarctic Holocene climate change: A benthic foraminiferal stable isotope record from Palmer Deep

    OpenAIRE

    Shevenell, A. E.; Kennett, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    The first moderate- to high-resolution Holocene marine stable isotope record from the nearshore Antarctic continental shelf (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1098B) suggests sensitivity of the western Antarctic Peninsula hydrography to westerly wind strength and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like climate variability. Despite proximity to corrosive Antarctic water masses, sufficient CaCO3 in Palmer Deep sediments exists to provide a high-quality stable isotopic record (especially in the...

  16. Anthropogenic impact on water chemistry and benthic macroinvertebrate associated changes in a southern Nigeria stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoro, Francis O; Odume, O Nelson; Uhunoma, Samson I; Edegbene, Augustine O

    2015-02-01

    The Ogba River in southern Nigeria is an important water resource for its riparian communities. This study evaluates impact of anthropogenic influences on the Ogba River using water chemistry and macroinvertebrate data sets obtained over a period of 6 months between January and June 2012. Four stations, stations 1-4, characterised by various human activities were chosen along the river. Organic wastes from domestic and industrial sources were the major point sources of pollutants. Station 2 where the municipal wastewater drains into the river had elevated values of flow velocity, BOD5, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate and sodium. Based on the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were the main factors that help to shape the macroinvertebrate assemblage structure of the Ogba River. Macroinvertebrates clustered strongly by stations than by seasons indicating that water quality differences between the stations were responsible for the observed differences in the biotic assemblage. The preponderance of naidid oligochaetes, baetid nymphs and certain tolerant dipteran taxa including chironomids and ceratopogonids at all four stations was an indication that the entire water body was stressed. The odonates were the single most abundant taxa; their dominance could be attributed to the vegetative nature of the stream, favouring odonate colonisation. Overall, the responses of macroinvertebrates to stress were reflected by the different assemblage structures recorded at the four study stations. Substrate and microhabitat obliteration and poor water quality appeared to be the factors responsible for the observed assemblage structure in the Ogba River.

  17. A high-resolution benthic stable-isotope record and new benthic Mg/Ca data from the South Atlantic: implications for orbitally-paced changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littler, K.; Zachos, J. C.; Kersey, A.; Roehl, U.; Westerhold, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Paleogene was a time of high global temperatures, elevated pCO2 levels and periodic carbon-cycle perturbations of varying magnitude, and so provides a series of natural experiments or case studies for investigating the links between climate and the carbon-cycle under greenhouse conditions. The transient "hyperthermal" events such as the PETM have been studied in great detail, however the background climate and carbon cycle of the Paleocene-Eocene was less well characterised. Here we present the completed high-resolution (~2-3 kyr), single-site, orbitally-tuned, benthic foraminiferal stable-isotope record from Walvis Ridge (South Atlantic), spanning ~8 Myrs of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene. Spectral analysis of the Site 1262 records clearly demonstrates the strong orbital modulation of both the carbon cycle and climate during this interval, with power concentrated in the eccentricity and precession bands. The lack of power in the obliquity band strongly suggests that significant ice-sheets, capable of influencing global sea-level, were not present on Antarctica during this period, unlike those seen in the Oligocene onwards. Comparison of this record with an orbitally-tuned record from Pacific Site 1209, demonstrates that the long-term and cyclical signals captured in the 1262 oxygen and carbon isotope records are global. The benthic carbon isotope records show bottom waters in the Pacific were consistently more aged (longer residence time) than in the Atlantic. Reconstructing deep sea absolute temperature variations based on the oxygen isotope records, reveals fluctuations by up to 3°C between long eccentricity (405 kyr) minima and maxima. Complementary benthic Mg/Ca records from the Latest Paleocene at Site 1262, also suggests that changes in deep-water temperature associated with these eccentricity-paced fluctuations were not insignificant. Furthermore, while it would be desirable to calculate d18Osw from the paired foraminiferal oxygen-isotope and Mg

  18. Benthic foraminiferal biocoenoses in the estuarine regimes of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Benthic Foraminifera are highly responsive to subtle changes in the estuarine environment. Keeping this in view, a qualitative analysis of living benthic Foraminifera was made of the samples collected from the Mandovi-Zuari estuaries...

  19. Shifting baselines in the Ems Dollard estuary: A comparison across three decades reveals changing benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Holthuijsen, Sander; Mulder, Maarten; van Arkel, Maarten; Schaars, Loran Kleine; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; ten Horn, Job; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; van der Meer, Jaap; Piersma, Theunis; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2017-09-01

    At a time when there is a growing discussion about the natural state of estuaries, a comparison of macrozoobenthos communities from two surveys conducted 30 years apart in the Ems Dollard estuary, in the eastern Wadden Sea, The Netherlands, provides a unique opportunity to compare changes over time. As expected, our comparison revealed a gradient in species composition from land (the Dollard) to sea (the Outer Ems) at both points in time, with brackish species in the Dollard and more marine species in the Outer Ems (Wadden Sea). Total richness increased over time; however, this mainly reflected the immigration of new species and sampling differences. In the Dollard, total biomass declined over time, most likely reflecting de-eutrophication in this area. Strikingly, at the meeting point between the sea and the brackish Dollard, i.e. the Inner Ems, the community composition changed from one dominated by bivalves (1970s) to one dominated by worms (since 2009). This change involved a reduction in total biomass, mainly of Mya arenaria, and immigration of polychaete worms (Marenzellaria viridis and Alitta succinea). In the Outer Ems, an increase in total biomass was observed, associated with the recent successful recruitment of Cerastoderma edule. This comparison highlights that historical data provides useful insights at large spatial scales. However, a full understanding of the complex dynamics of estuaries requires an analysis of continuous long-term monitoring series.

  20. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling.Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater-treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition.Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  1. PCB-induced changes of a benthic community and expected ecosystem recovery following in situ sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Elisabeth M.-L.; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The benthic community was analyzed to evaluate pollution-induced changes for the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site at Hunters Point (HP) relative to 30 reference sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. An analysis based on functional traits of feeding, reproduction, and position in the sediment shows that HP is depauperate in deposit feeders, subsurface carnivores, and species with no protective barrier. Sediment chemistry analysis shows that PCBs are the major risk drivers at HP (1,570 ppb) and that the reference sites contain very low levels of PCB contamination (9 ppb). Different feeding traits support the existence of direct pathways of exposure, which can be mechanistically linked to PCB bioaccumulation by biodynamic modeling. The model shows that the deposit feeder Neanthes arenaceodentata accumulates approximately 20 times more PCBs in its lipids than the facultative deposit feeder Macoma balthica and up to 130 times more than the filter feeder Mytilus edulis. The comparison of different exposure scenarios suggests that PCB tissue concentrations at HP are two orders of magnitude higher than at the reference sites. At full scale, in situ sorbent amendment with activated carbon may reduce PCB bioaccumulation at HP by up to 85 to 90% under favorable field and treatment conditions. The modeling framework further demonstrates that such expected remedial success corresponds to exposure conditions suggested as the cleanup goal for HP. However, concentrations remain slightly higher than at the reference sites. The present study demonstrates how the remedial success of a sorbent amendment, which lowers the PCB availability, can be compared to reference conditions and traditional cleanup goals, which are commonly based on bulk sediment concentrations.

  2. Uptake and excretion of dimethylsulphoniopropionate is driven by salinity changes in the marine benthic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bergeijk, S.A.; Van der Zee, C.; Stal, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term (vrv14 d) and short-term (vrv9 h) effects of salinity on the dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) content of the marine benthic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium were investigated. When grown in batch cultures at various salinities, intracellular DMSP increased from 13.8 to 823 wmol gvmv1

  3. Life history changes in the benthic cladoceran Chydorus piger induced by low concentrations of sediment-bound cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, T.; Krips, O.E.; Admiraal, W.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sediment-bound cadmium on several life history parameters of the benthic cladoceran Chydorus piger, was tested in the laboratory. It was investigated whether a test with C. piger is an ecologically realistic alternative for the Daphnia test applied to sediments. Therefore, a culture of

  4. Recent oxygen depletion and benthic faunal change in shallow areas of Sannäs Fjord, Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Kjell; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Gallagher, Timothy M.; Robijn, Ardo

    2017-09-01

    Sannäs Fjord is a shallow fjord (impact on the fjord represents combination of sewage from the local village of Sannäs and land run-off from agricultural areas. Sewage impact has been reduced since 1991 and today the fjord is included into several nature conservation programs administrated by the European Union. Yet, observations during the summers of 2008-2011 show that the shallow inner fjord inlet experiences severe oxygen depletion at 5-12 m water depth. To explore if the oxygen depletion is only a recent phenomenon and to evaluate the potential of fjord sediments to archive such environmental changes, in 2008 and 2009 seven sediment cores were taken along a transect oriented lengthwise in the fjord. The cores were analysed for organic carbon, C/N, benthic foraminifera and lead pollution records (as relative age marker). Carbon content increases in most of the cores since the 1970-80s, while C/N ratio decreases from the core base upward since 1995. Foraminiferal assemblages in most core stratigraphies are dominated by agglutinated species. Calcareous species (mainly elphidiids) have become dominant in the upper part of the records since the late 1990s or 2000 (the inner fjord and the deepest basin) and since the 1950-70s (the outer fjord). In the inner Sannäs Fjord, an increase of agglutinated foraminiferal species (e.g. Eggerelloides scaber) and organic inner linings occurred since the 1970s, suggesting an intensification of taphonomic processes affecting postmortem calcareous shell preservation. A study of living vs. dead foraminiferal assemblages undertaken during June-August 2013 demonstrates that in the shallow inner fjord, strong carbonate dissolution occurs within 1-3 months following the foraminiferal growth. The dissolution is linked to corrosive conditions present within the sediment - bottom water interface, and is likely caused by the organic matter decay, resulting in severe hypoxia to anoxia. Oxygen depletion at mechanisms driving formation of

  5. Evaluation of some physicochemical parameters and benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some physicochemical parameters and benthic macroinvertebrates of Ikere Gorge Reservoir in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Reservoir is relatively under stress due to dominance of indicators of pollution. Keywords: Anthropogenic activities, Bioindicator, Ikere Gorge Reservoir, Melanoides tuberculata, Water quality.

  6. Spatial and temporal changes in benthic communities of the Galician continental shelf after the Prestige oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Alberto . E-mail aserrano@st.ieo.es; Sanchez, Francisco; Preciado, Izaskun; Parra, Santiago; Frutos, Inmaculada

    2006-01-01

    Two years after the Prestige oil spill (POS) an assessment of the effects on benthic fauna was carried out using the data obtained in five multidisciplinary surveys. Otter trawl, beam trawl, suprabenthic sled and box corer were used to study the main benthic compartments, along eight transects perpendicular to the coastline. Beam trawl was also employed to quantify the amount of tar aggregates on the continental shelf. No significant correlations between tar aggregates and species richness, biomass and diversity of benthic communities were found. This result was corroborated when the role of depth, season, latitude and sediment characteristics was examined by canonical ordination, in which POS-related variables had low influence on spatial distribution patterns. Depth and sediment grain diameter profoundly influence epibenthic communities. Sediment organic content is a third key variable for the infaunal, suprabenthic and lower-sized epibenthic communities, but not for the larger epibenthic communities. Nevertheless, a decrease in the densities of several epibenthic indicators was detected the first year after spill, followed by a noteworthy recovery in 2004. Non-macroscopic toxicity and some oceanographic agents are suggested as possible causes of these shifts

  7. Spatial and temporal changes in benthic communities of the Galician continental shelf after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alberto [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain)]. E-mail aserrano@st.ieo.es; Sanchez, Francisco [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain); Preciado, Izaskun [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 240, 39080 Santander (Spain); Parra, Santiago [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 130, 15080 La Coruna (Spain); Frutos, Inmaculada [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, P.O. Box 130, 15080 La Coruna (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Two years after the Prestige oil spill (POS) an assessment of the effects on benthic fauna was carried out using the data obtained in five multidisciplinary surveys. Otter trawl, beam trawl, suprabenthic sled and box corer were used to study the main benthic compartments, along eight transects perpendicular to the coastline. Beam trawl was also employed to quantify the amount of tar aggregates on the continental shelf. No significant correlations between tar aggregates and species richness, biomass and diversity of benthic communities were found. This result was corroborated when the role of depth, season, latitude and sediment characteristics was examined by canonical ordination, in which POS-related variables had low influence on spatial distribution patterns. Depth and sediment grain diameter profoundly influence epibenthic communities. Sediment organic content is a third key variable for the infaunal, suprabenthic and lower-sized epibenthic communities, but not for the larger epibenthic communities. Nevertheless, a decrease in the densities of several epibenthic indicators was detected the first year after spill, followed by a noteworthy recovery in 2004. Non-macroscopic toxicity and some oceanographic agents are suggested as possible causes of these shifts.

  8. Spatial and temporal changes in benthic communities of the Galician continental shelf after the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Alberto; Sánchez, Francisco; Preciado, Izaskun; Parra, Santiago; Frutos, Inmaculada

    2006-01-01

    Two years after the Prestige oil spill (POS) an assessment of the effects on benthic fauna was carried out using the data obtained in five multidisciplinary surveys. Otter trawl, beam trawl, suprabenthic sled and box corer were used to study the main benthic compartments, along eight transects perpendicular to the coastline. Beam trawl was also employed to quantify the amount of tar aggregates on the continental shelf. No significant correlations between tar aggregates and species richness, biomass and diversity of benthic communities were found. This result was corroborated when the role of depth, season, latitude and sediment characteristics was examined by canonical ordination, in which POS-related variables had low influence on spatial distribution patterns. Depth and sediment grain diameter profoundly influence epibenthic communities. Sediment organic content is a third key variable for the infaunal, suprabenthic and lower-sized epibenthic communities, but not for the larger epibenthic communities. Nevertheless, a decrease in the densities of several epibenthic indicators was detected the first year after spill, followed by a noteworthy recovery in 2004. Non-macroscopic toxicity and some oceanographic agents are suggested as possible causes of these shifts.

  9. Temporal changes of environmental impact in the coastal marine area in front of a former mining zone, detected by means of benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Maggi, Chiara; Ausili, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used to assess environmental quality of present and past marine environments. They are suitable for the study of ancient environments because their hard and small shells are preserved and abundant in sediment and an adequate number of them can be collected by small samples of sediment cores, supplying reliable data for a statistical approach. The study of foraminiferal assemblages, associated to sediment abiotic parameters, allows to define the anthropogenic impact along the time; reference conditions may be recognized in deep uncontaminated levels. The Sulcis Iglesiente Guspinese area (SW Sardinia, Italy) was affected in past times by intensive mining, which started in mid 19th century and ceased in 1990s. The marine area of Cala Domestica is located few kilometers from the mining district, where mainly galena and sphalerite were exploited. The area houses buildings for storage of minerals receives drainage material from mineral dumps determining a strong enrichment for several metals in the coastal sediments. Sediment core SI/69 was collected by means of vibrocorer in front of Cala Domestica beach, during a vast sampling survey aimed to environmental characterization of marine sediments. The core was subsampled in the laboratory, and a total of 28 levels were collected. Microfaunal, grain size and chemical (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) analyses were carried out on different aliquots of the same level. The quantitative analysis on benthic foraminifera was based on the count of at least 300 specimens per sample. Faunal parameters such as Foraminiferal Number (FN i.e. number of specimens / 1 g dry sediment) and species diversity (- index and H-index) were considered as potential indicators of environmental status. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a group of strongly correlated metals (Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn), associated to the superficial samples. These elements displayed a typical profile along

  10. The Bering Strait Region: A Window into Changing Benthic Populations in Response to Varying Subarctic-Arctic Connectivity and Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Moore, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    A key ecological organizing principle for the northern Bering Sea and the adjoining southern Chukchi Sea just north of Bering Strait is that the shallow, seasonally productive waters lead to strong pelagic-benthic coupling to the sea floor, with deposition of fresh chlorophyll coinciding with the spring bloom as sea ice retreats. Both in situ production and advection of upstream phytodetritus to these regions support persistent biological hotspots that connect benthic prey to upper trophic benthivores. This northern marine ecosystem is dominated by marine macroinvertebrates (e.g. clams, polychaetes, sipunculids, and amphipods) that feed on the high production deposited rapidly to the seafloor, which in turn serve as food resources for diving mammals and seabirds, such as gray whales, bearded seals, eiders, and walruses. Between St. Lawrence Island and Bering Strait and northwards into the Chukchi Sea, the persistence of seasonal sea ice has significantly declined over the past two decades, and along with warming seawater temperatures, these changes have potential ramifications to ecosystem structure. Times-series data over the last 25 years indicate that these regions have experienced a northward shift in macrofaunal composition and a decline in core benthic biomass that matches patterns of reduced sea ice, warming seawater, and changing sediment grain size that relates to varying current patterns. This presentation will discuss these data in the context of both process studies from the region and results from the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO), an international network of time series transects that is providing a framework to evaluate status and trends on a latitudinal bases in the Pacific Arctic region.

  11. Indicators: Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic (meaning “bottom-dwelling”) macroinvertebrates are small aquatic animals and the aquatic larval stages of insects. Benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used as indicators of the biological condition of waterbodies.

  12. Benthic foraminiferal faunal and geochemical proxies as tracers for paleoenvironmental and paleoceanographic changes in the western Mediterranean over the last 24 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Asensio, José N.; Cacho, Isabel; Frigola, Jaime; Pena, Leopoldo D.; Sierro, Francisco J.; Asioli, Alessandra; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin

    2017-04-01

    Paleoenvironmental and paleoceanographic changes in the western Mediterranean are reconstructed for the last 24 ka using a combination of benthic foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical proxies measured on benthic foraminiferal shells (Mg/Ca-deep water temperatures and stable isotopes). The studied materials are sediment cores HER-GC-UB06 and MD95-2043recovered at 946 m and 1841 m, respectively, from the Alboran Sea. At present, both core sites are bathed by the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW), although UB06 core is close to the boundary with the overlying Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). Therefore, past variability of both water masses can potentially be recorded by the benthic foraminiferal proxies from the studied sites. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical data show fluctuations in bottom-water ventilation, organic matter accumulation and deep-water temperatures related to WMDW and LIW circulation. During the glacial interval, an alternation of events showing better ventilation (higher abundance of Cibicides pachyderma) with lower temperatures and events of warmer deep water temperatures with poorer ventilation (Nonionella iridea assemblage, lower abundance of C. pachyderma) are observed. This variability might reflect stronger WMDW formation during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Heinrich Stadial 1. During the Bølling-Allerød and Younger Dryas (YD) periods, cold temperatures and the lowest oxygenation rates are recorded coinciding with the highest abundance of deep infaunal taxa on both UB06 and MD95-2043 cores. This interval was coetaneous to the deposition of an Organic Rich Layer in the Alboran Sea. However, a re-ventilation trend started at the end of the YD in the shallower site (UB06 core) whereas low-oxygen conditions prevailed until the end of the early Holocene in the deep site (MD95-2043 core). During the early Holocene a significant deep water temperature increase occurred at the shallower site suggesting the

  13. Bioassessment of Choghakhor Wetland using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fathi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, besides investigating benthic communities and their demographics in Choghakhor wetland, the water quality has been evaluated and classified. Then, 10 stations were selected and sampling of benthos was done every 45 days since April 2010 to March 2011, with 3 replications at each station. Samples were obtained by Ekman grab Sampler (surface 400 cm2. The collected samples were separated and fixed by formalin (4%. The Macroinvertebrates samples were identified and counted in laboratory. Generally 25 families of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 5 classes and 12 orders were identified. The results were calculated as community measures, including total richness, Shannon - Wiener diversity index and Hilsenhoff Biological index at family level. The results obtained from temporal and spatial changes of data (Statgeraphics software and water qualitative classification using Shannon diversity index conformed to biological Hilsenhoff index. And finally, water quality of wetland was assessed to be polluted in average to high level. According to this study findings, it seems that, these indicators could be used as useful tools for evaluating water supplies quality.

  14. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Streambank fencing along stream channels in pastured areas and the exclusion of pasture animals from the channel are best-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment yields from drainage basins. Establishment of vegetation in the fenced area helps to stabilize streambanks and provides better habitat for wildlife in and near the stream. This study documented the effectiveness of a 5- to 12-foot-wide buffer strip on the quality of surface water and near-stream ground water in a 1.42-mi2 treatment basin in Lancaster County, Pa. Two miles of stream were fenced in the basin in 1997 following a 3- to 4-year pre-treatment period of monitoring surface- and ground-water variables in the treatment and control basins. Changes in surface- and ground-water quality were monitored for about 4 years after fence installation. To alleviate problems in result interpretation associated with climatic and hydrologic variation over the study period, a nested experimental design including paired-basin and upstream/downstream components was used to study the effects of fencing on surface-water quality and benthic-macroinvertebrate communities. Five surface-water sites, one at the outlet of a 1.77-mi2 control basin (C-1), two sites in the treatment basin (T-3 and T-4) that were above any fence installation, and two sites (one at an upstream tributary site (T-2) and one at the outlet (T-1)) that were treated, were sampled intensively. Low-flow samples were collected at each site (approximately 25-30 per year at each site), and stormflow was sampled with automatic samplers at all sites except T-3. For each site where stormflow was sampled, from 35 to 60 percent of the storm events were sampled over the entire study period. Surface-water sites were sampled for analyses of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal streptococcus (only low-flow samples), with field parameters (only low-flow samples) measured during sample collection. Benthic-macroinvertebrate samples

  15. Ancient fish and recent invaders: white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus diet response to invasive-species-mediated changes in a benthic prey assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeug, Steven C; Brodsky, Annie; Kogut, Nina; Stewart, Robin; Merz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Invasive organisms can have significant impacts on native species, and the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California, USA, is one of the world's most invaded estuaries. Decline of native white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus abundance in the SFE has been acknowledged, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Invasion by the overbite clam Potamocorbula amurensis has drastically altered the SFE benthic prey community, yet little is known about how this change has affected sturgeon diets. We investigated changes in the diet of white sturgeon following the overbite clam invasion and subsequent shift in the SFE benthic prey assemblage. Gut content analysis was used to compare white sturgeon prey composition and importance between the pre- and post-invasion periods. Additionally, stable isotope analysis was employed to estimate the assimilation of prey items to sturgeon biomass. Overbite clams dominated diets in the post-invasion period, accounting for 82 to 93% of total volume. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the importance of this prey item, although their assimilated contribution to sturgeon biomass was estimated to be less (70 to 83%) than gut contents indicated. The frequency of fish in white sturgeon guts increased in the post-invasion period, and isotope analysis indicated relatively large contributions of fish to sturgeon biomass (3.7 to 19%). The trophic adaptability of white sturgeon has allowed them to exploit this new prey source (overbite clam). Future conservation and restoration efforts must consider a potentially destabilized food web given the large importance of a single prey item.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Coral Reef Communities of the Spermonde Archipelago, 2012–2014, I: Comprehensive Reef Monitoring of Water and Benthic Indicators Reflect Changes in Reef Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Teichberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution, fishing, and outbreaks of predators can heavily impact coastal coral reef ecosystems, leading to decreased water quality and benthic community shifts. To determine the main environmental drivers of coral reef status in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia, we monitored environmental variables and coral reef benthic community structure along an on-to-offshore gradient annually from 2012 to 2014. Findings revealed that concentrations of phosphate, chlorophyll a-like fluorescence, suspended particulate matter, and light attenuation significantly decreased from on-to-offshore, while concentrations of dissolved O2 and values of water pH significantly increased on-to-offshore. Nitrogen stable isotope signatures of sediment and an exemplary common brown alga were significantly enriched nearshore, identifying wastewater input from the city of Makassar as primary N source. In contrast to the high temporal variability in water quality, coral reef benthic community cover did not show strong temporal, but rather, spatial patterns. Turf algae was the dominant group next to live coral, and was negatively correlated to live coral, crustose coralline algae (CCA, rubble and hard substrate. Variation in benthic cover along the gradient was explained by water quality variables linked to trophic status and physico-chemical variables. As an integrated measure of reef status and structural complexity, the benthic index, based on the ratio of relative cover of live coral and CCA to other coral reef organisms, and reef rugosity were determined. The benthic index was consistently low nearshore and increased offshore, with high variability in the midshelf sites across years. Reef rugosity was also lowest nearshore and increased further offshore. Both indices dropped in 2013, increasing again in 2014, indicating a period of acute disturbance and recovery within the study and suggesting that the mid-shelf reefs are more resilient to disturbance than nearshore

  17. Reefs under Siege—the Rise, Putative Drivers, and Consequences of Benthic Cyanobacterial Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K. Ford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Benthic cyanobacteria have commonly been a small but integral component of coral reef ecosystems, fulfilling the critical function of introducing bioavailable nitrogen to an inherently oligotrophic environment. Though surveys may have previously neglected benthic cyanobacteria, or grouped them with more conspicuous benthic groups, emerging evidence strongly indicates that they are becoming increasingly prevalent on reefs worldwide. Some species can form mats comprised by a diverse microbial consortium which allows them to exist across a wide range of environmental conditions. This review evaluates the putative driving factors of increasing benthic cyanobacterial mats, including climate change, declining coastal water quality, iron input, and overexploitation of key consumer and ecosystem engineer species. Ongoing global environmental change can increase growth rates and toxin production of physiologically plastic benthic cyanobacterial mats, placing them at a considerable competitive advantage against reef-building corals. Once established, strong ecological feedbacks [e.g., inhibition of coral recruitment, release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC] reinforce reef degradation. The review also highlights previously overlooked implications of mat proliferation, which can extend beyond reef health and affect human health and welfare. Though identifying (opportunistic consumers of mats remains a priority, their perceived low palatability implies that herbivore management alone may be insufficient to control their proliferation and must be accompanied by local measures to improve water quality and watershed management.

  18. Benthic Food Web Structure across the Canadian Arctic Ocean: Insights from stable isotopes and the IP25 biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friscourt, N.; Archambault, P.; Masse, G.; Nozais, C.

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, the Arctic Ocean has undergone unprecedented changes, such as an increase in the surface temperature and a reduction of sea ice cover. These changes may cause variations in the intensity and spatial distribution of primary production and the nature of pelagic-benthic coupling. This could affect the amount and quality of organic matter that settles onto the seafloor, and the benthic communities that feed upon it. The objectives of this study were i) to describe the trophic structure and resilience of regional benthic food webs using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and ii) to evaluate the significance of ice algae in the diet of benthic communities using the sea ice proxy IP25. The study area extends from the North Water Polynya to the Chukchi Sea across five geographic regions (North Water Polynya, Canadian Archipelago, Amundsen Gulf, Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea) based on environmental factors. To reach these objectives, we collected particulate organic matter (POM), sediments and zoobenthic samples from July to October 2014 aboard the CCGS Amundsen. Stable isotope and IP25 data, the trophic structure within regions and comparison between regions will be presented. Potential impacts of climate change and human activities on benthic ecosystems in the Arctic are still difficult to assess because of the lack of baseline data. The baseline data once provided will enable us to make further predictions on how these changes may affect benthic food web structure.

  19. High dietary quality of non-toxic cyanobacteria for a benthic grazer and its implications for the control of cyanobacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2017-05-18

    Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consumption of non-toxic cyanobacteria may be improved when complemented with other high quality prey. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which we fed the herbivorous freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis single non-toxic cyanobacterial and unialgal diets or a mixed diet to test if diet-mixing may enable these herbivores to control non-toxic cyanobacterial mass abundances. The treatments where L. stagnalis were fed non-toxic cyanobacteria and a mixed diet provided a significantly higher shell and soft-body growth rate than the average of all single algal, but not the non-toxic cyanobacterial diets. However, the increase in growth provided by the non-toxic cyanobacteria diets could not be related to typical determinants of dietary quality such as toxicity, nutrient stoichiometry or essential fatty acid content. These results strongly contradict previous research which describes non-toxic cyanobacteria as a low quality food resource for freshwater herbivores in general. Our findings thus have strong implications to gastropod-cyanobacteria relationships and suggest that freshwater gastropods may be able to control mass occurrences of benthic non-toxic cyanobacteria, frequently observed in eutrophied water bodies worldwide.

  20. Contrasting responses to long-term climate change of carbon flows to benthic consumers in two different sized lakes in the Baltic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Simon; Freiberg, Rene; Poska, Anneli; Agasild, Helen; Alliksaar, Tiiu; Tõnno, Ilmar

    2018-05-01

    The study of lake sediments and archived biological remains is a promising approach to better understand the impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems. Small lakes have been shown to be strongly sensitive to past climate change, but similar information is lacking for large lakes. By identifying responses to climate change of carbon flows through benthic food web in two different sized lakes, we aimed to understand how lake morphometry can mediate the effects of climate change. We reconstructed the dynamics of phytoplankton community composition and carbon resources sustaining chironomid biomass during the Holocene from the combined analysis of sedimentary pigment quantification and carbon stable isotopic composition of subfossil chironomid head capsules (δ13CHC) in a large lake in the Baltic area (Estonia). Our results showed that chironomid biomass in the large lake was mainly sustained by phytoplankton, with no significant relationship between δ13CHC values and temperature fluctuations. We suggest that lake morphometry (including distance of the sampling zone to the shoreline, and lake volume for primary producers) mediates the effects of climate change, making large lakes less sensitive to climate change. Complementary studies are needed to better understand differences in organic matter dynamics in different sized lakes and to characterize the response of the aquatic carbon cycle to past climate change.

  1. The offshore benthic fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  2. An evaluation of the relative quality of dike pools for benthic macroinvertebrates in the Lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, B.C.; Allert, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A habitat-based aquatic macroinvertebrate study was initiated in the Lower Missouri River to evaluate relative quality and biological condition of dike pool habitats. Water-quality and sediment-quality parameters and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure were measured from depositional substrates at 18 sites. Sediment porewater was analysed for ammonia, sulphide, pH and oxidation-reduction potential. Whole sediments were analysed for particle-size distribution, organic carbon and contaminants. Field water-quality parameters were measured at subsurface and at the sediment-water interface. Pool area adjacent and downstream from each dike was estimated from aerial photography. Macroinvertebrate biotic condition scores were determined by integrating the following indicator response metrics: % of Ephemeroptera (mayflies), % of Oligochaeta worms, Shannon Diversity Index and total taxa richness. Regression models were developed for predicting macroinvertebrate scores based on individual water-quality and sediment-quality variables and a water/sediment-quality score that integrated all variables. Macroinvertebrate scores generated significant determination coefficients with dike pool area (R2=0.56), oxidation–reduction potential (R2=0.81) and water/sediment-quality score (R2=0.71). Dissolved oxygen saturation, oxidation-reduction potential and total ammonia in sediment porewater were most important in explaining variation in macroinvertebrate scores. The best two-variable regression models included dike pool size + the water/sediment-quality score (R2=0.84) and dike pool size + oxidation-reduction potential (R2=0.93). Results indicate that dike pool size and chemistry of sediments and overlying water can be used to evaluate dike pool quality and identify environmental conditions necessary for optimizing diversity and productivity of important aquatic macroinvertebrates. A combination of these variables could be utilized for measuring the success of habitat enhancement

  3. The impact of sediment bioturbation by secondary organisms on metal bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity to target organisms in benthic bioassays: Implications for sediment quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaili, Timothy M; Simpson, Stuart L; Amato, Elvio D; Spadaro, David A; Jarolimek, Chad V; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-01-01

    Bioturbation alters the properties of sediments and modifies contaminant bioavailability to benthic organisms. These naturally occurring disturbances are seldom considered during the assessment of sediment quality. We investigated how the presence (High bioturbation) and absence (Low bioturbation) of a strongly bioturbating amphipod within three different sediments influenced metal bioavailability, survival and bioaccumulation of metals to the bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. The concentrations of dissolved copper decreased and manganese increased with increased bioturbation. For copper a strong correlation was observed between increased bivalve survival (53-100%) and dissolved concentrations in the overlying water. Increased bioturbation intensity resulted in greater tissue concentrations for chromium and zinc in some test sediments. Overall, the results highlight the strong influence that the natural bioturbation activities from one organism may have on the risk contaminants pose to other organisms within the local environment. The characterisation of field-based exposure conditions concerning the biotic or abiotic resuspension of sediments and the rate of attenuation of released contaminants through dilution or readsorption may enable laboratory-based bioassay designs to be adapted to better match those of the assessed environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A high-resolution benthic stable-isotope record for the South Atlantic: implications for orbital scale changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littler, K.; Zachos, J. C.; Kersey, A.; Röhl, U.; Westerhold, T.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleogene was climatically dynamic, with both sustained and transient episodes of elevated global temperatures, and pCO2 levels, as well as periodic carbon-cycle perturbations of varying magnitude, and so provides a natural laboratory for investigating the links between climate and the carbon-cycle under a range of greenhouse conditions. Although the Paleogene "hyperthermals" such as the PETM and ETM-2 have been studied in great detail, the background low-amplitude cycles seen in carbon and oxygen isotope records throughout the Paleocene-Eocene have hitherto received less attention. Here we present a continuous, >6 myr long high-resolution (~2-3 kyr), orbitally-tuned, benthic foraminiferal stable-isotope record spanning the late Paleocene and early Eocene interval (~54-61 Ma) of Site 1262, Walvis Ridge (South Atlantic). Spectral analysis of this record clearly demonstrates orbital modulation of both the carbon cycle and climate during this interval, and reveals the evolving response of the climate-system to orbital forcing, both preceding and following the PETM. The benthic oxygen-isotope record shows low frequency oscillations in deep-water temperatures of up to 3°C between long-eccentricity minima and maxima, as well as higher frequency oscillations in the precession bands, but essentially no variability in obliquity, save for a few brief intervals. The carbon isotope record exhibits variance concentrated in all primary orbital bands, but with the largest amplitude cycles in the 400 kyr band over most of this interval. Additionally, complimentary %coarse fraction (%CF) and Fe intensity records from Site 1262, show coherent long and short-term changes in regional saturation and CCD depth, thus providing insights into the coupling of the carbon cycle, climate and regional ocean circulation during this period.

  5. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    summers of 2013 and 2014. However, consistently detectable concentrations for all four solutes provide no evidence that they consistently serve as the limiting nutrient for primary production in the lake. In contrast to the four solutes (SRP, ammonia, Fe, and Mn), benthic fluxes of dissolved arsenic (As) were both negative and positive (that is, the lakebed currently serves as both a source and a sink for dissolved As, depending on season). In a further contrast with SRP, ammonia, dissolved Fe, and Mn, dissolved-As riverine loads to UKL were of similar magnitude to benthic loads. A negative relationship between dissolved-As flux and water-column As over the 2014 temporal study provides a potential advantage for the management of water-quality in contrast to solutes, like SRP or ammonia, with consistently positive flux. The mean total benthic invertebrate density during 2013 was 12,610 individuals per square meter (n=63). Although benthic invertebrate density did not change over the study period, it was higher in littoral habitats than open-lake or trench habitats and higher in the northern region compared to the central or southern regions of UKL. Mean total benthic invertebrate density during 2014 was 19,726 individuals m−2 (n=27). Density during the pre-bloom and bloom periods of April 15 to August 13, 2014 (the first two thirds of the 2014 sampling period), were similar to 2013. However, benthic invertebrate density more than doubled during the latter one-third of the study, that is, the post-bloom period between August 20 to October 16, 2014. Oligochaeta, Chironomidae and Hirudinea represented well over 90 percent of the benthic fauna; Oligochaeta were twice as abundant as Chironomidae or Hirudinea, the latter two of which were similar in density. Benthic invertebrates may enhance dissolved-nutrient (or toxicant) transport across the sediment-water interface by (1) modifying diffusion-layer thicknesses and permeability through bioturbation, (2) enhancing advective

  6. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-12-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  7. Limits to benthic feeding by eiders in a vital Arctic migration corridor due to localized prey and changing sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, James R.; Rocha, Aariel R.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Dasher, Douglas; Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-08-01

    Four species of threatened or declining eider ducks that nest in the Arctic migrate through the northeast Chukchi Sea, where anticipated industrial development may require prioritizing areas for conservation. In this nearshore corridor (10-40 m depth), the eiders' access to benthic prey during the spring is restricted to variable areas of open water within sea ice. For the most abundant species, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis), stable isotopes in blood cells, muscle, and potential prey indicate that these eiders ate mainly bivalves when traversing this corridor. Bivalves there were much smaller than the same taxa in deeper areas of the northern Bering Sea, possibly due to higher mortality rates caused by ice scour in shallow water; future decrease in seasonal duration of fast ice may increase this effect. Computer simulations suggested that if these eiders forage for >15 h/day, they can feed profitably at bivalve densities >200 m-2 regardless of water depth or availability of ice for resting. Sampling in 2010-2012 showed that large areas of profitable prey densities occurred only in certain locations throughout the migration corridor. Satellite data in April-May over 13 years (2001-2013) indicated that access to major feeding areas through sea ice in different segments of the corridor can vary from 0% to 100% between months and years. In a warming and increasingly variable climate, unpredictability of access may be enhanced by greater effects of shifting winds on unconsolidated ice. Our results indicate the importance of having a range of potential feeding areas throughout the migration corridor to ensure prey availability in all years. Spatial planning of nearshore industrial development in the Arctic, including commercial shipping, pipeline construction, and the risk of released oil, should consider these effects of high environmental variability on the adequacy of habitats targeted for conservation.

  8. Climate Change and Global Wine Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.V. [Department of Geography, Southern Oregon University, 1250 Siskiyou Blvd, Ashland, Oregon, 97520 (United States); White, M.A. [Department of Aquatic, Watershed, and Earth Resources, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 84322 (United States); Cooper, O.R. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences CIRES, University of Colorado/NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, 80305 (United States); Storchmann, K. [Department of Economics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    From 1950 to 1999 the majority of the world's highest quality wine-producing regions experienced growing season warming trends. Vintage quality ratings during this same time period increased significantly while year-to-year variation declined. While improved winemaking knowledge and husbandry practices contributed to the better vintages it was shown that climate had, and will likely always have, a significant role in quality variations. This study revealed that the impacts of climate change are not likely to be uniform across all varieties and regions. Currently, many European regions appear to be at or near their optimum growing season temperatures, while the relationships are less defined in the New World viticulture regions. For future climates, model output for global wine producing regions predicts an average warming of 2C in the next 50 yr. For regions producing high-quality grapes at the margins of their climatic limits, these results suggest that future climate change will exceed a climatic threshold such that the ripening of balanced fruit required for existing varieties and wine styles will become progressively more difficult. In other regions, historical and predicted climate changes could push some regions into more optimal climatic regimes for the production of current varietals. In addition, the warmer conditions could lead to more poleward locations potentially becoming more conducive to grape growing and wine production.

  9. Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toyonobu

    2012-11-05

    In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. Climate change and associated sea-level rise will have potential to cause changes in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental changes are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of sea-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments.

  10. Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toyonobu

    2012-01-01

    In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. Climate change and associated sea-level rise will have potential to cause changes in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental changes are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of sea-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments. PMID:24832510

  11. Effect of settled diatom‐aggregates on benthic nitrogen cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Marzocchi, Ugo; Thamdrup, Bo; Stief, Peter; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The marine sediment hosts a mosaic of microhabitats. Recently it has been demonstrated that the settlement of phycodetrital aggregates can induce local changes in the benthic O2 distribution due to confined enrichment of organic material and alteration of the diffusional transport. Here, we show how this microscale O2 shift substantially affects benthic nitrogen cycling. In sediment incubations, the settlement of diatom‐aggregates markedly enhanced benthic O2 and NO 3 − consumption a...

  12. ADKAR MODEL VS. QUALITY MANAGEMENT CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana Boca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted through different countries to identify dimensions and antecedents of buyer-seller relationships quality. In light of the findings dimensions of relationship quality have emerged: mutual trust, partners’ commitment in the relationship, cooperation and creativity and innovation. Also, the research identifies several key success factors in business relationships that are grouped into different categories: factors related to relational behaviours and factors related to characteristics of the offer. These results serve as valuable indicators, allowing managers to evaluate, adjust and develop their relationships marketing strategies. The ADKAR model provides a tool for improving the connection between individual performance, organizational change management and business results. This study provides a significant contribution to the relationship quality literature and present few ideas for future management in a new manufacture vision for MANU-FUTURE.

  13. Climate change, air quality, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Weather and climate play important roles in determining patterns of air quality over multiple scales in time and space, owing to the fact that emissions, transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and eventual deposition of air pollutants all can be influenced by meteorologic variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and mixing height. There is growing recognition that development of optimal control strategies for key pollutants like ozone and fine particles now requires assessment of potential future climate conditions and their influence on the attainment of air quality objectives. In addition, other air contaminants of relevance to human health, including smoke from wildfires and airborne pollens and molds, may be influenced by climate change. In this study, the focus is on the ways in which health-relevant measures of air quality, including ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens, may be affected by climate variability and change. The small but growing literature focusing on climate impacts on air quality, how these influences may play out in future decades, and the implications for human health is reviewed. Based on the observed and anticipated impacts, adaptation strategies and research needs are discussed.

  14. The impact of sediment bioturbation by secondary organisms on metal bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity to target organisms in benthic bioassays: Implications for sediment quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remaili, Timothy M.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Amato, Elvio D.; Spadaro, David A.; Jarolimek, Chad V.; Jolley, Dianne F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioturbation alters the properties of sediments and modifies contaminant bioavailability to benthic organisms. These naturally occurring disturbances are seldom considered during the assessment of sediment quality. We investigated how the presence (High bioturbation) and absence (Low bioturbation) of a strongly bioturbating amphipod within three different sediments influenced metal bioavailability, survival and bioaccumulation of metals to the bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. The concentrations of dissolved copper decreased and manganese increased with increased bioturbation. For copper a strong correlation was observed between increased bivalve survival (53–100%) and dissolved concentrations in the overlying water. Increased bioturbation intensity resulted in greater tissue concentrations for chromium and zinc in some test sediments. Overall, the results highlight the strong influence that the natural bioturbation activities from one organism may have on the risk contaminants pose to other organisms within the local environment. The characterisation of field-based exposure conditions concerning the biotic or abiotic resuspension of sediments and the rate of attenuation of released contaminants through dilution or readsorption may enable laboratory-based bioassay designs to be adapted to better match those of the assessed environment. - Highlights: • Bioturbation intensity modifies metal exposure and outcomes of sediment bioassays. • Sediment fluxes of Cu decrease and Mn and Zn increase with increased bioturbation. • Strong correlations between bioaccumulated and dissolved Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. • Weak correlations between bioaccumulated and particulate metals. - This study investigated the impact of sediment bioturbation intensity on metal bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms, and the implications of this to toxicity test design.

  15. Penicillin-mediated changes in viable benthic diatom assemblages – insights about the relevance of bacteria across spatial and seasonal scales.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.

    of limited movement (Round 1965 and 1979). This proves to be a disadvantage in terms of interactions with bacteria since bacterial 14 metabolites tend to concentrate near their point of origin in benthic environments due to limited diffusion compared...

  16. History of benthic research in the English Channel: From general patterns of communities to habitat mosaic description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2015-06-01

    Benthic studies in the English Channel (EC), a shallow megatidal and epicontinental sea, began in the 1960s and 1970s with the work of teams led by Norman Holme (UK) and Louis Cabioch (F). During this period, benthic sampling was mainly qualitative, i.e. using a device such as the 'Rallier du Baty' dredge in the case of the French team and a modified anchor dredge in the case of the British team. Studies were focused on acquiring knowledge of the main distributions of benthic communities and species. Surveys on the scale of the whole EC led to the recognition of general features and two main patterns were identified: 1) the role of hydrodynamics on the spatial distribution of sediment, benthic species and communities; 2) the presence of a west-east climatic gradient of faunal impoverishment. Benthic studies in the 1980s-1990s were focused on the beginning of the implementation of long-term survey at a limited number of sites to identify seasonal and multi-annual changes. In the first decade of the 2000s, the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive to define the Ecological Quality Status of marine environments increased the need to acquire better information of the structure and functioning of benthic communities, since benthic species and habitats were recognised as good indicators of human pressure on marine ecosystems. Faced with the increase of human maritime activities, the appearance of invasive species and the need to preserve sensitive marine habitats, benthic studies have been focused on developing a 'toolkit' to help in the decision-making and planning for both sound governance and sustainable management of marine resources and human activities in the English Channel. Multidisciplinary approaches were used to differentiate habitats in a more precise detail. Both indirect (side-scan sonar, ROV) and direct (grab sampling with benthos identification and grain-size analyses) approaches were used and

  17. Rapid ecological assessment of benthic indicators of water quality: a successful capacity-building experience for Brazilian postgraduate students in ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available Rapid Ecological Assessment protocols are important tools for the training of postgraduate students, as well as the collection of data on poorly-known and protected areas with the potential for the preservation of water supplies for urban areas. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of water quality and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in two sub-basins at the Mata do Junco Wildlife Refuge in the Brazilian state of Sergipe. The collection of data in the field, laboratory processing, and the interpretation and discussion of data were conducted in groups by students from two postgraduate programmes in Ecology and Conservation (UFMG and UFS, personnel of the state environment agency (SEMARH, school teachers from the local town of Capela, and members of the reserve's voluntary fire brigade. The results of the assessment were organised, analysed, and presented at the reserve headquarters in the form of posters, for the development of environmental education activities with pupils from local schools, as well as contributing to a SEMARH seminar. Samples were characterised by distinct taxonomic compositions and diversity, as confirmed by MDS and additive partitioning of diversity analyses. The gravel substrate presented the lower mean taxonomic richness in each sampling unit (a1 = 28%, while the average difference among samples (b1 diversity was elevated for both substrates (39% for leaf litter, 41% for gravel, reflecting the pronounced variation among samples, even adjacent ones within the same stream. Diversity between streams was lower in the case of leaf litter in comparison with gravel (b2 = 21 and 31%, respectively. A total of 57 fish specimens were collected with a predominance of individuals of the orders Characiformes (62% and Perciformes (21%. This rapid ecological assessment confirmed the importance of the conservation unit and emphasised the need for its continuation, given its importance for the maintenance of water

  18. Ways that Social Change Predicts Personal Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Leung, Kwok

    2010-01-01

    A notable way that social change affects personal quality of life would rely on the person's experience with social change. This experience may influence societal quality of life and quality of work life, which may in turn affect personal quality of life. Additionally, the experience of social change is possibly less detrimental to personal…

  19. Decadal changes in carbon fluxes at the East Siberian continental margin: interactions of ice cover, ocean productivity, particle sedimentation and benthic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetius, A.; Bienhold, C.; Felden, J.; Fernandez Mendez, M.; Gusky, M.; Rossel, P. E.; Vedenin, A.; Wenzhoefer, F.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and predicted Climate-Carbon-Cryosphere interactions in the Arctic Ocean are likely to alter productivity and carbon fluxes of the Siberian continental margin and adjacent basins. Here, we compare field observations and samples obtained in the nineties, and recently in 2012 during the sea ice minimum, to assess decadal changes in the productivity, export and recycling of organic matter at the outer East Siberian margin. In the 90s, the Laptev Sea margin was still largely ice-covered throughout the year, and the samples and measurements obtained represent an ecological baseline against which current and future ecosystem shifts can be assessed. The POLARSTERN expedition IceArc (ARK-XXVII/3) returned in September 2012 to resample the same transects between 60 and 3400 m water depth as well as stations in the adjacent deep basins. Our results suggest that environmental changes in the past two decades, foremost sea ice thinning and retreat, have led to a substantial increase in phytodetritus sedimentation to the seafloor, especially at the lower margin and adjacent basins. This is reflected in increased benthic microbial activities, leading to higher carbon remineralization rates, especially deeper than 3000 m. Besides a relative increase in typical particle degrading bacterial types in surface sediments, bacterial community composition showed little variation between the two years, suggesting that local microbial communities can cope with changing food input. First assessments of faunal abundances suggest an increase in polychaetes,holothurians and bivalves at depth, which fits the prediction of higher productivity and particle deposition rates upon sea ice retreat. The presentation also discusses the controversial issue whether there is evidence for an Arctic-wide increase in carbon flux, or whether we are looking at a spatial shift of the productive marginal ice zone as the main factor to enhance carbon flux to the deep Siberian margin.

  20. Species diversity variations in Neogene deep-sea benthic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    climatic turnovers. Some species of benthic foraminifera are sensitive to changes in water mass proper- ties whereas others are sensitive to organic fluxes and deep-sea oxygenation. Benthic faunal diversity has been found closely linked to food web, bottom water oxygen levels, and substrate and water mass sta- bility.

  1. Species diversity variations in Neogene deep-sea benthic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some species of benthic foraminifera are sensitive to changes in water mass properties whereas others are sensitive to organic fluxes and deep-sea oxygenation. Benthic faunal diversity has been found closely linked to food web, bottom water oxygen levels, and substrate and water mass stability. The present study is ...

  2. Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya. ... measures are required to safeguard the environment and ecosystems of Lake Victoria. Keywords: biodiversity index, environmental monitoring, Lake Victoria Basin, species distribution, water quality, Winam Gulf ...

  3. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2011-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected for the period January 2010 to December 2010 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record that dates back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program initiated in 1994.

  4. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeffrey; Parchaso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Turner, Matthew A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2016-07-22

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, California. This report includes data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period from January 2015 to December 2015. These data are appended to long-term datasets extending back to 1974, and serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994.

  5. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer (km) south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2014. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974, and serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. 

  6. What happened to gray whales during the Pleistocene? The ecological impact of sea-level change on benthic feeding areas in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Lindberg, David R

    2011-01-01

    Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how. We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity. Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf) during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their primary feeding ground by employing generalist filter-feeding modes, similar to the

  7. Reconstructing Changes in Deep Ocean Temperature and Global Carbon Cycle during the Early Eocene Warming Trend: High-Resolution Benthic Stable Isotope Records from the SE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretano, V.; Zachos, J. C.; Lourens, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    From the late Paleocene to the early Eocene, Earth's surface temperatures generally rose, resulting in an increase of at least 5°C in the deep ocean and culminating in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). This long-term warming was punctuated by a series of short-lived global warming events known as "hyperthermals", of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) represents the most extreme example. At least two other short-term episodes have been identified as hyperthermals: the ETM2 (or Elmo event) at about 53.7 Myr and the ETM3 (or X-event) at about 52.5 Myr. These transient events are marked by prominent carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), recorded in marine and continental sedimentary sequences and driven by fast and massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Recently, evidence has indicated the presence of a regular series of hyperthermal events following the peak in temperatures of the EECO. However, continuous records are needed to investigate short- and long- term changes in the climate system throughout the Early Eocene warming trend. Here, we present new high-resolution benthic stable isotope records of the Early Eocene from ODP Site 1263, (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic). The carbon and oxygen records document changes in deep-sea temperature and global carbon cycle encompassing the Early Eocene hyperthermal events and the EECO interval. The transition phase to the post-EECO events is distinct by the decoupling of carbon and oxygen isotopes on the long-term scale. Spectral and wavelet analyses suggest the influence of orbital forcing, specifically long and short eccentricity cycles.

  8. What happened to gray whales during the Pleistocene? The ecological impact of sea-level change on benthic feeding areas in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Pyenson

    Full Text Available Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how.We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity.Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their primary feeding ground by employing generalist filter-feeding modes

  9. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Parchaso, Francis; Pearson, Sarah; Stewart, Robin; Turner, Mathew; Barasch, David; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2017-10-30

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in south San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2016. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974. A major focus of the report is an integrated description of the 2016 data within the context of the longer, multi-decadal dataset. This dataset supports the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994.Significant reductions in silver and copper concentrations in sediment and M. petalum occurred at the site in the 1980s following the implementation by PARWQCP of advanced wastewater treatment and source control measures. Since the 1990s, concentrations of these elements appear to have stabilized at concentrations somewhat above (silver) or near (copper) regional background concentrations Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2016, concentrations of silver and copper in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. This record suggests that legacy contamination and regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of silver and copper, as well as other elements of

  10. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community

  11. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a

  12. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area

  13. Effects of human-induced environmental changes on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of wetlands in Lake Tana Watershed, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezie, Ayenew; Anteneh, Wassie; Dejen, Eshete; Mereta, Seid Tiku

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands of Lake Tana Watershed provide various ecological and socioeconomic functions. However, they are losing their vigor at alarming rate due to unwise management. Hence, there is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources so as to identify the major drivers of its degradation and to provide information for management decisions. In this context, we aimed to assess the effects of human activities on macroinvertebrate assemblages of wetlands in Lake Tana Watershed. Biotic and abiotic data were collected from 46 sampling sites located in eight wetlands. A total of 2568 macroinvertebrates belonging to 46 families were recorded. Macroinvertebrate metrics such as Biological Monitoring Working Party score, Shannon diversity index, Ephemeroptera and odonata family richness, and total family richness portrayed a clear pattern of decreasing with increasing in human disturbances, whereas Family biotic index score, which is an indicator of organic pollution, increased with increasing in human disturbances. The regression analysis also revealed that livestock grazing, leather tanning, and eucalyptus plantation were important predictors of macroinvertebrate metrics (p wetlands such as farming, leather tanning, solid waste dumping, and effluent discharges were contributed to the degradation of water quality and decreasing in the macroinvertebrate richness and diversity. These alterations could also reduce the availability of wetland products (sedges, craft materials, etc.) and the related ecosystem services. This in turn has an adverse effect on food security and poverty alleviation with considerable impact on communities who heavily depend on wetland products for their livelihood. Therefore, it is essential to formulate wetland policy for achieving wise use goals and necessary legal and institutional backup for sustainable wetland management in Ethiopia.

  14. Millennial-scale glacial variability versus Holocene stability: changes in planktic and benthic foraminifera faunas and ocean circulation in the North Atlantic during the last 60000 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Thomsen, E.; Troelstra, S.R.; Kuijpers, A.; Prins, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Two piston cores, DS97-2P from the Reykjanes Ridge in the central North Atlantic Ocean (1685 m water depth) and ENAM33 from southwest of the Faeroe Islands in the NE Atlantic (1217 m water depth), have been investigated for their planktic and benthic foraminiferal content. DS97-2P is situated near

  15. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Parchaso, Janet K.; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2010-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2009 to December 2009 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2009, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, the winter months (January-March) generally exhibit maximum concentrations, with a decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments and M. petalum were comparable to concentrations observed in 2008 and were generally consistent with data from previous years. Selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment varied among years and showed no sustained temporal trend. In 2009, sedimentary Se concentrations declined from the record high concentrations observed in 2008 to concentrations that were among the lowest on record. Selenium in M. petalum was unchanged from 2008

  16. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...

  17. 14 CFR 21.147 - Changes in quality control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in quality control system. 21.147... quality control system. After the issue of a production certificate, each change to the quality control system is subject to review by the Administrator. The holder of a production certificate shall...

  18. Evaluating benefits and costs of changes in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Koteen; Susan J. Alexander; John B. Loomis

    2002-01-01

    Water quality affects a variety of uses, such as municipal water consumption and recreation. Changes in water quality can influence the benefits water users receive. The problem is how to define water quality for specific uses. It is not possible to come up with one formal definition of water quality that fits all water uses. There are many parameters that influence...

  19. Testing the applicability of a benthic foraminiferal-based transfer function for the reconstruction of paleowater depth changes in Rhodes (Greece) during the early Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milker, Yvonne; Weinkauf, Manuel F G; Titschack, Jürgen; Freiwald, Andre; Krüger, Stefan; Jorissen, Frans J; Schmiedl, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    We present paleo-water depth reconstructions for the Pefka E section deposited on the island of Rhodes (Greece) during the early Pleistocene. For these reconstructions, a transfer function (TF) using modern benthic foraminifera surface samples from the Adriatic and Western Mediterranean Seas has been developed. The TF model gives an overall predictive accuracy of ~50 m over a water depth range of ~1200 m. Two separate TF models for shallower and deeper water depth ranges indicate a good predictive accuracy of 9 m for shallower water depths (0-200 m) but far less accuracy of 130 m for deeper water depths (200-1200 m) due to uneven sampling along the water depth gradient. To test the robustness of the TF, we randomly selected modern samples to develop random TFs, showing that the model is robust for water depths between 20 and 850 m while greater water depths are underestimated. We applied the TF to the Pefka E fossil data set. The goodness-of-fit statistics showed that most fossil samples have a poor to extremely poor fit to water depth. We interpret this as a consequence of a lack of modern analogues for the fossil samples and removed all samples with extremely poor fit. To test the robustness and significance of the reconstructions, we compared them to reconstructions from an alternative TF model based on the modern analogue technique and applied the randomization TF test. We found our estimates to be robust and significant at the 95% confidence level, but we also observed that our estimates are strongly overprinted by orbital, precession-driven changes in paleo-productivity and corrected our estimates by filtering out the precession-related component. We compared our corrected record to reconstructions based on a modified plankton/benthos (P/B) ratio, excluding infaunal species, and to stable oxygen isotope data from the same section, as well as to paleo-water depth estimates for the Lindos Bay Formation of other sediment sections of Rhodes. These comparisons

  20. Changing professional autonomy through quality development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    An analysis of quality development i helath care in Denmark and Norway and a discussion of the reactions of the medical professions.......An analysis of quality development i helath care in Denmark and Norway and a discussion of the reactions of the medical professions....

  1. Using benthic diatom assemblages to assess human impacts on streams across a rural to urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Cao, Jin-Xiang; Pei, Guo-Feng; Liu, Guo-Xing

    2015-11-01

    Benthic diatom assemblages on the natural substrata were investigated at 21 sites of the Ganhe River watershed (China) once per season and in addition, early spring in 2013. A total of 487 diatom taxa from 36 genera were identified during five investigations. The assemblages were dominated by Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki and Cocconeis placentula in the rural reach, whereas Navicula, Nitzschia, and Gomphonema species were characteristic of urbanized sites. Our results suggest that biodiversity was positively related to high nutrient levels and strongly negatively related to diatom-based indices. The periphyton biomass (expressed as chlorophyll a and ash-free dry mass) was not related to water quality. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that the nutrient concentration gradient was the most important factor that affected the diatom assemblage composition and species distribution. The diatom-based indices (specific pollution sensitivity index (IPS), biological diatom index (IBD), and trophic diatom index (TDI)) were significantly positively correlated with water quality and are adequate for use in China. Slight changes in the biodiversity and diatom-based indices followed a temporal pattern. The species composition was less related to the season or hydrological characteristics of the river but more strongly related to differences in the trophic status. In this region, urbanization masked the impact of rural land use on benthic diatoms. The research will expand the understanding of using benthic diatom assemblages for water quality monitoring in urban streams and improve watershed-scale management and conservation efforts in the Ganhe River, China.

  2. ADKAR MODEL VS. QUALITY MANAGEMENT CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Gratiela Dana Boca

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted through different countries to identify dimensions and antecedents of buyer-seller relationships quality. In light of the findings dimensions of relationship quality have emerged: mutual trust, partners’ commitment in the relationship, cooperation and creativity and innovation. Also, the research identifies several key success factors in business relationships that are grouped into different categories: factors related to relational behaviours and factors related t...

  3. Benthic-pelagic coupling: effects on nematode communities along southern European continental margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Pape

    Full Text Available Along a west-to-east axis spanning the Galicia Bank region (Iberian margin and the Mediterranean basin, a reduction in surface primary productivity and in seafloor flux of particulate organic carbon was mirrored in the in situ organic matter quantity and quality within the underlying deep-sea sediments at different water depths (1200, 1900 and 3000 m. Nematode standing stock (abundance and biomass and genus and trophic composition were investigated to evaluate downward benthic-pelagic coupling. The longitudinal decline in seafloor particulate organic carbon flux was reflected by a reduction in benthic phytopigment concentrations and nematode standing stock. An exception was the station sampled at the Galicia Bank seamount, where despite the maximal particulate organic carbon flux estimate, we observed reduced pigment levels and nematode standing stock. The strong hydrodynamic forcing at this station was believed to be the main cause of the local decoupling between pelagic and benthic processes. Besides a longitudinal cline in nematode standing stock, we noticed a west-to-east gradient in nematode genus and feeding type composition (owing to an increasing importance of predatory/scavenging nematodes with longitude governed by potential proxies for food availability (percentage of nitrogen, organic carbon, and total organic matter. Within-station variability in generic composition was elevated in sediments with lower phytopigment concentrations. Standing stock appeared to be regulated by sedimentation rates and benthic environmental variables, whereas genus composition covaried only with benthic environmental variables. The coupling between deep-sea nematode assemblages and surface water processes evidenced in the present study suggests that it is likely that climate change will affect the composition and function of deep-sea nematodes.

  4. Response of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities to Increases in Sediment Supply from Dam Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, J.; Podolak, C.

    2009-12-01

    There are approximately 85,000 dams in the United States that have an average age of 51 years and a typical design life of 50 years. An increasingly common management strategy for these dams is to decommission them but the information on environmental impact of releasing impounded sediment on the fresh water ecosystem downstream is unknown. It is expected that the increases in sediment supply could detrimentally impact communities downstream which indicates that a reliable measure of the impact is important in making management decisions. Benthic macroinvertebrate species have been proven as valid indicators of ecosystem health through their response to water quality conditions and have more recently been used to describe ecosystem health from habitat disturbances such as sediment deposition, flow regime changes, and trophic structure changes. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of benthic macroinvertebrate community response from geomorphologic change after a dam removal as a biological indicator of ecosystem health by comparing the results of the current field study to other studies on macroinvertebrate response to dam removal and by contributing to the general knowledge on ecosystem community response to increases in sediment supply. Increasing knowledge on this type of ecosystem response will improve ability to effectively manage dam removal for restoration purposes as well as help us understand ecosystem processes. In order to quantify macroinvertebrate response to sediment deposition for the field study, density and richness of benthic macroinvertebrate species were measured on the Sandy River in Oregon where it was known that stream bed changes had taken place from a dam removal and were quantified for the previous 3 years. It was found that there was a statistically significant difference in species richness among macroinvertebrate communities (pspecies dominance could be due to water quality conditions and suggests further investigations

  5. Quality Climate Change Professional Development Translates into Quality Climate Change Education (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Perhaps one of the reasons we have so many climate change deniers in the United States is that to them climate change is not occurring. This is a valid claim about climate change deniers considering that the effects of climate change in the mid-latitudes are quite subtle as compared to those found in low-latitude and high-latitude regions. A mid-latitude classroom teacher is saddled with the challenge of enlightening students about our changing climate and empowering students to assist in making necessary lifestyle changes, all the while the students don't understand the urgency in doing so. Quality climate change data and resources from the Polar Regions and low latitudes, as well as connections to researchers from these regions help to bridge the understanding of our changing climate from the extreme latitudes to the mid-latitudes. Connecting science teachers with data, resources, and researchers is one way of ensuring our mid-latitude students understand the urgency in taking appropriate actions to adapt, mitigate, and show resilience. This presentation will highlight a few of the many impacts of an authentic research experience for teachers that not only provides teachers with data, resources, and researchers, but changes the way a science teacher teaches where the methods they use mirror the methods used by scientists. National projects like PolarTREC connect educators with the science of climate change as well as the reality of impacts of climate change. For example, research expeditions in the Arctic and in Antarctica connect teachers with the content and practices of climate change science preparing them to replicate their experiences with their students. A PolarTREC experience does not end with the close of the expedition. Teachers continue their connections with the program through their educator network, the integration of PolarTREC resources into their curriculums, and communications with their principal investigators either virtually or with school

  6. Global modelling of river water quality under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Franssen, Wietse H. P.; Yearsley, John R.

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will pose challenges on the quality of freshwater resources for human use and ecosystems for instance by changing the dilution capacity and by affecting the rate of chemical processes in rivers. Here we assess the impacts of climate change and induced streamflow changes on a selection of water quality parameters for river basins globally. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and a newly developed global water quality module for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. The modelling framework was validated using observed records of streamflow, water temperature, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand for 1981-2010. VIC and the water quality module were then forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 to study water quality trends and identify critical regions (hotspots) of water quality deterioration for the 21st century.

  7. Temporal variability of live (stained benthic foraminiferal faunas in a river-dominated shelf – Faunal response to rapid changes of the river influence (Rhône prodelta, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Legrand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the French research project CHACCRA (Climate and Human-induced Alterations in Carbon Cycling at the River-seA connection, living (rose Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera were investigated at two stations (24 and 67 m depth in the Rhône prodelta (NW Mediterranean, Gulf of Lions. The aim of this study was to precise the response of benthic foraminiferal faunas to temporal changes of the Rhône River inputs (e.g. organic and terrigeneous material. Each site was sampled in April 2007, September 2007, May 2008 and December 2008, permitting to observe foraminiferal faunas of the 63–150 and >150 μm size fractions under a wide range of environmental conditions. Obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition were observed during the four investigated periods at the shallowest Station A located in the close vicinity of the Rhône River mouth. After major Rhône River flood events, different colonisation stages were observed with foraminiferal faunas responding with an opportunistic strategy few days to weeks after the creation of a peculiar sedimentary environment (Leptohalysis scottii, May 2008 or high organic matter supplies (Ammonia tepida, December 2008. Under more stable conditions, relatively diverse and equilibrated faunas grew in the sediments. Species benefited from noticeable input of riverine phytodetritus to the sediment during spring bloom conditions (April 2007; e.g. Bolivina dilatata, Nonionella stella, Stainforthia fusiformis, or high amounts of still bio-available organic matter under more oligotrophic conditions (September 2007; e.g. Ammonia tepida, Psammosphaera fusca. The reduced influence of the Rhône River input at the farther Station N led to less contrasted environmental conditions during the four sampling periods, and so to less obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition. During reduced riverine influence (i.e. low Rhône discharge, species able to feed on fresh phytodetritus (e

  8. How to Sustain Change and Support Continuous Quality Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Samuel A.; McQuillan, Rory; Harel, Ziv; Weizman, Adam V.; Thomas, Alison; Nesrallah, Gihad; Bell, Chaim M.; Chan, Christopher T.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve sustainable change, quality improvement initiatives must become the new way of working rather than something added on to routine clinical care. However, most organizational change is not maintained. In this next article in this Moving Points in Nephrology feature on quality improvement, we provide health care professionals with strategies to sustain and support quality improvement. Threats to sustainability may be identified both at the beginning of a project and when it is ready f...

  9. Modelling benthic biophysical drivers of ecosystem structure and biogeochemical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicholas; Bruggeman, Jorn; Lessin, Gennadi; Allen, Icarus

    2016-04-01

    The fate of carbon deposited at the sea floor is ultimately decided by biophysical drivers that control the efficiency of remineralisation and timescale of carbon burial in sediments. Specifically, these drivers include bioturbation through ingestion and movement, burrow-flushing and sediment reworking, which enhance vertical particulate transport and solute diffusion. Unfortunately, these processes are rarely satisfactorily resolved in models. To address this, a benthic model that explicitly describes the vertical position of biology (e.g., habitats) and biogeochemical processes is presented that includes biological functionality and biogeochemical response capturing changes in ecosystem structure, benthic-pelagic fluxes and biodiversity on inter-annual timescales. This is demonstrated by the model's ability to reproduce temporal variability in benthic infauna, vertical pore water nutrients and pelagic-benthic solute fluxes compared to in-situ data. A key advance is the replacement of bulk parameterisation of bioturbation by explicit description of the bio-physical processes responsible. This permits direct comparison with observations and determination of key parameters in experiments. Crucially, the model resolves the two-way interaction between sediment biogeochemistry and ecology, allowing exploration of the benthic response to changing environmental conditions, the importance of infaunal functional traits in shaping benthic ecological structure and the feedback the resulting bio-physical processes exert on pore water nutrient profiles. The model is actively being used to understand shelf sea carbon cycling, the response of the benthos to climatic change, food provision and other societal benefits.

  10. An assessment of benthic condition in several small watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, Andrew K; Slacum, Ward H; Wirth, Ed F; Fulton, Mike H

    2011-05-01

    We examined benthic condition in three small watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay. Characterization of benthic condition was based on the combined measurements of benthic fauna, sediment toxicity, and sediment contaminant loads. Significant differences between watersheds were detected for sediment contaminant concentrations and water quality. The intensity of benthic impairment was greatest in the river surrounded by the most developed watershed. Spatial patterns of benthic condition were detected within all three watersheds. In contrast to current, intense focus on nutrient pollution in the Chesapeake Bay, qualitative comparison of our findings to land-use patterns supports findings of other studies that suggest benthic condition in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay may more closely relate to urbanization than agricultural land uses.

  11. Quality criteria for phase change materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Nuno; Abrantes, João C.C.; Frade, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Selection criteria of phase change materials for representative applications. • Selection criteria based on reliable solutions for latent heat transfer. • Guidelines for the role of geometry and heat transfer mechanisms. • Performance maps based on PCM properties, operating conditions, size and time scales. - Abstract: Selection guidelines are primary criterion for optimization of materials for specific applications in order to meet simultaneous and often conflicting requirements. This is mostly true for technologies and products required to meet the main societal needs, such as energy. In this case, gaps between supply and demand require strategies for energy conversion and storage, including thermal storage mostly based on phase change materials. Latent heat storage is also very versatile for thermal management and thermal control by allowing high storage density within narrow temperature ranges without strict dependence between stored thermal energy and temperature. Thus, this work addressed the main issues of latent heat storage from a materials selection perspective, based on expected requirements of applications in thermal energy storage or thermal regulation. Representative solutions for the kinetics of latent heat charge/discharge were used to derive optimization guidelines for high energy density, high power, response time (from fast response to thermal inertia), etc. The corresponding property relations were presented in graphical forms for a wide variety of prospective phase change materials, and for wide ranges of operating conditions, and accounting for changes in geometry and mechanisms.

  12. Baseline Assessment of Mesophotic Reefs of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain Based on Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover and Fish Biomass Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Pedro M.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Pinheiro, Hudson T.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Mazzei, Eric F.; Bastos, Alex C.; Edwards, Robert A.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Santos, Eidy O.; Iida, Tetsuya; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Sawabe, Tomoo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Gadelha, Luiz M. R.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Thompson, Cristiane; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Seamounts are considered important sources of biodiversity and minerals. However, their biodiversity and health status are not well understood; therefore, potential conservation problems are unknown. The mesophotic reefs of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain (VTC) were investigated via benthic community and fish surveys, metagenomic and water chemistry analyses, and water microbial abundance estimations. The VTC is a mosaic of reef systems and includes fleshy algae dominated rhodolith beds, crustose coralline algae (CCA) reefs, and turf algae dominated rocky reefs of varying health levels. Macro-carnivores and larger fish presented higher biomass at the CCA reefs (4.4 kg per frame) than in the rhodolith beds and rocky reefs (0.0 to 0.1 kg per frame). A larger number of metagenomic sequences identified as primary producers (e.g., Chlorophyta and Streptophyta) were found at the CCA reefs. However, the rocky reefs contained more diseased corals (>90%) than the CCA reefs (~40%) and rhodolith beds (~10%). Metagenomic analyses indicated a heterotrophic and fast-growing microbiome in rocky reef corals that may possibly lead to unhealthy conditions possibly enhanced by environmental features (e.g. light stress and high loads of labile dissolved organic carbon). VTC mounts represent important hotspots of biodiversity that deserve further conservation actions. PMID:26090804

  13. Baseline Assessment of Mesophotic Reefs of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain Based on Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover and Fish Biomass Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Meirelles

    Full Text Available Seamounts are considered important sources of biodiversity and minerals. However, their biodiversity and health status are not well understood; therefore, potential conservation problems are unknown. The mesophotic reefs of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain (VTC were investigated via benthic community and fish surveys, metagenomic and water chemistry analyses, and water microbial abundance estimations. The VTC is a mosaic of reef systems and includes fleshy algae dominated rhodolith beds, crustose coralline algae (CCA reefs, and turf algae dominated rocky reefs of varying health levels. Macro-carnivores and larger fish presented higher biomass at the CCA reefs (4.4 kg per frame than in the rhodolith beds and rocky reefs (0.0 to 0.1 kg per frame. A larger number of metagenomic sequences identified as primary producers (e.g., Chlorophyta and Streptophyta were found at the CCA reefs. However, the rocky reefs contained more diseased corals (>90% than the CCA reefs (~40% and rhodolith beds (~10%. Metagenomic analyses indicated a heterotrophic and fast-growing microbiome in rocky reef corals that may possibly lead to unhealthy conditions possibly enhanced by environmental features (e.g. light stress and high loads of labile dissolved organic carbon. VTC mounts represent important hotspots of biodiversity that deserve further conservation actions.

  14. A high-resolution benthic stable-isotope record for the South Atlantic: Implications for orbital-scale changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littler, Kate; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Zachos, James C.

    2014-09-01

    The Late Paleocene and Early Eocene were characterized by warm greenhouse climates, punctuated by a series of rapid warming and ocean acidification events known as “hyperthermals”, thought to have been paced or triggered by orbital cycles. While these hyperthermals, such as the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), have been studied in great detail, the background low-amplitude cycles seen in carbon and oxygen-isotope records throughout the Paleocene-Eocene have hitherto not been resolved. Here we present a 7.7 million year (myr) long, high-resolution, orbitally-tuned, benthic foraminiferal stable-isotope record spanning the late Paleocene and early Eocene interval (∼52.5-60.5 Ma) from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1262, South Atlantic. This high resolution (∼2-4 kyr) record allows the changing character and phasing of orbitally-modulated cycles to be studied in unprecedented detail as it reflects the long-term trend in carbon cycle and climate over this interval. The main pacemaker in the benthic oxygen-isotope (δ18O) and carbon-isotope (δ13C) records from ODP Site 1262, are the long (405 kyr) and short (100 kyr) eccentricity cycles, and precession (21 kyr). Obliquity (41 kyr) is almost absent throughout the section except for a few brief intervals where it has a relatively weak influence. During the course of the Early Paleogene record, and particularly in the latest Paleocene, eccentricity-paced negative carbon-isotope excursions (δ13C, CIEs) and coeval negative oxygen-isotope (δ18O) excursions correspond to low carbonate (CaCO3) and coarse fraction (%CF) values due to increased carbonate dissolution, suggesting shoaling of the lysocline and accompanied changes in the global exogenic carbon cycle. These negative CIEs and δ18O events coincide with maxima in eccentricity, with changes in δ18O leading changes in δ13C by ∼6 (±5) kyr in the 405-kyr band and by ∼3 (±1) kyr in the higher frequency 100-kyr band on average. However, these

  15. The Economic Value of Changes in Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    Water quality is from both a European and Danish perspective challenged by private use of the resource. The public good characteristics of the resource require that regulation should internalize the non-market values of water quality, in order to reach an optimal level from a welfare economic...... perspective. Valuation using stated preference techniques to value changes in ecosystem services has been widely used to estimate values of water quality. However, heterogeneity in values exists across different groups in the population. The objective of this PhD-thesis is to explore two different kinds...... of preference heterogeneity, when valuing changes in water quality. The PhD thesis consists of four papers all related to heterogeneity in the public preferences for water quality improvements. Papers referred to as 1, 2 and 3 are based on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) on water quality improvements...

  16. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  17. Air quality and climate change co-benefits in Durban

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available and greenhouse gas emissions. The potential to include climate change considerations in air quality policy in South Africa includes the use of local air quality management plans (AQMPs). A case study investigating the opportunities for air pollution and climate...

  18. Assessment of changes in drinking water quality during distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of drinking water at the point of delivery to the consumer is crucial in safeguarding people's health. This study assesses changes in drinking water quality during distribution at Area 25 Township in Lilongwe, Malawi. Water samples were collected from the exit point of the treatment plant, storage tank and taps at ...

  19. A Longitudinal Analysis of Changing Job Quality and Worker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used non-panel longitudinal data from the International Social Survey Program (Work Orientations I and II: 1989 and 1997—survey questions on job characteristics and job quality) to examine the changing job quality and job satisfaction determinants in Israel, while exploring the country contextual and cultural ...

  20. The impact of an industrial effluent on the water quality, submersed macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates in a dammed river of Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Cristina; Camargo, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    This research was conducted in the middle Duratón River (Central Spain), in the vicinity of Burgomillodo Reservoir. An industrial effluent enters the river 300 m downstream from the dam. Fluoride and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the effluent, these levels being to some extent affected by differential water releases from the dam. The community of submersed macrophytes exhibited slighter responses and, accordingly, lower discriminatory power than the community of benthic macroinvertebrates, this indicating that metrics and indices based on macroinvertebrates may be more suitable for the biological monitoring of water pollution and habitat degradation in dammed rivers receiving industrial effluents. However, in relation to fluoride bioaccumulation at the organism level, macrophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton pectinatus) were as suitable bioindicators of fluoride pollution as macroinvertebrates (Ancylus fluviatilis and Pacifastacus leniusculus). Fluoride bioaccumulation in both hard and soft tissues of these aquatic organisms could be used as suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution (even lower than 1 mg F(-)L(-1)) in freshwater ecosystems. Echinogammarus calvus exhibited a great sensitivity to the toxicity of fluoride ions, with a 96 h LC₅₀ of 7.5 mg F(-)L(-1) and an estimated safe concentration of 0.56 mg F(-)L(-1). The great capacity of E. calvus to take up and retain fluoride during exposures to fluoride ions would be a major cause of its great sensitivity to fluoride toxicity. It is concluded that the observed fluoride pollution might be partly responsible for the absence of this native amphipod downstream from the industrial effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of pelagic-benthic coupling in structuring littoral benthic communities at Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea and in the Straits of Magellan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In Antarctic and peri-Antarctic regions, benthic communities are persistent in time and show high biomass and large numbers of individuals, mainly consisting of suspension and deposit feeders. In fact, apart from recruitment, the major factor structuring these communities is the high flow of organic matter from the pelagic domain to the bottom, representing an important energy source for the benthic organisms. The aim of this paper is to review, compile and compare the data from earlier investigations in Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea and the Straits of Magellan, in order to come to a more general conclusion about the role of the pelagic-benthic coupling in structuring littoral benthic communities in southern coastal areas. Few measurements of flux rates and the biochemical composition of the sinking particles occurring in Antarctic and peri-Antarctic shallow waters are available, but a compilation of our own data and others allows a comparison of these two systems. The different environmental conditions between Antarctica and the Straits of Magellan lead to differences in the origin of the particulate organic matter and in its biochemical composition, and consequently in the coupling between pelagic and benthic domains. At Terra Nova Bay the summer particulate matter shows a high labile fraction of a good food value: its flux has been evaluated at about 0.67 g m-2d-1. Conversely, the Straits of Magellan show multi-structured ecosystems where the quality and quantity of the organic matter flux towards the bottom change according to the local geomorphology and current dynamics. Moreover, the three-dimensional assemblages of suspension-feeders, so common in Antarctic shallow waters, seem to be absent in the Magellan area. In particular sponges, gorgonarians and bryozoans play a secondary role inside the Straits of Magellan, where polychaetes (60% and molluscs (9-10% are dominant on soft bottoms, and where they reach high values in density and biomass

  2. Louisiana waterthrush and benthic macroinvertebrate response to shale gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Frantz, Mack W.; Becker, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Because shale gas development is occurring over large landscapes and consequently is affecting many headwater streams, an understanding of its effects on headwater-stream faunal communities is needed. We examined effects of shale gas development (well pads and associated infrastructure) on Louisiana waterthrush Parkesia motacilla and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 12 West Virginia headwater streams in 2011. Streams were classed as impacted (n = 6) or unimpacted (n = 6) by shale gas development. We quantified waterthrush demography (nest success, clutch size, number of fledglings, territory density), a waterthrush Habitat Suitability Index, a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol habitat index, and benthic macroinvertebrate metrics including a genus-level stream-quality index for each stream. We compared each benthic metric between impacted and unimpacted streams with a Student's t-test that incorporated adjustments for normalizing data. Impacted streams had lower genus-level stream-quality index scores; lower overall and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness; fewer intolerant taxa, more tolerant taxa, and greater density of 0–3-mm individuals (P ≤ 0.10). We then used Pearson correlation to relate waterthrush metrics to benthic metrics across the 12 streams. Territory density (no. of territories/km of stream) was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores; greater density of all taxa and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa; and greater biomass. Clutch size was greater on streams with higher genus-level stream-quality index scores. Nest survival analyses (n = 43 nests) completed with Program MARK suggested minimal influence of benthic metrics compared with nest stage and Habitat Suitability Index score. Although our study spanned only one season, our results suggest that shale gas development affected waterthrush and benthic communities in the headwater streams we studied. Thus, these ecological effects of

  3. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  4. National Benthic Infaunal Database (NBID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NBID is a quantitative database on abundances of individual benthic species by sample and study region, along with other synoptically measured environmental...

  5. Benthic fauna of mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    distribution of benthic communities in mangrove environment is governEd. by tidal amplitude, light penetration, nature of substratum and distance from the sea. The littoral zone, neritic zone, Barnacle-oyster zone, Uca zone, Polychaeta zone have been delineated...

  6. Application of quality assurance to a company in change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, G.F.; Smith, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of change, particularly in the field of quality assurance, is examined for NNC, an engineering design, project management and consultancy company formed from the industrial group responsible for nuclear power station construction in the United Kingdom. The role of the company has changed over the past six years moving from being a single supplier for turnkey cost-plus nuclear power station projects to competing in the open market for contracts in diverse nuclear and non-nuclear projects. Changes in working practices needed to accommodate new business roles has been driven, in part, by the development and application of the company's quality system, described in this article. (UK)

  7. DNA extraction from benthic Cyanobacteria: comparative assessment and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaget, V; Keulen, A; Lau, M; Monis, P; Brookes, J D

    2017-01-01

    Benthic Cyanobacteria produce toxic and odorous compounds similar to their planktonic counterparts, challenging the quality of drinking water supplies. The biofilm that benthic algae and other micro-organisms produce is a complex and protective matrix. Monitoring to determine the abundance and identification of Cyanobacteria, therefore, relies on molecular techniques, with the choice of DNA isolation technique critical. This study investigated which DNA extraction method is optimal for DNA recovery in order to guarantee the best DNA yield for PCR-based analysis of benthic Cyanobacteria. The conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compared with five commercial kits, with the addition of chemical and physical cell-lysis steps also trialled. The efficacy of the various methods was evaluated by measuring the quantity and quality of DNA by UV spectrophotometry and by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using Cyanobacteria-specific primers. The yield and quality of DNA retrieved with the commercial kits was significantly higher than that of DNA obtained with the phenol-chloroform protocol. Kits including a physical cell-lysis step, such as the MO BIO Power Soil and Biofilm kits, were the most efficient for DNA isolation from benthic Cyanobacteria. These commercial kits allow greater recovery and the elimination of dangerous chemicals for DNA extraction, making them the method of choice for the isolation of DNA from benthic mats. They also facilitate the extraction of DNA from benthic Cyanobacteria, which can help to improve the characterization of Cyanobacteria in environmental studies using qPCRs or population composition analysis using next-generation sequencing. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Carbon flows in the benthic food web at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN (Fram Strait)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oevelen, D.; Bergmann, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Bauerfeind, E.; Hasemann, C.; Klages, M.; Schewe, I.; Soltwedel, T.; Budaeva, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    The HAUSGARTEN observatory is located in the eastern Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) and used as long-term monitoring site to follow changes in the Arctic benthic ecosystem. Linear inverse modelling was applied to decipher carbon flows among the compartments of the benthic food web at the central

  9. Diversity and response of Benthic Macroinvertebrates to Natural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity and response of benthic macroinvertebartes were used in assessing the biological water quality and health status of the stream. Samples were collected from four different stations using the Kick Sampling Technique. All the specimens collected were preserved in 70% alcohol solution and later identified in the ...

  10. Survival under stress : benthic foraminiferal patterns and Cenozoic biotic crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    A principal conclusion of this thesis is, that benthic foraminifera are excellent recorders of paleoenvironments and paleoenvironmental change. Insight in their community structure, and changes in this through time, is still increasing and will add to their usefulness in the reconstruction of past

  11. Survival under stress : benthic foraminiferal patterns and Cenozoic biotic crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    A principal conclusion of this thesis is, that benthic foraminifera are excellent recorders of paleoenvironments and paleoenvironmental change. Insight in their community structure, and changes in this through time, is still increasing and will add to their usefulness in the reconstruction of

  12. Clinch River remedial investigation task 9 -- benthic macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, E.M. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of Task 9 of the TVA/Department of Energy (DOE) Interagency Agreement supporting DOE`s Clinch River Remedial Investigation. Species lists and densities (numbers/m{sup 2}) of benthic macroinvertebrates sampled at 16 sites in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek embayments of upper Watts Bar Reservoir near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in March, 1994, are presented and briefly discussed. Data are also analyzed to assess and compare quality of benthic communities at each site, according to methods developed for TVA`s Reservoir Vital Signs Monitoring Program. Results of this study will be incorporated with other program tasks in a comprehensive report prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1995, which will, in part, assess the effect of sediment contaminants on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Watts Bar Reservoir.

  13. Climate change and water quality in the Great Lakes Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Great Lakes Basin is subjected to several stresses, such as land use changes, chemical contamination, nutrient over-enrichment, alien invasive species, and acid precipitation. Climate change is now added to this list. The Water Quality Board was asked to provide advice concerning the impacts of climate change on the water quality of the Great Lakes and on how to address the issue. A White Paper was commissioned by the Board to address four key questions: (1) what are the Great Lakes water quality issues associated with climate change, (2) what are potential impacts of climate change on beneficial uses, (3) how might impacts vary across the Great Lakes region, and (4) what are the implications for decision making. The conclusions and findings of the White Paper were then discussed at a workshop held in May 2003. Part 1 of the document provides an executive summary. The advice of the Water Quality Board was based on the findings of the White Paper and presented in Part 2. Part 3 presented the White Paper, while a summary of the workshop was provided in Part 4. A presentation on cross border tools and strategies was also presented by a workshop participant.

  14. Detecting When "Quality of Life" Has Been "Enhanced": Estimating Change in Quality of Life Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Yumoto, Futoshi; Aisen, Paul S

    2013-11-01

    To demonstrate challenges in the estimation of change in quality of life (QOL). Data were taken from a completed clinical trial with negative results. Responses to 13 QOL items were obtained 12 months apart from 258 persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial with two treatment arms. Two analyses to estimate whether "change" in QOL occurred over 12 months are described. A simple difference (later - earlier) was calculated from total scores (standard approach). A Qualified Change algorithm (novel approach) was applied to each item: differences in ratings were classified as either: improved, worsened, stayed poor, or stayed "positive" (fair, good, excellent). The strengths of evidence supporting a claim that "QOL changed", derived from the two analyses, were compared by considering plausible alternative explanations for, and interpretations of, results obtained under each approach. Total score approach: QOL total scores decreased, on average, in the two treatment (both -1.0, p 0.3) groups. Qualified change approach: Roughly 60% of all change in QOL items was worsening in every arm; 17% - 42% of all subjects experienced change in each item. Totalling the subjective QOL item ratings collapses over items, and suggests a potentially misleading "overall" level of change (or no change, as in the placebo arm). Leaving the items as individual components of "quality" of life they were intended to capture, and qualifying the direction and amount of change in each, suggests that at least 17% of any group experienced change on every item, with 60% of all observed change being worsening. Summarizing QOL item ratings as a total "score" collapses over the face-valid, multi-dimensional components of the construct "quality of life". Qualified Change provides robust evidence of changes to QOL or "enhancements of" life quality.

  15. Relationship between benthic foraminifera and sediment in the estuarine complex of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.

    Two indices of community association were used to elucidate the relationship between changes in species composition of benthic foraminifera and changes in the grain size composition of the sediment in estuarine complex of Goa. The degree...

  16. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  17. Improving quality and operational reliability through organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Heiska, Otto

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based on an organizational change project initiated by Lufthansa Cargo management and Swissport Cargo Services management in late autumn 2014. The idea of the project was to improve the quality and operational reliability of an outsourced Lufthansa Cargo dedicated service unit. The unit operating under Swissport Cargo Services in Helsinki airport was to be restructured and redeveloped to better suit the changed operational environment. The purpose of this thesis is to prese...

  18. QALYs: incorporating the rate of change in quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katostaras, Theofanis; Katostara, Niki

    2013-01-01

    The need for comparisons and economic evaluations between various health care interventions requires the evaluation of health-related quality of life. To ensure comparability in terms of the duration of any given condition, measures of quality have to integrate the parameter of time, as is the case in measures like QALY. Usually, the rate of change of quality that results from a given intervention is not incorporated in these measures, resulting in a systematically erroneous estimation of QALYs. This estimation error may lead to either a lower QALYs' value compared to the true one, when quality of life improves with a decreasing rate or deteriorates with an increasing rate, or to a higher QALYs' value compared to the true one, when quality of life improves with an increasing rate or deteriorates with a decreasing rate. The proposed method for the estimation of QALYs takes into account the rate of change in health-related quality of life at all stages and discloses deviations up to 16.67% from currently used methods.

  19. Changes in the quality of zobo beverages produced from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality changes in zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdarifa during storage and the effects of extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) alone or in combination with refrigeration at 6C were evaluated for six (6) weeks duration. Results shows that the total viable bacterial count increased from 0.9 ± 0.01 log10 cfu/ml to ...

  20. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  1. Quality Changes During Long Term Farmers’ Stock Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2012, U.S. annual peanut production has increased 44% from an average of 2.6 million MT compared with 1.8 million MT (1997 and 2012). This production increase has resulted in longer storage times between harvest and shelling. A study was conducted to observe the changes in quality of farmers...

  2. Climate change effects on living quality; awareness of housing associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roders, M.J.; Straub, A.; Visscher, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    A changing climate can have a large influence on the living quality of houses. A case study was carried out on the level of awareness of housing associations. This study forms the start of a research project on governance strategies for adaptation in residential buildings. A content analysis on

  3. Impact of Dynamics of Planned Change on Employees Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we determined the impact of organizational planned change programmes on the quality of worklife (QWL) of employees. The study involved four organizations selected from both the private and public sector establishments in Port Harcourt. Two organizations were randomly selected from each sector.

  4. Seasonal changes in sexual activity and semen quality in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal changes in semen volume and quality in the Angora ram were investigated. Semen was collected by means of an artificial vagina and criteria such as ejaculate volume, semen pH, sperm concentration, sperm motility, percentage live and normal sperm and survival of sperm after freezing and thawing were ...

  5. The quality of political news in a changing media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    What do ongoing changes in the media environment, notably the perceived popularization of news and the shift towards individualized online media, mean for political news quality, both in terms of what it is, as well as how we measure it? This dissertation firstly argues, based on a literature review

  6. How to Sustain Change and Support Continuous Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Samuel A; McQuillan, Rory; Harel, Ziv; Weizman, Adam V; Thomas, Alison; Nesrallah, Gihad; Bell, Chaim M; Chan, Christopher T; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-05-06

    To achieve sustainable change, quality improvement initiatives must become the new way of working rather than something added on to routine clinical care. However, most organizational change is not maintained. In this next article in this Moving Points in Nephrology feature on quality improvement, we provide health care professionals with strategies to sustain and support quality improvement. Threats to sustainability may be identified both at the beginning of a project and when it is ready for implementation. The National Health Service Sustainability Model is reviewed as one example to help identify issues that affect long-term success of quality improvement projects. Tools to help sustain improvement include process control boards, performance boards, standard work, and improvement huddles. Process control and performance boards are methods to communicate improvement results to staff and leadership. Standard work is a written or visual outline of current best practices for a task and provides a framework to ensure that changes that have improved patient care are consistently and reliably applied to every patient encounter. Improvement huddles are short, regular meetings among staff to anticipate problems, review performance, and support a culture of improvement. Many of these tools rely on principles of visual management, which are systems transparent and simple so that every staff member can rapidly distinguish normal from abnormal working conditions. Even when quality improvement methods are properly applied, the success of a project still depends on contextual factors. Context refers to aspects of the local setting in which the project operates. Context affects resources, leadership support, data infrastructure, team motivation, and team performance. For these reasons, the same project may thrive in a supportive context and fail in a different context. To demonstrate the practical applications of these quality improvement principles, these principles are

  7. High dietary quality of non-toxic cyanobacteria for a benthic grazer and its implications for the control of cyanobacterial biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consu...

  8. Long-Term Changes in the Water Quality and Macroinvertebrate Communities of a Subtropical River in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical rivers support a highly diverse array of benthic macroinvertebrates. In this study, by combining historical data and new data, we identified specific changes in the Guanlan River, in South China, from 1981 to 2011, and evaluated the effectiveness of an ecological restoration project under highly polluted conditions. From 1981 to 2011, the water quality in the Guanlan River underwent three major stages. With the deterioration of water quality, there was an overall decrease in the species number of macroinvertebrates in the Guanlan River, an increase in macroinvertebrate density, and a reduction of the biodiversity, and a reduction of functional feeding groups. In 2011, after five years of comprehensive remediation, the Guanlan River was somewhat improved. Macroinvertebrate biodiversity in the middle reach of the Guanlan River, where a key ecological restoration engineering project was implemented, did not differ significantly from other sites. This finding indicates that the effectiveness of ecological restoration measures in highly polluted rivers, particularly at the reach-scale, is very limited and even ineffective.

  9. How changing quality management influenced PGME accreditation: a focus on decentralization and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Nesibe; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H; Paternotte, Emma; Schreuder, Bas; Scheele, Fedde

    2017-06-02

    Evaluating the quality of postgraduate medical education (PGME) programs through accreditation is common practice worldwide. Accreditation is shaped by educational quality and quality management. An appropriate accreditation design is important, as it may drive improvements in training. Moreover, accreditors determine whether a PGME program passes the assessment, which may have major consequences, such as starting, continuing or discontinuing PGME. However, there is limited evidence for the benefits of different choices in accreditation design. Therefore, this study aims to explain how changing views on educational quality and quality management have impacted the design of the PGME accreditation system in the Netherlands. To determine the historical development of the Dutch PGME accreditation system, we conducted a document analysis of accreditation documents spanning the past 50 years and a vision document outlining the future system. A template analysis technique was used to identify the main elements of the system. Four themes in the Dutch PGME accreditation system were identified: (1) objectives of accreditation, (2) PGME quality domains, (3) quality management approaches and (4) actors' responsibilities. Major shifts have taken place regarding decentralization, residency performance and physician practice outcomes, and quality improvement. Decentralization of the responsibilities of the accreditor was absent in 1966, but this has been slowly changing since 1999. In the future system, there will be nearly a maximum degree of decentralization. A focus on outcomes and quality improvement has been introduced in the current system. The number of formal documents striving for quality assurance has increased enormously over the past 50 years, which has led to increased bureaucracy. The future system needs to decrease the number of standards to focus on measurable outcomes and to strive for quality improvement. The challenge for accreditors is to find the right

  10. The changing importance of quality aspects in food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    Major consumer trends like health and organic foods figure prominently on the agenda of food businesses and regulatory decision-makers. However, it is not clear from previous research whether rising market shares reflect changes in consumer attitudes, changes in the supply structure, or changes...... in the pricing of foods. Five scales from the Food-related Lifestyle instrument (FRL) were used in replication surveys in Germany in 1993 and 1996 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1042), France in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), and the UK in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), measuring the importance of health, price....../quality relation, novelty, organic products, and freshness to consumers' food choices. Trends in the importance of these quality aspects were modeled using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. Results indicate that, contrary to widespread expectations, the importance of healthy...

  11. The changing importance of quality aspects in food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    Major consumer trends like health and organic foods figure prominently on the agenda of food businesses and regulatory decision-makers. However, it is not clear from previous research whether rising market shares reflect changes in consumer attitudes, changes in the supply structure, or changes...... in the pricing of foods. Five scales from the Food-related Lifestyle instrument (FRL) were used in replication surveys in Germany in 1993 and 1996 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1042), France in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), and the UK in 1994 and 1998 (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), measuring the importance of health, price....../quality relation, novelty, organic products, and freshness to consumers' food choices. Trends in the importance of these quality aspects were modeled using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. Results indicate that, contrary to widespread expectations, the importance of healthy...

  12. Agents for change: nonphysician medical providers and health care quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Nathan A; Mcmillen, Marvin A; Gould, James S

    2015-01-01

    Quality medical care is a clinical and public health imperative, but defining quality and achieving improved, measureable outcomes are extremely complex challenges. Adherence to best practice invariably improves outcomes. Nonphysician medical providers (NPMPs), such as physician assistants and advanced practice nurses (eg, nurse practitioners, advanced practice registered nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives), may be the first caregivers to encounter the patient and can act as agents for change for an organization's quality-improvement mandate. NPMPs are well positioned to both initiate and ensure optimal adherence to best practices and care processes from the moment of initial contact because they have robust clinical training and are integral to trainee/staff education and the timely delivery of care. The health care quality aspects that the practicing NPMP can affect are objective, appreciative, and perceptive. As bedside practitioners and participants in the administrative and team process, NPMPs can fine-tune care delivery, avoiding the problem areas defined by the Institute of Medicine: misuse, overuse, and underuse of care. This commentary explores how NPMPs can affect quality by 1) supporting best practices through the promotion of guidelines and protocols, and 2) playing active, if not leadership, roles in patient engagement and organizational quality-improvement efforts.

  13. Effect of settled diatom-aggregates on benthic nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Ugo; Thamdrup, Bo; Stief, Peter; Glud, Ronnie N

    2018-01-01

    The marine sediment hosts a mosaic of microhabitats. Recently it has been demonstrated that the settlement of phycodetrital aggregates can induce local changes in the benthic O 2 distribution due to confined enrichment of organic material and alteration of the diffusional transport. Here, we show how this microscale O 2 shift substantially affects benthic nitrogen cycling. In sediment incubations, the settlement of diatom-aggregates markedly enhanced benthic O 2 and NO3- consumption and stimulated NO2- and NH4+ production. Oxygen microprofiles revealed the rapid development of anoxic niches within and underneath the aggregates. During 120 h following the settling of the aggregates, denitrification of NO3- from the overlying water increased from 13.5 μmol m -2 h -1 to 24.3 μmol m -2 h -1 , as quantified by 15 N enrichment experiment. Simultaneously, N 2 production from coupled nitrification-denitrification decreased from 33.4 μmol m -2 h -1 to 25.9 μmol m -2 h -1 , probably due to temporary inhibition of the benthic nitrifying community. The two effects were of similar magnitude and left the total N 2 production almost unaltered. At the aggregate surface, nitrification was, conversely, very efficient in oxidizing NH4+ liberated by mineralization of the aggregates. The produced NO3- was preferentially released into the overlying water and only a minor fraction contributed to denitrification activity. Overall, our data indicate that the abrupt change in O 2 microdistribution caused by aggregates stimulates denitrification of NO3- from the overlying water, and loosens the coupling between benthic nitrification and denitrification both in time and space. The study contributes to expanding the conceptual and quantitative understanding of how nitrogen cycling is regulated in dynamic benthic environments.

  14. Effect of settled diatom‐aggregates on benthic nitrogen cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamdrup, Bo; Stief, Peter; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The marine sediment hosts a mosaic of microhabitats. Recently it has been demonstrated that the settlement of phycodetrital aggregates can induce local changes in the benthic O2 distribution due to confined enrichment of organic material and alteration of the diffusional transport. Here, we show how this microscale O2 shift substantially affects benthic nitrogen cycling. In sediment incubations, the settlement of diatom‐aggregates markedly enhanced benthic O2 and NO3− consumption and stimulated NO2− and NH4+ production. Oxygen microprofiles revealed the rapid development of anoxic niches within and underneath the aggregates. During 120 h following the settling of the aggregates, denitrification of NO3− from the overlying water increased from 13.5 μmol m−2 h−1 to 24.3 μmol m−2 h−1, as quantified by 15N enrichment experiment. Simultaneously, N2 production from coupled nitrification‐denitrification decreased from 33.4 μmol m−2 h−1 to 25.9 μmol m−2 h−1, probably due to temporary inhibition of the benthic nitrifying community. The two effects were of similar magnitude and left the total N2 production almost unaltered. At the aggregate surface, nitrification was, conversely, very efficient in oxidizing NH4+ liberated by mineralization of the aggregates. The produced NO3− was preferentially released into the overlying water and only a minor fraction contributed to denitrification activity. Overall, our data indicate that the abrupt change in O2 microdistribution caused by aggregates stimulates denitrification of NO3− from the overlying water, and loosens the coupling between benthic nitrification and denitrification both in time and space. The study contributes to expanding the conceptual and quantitative understanding of how nitrogen cycling is regulated in dynamic benthic environments. PMID:29456269

  15. Holocene record of benthic foraminiferal morphogroups from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    35

    changes at millennial scale are noticed during certain intervals corresponding to northern. 18. Hemispheric climatic events (Fig. 2). The buliminids account for an average of 28 % of the benthic. 19 population in the examined core. The percentage abundance of this group varies between its. 20 minimum 5 % and maximum ...

  16. Distribution and habitat use of the Missouri River and Lower Yellowstone River benthic fishes from 1996 to 1998: A baseline for fish community recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Arab, A.

    2011-01-01

    Past and present Missouri River management practices have resulted in native fishes being identified as in jeopardy. In 1995, the Missouri River Benthic Fishes Study was initiated to provide improved information on Missouri River fish populations and how alterations might affect them. The study produced a baseline against which to evaluate future changes in Missouri River operating criteria. The objective was to evaluate population structure and habitat use of benthic fishes along the entire mainstem Missouri River, exclusive of reservoirs. Here we use the data from this study to provide a recent-past baseline for on-going Missouri River fish population monitoring programmes along with a more powerful method for analysing data containing large percentages of zero values. This is carried out by describing the distribution and habitat use of 21 species of Missouri River benthic fishes based on catch-per-unit area data from multiple gears. We employ a Bayesian zero-inflated Poisson model expanded to include continuous measures of habitat quality (i.e. substrate composition, depth, velocity, temperature, turbidity and conductivity). Along with presenting the method, we provide a relatively complete picture of the Missouri River benthic fish community and the relationship between their relative population numbers and habitat conditions. We demonstrate that our single model provides all the information that is often obtained by a myriad of analytical techniques. An important advantage of the present approach is reliable inference for patterns of relative abundance using multiple gears without using gear efficiencies.

  17. Effects of freezing conditions on quality changes in blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuehui; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhao, Dongyu; Zhu, Danshi; Li, Jianrong

    2018-03-12

    freezing preservation is one of the most effective methods used to maintain flavour and nutritional value of fruit. The effects of different freezing conditions, -20 °C, -40 °C, -80 °C, and immersion in liquid nitrogen on quality changes of freeze-thawed blueberries were studied in this research. The water distribution estimates of blueberries were measured based on low-field NMR analysis. The pectin content, drip loss, and fruit texture were also detected to evaluate quality changes in samples. freezing curves of blueberry showed super-cooling points at -20 °C and -40 °C, while super-cooling points were not observed at -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen. After freeze-thaw treatment, the relaxation time of the cell wall water (T 21 ), cytoplasm water and extracellular space (T 22 ), and vacuole water (T 23 ) were significantly shortened compared to fresh samples, which suggested a lower liquidity. Although the freezing speed for samples immersed in liquid nitrogen was faster than other treatments, samples treated at -80 °C showed better qualities on vacuole water holding, drip loss, and original pectin content retention. this study contributed to understanding how freezing temperature affects qualities of blueberries. The super-fast freezing rate might injure fruit, and a proper freezing rate could better preserve blueberries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. The case for integrated air quality and climate change policies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available challenges. Based on recent climate negotiations, early policy development and planning for climate change within air quality management (AQM) policies may position cities to capitalise on opportunities to reduce baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions... are based on annual average 11 mileages and are used to encourage fewer trips and reduce the amount that motor vehicles are driven (Greene et al., 2007). Disincentives to reduce traffic on congested roads have also been shown to be effective. A good...

  19. Time is no healer: increasing restoration age does not lead to improved benthic invertebrate communities in restored river reaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leps, Moritz; Sundermann, Andrea; Tonkin, Jonathan D; Lorenz, Armin W; Haase, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Evidence for successful restoration of riverine communities is scarce, particularly for benthic invertebrates. Among the multitude of reasons discussed so far for the lack of observed effects is too short of a time span between implementation and monitoring. Yet, studies that explicitly focus on the importance of restoration age are rare. We present a comprehensive study based on 44 river restoration projects in Germany, focusing on standardized benthic invertebrate sampling. A broad gradient ranging from 1 to 25years in restoration age was available. In contrast to clear improvements in habitat heterogeneity, benthic community responses to restoration were inconsistent when compared to control sections. Taxon richness increased in response to restoration, but abundance, diversity and various assessment metrics did not respond clearly. Restoration age was a poor predictor of community composition and community change, as no significant linear responses could be detected using 34 metrics. Moreover, only 5 out of 34 tested metrics showed non-linear shifts at restoration ages of 2 to 3years. This might be interpreted as an indication of a post-restoration disturbance followed by a re-establishment of pre-restoration conditions. BIO-ENV analysis and fourth-corner modeling underlined the low importance of restoration age, but revealed high importance of catchment-scale characteristics (e.g., ecoregion, catchment size and land use) in controlling community composition and community change. Overall, a lack of time for community development did not appear to be the ultimate reason for impaired benthic invertebrate communities. Instead, catchment-scale characteristics override the effectiveness of restoration. To enhance the ecological success of future river restoration projects, we recommend improving water quality conditions and catchment-scale processes (e.g., connectivity and hydrodynamics) in addition to restoring local habitat structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  20. Deforestation effect on soil quality and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of deforestation on physical and chemical properties of soils under native forest in the Mediterranean region of northwestern Jordan and its impact on climate change. Land use/cover maps of 1953, 1978 and 2002 were interpreted and analyzed to quantify the shift from forest to rainfed cultivation. Six sites were sampled in a non changed forest and in cultivated fields, three for each. Different soil properties of texture, bulk density, organic matter, total nitrogen, pH, cation exchange capacity, phosphorous and potassium were analyzed. Results showed that many forests were changed into cultivated lands at a rate more than the reforestation. Subsequently, adverse effects on the studied physical and chemical properties were observed. The most affected properties were particle size distribution, bulk density of surface soil and subsoil. Organic matter and cation exchange capacity decreased in cultivated soil as compared to the forest soil. Cultivated soils were found to exhibit a significantly lower status in physical and chemical soil properties as compared to forest soils. This general decline in the soil physical and chemical properties, in turn, contributed to soil erosion, reduction of soil fertility, and land degradation and decreased C sequestration which can lower the amount of CO2 and mitigate green house effect. There is an urgent need to improve soil quality by developing sustainable land use practices to reduce the rate of soil degradation and to ensure long-term sustainability of the farming system in the study area and in similar biophysical settings in order to preserve soil quality to mitigate greenhouse effect that contributes to climate change. Key Words: deforestation, soil quality, climate change, Mediterranean.

  1. A preliminary study of an eastern Mediterranean coastal ecosystem: Summer Resorts and Benthic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. REIZOPOULOU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether coastal benthic communities are affected by tourist activities along the coast, which persist for a limited time period. The analysis of benthic macrofauna is based on the ecological parameters (quantitative analyses as well as on the ecological identity of the species (qualitative analyses. Microbial contamination and some population statistics are correlated with ecological parameters. The disturbance of benthic communities in the vicinity of summer resorts is summarized by a reduction in species number and dominance of opportunistic species characteristic of disturbed and polluted environments. It is found that community diversity and evenness of distribution decrease with the deterioration of water quality, expressed as grade of microbial contamination, which implies that benthic community is also a significant element in assessing the quality of coastal waters. The above parameters were statistically negatively correlated with the number of tourists.

  2. Climate change impact on air quality in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Abdullah Al

    California has persistent air quality problems that affect the health of millions of residents. Global climate change will affect long-term weather patterns in California with unknown consequences to air quality. This dissertation explores how climate change will influence intermediary weather patterns and how they will subsequently affect air quality in California. The statistical relationship between the daily 1-hr maximum measured ozone concentrations and the daily maximum upper air temperature (T850) was explored for California's two most heavily polluted air basins. The temperature-ozone correlation was combined with T850 values predicted by Princeton's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model to predict how climate change will affect ozone concentrations. The results suggest that by the year 2050 California would experience an additional 22--30 days year-1 and 6--13 days year-1 with ozone concentrations ≥90 ppb under the IPCC A2 and B1 emissions scenarios (assuming emissions of criteria pollutants in California remained at 1990--2004 levels). Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled to regional scales using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8 km for the years 2000--06 (present climate) and 2047--53 (future climate). Averaging predictions from over 2000 simulation days suggest that annual average PM2.5 concentrations will decrease by ˜0.6--1.9 mug m-3 in coastal and central Los Angeles and increase by ˜0.9--1.3 mug m-3 at locations within the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and the Sacramento Valley (SACV). A corresponding analysis of the annual variability showed that the 95% confidence interval spans zero (meaning no change due to climate). Similar analysis was carried out for

  3. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  4. Environmental Drivers of Benthic Flux Variation and Ecosystem Functioning in Salish Sea and Northeast Pacific Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rénald Belley

    Full Text Available The upwelling of deep waters from the oxygen minimum zone in the Northeast Pacific from the continental slope to the shelf and into the Salish Sea during spring and summer offers a unique opportunity to study ecosystem functioning in the form of benthic fluxes along natural gradients. Using the ROV ROPOS we collected sediment cores from 10 sites in May and July 2011, and September 2013 to perform shipboard incubations and flux measurements. Specifically, we measured benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients to evaluate potential environmental drivers of benthic flux variation and ecosystem functioning along natural gradients of temperature and bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations. The range of temperature and dissolved oxygen encountered across our study sites allowed us to apply a suite of multivariate analyses rarely used in flux studies to identify bottom water temperature as the primary environmental driver of benthic flux variation and organic matter remineralization. Redundancy analysis revealed that bottom water characteristics (temperature and dissolved oxygen, quality of organic matter (chl a:phaeo and C:N ratios and sediment characteristics (mean grain size and porosity explained 51.5% of benthic flux variation. Multivariate analyses identified significant spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes, demonstrating key differences between the Northeast Pacific and Salish Sea. Moreover, Northeast Pacific slope fluxes were generally lower than shelf fluxes. Spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes in the Salish Sea were driven primarily by differences in temperature and quality of organic matter on the seafloor following phytoplankton blooms. These results demonstrate the utility of multivariate approaches in differentiating among potential drivers of seafloor ecosystem functioning, and indicate that current and future predictive models of organic matter remineralization and ecosystem functioning of soft-muddy shelf and

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across American Samoa in...

  6. Trends in Benthic macroinvertebrate community Biomass and Energy Budgets in Lake Sevan, 1928-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Jenderedjian, K.; Hakobyan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Water levels of Lake Sevan (Armenia) were artificially lowered by nearly 20 m between 1949 and 1997. Lowered water levels, combined with increased eutrophication, were associated with seasonally anoxic conditions (lasting 1–4 months) near the bottom of the profundal zone each year during 1976–2004. In addition, the extents of the macrophyte zone and of certain substrate types were severely reduced following drawdown. Maximal depth of occurrence decreased by 2–44 m for at least for 50 species of benthic macroinvertebrates between 1982 and 2004 compared to 1937–1961. Species richness of benthic macroinvertebrates declined from 25 to three species at depths where seasonal anoxia occurred. Total biomass increased by a factor of 10 from the period 1928–1948 to 1976–1979 then declined by a factor of 3 to 4 between 1987 and 2004. Energy flow through detritivores was more than tripled during 1976–2004 compared to 1928–1971, a result of increased plankton primary production. In contrast, energy flow through herbivorous benthic macroinvertebrates decreased by a factor of nearly 5, due to reduced areal coverage of macrophytes. Energy flow through filter feeders did not change over the time period examined, but energy flow through the entire zoobenthos community was nearly tripled. The biomasses of Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total zoobenthos showed a delayed response to changes in primary production of 7–9, 2, and 2–4 years, respectively. These patterns may provide a basis to predict results of restoration efforts based on the abundance of the zoobenthos in future years as the level of the lake is restored and water quality improves.

  7. Changing Me, Changing Us: Relationship Quality and Collective Efficacy as Major Outcomes in Systemic Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Gotthardt, Linda; Jarczok, Marc N; Hunger, Christina; Ditzen, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2017-06-28

    We examine the sensitivity to change in the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS) scale, which assesses relationship quality and collective efficacy. In Study 1 we conducted a waitlist-control, short-term couple therapy RCT study (N = 43 couples) with five systemic therapy sessions treating communication and partnership problems; our intent was to provide high external validity. Construct validity of EVOS was assessed by comparison with additionally applied scales (Family Scales; Outcome Questionnaire, OQ-45.2). In Study 2, N = 332 individuals completed an experiment with high internal validity in order to verify sensitivity to change in three different social contexts. Results from Study 1 revealed a significant increase in relationship quality in the treatment group directly after treatment, as compared to the control group. Sensitivity to change was slightly better for EVOS than for other measures. While this positive change could not be fully sustained between posttreatment and a 4-week follow-up, EVOS score did not fall below baseline and pretreatment levels, supporting moderate-to-large sensitivity to change. Study 2 supported high sensitivity to change in EVOS for couple relations, family relations, and work-team relationships. Therefore, EVOS can be used as an outcome measure to monitor the process of systemic interventions focusing on relationship quality and collective efficacy. Due to its sensitivity to change, EVOS can provide evidence for treatment success with regard to relationship aspects. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  8. Changing the image of quality assurance in research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melroy, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The traditional image of quality assurance (QA) in a research and development (R and D) institution has been that of paper work. QA was often perceived as focusing on documentation rather than on contributions to productive work. The recent emphasis on regulation by outside groups and independent verification of QA systems has created an opportunity to reevaluate and change this image. The desired change is to create an understanding that when properly utilized, QA is essential to good project management and fully contributes to the success of technical programs. The change is being accomplished by sharpening the definition of QA systems of improved understanding by line organizations, developing a project QA in a structure that allows selective use of the NQA-1 standard, formation of a graded approach that simplifies QA for R and D projects, and an intense campaign to communicate the value of QA to laboratory personnel

  9. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Sustainable Water Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pin Tung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of sustainable water quality management is to keep total pollutant discharges from exceeding the assimilation capacity of a water body. Climate change may influence streamflows, and further alter assimilation capacity and degrade river sustainability. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the effect of climate change on sustainable water quality management and design an early warning indicator to issue warnings on river sustainability. A systematic assessment procedure is proposed here, including a weather generation model, the streamflow component of GWLF, QUAL2E, and an optimization model. The Touchen creek in Taiwan is selected as the study area. Future climate scenarios derived from projections of four global climate models (GCMs and two pollutant discharge scenarios, as usual and proportional to population, are considered in this study. The results indicate that streamflows may very likely increase in humid seasons and decrease in arid seasons, respectively. The reduction of streamflow in arid seasons may further degrade water quality and assimilation capacity. In order to provide warnings to trigger necessary adaptation strategies, an early warning indicator is designed and its 30-year moving average is calculated. Finally, environmental monitoring systems and methods to prioritize adaptation strategies are discussed for further studies in the future.

  10. Evaluation of the impact of transportation changes on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titos, G.; Lyamani, H.; Drinovec, L.; Olmo, F. J.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2015-08-01

    Transport regulation at local level for the abatement of air pollution has gained significant traction in the EU. In this work, we analyze the effect of different transportation changes on air quality in two similarly sized cities: Granada (Spain) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Several air pollutants were measured at both sites before and after the implementation of the changes. In Ljubljana, a 72% reduction of local black carbon (BC), from 5.6 to 1.6 μg/m3, was observed after the restriction was implemented. In Granada, statistically significant reductions of 1.3 μg/m3 (37%) in BC and of 15 μg/m3 (33%) in PM10 concentrations were observed after the public transportation re-organization. However, the improvement observed in air quality was very local since other areas of the cities did not improve significantly. We show that closing streets to private traffic, renewal of the bus fleet and re-organization of the public transportation significantly benefit air quality.

  11. Consequences of increasing hypoxic disturbance on benthic communities and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Joanna; Lukkari, Kaarina; Hewitt, Judi; Norkko, Alf

    2012-01-01

    Disturbance-mediated species loss has prompted research considering how ecosystem functions are changed when biota is impaired. However, there is still limited empirical evidence from natural environments evaluating the direct and indirect (i.e. via biota) effects of disturbance on ecosystem functioning. Oxygen deficiency is a widespread threat to coastal and estuarine communities. While the negative impacts of hypoxia on benthic communities are well known, few studies have assessed in situ how benthic communities subjected to different degrees of hypoxic stress alter their contribution to ecosystem functioning. We studied changes in sediment ecosystem function (i.e. oxygen and nutrient fluxes across the sediment water-interface) by artificially inducing hypoxia of different durations (0, 3, 7 and 48 days) in a subtidal sandy habitat. Benthic chamber incubations were used for measuring responses in sediment oxygen and nutrient fluxes. Changes in benthic species richness, structure and traits were quantified, while stress-induced behavioral changes were documented by observing bivalve reburial rates. The initial change in faunal behavior was followed by non-linear degradation in benthic parameters (abundance, biomass, bioturbation potential), gradually impairing the structural and functional composition of the benthic community. In terms of ecosystem function, the increasing duration of hypoxia altered sediment oxygen consumption and enhanced sediment effluxes of NH(4)(+) and dissolved Si. Although effluxes of PO(4)(3-) were not altered significantly, changes were observed in sediment PO(4)(3-) sorption capability. The duration of hypoxia (i.e. number of days of stress) explained a minor part of the changes in ecosystem function. Instead, the benthic community and disturbance-driven changes within the benthos explained a larger proportion of the variability in sediment oxygen- and nutrient fluxes. Our results emphasize that the level of stress to the benthic habitat

  12. Consequences of increasing hypoxic disturbance on benthic communities and ecosystem functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Villnäs

    Full Text Available Disturbance-mediated species loss has prompted research considering how ecosystem functions are changed when biota is impaired. However, there is still limited empirical evidence from natural environments evaluating the direct and indirect (i.e. via biota effects of disturbance on ecosystem functioning. Oxygen deficiency is a widespread threat to coastal and estuarine communities. While the negative impacts of hypoxia on benthic communities are well known, few studies have assessed in situ how benthic communities subjected to different degrees of hypoxic stress alter their contribution to ecosystem functioning. We studied changes in sediment ecosystem function (i.e. oxygen and nutrient fluxes across the sediment water-interface by artificially inducing hypoxia of different durations (0, 3, 7 and 48 days in a subtidal sandy habitat. Benthic chamber incubations were used for measuring responses in sediment oxygen and nutrient fluxes. Changes in benthic species richness, structure and traits were quantified, while stress-induced behavioral changes were documented by observing bivalve reburial rates. The initial change in faunal behavior was followed by non-linear degradation in benthic parameters (abundance, biomass, bioturbation potential, gradually impairing the structural and functional composition of the benthic community. In terms of ecosystem function, the increasing duration of hypoxia altered sediment oxygen consumption and enhanced sediment effluxes of NH(4(+ and dissolved Si. Although effluxes of PO(4(3- were not altered significantly, changes were observed in sediment PO(4(3- sorption capability. The duration of hypoxia (i.e. number of days of stress explained a minor part of the changes in ecosystem function. Instead, the benthic community and disturbance-driven changes within the benthos explained a larger proportion of the variability in sediment oxygen- and nutrient fluxes. Our results emphasize that the level of stress to the

  13. Exploring the consequences of climate change for indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, William W

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will affect the concentrations of air pollutants in buildings. The resulting shifts in human exposure may influence public health. Changes can be anticipated because of altered outdoor pollution and also owing to changes in buildings effected in response to changing climate. Three classes of factors govern indoor pollutant levels in occupied spaces: (a) properties of pollutants; (b) building factors, such as the ventilation rate; and (c) occupant behavior. Diversity of indoor conditions influences the public health significance of climate change. Potentially vulnerable subpopulations include not only the young and the infirm but also those who lack resources to respond effectively to changing conditions. Indoor air pollutant levels reflect the sum of contributions from indoor sources and from outdoor pollutants that enter with ventilation air. Pollutant classes with important indoor sources include the byproducts of combustion, radon, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Outdoor pollutants of special concern include particulate matter and ozone. To ensure good indoor air quality it is important first to avoid high indoor emission rates for all pollutants and second to ensure adequate ventilation. A third factor is the use of air filtration or air cleaning to achieve further improvements where warranted. (letter)

  14. The effects of global change upon United States air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Chung, S. H.; Avise, J.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E. P., Jr.; Nolte, C. G.; Loughlin, D.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Duhl, T.; Zhang, Y.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-11-01

    To understand more fully the effects of global changes on ambient concentrations of ozone and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the United States (US), we conducted a comprehensive modeling effort to evaluate explicitly the effects of changes in climate, biogenic emissions, land use and global/regional anthropogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations and composition. Results from the ECHAM5 global climate model driven with the A1B emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to provide regional meteorological fields. We developed air quality simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) chemical transport model for two nested domains with 220 and 36 km horizontal grid cell resolution for a semi-hemispheric domain and a continental United States (US) domain, respectively. The semi-hemispheric domain was used to evaluate the impact of projected global emissions changes on US air quality. WRF meteorological fields were used to calculate current (2000s) and future (2050s) biogenic emissions using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). For the semi-hemispheric domain CMAQ simulations, present-day global emissions inventories were used and projected to the 2050s based on the IPCC A1B scenario. Regional anthropogenic emissions were obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency National Emission Inventory 2002 (EPA NEI2002) and projected to the future using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model assuming a business as usual scenario that extends current decade emission regulations through 2050. Our results suggest that daily maximum 8 h average ozone (DM8O) concentrations will increase in a range between 2 to 12 parts per billion (ppb) across most of the continental US. The highest increase occurs in the South, Central and Midwest regions of the US due to

  15. Ambulatory quality improvement in academic medical centers: a changing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Brian F; Goldfarb, Neil I; Browne, Robert C; Keroack, Mark; Nash, David B

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to improve the quality of ambulatory care have received tremendous attention as bold new initiatives aimed at influencing the environment of care through financial incentives, public transparency, and information technology rapidly spread. Academic medical centers, which represent a long tradition of excellence and innovation in medical care, might be expected to lead the charge in these new arenas, but motivation for change may be mitigated by the unique complexity and multiple goals of these institutions. A survey conducted in the fall of 2006 examined the early impact of these major new influences on faculty practice plans. Respondents reported that many institutions have begun to develop key components of a quality infrastructure, but much work remains before a robust model emerges at most sites. Some academic medical centers have also embraced pay-for-performance and public reporting efforts, but many are not equipped or eager to engage in these new initiatives.

  16. Change in Quality of Life with Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirko, Jonathan R; Weaver, Edward M; Perkins, Jonathan A; Kinter, Sara; Eblen, Linda; Martina, Julie; Sie, Kathleen C Y

    2015-11-01

    (1) To define the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI) Effects on Life Outcomes (VELO) instrument, and (2) to test for the change in quality of life (QOL) after VPI surgery. Prospective observational cohort. VPI clinic at a tertiary pediatric medical center. Children with VPI and their parents completed the VELO instrument (higher score is better QOL) at enrollment and then underwent VPI surgery (Furlow palatoplasty or sphincter pharyngoplasty, n = 32), other treatments (obturator or oronasal fistula repair, n = 7), or no treatment (n = 18). They completed the VELO instrument again and an instrument of global rating of change in QOL at 1 year. The MCID was anchored to the global change instrument scores corresponding to "a little" or "somewhat" better. Within-group (paired t test) and between-group (Student t test) changes in VELO scores were tested for the VPI surgery and no treatment groups. The association between treatment group and change in VELO scores was tested with multivariate linear regression, adjusting for confounders. Follow-up was obtained for 37 of 57 (65%) patients. The mean (±standard deviation) change in VELO scores corresponding to the MCID anchor was 15 ± 13. The VELO score improved significantly more in the VPI surgery group (change, 22 ± 15; P change, 9 ± 12; P = .04), after adjusting for confounders (P = .007 between groups). VPI surgery using the Furlow palatoplasty or sphincter pharyngoplasty improves VPI-specific QOL, and the improvement is clinically important. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  17. Effects of climate change on water quality in the Yaquina ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a larger study to examine the effect of climate change (CC) on estuarine resources, we simulated the effect of rising sea level, alterations in river discharge, and increasing atmospheric temperatures on water quality in the Yaquina Estuary. Due to uncertainty in the effects of climate change, initial model simulations were performed for different steady river discharge rates that span the historical range in inflow, and for a range of increases in sea level and atmospheric temperature. Model simulations suggest that in the central portion of the estuary (19 km from mouth), a 60-cm increase in sea level will result in a 2-3 psu change in salinity across a broad range of river discharges. For the oligohaline portion of the estuary, salinity increases associated with a rise in sea level of 60 cm are only apparent at low river discharge rates (changes in river discharge, rising sea level, and atmospheric temperature associated with climate change produce non-linear patterns in the response of estuarine salinity and temperature, which vary with location inside the estuary and season. We also will discuss the importance of presenting results in a mann

  18. Biophysical control of intertidal benthic macroalgae revealed by high-frequency multispectral camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Daphne; van Dalen, Jeroen; Wielemaker-van den Dool, Annette; Dijkstra, Jasper T.; Ysebaert, Tom

    2014-07-01

    Intertidal benthic macroalgae are a biological quality indicator in estuaries and coasts. While remote sensing has been applied to quantify the spatial distribution of such macroalgae, it is generally not used for their monitoring. We examined the day-to-day and seasonal dynamics of macroalgal cover on a sandy intertidal flat using visible and near-infrared images from a time-lapse camera mounted on a tower. Benthic algae were identified using supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised classification techniques, validated with monthly ground-truthing over one year. A supervised classification (based on maximum likelihood, using training areas identified in the field) performed best in discriminating between sediment, benthic diatom films and macroalgae, with highest spectral separability between macroalgae and diatoms in spring/summer. An automated unsupervised classification (based on the Normalised Differential Vegetation Index NDVI) allowed detection of daily changes in macroalgal coverage without the need for calibration. This method showed a bloom of macroalgae (filamentous green algae, Ulva sp.) in summer with > 60% cover, but with pronounced superimposed day-to-day variation in cover. Waves were a major factor in regulating macroalgal cover, but regrowth of the thalli after a summer storm was fast (2 weeks). Images and in situ data demonstrated that the protruding tubes of the polychaete Lanice conchilega facilitated both settlement (anchorage) and survival (resistance to waves) of the macroalgae. Thus, high-frequency, high resolution images revealed the mechanisms for regulating the dynamics in cover of the macroalgae and for their spatial structuring. Ramifications for the mode, timing, frequency and evaluation of monitoring macroalgae by field and remote sensing surveys are discussed.

  19. Diversification dynamics, species sorting, and changes in the functional diversity of marine benthic gastropods during the Pliocene-Quaternary at temperate western South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneira, Marcelo M; Nielsen, Sven N

    2017-01-01

    Functional diversity based on species traits is a powerful tool to investigate how changes in species richness and composition affect ecosystem functioning. However, studies aimed at understanding changes in functional diversity over large temporal and spatial scales are still scant. Here we evaluate the combined effect of diversification and species sorting on functional diversity of fossil marine gastropods during the Pliocene-Quaternary transition in the Pacific coast of South America. We analyzed a total of 172 species in 29 Pliocene and 97 Quaternary sites. Each species was characterized according to six functional traits: body size, feeding type, mobility, attachment, life-habit, and larval mode. Functional diversity was estimated according to four indexes (functional richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) based on functional traits measured. Extrapolated species richness showed a slight yet not significant decrease from the Pliocene to the Quaternary despite the fact that a large faunal turnover took place; furthermore, a large extinction of Pliocene species (61-76%) was followed by a high pulse of appearances (49-56%) during the Quaternary. Three out of four indices of functional diversity (evenness, divergence and dispersion) increased significantly towards the Quaternary which is more than expected under a random turnover of species. The increase in functional diversity is associated with a loss of large-sized carnivore forms, which tended to be replaced by small-sized grazers. Hence, this trait-selective species turnover, even in the absence of significant changes in species richness, likely had a large effect and has shaped the functional diversity of present-day assemblages.

  20. Diversification dynamics, species sorting, and changes in the functional diversity of marine benthic gastropods during the Pliocene-Quaternary at temperate western South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M Rivadeneira

    Full Text Available Functional diversity based on species traits is a powerful tool to investigate how changes in species richness and composition affect ecosystem functioning. However, studies aimed at understanding changes in functional diversity over large temporal and spatial scales are still scant. Here we evaluate the combined effect of diversification and species sorting on functional diversity of fossil marine gastropods during the Pliocene-Quaternary transition in the Pacific coast of South America. We analyzed a total of 172 species in 29 Pliocene and 97 Quaternary sites. Each species was characterized according to six functional traits: body size, feeding type, mobility, attachment, life-habit, and larval mode. Functional diversity was estimated according to four indexes (functional richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion based on functional traits measured. Extrapolated species richness showed a slight yet not significant decrease from the Pliocene to the Quaternary despite the fact that a large faunal turnover took place; furthermore, a large extinction of Pliocene species (61-76% was followed by a high pulse of appearances (49-56% during the Quaternary. Three out of four indices of functional diversity (evenness, divergence and dispersion increased significantly towards the Quaternary which is more than expected under a random turnover of species. The increase in functional diversity is associated with a loss of large-sized carnivore forms, which tended to be replaced by small-sized grazers. Hence, this trait-selective species turnover, even in the absence of significant changes in species richness, likely had a large effect and has shaped the functional diversity of present-day assemblages.

  1. Estimating benthic secondary production from aquatic insect emergence in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining recountours the Appalachian landscape, buries headwater stream channels, and degrades downstream water quality. The goal of this study was to compare benthic community production estimates, based on seasonal insect emergen...

  2. Benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Sand Island ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna in the vicinity of the Sand Island ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size and sediment...

  3. Benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Barbers Point ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna in the vicinity of the Barbers Point (Honouliuli) ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size...

  4. Marine and coastal environmental education in the context of global climate changes - synthesis and subsidies for ReBentos (Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto S. Berchez

    Full Text Available Abstract As changes in coastal and marine environments are expected to negatively affect Brazilian ecosystems, the importance of Marine Environmental Education (MEE comes to the fore. However, so far only 32 contributions related to this issue have been published in Brazil. The MEE workgroup of ReBentos aims at promoting EE and the communication of marine ecological research to the scholastic public as a whole, as well as to groups which exert an influence on general perception, such as the media, politicians, and scientists. This paper presents an overview of the initiatives of MEE in Brazil, with emphasis on the ReBentos projects and guidelines. The conceptual background of action is based on the Rio'92 Treaty on Environmental Education, thereby implying an MEE with Transdisciplinar, emancipatory and reflexive characteristics, directed to changes in values, principles and attitudes. During the period 2011 to 2015, 10 projects were developed from Alagoas to Santa Catarina States, involving the development, implementation and testing through scientific research of 16 MEE activity-models. The didactic material subsequently produced comprised three books and 21 book-chapters. A public of around 6,500 Conservation Unit visitors, 250 public school teachers and 800 high school students have been impacted to date. To act as monitors and multipliers, 250 undergraduate students and professionals were trained. Research project evaluation generated the publication of nine papers. As a further step, the need for protocol elaboration for each model is placed in evidence, in order to direct and facilitate future initiatives.

  5. Macroinvertebrados bentónicos como indicadores de calidad de agua de ríos del sur de Chile Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality of southern Chile rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO FIGUEROA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La Cuenca Hidrográfica del Río Damas (40°39' S, 72°23' O, presenta una intensa actividad agrícola y ganadera en un 78,2 % de su superficie, lo cual se ha traducido en importantes aportes de nutrientes al ecosistema acuático. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: (a analizar la distribución espacial de la macrofauna bentónica en la cuenca y (b determinar la viabilidad de utilizar el Índice Biótico de Familias (IBF para evaluación de la calidad de las aguas. Los muestreos se realizaron en enero de 1998 con una red Surber (0,09 m², en 15 sitios distribuidos en el curso principal y sus tributarios. Se registró un total de 77 taxa, siendo los grupos más diversos Plecoptera (16 %, Trichoptera (16 %, Diptera (14 % y Ephemeroptera (12 %. Se observó una marcada tendencia a la disminución de riqueza específica desde la cabecera de la cuenca hacia aguas abajo. Las abundancias, biomasas y el IBF, presentaron una tendencia inversa a la riqueza específica. IBF se correlacionó significativa y positivamente con el fósforo total (r² = 0,71, temperatura (r² = 0,66, nitrito (r² = 0,56, conductividad eléctrica (r² = 0,50, demanda biológica de oxígeno (r² = 0,46 y nitrógeno total (r² = 0,46, y negativamente con oxígeno disuelto (r² = 0,53, variables estrechamente asociadas al uso intensivo de fertilizantes en la cuenca. Los resultados sugieren que el IBF es un buen indicador de la calidad de las aguas de los ríos de cuencas agrícolas y ganaderas del sur de ChileThe Damas River Hydrographic Basin (40°39'S, 72°23' W presents an intense agricultural and cattle ranching activities in 78.2 % of its surface, which has resulted in important inputs of nutrients into the aquatic ecosystem. The objectives of this study were: (a to analyze the spatial distribution of the benthic macrofauna in the Damas basin, and (b to determine the feasibility of using the Families Biotic Index (FBI for the evaluation of water quality. The samplings were

  6. A conceptual framework for effectively anticipating water-quality changes resulting from changes in agricultural activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Paul D.; Wolock, David M.; Coupe, Richard H.; Roth, Jason L.

    2018-01-10

    Agricultural activities can affect water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems; many water-quality issues originate with the movement of water, agricultural chemicals, and eroded soil from agricultural areas to streams and groundwater. Most agricultural activities are designed to sustain or increase crop production, while some are designed to protect soil and water resources. Numerous soil- and water-protection practices are designed to reduce the volume and velocity of runoff and increase infiltration. This report presents a conceptual framework that combines generalized concepts on the movement of water, the environmental behavior of chemicals and eroded soil, and the designed functions of various agricultural activities, as they relate to hydrology, to create attainable expectations for the protection of—with the goal of improving—water quality through changes in an agricultural activity.The framework presented uses two types of decision trees to guide decision making toward attainable expectations regarding the effectiveness of changing agricultural activities to protect and improve water quality in streams. One decision tree organizes decision making by considering the hydrologic setting and chemical behaviors, largely at the field scale. This decision tree can help determine which agricultural activities could effectively protect and improve water quality in a stream from the movement of chemicals, or sediment, from a field. The second decision tree is a chemical fate accounting tree. This decision tree helps set attainable expectations for the permanent removal of sediment, elements, and organic chemicals—such as herbicides and insecticides—through trapping or conservation tillage practices. Collectively, this conceptual framework consolidates diverse hydrologic settings, chemicals, and agricultural activities into a single, broad context that can be used to set attainable expectations for agricultural activities. This framework also enables

  7. Relationship between abundance and morphology of benthic foraminifera Epistominella exigua: Palaeoclimatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Deopujari, A.; Nigam, R.; Henriques, P.J.

    foraminiferal species vary with ambient conditions and are used as paleoclimatic proxy (Thiede, 1971; Prell, 1984; Nigam and Rao, 1987; 1989; Anderson and Prell, 1993; Nigam and Khare, 1999; Peeters et al., 2002; Žarić et al., 2005; Saraswat et al., 2005a...; 2005b). The abundance and morphology of benthic foraminifera is closely associated with the reproduction which depends on the ambient environmental conditions. Therefore, the changes in abundance and morphology of the benthic foraminifera should...

  8. Assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates at Nile tilapia production using artificial substrate samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. G. Moura e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomonitoring is a cheap and effective tool for evaluation of water quality, and infer on the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The benthic macroinvertebrates are bioindicators sensitive to environmental changes, and can assist in detecting and preventing impacts such as organic enrichment and imbalance in the food chain. We compared the structure of benthic communities on artificial substrate samplers located in places near and far from net cages for production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Samplers were manufactured with nylon net, using substrates such as crushed stone, gravel, loofah and cattail leaves. Samples were collected after 30 days of colonization, rinsed and then the specimens were identified and quantified. The following metrics were calculated: richness of Operational Taxonomic Units, Margalef richness, abundance of individuals, Shannon index and evenness index. The macrobenthic community structure was strongly modified according to the proximity of the net cages. Metrics showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between near and distant sites, for both periods (dry and rainy seasons. The position of the samplers significantly affected the structure of macroinvertebrate community, as near sites showed higher values for the community metrics, such as richness and diversity. Near sites presented a larger number of individuals, observed both in the dry and rainy seasons, with a predominance of Chironomidae (Diptera in the dry season and Tubificidae (Oligochaeta in the rainy season.

  9. Assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates at Nile tilapia production using artificial substrate samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura E Silva, M S G; Graciano, T S; Losekann, M E; Luiz, A J B

    2016-05-17

    Biomonitoring is a cheap and effective tool for evaluation of water quality, and infer on the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The benthic macroinvertebrates are bioindicators sensitive to environmental changes, and can assist in detecting and preventing impacts such as organic enrichment and imbalance in the food chain. We compared the structure of benthic communities on artificial substrate samplers located in places near and far from net cages for production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Samplers were manufactured with nylon net, using substrates such as crushed stone, gravel, loofah and cattail leaves. Samples were collected after 30 days of colonization, rinsed and then the specimens were identified and quantified. The following metrics were calculated: richness of Operational Taxonomic Units, Margalef richness, abundance of individuals, Shannon index and evenness index. The macrobenthic community structure was strongly modified according to the proximity of the net cages. Metrics showed significant differences (p macroinvertebrate community, as near sites showed higher values for the community metrics, such as richness and diversity. Near sites presented a larger number of individuals, observed both in the dry and rainy seasons, with a predominance of Chironomidae (Diptera) in the dry season and Tubificidae (Oligochaeta) in the rainy season.

  10. Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus farming system: water quality and environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacilda Thais Janson Mercante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Frog farming, if not well managed, may cause environmental damages. The use of antibiotics, the organic discharge and the introduction of exotic species can disseminate risks such as eutrophication, changes in the water quality and organic pollution, factors that affect the human consumption. AIM: Evaluating the water quality of a bullfrog farming system, discussing their relations to production and the environment based on the current legislation. METHODS: Sampling was performed on a monthly basis from November 2006 to March 2007 during growth and fattening phases of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus. Sample sites were distributed according to the water flow: upstream from the mixing zone, affluent (supply water, bay, effluent, mixing zone and downstream from the mixing zone. In the field, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and turbidity were measured. In laboratory, nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations were analyzed. RESULTS: The concentration of nutrients was determiner for water quality in the bay and its effluent. According to the current legislation, the effluent exceeded the limits for total phosphorus (> 0.030 mg L-1 and total nitrogen (> 1.27 mg L-1. Other variables presented acceptable values in light of the current laws. CONCLUSION: The high values of nutrients and other factors such as conductivity and turbidity are proportional to the animal growth due to the inadequate management practices evidenced by feed conversion rate. The following management options are proposed: maintaining the flow and decreased density of animals; maintaining the flow and density storage with adequate control of the food supply.

  11. Quality changes of Antarctic krill powder during long term storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, Inge

    2017-01-01

    of packaging in vacuum was observed. The stability was assessed by changes in concentrations of lipid classes, antioxidants, pyrroles and lipid, and Strecker-derived volatiles. Some degradation occurred during storage at room temperature. Thus, a minor increase in volatiles, an increase in free fatty acids...... and a concomitant decrease in antioxidants, tocopherol, and astaxanthin was observed. In addition, there was a minor decrease in phospholipids and n-3 fatty acids; however, storage at vacuum improved the oxidative stability of krill powder. Practical applications: For the use of krill powder in human nutrition......, it is important, that the quality and stability is sufficiently high to retain the nutritional value during storage. This study contributes with information about the stability during storage up to 12 months at room temperature and the effect of packaging the powder in vacuum. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba...

  12. Influence of climate change on air quality in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoeur, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is the result of high emissions of pollutants (and pollutant precursors) and unfavorable meteorological conditions. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is one of the pollutants of great concern for human health. Every year, a repeated or continuous exposure to such particles is responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the concerned populations and leads to premature deaths. Climate change is expected to impact meteorological variables (temperature, wind, precipitation,...). Those variables will influence numerous factors, which will affect air quality (emissions, precipitation scavenging, gas/particle equilibrium,...). A large body of studies have already investigated the effects of climate change on ozone, whereas only a few have addressed its effects on PM 2.5 concentrations, especially over Europe. This is the subject we investigate in this thesis. Large-scale circulation is closely linked to surface meteorological variables. Therefore, it is expected that it will impact PM 2.5 concentrations too. In this thesis, we develop a statistical algorithm to estimate future PM 2.5 concentrations from present PM 2.5 observations, selected meteorological variables and tools to represent this circulation (weather regimes and weather types). The lack of daily observations of PM 2.5 and its components over Europe prevents us to used observations. Consequently, we have created a pseudo-observed PM 2.5 data set, by using the Polyphemus/Polair3D air quality Chemical-Transport Model. Both operational and dynamic evaluations were conducted against EMEP measurements, to ensure that the influence of meteorological variables on PM 2.5 concentrations is correctly reproduced by the model. As far as we know, this dynamic evaluation of an air quality model with respect to meteorology is the first conducted to date. Future PM 2.5 concentrations display an increase over the U.K., northern France, Benelux, and in the Balkans, and a decrease over northern

  13. Interpreting changes in quality of life in atrial fibrillation: how much change is meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorian, Paul; Burk, Caroline; Mullin, Christopher M; Bubien, Rosemary; Godejohn, Donna; Reynolds, Matthew R; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R; Wimmer, Alan P; Bhandari, Anil; Spertus, John

    2013-08-01

    The Atrial Fibrillation Effect on QualiTy of Life (AFEQT) questionnaire is a novel quality of life (QOL) measure previously shown to be valid, reliable, and sensitive to clinical change in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The clinical relevance of a given change in the score is not known. The most useful "anchor" for a measure of meaningful change in QOL is patient-reported magnitude of change. The aim of this study was to define the interpretability of changes in the AFEQT score from the patients' perspective. With the use of the original validation study of AFEQT, in which 210 patients completed the questionnaire at baseline and at 3 months, we estimated the AFEQT score corresponding to a meaningful improvement in QOL using the patients' assessments of global change in QOL, AF symptoms from the Atrial Fibrillation Severity Scale (AFSS), and physicians' assessment of global QOL over the 3 months, as anchors. In patients with a moderate improvement in global QOL, the AFEQT scores increased from 51.9 ± 21.8 to 70.8 ± 17.4 (an increase of 18.9 ± 20.7), compared with an increase of 6.9 ± 16.9 units in patients with "unimportant change" in global QOL. Physicians' global assessment yielded a similar change in AFEQT score corresponding to a moderate change in global QOL (21.3 ± 20.2 units). Patients with moderate improvement in AF symptom severity using the AFSS scale had an increase of 17.9 ± 11.8 units on the AFEQT scale. A change in 19 units in the AFEQT score corresponded to a 0.9 SD unit change or greater than a minimal important difference from a distribution based method. A meaningful improvement in QOL in patients with AF can be measured from a change in the AFEQT score. These results can assist in monitoring patient progress and interpreting the effects of interventions in patients with AF. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Water Quality Change of Brackish Lake in Snowy Cold Regions Accompanying Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Nakatsugawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study addresses evaluation of water quality change of brackish lake based on the estimation of hydrological quantities resulting from long-term hydrologic process accompanying climate change. For brackish lakes, such as Lake Abashiri in Eastern Hokkaido, there are concerns about water quality deterioration due to increases in water temperature and salinity. For estimating some hydrological quantities in the Abashiri River basin, including Lake Abashiri, we propose the following methods: 1) MRI-NHRCM20, a regional climate model based on the Representative Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC AR5, 2) generalized extreme value distribution for correcting bias, 3) kriging adopted variogram for downscaling and 4) Long term Hydrologic Assessment model considering Snow process (LoHAS). In addition, we calculate the discharge from Abashiri River into Lake Abashiri by using estimated hydrological quantities and a tank model, and simulate impacts on water quality of Lake Abashiri due to climate change by setting necessary conditions, including the initial conditions of water temperature and water quality, the pollution load from the inflow rivers, the duration of ice cover and salt pale boundary. The result of the simulation of water quality indicates that climate change is expected to raise the water temperature of the lake surface by approximately 4°C and increase salinity of surface of the lake by approximately 4psu, also if salt pale boundary in the lake raises by approximately 2-m, the concentration of COD, T-N and T-P in the bottom of the lake might increase. The processes leading to these results are likely to be as follows: increased river water flows in along salt pale boundary in lake, causing dynamic flow of surface water; saline bottom water is entrained upward, where it mixes with surface water; and the shear force acting at salt pale boundary helps to increase the supply of salts from bottom saline water to the surface water. In the future, we will

  15. Mechanisms of temporary adhesion in benthic animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.; Winter, J.C.F.; Dankelman, J.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive systems are ubiquitous in benthic animals and play a key role in diverse functions such as locomotion, food capture, mating, burrow building, and defence. For benthic animals that release adhesives, surface and material properties and external morphology have received little attention

  16. Assessing anthropogenic impacts using benthic macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to establish relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate and common stressor types (siltation, agriculture and paper mill waste) in central highlands of Ethiopia. For analysis environmental variables and benthic invertebrate taxa were collected from four streams from November, 2011 to June, ...

  17. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open intertidal areas on the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania. ... it is recommended that conservation efforts along the Tanzanian coast should focus here. Keywords: benthic macrofauna, community structure, littoral zone, Tanganyika, Western Indian Ocean ...

  18. Influence of land-use patterns on benthic diatom communities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of land-use patterns on both diatom community composition and water quality in tropical streams during the dry season. Benthic diatom collections and water quality sampling were done 4 times at 10 sites. A suite of environmental variables that varied with human ...

  19. Quality initiatives: CT radiation dose reduction: how to implement change without sacrificing diagnostic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Eric P; Rong, X John; Cody, Dianna D; Ernst, Randy D; Fitzgerald, Nancy E; Kundra, Vikas

    2011-01-01

    The risks and benefits of using computed tomography (CT) as opposed to another imaging modality to accomplish a particular clinical goal should be weighed carefully. To accurately assess radiation risks and keep radiation doses as low as reasonably achievable, radiologists must be knowledgeable about the doses delivered during various types of CT studies performed at their institutions. The authors of this article propose a process improvement approach that includes the estimation of effective radiation dose levels, formulation of dose reduction goals, modification of acquisition protocols, assessment of effects on image quality, and implementation of changes necessary to ensure quality. A first step toward developing informed radiation dose reduction goals is to become familiar with the radiation dose values and radiation-associated health risks reported in the literature. Next, to determine the baseline dose values for a CT study at a particular institution, dose data can be collected from the CT scanners, interpreted, tabulated, and graphed. CT protocols can be modified to reduce overall effective dose by using techniques such as automated exposure control and iterative reconstruction, as well as by decreasing the number of scanning phases, increasing the section thickness, and adjusting the peak voltage (kVp setting), tube current-time product (milliampere-seconds), and pitch. Last, PDSA (plan, do, study, act) cycles can be established to detect and minimize negative effects of dose reduction methods on image quality.

  20. Metal contamination in benthic macroinvertebrates in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, W A C; Passerini, M D; Tundisi, J G

    2011-05-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates have many useful properties that make possible the use of these organisms as sentinel in biomonitoring programmes in freshwater. Combined with the characteristics of the water and sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates are potential indicators of environmental quality. Thus, the spatial occurrence of potentially toxic metals (Al, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni) in the water, sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates samples were investigated in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil in the city of São Carlos, São Paulo state, with the aim of verifying the metals and environment interaction with benthic communities regarding bioaccumulation. Hypothetically, there can be contamination by metals in the aquatic environment in the city due to lack of industrial effluent treatment. All samples were analysed by the USEPA adapted method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The sub-basin studied is contaminated by toxic metals in superficial water, sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates. The Bioaccumulation Factor showed a tendency for metal bioaccumulation by the benthic organisms for almost all the metal species. The results show a potential human and ecosystem health risk, contributing to metal contamination studies in aquatic environments in urban areas.

  1. Metal contamination in benthic macroinvertebrates in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAC Chiba

    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrates have many useful properties that make possible the use of these organisms as sentinel in biomonitoring programmes in freshwater. Combined with the characteristics of the water and sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates are potential indicators of environmental quality. Thus, the spatial occurrence of potentially toxic metals (Al, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni in the water, sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates samples were investigated in a sub-basin in the southeast of Brazil in the city of São Carlos, São Paulo state, with the aim of verifying the metals and environment interaction with benthic communities regarding bioaccumulation. Hypothetically, there can be contamination by metals in the aquatic environment in the city due to lack of industrial effluent treatment. All samples were analysed by the USEPA adapted method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The sub-basin studied is contaminated by toxic metals in superficial water, sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates. The Bioaccumulation Factor showed a tendency for metal bioaccumulation by the benthic organisms for almost all the metal species. The results show a potential human and ecosystem health risk, contributing to metal contamination studies in aquatic environments in urban areas.

  2. Changes in Positive Quality of Life over the Course of Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth; Ring-Kurtz, Sarah; Gallop, Robert; Stirman, Shannon; Present, Julie; Temes, Christina; Goldstein, Lizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine patients’ reports of positive quality of life over the course of multiple forms of psychotherapy and disorders. Data from five studies using a common assessment battery were pooled to evaluate the magnitude of change in positive quality of life and explore the relation of change in positive quality of life to change in symptoms, and how these relations vary by disorder. Positive quality of life was measured at intake, termination, and during two post...

  3. Traditional alcoholic beverages of Tanzania: production, quality and changes in quality attributes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüsekwa, A B; Mosha, T C; Laswai, H S; Towo, E E

    2000-03-01

    Traditional alcoholic beverages of Tanzania play an important role in the daily social, economic, nutritional and cultural life of the people. Production, quality and changes in quality attributes during ambient temperature storage were investigated in traditional Tanzanian beers (Mbege and Komoni) and wines (Mnanasi, Wanzuki and Mofru). The quality attributes of the alcoholic beverages indicated that pH levels were in the range of 4.15-4.20 and 3.9-5.5 for the beers and wines respectively. Total, fixed and volatile acidity in the beers were in the range of 0.41-0.62, 0.28-0.38 and 0.06-0.09 g/100 mL respectively while in the wines acidity levels were in the range of 0.23-0.66, 0.13-0.33 and 0.05-0.06 g/100 mL for the total, fixed and volatile acidity respectively. Concentration of total solids in the beers ranged between 7.00 and 12.80 degrees Brix while in the wines ranged between 3.45 and 6.65 degrees Brix. Specific gravity of the beers ranged between 1.0097 and 1.0374 while for wines the specific gravity was lower, ranging between 0.9971 and 0.9989. Alcohol concentration was higher in wines (range 3.84-9.75 g/100 mL) than in beers (range 1.72-2.76 g/100 mL). Storage of the beverages under ambient temperatures for various lengths of time resulted in significant (P beers indicated the highest rates of deterioration with total acid production rates of 0.3774 g/100 mL and 0.0914 g/100 mL per hour respectively. Wines were more stable during storage than beers, with Mofru wine being the most stable. The rates of total acid production per hour were Mnanasi (0.0196 g/100 mL), Wanzuki (0.0047 g/100 mL) and Mofru (0.0005 g/100 mL). Use of low brewing technologies involving uncontrolled fermentation, unsanitary conditions and use of rudimentary equipment for processing, packaging and storage resulted in beers and wines of low quality and short shelf-life. To foster commercial exploitation of the products, there is a need to develop appropriate small and medium

  4. How changing quality management influenced PGME accreditation: a focus on decentralization and quality improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdemir, Nesibe; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Paternotte, Emma; Schreuder, Bas; Scheele, Fedde

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the quality of postgraduate medical education (PGME) programs through accreditation is common practice worldwide. Accreditation is shaped by educational quality and quality management. An appropriate accreditation design is important, as it may drive improvements in training.

  5. Statistical Processes Under Change: Enhancing Data Quality with Pretests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Walter; Sattelberger, Sabine

    Statistical offices in Europe, in particular the Federal Statistical Office in Germany, are meeting users’ ever more demanding requirements with innovative and appropriate responses, such as the multiple sources mixed-mode design model. This combines various objectives: reducing survey costs and the burden on interviewees, and maximising data quality. The same improvements are also being sought by way of the systematic use of pretests to optimise survey documents. This paper provides a first impression of the many procedures available. An ideal pretest combines both quantitative and qualitative test methods. Quantitative test procedures can be used to determine how often particular input errors arise. The questionnaire is tested in the field in the corresponding survey mode. Qualitative test procedures can find the reasons for input errors. Potential interviewees are included in the questionnaire tests, and their feedback on the survey documentation is systematically analysed and used to upgrade the questionnaire. This was illustrated in our paper by an example from business statistics (“Umstellung auf die Wirtschaftszweigklassifikation 2008” - Change-over to the 2008 economic sector classification). This pretest not only gave important clues about how to improve the contents, but also helped to realistically estimate the organisational cost of the main survey.

  6. Determining Changes in Groundwater Quality during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, T.; Houlihan, M.; Fakhreddine, S.; Dadakis, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an increasingly prevalent technology for improving the sustainability of freshwater supply. However, recharge water can alter the geochemical conditions of the aquifer, mobilizing contaminants native to the aquifer sediments. Geochemical alterations on deep (>300 m) injection of highly treated recycled wastewater for MAR has received limited attention. We aim to determine how residual disinfectants used in water treatment processes, specifically the strong oxidants chloramine and hydrogen peroxide, affect metal mobilization within deep injection wells of the Orange County Water District. Furthermore, as the treated recharge water has very low ionic strength (44.6 mg L-1 total dissolved solids), we tested how differing concentrations of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride affected metal mobilization within deep aquifers. Continuous flow experiments were conducted on columns dry packed with sediments from a deep injection MAR site in Orange County, CA. The effluent was analyzed for shifts in water quality, including aqueous concentrations of arsenic, uranium, and chromium. Interaction between the sediment and oxic recharge solution causes naturally-occurring arsenopyrite to repartition onto iron oxides. The stability of arsenic on the newly precipitated iron oxides is dependent on pH changes during recharge.

  7. BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA IN SOUTH WAIGEO WATERS, RAJA AMPAT, WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartini M. Natsir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Waigeo Island is one of four large islands of the Raja Ampat group, West Papua Province. This area lies in the heart of the coral triangle region as the most marine bio-diversity on Earth. Coral reef ecosystem of the Waigeo is a favorable habitat for various organisms including foraminifera. Foraminifera have been proven as useful indicator of water quality surrounding the coral reef environment since FORAM Index was formulated. It gives additional importance of foraminifera beside their common uses on micropalaeontology for petroleum industry and palaeoecology. Therefore, it is very important to obtain data of the benthic foraminifera from various coral reef environments in Indonesia, such as around Waigeo Island. Sediment samples of this study were collected from 12 sites in southern part off Waigeo Island, on July 2011. Observation on benthic foraminifera shows that the study area is dominated by symbiotic bearing benthic foraminifera, Amphistegina lessonii, belongs to Suborder Rotaliina. This occurrence increases the values of FORAM Index (FI at certain sites. Generally, the values of FI from most sites are high (FI>4 that provide a good indication for reef growth or recovery. The values of FI less than 2 are found at RJ3 and RJ4 indicate stress environment for reef growth and they are dominated by opportunistic and heterotrophic functional groups of Elphidium and Quinqueloculina.

  8. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrates community in a hypersaline estuary (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlinda Railly Ferreira Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The estuarine community of benthic macroinvertebrates spatially varies in response to changes in environmental variables in these ecosystems. Understanding this variability helps our understanding the mechanisms structuring these communities. Aim Assess the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in a hypersaline estuary, and to relate to environmental variables that influence the community structure along the estuary. Methods The study was conducted at Tubarão river estuary in May 2015. We sampled two estuarine areas (upper and lower, and in each zone were sampled six points composed of two replicas, one sampled in sandy bottom and the other in muddy bottom. Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates and estuarine environmental variables were collected. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrate community were determined by Distance-based Linear Models analysis. The contribution of individual species to the dissimilarity between the areas and substrate types were determined by analysis of the percentage of similarity. Results The composition of benthic macroinvertebrate community differed between the upper and lower areas, although it was similar between the muddy and sandy bottoms. The variation in the benthic community between areas was mainly related to the influence of salinity in the upper area. In the lower area, the variation of the macroinvertebrates was related to salinity, associated with other variables in the sandy (temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen and muddy (temperature, total dissolved solids and dissolved oxygen substrates. Taxa which contributed most to the dissimilarity between the upper and lower areas were Nereididae (17.89%, Anomalocardia brasiliana (15% and Cirratulidae (10.43%. Conclusions Salinity was the main driver of the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the upper area of the estuary, although in the lower area a set of

  9. Viewpoints on impacts of climate change on soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    soil quality in ecosystems based on modern respiratory approaches. In: Cenci R., Sena F. (eds.) Biodiversity-bioindication to evaluate soil health. European Commission EUR 22245EN, p. 59-64 Dilly O., Blume H.-P., Munch J.C., 2003. Soil microbial activities in Luvisols and Anthrosols during 9 years of region-typical tillage and fertilisation practices in northern Germany. Biogeochemistry 65, 319-339 IPPC 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Solomon, S. et al.) (Cambridge University Press, 2007). Kirschbaum, M.U.F., 1995. The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storage. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27, 753-760 Knorr W., Prentice I.C., House J.I., Holland E.A. 2005. Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon to warming. Nature 433, 298-301 Mamilov, A. Sh., Dilly, O., 2002. Soil microbial eco-physiology as affected by short-term variations in environmental conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34, 1283-1290

  10. Multi-scale processes drive benthic community structure in upwelling-affected coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corvin eEidens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental processes acting at multiple spatial scales control benthic community structures in coral reefs. However, the contribution of local factors (e.g., substrate availability and water clarity vs. non-local oceanographic processes (e.g. upwelling events in these highly complex systems is poorly understood. We therefore investigated the relative contribution of local and non-local environmental factors on the structure of benthic groups and specifically on coral assemblages in the upwelling-affected Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP, Colombian Caribbean. Coral-dominated communities were monitored along with key environmental parameters at water current-exposed and -sheltered sites in four consecutive bays. Regression tree analyses revealed that environmental parameters explained 59.1% of the variation within the major benthic groups and 36.1% within coral assemblages. Findings also showed recurring patterns in community structures at sites with similar exposure across bays. We suggest that benthic community composition in TNNP is primarily driven by 1 wave exposure, followed by 2 temporal changes in nutrient availability governing the structure of benthic groups, and 3 local bay-specific differences controlling the zonation of benthic groups and coral assemblages. This study highlights the existence of complex hierarchical levels of local and non-local environmental factors acting on reef communities and stresses the importance of considering processes operating at multiple spatial scales in future studies on coral reef community structure and resilience.

  11. Importance of benthic production to fish populations in Lake Mead prior to the establishment of quagga mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, John; Chandra, Sudeep; Rosen, Michael; Wittmann, Marion; Sullivan, Joe; Orsak, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Limnologists recently have developed an interest in quantifying benthic resource contributions to higher-level consumers. Much of this research focuses on natural lakes with very little research in reservoirs. In this study, we provide a contemporary snapshot of the food web structure of Lake Mead to evaluate the contribution of benthic resources to fish consumers. In addition, we document the available food to fishes on soft sediments and changes to the invertebrate community over 2 time periods. Benthic invertebrate food availability for fishes is greater in Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Las Vegas Bay is dominated by oligochaetes, whose biomass increased with depth, while Overton Arm is dominated by chironomids, whose biomass did not change with depth. Diet and isotopic measurements indicate the fish community largely relies on benthic resources regardless of basin (Las Vegas Bay >80%; Overton Arm >92%); however, the threadfin shad likely contribute more to largemouth and striped bass production in Overton Arm versus Las Vegas Bay. A 2-time period analysis, pre and post quagga mussel establishment and during lake level declines, suggests there is no change in the density of benthic invertebrates in Boulder Basin, but there were greater abundances of select taxa in this basin by season and depth than in other basins. Given the potential of alterations as a result of the expansion of quagga mussel and the reliance of the fishery on benthic resources, future investigation of basin specific, benthic processes is recommended.

  12. Do benthic biofilters contribute to sustainability and restoration of the benthic environment impacted by offshore cage finfish aquaculture?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado-Gimenez, F.; Piedecausa, M.A.; Carrasco, C.; Gutierrez, J.M.; Aliaga, V.; Garcia-Garcia, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Benthic biofilters were deployed under an offshore fish farm and in control locations. → We checked the farm influence on fouling, wild fish and sediment near the biofilters. → Fouling under the cages used fish farm-derived wastes, but at low efficiency. → Wild fish were more abundant in the biofilters located below the cages. → Despite these clear benefits, sediment quality around the biofilters did not improve. - Abstract: Benthic biofilters were deployed under a cage fish farm and in two reference locations to assess the influence of the farm on the biofilters and the surroundings, as well as to verify the usefulness of this technology as a mitigation tool. The biofilters underneath the farm recruited a fouling community practically identical to that of the control biofilters, which included a variety of trophic strategies. The former showed a higher 15 N enrichment, indicating that fouling beneath the farm was benefiting from the farm waste. The waste retention efficiency was low (0.02 g N m -2 month -1 ) beneath the farm. Benthic biofilters aggregated demersal wild fish around and within them. Pelagic wild fish also frequently used the biofilters beneath the farm, forming compact shoals around them. The increased complexity of the habitat below the fish farm enhanced biodiversity, but this improvement did not lead to the recovery of the sediments around the biofilters.

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014 (NCEI Accession 0157759)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Hawaiian...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  16. 10 CFR 63.144 - Quality assurance program change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... clearly denote the position function, supplemented as necessary by descriptive text, rather than specific..., and responsibilities, or alternatively, the use of descriptive text; (4) The elimination of quality...

  17. The Association of Departmental Quality Infrastructure and Positive Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody E. Hooper MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A vertically and horizontally well-integrated quality improvement team is essential for effective quality data collection and implementation of improvement measures. We outline the quality structure of a large academic pathology department and describe successful projects across multiple divisions made possible by this tightly integrated structure. The physician vice chair for quality organizes departmental quality efforts and provides representation at the hospital level. The department has an independent continuous quality improvement unit and each laboratory of the department has a staff quality improvement representative. Faculty and staff experts have interacted to produce improvements such as accurate container labeling, efficient triage of specimens, and reduction of unnecessary testing. Specialized task forces such as the Courier Task Force are producing concrete recommendations for process improvement. All phases of pathology patient care are represented by faculty and staff who are trained in quality improvement, and each position touches and communicates actively with levels above and below itself. The key to the department’s approach has been the daily attention to quality efforts in all of its activities and the close association of faculty and staff to accomplish the goals of greater efficiency, safety, and cost savings.

  18. Historical land use change and its influence on stream ecosystems and water quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Petersen, Chantel R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available in population growth. As the demand for water increases the availability and quality is affected. Land cover was assessed to determine catchment changes that impacts river ecosystems and water quality....

  19. Benthic cyanobacteria: A source of cylindrospermopsin and microcystin in Australian drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaget, Virginie; Humpage, Andrew R; Huang, Qiong; Monis, Paul; Brookes, Justin D

    2017-11-01

    Cyanobacteria represent a health hazard worldwide due to their production of a range of highly potent toxins in diverse aquatic environments. While planktonic species have been the subject of many investigations in terms of risk assessment, little is known about benthic forms and their impact on water quality or human and animal health. This study aimed to purify isolates from environmental benthic biofilms sampled from three different drinking water reservoirs and to assess their toxin production by using the following methods: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Microscopic observation of the isolates allowed the identification of various filamentous cyanobacterial genera: Anabaena (benthic form), Calothrix and Nostoc from the Nostocales and Geitlerinema, Leptolyngbya, Limnothrix, Lyngbya, Oxynema, Phormidium and Pseudanabaena representing non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria. The Phormidium ambiguum strain AWQC-PHO021 was found to produce 739 ng/mg of dry weight (d/w) of cylindrospermopsin and 107 ng/mg (d/w) of deoxy-cylindrospermopsin. The Nostoc linckia strain AWQC-NOS001 produced 400 ng/mg (d/w) of a microcystin analogue. This is the first report of hepatotoxin production by benthic cyanobacteria in temperate Australian drinking water reservoirs. These findings indicate that water quality monitoring programs need to consider benthic cyanobacteria as a potential source of toxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Climate Change Impacts on US Water Quality using two Models: HAWQS and US Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and freshwater quality are well-linked. Changes in climate result in changes in streamflow and rising water temperatures, which impact biochemical reaction rates and increase stratification in lakes and reservoirs. Using two water quality modeling systems (the Hydr...

  1. Effects of land use change on streamflow and stream water quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to link land cover/use change to water quality in an important water supply coastal catchment. The approach followed a spatial and temporal analysis of historical catchment land use change to assess how changes influenced water quality and river flow in the Touws and Duiwe Rivers, southwestern Cape, ...

  2. Potential effects of climate change on surface-water quality in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Peter S.; Baron, Jill S.; Miller, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Data from long-term ecosystem monitoring and research stations in North America and results of simulations made with interpretive models indicate that changes in climate (precipitation and temperature) can have a significant effect on the quality of surface waters. Changes in water quality during storms, snowmelt, and periods of elevated air temperature or drought can cause conditions that exceed thresholds of ecosystem tolerance and, thus, lead to water-quality degradation. If warming and changes in available moisture occur, water-quality changes will likely first occur during episodes of climate-induced stress, and in ecosystems where the factors controlling water quality are sensitive to climate variability. Continued climate stress would increase the frequency with which ecosystem thresholds are exceeded and thus lead to chronic water-quality changes. Management strategies in a warmer climate will therefore be needed that are based on local ecological thresholds rather than annual median condition. Changes in land use alter biological, physical, and chemical processes in watersheds and thus significantly alter the quality of adjacent surface waters; these direct human-caused changes complicate the interpretation of water-quality changes resulting from changes in climate, and can be both mitigated and exacerbated by climate change. A rigorous strategy for integrated, long-term monitoring of the ecological and human factors that control water quality is necessary to differentiate between actual and perceived climate effects, and to track the effectiveness of our environmental policies.

  3. The impact of climate change on the water quality of the Rhine river

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bokhoven, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this research the effect of hydrological extremes on water quality are studied for the Rhine River, in order to assess potential water quality effects of climate change. The water quality of the Rhine was studied for the periods 1975-1977 and 1987-2005. During these periods eight hydrological extremes occured, five of which being classified as floods and three as periods of drought. The water quality during these hydrological extremes has been compared with the water quality in reference p...

  4. Benthic algal communities : recovery from experimental acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.A.; Findlay, D.L.; Kasian, S.E.M. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.; Baulch, H.M. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada); Armstrong, L.M. [Ducks Unlimited Canada, Stonewall, MB (Canada). Inst. for Wetland and Waterfowl Research; McNicol, D.K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Vinebrooke, R.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2009-11-15

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that chemical recovery promotes the rapid recovery of benthic algal communities in formerly acidified lakes. The study was conducted at an experimental lake in Ontario over a 10 year period of pH recovery that followed a 10 year period of experimental acidification from a pH of 6.7 to 4.5. A reference lake in the region was also studied to account for regional changes during the study period. Changes in the epilithon on rock surfaces included lower cyanobacterial biomass following the acidification as well as increases in diatoms and greens. Acidification-induced increases in respiration prevented epilithic metabolic recovery. Prior declines in photosynthesis were reversed. Blooms of metaphytic filamentous green algae with a higher pH occurred during the recovery period. The recovery of many aggregate functional and taxonomic properties lagged behind reductions in acidity. Incomplete chemical recovery and the absence of functionally important biota were attributed to incomplete algal recovery at the lake. 59 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Benthic studies in south Gujarat estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govindan, K.; Varshney, P.K.; Desai, B.N.

    Benthic biomass and faunal composition in relation to various environmental conditions of the four South Gujarat estuaries namely the Auranga, Ambika, Purna and Mindola were studied and compared. Mean population density of benthos in Auranga, Ambika...

  6. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  7. Composition and dynamic of benthic macroinvertebrates community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The canonical correspondance analysis (CCA) revealed a strong correlationship between Chironomidae, Syrphidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, as well as the Pulmonates molluscs and organic nutriments feeding dynamics. These findings showed the sensitivity of benthic macroinvertebrates at different level: sensitivity which ...

  8. Benthic carbonate factories of the Phanerozoic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlager, W.

    2003-01-01

    Marine carbonate precipitation occurs in three basic modes: abiotic (or quasi-abiotic), biotically induced, and biotically controlled. On a geologic scale, these precipitation modes combine to form three carbonate production systems, or "factories" in the benthic environment: (1) tropical

  9. Distribution pattern of benthic invertebrates in Danish estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Delefosse, Matthieu; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a common statistical approach describing the distribution and dispersion pattern of marine benthic animals has often hampered the comparability among studies. The purpose of this study is therefore to apply an alternative approach, Taylor's power law, to data on spatial and temporal...... that this relationship is an inherent characteristic of Taylor's power law, and that b as a dispersion index may be biased by e.g. sampling errorswhen this relationship is weak. The correlation strength between b and log(a) could therefore be envisioned as a data quality check....

  10. Changing Diet Quality in China during 2004–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, under- and over-nutrition problems co-exist in China. However, systematic studies on the diet quality of Chinese residents have been scant. This study described the trend in diet quality of Chinese residents over a recent eight-year period and investigated the relevant influential factors. The data of Chinese adults aged 20–59 years was extracted from 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. The China diet quality index (DQI was employed to assess the diet quality of Chinese adults. The dietary consumption data of each individual was collected using a 24-h dietary recall and weighed food records implemented for three consecutive days. A mixed ordinary least squares regression model was applied to analyze the factors influencing the DQI scores of Chinese residents. Results showed that the diet quality of Chinese residents increased from 2004 to 2006, followed by a decrease in 2009 and 2011. The income, urbanicity index, and southern dummy were positively associated with DQI scores, whereas the size of household and labor intensity were negative predictors of DQI scores. The DQI scores also varied over BMI values. With an increase of the average income level in the future, the diet quality of Chinese residents is estimated to further improve. Moreover, urbanization could also contribute to reaching a more balanced diet.

  11. Changing Diet Quality in China during 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Wang, Hui; Tian, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Currently, under- and over-nutrition problems co-exist in China. However, systematic studies on the diet quality of Chinese residents have been scant. This study described the trend in diet quality of Chinese residents over a recent eight-year period and investigated the relevant influential factors. The data of Chinese adults aged 20–59 years was extracted from 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. The China diet quality index (DQI) was employed to assess the diet quality of Chinese adults. The dietary consumption data of each individual was collected using a 24-h dietary recall and weighed food records implemented for three consecutive days. A mixed ordinary least squares regression model was applied to analyze the factors influencing the DQI scores of Chinese residents. Results showed that the diet quality of Chinese residents increased from 2004 to 2006, followed by a decrease in 2009 and 2011. The income, urbanicity index, and southern dummy were positively associated with DQI scores, whereas the size of household and labor intensity were negative predictors of DQI scores. The DQI scores also varied over BMI values. With an increase of the average income level in the future, the diet quality of Chinese residents is estimated to further improve. Moreover, urbanization could also contribute to reaching a more balanced diet. PMID:28029128

  12. Changing Diet Quality in China during 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Wang, Hui; Tian, Xu

    2016-12-24

    Currently, under- and over-nutrition problems co-exist in China. However, systematic studies on the diet quality of Chinese residents have been scant. This study described the trend in diet quality of Chinese residents over a recent eight-year period and investigated the relevant influential factors. The data of Chinese adults aged 20-59 years was extracted from 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. The China diet quality index (DQI) was employed to assess the diet quality of Chinese adults. The dietary consumption data of each individual was collected using a 24-h dietary recall and weighed food records implemented for three consecutive days. A mixed ordinary least squares regression model was applied to analyze the factors influencing the DQI scores of Chinese residents. Results showed that the diet quality of Chinese residents increased from 2004 to 2006, followed by a decrease in 2009 and 2011. The income, urbanicity index, and southern dummy were positively associated with DQI scores, whereas the size of household and labor intensity were negative predictors of DQI scores. The DQI scores also varied over BMI values. With an increase of the average income level in the future, the diet quality of Chinese residents is estimated to further improve. Moreover, urbanization could also contribute to reaching a more balanced diet.

  13. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomonitoring programs based on benthic macroinvertebrates are well-established worldwide. Their value, however, depends on the appropriateness of the analytical techniques used. All United States State, benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs were surveyed regarding the purposes of their programs, quality-assurance and quality-control procedures used, habitat and water-chemistry data collected, treatment of macroinvertebrate data prior to analysis, statistical methods used, and data-storage considerations. State regulatory mandates (59 percent of programs), biotic index development (17 percent), and Federal requirements (15 percent) were the most frequently reported purposes of State programs, with the specific tasks of satisfying the requirements for 305b/303d reports (89 percent), establishment and monitoring of total maximum daily loads, and developing biocriteria being the purposes most often mentioned. Most states establish reference sites (81 percent), but classify them using State-specific methods. The most often used technique for determining the appropriateness of a reference site was Best Professional Judgment (86 percent of these states). Macroinvertebrate samples are almost always collected by using a D-frame net, and duplicate samples are collected from approximately 10 percent of sites for quality assurance and quality control purposes. Most programs have macroinvertebrate samples processed by contractors (53 percent) and have identifications confirmed by a second taxonomist (85 percent). All States collect habitat data, with most using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol visual-assessment approach, which requires ~1 h/site. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity are measured in more than 90 percent of programs. Wide variation exists in which taxa are excluded from analyses and the level of taxonomic resolution used. Species traits, such as functional feeding groups, are commonly used (96 percent), as are tolerance values for organic pollution

  14. Improved protein model quality assessments by changing the target function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziela, Karolis; Menéndez Hurtado, David; Shu, Nanjiang; Wallner, Björn; Elofsson, Arne

    2018-03-09

    Protein modeling quality is an important part of protein structure prediction. We have for more than a decade developed a set of methods for this problem. We have used various types of description of the protein and different machine learning methodologies. However, common to all these methods has been the target function used for training. The target function in ProQ describes the local quality of a residue in a protein model. In all versions of ProQ the target function has been the S-score. However, other quality estimation functions also exist, which can be divided into superposition- and contact-based methods. The superposition-based methods, such as S-score, are based on a rigid body superposition of a protein model and the native structure, while the contact-based methods compare the local environment of each residue. Here, we examine the effects of retraining our latest predictor, ProQ3D, using identical inputs but different target functions. We find that the contact-based methods are easier to predict and that predictors trained on these measures provide some advantages when it comes to identifying the best model. One possible reason for this is that contact based methods are better at estimating the quality of multi-domain targets. However, training on the S-score gives the best correlation with the GDT_TS score, which is commonly used in CASP to score the global model quality. To take the advantage of both of these features we provide an updated version of ProQ3D that predicts local and global model quality estimates based on different quality estimates. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sediment mixed layer as a proxy for benthic ecosystem process and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Parker, E.R.; Solan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Faunal mediated particle and porewater mixing (bioturbation) alters the structure of the surface sediment layer, forming a distinct mixed layer, where the majority of organic matter degradation takes place. Current methods of assessing benthic habitat quality often reference this mixed layer as an

  16. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was initiated in fall 2005 to assess potential effects on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama following Hurricane Katrina, which struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Bioloxi, Mississippi on August 29...

  17. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, van, M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This study proposes a modelling framework to incorporate water quality in analyses of cross-sectoral conflicts for water between human uses and ecosystems under climate change and socio-economic changes. ...

  18. Epi-benthic megafaunal zonation across an oxygen minimum zone at the Indian continental margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hunter, W.R.; Oguri, K.; Kitazato, H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Witte, U.

    changes upon the epi-benthic megafaunal assemblage was investigated by video survey at six stations spanning the OMZ core (540 m), lower boundary (800–1100 m) and below the OMZ (2000 m), between September and November 2008. Structural changes...

  19. 76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... AGENCY Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor.... SUMMARY: EPA is announcing the release of the draft report titled, ``Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality... relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the potential...

  20. The impact of climate change on the water quality of the Rhine river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bokhoven, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this research the effect of hydrological extremes on water quality are studied for the Rhine River, in order to assess potential water quality effects of climate change. The water quality of the Rhine was studied for the periods 1975-1977 and 1987-2005. During these periods eight hydrological

  1. Deep sea benthic foraminifera as a proxy of methane hydrates from IODP site 890B Cascadia Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [Ministry of Petroleum, Noida (India). National Gas Hydrates Program; Gupta, A.K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept of Geology and Geophysics

    2008-07-01

    The release of methane from marine reservoirs of methane hydrates into the atmosphere has been linked to climate change through variations in benthic foraminifera signatures. This paper investigated deep sea benthic foraminifera from 174 samples taken from the north Pacific Ocean near the Cascadia Margin. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of benthic foraminiferal distribution in the methane-rich environment of the Cascadia Margin. Benthic foraminifera are good indicators of paleoproductivity in areas where carbon fluxes are high. Factor and cluster analyses were used to identify 6 biofacies. Ecological data from recent deep sea benthic foraminifera were used to characterize the biofacies. A benthic faunal record was used to determine oxygenation, surface productivity, and organic food supplies. Results of the study indicated that benthic assemblages showed a major shift at 2 to 3 K yrs BP and 6 to 10.5 BP coincided with the increasing amplitude of interstadial cycles, in which methane fluxes may have played a significant role. It was concluded that the dissociation of gas hydrates and the release of methane into the atmosphere may have caused an increase in the population of highly reducing environmental species.. 55 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. Sediment Monitoring and Benthic Faunal Sampling Adjacent to the Barbers Point Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna and sediment in the vicinity of the Barbers Point (Honouliuli) ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment...

  3. Changes in quality of life from a homelessness intervention: true change, response shift, or random variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Guido Antonio; Adair, Carol E; Streiner, David L; Mayo, Nancy; Latimer, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Participants experiencing homelessness and mental illness who received housing and support through the At Home/Chez Soi trial showed modest gains in quality of life (QOL) compared to treatment as usual participants. Participants' QOL ratings over time may have been affected by either response shift triggered by new life circumstances or by random variation in the meaning of QOL ratings. This study seeks to identify both phenomena to estimate the intervention's effect on true change in QOL. Using the residuals from a regression model of the global item of Lehman's 20-item quality of life interview (QOLI-20), latent trajectory analysis was used to identify response shift, while a measure of overall variability in residuals identified random variation of QOL. The latter was used to adjust group comparisons of QOLI-20 total scores and the global item. Equivalent distributions of both groups' participants across latent trajectory classes (χ 2  = 2.97, p = .397) suggest that the intervention did not trigger response shift. However, random variation interacted significantly with the treatment effect on global item ratings. For every increase of one standard deviation of residuals, treatment odds ratios decreased by a factor of 0.70 (SE 1.18, p = .036, 95% CI 0.50-0.98). Measuring random variation in QOL ratings from the standard deviation of residuals offers the ability to approximate, although indirectly, how participants' QOL is truly affected by a housing intervention. Specifically, we found that QOL improvement is more evident when QOL ratings have a consistent meaning over time.

  4. Adapting Buildings for Indoor Air Quality in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change presents many challenges, including the production of severe weather events. These events and efforts to minimize their effects through weatherization can adversely affect indoor environments.

  5. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... AGENCY Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor... of Availability. SUMMARY: EPA is releasing a final report entitled, Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality... and aquatic ecosystems across the United States to the potential impacts of global change. Using a...

  6. Explaining change in quality of life of children and adolescents with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther E.; Oort, Frans J.; Aronson, Daniel C.; Hanneman, Marianne J. G.; van Heurn, Ernest; de langen, Zacharias J.; Madern, Gerard C.; Rieu, Paul N. M. A.; van der Zee, David C.; Looyaard, Nic; van Silfhout-Bezemer, Marina; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this work was to examine changes in quality of life, disease-specific functioning, and psychosocial competencies of children and adolescents (8-16 years of age) with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease and to identify predictors of change in quality of life by

  7. Explaining change in quality of life of children and adolescents with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther E.; Oort, Frans J.; Aronson, Daniel C.; Hanneman, Marianne J. G.; van Heurn, Ernest; de Langen, Zacharias J.; Madern, Gerard C.; Rieu, Paul N. M. A.; van der Zee, David C.; Looyaard, Nic; van Silfhout-Bezemer, Marina; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work was to examine changes in quality of life, disease-specific functioning, and psychosocial competencies of children and adolescents (8-16 years of age) with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease and to identify predictors of change in quality of life by

  8. Water quality changes in a post-herbicide treated water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality changes after in situ chemical control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solm-Laub. using five chemical products were monitored in a green house experiment. The observed changes in water quality coincided with the loss of treated plant photosynthetic activities, submerging of the dead plants in ...

  9. Biochemical and quality parameters changes of green sweet bell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, the effects of different postharvest treatments on quality and biochemical properties of “Maxibell F1” California Wonder type peppers at green mature stage were determined. In this content, ultraviolet C (UV-C) at 254 nm treatments for 2.5, 5, 10 min and hot water dipping (HWD) treatments for 2 min at 40, 50, ...

  10. Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Reflection, Criticism, and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingqiang, Zhang; Yongjian, Su

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance in modern higher education is both an accountability-oriented ideology and a technological method. It has also evolved into a increasingly rationalist and professionalized power mechanism. Its advocacy of compliance, technological mythology, and imbalance between power and responsibility are inherent disadvantages of higher…

  11. Determining storage related egg quality changes via digital image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Area and length measurements related to exterior and interior egg quality were determined by digital image analysis. In general, excluding the outer thin albumen area, all of the area measurements such as total egg content area and inner thick albumen area were larger in stored eggs than in fresh eggs (52.28 vs.

  12. Quality Assured Assessment Processes: Evaluating Staff Response to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau-Aduli, Bunmi S.; Zimitat, Craig; Malau-Aduli, Aduli E. O.

    2011-01-01

    Medical education is not exempt from the increasing societal expectations of accountability and this is evidenced by an increasing number of litigation cases by students who are dissatisfied with their assessment. The time and monetary costs of student appeals makes it imperative that medical schools adopt robust quality assured assessment…

  13. Total Quality Management: A Mindset and Method to Stimulate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Janet A.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a review of the total quality management movement and process, and advocates applying it to higher education as a solution to current problems. Customer emphasis, continuous improvement, developing human resources, and using tools for process development are described; and examples from specific academic institutions are included.…

  14. Changes in the Quality of Life of Durban's People

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Durban, the busiest port and second largest industrial hub in South Africa, has a developmental vision that sees its residents living in "acceptably serviced housing" and enjoying a "generally high quality of life that can be sustained". This vision is in response to South Africa"s transitional aspirations to move from an…

  15. Are retrospective measures of change in quality of life more valid than prospective measures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Oort, Frans J.; Sprangers, Miram A. G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adaptation to changing health presents a challenge to measuring change in quality of life (QoL). Previous studies have shown that different methods for measuring change yield different results, but it is unclear which method provides a more valid measurement of change. We investigated

  16. Assessment of stream quality using biological indices at selected sites in the Big Elk and Octoraro Creek basins, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    IntroductionIn 1970, the Chester County Water Resources Authority (Pennsylvania) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a long-term water-quality network with the goal of assessing the quality of streams in the county and understanding stream changes in response to urbanization using benthic-macroinvertebrate data. This database represents one of the longest continuous water-quality data sets in the country. Benthic macroinvertebrates are aquatic insects, such as mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, and midges, and other invertebrates that live on the stream bottom. Benthic macroin-vertebrates are useful in evaluating stream quality because their habitat preference and low motility cause them to be affected directly by substances that enter the aquatic system. By evaluating the diversity and community structure of benthic-macroinvertebrate populations, a determination of stream quality can be made.Between 1981 and 1997, the water-quality network consisted of 43 sites in 5 major basins in Chester County—Delaware, Schuylkill, Brandywine, Big Elk and Octoraro, and Red and White Clay. Benthic-macroinvertebrate, water-chemistry, and habitat data were collected each year in October or November during base-flow conditions. Using these data, Reif evaluates the overall water-quality condition of Chester County streams. This Fact Sheet summarizes the key findings from Reif for streams in the Big Elk and Octoraro Creek Basins. These streams include East Branch Big Elk Creek (site 31), West Branch Big Elk Creek (site 32), East Branch Octoraro Creek (site 33) and Valley Creek (site 34). This summary includes an analysis of stream conditions based on benthic-macroinvertebrate samples and an analysis of trends in stream conditions for the 17-year study period.

  17. Assessment of stream quality using biological indices at selected sites in the Delaware River basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    IntroductionIn 1970, the Chester County Water Resources Authority (Penn-sylvania) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a long-term water-quality network with the goal of assessing the quality of streams in the county and understanding stream changes in response to urbanization using benthic-macroinvertebrate data. This database represents one of the longest continuous water-quality data sets in the country. Benthic macroinvertebrates are aquatic insects, such as mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, and midges, and other invertebrates that live on the stream bottom. Benthic macroinvertebrates are useful in evaluating stream quality because their habitat preferences and low motility cause them to be affected directly by substances that enter the aquatic system. By evaluating the diversity and community structure of benthic-macroinvertebrate populations, a determination of stream quality can be made.Between 1981 and 1997, the water-quality network consisted of 43 sites in 5 major basins in Chester County—Delaware, Schuylkill, Brandywine, Big Elk and Octoraro, and Red and White Clay. Benthic-macroinvertebrate, water-chemistry, and habitat data were collected each year in October or November during base-flow condition. Using these data, Reif evaluates the overall water-quality condition of Chester County streams. This Fact Sheet summarizes the key findings from Reif for streams in the Delaware River Basin. These streams include Darby Creek (site 17), Crum Creek (site 19), Ridley Creek (sites 20 and 21), East Branch Chester Creek (sites 22-24, and 51), and Goose Creek (site 25). This summary includes an analysis of stream conditions on the basis of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples and an analysis of trends in stream conditions for the 17-year study period.

  18. Distribution of benthic foraminifera along the Iranian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amao, Abduljamiu; Kaminski, Michael

    2017-04-01

    this water body in a changing world climate, this study updates the knowledge on the type and distribution of benthic foraminiferal groups.

  19. Effects of management legacies on stream fish and aquatic benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Michael C; Schultz, Randall D

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  20. Climate Change Impacts on US Water Quality Using Two Models: HAWQS and US Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fant

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and freshwater quality are well-linked. Changes in climate result in changes in streamflow and rising water temperatures, which impact biochemical reaction rates and increase stratification in lakes and reservoirs. Using two water quality modeling systems (the Hydrologic and Water Quality System; HAWQS and US Basins, five climate models, and two greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation policies, we assess future water quality in the continental U.S. to 2100 considering four water quality parameters: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Once these parameters are aggregated into a water quality index, we find that, while the water quality models differ under the baseline, there is more agreement between future projections. In addition, we find that the difference in national-scale economic benefits across climate models is generally larger than the difference between the two water quality models. Both water quality models find that water quality will more likely worsen in the East than in the West. Under the business-as-usual emissions scenario, we find that climate change is likely to cause economic impacts ranging from 1.2 to 2.3 (2005 billion USD/year in 2050 and 2.7 to 4.8 in 2090 across all climate and water quality models.

  1. Implementing quality assurance with multiple contractors under changing regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the tools and techniques used to establish the responsibilities for quality implementation on the California Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project. The project is structured to use the traditional nuclear-oriented quality assurance criteria in the non-traditional application of scientific investigations required for site characterization activities. It has required a careful blending of approaches and mentalities from backgrounds in both nuclear QA and EPA QA as well as the selective application of guidance from both of the agencies. As a significant portion of the work was subcontracted to organizations which ranged from a small group of college professors to a multi-national corporation, the program needed to be versatile, easy to implement but yet definitive. The author describes some of the misconceptions encountered and areas of weakness to be identified and strengthened

  2. SOIL QUALITY CHANGES FOLLOWING FOREST CLEARANCE IN BENGKULU, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. HANDAYANI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense destruction and degradation of tropical forests is recognized as one of the environmental threats and tragedies. These have increased the need to assess the effects of subsequent land-use following forest extraction on soil quality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of land-use type on soil quality properties in Bengkulu Province, Sumatra. Soil samples were collected from adjacent sites including natural secondary forest, bare land, cultivated land and grassland. The results show that land-use following forest clearance lowered saturated hydraulic conductivity (85%, porosity (10.50%, soil water content at field capacity (34%,C organic (27%, N total (26%, inorganic N (37%, soil microbial biomass C (32%, mineralizable C (22%, and particulate organic matter (50%, but slightly increased water soluble organic C. Specific respiration activi ty rates increased about 14% in cultivated soils compared to natural forest soils, indicating greater C turnover per labile C pool in the form of soil microbial biomass, thus decreased biologically active soil organic matter. Forest conversion tends to reduce the C,ffg/Crer for all deforested sites. All of deforested areas relatively have infertile soil, with the worst case found in cultivated field. The C^g/Crd of cultivated field s was about 24% less than that of remnant fo rest (1.07. Grassland apparently mainta ins only slightly higher soil C levels than the bare land. On average, degradation index of so il following forest clearance was 35% with the highest deterioration occurred in the bare land (38%. Fallowing the fields by naturally growth of Imperata cylindrica for about 15 yr in abandoned land after 3-5 years of cultivation did not improve the soil quality. Moreover, forest clearance has an impact on soil quality as resulted in the loss of a physically protected organic matter and reduction in some labile C pools, thus declined biological activity at disturbed

  3. Experimental evidence of site specific preferential processing of either ice algae or phytoplankton by benthic macroinfauna in Lancaster Sound and North Water Polynyas, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Anni; Witte, Ursula; Archambault, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Rapid warming is dramatically reducing the extent and thickness of summer sea ice of the Arctic Ocean, changing both the quantity and type of marine primary production as the longer open water period favours phytoplankton growth and reduces ice algal production. The benthic ecosystem is dependent on this sinking organic matter for source of energy, and ice algae is thought to be a superior quality food source due to higher essential fatty acid content. The resilience of the benthos to changing quality and quantity of food was investigated through sediment incubation experiments in the summer 2013 in two highly productive Arctic polynyas in the North Water and Lancaster Sound, Canada. The pathways of organic matter processing and contribution of different organisms to these processes was assessed through 13C and 15N isotope assimilation into macroinfaunal tissues. In North Water Polynya, the total and biomass specific uptake of ice algal derived C and N was higher than the uptake of phytoplankton, whereas an opposite trend was observed in Lancaster Sound. Polychaetes, especially individuals of families Sabellidae and Spionidae, unselectively ingested both algal types and were significant in the overall organic matter processing at both sites. Feeding preference was observed in crustaceans, which preferentially fed on ice algae at Lancaster Sound, but preferred phytoplankton in North Water Polynya. Bivalves also had a significant role in the organic matter processing overall, but only showed preferential feeding on phytoplankton at Lancaster Sound polynya. Overall the filter feeders and surface deposit feeders occupying lowest trophic levels were responsible for majority of the processing of both algal types. The results provide direct evidence of preferential resource utilisation by benthic macrofauna and highlight spatial differences in the processes. This helps to predict future patterns of nutrient cycling in Arctic sediments, with implications to benthic

  4. Development of risk-based air quality management strategies under impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Amar, Praveen; Tagaris, Efthimios; Russell, Armistead G

    2012-05-01

    Climate change is forecast to adversely affect air quality through perturbations in meteorological conditions, photochemical reactions, and precursor emissions. To protect the environment and human health from air pollution, there is an increasing recognition of the necessity of developing effective air quality management strategies under the impacts of climate change. This paper presents a framework for developing risk-based air quality management strategies that can help policy makers improve their decision-making processes in response to current and future climate change about 30-50 years from now. Development of air quality management strategies under the impacts of climate change is fundamentally a risk assessment and risk management process involving four steps: (1) assessment of the impacts of climate change and associated uncertainties; (2) determination of air quality targets; (3) selections of potential air quality management options; and (4) identification of preferred air quality management strategies that minimize control costs, maximize benefits, or limit the adverse effects of climate change on air quality when considering the scarcity of resources. The main challenge relates to the level of uncertainties associated with climate change forecasts and advancements in future control measures, since they will significantly affect the risk assessment results and development of effective air quality management plans. The concept presented in this paper can help decision makers make appropriate responses to climate change, since it provides an integrated approach for climate risk assessment and management when developing air quality management strategies. Development of climate-responsive air quality management strategies is fundamentally a risk assessment and risk management process. The risk assessment process includes quantification of climate change impacts on air quality and associated uncertainties. Risk management for air quality under the impacts of

  5. Quality of Life Changes Following Surgery for Hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, José Ribas Milanez; da Fonseca, Hugo Veiga Sampaio; Wolosker, Nelson

    2016-11-01

    The best way to evaluate the impact of primary hyperhidrosis on quality of life (QL) is through specific questionnaires, avoiding generic models that do not appropriately evaluate individuals. QL improves significantly in the short term after sympathectomy. In the longer term, a sustained and stable improvement is seen, although there is a small decline in the numbers; after 5 and even at 10 years of follow-up it shows virtually the same numerical distribution. Compensatory hyperhidrosis is a major side effect and the main aggravating factor in postoperative QL, requiring attention to its management and prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of stream quality using biological indices at selected sites in the Schuylkill River basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    IntroductionIn 1970, the Chester County Water Resources Authority (Pennsylvania) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a long-term water-quality network with the goal of assessing the quality of streams in the county and understanding stream changes in response to urbanization using benthic-macroinvertebrate data. This database represents one of the longest continuous water-quality data sets in the country. Benthic macroinvertebrates are aquatic insects, such as mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, and midges, and other invertebrates that live on the stream bottom. Benthic macroinvertebrates are useful in evaluating stream quality because their habitat preferences and low motility cause them to be affected directly by substances that enter the aquatic system. By evaluating the diversity and community structure of benthic-macroinvertebrate populations, a determination of stream quality can be made.Between 1981 and 1997, the network consisted of 43 sites in 5 major basins in Chester County—Delaware, Schuylkill, Brandywine, Big Elk and Octoraro, and Red and White Clay. Benthic-macroinvertebrate, water-chemistry, and habitat data were collected each year in October or November during base-flow conditions. Using these data, Reif evaluated the overall water-quality condition of Chester County streams. This Fact Sheet summarizes the key findings from Reif for streams in the Schuylkill River Basin. These streams include Pigeon Creek (site 10), Stony Run (site 6), French Creek (sites 12-16), Pickering Creek (sites 1-5), Little Valley Creek (site 49), and Valley Creek (site 50). This summary includes an analysis of stream conditions based on benthic-macroinvertebrate samples and an analysis of trends in stream conditions for the 17-year study period.

  7. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Nordi, Gunnvør; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for b1%. On an annual basis the POC export fromthe euphotic...... resuspension during winter. The POC export from the euphotic zone could not sustain the benthic mineralization rate (10.8 mol C m−2 yr−1) and the calculated burial rate (9.8 mol C m−2 yr−1) of organic material in the central basin. This indicated considerable focusing ofmaterial in the central part...... of the fjord. Thiswas supported by the fact that themeasured benthic mineralization rate – in contrast to most investigations – actually increased with increasing water depth. In August,whenmineralization was at its maximum, the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) release from the sediment increased by 2.2mmolm−2...

  8. Spatial distribution maps for benthic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per S.

    1999-01-01

    simulation, Markov random fields and Boolean models. Geostatistical simulation provides a means of assessing the variability of random field functionals such as the estimated distribution area of a benthic species. The Markov random field allows the spatial distribution of the benthic communities...... to be modelled as a less smooth or regular phenomena than assumed when using geostatistical models. The use of Markov random fields in a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation framework enables an alternative means of assessing variability of image functionals that is based on a sound theoretical basis......-scan sonar for mapping of benthic communities remains an open task to be studied in the future. The data processing methodology developed is a contribution to the emerging field of hydroacoustic marine biology. The method of penalised maximum pseudo-likelihood for estimation of the Ising model under a huge...

  9. Evaluating Process Quality Based on Change Request Data - An Empirical Study of the Eclipse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackmann, Holger; Schaefer, Henning; Lichter, Horst

    The information routinely collected in change request management systems contains valuable information for monitoring of the process quality. However this data is currently utilized in a very limited way. This paper presents an empirical study of the process quality in the product portfolio of the Eclipse project. It is based on a systematic approach for the evaluation of process quality characteristics using change request data. Results of the study offer insights into the development process of Eclipse. Moreover the study allows assessing applicability and limitations of the proposed approach for the evaluation of process quality.

  10. Determining storage related egg quality changes via digital image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahnir Anida

    changes using computer assisted digital image analysis (CADIA) in an 18-month old moulted brown layer. (Lohmann .... tatistical analyses of the data were performed according to the analysis of variance technique, and mean .... of the albumen structure that surrounds the yolk, which normally provides stability to the yolk. C.

  11. Seasonal changes in sexual activity and semen quality in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the profiles of serum LH, FSH and testosterone, and in mating performance and ejaculate volume in the ram during the ovine breeding season. J. Anim. Sci. 45, 6. VAN DER WESTHUYSEN, J.M., 1976. lnduction of breeding activi- ty in anoestrus Angora goat does: Effect of progestagens, PMSC and teasing.

  12. The influence of downstream changes in water quality on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial changes in phytoplankton composition could also be illustrated and were especially apparent when the contribution of Cyanobacteria (bluegreen bacteria or blue-green algae), Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae to the total algal composition was taken into account. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2005, ...

  13. Simulating future trends in urban stormwater quality for changing climate, urban land use and environmental controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Viklander, Maria; Gustafsson, Anna-Maria; Marsalek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The effects of climatic changes, progressing urbanization and improved environmental controls on the simulated urban stormwater quality in a northern Sweden community were studied. Future scenarios accounting for those changes were developed and their effects simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). It was observed that the simulated stormwater quality was highly sensitive to the scenarios, mimicking progressing urbanization with varying catchment imperviousness and area. Thus, land use change was identified as one of the most influential factors and in some scenarios, urban growth caused changes in runoff quantity and quality exceeding those caused by a changing climate. Adaptation measures, including the reduction of directly connected impervious surfaces (DCIS) through the integration of more green spaces into the urban landscape, or disconnection of DCIS were effective in reducing runoff volume and pollutant loads. Furthermore, pollutant source control measures, including material substitution, were effective in reducing pollutant loads and significantly improving stormwater quality.

  14. Evaluating clinically significant changes in health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate change and predictors of change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during rehabilitation, and to analyse associations between changes in HRQoL and symptoms of anxiety...

  15. Further Examination of the Quality of Changes in Creative Functioning Resulting from Meditation (Zazen) Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Ernest L., Jr.; Torrance, E. Paul

    1982-01-01

    The quality of changes in creative functioning resulting from training in ZEN meditation (Zazen) and relaxation training were compared. Pre-posttest changes in the two groups, as revealed by the General Linear Models Procedure, revealed that the meditation group experienced greater perceived change resulting from new conditions, expression of…

  16. Global occurrence of pyrethroid insecticides in sediment and the associated toxicological effects on benthic invertebrates: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; Cheng, Fei; Wei, Yanli; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2017-02-15

    Pyrethroids are the third most applied group of insecticides worldwide and are extensively used in agricultural and non-agricultural applications. Pyrethroids exhibit low toxicity to mammals, but have extremely high toxicity to fish and non-target invertebrates. Their high hydrophobicity, along with pseudo-persistence due to continuous input, indicates that pyrethroids will accumulate in sediment, pose long-term exposure concerns to benthic invertebrates and ultimately cause significant risk to benthic communities and aquatic ecosystems. The current review synthesizes the reported sediment concentrations of pyrethroids and associated toxicity to benthic invertebrates on a global scale. Geographically, the most studied area was North America, followed by Asia, Europe, Australia and Africa. Pyrethroids were frequently detected in both agricultural and urban sediments, and bifenthrin and cypermethrin were identified as the main contributors to toxicity in benthic invertebrates. Simulated hazard quotients (HQ) for sediment-associated pyrethroids to benthic organisms ranged from 10.5±31.1 (bifenthrin) to 41.7±204 (cypermethrin), suggesting significant risk. The current study has provided evidence that pyrethroids are not only commonly detected in the aquatic environment, but also can cause toxic effects to benthic invertebrates, and calls for better development of accurate sediment quality criteria and effective ecological risk assessment methods for this emerging class of insecticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of salt pond restoration on benthic flux: Sediment as a source of nutrients to the water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Carter, James L.; Garrettt, Krista K.; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sarah; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding nutrient flux between the benthos and the overlying water (benthic flux) is critical to restoration of water quality and biological resources because it can represent a major source of nutrients to the water column. Extensive water management commenced in the San Francisco Bay, Beginning around 1850, San Francisco Bay wetlands were converted to salt ponds and mined extensively for more than a century. Long-term (decadal) salt pond restoration efforts began in 2003. A patented device for sampling porewater at varying depths, to calculate the gradient, was employed between 2010 and 2012. Within the former ponds, the benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus and that of dissolved ammonia were consistently positive (i.e., moving out of the sediment into the water column). The lack of measurable nitrate or nitrite concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface suggested negligible fluxes for dissolved nitrate and nitrite. The dominance of ammonia in the porewater indicated anoxic sediment conditions, even at only 1 cm depth, which is consistent with the observed, elevated sediment oxygen demand. Nearby openestuary sediments showed much lower benthic flux values for nutrients than the salt ponds under resortation. Allochthonous solute transport provides a nutrient advective flux for comparison to benthic flux. For ammonia, averaged for all sites and dates, benthic flux was about 80,000 kg/year, well above the advective flux range of −50 to 1500 kg/year, with much of the variability depending on the tidal cycle. By contrast, the average benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus was about 12,000 kg/year, of significant magnitude, but less than the advective flux range of 21,500 to 30,000 kg/year. These benthic flux estimates, based on solute diffusion across the sediment-water interface, reveal a significant nutrient source to the water column of the pond which stimulates algal blooms (often autotrophic). This benthic source may be

  18. Effects of Exposed Artificial Substrate on the Competition between Phytoplankton and Benthic Algae: Implications for Shallow Lake Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton and benthic algae coexist in shallow lakes and the outcome of the competition between these two photoautotrophs can markedly influence water clarity. It is well established that exposed artificial substrate in eutrophic waters can remove nutrients and fine particles from the water column via the attached periphyton canopy. However, the effects of the introduction of artificial substrate on the competition between planktonic and benthic primary producers remain to be elucidated. We conducted a short-term outdoor mesocosm experiment to test the hypothesis that the nutrient and light changes induced by exposed artificial substrate (polythene nets would benefit the benthic algae. Artificial substrate significantly reduced total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and water clarity improved, the latter due to the substrate-induced reduction of both organic and inorganic suspended solids. Consequently, as judged from changes in chlorophyll a (Chl-a concentrations in water and sediment, respectively, exposed artificial substrate significantly reduced the phytoplankton biomass, while benthic algae biomass increased. Our results thus indicate that exposed artificial substrate may be used as a tool to re-establish benthic primary production in eutrophic shallow lakes after an external nutrient loading reduction, paving the way for a benthic- or a macrophyte-dominated system. Longer term and larger scale experiments are, however, needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn on this.

  19. Benthic meiofaunal community response to the cascading effects of herbivory within an algal halo system of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Quinn R; Hammill, Edward; Booth, David J; Madin, Elizabeth M P; Hinchliffe, Charles; Harborne, Alastair R; Lovelock, Catherine E; Macreadie, Peter I; Atwood, Trisha B

    2018-01-01

    Benthic fauna play a crucial role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling at the sediment-water boundary in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial systems, grazing herbivores have been shown to influence below-ground communities through alterations to plant distribution and composition, however whether similar cascading effects occur in aquatic systems is unknown. Here, we assess the relationship between benthic invertebrates and above-ground fish grazing across the 'grazing halos' of Heron Island lagoon, Australia. Grazing halos, which occur around patch reefs globally, are caused by removal of seagrass or benthic macroalgae by herbivorous fish that results in distinct bands of unvegetated sediments surrounding patch reefs. We found that benthic algal canopy height significantly increased with distance from patch reef, and that algal canopy height was positively correlated with the abundances of only one invertebrate taxon (Nematoda). Both sediment carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N) and mean sediment particle size (μm) demonstrated a positive correlation with Nematoda and Arthropoda (predominantly copepod) abundances, respectively. These positive correlations indicate that environmental conditions are a major contributor to benthic invertebrate community distribution, acting on benthic communities in conjunction with the cascading effects of above-ground algal grazing. These results suggest that benthic communities, and the ecosystem functions they perform in this system, may be less responsive to changes in above-ground herbivorous processes than those previously studied in terrestrial systems. Understanding how above-ground organisms, and processes, affect their benthic invertebrate counterparts can shed light on how changes in aquatic communities may affect ecosystem function in previously unknown ways.

  20. Subtidal Benthic Invertebrates Shifting Northward Along the U.S. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous marine and terrestrial species have shifted their ranges poleward in response to warming from global climate change. However, few studies have examined range shifts of subtidal benthic communities in estuarine and nearshore waters. This study examined 20 years (1990&ndas...

  1. Temporal changes in groundwater quality of the Saloum coastal aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndeye Maguette Dieng

    2017-02-01

    High variation in rainfall between the 2 reference years (2003 and 2012 also changes chemical patterns in the groundwater. Chemical evolution of the groundwater is geographically observed and is due to a combination of dilution by recharge, anthropic contamination and seawater intrusion. The results of environmental isotopes (δ18O, δ2H compared with the local meteoric line indicate that the groundwater has been affected by evaporation processes before and during infiltration. The results also clearly indicate mixing with saltwater and an evolution towards relative freshening between 2003 and 2012 in some wells near the Saloum River.

  2. Temperature threshold models for benthic macroinvertebrates in Idaho wadeable streams and neighboring ecoregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David C; Lester, Gary; Pfeiffer, John; Pappani, Jason

    2018-02-07

    Water temperatures are warming throughout the world including the Pacific Northwest, USA. Benthic macroinvertebrates are one of the most important and widely used indicators of freshwater impairment; however, their response to increased water temperatures and their use for monitoring water temperature impairment has been hindered by lack of knowledge of temperature occurrences, threshold change points, or indicator taxa. We present new analysis of a large macroinvertebrate database provided by Idaho Department of Environmental Quality from wadeable streams in Idaho that is to be used in conjunction with our previous analyses. This new analysis provides threshold change points for over 400 taxa along an increasing temperature gradient and provides a list of statistically important indicator taxa. The macroinvertebrate assemblage temperature change point for the taxa that decreased with increased temperatures was determined to be about 20.5 °C and for the taxa assemblage that increased with increased temperatures was about 11.5 °C. Results of this new analysis combined with our previous analysis will also be useful for others in neighboring regions where these taxa occur.

  3. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP): Optical Properties of Benthic Marine Organisms and Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazel, Charles

    2002-01-01

    ...). The long-term objective of our research is to gain an understanding of the nature and significance of fluorescence and reflectance characteristics of benthic marine organisms in general, and coral...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BENTHIC (Benthic Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains benthic habitats, including coral reef and hardbottom, seagrass, algae, and others in [for] South Florida. Vector polygons in the data set...

  5. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  6. Tide dependent seasonal changes in water quality and assimilative capacity of anthropogenically influenced Mormugao harbour water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Deepthi, M.; Vethamony, P.; Mesquita, A.M.; Pradhan, U.K.; Babu, M.T.; Verlecar, X.N.; Haldankar, S.R.

    contaminated the estuarine and coastal waters2,3, at many locations along the Indian coat and affected their flora and fauna4-6. Zuari river in Goa, along the west coast of India, is one such river, where anthropogenic wastes are gradually contaminating its... : TIDE DEPENDENT SEASONAL CHANGES IN WATER QUALITY 315 quality and productivity. This has not been explored properly. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand how the dominant anthropogenic contaminants affect water quality...

  7. Indicators of Coastal Water Quality: Change in Chlorophyll-a Concentration 1998-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Change in Chlorophyll-a Concentrations 1998-2007 component of the Indicators of Coastal Water Quality Collection represents a tabular time series of the...

  8. Impact of water quality change on corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundChanges in water qualities have been associated with an increase in lead release from full and partial lead service lines (LSLs), such as the cases of Washington D.C. or more recently of Flint (Mi). Water qualities affect the mineralogy of the scales. Furthermore, follo...

  9. ...But I Love Children: Changing Elementary Teacher Candidates' Conceptions of the Qualities of Effective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nancy; Morehead, Pamela; Smith, Julia B.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined changes in prospective elementary teachers' conceptions related to their descriptions of the qualities of effective teachers. In order to gain an understanding of teacher candidates' conceptions of quality teachers, the authors attempted to garner information from both qualitative and quantitative data derived through multiple…

  10. Measuring the impact of urbanization on scenic quality: land use change in the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Brush; James F. Palmer

    1979-01-01

    The changes in scenic quality resulting from urbanization are explored for a region in the Northeast. The relative contributions to scenic quality of certain landscape features are examined by developing regression models for the region and for town landscapes within that region. The models provide empirical evidence of the importance of trees for maintaining high...

  11. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  12. Sky Quality Meter measurements in a colour-changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Aubé, M.; Zamorano, J.; Kocifaj, M.; Roby, J.; Tapia, C.

    2017-05-01

    The Sky Quality Meter (SQM) has become the most common device used to track the evolution of the brightness of the sky from polluted regions to first-class astronomical observatories. A vast database of SQM measurements already exists for many places in the world. Unfortunately, the SQM operates over a wide spectral band and its spectral response interacts with the sky's spectrum in a complex manner. This is why the optical signals are difficult to interpret when the data are recorded in regions with different sources of artificial light. The brightness of the night sky is linked in a complex way to ground-based light emissions, while taking into account atmospheric-induced optical distortion as well as spectral transformation from the underlying ground surfaces. While the spectral modulation of the sky's radiance has been recognized, it still remains poorly characterized and quantified. The impact of the SQM's spectral characteristics on sky-brightness measurements is analysed here for different light sources, including low- and high-pressure sodium lamps, PC-amber and white LEDs, metal halide and mercury lamps. We show that a routine conversion of radiance to magnitude is difficult, or rather impossible, because the average wavelength depends on actual atmospheric and environment conditions, the spectrum of the source and device-specific properties. We correlate SQM readings with both the Johnson astronomical photometry bands and the human system of visual perception, assuming different lighting technologies. These findings have direct implications for the processing of SQM data and for their improvement and/or remediation.

  13. Antarctic sea ice losses drive gains in benthic carbon drawdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D K A

    2015-09-21

    Climate forcing of sea-ice losses from the Arctic and West Antarctic are blueing the poles. These losses are accelerating, reducing Earth's albedo and increasing heat absorption. Subarctic forest (area expansion and increased growth) and ice-shelf losses (resulting in new phytoplankton blooms which are eaten by benthos) are the only significant described negative feedbacks acting to counteract the effects of increasing CO2 on a warming planet, together accounting for uptake of ∼10(7) tonnes of carbon per year. Most sea-ice loss to date has occurred over polar continental shelves, which are richly, but patchily, colonised by benthic animals. Most polar benthos feeds on microscopic algae (phytoplankton), which has shown increased blooms coincident with sea-ice losses. Here, growth responses of Antarctic shelf benthos to sea-ice losses and phytoplankton increases were investigated. Analysis of two decades of benthic collections showed strong increases in annual production of shelf seabed carbon in West Antarctic bryozoans. These were calculated to have nearly doubled to >2x10(5) tonnes of carbon per year since the 1980s. Annual production of bryozoans is median within wider Antarctic benthos, so upscaling to include other benthos (combined study species typically constitute ∼3% benthic biomass) suggests an increased drawdown of ∼2.9x10(6) tonnes of carbon per year. This drawdown could become sequestration because polar continental shelves are typically deeper than most modern iceberg scouring, bacterial breakdown rates are slow, and benthos is easily buried. To date, most sea-ice losses have been Arctic, so, if hyperboreal benthos shows a similar increase in drawdown, polar continental shelves would represent Earth's largest negative feedback to climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Defensive technology and welfare analysis of environmental quality change with uncertain consumer health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.K.; Moffitt, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measuring the ex post losses from environmental quality change is an important issue when environmental contamination creates health risks, liability is assigned, and private compensation efforts are required. This paper proposes a methodology for measuring the ex post welfare impact of environmental quality change using market behavior from defensive expenditures. Conditions under which a defensive technology can provide a bound on welfare estimates are identified

  15. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage composition and distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled and environmental variables measured at Langeni Forest and Kambi Valley, two sites of varying degrees of human impact in the upper Mthatha River, South Africa, in 2010–2011. Four species, Simulium adersi Pomeroy, Baetis harrisoni Barnard, Pseudocloeon sp. and Tricorythus ...

  16. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzhöfer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Hadal trenches are considered to act as depo-centers for organic material at the trench axis and host unique and elevated biomasses of living organisms as compared to adjacent abyssal plains. To explore the diagenetic activity in hadal trench environments we quantified in situ benthic O-2 consump...

  17. Microplastic effect thresholds for freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E.; Dede Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

  18. Benthic macrofauna community composition, abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The communities of the shallow, intermediate and deep environments were composed mainly of molluscs, worms and insects. Gastropods (52.68%) and bivalves (40.18%) constituted the major part of the benthic community. Bellamya unicolor, Melanoides tuberculata and Coelatura spp. were the most abundant molluscs.

  19. Benthic freshwater nematode community dynamics under conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of the influence of fish aquaculture on benthic freshwater nematode assemblages are scarce, but could provide a way of gauging environmental effects. The abundance and diversity of nematode assemblages in response to Oreochromis niloticus aquaculture were investigated in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, ...

  20. Metal concentrations in water column, benthic macroinvertebrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of some metals in the water, benthic macroinvertebrates and the muscle tissue of the Nile tilapia from river Delimi, Nigeria were investigated from January 1998 to June 1998. Samplings were done monthly at 3 different sites. The concentrations of the metals were determined using the atomic absorption ...

  1. Variation in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Ologe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The community structure, diversity and seasonal variation of the benthic macroinvertebrates in Ologe Lagoon were studied at four sites during the dry and wet seasons of 2003 to provide environmental baseline data for the lagoon. The community comprised 29 taxa from the phyla Insecta, Annelida, Mollusca, and Crustacea ...

  2. Evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage for disturbance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 4. Evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage for disturbance zonation in urban rivers using multivariate analysis: Implications for river management. Ram Devi Tachamo Shah Deep Narayan Shah. Volume 122 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 1125- ...

  3. Resistance to Total Quality Leadership change: an evaluation of individual Marine responses to TQL principles and change

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Marc Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis is an attempt to make available to Marine Corps planners data gathered about predispositions of Marines of different ranks to changes prompted by the implementation of Total Quality Leadership (TQL). A survey was conducted to examine the attitudes of 331 Marine Corps staff noncommissioned officers (SNCOs) and commissioned officers concerning different examples of TQL changes. Criteria were developed for identifying the ...

  4. Changes in the relationship between nursing home financial performance and quality of care under public reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyoung; Werner, Rachel M

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between financial performance and quality of care in nursing homes is not well defined and prior work has been mixed. The recent focus on improving the quality of nursing homes through market-based incentives such as public reporting may have changed this relationship, as public reporting provides nursing homes with increased incentives to engage in quality-based competition. If quality improvement activities require substantial production costs, nursing home profitability may become a more important predictor of quality under public reporting. This study explores the relationship between financial performance and quality of care and test whether this relationship changes under public reporting. Using a 10-year (fiscal years 1997-2006) panel data set of 9444 skilled nursing facilities in the US, this study employs a facility fixed-effects with and without instrumental variables approach to test the effect of finances on quality improvement and correct for potential endogeneity. The results show that better financial performance, as reflected by the 1-year lagged total profit margin, is modestly associated with higher quality but only after public reporting is initiated. These findings have important policy implications as federal and state governments use market-based incentives to increase demand for high-quality care and induce providers to compete based on quality. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Lake Ontario benthic prey fish assessment, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Holden, Jeremy P.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Benthic prey fishes are a critical component of the Lake Ontario food web, serving as energy vectors from benthic invertebrates to native and introduced piscivores. Since the late 1970’s, Lake Ontario benthic prey fish status was primarily assessed using bottom trawl observations confined to the lake’s south shore, in waters from 8 – 150 m (26 – 492 ft). In 2015, the Benthic Prey Fish Survey was cooperatively adjusted and expanded to address resource management information needs including lake-wide benthic prey fish population dynamics. Effort increased from 55 bottom trawl sites to 135 trawl sites collected in depths from 8 - 225m (26 – 738 ft). The spatial coverage of sampling was also expanded and occurred in all major lake basins. The resulting distribution of tow depths more closely matched the available lake depth distribution. The additional effort illustrated how previous surveys were underestimating lake-wide Deepwater Sculpin, Myoxocephalus thompsonii, abundance by not sampling in areas of highest density. We also found species richness was greater in the new sampling sites relative to the historic sites with 11 new fish species caught in the new sites including juvenile Round Whitefish, Prosopium cylindraceum, and Mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdii. Species-specific assessments found Slimy Sculpin, Cottus cognatus abundance increased slightly in 2015 relative to 2014, while Deepwater Sculpin and Round Goby, Neogobius melanostomus, dramatically increased in 2015, relative to 2014. The cooperative, lake-wide Benthic Prey Fish Survey expanded our understanding of benthic fish population dynamics and habitat use in Lake Ontario. This survey’s data and interpretations influence international resource management decision making, such as informing the Deepwater Sculpin conservation status and assessing the balance between sport fish consumption and prey fish populations. Additionally a significant Lake Ontario event occurred in May 2015 when a single

  6. Study of ranking of bio-indices using benthic macroinvertebrates for Lower Dongnai River System, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Le Phi; Quoi, Le Phat; Duc, Pham Anh

    2012-04-01

    It has been demonstrated by research that the most successful assessment methods have been based on the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. A lot of bio-indices have been applied to evaluate the water quality widely. However, most of them have got the rankings for the water quality assessment. In this study, based on the monitoring results of the benthic macroinvertebrate and the environmental parameters in the Lower Dongnai River System during three-year periods (2007 - 2009), the linear correlations among the most popular bio-indices and each environmental parameter were considered. These environmental variables having the most closed correlation with the biological indices were DO (dissolved oxygen), WQI (water quality index) and total nitrogen. From the analysis, the ranking of bio-indices using benthic macroinvertebrate for the Lower Dongnai River System were established. The findings proved that the ranking of bio-indices for water quality assessment can be used to evaluate the water quality for the Lower Dongnai River System.

  7. A review of current knowledge on toxic benthic freshwater cyanobacteria--ecology, toxin production and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Quiblier; Susanna, Wood; Isidora, Echenique-Subiabre; Mark, Heath; Aurélie, Villeneuve; Jean-François, Humbert

    2013-10-01

    Benthic cyanobacteria are found globally in plethora of environments. Although they have received less attention than their planktonic freshwater counterparts, it is now well established that they produce toxins and reports of their involvement in animal poisonings have increased markedly during the last decade. Most of the known cyanotoxins have been identified from benthic cyanobacteria including: the hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsins, the neurotoxic saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a and dermatotoxins, such as lyngbyatoxin. In most countries, observations of toxic benthic cyanobacteria are fragmented, descriptive and in response to animal toxicosis events. Only a limited number of long-term studies have aimed to understand why benthic proliferations occur, and/or how toxin production is regulated. These studies have shown that benthic cyanobacterial blooms are commonly a mixture of toxic and non-toxic genotypes and that toxin concentrations can be highly variable spatially and temporally. Physiochemical parameters responsible for benthic proliferation vary among habitat type with physical disturbance (e.g., flow regimes, wave action) and nutrients commonly identified as important. As climatic conditions change and anthropogenic pressures on waterways increase, it seems likely that the prevalence of blooms of benthic cyanobacteria will increase. In this article we review current knowledge on benthic cyanobacteria: ecology, toxin-producing species, variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation, their impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms and current monitoring and management strategies. We suggest research needs that will assist in filling knowledge gaps and ultimately allow more robust monitoring and management protocols to be developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the suitability of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups to reconstruct paleomonsoon from Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasa, M.; Saraswat, Rajeev; Nigam, Rajiv

    2016-04-01

    Temporal changes in benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups were suggested as an effective proxy to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Arabian Sea. Here, in order to test the applicability of temporal variation in morpho-groups to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Bay of Bengal, we have documented recent benthic foraminiferal distribution from the continental shelf region of the northwestern Bay of Bengal. Based on the external morphology, benthic foraminifera were categorized into rounded symmetrical (RSBF) and angular asymmetrical benthic foraminifera (AABF). Additionally, a few other dominant groups were also identified based on test composition (agglutinated, calcareous) and abundance (Asterorotalids and Nonions). The relative abundance of each group was compared with the ambient physico-chemical conditions, including dissolved oxygen, organic matter, salinity and temperature. We report that the RSBF are abundant in comparatively warm and well oxygenated waters of low salinity, suggesting a preference for high energy environment, whereas AABF dominate relatively cold, hypersaline deeper waters with low dissolved oxygen, indicating a low energy environment. The agglutinated foraminifera, Asterorotalids and Nonions dominate shallow water, low salinity regions, whereas the calcareous benthic foraminiferal abundance increases away from the riverine influx regions. Food availability, as estimated from organic carbon abundance in sediments, has comparatively less influence on faunal distribution in the northwestern Bay of Bengal, as compared to dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity. We conclude that the factors associated with freshwater influx affect the distribution of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups in the northwestern Bay of Bengal and thus it can be used to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Bay of Bengal.

  9. Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Noor Artika; Hashim, Zailina; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses how climate undergo changes and the effect of climate change on air quality as well as public health. It also covers the inter relationship between climate and air quality. The air quality discussed here are in relation to the 5 criteria pollutants; ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM). Urban air pollution is the main concern due to higher anthropogenic activities in urban areas. The implications on health are also discussed. Mitigating measures are presented with the final conclusion. © 2015 APJPH.

  10. Evaluating the relationship between temporal changes in land use and resulting water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Deilami, Kaveh; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2018-03-01

    Changes in land use have a direct impact on receiving water quality. Effective mitigation strategies require the accurate prediction of water quality in order to enhance community well-being and ecosystem health. The research study employed Bayesian Network modelling to investigate the validity of using cross-sectional and longitudinal data on water quality and land use for predicting water quality in a mixed use catchment and the role it plays in the generation of blue-green algae in the receiving marine environment. Bayesian Network modelling showed that cross-sectional and longitudinal data analyses generate contrasting information about the influence of different land uses on surface water pollution. The modelling outcomes highlighted the lack of reliability in cross-sectional data analysis, based on the indication of spurious relationships between water quality and land use. On the other hand, the longitudinal data analysis, which accounted for changes in water quality and land use over a ten-year period, informed how catchment water quality varies in response to temporal changes in land use. The longitudinal data analysis further revealed that the types of anthropogenic activities have a more significant influence on pollutant generation than the change in the area extent of different land uses over time. Therefore, the careful interpretation of the findings derived solely from cross-sectional data analysis is important in the design of long-term strategies for pollution mitigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Quality of Accounting Earnings and Change in Political Power Map: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harymawan Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the earnings quality of politically connected firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006-2010. This study compare two definition (Soeharto Dependency Index (SDI and Politically Exposed Person (PEP of political connections to capture the effect of the changes of political power map on the earnings quality of politically connected firms in Indonesia. The finding shows that the quality of accounting earnings of politically connected firms which were formerly closely related to President Soeharto in 1998 are not significantly different to other firms. Furthermore, when this study employ politically exposed person as a proxy of political connections, the findings shows that connected firms have significantly lower quality accounting earnings. Consistent with prior findings, this study shows that change in political power map in Indonesia affect the level of earnings quality of politically connected firms.

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: benthic images collected from climate stations across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-16 to 2016-09-21 (NCEI Accession 0164296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Hawaiian...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-19 (NCEI Accession 0159139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Pacific Remote...

  14. Changes in land use alter soil quality and aggregate stability in the highlands of northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delelegn, Yoseph T; Purahong, Witoon; Blazevic, Amila; Yitaferu, Birru; Wubet, Tesfaye; Göransson, Hans; Godbold, Douglas L

    2017-10-19

    Land use change alters biodiversity and soil quality and thus affects ecosystem functions. This study investigated the effects of changes in land use on major soil quality indicators. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0-10 cm (top soil) under four major land uses (cropland, grassland, area exclosure, eucalyptus plantation) with similar land use change histories for analysis, and soil from a nearby natural forest was used as a reference. Land use change from natural forest to cropland and grassland significantly decreased major soil quality indicators such as soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), molybdate-reactive bicarbonate-extractable P, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore density, but compared to the cropland, change to area exclosure and eucalyptus plantation significantly improved SOC, TSN and soil aggregate stability (SAS). In addition, we assessed the correlation among indicators and found that SOC, TSN and SAS significantly correlate with many other soil quality indicators. The study highlights that the conversion of natural forest to cropland results in decline of soil quality and aggregate stability. However, compared to cropland, application of area exclosure and afforestation on degraded lands restores soil quality and aggregate stability.

  15. [Changes of regional environment quality pattern in China since 1986-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Hua; Sun, Ming-Kun; Lu, Yu-Qi

    2011-03-01

    For further study of regional differences and the pattern of changes in environmental quality in China since 1986-2008, we perform the principal component analysis, standard deviation, Mann-Kendall and cluster analysis on 18 environmental quality indexes in 28 provinces of China in this paper. Those indexes refer to pollutant emission, pollutants treatment capacities and pollutant emission of per unit land area, etc. The paper indicates that regional environmental quality in China has been increased slightly during this period. It can be divided into four stages: 1986-2000, 2000-2001, 2001-2005 and 2005-2008. The overall patterns of regional environmental quality is the West is higher than the East in general, while the environmental quality of the eastern part have been changed somewhat. For more details, the regional environmental quality in China in 1986 is composed of two parts, the eastern part and the western part, while in 2000 and 2001 the eastern part, the middle part and the western part appears as the overall pattern. For the year of 2005, the regional environmental quality in the western is higher than that of the eastern; meanwhile, the eastern can be divided into the northern part, the middle part and the southern part, and the environmental quality in northern part is better than that of the southern part, southern part is better than that of the middle part. This pattern hardly changed in 2008, except that the area with poor environment quality region had expanded. Pollutant emission of per unit land area played as a main factor; yet both the pollutant emission and the reuse of pollutants impacted the pattern specifically. In addition, the national macro policies, the regional policies, the regional economic and the industrial structure can be primary reason for the change of regional environmental quality pattern in China as well.

  16. Review of scientific linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientific understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due...

  17. Changes in water quality at Cochin harbour dredging site, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    The water quality in the vicinity of the dredging did not show any appreciable change. All dissolved nutrients recorded sharp changes in the water column. After 20 minutes and 2 hours, the conditions at the dredging were much different from the pre...

  18. Assessing meaningful change in quality of life over time: A users' guide for clinicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Moinpour, Carol M.; Moynihan, Timothy J.; Patrick, Donald L.; Revicki, Dennis A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to help clinicians interpret trial-based quality of life (QOL) changes over time. We address a series of questions and provide guidelines that are fundamental to assessing and interpreting change. The issues addressed are as follows: (1) What are the characteristics

  19. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This

  20. Effects of anthropogenic impacts on benthic macroinvertebrates assemblages in subtropical mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M. Mesa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the riparian and surrounding landscape has been modified by anthropogenic activities, which may subsequently alter the composition and functional structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages. The effect of these changes on function of benthic fauna is difficult to assess due to the scarce knowledge on functional structures in tropical streams. In this study we evaluate whether sites impacted and unimpacted by anthropogenic alterations differed in assemblage composition and density, richness and diversity of each functional feeding group. The selection of the sites was related to their distinct riparian characteristics, following the QBRy riparian quality index. Collector-gatherer was the dominant functional feeding group, comprising 91% of total density, whereas the proportion of shredders was very low, representing less of 0.5% of total density. Asemblage composition of macroinvertebrates differed between impacted and unimpacted sites. Predators were dominant in taxa number, representing about 60% of total taxa richness. In addition, the diversity and richness of collector-gatherers differed significantly between degraded and unimpacted sites, reflecting the sensitivity of this group to environmental changes and the utility to be used in the assessment of anthropogenic modifications. The results of this study reinforce the idea that riparian corridor management is critical for the distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages as well as functional organization of lotic streams.

  1. Changes in subjective quality of life among homeless adults who obtain housing: a prospective examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J; Burnam, A; Koegel, P; Sullivan, G; Morton, S

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this present study is to examine whether overall subjective quality of life and specific domains of quality of life change among homeless adults after they become housed, and if so, what factors predict changes in satisfaction. The data analysed here were collected through face-to-face interviews with a sample of 485 homeless adults who were interviewed as often as bi-monthly over a 16-month period. Bivariate analyses examined initial differences between three groups: homeless people who did not exit from homelessness; those with an exit from homelessness to dependent housing; and those with an exit to independent housing. Bivariate analyses also examined differences in subjective quality of life before and after an exit from homelessness among the three groups. Multivariate analyses identified predictors of changes in quality of life before and after exit. This study has three main findings. First, homeless people who obtained independent housing had the largest positive and significant improvements in satisfaction with overall quality of life, and in satisfaction with housing, leisure and money. Second, becoming housed was not a predictor of changes in overall quality of life perceived by homeless people, nor in their satisfaction with leisure, clothing, food, and social life. Furthermore, a positive change in housing satisfaction was not associated with all types of exits from homelessness; only a move into independent housing predicted such a change, but a move into dependent housing did not. Finally, of all the covariates included as predictors at baseline, only two variables seemed to consistently predict changes in satisfaction; namely, self-assessed general health and self-assessed self-help skills. This study suggested that becoming independently housed may improve some aspects of quality of life for homeless people, but not others. The results suggest that homeless people prefer to be independently housed relative to remaining homeless or

  2. Potential climate change effects on Great Lakes hydrodynamics and water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, D.C.L.; Schertzer, W.M. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The problem of climate change has become increasingly recognized as a major environmental concern. Its impact can affect many socio-economic and ecosystem components. This book provides a state-of-the-art review of the climate change effects on lake hydrodynamics and water quality. Most of the engineering cases covered deal with the ability of existing infrastructure to cope with extreme weather conditions. The aim is to provide sufficient case studies to illustrate the advancement in modeling research on lake hydrodynamics, thermal stratification, pollutant transport and water quality by highlighting the climate change aspects in the application of these techniques.

  3. The influence of coral reef benthic condition on associated fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Seng, Karen M; Mannering, Thomas D; Pratchett, Morgan S; Bellwood, David R; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2012-01-01

    Accumulative disturbances can erode a coral reef's resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian corals by macroalgae or other non-coral organisms. These degraded reef systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the reef benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the reef ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing reefs around the inner Seychelles islands. Specifically, relationships between benthic composition and the underlying substrata, as well as the associated fish assemblages were assessed. High variability in benthic composition was found among reefs, with a gradient from high coral cover (up to 58%) and high structural complexity to high macroalgae cover (up to 95%) and low structural complexity at the extremes. This gradient was associated with declining species richness of fishes, reduced diversity of fish functional groups, and lower abundance of corallivorous fishes. There were no reciprocal increases in herbivorous fish abundances, and relationships with other fish functional groups and total fish abundance were weak. Reefs grouping at the extremes of complex coral habitats or low-complexity macroalgal habitats displayed markedly different fish communities, with only two species of benthic invertebrate feeding fishes in greater abundance in the macroalgal habitat. These results have negative implications for the continuation of many coral reef ecosystem processes and services if more reefs shift to extreme degraded conditions dominated by macroalgae.

  4. The influence of coral reef benthic condition on associated fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Chong-Seng

    Full Text Available Accumulative disturbances can erode a coral reef's resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian corals by macroalgae or other non-coral organisms. These degraded reef systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the reef benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the reef ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing reefs around the inner Seychelles islands. Specifically, relationships between benthic composition and the underlying substrata, as well as the associated fish assemblages were assessed. High variability in benthic composition was found among reefs, with a gradient from high coral cover (up to 58% and high structural complexity to high macroalgae cover (up to 95% and low structural complexity at the extremes. This gradient was associated with declining species richness of fishes, reduced diversity of fish functional groups, and lower abundance of corallivorous fishes. There were no reciprocal increases in herbivorous fish abundances, and relationships with other fish functional groups and total fish abundance were weak. Reefs grouping at the extremes of complex coral habitats or low-complexity macroalgal habitats displayed markedly different fish communities, with only two species of benthic invertebrate feeding fishes in greater abundance in the macroalgal habitat. These results have negative implications for the continuation of many coral reef ecosystem processes and services if more reefs shift to extreme degraded conditions dominated by macroalgae.

  5. A review of scientifc linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirusha Thambiran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientifc understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due to impacts on pollution sources and meteorology. Climate-induced changes to sources of tropospheric ozone precursor gases and to atmospheric circulation are likely to lead to changes in both the concentration and dispersion of near-surface ozone that could act to offset improvements in air quality. The control of air pollutants through air quality management is also likely to impact on climate change, with reductions in ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide being of particular interest. The improved understanding of the relationship between air quality and climate change provides a scientific basis for policy interventions. After a review of the scientific linkages, the potential to include climate change considerations in air quality management planning processes in South Africa was examined.

  6. Corroborating the Land Use Change as Primary Determinant of Air Quality Degradation in a Concentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bandung City is characterized by concentric land use pattern as found in many naturally grown cities. It radiates from mixed commercial areas in the center to low density residential areas in the periphery. This pattern generates significant traffic volume towards city center. The gener-ated traffic releases emissions and degrades urban air quality since fossil fuel is predominantly used by vehicles in Bandung. In the absence of air polluting industries as well as construction and demolition activities, traffic load generated by land use changes is the only major contribu-tor to air quality degradation in the city. The land use change can therefore be seen as primary determinant of air pollution in Bandung. This study analyses land use changes and its impacts on traffic pattern and air quality. Multivariate correlation between traffic load and land use changes is employed as tool to substantiate the proposition. Relationships between the degree of chang-es in land use, as reflected in traffic loads, and the quantity of two principal air pollutants, namely SO2 and HC are also established to validate the argument. The result of analysis sub-stantiates the correlation between land use changes and air quality degradation.

  7. Linkages between rapid climate variability and deep-sea benthic foraminifera in the deep Subantarctic South Atlantic during the last 95 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, Paula; Barker, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    We present a high-resolution record of benthic foraminifera fauna from a sediment core retrieved from the South Cape Basin (Subantarctic South Atlantic) spanning the last glacial cycle (95 kyr). Information provided by benthic foraminiferal assemblages together with paleoclimate proxies from the same core allow us to interpret changes in the style of primary production (episodic versus sustained) in relation to abrupt climate oscillations. Our results indicate that fluctuations in the abundance of the phytodetritus-related species, Epistominella exigua, are concomitant with millennial-scale high-latitude climate perturbations. Episodic phytoplankton blooms increased during a negative mode of the bipolar seesaw, irrespective of the magnitude of the perturbation (i.e., Heinrich stadial versus non-Heinrich stadial events). We provide a hypothesis linking the frequency and intensity of these events to atmospheric perturbations, interhemispheric climate variability, and millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2. A notable exception to the overall pattern is the generally high abundance of E. exigua across the globally synchronous onset of glacial marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 4, a period generally characterized by increased dustiness and low-quality organic carbon as inferred by the percentage of the nonphytodetritus species. This highlights the special characteristics governing the onset of MIS 4 in the Subantarctic.

  8. Minimizing quality changes of cloudy apple juice: The use of kiwifruit puree and high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Junjie; Kebede, Biniam; Kristiani, Kristiani; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2018-05-30

    Cloud loss, enzymatic browning, and flavor changes are important quality defects of cloudy fruit juices determining consumer acceptability. The development of clean label options to overcome such quality problems is currently of high interest. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of kiwifruit puree (clean label ingredient) and high pressure homogenization on quality changes of cloudy apple juice using a multivariate approach. The use of kiwifruit puree addition and high pressure homogenization resulted in a juice with improved uniformity and cloud stability by reducing particle size and increasing viscosity and yield stress (p taste balance, and a more fruity aroma of juice. This work demonstrates that clean label options to control quality degradation of cloudy fruit juice might offer new opportunities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Benthic algae of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Barbara C.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic algae were collected from 20 streams in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages by the U.S. Geological Survey in May and June of 1993 as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. These streams were selected to represent "benchmark" streams that were minimally affected by human activities, especially agriculture, for comparison to other streams in similar environmental settings. Streams were chosen from four relatively homogeneous units (RHU's) in agricultural areas with differing texture of surficial deposits and bedrock type.

  10. [An analysis of the effectiveness of external quality assurance programmes using changes in quality indicators of individual hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Nicholas; Gerhardinger, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Judging the effectiveness of external quality assurance programmes by comparing current performance with unadjusted regional or national crude averages is misleading because the influence of the actual size of the populations under consideration as well as the variance of performance between hospitals is underestimated. Not only do these artefacts lead to a general overestimation of changes in regional averages. They also may lead to a ranking confounded by regional size. An assessment at unit level circumvents these difficulties. The differential grading of degree of departure of a unit's performance from national targets available from funnel plots allows, in addition, for the discrimination between effects due to the monitoring institution and achievements attributable to the hospital under surveillance. A central role is played by the scoring system adopted for evaluating incremental changes of performance indicator values in successive years. The following proposal is intended to both assist the assessment of effectiveness of quality assurance programmes and identify areas requiring urgent improvement. Bavarian quality assurance data (BAQ 1995) are used to illustrate the method. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Economic Valuation on Change of Tourism Quality in Rawapening, Indonesia: An Application of Random Utility Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Irawan, B. R. M. B.; Sasongko, G.; Hakim, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine the profit (loss) earned economic actors tourism activities if the condition or quality of tourism in Rawapening be improved (deteriorated). Change condition or quality can be seen by traveling expenses, natural environment, Japanese cultural performances, and traditional markets. The method used to measure changes in the economic benefits or economic loss with a random utility approach. The study was found that travel cost, natural environment, Japanese cultural performances, and traditional markets have significant factors about respondent preferences to choose the change of tourism condition. The value of compensation received by visitors as a result of changes in conditions improved by 2,932 billion, while the change in the condition worsens by 2,628 billion. Recommendation of this study is the local government should consider environmental factors in the formulation of tourism development in Rawapening.

  12. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rozalli, N. H.; Chin, N. L.; Yusof, Y. A.; Mahyudin, N.

    2015-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectiv...

  13. Beyond yields: Climate change effects on specialty crop quality and agroecological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change is impacting the sustainability of food systems through shifts in natural and human dimensions of agroecosystems that influence farmer livelihoods, consumer choices, and food security. This paper highlights the need for climate studies on specialty crops to focus not only on yields, but also on quality, as well as the ability of agroecological management to buffer climate effects on quality parameters. Crop quality refers to phytonutrient and secondary metabolite profiles and associated health and sensory properties that influence consumer buying decisions. Through two literature reviews, we provide examples of specialty crops that are vulnerable to climate effects on quality and examples of climate-resilient agroecological strategies. A range of specialty crops including fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, stimulants, and herbs were identified to respond to climate variables with changes in quality. The review on climate-resilient strategies to mitigate effects on crop quality highlighted a major gap in the literature. However, agricultural diversification emerged as a promising strategy for climate resilience more broadly and highlights the need for future research to assess the potential of diversified agroecosystems to buffer climate effects on crop quality. We integrate the concepts from our literature review within a socio-ecological systems framework that takes into account feedbacks between crop quality, consumer responses, and agroecosystem management. The presented framework is especially useful for two themes in agricultural development and marketing, nutrition-sensitive agriculture and terroir, for informing the design of climate-change resilient specialty crop systems focused on management of quality and other ecosystem services towards promoting environmental and human wellbeing.

  14. Longitudinal change in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, John; Gibson, G John; Bourke, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for management of patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend that clinical decisions, including escalation to assisted ventilation, be informed by an estimate of the patients’ likely postdischarge quality of life. There is little evidence to inform predictions of outcome in terms of quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status. Undue nihilism might lead to denial of potentially life-saving therapy, while undue optimism might prolong suffering when alternative palliation would be more appropriate. This study aimed to detail longitudinal changes in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD. Methods We prospectively recruited two cohorts (exacerbations requiring assisted ventilation during admission and exacerbations not ventilated). Admission clinical data, and mortality and readmission details were collected. Quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status were formally assessed over the subsequent 12 months. Time-adjusted mean change in quality of life was examined. Results 183 patients (82 ventilated; 101 not ventilated) were recruited. On average, overall quality of life improved by a clinically important amount in those not ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Both groups showed clinically important improvements in respiratory symptoms and an individual's sense of control over their condition, despite the tendency for functional status to decline. Conclusions On average, postdischarge quality of life improved in non-ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Certain quality of life domains (ie, symptoms and mastery) improved significantly. Better understanding of longitudinal change in postdischarge quality of life should help to inform decision-making. PMID:25628892

  15. Longitudinal change in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, John; Gibson, G John; Bourke, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for management of patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend that clinical decisions, including escalation to assisted ventilation, be informed by an estimate of the patients' likely postdischarge quality of life. There is little evidence to inform predictions of outcome in terms of quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status. Undue nihilism might lead to denial of potentially life-saving therapy, while undue optimism might prolong suffering when alternative palliation would be more appropriate. This study aimed to detail longitudinal changes in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD. We prospectively recruited two cohorts (exacerbations requiring assisted ventilation during admission and exacerbations not ventilated). Admission clinical data, and mortality and readmission details were collected. Quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status were formally assessed over the subsequent 12 months. Time-adjusted mean change in quality of life was examined. 183 patients (82 ventilated; 101 not ventilated) were recruited. On average, overall quality of life improved by a clinically important amount in those not ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Both groups showed clinically important improvements in respiratory symptoms and an individual's sense of control over their condition, despite the tendency for functional status to decline. On average, postdischarge quality of life improved in non-ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Certain quality of life domains (ie, symptoms and mastery) improved significantly. Better understanding of longitudinal change in postdischarge quality of life should help to inform decision-making.

  16. Nitrous Oxide Production by Abundant Benthic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    screened more than 20 macrofauna species for nitrous oxide production and identified filter-feeders and deposit-feeders that occur ubiquitously and at high abundance (e.g., chironomids, ephemeropterans, snails, and mussels) as the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species...... and temperature. Given the increasing nitrate pollution of freshwater ecosystems, the collective gut of benthic macrofauna might constitute an increasingly important yet hitherto overlooked link in the global nitrous oxide budget....

  17. The Impacts of Weight Change and Weight Change Intention on Health-Related Quality of Life in the Korean Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Eun Sun

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the impacts of weight change and weight change intention on health-related quality of life (HRQL) among community-dwelling Korean elderly individuals. Data on those aged 75 years and above from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Compared with no weight change, unintentional weight loss was associated with significantly lower adjusted overall HRQL and lower scores in the subdimensions of mobility, pain/discomfort, usual activities, and self-care (in order), whereas intentional weight loss was associated with significantly poorer scores for anxiety/depression. Weight gain showed no statistically significant differences in comparison with no weight change. These findings suggest that weight maintenance or weight gain should be recommended rather than weight loss, whether unintentional or intentional, regardless of weight status, to improve HRQL among the elderly.

  18. Assessment of stream quality using biological indices at selected sites in the Brandywine Creek basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    In 1970, the Chester County Water Resources Authority (Pennsylvania) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a longterm water-quality network with the goal of assessing the quality of streams in the county and understanding stream changes in response to urbanization using benthic-macroinvertebrate data. This database represents one of the longest continuous water-quality data sets in the country. Benthic macroinvertebrates are aquatic insects, such as mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, and midges, and other invertebrates that live on the stream bottom. Benthic macroinvertebrates are useful in evaluating stream quality because their habitat preferences and low motility cause them to be affected directly by substances that enter the aquatic system. By evaluating the diversity and community structure of benthic-macroinvertebrate populations, a determination of stream quality can be made.Between 1981 and 1997, the water-quality network consisted of 43 sites in 5 major basins in Chester County—Delaware, Schuylkill, Brandywine, Big Elk and Octoraro, and Red and White Clay. Benthicmacroinvertebrate, water-chemistry, and habitat data were collected each year in October or November during base-flow conditions. Using these data, Reif evaluated the overall water-quality condition of Chester County streams. This Fact Sheet summarizes the key findings from Reif for streams in the Brandywine Creek Basin. These streams include West Branch Brandywine Creek (sites 37 and 38), Buck Run (site 46), Doe Run (site 45), East Branch Brandywine Creek (sites 48, 42, 36, and 39), Indian Run (site 47), West Valley Creek (site 44), and Main Stem Brandywine Creek (site 40). This summary includes an analysis of stream conditions based on benthic-macroinvertebrate samples and an analysis of trends in stream conditions for the 17-year study period.

  19. Multivariate benthic ecosystem functioning in the Arctic – benthic fluxes explained by environmental parameters in the southeastern Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Link

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on Arctic marine ecosystems and their biogeochemical cycles are difficult to predict given the complex physical, biological and chemical interactions among the ecosystem components. We studied benthic biogeochemical fluxes in the Arctic and the influence of short-term (seasonal to annual, long-term (annual to decadal and other environmental variability on their spatial distribution to provide a baseline for estimates of the impact of future changes. In summer 2009, we measured fluxes of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, soluble reactive phosphate and silicic acid at the sediment–water interface at eight sites in the southeastern Beaufort Sea at water depths from 45 to 580 m. The spatial pattern of the measured benthic boundary fluxes was heterogeneous. Multivariate analysis of flux data showed that no single or reduced combination of fluxes could explain the majority of spatial variation, indicating that oxygen flux is not representative of other nutrient sink–source dynamics. We tested the influence of eight environmental parameters on single benthic fluxes. Short-term environmental parameters (sinking flux of particulate organic carbon above the bottom, sediment surface Chl a were most important for explaining oxygen, ammonium and nitrate fluxes. Long-term parameters (porosity, surface manganese and iron concentration, bottom water oxygen concentrations together with δ13Corg signature explained most of the spatial variation in phosphate, nitrate and nitrite fluxes. Variation in pigments at the sediment surface was most important to explain variation in fluxes of silicic acid. In a model including all fluxes synchronously, the overall spatial distribution could be best explained (57% by the combination of sediment Chl a, phaeopigments, δ13Corg, surficial manganese and bottom water oxygen concentration. We conclude that it is necessary to consider long-term environmental variability along with

  20. Modeling Effects of Climate Change on Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Planning Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gidhagen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ a nested system of global and regional climate models, linked to regional and urban air quality chemical transport models utilizing detailed inventories of present and future emissions, to study the relative impact of climate change and changing air pollutant emissions on air quality and population exposure in Stockholm, Sweden. We show that climate change only marginally affects air quality over the 20-year period studied. An exposure assessment reveals that the population of Stockholm can expect considerably lower NO2 exposure in the future, mainly due to reduced local NOx emissions. Ozone exposure will decrease only slightly, due to a combination of increased concentrations in the city centre and decreasing concentrations in the suburban areas. The increase in ozone concentration is a consequence of decreased local NOx emissions, which reduces the titration of the long-range transported ozone. Finally, we evaluate the consequences of a planned road transit project on future air quality in Stockholm. The construction of a very large bypass road (including one of the largest motorway road tunnels in Europe will only marginally influence total population exposure, this since the improved air quality in the city centre will be complemented by deteriorated air quality in suburban, residential areas.

  1. The Influence of Coral Reef Benthic Condition on Associated Fish Assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Seng, Karen M.; Mannering, Thomas D.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Bellwood, David R.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulative disturbances can erode a coral reef's resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian corals by macroalgae or other non-coral organisms. These degraded reef systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the reef benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the reef ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing reefs ar...

  2. Changing Policy, Changing Culture: Steps toward Early Learning Quality Improvement in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler, Collette

    2011-01-01

    Across Australia a combined government effort is underway to reform early childhood education and care (ECEC) provision. A National Law Bill passed in 2010 heralds a new legal, regulatory and accountability framework that embraces all types ECEC provision. As a result, service providers face rapid change to address a new orientation and higher…

  3. Long-term (1998 vs. 2010) large-scale comparison of soft-bottom benthic macrofauna composition in the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Paulo; Grémare, Antoine; Gauthier, Olivier; Romero-Ramirez, Alicia; Bichon, Sabrina; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Labrune, Céline

    2018-01-01

    We achieved a long term (i.e., 1998 vs. 2010) large scale (i.e., whole Gulf of Lions) study of benthic macrofauna composition in the Gulf of Lions based on the resampling of 91 stations located along 21 inshore-offshore transects. Results show that the 3 main benthic communities identified in 1998 were still present in 2010 although their composition changed. Using only year and station of sampling we found a significant space-time interaction explaining changes in macrofaunal community composition, and, in this study, stations differ primarily in terms of depth and distance to the Rhône river mouth. Temporal changes in benthic macrofauna composition were clearly most important at shallow stations (i.e., in the Littoral Fine Sand community) than at deep ones (i.e., Terrigenous Coastal Mud community). These results are in good agreement with the current paradigm according to which climatic oscillations such as NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and WeMO (Western Mediterranean Oscillation) are indirectly (i.e., through changes in the frequency of occurrence and the intensity of storms) controlling benthic macrofauna composition in the Gulf of Lions. This hypothesis is further supported by a meta-analysis of changes in the average and maximal yearly abundances of the polychaete Ditrupa arietina. At last, the spatial modelling of 1998 and 2010 benthic macrofauna compositions both suggested a significant effect of Rhône River inputs on the spatial distribution of benthic macrofauna in the Gulf of Lions.

  4. Changes in Subjective Sleep Quality Before a Competition and Their Relation to Competitive Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Erlacher, Daniel; Ziegler, Matthias

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of competitions on subjective sleep quality. Previous studies have been inconclusive and lack differentiated and standardized measurements of subjective sleep quality. Furthermore the temporal relation between precompetitive anxiety and sleep quality was investigated. Anxiety and nervousness associated with competitions are considered to cause sleep impairments. A convenience sample of N = 79 elite male athletes from various sports participated. In a time-to-event paradigm, sleep quality and competitive anxiety were assessed via standardized self-report measurements 4 days before a competition and on the day of the competition. Univariate analyses were used to examine differences between time points. To examine cross-lagged effects between anxiety and sleep quality a latent change score model (LCSM) was specified that tested an effect of anxiety on changes in sleep quality. Evaluations of nocturnal sleep deteriorated significantly from 4 days before competition to the day of competition, but there were no differences regarding perceptions of the restorative value of sleep. LCSM revealed that athletes who reported more intense worry symptoms 4 days before competition also reported greater deterioration in evaluations of nocturnal sleep. The findings support earlier reports of impaired subjective sleep quality before competitions. Precompetitive sleep impairments appear also to be preceded by cognitive anxiety. Whereas interventions should thus address worry-cognitions associated with competition and sleep, research should address the practical importance of these perceptions of sleep impairments.

  5. Water quality changes in response to urban expansion: spatially varying relations and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang; Shu, Yunqiao; Li, Yangfan

    2015-11-01

    Urban expansion is an important stressor to water bodies, and the spatial variations of their relations are increasingly highlighted by recent studies. What remain unclear, however, are the underlying drivers to the spatial variability. The paper was not limited to modeling spatially varying linkages but also drew attention to the local anthropogenic influential factors that shape land-water relations. We employed geographically weighted regression to examine the relationships between urban expansion (measured by land use change intensity) and water quality changes (focusing on six water quality indicators) in a recently fast-growing Chinese city, Lianyungang. Specifically, we analyzed how the local characteristics including urbanization level, environmental management, industrial zone expansion, and land use composition, attributed to the varying responses of water quality changes. Results showed that urbanization level significantly affects land-water linkages. Remarkable water quality improvement was accompanied by urbanization in highly developed watersheds, primarily due to strong influence from extensive water management practices (particularly for COD, BOD, NH3-N, and TP). By contrast, water qualities of less-urbanized watersheds were more sensitive and negatively responsive to land use changes. Clustering industrial activities acted as distinct contributor to Hg contamination, while boosted organic pollution control in highly urbanized areas. The approach proposed in the study can locate and further zoom into the hot-spots of human-water interactions, thereby contributing to better solutions for mitigating undesirable impacts of urbanization on water environment.

  6. Characterizing the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposures to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Kathie L; Nolte, Christopher G; Spero, Tanya L; Graham, Stephen; Caraway, Nina; Foley, Kristen M; Isaacs, Kristin K

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure. Human exposure results from the Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX) for 12 US cities show differences in daily maximum 8-h (DM8H) exposure patterns and levels by sex, age, and city for all scenarios. When climate is held constant and population demographics are varied, minimal difference in O 3 exposures is predicted even with the most extreme demographic change scenario. In contrast, when population is held constant, we see evidence of substantial changes in O 3 exposure for the most extreme change in climate. Similarly, we see increases in the percentage of the population in each city with at least one O 3 exposure exceedance above 60 p.p.b and 70 p.p.b thresholds for future changes in climate. For these climate and population scenarios, the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposure to O 3 are much larger than the impacts of changing demographics. These results indicate the potential for future changes in O 3 exposure as a result of changes in climate that could impact human health.

  7. Tracing the incorporation of carbon into benthic foraminiferal calcite following the Deepwater Horizon event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Romero, Isabel C; Hollander, David J; Goddard, Ethan A; Brooks, Gregg R; Larson, Rebekka A

    2018-03-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event in 2010, hydrocarbons were deposited on the continental slope in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico through marine oil snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that benthic foraminiferal δ 13 C would record this depositional event. From December 2010 to August 2014, a time-series of sediment cores was collected at two impacted sites and one control site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Short-lived radioisotopes ( 210 Pb and 234 Th) were employed to establish the pre-DWH, DWH, and post-DWH intervals. Benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides spp. and Uvigerina spp.) were isolated from these intervals for δ 13 C measurement. A modest (0.2-0.4‰), but persistent δ 13 C depletion in the DWH intervals of impacted sites was observed over a two-year period. This difference was significantly beyond the pre-DWH (background) variability and demonstrated that benthic foraminiferal calcite recorded the depositional event. The longevity of the depletion in the δ 13 C record suggested that benthic foraminifera may have recorded the change in organic matter caused by MOSSFA from 2010 to 2012. These findings have implications for assessing the subsurface spatial distribution of the DWH MOSSFA event. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Leachates and elemental ratios of macrophytes and benthic algae of an Andean high altitude wetland

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    Beatriz MODENUTTI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In wetlands, macrophytes and filamentous algae constitute an important carbon source for the total content of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM of the environment. Mallín wetland meadows are highly diverse and rare habitats in Patagonia, that can be characterized as wet meadows with a dense cover mainly dominated by herbaceous plants. We carried out a field study comparing elemental composition (C:N:P of benthic algae (Spirogyra sp. and Zygnema sp. and the submerged macrophyte (Myriophyllum quitense from a high latitude wetland (local name: mallín. Besides we performed laboratory experiments in order to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR on the optical properties and nutrient release of DOM from leachates of these benthic algae and submerged macrophyte. The obtained results indicated that macrophyte leachates could contribute significantly to changes in the optical characteristics of the wetlands while benthic algae contribute with leachates with low photoreactivity. Finally, nutrient release differs among plant species and season: benthic algae leachates release more P in spring, while M. quitense releases more of this nutrient in autumn. These results suggested that the different colonization may contribute differentially to the chemical environment of the wetland.

  9. Recent benthic foraminifera from the Caribbean continental slope and shelf off west of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia

    2015-07-01

    A quantitative benthic foraminiferal analysis was conducted on 30 sea-floor sediment samples distributed along the continental slope and shelf in Fuerte Area (Colombian Caribbean), between 39 and 2469 m water depth. The aims of the research were to provide data on the distribution of southwestern Caribbean Recent benthic foraminifera, to estimate changes in the foraminiferal distribution related to the bathymetry and the characteristics of the substrate, to define a data-bank on distribution of recent tropical benthic foraminifera from the southwestern Caribbean, to provide reference on foraminiferal distribution that can be used in bathymetric reconstructions of ancient environments. Three different assemblages corresponding to three different environments were identified by cluster analysis. Assemblage A, characterized by variable percentages of porcellaneous, hyaline and agglutinated benthic foraminifera indicative of shelf environments. Assemblage B, dominated by calcareous hyaline foraminifera mainly composed of infaunal foraminifera corresponding to upper bathyal, marine conditions. Assemblage C, composed by agglutinated and calcareous hyaline foraminifera characteristic of normal deep-water marine environments.

  10. Paleoecology of benthic foraminifera from the Miocene of the San Jacinto Basin, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, John Sebastian; Fiorini, Flavia; Andres Trejos, Raul; Vallejo, Diego Felipe; Pardo, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative benthic foraminifera analysis was conducted on 34 samples collected from a borehole core (393.72m deep) drilled by Colombian Hydrocarbon Agency (ANH) on 2009 in the San Jacinto basin (Northern Colombia). The aims of the research were to define a taxonomical data-bank of Miocene benthic foraminifera for this region, to use the benthic foraminifera assemblages to interpret the paleoenvironment and to identify paleoenvironmental changes. The bottom of the section was dated between lowest Burdigalian to middle Langhian (20.393-17.721 Ma) based on calcareous nannofossils bioevents: LO Helicosphaera ampliaperta, HCO Sphenolithus belemnos and LCO Sphenolithus heteromorphus. The benthic foraminifera fauna identified in the studied samples is composed for the majority of calcareous hyaline tests and is dominated by infaunal taxas. Species belonging to the genera Uvigerina and Lenticulina are commonly occurring in the studied section together with other species typical of outer-shelf upper-bathyal environment. Cibicidoides spp., abundant in the lower part of the section, abruptly decreases in abundance in the upper part. Species belonging to the opportunistic genera Bulimina and Bolivina are more abundant in the upper part of the section. Variability in the abundance of opportunistic species can be associated with tectonic disturbance on the Sinu-San Jacinto fold belt (NW of Colombia) as a result of collision of the Caribbean plate against NW of South America. The tectonics could lead a perturbation on deep ocean sedimentation and circulation.

  11. Decline in the deepwater benthic communities abundance in the Onego Lake under multifactor influence

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    Kalinkina Nataliya Michailovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of deepwater benthic communities state between 1988 and 2015 was analyzed. In the last decade the decline in the deepwater benthic communities development indicators is observed in Petrozavodskaya Bay and contiguous central area of the Lake Onego. The abundance of benthos decreased by 6-7 times, biomass dropped in 2-4 times. At the same time the changes in sedimentation processes of organic matter, nutrients, iron and manganese are observed in the water ecosystem. This has resulted in an increase in the concentrations of Fe and Mn in the sediment surface layers; in pore waters up to 13 mg Fe/l and 7 mg Mn/l. The sharp increase in the content of iron and manganese in the bottom sediment can be considered as a possible factor of benthos oppression. Another reason of the benthos decrease is the reduction of anthropogenic load. Now Petrozavodskaya bay receives 3 times less light organic substances than 10 years ago. The third possible reason for the reduction of benthic communities is invasion of baikalian amphipods Gmelinoides fasciatus, resulting in the redistribution of organic matter flow from the littoral zone to the pelagic zone and depletion of deepwater benthic food resources.

  12. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, A., E-mail: anita.evenset@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Hallanger, I.G. [University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Tessmann, M. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Research, University of Hamburg (Germany); Warner, N. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Ruus, A. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Borgå, K. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern 0316, Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, G.W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ{sup 15}N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ{sup 15}N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ{sup 15}N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  13. Field experiments on responses of a freshwater, benthic macroinvertebrate community to vertebrate predators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, J.H.; Bergey, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The seasonal importance of vertebrate predators in potentially regulating the abundance and diversity of the benthic macroinvertebrates in the littoral zone of a soft-bottom reservoir that receives thermal effluent from a nuclear production reactor was examined. Thirty-six predator (fish and turtle) exclusion cages (4 m 2 ) were placed in shallow water at six locations along a thermal gradient in Par Pond, a 1100-ha cooling reservoir on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An additional 36 control plots (4 m 2 ) were also set up. Cages were in place during three, 3-mo test periods beginning in September 1977. Estimates of benthic density, taxon richness, and distribution within functional groups (defined by feeding mechanism) were calculated for each test period. Effects of temperature on predator-prey relationships were also determined. Experimental results of this study suggest that vertebrate predation was not the fundamental parameter organizing the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the littoral zone of this reservoir. Neither taxon richness nor density of total macroinvertebrates was conclusively related to predator treatment. Relationships between predator treatment and community response (changes in density and taxon richness) were generally unaffected by either plot locality, temperature fluctuations from thermal effluent, or seasonal changes. When data from caged and control plots were pooled, however, both location and water temperature individually had direct impacts on the benthic community. From these results and other field studies it is hypothesized that individual species of keystone benthic predators do not occur in the littoral zone of freshwater lentic environments with soft bottoms

  14. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, A.; Hallanger, I.G.; Tessmann, M.; Warner, N.; Ruus, A.; Borgå, K.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Christensen, G.; Renaud, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ 15 N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ 15 N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ 15 N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  15. Professional Quality of Life and Changes in Spirituality Among VHA Chaplains: A Mixed Methods Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Wesley H; Carroll, Timothy D; Slagel, Brett A; Drescher, Kent D; Nieuwsma, Jason A; Currier, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    A mixed method design was implemented to examine the spirituality and emotional well-being of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) chaplains and how potential changes in spirituality and emotional well-being may affect their professional quality of life. Four distinct categories of changes emerged from the narrative statements of a nationally representative sample of 267 VHA chaplains: (1) positive changes (e.g., increased empathy), (2) negative changes (e.g., dysthymic mood, questioning religious beliefs), (3) combination of positive and negative changes, and (4) no change (e.g., sustenance through spirituality or self-care). Most chaplains reported positive (37%) or no change (30%) in their spirituality and/or emotional well-being. However, quantitative analyses revealed that chaplains who reported negative changes endorsed greater burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Overall, these findings suggest VHA chaplains are predominantly spiritually resilient, but negative changes in the spiritual domain can occur, potentially increasing the risk of adverse changes in professional quality of life.

  16. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  17. HIGH-RESOLUTION ACOUSTIC MAPPING OF GAS CHARGED SEDIMENTS AND LIVING BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE NE REGION OF THE GUANABARA BAY (RJ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielli Paula Delavy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed in the NE region of the Guanabara Bay, a highly impacted Brazilian coastal system, located in Rio de Janeiro State. It aimed to: i identify and map the areas with occurrence of gas in the sediment, as well as its acoustic signature; ii characterize the physical properties of the sediments and; iii document the response of microbenthic organisms (living benthic foraminifera to changes in quantity and quality of organic matter. Seismic surveys at the frequency of 12 kHz identified a large area with about 50% gas charged sediments in the study area. The main acoustic signatures of the shallow gas were black shadow and gas blanket. In addition, features related to gas seepages to the water column (acoustic plumes and pockmarks and gas percolation within the sediments (intra-sedimentary plumes, turbidity pinnacles were also identified. The gas has a biogenic origin and results from the high sedimentation rate between 0.03 to 0.9 cm.year-1 and from the decomposition of large amount of organic matter (10-20%. Vertical distribution of gas ranges from few centimeters to 9 m below the water-sediments interface. These occurrences are related to both gas migration from lower sedimentary layers to Holocene muds above, and to recent generation in near-surface sediments as the area display favorable conditions for gas production. Cores ranging from 150-240 cm in length have predominantly muddy sediments and variations in the P-wave velocity followed the changes in sediment density, controlled mainly by the presence of gas in sediments, bioclasts accumulation, textural variation and percentage of organic matter. The TOC content and Rock-Eval pyrolysis parameters evaluated in nine surface sediment samples indicate that good to excellent amount of organic matter associated with moderate to good source potential for gas production is present in the study area. In these areas living benthic foraminifera are of reduced diversity and density

  18. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier; Gibert, Oriol; Marti, Vicens; Diez, Sergi; Romo, Javier; Bayona, Josep Maria; Pablo, Joan de

    2007-01-01

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour

  19. Quality of life of parents diagnosed with cancer: change over time and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, J; Götze, H; Brähler, E; Körner, A; Hinz, A

    2012-07-01

    Suffering from cancer while having parental responsibilities can amplify the psychosocial strain that the disease puts on the individual as well as on the whole family system. Our longitudinal study examines changes in the quality of life of cancer patients in relation to parenthood. The quality of life of cancer patients is assessed with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30-item version during the initial treatment period (T1) and compared to the quality of life 2 years later (T2). Two groups of patients are compared: those who have children below the age of 18 years (n= 41) and those who do not have children (n= 28). Shortly after being diagnosed with cancer (T1), both groups report a similarly low quality of life. Two years later (T2), individuals with children below the age of 18 report better quality of life on the majority of the dimensions assessed. However, variance analysis did not show that this is an independent effect of parenthood. In fact, having a partner and being female proved to impact the quality of life. These findings support the existing body of research on the influence of social support and gender on quality of life. The resulting limitations and suggestions on how to overcome them in further research are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Quality of life and severity of skin changes in the dynamics of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Owczarek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with periods of recurrence and remission. The skin changes which are typical of this disease can have a considerable effect on the patient’s psychological state, self-esteem and body image. It can also affect the patient’s functioning in all areas of life and quality of life. Aim : The present study characterized the patient needs to improve the quality of life in specified areas in patients depending on the severity of psoriatic changes. Material and methods: The study was conducted in two stages on 100 patients aged from 18 to 66. A dermatological examination was conducted in stage one. Patients’ dermatological condition was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Clinical and socio-economic information was collected in stage two using a questionnaire, a medical interview and a standardized questionnaire measuring quality of life, the WHOQOL-BREF. Results: The following factors had the greatest effect on the general quality of life and quality of health ratings in the studied sample: severity of psoriatic changes, duration of the most recent recurrence and sex. Severity of psoriatic changes had a negative effect on the patient’s somatic, psychological, environmental and social functioning. Duration of the most recent recurrence had a negative effect on social functioning. Practical implications of this study allow dermatologists to determine the appropriate therapeutic intervention which improves the quality of life of these patients on the one hand, and will increase patient’s involvement in the process of treatment on the other hand. Conclusions : Quality of life is more impaired by more severe chronic skin disease.

  1. Changes in quality of life after elective surgery: an observational study comparing two measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronzer, Vanessa L; Jerry, Michelle R; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Wildes, Troy S; McKinnon, Sherry L; Sharma, Anshuman; Avidan, Michael S

    2017-08-01

    Our main objective was to compare the change in a validated quality of life measure to a global assessment measure. The secondary objectives were to estimate the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) and to describe the change in quality of life by surgical specialty. This prospective cohort study included 7902 adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Changes in the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12), composed of a physical component summary (PCS) and a mental component summary (MCS), were calculated using preoperative and postoperative questionnaires. The latter also contained a global assessment question for quality of life. We compared PCS and MCS to the global assessment using descriptive statistics and weighted kappa. MCID was calculated using an anchor-based approach. Analyses were pre-specified and registered (NCT02771964). By the change in VR-12 scores, an equal proportion of patients experienced improvement and deterioration in quality of life (28% for PCS, 25% for MCS). In contrast, by the global assessment measure, 61% reported improvement, while only 10% reported deterioration. Agreement with the global assessment was slight for both PCS (kappa = 0.20, 57% matched) and MCS (kappa = 0.10, 54% matched). The MCID for the overall VR-12 score was approximately 2.5 points. Patients undergoing orthopedic surgery showed the most improvement in quality of life measures, while patients undergoing gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary or urologic surgery showed the most deterioration. Subjective global quality of life report does not agree well with a validated quality of life instrument, perhaps due to patient over-optimism.

  2. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to urbanization in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Kashuba, R.; May, J.T.; Waite, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated in nine metropolitan areas (Boston, MA; Raleigh, NC; Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Milwaukee–Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas–Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. Several invertebrate metrics showed strong, linear responses to urbanization when forest or shrublands were developed. Responses were difficult to discern in areas where urbanization was occurring on agricultural lands because invertebrate assemblages were already severely degraded. There was no evidence that assemblages showed any initial resistance to urbanization. Ordination scores, EPT taxa richness, and the average tolerance of organisms were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition at a site. Richness metrics were better indicators than abundance metrics, and qualitative samples were as good as quantitative samples. A common set of landscape variables (population density, housing density, developed landcover, impervious surface, and roads) were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses in all non-agricultural areas. The instream environmental variables (hydrology, water chemistry, habitat, and temperature) that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses were influenced by environmental setting (e.g., dominant ecoregion) and varied widely among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical regression models were developed that predicted invertebrate responses using only two landcover variables—basinscale landcover (percentage of basin area in developed land) and regional-scale landcover (antecedent agricultural land).

  3. Pollution-induced community tolerance in benthic macroinvertebrates of a mildly lead-contaminated lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, Andrew Y; Klerks, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) has been used to demonstrate effects of sediment contamination on microbes and meiofauna. Our study explored the potential to detect PICT in benthic macroinvertebrates of a lake with long-term mild lead (Pb) contamination. We collected macrobenthos from two areas in Caddo Lake, Texas, a control area (CO) with a mean sediment Pb level of 11 μg/g and Goose Prairie (GP) where sediment Pb levels averaged 74 μg/g. Upon return to the laboratory, we exposed macroinvertebrates to a lethal lead concentration and assessed 48-h mortality. Mortality of CO macrobenthos was significantly higher than that of GP macrobenthos, providing evidence that these communities differed in their tolerance to lead. A comparison of macrobenthos community composition between the areas showed that the GP macrobenthos lacked metal-sensitive taxa such as gastropods and amphipods (which were present at CO). Similarly, a higher proportion of the GP benthos belonged to metal-tolerant taxa such as isopods and chironomids. Thus, changes in community composition appeared to be at least partly responsible for differences in community tolerance. Our results showed that a sediment Pb concentration below effect-based sediment quality guidelines had a measurable impact on macrobenthos, thus demonstrating that results from single-species toxicity tests may underestimate impacts on communities. This study also confirms that the PICT approach with macroinvertebrates is a feasible and potentially powerful approach for detecting contaminant impacts.

  4. Organizational change in quality management aspects: a quantitative proposal for classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Tavares de Aquino

    Full Text Available Abstract Periodically, organizations need to change the quality management aspects of processes and products in order to suit the demands of their internal and external (consumer and competitor market environments. In the context of the present study, quality management changes involve tools, programs, methods, standards and procedures that can be applied. The purpose of this study is to help senior management to identify types of change and, consequently, determine how it should be correctly conducted within an organization. The methodology involves a classification model, with multicriteria support, and three organizational change ratings were adopted (the extremes, type I and type II, as confirmed in the literature, and the intermediary, proposed herein. The multicriteria method used was ELECTRE TRI and the model was applied to two companies of the Textile Local Productive Arrangement in Pernambuco, Brazil. The results are interesting and show the consistency and coherence of the proposed classification model.

  5. Benthic buffers and boosters of ocean acidification on coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. N. Anthony

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is a threat to marine ecosystems globally. In shallow-water systems, however, ocean acidification can be masked by benthic carbon fluxes, depending on community composition, seawater residence time, and the magnitude and balance of net community production (NCP and calcification (NCC. Here, we examine how six benthic groups from a coral reef environment on Heron Reef (Great Barrier Reef, Australia contribute to changes in the seawater aragonite saturation state (Ωa. Results of flume studies using intact reef habitats (1.2 m by 0.4 m, showed a hierarchy of responses across groups, depending on CO2 level, time of day and water flow. At low CO2 (350–450 μatm, macroalgae (Chnoospora implexa, turfs and sand elevated Ωa of the flume water by around 0.10 to 1.20 h−1 – normalised to contributions from 1 m2 of benthos to a 1 m deep water column. The rate of Ωa increase in these groups was doubled under acidification (560–700 μatm and high flow (35 compared to 8 cm s−1. In contrast, branching corals (Acropora aspera increased Ωa by 0.25 h−1 at ambient CO2 (350–450 μatm during the day, but reduced Ωa under acidification and high flow. Nighttime changes in Ωa by corals were highly negative (0.6–0.8 h−1 and exacerbated by acidification. Calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda spp. raised Ωa by day (by around 0.13 h−1, but lowered Ωa by a similar or higher amount at night. Analyses of carbon flux contributions from benthic communities with four different compositions to the reef water carbon chemistry across Heron Reef flat and lagoon indicated that the net lowering of Ωa by coral-dominated areas can to some extent be countered by long water-residence times in neighbouring areas dominated by turfs, macroalgae and carbonate sand.

  6. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration, and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 is reduced by ∼ 2 µg m−3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ∼ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (∼ 74 200 lives saved. The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone, leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is  ∼ 0.04 W m−2 over the globe, and ∼ 0.8 W m−2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22

  7. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  8. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  9. Changes in Winegrape Phenology and Relationships with Climate and Wine Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G.

    2004-12-01

    During the phenological cycle of winegrapes, the timing of specific events and the length between the events are critical to the production of quality fruit and wine. In addition, winegrapes are typically grown in climates that optimize the ripening characteristics for specific varieties. These narrow geographical zones place the production of wine at a greater risk from climate variability and change than other more broadly based agricultural crops. To analyze the relationships between phenology, climate, and wine quality, data from three prominent regions in France-Bordeaux, Burgundy, and Champagne-are used. Long-term phenological data for bud break, flowering, veraison, and harvest dates for Pinot Noir in Burgundy and Champagne and for Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon are examined for trends, climatic influences, and the general effects on wine quality. The results reveal significantly earlier events (6-14 days) with shorter intervals between events (5-12 days) across all regions. In addition, warmer growing seasons have clearly influenced these changes in the phenological cycle of winegrapes in France. Furthermore, changes in phenology and growing season temperatures are related to better fruit composition and increases in vintage ratings over the last 30-40 years. However, some of the warmest growing seasons, with very early phenology and short intervals, have resulted in lower quality. The results point to potential threshold issues whereby any further warming will likely compromise the phenological characteristics, ripening profiles, and wine quality of the varieties currently being grown.

  10. Experimental analysis of the effects of consumer exclusion on recruitment and succession of a coral reef system along a water quality gradient in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass-Johnson, Jeremiah G.; Heiden, Jasmin P.; Abu, Nur; Lukman, Muhammad; Teichberg, Mirta

    2016-03-01

    The composition of coral reef benthic communities is strongly affected by variation in water quality and consumer abundance and composition. This is particularly evident in highly populated coastal regions where humans depend on coral reef resources and where terrestrial run-off can change the chemical composition of the water. We tested the effects of grazing pressure and ambient water conditions along an established eutrophication gradient on the recruitment and successional development of benthic communities of the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia, through caging experiments with settlement tiles. Within 1 month, benthic community composition of the closest reef to land, near the city of Makassar, was significantly different from other sites further offshore, driven primarily by differences in recruitment of invertebrates or turf algae. In contrast to other caging experiments, consumer exclusion had no effect after 3 months, suggesting that larger, mobile consumers had little effect on the benthic communities of these reefs at all sites. Despite conditions that usually favour macroalgal development, this group was rarely observed on recruitment tiles even after 4 months of consumer exclusion. Furthermore, tiles from both the caged and open treatments retained high proportions of open space indicating the possible role of small-sized or non-fish consumers that were not excluded from the experiment. These results indicate that, unlike many other studies, benthic consumers in the Spermonde Archipelago had little effect on the recruitment and early succession of the reef habitat and that unexamined biota such as mesograzers may be significant in degraded systems.

  11. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  12. Suitability of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Water Quality Model to Predict Changes in Water Quality from Altered Meteorological Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon van der Linden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Downscaled climate scenarios can be used to inform management decisions on investment in infrastructure or alternative water sources within water supply systems. Appropriate models of the system components, such as catchments, rivers, lakes and reservoirs, are required. The climatic sensitivity of the coupled hydrodynamic water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM was investigated, by incrementally altering boundary conditions, to determine its suitability for evaluating climate change impacts. A series of simulations were run with altered boundary condition inputs for the reservoir. Air and inflowing water temperature (TEMP, wind speed (WIND and reservoir inflow and outflow volumes (FLOW were altered to investigate the sensitivity of these key drivers over relevant domains. The simulated water quality variables responded in broadly plausible ways to the altered boundary conditions; sensitivity of the simulated cyanobacteria population to increases in temperature was similar to published values. However the negative response of total chlorophyll-a suggested by the model was not supported by an empirical analysis of climatic sensitivity. This study demonstrated that ELCOM-CAEDYM is sensitive to climate drivers and may be suitable for use in climate impact studies. It is recommended that the influence of structural and parameter derived uncertainty on the results be evaluated. Important factors in determining phytoplankton growth were identified and the importance of inflowing water quality was emphasized.

  13. PALEOENVIRONMENTAL RECONSTRUCTION FROM BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL ASSEMBLAGES OF EARLY HOLOCENE, SHALLOW MARINE DEPOSITS IN GOMBONG, CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luli Gustiani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 30m-long sediment core covering the Holocene period was taken from the area of Gombong in the southern part of Central Java. The sediments were deposited in a shallow marine to lagoonal environment that was confirmed by the dominance of Ammonia beccarii along the core intervals. In addition, the species Quinqueloculina poeyana, Miliolinella lakemacquariensis, and Miliolinella subrotunda were also found in the sediments that are typical of normal shallow marine conditions. The decrease and increase in the abundance of these species throughout the core is an expression of sea level change in the area, which results the environmental changes. Low sea level is expressed by the dominance of Ammonia beccarii, and the low abundances or absence of the other three species. In contrast, high sea level stands are reflected by the presence of all four species. The high sea level would imply favorable conditions for benthic foraminifera because it would result in normal shallow marine conditions in the area. Finally, from this benthic assemblages study, it can be assumed that the environmental transformation from the originally shallow marine environment into land was occurred at level 5.5m depths of the sediment core, when all benthic foraminifera were terminated, including Ammonia beccarii. These new results from the shallow marine deposits in the Gombong area are a new contribution to the understanding of paleoenvironmental change in the region, which in turn is important for understanding sea level change as well as climate change in the region.

  14. Potential Impacts of Future Climate Change on Regional Air Quality and Public Health over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change would affect public health through changing air quality. Climate extremes and poor weather conditions are likely to occur at a higher frequency in China under a changing climate, but the air pollution-related health impacts due to future climate change remain unclear. Here the potential impacts of future climate change on regional air quality and public health over China is projected using a coupling of climate, air quality and epidemiological models. We present the first assessment of China's future air quality in a changing climate under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario using the dynamical downscaling technique. In RCP4.5 scenario, we estimate that climate change from 2006-2010 to 2046-2050 is likely to adversely affect air quality covering more than 86% of population and 55% of land area in China, causing an average increase of 3% in O3 and PM2.5 concentrations, which are found to be associated with the warmer climate and the more stable atmosphere. Our estimate of air pollution-related mortality due to climate change in 2050 is 26,000 people per year in China. Of which, the PM2.5-related mortality is 18,700 people per year, and the O3-related mortality is 7,300 people per year. The climate-induced air pollution and health impacts vary spatially. The climate impacts are even more pronounced on the urban areas where is densely populated and polluted. 90% of the health loss is concentrated in 20% of land areas in China. We use a simple statistical analysis method to quantify the contributions of climate extremes and find more intense climate extremes play an important role in climate-induced air pollution-related health impacts. Our results indicate that global climate change will likely alter the level of pollutant management required to meet future air quality targets as well as the efforts to protect public health in China.

  15. Technology change priorities influencing competition quality promotion: Case study of Iran Keaton Polyester Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Nour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the changing world with various customers’ demands the businesses tend to improve their advantages to beat their rivals by means of better quality, lower prices and so. For Iranian polyester market quality is of crucial importance and is achieved through changing and updating technologies. According to highly regarded model of CAPTECH, which is recommended by UNIDO, technology parameters are defined in each phase and not generally as a whole. In the end the biggest gaps are defined. The main goal is to prioritize the main parameters affecting Iranian polyester company's quality. In order to fulfill our goal, 20 high and medium managers were questioned for this paper. The questions were gathered according to UNIDO samples. After a qualitative and quantitative test we concluded that the biggest gap is for supply chain(56.91 and the lowest gap is for combination phase(43.97.

  16. Perspectives on efficiency and quality in an ever changing system: Healthcare 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Neel

    2010-06-01

    The Healthcare 2010 conference at the Omni New Haven Hotel at Yale in April focused on how different stakeholders in the healthcare industry can excel in light of the recent landmark health-reform bill. A session titled "Maintaining Efficiency and Quality in an Ever Changing System" provided valuable insights into several perceptions of these two tenets, with respect to both the current state of U.S. healthcare and the recent reform. The engaging dialog that ensued concerning payer, provider, public, and patient perspectives yielded a unique view of the dynamic interplay between efficiency and quality in the context of the current healthcare system. While the discussion highlighted differences in the definitions of efficiency and quality upheld by the various players, a unifying theme emerged: In order to excel in this ever changing system, incentive structures will have to evolve to take full advantage of the potential synergies between the two.

  17. Academic Developers as Change Agents Improving Quality in a Large Interprofessional Undergraduate Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Moira

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written about academic developers as change agents but not in an interprofessional education (IPE) context. IPE involves teaching students in different health professions how to work effectively in teams across professional boundaries to improve the quality of patient care. Extensive evidence reveals that implementing sustainable IPE…

  18. Estimating potential impacts of a change in river quality on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating potential impacts of a change in river quality on the tourism value of Kruger National Park : an application of travel cost, contingent, and conjoint valuation ... In South Africa new techniques will be needed to incorporate environmental values into environmental impact assessment and in the allocation of water ...

  19. Teacher Education around the World: Changing Policies and Practices. Teacher Quality and School Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda, Ed.; Lieberman, Ann, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers are the most important single element of the education system but what does it take to create high quality teachers in today's world? Around the world, countries are struggling to understand how to change their schools to meet global demands. International comparisons have shown that schools in Finland lead the league tables, but why is…

  20. Organic fertilisers of the mac trial and their impact on soil quality, environment and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.J.; Zanen, M.; Bokhorst, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    After 8 years, the MAC field trial in Lelystad, the Netherlands, shows the effects of different fertiliser strategies, ranging from animal manure to plant compost to mineral fertiliser. The impact on yield, soil quality, soil health, environment and climate change is discussed. The trial is unique

  1. Seasonal changes in the quality of diet selected by cattle grazing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recommended that protein supplementation of animals grazing veld be initiated in February in the area. Keywords: cattle; cattle grazing; consumption; crude protein; diet; digestibility; dundee research station; grazing; in vitro digestibility; leaves; natal sour sandveld; plant parts; protein; quality; seasonal changes; south ...

  2. Individualized Health Intervention: Behavioral Change and Quality of Life in an Older Rural Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Biao; Chen, Kun; Yu, Yunxian; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Zheng, Weijun

    2010-01-01

    A randomized cluster trial was conducted to assess the impact of individualized health intervention guided by the transtheoretical model (TTM) theory on behavior change and quality of life (QoL) among the older rural population of China. A total of 2441 persons aged 60 years and over participated in the study. After a nine-month intervention,…

  3. Does Change in Functional Performance Affect Quality of Life in Persons with Orthopaedic Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne-Marie; Smith, Pamela M.; Smith, David; Rice, Janida L.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Examine the association between change in functional status and quality of life for individuals with orthopaedic impairments approximately 90 days after discharge from in-patient medical rehabilitation. Methods: A retrospective study from 2001 to 2002 using information from the IT HealthTrack database. The study included…

  4. Changes in Quality of Life and Psychological Need Satisfaction Following the Transition to Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Standage, Martyn; Skevington, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QoL) is an important area for research during adolescence, due to its associations with (1) physical and mental health and (2) the emergence of health risk behaviours. A time that poses a particular threat to QoL is the transition from primary to secondary school. Aims: This study aimed to investigate changes in QoL…

  5. Adding Two School Age Children: Does It Change Quality in Family Child Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Deborah J.; Howes, Carollee

    1997-01-01

    Randomly selected family child care homes providing minimal quality care were observed prior to, and after, enrolling two additional school age children. Results suggest that modest change in number and age range of children in family child care home providing minimally acceptable care may potentially decrease provider sensitivity and may be less…

  6. Changes in sleep architecture and quality in minimal hepatic encephalopathy patients and relationship to psychological dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyun; Zhou, Jianguang; Yang, Xuedong; Lv, Jiao; Shi, Yunxing; Zeng, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    We examined changes in sleep quality and architecture in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and the impacts of sleep disruption on patient physical and psychological health. Ninety-eight MHE patients were examined by polysomnography (PSG) and the Pittsburg sleep quality inventory (PSQI). In addition, patients completed the SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 to examine the relationship between sleep quality and psychological health. Mean relative durations of Stage 1 and Stage 2, sleep latency, microarousal frequency, and total sleep time (TST) were all lower in MHE patients compared to healthy controls (Ppsychological dysfunction. Longer SWS, longer REM, and lower microarousal frequency were associated with improved sleep quality (Pchanges in sleep architecture that are strongly correlated with psychological dysfunction.

  7. The impact of climate-induced distributional changes on the validity of biological water quality metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, Christopher; Thompson, David J; Harvey, Ian F

    2010-01-01

    We present data on the distributional changes within an order of macroinvertebrates used in biological water quality monitoring. The British Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) have been shown to be expanding their range northwards and this could potentially affect the use of water quality metrics. The results show that the families of Odonata that are used in monitoring are shifting their ranges poleward and that species richness is increasing through time at most UK latitudes. These past distributional shifts have had negligible effects on water quality indicators. However, variation in Odonata species richness (particularly in species-poor regions) has a significant effect on water quality metrics. We conclude with a brief review of current and predicted responses of aquatic macroinvertebrates to environmental warming and maintain that caution is warranted in the use of such dynamic biological indicators.

  8. Influence of invasive Acer negundo leaf litter on benthic microbial abundance and activity in the littoral zone of a temperate river in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krevš Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forests are known as important source of allochthonous organic matter entering to water ecosystems via fallen leaves. However, leaf litter, depending on their quality, may create different conditions for benthic microorganisms functioning in littoral zone of water bodies. In order to evaluate the impact of riparian invasive Acer negundo on littoral water zone of the River Neris (Lithuania, we performed physicochemical and microbiological investigations in bottom sediments of three different sites of the river. One sampling site was close by riparian A. negundo, another close by native Alnus glutinosa location and a third zone was near the shore without riparian vegetation. Content of nutrients in the littoral sediments differed between invasive and native trees leaf litter accumulation sites, while not always significantly. The highest microbial densities as well as benthic community respiratory activity (expressed as the rate of organic carbon mineralization occurred in A. negundo leaves accumulation site. In sediments of this site, the most intensive anaerobic terminal organic carbon mineralization process − sulfate reduction and the highest concentration of hydrogen sulfide were also observed. Differences in the intensity of mineralization processes between sites suggest that the replacement of the riparian native species such as dominant A. glutinosa by invasive A. negundo with higher biodegradability leaves may induce local changes in organic matter processing in the littoral zone of the river. The increase of littoral bioproductivity in the accumulation zone of A. negundo leaf litter can occur due to the inflow of available organic matter and its intensive mineralization.

  9. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon: A seasonal study from Faroe Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    á Norði, Gunnvør; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud; Gaard, Eilif

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for rates were associated to the spring bloom. The dynamics in the benthic solute exchange were governed by stratification that isolated the bottom water during summer and intensified sediment resuspension during winter. The POC export from the euphotic zone could not sustain the benthic mineralization rate (10.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1) and the calculated burial rate (9.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1) of organic material in the central basin. This indicated considerable focusing of material in the central part of the fjord. This was supported by the fact that the measured benthic mineralization rate - in contrast to most investigations - actually increased with increasing water depth. In August, when mineralization was at its maximum, the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) release from the sediment increased by 2.2 mmol m- 2 d- 1 for every m increase in water depth at 30-60 m depth. Due to sediment focusing, the OC burial in the deepest part of the fjord was 9.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1. This was 2.4 times higher than the average OC burial in the fjord, estimated from the total sedimentation, and benthic mineralization accounting for the water depth related changes in activity. The study in Kaldbaksfjørður underscore that fjords are important sites for long time OC burial, but emphasize the need for accounting for spatial variations when extrapolating results from a single or few stations to the scale of the entire fjord.

  10. Spatio-temporal benthic biodiversity patterns and pollution pressure in three Mediterranean touristic ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Mandalakis, Manolis; Damianidis, Panagiotis; Dailianis, Thanos; Gambineri, Simone; Rossano, Claudia; Scapini, Felicita; Carucci, Alessandra; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2018-05-15

    The Mediterranean Sea is one of the busiest areas worldwide in terms of maritime activity, facing considerable anthropogenic disturbance, such as pollution by hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The present study has evaluated the environmental and benthic biodiversity characteristics of three touristic ports, Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy), Heraklion (Crete, Greece) and El Kantaoui (Tunisia), based on the combined assessment of physical parameters, chemical variables (i.e. nutrients, pigments), sediment pollution and macrobenthic biodiversity. Different port sectors (leisure, fishing, passenger, cargo, shipyard) and different seasons (winter, before touristic period, after touristic period) were compared. Salinity and sediment concentration of copper and antimony were the three environmental parameters most highly correlated with benthic species composition and diversity. Both the environmental variables and the benthic biodiversity patterns were significantly different between the three ports (i.e. different geographical locations). Heraklion port was heavily polluted by AHs in surface and anoxic sediments and had the highest percentage of opportunistic species, while Cagliari had the highest levels of PAHs and UCM and low species richness. El Kantaoui port was less polluted and characterised by a richer biodiversity. The shipyard sector in Heraklion port was significantly different from all other sectors in terms of abiotic and biotic parameters. Physico-chemical and pollution variables recorded during the period after tourism (late summer) were significantly different from the ones recorded in winter. Seasonal differences were not significant between benthic species diversity patterns, but were revealed when the patterns derived from the aggregation of higher taxonomic levels were compared. The present study indicates that a regular-basis monitoring plan including evaluation of environmental health based on benthic biodiversity, can provide a basis for perceiving

  11. Barriers to change hindering quality improvement: the reality of emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntlin, Asa; Carlsson, Marianne; Gunningberg, Lena

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physicians' and nurses' perspectives and prerequisites for quality improvement in the emergency department based on results from a previous patient survey. The study used an explorative design with a qualitative approach and was conducted at the main emergency department of a Swedish university hospital. Interviews were conducted with 5 focus groups. In total, the groups comprised 22 respondents. The respondents suggested goals and quality improvements, such as more patient-centered care, reduced waiting times, and better pain management. However, barriers to quality improvement also were identified and represented 3 themes: the patient is looked upon as an object or a problem; the physicians and nurses belong to different organizational cultures; and the hospital's organization hinders the optimal flow of patients and improvements to quality. When assigning priority to the topic areas, most of the focus groups ranked "information, respect, and empathy" as most important to improve. Adequate information, proper care, and treatment within a reasonable time in the emergency department were cited as the goals for patient care, but the health care professionals perceived barriers to change in the hospital culture and organization. To ensure quality care and patient safety, these barriers should be addressed by leaders on all levels in the organization, including the hospital board. Health care professionals' perspectives of quality of care are valuable and should be included in quality improvement work. 2010 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Could climate change cancel out the results of water quality control measures at Lake Balaton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutics, Karoly; Molnar, Gabor

    2013-04-01

    With an average depth of some 3.5 m, Lake Balaton (LB) is a very shallow large lake. For comparison, Lake Geneva (Leman) has almost the same surface area but its volume is 44 times of that of Lake Balaton. In terms of the dynamic ratio (DR), a measure of shallowness introduced by Hakanson, Lake Balaton is the second shallowest in Europe with DR=7.4, and it is in the top ten in the world among shallow lakes of high environmental and/or economic importance. Just as the water balance (refer to adjoining article on LB water quantity), water quality is highly vulnerable to external factors, such as nutrient and pollutant loads and changes in the hydro-meteorological conditions. Anthropogenic eutrophication of Lake Balaton became well recognized in the early 1960's, and serious algae blooms were recorded in the next 3 decades. Serious control measures targeting the radical reduction of phosphorus (and nitrogen) load first helped to avoid further (potentially disastrous) deterioration of water quality, and then resulted in improvement since the middle of the 1990s. However, reduced water levels and the lack of outflow for many of the last 12 years have rose concerns of the effects of climate change on water quality. Experienced changes include slight increase in phytoplankton concentration, mass blooms of filamentous green algae C. glomerata in the extremely shallow shoreline areas, increase in salt concentration, spread of introduced/invasive species, etc. Based on the regional climate predictions conducted at the Austrian Institute of Technology in the framework of the EULAKES project, model simulations on water quality were carried out by using a dynamic tanks-in-series model to predict changes in the level of eutrophication as a result of climate change and measures to prevent the potential deterioration of water quality are suggested.

  14. Evaluation of potential relationships between benthic community structure and toxic metals in Laizhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang

    2014-10-15

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between benthic community structure and toxic metals using bivariate/multivariate techniques at 17 sediment locations in Laizhou Bay, North China. Sediment chemical data were evaluated against geochemical background values and sediment quality guidelines, which identified Cu and As as contaminants of concern with a moderate potential for adverse effects. Benthic community data were subjected to non-metric multidimensional scaling, which generated four groups of stations. Spearman rank correlation was then employed to explore the relationships between the major axes of heavy metals and benthic community structure. However, weak and insignificant correlations were found between these axes, indicating that contaminants of concern may not be the primary explanatory factors. Polychaeta were abundant in southern Laizhou Bay, serving as a warning regarding the health status of the ecosystem. Integrated sediment quality assessment showed sediments from northern central locations were impaired, displaying less diverse benthos and higher metal contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  16. Biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in Air Terjun Asahan, Asahan, Melaka, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhafizah-Azwa, S.; Ahmad A., K.

    2016-11-01

    A study on benthic macroinvertebrate diversity was conducted at Air Terjun Asahan, Asahan, Melaka. Five stations were selected with distance intervals of approximately 500 metres. Three replicates of benthic macroinvertebrate and water samples were taken. Results classified Air Terjun Asahan in class II, which indicated good water quality based on WQI recommended by the Department of Environment. A total of 1 phylum, 2 classes, 6 order, 30 families, and 2183 individuals were successfully sampled and recorded. The analysis showed that the average value of Shannon Diversity Index, H' (2.19), Pielou Evenness Index, J' (0.30), and Margaleff Richness Index, DMG (3.77) described that Air Terjun Asahan was in moderate condition and the distribution of macroinvertebrates was uniform between stations. Correlation test showed that the WQI had a strong relationship with the diversity indices involved. BMWP, and FBI showed that Air Terjun Asahan was in good water quality. CCA test was conducted to show environmental factors towards benthic macroinvertebrate distribution. The presence of Leptophlebiidae, Baetidae, Heptageniidae and Chironomidae with high abundance of the families showed the potential as biological indicators of a clean ecosystem.

  17. Reconstruction of Paleoceanographic Conditions in the Rio Grande Rise Area, western South Atlantic: Evidence from Benthic Foraminiferal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshova, Liubov; Ovsepyan, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    Sediment core AI-3321 (30°56.85' S, 38°02.45' W, 2969 m water depth, 293 m length) collected from the western slope of the Rio Grande Rise was studied to count and identify benthic foraminifers in the >100 μm size fraction. Available information of the ecological preferences of benthic foraminiferal assemblages was used to reconstruct sea-surface bioproductivity and oxygenation conditions near the bottom during warm periods: Holocene, MIS 5e and MIS 7. A total of more than 100 species have been identified. They were classified according to their microhabitat preferences. All studied samples are characterized by a high abundance of calcareous epifaunal - shallow infaunal species together with low percentages of agglutinated taxa. Species diversity was described using several diversity indices that demonstrate similar variability during MIS 5 and 7 and an opposite changes during MIS 1. Cluster and Q-mode factor analysis were applied to establish dominant assemblages and major trends of foraminiferal variability. The assemblages (Factors I, II and III) are characterized by maximal scores of Epistominella exigua, Alabaminella weddellensis and Globocassidulina subglobosa, respectively. These opportunistic species are associated with seasonal supply of fresh, labile organic matter to the sea floor, and also prefer high oxygen concentrations in the bottom waters. In contrast to diversity indices, factor I, II and III do not demonstrate similar distribution throughout the studied intervals. This might be related to different combinations of amount and quality of organic matter supplied to the sea floor and corresponding oxygen content near the seafloor on the Rio Grande Rise during Holocene, MIS 5e and MIS 7. Accessory foraminiferal taxa thriving in well-oxygenated conditions and being capable to adapt to pulsed food supply (Oridorsalis umbonatus, Pullenia bulloides, Ioanella tumidula, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Quinquelocilina spp., Pyrgo spp.) also occur throughout

  18. U.S. Air Quality and Health Benefits from Avoided Climate Change under Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Menendez, Fernando; Saari, Rebecca K; Monier, Erwan; Selin, Noelle E

    2015-07-07

    We evaluate the impact of climate change on U.S. air quality and health in 2050 and 2100 using a global modeling framework and integrated economic, climate, and air pollution projections. Three internally consistent socioeconomic scenarios are used to value health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation policies specifically derived from slowing climate change. Our projections suggest that climate change, exclusive of changes in air pollutant emissions, can significantly impact ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution across the U.S. and increase associated health effects. Climate policy can substantially reduce these impacts, and climate-related air pollution health benefits alone can offset a significant fraction of mitigation costs. We find that in contrast to cobenefits from reductions to coemitted pollutants, the climate-induced air quality benefits of policy increase with time and are largest between 2050 and 2100. Our projections also suggest that increasing climate policy stringency beyond a certain degree may lead to diminishing returns relative to its cost. However, our results indicate that the air quality impacts of climate change are substantial and should be considered by cost-benefit climate policy analyses.

  19. Change in quality of life and predictors of change among patients with multiple sclerosis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Stojsavljevic, Nebojsa; Kostic, Jelena; Basuroski, Irena Dujmovic; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and predictors of change among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) at 3 and 6 years during the follow-up period. A group of 109 consecutive MS patients (McDonald's criteria) referred to the Clinic of Neurology, Belgrade, were enrolled in the study. At three time points during the study (baseline, and at 3 and 6 years during the follow-up period), the HRQoL (measured by MSQoL-54), Expanded Disability Status Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Fatigue Severity Scale were assessed. During the study period, 93 patients provided both follow-up assessments. Statistically significant deterioration in the HRQoL at each subsequent time point was detected for all scales of the MSQoL-54 except for the pain and change in health scales. A higher level of education was a significant prognostic factor for a better HRQoL on the cognitive function scale throughout the entire period of observation, while marital status (single, including divorced and widowed) and increased age at the onset of MS had significant predictive values of poorer quality-of-life scores on the overall quality-of-life scale at 6-year follow-up. Higher levels of physical disability and depression at baseline were statistically significant prognostic markers for deterioration in HRQoL for the majority of MSQoL-54 scales during the entire follow-up period. Our study suggests that baseline demographic and clinical characteristics could be applied as prognostic markers of the HRQOL for patients diagnosed with MS.

  20. Cost analysis of impacts of climate change on regional air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Tagaris, Efthimios; Russell, Armistead G; Amar, Praveen; He, Shan; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2010-02-01

    Climate change has been predicted to adversely impact regional air quality with resulting health effects. Here a regional air quality model and a technology analysis tool are used to assess the additional emission reductions required and associated costs to offset impacts of climate change on air quality. Analysis is done for six regions and five major cities in the continental United States. Future climate is taken from a global climate model simulation for 2049-2051 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B emission scenario, and emission inventories are the same as current ones to assess impacts of climate change alone on air quality and control expenses. On the basis of the IPCC A1B emission scenario and current control technologies, least-cost sets of emission reductions for simultaneously offsetting impacts of climate change on regionally averaged 4th highest daily maximum 8-hr average ozone and yearly averaged PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm) for the six regions examined are predicted to range from $36 million (1999$) yr(-1) in the Southeast to $5.5 billion yr(-1) in the Northeast. However, control costs to offset climate-related pollutant increases in urban areas can be greater than the regional costs because of the locally exacerbated ozone levels. An annual cost of $4.1 billion is required for offsetting climate-induced air quality impairment in 2049-2051 in the five cities alone. Overall, an annual cost of $9.3 billion is estimated for offsetting climate change impacts on air quality for the six regions and five cities examined. Much of the additional expense is to reduce increased levels of ozone. Additional control costs for offsetting the impacts everywhere in the United States could be larger than the estimates in this study. This study shows that additional emission controls and associated costs for offsetting climate impacts could significantly increase currently estimated

  1. Climate change impacts on German cities and actions for preserving quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schetke Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Also German cities -as many other cities worldwide- will be affected by impacts of climate change. Starting from the German Adaptation Strategy to climate change, the paper presents a short literature review on impacts of climate change and on fields of action for German municipalities and urban planners to adapt to it. The literature review shows that main negative impacts of climate change in Germany are due to rising temperatures and cities will also need to cope with altered precipitation regimes. But also positive impacts such as reduced heating costs are reported. Additionally, the paper highlights a second phenomenon, which also causes specific demands for urban planners regarding human health and quality of life in German cities: demographic change. Altering demographic patterns within the society will lead to altered demands for healthy living conditions. Moreover, findings from the literature show that specific groups of the society - such as the elderly - are especially vulnerable towards impacts of climate change. A concrete sensitivity towards overheating or bad air is reported. Both phenomena may simultaneously impact on German urban structures and will demand closer attention now and in the future. Consequently, specific fields of action to adapt to climate change will be presented highlighting their possible contribution sustaining quality of life in cities.

  2. Changes in water quality of Michigan streams near urban areas, 1973-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Monthly water-quality monitoring of streams was begun by Michigan Department of Natural Resources in 1973 to (1) determine temporal and spatial variability, (2) detect long-term trends, and (3) describe changes in water quality near urban areas. This report provides a statistical analysis and summary of data collected from 1973 through 1984. Concentrations and discharges of nine commonly measured water-quality constituents and specific conductance are examined. Twenty-three sites on inland streams (streams draining basins wholly within Michigan) and 20 sites on Detroit River are discussed. The changes in water quality in 9 rivers near 12 urban areas in Michigan's southern Lower Peninsula and the relation between streamflow and selected waterquality characteristics, including phosphorus, chloride, sulfate, nitrogen, specific conductance, and solid residues are described. Results show that the median dissolved-solids concentration in Clinton River downstream from Pontiac exceed Michigan's 1986 stream water-quality standard. Among inland streams, constituent concentrations and discharges generally were greatest in Saginaw River and least in Grand River upstream from Jackson. Upstream from Detroit, constituent concentrations in Detroit River did not differ appreciably across the Windmill Point Transect; downstream from Detroit, at the Fermi Transect across Detroit River, most constituent concentrations were higher near the American and Canadian shorelines. Among urban areas, greatest changes in constituent concentrations occurred in the Grand River near Jackson, in the Clinton River near Pontiac, and in the Tittabawassee River near Midland; the least changes in constituent concentrations occurred in the Saginaw River near Saginaw, in Detroit River near Detroit and the Kalamazoo River near Battle Creek. Greatest changes in constituent discharges occurred in the Detroit River near the Detroit area; the least occurred in the Chippewa River near Mount Pleasant. Of the 230

  3. Temporal and spatial changes in water quality of the indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, M.N.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, M.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Total useable water supply for agriculture is essentially fixed and is a limiting factor for increasing agriculture production. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate water quality of rivers, drains and groundwater. Suggestions are made for controlling pollution and for sustainable use of water. The scope of the paper is limited to the Indus Basin. The criteria based on TDS, SAR and RSC was used to categorize water as useable, marginal and hazardous quality for agricultural use. Data of different water quality surveys from 1959 to 2003 were used for the study. Spatial changes of groundwater quality indicate saline water intrusion towards fresh groundwater pockets. Temporal changes of groundwater quality also show deterioration of water quality over long periods. Canal supplies need to be increased to reduce reliance on groundwater which indirectly help sustainable use of groundwater. River water quality at Kotri, the lowest point in the Indus River system, is suitable for irrigation through out the year, However, pollution is a serious issue particularly during low flow periods. During the year 2004 about 40 persons died in Hyderabad due to pollution in drinking water the source of which was the River Indus. Municipal and Industrial effluents are being disposed into rivers, drains and canals without treatment which is not only detrimental to crops, human beings, livestock and marine life but also a potential threat to environment. Out of 143 outfall drains of the Indus Basin, the effluent quality of 53 drains is useable, 46 marginal and 44 hazardous. A large number of farmers are using drainage effluent for agriculture. There is no monitoring of land and water for such use. Provincial irrigation department and environment protection agencies should provide technical guidance and support to the farmers, using the drainage effluent. The Environment Act should be strictly implemented. Provincial Irrigation and Drainage Authorities (PIDA's) must work with

  4. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  5. Changes in mineral elements and starch quality of grains during the improvement of japonica rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Chao; Hou, Danping; Liu, Hailang; Zhang, Huiting; Tao, Rongrong; Cai, Han; Gu, Junfei; Liu, Lijun; Zhang, Zujian; Wang, Zhiqin; Yang, Jianchang

    2018-01-01

    The improvement of rice cultivars plays an important role in yield increase. However, little is known about the changes in starch quality and mineral elements during the improvement of rice cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the changes in starch quality and mineral elements in japonica rice cultivars. Twelve typical rice cultivars, applied in the production in Jiangsu province during the last 60 years, were grown in the paddy fields. These cultivars were classified into six types according to their application times, plant types and genotypes. The nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and, and potassium (K) were mainly distributed in endosperm, bran and bran, respectively. Secondary and micromineral nutrients were distributed throughout grains. With the improvement of cultivars, total N contents gradually decreased, while total P, K and magnesium contents increased in grains. Total copper and zinc contents in type 80'S in grains were highest. The improvement of cultivars enhanced palatability (better gelatinisation enthalpy and amylose content), taste (better protein content) and protein quality (better protein components and essential amino acids). Correlation analysis indicated the close relationship between mineral elements and starch quality. The mineral elements and starch quality of grains during the improvement of japonica rice cultivars are improved. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Changes of Groundwater Quality in the Sorrounding Pollution Sources Due to Earthquake Dissaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main domestic water supply of the population of the Yogyakarta Special Region, both in the urban and as well as in the rural area due to its quantity and quality advantages. The rapid population growth has caused an increase of groundwater demand, consequently it is facing some problems to the sustainability of groundwater supply. Lowering of groundwater level has been observed in some places, as well as the degradation of groundwater quality. Earthquake which stroke Yogyakarta on 27 May 2006, damaged buildings and other infrastructures in the area, including roads and bridges. It might also damage the underground structures such as septic tanks, and pipes underneath the earth surface. It might cause cracking of the geologic structures. Furthermore, the damage of underneath infrastructures might create groundwater quality changes in the area. Some complains of local community on lowering and increasing groundwater level and groundwater quality changes were noted. Field observation and investigation were conducted, including collection of groundwater samples close to (the pollution sources. Laboratory analyses indicated that some parameters increased to exceed the drinking water quality standards. The high content of Coli form bacteria possibly was caused by contamination of nearby septic tanks or other pollution sources to the observed groundwater in the dug well.

  7. Study of Water Quality Changes due to Offshore Dike Development Plan at Semarang Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, M.; Hakim, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    Now, coast of Semarang Gulf is experiencing rapid growth because Semarang as a center economic growth in Central Java. On the other hand, coast of Gulf Semarang also experience a variety of very complex problems, such as tidal flood, land subsidence, as well as coastal damage due to erosion and sedimentation process. To overcome these problems BPPT and other institutions proposed construction of offshore dike. Construction of the offshore dike is a technology intervention to the marine environment that will certainly affect the hydrodynamic balance in coastal water including water quality in the Gulf of Semarang. Therefore, to determine changes in water quality that will happen is necessary to study the water quality modeling. The study was conducted by using a computational modeling software MIKE-21 Eco Lab Module from DHI. Based on this study result knowed that development offshore dike will change water quality in the west and east dam that formed. In west dam the average value of the DO decline 81.56% - 93.32 % and the average value of BOD rise from 22.01 to 31.19% and in the east dam, there is an increase average value DO of 83.19% - 75.80%, while the average value of BOD decrease by 95,04% - 96.01%. To prevent the downward trend in water quality due to the construction of the offshore dike, its necessary precautions at the upstream area before entering the Gulf of Semarang.

  8. Impact of Hypoxia on the Community Structure of Benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of the Lagos lagoon was conducted for two years to investigate the impact of hypoxia on the benthic macroinvertebrates. Water and benthic samples were collected monthly along the study stretch and analysed in a standard laboratory. Temporal variation in water physico-chemistry was largely controlled by rainfall ...

  9. Assessment of benthic molluscs diversity and distribution in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The urban reservoirs n° 2 and n°3 of Ouagadougou, located in the middle of the city are subject to multiple anthropogenic pressures which threaten the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates community group like molluscs. This study was initiated to assess the diversity and distribution of benthic molluscs in these ...

  10. Suitability of Optical, Physical and Chemical Measurements for Detection of Changes in Bacterial Drinking Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, different optical, physical and chemical measurements were tested for their capacity to detect changes in water quality. The tests included UV-absorbance at 254 nm, absorbance at 420 nm, turbidity, particle counting, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), free chlorine concentration and ATP concentration measurements. Special emphasis was given to investigating the potential for measurement tools to detect changes in bacterial concentrations in drinking water. Bacterial colony counts (CFU) and total bacterial cell counts (TBC) were used as reference methods for assessing the bacterial water quality. The study consists of a series of laboratory scale experiments: monitoring of regrowth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, estimation of the detection limits for optical measurements using Escherichia coli dilutions, verification of the relationships by analysing grab water samples from various distribution systems and utilisation of the measurements in the case of an accidentally contaminated distribution network. We found significant correlations between the tested measurements and the bacterial water quality. As the bacterial contamination of water often co-occurs with the intrusion of matrixes containing mainly non-bacterial components, the tested measurement tools can be considered to have the potential to rapidly detect any major changes in drinking water quality. PMID:24284353

  11. Oil Palm expansion over Southeast Asia: land use change and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. J.; Heald, C. L.; Geddes, J.; Marlier, M. E.; Austin, K.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). Much of this expansion has come at the expense of natural forests and grasslands. Aircraft measurements from a 2008 campaign, OP3, found that oil palm plantations emit as much as 7 times more isoprene than nearby natural forests. Furthermore, SEA is a rapidly developing region, with increasing urban population, and growing air quality concerns. Thus, SEA represents an ideal case study to examine the impacts of land use change on air quality in the region, and whether those changes can be detected from satellite observations of atmospheric composition. We investigate the impacts of historical and future oil palm expansion in SEA using satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We examine the impact of palm plantations on surface-atmosphere processes (dry deposition, biogenic emissions). We show the sensitivity of air quality to current and future oil palm expansion scenarios, and discuss the limitations of current satellite measurements in capturing these changes. Our results indicate that while the impact of oil palm expansion on air quality can be significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space.

  12. Ademe et Vous. Research Newsletter No. 13, December 2015. Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, Anne; Guignard, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This Research letter is the last in a series of three letters dedicated to climate change, produced in the run up to COP21. It covers the research carried out and the results obtained, with the support of ADEME, in terms of air quality and climate change. Content: - Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues; - Significant Results: Implementing solutions to improve air quality in a wider context of climate change; - Meeting...: Vincent-Henri Peuch and Nathalie Poisson: 'Air and climate quality - developing joint solutions: a necessity'

  13. The influence of multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors on benthic communities in a mid-west agricultural stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Killen, Willian D; Anderson, Ronald D; Alden, Raymond W

    2017-08-24

    The objective of this 3-year study was to characterize benthic communities and physical habitat in an agricultural stream in the mid-west area of the United States (Big Bureau Creek, Illinois). Concurrent basic water quality parameters and seven nutrients were measured in the water column. Sediment measurements from depositional areas were conducted for bifenthrin, Total Organic Carbon, grain size, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and eight metals. All parameters were measured at 12 sites annually during the late summer for a 3-year period (2014, 2015 and 2016). Univariate regressions, stepwise multiple regressions and canonical correlation statistical analyses were used to determine the relationship between various benthic metrics (i.e., taxa richness and abundance) and all the measured parameters for the 3-year database. Benthic communities comprising 108-110 taxa were collected annually, and were generally dominated by sensitive caddisflies and mayflies. These communities were rated as good to exceptional using the Ohio Invertebrate Community Index. Physical habitat for the various sites was rated as good using the Ohio Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index, thus suggesting that habitat is not a significant stressor that would likely impact resident benthic communities. Based on a comparison of measured in-stream total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations and criterion value exceedances, it appears that the in-stream nutrient concentrations could be potentially stressful to resident benthic biota. Metal concentrations were below established NOAA Threshold Effects Levels at all sites. Measured PCB concentrations were below levels of detection at all sites. Toxic units' (TUs) calculations based on using sensitive laboratory strains of Hyalella were less than 0.1 for bifenthrin, thus suggesting that bifenthrin sediment toxicity was unlikely. Thirty significant relationships reported between benthic metrics and the various environmental variables based on the

  14. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  15. Trajectories of quality of life in early-stage dementia: individual variations and predictors of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T; Nelis, Sharon M; Martyr, Anthony; Marková, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Whitaker, Christopher J; Morris, Robin G

    2014-06-01

    Little evidence is available about how quality of life (QoL) changes as dementia progresses. We explored QoL trajectories over a 20-month period and examined what predicted change in QoL. Fifty-one individuals with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia (people with dementia (PwD)) participating in the Memory Impairment and Dementia Awareness Study rated their QoL using the QoL-Alzheimer's Disease Scale at baseline and at 20-month follow-up. PwD also rated their mood and quality of relationship with the carer. In each case, the carer rated his or her level of stress and perceived quality of relationship with the PwD. There was no change in mean QoL score. Nearly one-third of PwD rated QoL more positively at 20-month follow-up and nearly one-third rated QoL more negatively. These changes could be regarded as reliable in one-quarter of the sample. Participants taking acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting medication at baseline were more likely to show a decline in QoL score. There were no other significant differences between those whose scores increased, decreased or stayed the same on any demographic or disease-related variables, or in mood or perceived quality of relationship with the carer. Whereas baseline QoL score was the strongest predictor of QoL at 20 months, the quality of relationship with the carer as perceived by the PwD was also independently a significant predictor. There is a degree of individual variation in QoL trajectories. Use of acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting medication appears linked to decline in QoL score, whereas positive relationships with carers play an important role in maintaining QoL in early-stage dementia. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Comparing the soil quality changes of different land uses determined by two quantitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo-jie; Liu, Shi-liang; Lu, Yi-he; Chen, Li-ding; Ma, Ke-ming; Liu, Guo-hua

    2003-03-01

    Soil quality is one of the most important environmental factors in sustaining the global biosphere and developing sustainable agricultural practices. A study was initiated in Wolong Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China to elucidate the soil quality changes of natural secondary succession, forest planting and agricultural practices after deforestation in the humid mountainous region. The soil qualities of six land use types (natural forestland, grassland, shrub land, secondary forestland, cultivated land and reforested land) were compared using two quantitative methods: the integrated soil quality index (QI) and soil deterioration index (DI). The QI values of natural forestland, grassland, shrub land, secondary forestland, cultivated land, reforested land were 0.8039, 0.3277, 0.9127, 0.6881, 0.0285 and 0.3183, respectively. The DI values were 0%, -14%, 12%, 1%, -26% and -18% respectively. Both indexes suggested that shrub land can restore soil properties. To compare the two methods more directly, a deduced index QI' based on QI value was developed. The results showed that DI and QI' had a very high linear correlation coefficient (r = 0.9775) despite the values were different. Both methods were efficient in evaluating the soil quality levels and DI was a more simple way in soil quality assessment, while QI could show more ecological meanings.

  17. Tracking and sustaining improvement initiatives: leveraging quality dashboards to lead change in a neurosurgical department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Afsar-Manesh, Nasim; Ragland, Victoria; Buxey, Farzad; Martin, Neil A

    2014-03-01

    Increasingly, hospitals and physicians are becoming acquainted with business intelligence strategies and tools to improve quality of care. In 2007, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Department of Neurosurgery created a quality dashboard to help manage process measures and outcomes and ultimately to enhance clinical performance and patient care. At that time, the dashboard was in a platform that required data to be entered manually. It was then reviewed monthly to allow the department to make informed decisions. In 2009, the department leadership worked with the UCLA Medical Center to align mutual quality-improvement priorities. The content of the dashboard was redesigned to include 3 areas of priorities: quality and safety, patient satisfaction, and efficiency and use. Throughout time, the neurosurgery quality dashboard has been recognized for its clarity and its success in helping management direct improvement strategies and monitor impact. We describe the creation and design of the neurosurgery quality dashboard at UCLA, summarize the evolution of its assembly process, and illustrate how it can be used as a powerful tool of improvement and change. The potential challenges and future directions of this business intelligence tool are also discussed.

  18. Association of Changes in Diet Quality with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N.; Mattei, Josiemer; Fung, Teresa T.; Li, Yanping; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few studies have evaluated the relationship between changes in diet quality over time and the risk of death. METHODS We used Cox proportional-hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for total and cause-specific mortality among 47,994 women in the Nurses’ Health Study and 25,745 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1998 through 2010. Changes in diet quality over the preceding 12 years (1986–1998) were assessed with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index–2010 score, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. RESULTS The pooled hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among participants who had the greatest improvement in diet quality (13 to 33% improvement), as compared with those who had a relatively stable diet quality (0 to 3% improvement), in the 12-year period were the following: 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.97) according to changes in the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 0.84 (95 CI%, 0.78 to 0.91) according to changes in the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95) according to changes in the DASH score. A 20-percentile increase in diet scores (indicating an improved quality of diet) was significantly associated with a reduction in total mortality of 8 to 17% with the use of the three diet indexes and a 7 to 15% reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular disease with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet. Among participants who maintained a high-quality diet over a 12-year period, the risk of death from any cause was significantly lower — by 14% (95% CI, 8 to 19) when assessed with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 11% (95% CI, 5 to 18) when assessed with the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 9% (95% CI, 2 to 15) when assessed with the DASH score — than the risk among participants with consistently low diet scores over time. CONCLUSIONS

  19. Association of Changes in Diet Quality with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Mattei, Josiemer; Fung, Teresa T; Li, Yanping; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B

    2017-07-13

    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between changes in diet quality over time and the risk of death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for total and cause-specific mortality among 47,994 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 25,745 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1998 through 2010. Changes in diet quality over the preceding 12 years (1986-1998) were assessed with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 score, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. The pooled hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among participants who had the greatest improvement in diet quality (13 to 33% improvement), as compared with those who had a relatively stable diet quality (0 to 3% improvement), in the 12-year period were the following: 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.97) according to changes in the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 0.84 (95 CI%, 0.78 to 0.91) according to changes in the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95) according to changes in the DASH score. A 20-percentile increase in diet scores (indicating an improved quality of diet) was significantly associated with a reduction in total mortality of 8 to 17% with the use of the three diet indexes and a 7 to 15% reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular disease with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet. Among participants who maintained a high-quality diet over a 12-year period, the risk of death from any cause was significantly lower - by 14% (95% CI, 8 to 19) when assessed with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 11% (95% CI, 5 to 18) when assessed with the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 9% (95% CI, 2 to 15) when assessed with the DASH score - than the risk among participants with consistently low diet scores over time. Improved diet quality over 12 years was

  20. Effects of future land use and ecosystem changes on boundary-layer meteorology and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Wang, L.; Sadeke, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land vegetation plays key roles shaping boundary-layer meteorology and air quality via various pathways. Vegetation can directly affect surface ozone via dry deposition and biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Transpiration from land plants can also influence surface temperature, soil moisture and boundary-layer mixing depth, thereby indirectly affecting surface ozone. Future changes in the distribution, density and physiology of vegetation are therefore expected to have major ramifications for surface ozone air quality. In our study, we examine two aspects of potential vegetation changes using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in the fully coupled land-atmosphere configuration, and evaluate their implications on meteorology and air quality: 1) land use change, which alters the distribution of plant functional types and total leaf density; and 2) ozone damage on vegetation, which alters leaf density and physiology (e.g., stomatal resistance). We find that, following the RCP8.5 scenario for 2050, global cropland expansion induces only minor changes in surface ozone in tropical and subtropical regions, but statistically significant changes by up to +4 ppbv in midlatitude North America and East Asia, mostly due to higher surface temperature that enhances biogenic VOC emissions, and reduced dry deposition to a lesser degree. These changes are in turn to driven mostly by meteorological changes that include a shift from latent to sensible heat in the surface energy balance and reduced soil moisture, reflecting not only local responses but also a northward expansion of the Hadley Cell. On the other hand, ozone damage on vegetation driven by rising anthropogenic emissions is shown to induce a further enhancement of ozone by up to +6 ppbv in midlatitude regions by 2050. This reflects a strong localized positive feedback, with severe ozone damage in polluted regions generally inducing stomatal closure, which in turn reduces transpiration, increases

  1. Sensitivity to change of oral and general health-related quality of life during prosthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Melanie; John, Mike T; Schierz, Oliver; Hirsch, Christian; Aarabi, Ghazal; Reissmann, Daniel R

    2014-02-01

    The literature presents conflicting findings on whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures have sufficient evaluative properties to assess changes caused by dental interventions. The aim of our study was to compare sensitivity to change in HRQoL and OHRQoL in prosthodontic patients. In this prospective intervention study, a total of 165 consecutively recruited patients completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the 49-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), as self-administered questionnaires, before prosthodontic treatment and 1 month after treatment was finished. Differences in SF-36 and OHIP scores between baseline and follow up were tested for statistical significance using paired t-tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated. Health-related quality of life improved during prosthodontic treatment, indicated by a slight, but statistically significant, increase in the SF-36 physical component (difference: 1.0 points), whereas perceived mental health did not change substantially (difference: −0.5 points). Improvement in OHRQoL (difference in OHIP sum score: −6.7 points) was statistically significant. Although the OHIP effect size (of 0.2) was considered as small, according to guidelines, it was greater than for the SF-36 component scores (physical: 0.1; mental: 0.1). Sensitivity to change in quality of life measures was greater for OHRQoL than for HRQoL, limiting the usefulness of HRQoL as an outcome measure in dentistry.

  2. Predictions of potential geographical distribution and quality of Schisandra sphenanthera under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will significantly affect plant distribution as well as the quality of medicinal plants. Although numerous studies have analyzed the effect of climate change on future habitats of plants through species distribution models (SDMs, few of them have incorporated the change of effective content of medicinal plants. Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. is an endangered traditional Chinese medical plant which is mainly located in the Qinling Mountains. Combining fuzzy theory and a maximum entropy model, we obtained current spatial distribution of quality assessment for S. spenanthera. Moreover, the future quality and distribution of S. spenanthera were also projected for the periods 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under three different climate change scenarios (SRES-A1B, SRES-A2 and SRES-B1 emission scenarios described in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The results showed that the moderately suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera under all climate change scenarios remained relatively stable in the study area. The highly suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera would gradually decrease in the future and a higher decline rate of the highly suitable habitat area would occur under climate change scenarios SRES-A1B and SRES-A2. The result suggested that in the study area, there would be no more highly suitable habitat areas for S. sphenanthera when the annual mean temperature exceeds 20 °C or its annual precipitation exceeds 1,200 mm. Our results will be influential in the future ecological conservation and management of S. sphenanthera and can be taken as a reference for habitat suitability assessment research for other medicinal plants.

  3. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John

    2013-01-01

    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  4. Relationship between changes in vasomotor symptoms and changes in menopause-specific quality of life and sleep parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, JoAnn V; Abraham, Lucy; Bushmakin, Andrew G; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Komm, Barry S

    2016-10-01

    This study characterizes and quantifies the relationship of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) of menopause with menopause-specific quality of life (MSQOL) and sleep parameters to help predict treatment outcomes and inform treatment decision-making. Data were derived from a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial that evaluated effects of two doses of conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene on VMS in nonhysterectomized postmenopausal women (N = 318, mean age = 53.39) experiencing at least seven moderate to severe hot flushes (HFs) per day or at least 50 per week. Repeated measures models were used to determine relationships between HF frequency and severity and outcomes on the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study sleep scale. Sensitivity analyses were performed to check assumptions of linearity between VMS and outcomes. Frequency and severity of HFs showed approximately linear relationships with MSQOL and sleep parameters. Sensitivity analyses supported assumptions of linearity. The largest changes associated with a reduction of five HFs and a 0.5-point decrease in severity occurred in the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life vasomotor functioning domain (0.78 for number of HFs and 0.98 for severity) and the Medical Outcomes Study sleep disturbance (7.38 and 4.86) and sleep adequacy (-5.60 and -4.66) domains and the two overall sleep problems indices (SPI: 5.17 and 3.63; SPII: 5.82 and 3.83). Frequency and severity of HFs have an approximately linear relationship with MSQOL and sleep parameters-that is, improvements in HFs are associated with improvements in MSQOL and sleep. Such relationships may enable clinicians to predict changes in sleep and MSQOL expected from various VMS treatments.

  5. Diversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates, yeasts, and microbiological indicators along a longitudinal gradient in Serra do Cipó, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available The main goals of this study were: 1 to evaluate the structure, diversity, and functional trophic group composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities; 2 to characterize water quality in the headwaters of the Doce river watershed, based on physical, chemical, and biological parameters (benthic macroinvertebrates, fecal coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria, and yeasts; and 3 to contribute to the knowledge of the structure and function of longitudinal gradients in lotic ecosystems in Brazil. A total of 60 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were identified, the dominant group being the aquatic insects, with 50 families distributed in 8 orders. The dry period presented higher values of taxonomic richness and total density of benthic macroinvertebrates. A decreasing gradient was observed in these variable values from the 3rd order stretch down to the 6th order stretch. The highest Shannon-Wiener diversity values were found in the rainy period in the 3rd order stretches, which presented well-developed riparian forest. Besides the 3rd order stretches, the Pielou evenness index values were also high in the 6th order stretch. The collectors, together with the scrapers, predominated in the benthic macroinvertebrate communities in all river stretches, except in the 2nd, 4th, and 5th order stretches in the rainy period, where communities were dominated by filterers. The shredders and predators presented low densities for all river stretches. All microbiological variables presented low levels. Due to the high counts of heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms, the studied river stretches presented inadequate potability but adequate balneability levels. The results suggest that the structure, diversity, and composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities are influenced by the trophic resource availability, seasonality, and sediment heterogeneity. The microbiological results of this study allow inferring that the waters from Serra do Cipó have excellent

  6. Benthic Macroinvertebrate in the NE Siberian Arctic and Their Role in Processing Particulate Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, E.; Vaughan, E.; Chandra, S.

    2010-12-01

    In the Northeastern Siberian Arctic, climate change is disturbing aquatic ecosystems by introducing dissolved and particulate carbon from melting permafrost. These alterations to an ecosystem affect organisms and processes including benthic invertebrates. Benthic invertebrates are an important aspect of aquatic ecosystems, however their diversity and function is not that well studied in Arctic ecosystems. We conducted one of the first samplings for the diversity and abundance of invertebrates living in lakes for the Kolyma River basin to determine the diversity and distribution at depth and across the landscape between floodplain and non-floodplain lakes. We found shallower depths have a higher density of invertebrates, however diversity increased slightly with depth. At the landscape level, floodplain lakes had a lower diversity but had a higher density than non-floodplain lakes. We conducted an experiment at two different temperatures to determine the potential role benthic macroinvertebrates play in processing yedoma particulate carbon. Secondary goal was to determine if rates of processing would change due to habitat or future warming of lake temperatures due to climate change. Using Gammarus as our model organism, we placed two of these invertebrates in bottles containing 0.3 grams of yedoma. The short-term (72 hours) experiment indicated Gammarus do not significantly consume yedoma particulate carbon when it is directly available for consumption.

  7. Changes in health care spending and quality for Medicare beneficiaries associated with a commercial ACO contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, J Michael; Landon, Bruce E; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-08-28

    In a multipayer system, new payment incentives implemented by one insurer for an accountable care organization (ACO) may also affect spending and quality of care for another insurer's enrollees served by the ACO. Such spillover effects reflect the extent of organizational efforts to reform care delivery and can contribute to the net impact of ACOs. We examined whether the Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) of Massachusetts' Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), an early commercial ACO initiative associated with reduced spending and improved quality for BCBS enrollees, was also associated with changes in spending and quality for Medicare beneficiaries, who were not covered by the AQC. Quasi-experimental comparisons from 2007-2010 of elderly fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in Massachusetts (1,761,325 person-years) served by 11 provider organizations entering the AQC in 2009 or 2010 (intervention group) vs beneficiaries served by other providers (control group). Using a difference-in-differences approach, we estimated changes in spending and quality for the intervention group in the first and second years of exposure to the AQC relative to concurrent changes for the control group. Regression and propensity score methods were used to adjust for differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The primary outcome was total quarterly medical spending per beneficiary. Secondary outcomes included spending by setting and type of service, 5 process measures of quality, potentially avoidable hospitalizations, and 30-day readmissions. Before entering the AQC, total quarterly spending per beneficiary for the intervention group was $150 (95% CI, $25-$274) higher than for the control group and increased at a similar rate. In year 2 of the intervention group's exposure to the AQC, this difference was reduced to $51 (95% CI, -$109 to $210; P = .53), constituting a significant differential change of -$99 (95% CI, -$183 to -$16; P = .02) or a 3.4% savings

  8. Job Quality and Gender Inequality: Key Changes in Québec over the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a new typology based on information available from the Labour Force Survey, the authors analyse how job quality evolved in Québec for both women and men over the last decade (1997-2007. Results show that family situation and educational attainment are two important factors in the determination of gender inequality in the labour market. The analysis emphasizes the very significant decline in gender differences with regard to job quality (from 23% to 35% according to groups, especially for persons without children and individuals who achieved higher education. The changes represent a definite progress in the status of women in general, although some indicators also reveal degradation with respect to job quality in some of the sub-groups.  

  9. Job Quality and Gender Inequality: Key Changes in Québec over the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Cloutier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a new typology based on information available from the Labour Force Survey, the authors analyse how job quality evolved in Québec for both women and men over the last decade (1997-2007. Results show that family situation and educational attainment are two important factors in the determination of gender inequality in the labour market. The analysis emphasizes the very significant decline in gender differences with regard to job quality (from 23% to 35% according to groups, especially for persons without children and individuals who achieved higher education. The changes represent a definite progress in the status of women in general, although some indicators also reveal degradation with respect to job quality in some of the sub-groups.  

  10. How and why is aquatic quality changing at Nahanni National Park Reserve, NWT, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Douglas R; Catto, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Nahanni National Park Reserve is located at southwestern NWT-Yukon border. One of the first UNESCO World Heritage sites, Nahanni lies within Taiga Cordillera and Taiga Shield Ecozones. Base and precious metal mining occurred upstream of Nahanni prior to park establishment. Nahanni waters, sediments, fish, and caribou have naturally elevated metals levels. Baseline water, sediment and fish tissue quality data were collected and analyzed throughout Nahanni during 1988-91 and 1992-97. These two programs characterized how aquatic quality variables are naturally varying in space and time, affected by geology, stream flow, seasonality, and extreme meteorological and geological events. Possible anthropogenic causes of aquatic quality change were examined. Measured values were compared to existing Guidelines and site-specific objectives were established.

  11. Quality of friendships and motivation to change in adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmendier-Muehlschlegel, Anja; Rosewall, Juliet K; Smith, Jared G; Hugo, Pippa; Lask, Bryan

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the relationship between quality of friendships, motivation to change and peer support among young people receiving inpatient treatment for Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Thirty participants were recruited from three inpatient wards. Questionnaires assessed motivational stage, friendship functions and characteristics of friendships specific to AN. Three friendship functions - Help, Intimacy and Self-Validation - were significantly and positively correlated with greater motivational stage. Describing friends on the ward as supportive of adherence to the treatment program was positively associated with greater motivational stage and higher quality friendships. The association between motivation, friendship quality and peer support in treatment identifies close and supportive friendships among young people with AN as a potential target to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Benthic macroinvertebrate field sampling effort required to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This multi-year pilot study evaluated a proposed field method for its effectiveness in the collection of a benthic macroinvertebrate sample adequate for use in the condition assessment of streams and rivers in the Neuquén Province, Argentina. A total of 13 sites, distributed across three rivers, were sampled. At each site, benthic macroinvertebrates were collected at 11 transects. Each sample was processed independently in the field and laboratory. Based on a literature review and resource considerations, the collection of 300 organisms (minimum) at each site was determined to be necessary to support a robust condition assessment, and therefore, selected as the criterion for judging the adequacy of the method. This targeted number of organisms was collected at all sites, at a minimum, when collections from all 11 transects were combined. Subsequent bootstrapping analysis of data was used to estimate whether collecting at fewer transects would reach the minimum target number of organisms for all sites. In a subset of sites, the total number of organisms frequently fell below the target when fewer than 11 transects collections were combined.Site conditions where <300 organisms might be collected are discussed. These preliminary results suggest that the proposed field method results in a sample that is adequate for robust condition assessment of the rivers and streams of interest. When data become available from a broader range of sites, the adequacy of the field

  13. Carbon cycling in the deep eastern North Pacific benthic food web: Investigating the effect of organic carbon input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunlop, K.M.; Van Oevelen, D.; Ruhl, H.A.; Huffard, C.L.; Kuhnz, L.A.; Smith, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    The deep ocean benthic environment plays a role in long-term carbon sequestration. Understanding carbon cycling in the deep ocean floor is critical to evaluate the impact of changing climate on the oceanic systems. Linear inverse modeling was used to quantify carbon transfer between compartments in

  14. Sources of beta diversity in estuarine benthic macro-invertebrate communities in the Baltic Sea - North Sea transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefson, Alf B.; Göke, Cordula

    Identification of sources of beta diversity, the change of diversity, is important to understand regulation of overall diversity. Additive partitioning of diversity (species richness and expH) compared to random, was performed on a quantitative benthic macro-invertebrate collection of > 400 species...

  15. Short-term Responses of Posidonia australis to Changes in Light Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Strydom

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows are highly productive ecosystems that provide ecosystem services to the coastal zone but are declining globally, particularly due to anthropogenic activities that reduce the quantity of light reaching seagrasses, such as dredging, river discharge and eutrophication. Light quality (the spectral composition of the light is also altered by these anthropogenic stressors as the differential attenuation of wavelengths of light is caused by materials within the water column. This study addressed the effect of altered light quality on different life-history stages of the seagrass Posidonia australis, a persistent, habitat-forming species in Australia. Aquarium-based experiments were conducted to determine how adult shoots and seedlings respond to blue (peak λ = 451 nm; green (peak λ = 522 nm; yellow (peak λ = 596 nm and red (peak λ = 673 nm wavelengths with a control of full-spectrum light (λ = 400 – 700 nm, at 200 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Posidonia australis adults did not respond to changes in light quality relative to full-spectrum light, demonstrating a capacity to obtain enough photons from a range of wavelengths across the visible spectrum to maintain short-term growth at high irradiances. Posidonia australis seedlings (<4 months old grown in blue light showed a significant increase in xanthophyll concentrations when compared to plants grown in full-spectrum, demonstrating a pigment acclimation response to blue light. These results differed significantly from negative responses to changes in light quality recently described for Halophila ovalis, a colonizing seagrass species. Persistent seagrasses such as P. australis, appear to be better at tolerating short-term changes in light quality compared to colonizing species when sufficient PPFD is present.

  16. Alfalfa forage digestibility, quality and yield under future climate change scenarios vary with Sinorhizobium meliloti strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Erice, Gorka; Aguirreolea, Jone; Muñoz, Fernando; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José

    2012-05-15

    Elevated CO(2) may decrease alfalfa forage quality and in vitro digestibility through a drop in crude protein and an enhancement of fibre content. The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of elevated CO(2), elevated temperature and Sinorhizobium meliloti strains (102F78, 102F34 and 1032 GMI) on alfalfa yield, forage quality and in vitro dry matter digestibility. This objective is in line with the selection of S. meliloti strains in order to maintain high forage yield and quality under future climate conditions. Plants inoculated with the 102F34 strain showed more DM production than those inoculated with 1032GMI; however, these strains did not show significant differences with 102F78 plants. Neutral or acid detergent fibres were not enhanced in plants inoculated with the 102F34 strain under elevated CO(2) or temperature and hence, in vitro dry matter digestibility was unaffected. Crude protein content, an indicator of forage quality, was negatively related to shoot yield. Plants inoculated with 102F78 showed a similar shoot yield to those inoculated with 102F34, but had higher crude protein content at elevated CO(2) and temperature. Under these climate change conditions, 102F78 inoculated plants produced higher quality forage. However, the higher digestibility of plants inoculated with the 102F34 strain under any CO(2) or temperature conditions makes them more suitable for growing under climate change conditions. In general, elevated CO(2) in combination with high temperature (Climate Change scenario) reduced IVDMD and CP content and enhanced fibre content, which means that animal production will be negatively affected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among US Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Mattei, Josiemer; Fung, Teresa T; Li, Yanping; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-08

    Adherence to several diet quality scores, including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, Alternative Mediterranean Diet score, and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about how changes in these scores over time influence subsequent CVD risk. We analyzed the association between 4-year changes in the 3 diet quality scores (Alternative Healthy Eating Index, Alternative Mediterranean Diet score, and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among 29 343 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 51 195 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2010). During 1 394 702 person-years of follow-up, we documented 11 793 CVD cases. Compared with participants whose diet quality remained relatively stable in each 4-year period, those with the greatest improvement in diet quality scores had a 7% to 8% lower CVD risk in the subsequent 4-year period (pooled hazard ratio, 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-0.99] for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index; 0.93 [95% CI, 0.85-1.02] for the Alternative Mediterranean Diet score; and 0.93 [95% CI, 0.87-0.99] for the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension; all P for trend the long term, increasing the diet scores from baseline to the first 4-year follow-up was associated with lower CVD risk during the next 20 years (7% [95% CI, 1-12] for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, and 9% [95% CI, 3-14] for the Alternative Mediterranean Diet score). A decrease in diet quality scores was associated with significantly elevated risk of CVD in subsequent time periods. Improving adherence to diet quality scores over time is associated with significantly lower CVD risk in both the short term and long term. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Erickson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  19. The Impacts of an Invasive Gastropod Batillaria attramentaria on Benthic Habitats in a Central California bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, J.; Bowles, C.; Weiskel, H.; Grosholz, E.

    2008-12-01

    Invasive species threaten ecosystem function and native biodiversity in many coastal systems. Studies examining the consequences of invasion often focus only on the responses of local species and fail to consider impacts on the sedimentary as well as the biotic environment. In this study, we examine the impacts of a recently introduced deposit feeding gastropod Batillaria attramentaria on the benthic systems in Bodega Harbor, CA. This species reaches extraordinary densities of >14,000 m-2 over significant areas of high intertidal mudflat suggesting the potential for substantial impacts to sedimentary environments as well as both infaunal and epifaunal communities. We conducted short-term enclosure/exclosure experiments using two densities of Batillaria together with cage controls to measure the effects of Batillaria grazing and bioturbation on standing abundance of microalgae (chl a, sediment grain size and percent organics as well as on common infaunal species. Our results demonstrate that over a short time window, Batillaria has a minimal effect on sediment chl a as well as modest effects on sediment organics and grain size. However, Batillaria had a measurable effect on benthic communities substantially reducing densities of small clams Nutricola tantilla, N. confusa and Gemma gemma in high density enclosure experiments. We also used image analysis of bioturbation of grazing snails in laboratory mesocosms and field mark-recapture studies to quantify the area that would be bioturbated by Batillaria as the invasion continues. This species showed very high growth rates at tidal elevations of +3.0 MHHW and the rate of dispersal suggest that the total impact of these deposit feeders at densities that typically exceed 10,000 m-2 can be substantial. However, we suggest that the potential rate of change to the sediment environment as the result of invasion may occur more slowly than changes to benthic infaunal communities, but that high densities over time are likely to

  20. Identifying individual changes in performance with composite quality indicators while accounting for regression to the mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Byron J; Dunton, Nancy

    2013-04-01

    Almost a decade ago Morton and Torgerson indicated that perceived medical benefits could be due to "regression to the mean." Despite this caution, the regression to the mean "effects on the identification of changes in institutional performance do not seem to have been considered previously in any depth" (Jones and Spiegelhalter). As a response, Jones and Spiegelhalter provide a methodology to adjust for regression to the mean when modeling recent changes in institutional performance for one-variable quality indicators. Therefore, in our view, Jones and Spiegelhalter provide a breakthrough methodology for performance measures. At the same time, in the interests of parsimony, it is useful to aggregate individual quality indicators into a composite score. Our question is, can we develop and demonstrate a methodology that extends the "regression to the mean" literature to allow for composite quality indicators? Using a latent variable modeling approach, we extend the methodology to the composite indicator case. We demonstrate the approach on 4 indicators collected by the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators. A simulation study further demonstrates its "proof of concept."

  1. Volatile organic compounds as markers of quality changes during the storage of wild rocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Alexandru; Kjær, Anders; Edelenbos, Merete

    2017-10-01

    The quality of leafy green vegetables changes during storage. Leaves become yellow or disintegrate, and an off-odor may develop. In addition, small amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released. In this study, the release of acetone, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, nitromethane, pentane, 3-methylfuran, 2-ethylfuran, and dimethyl disulfide from wild rocket with different initial qualities was monitored during 8d storage at 10°C and correlated to aerobic bacteria counts, yeast and mold counts, and degree of tissue disintegration. The release of VOCs, except for 3-methylfuran, was influenced by the initial quality of the leaves. The release of pentane and 2-ethylfuran was related to the degree of tissue disintegration, and the release of dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide was related to the total aerobic bacteria count. The results demonstrated that VOCs can be used as markers for monitoring the complex quality changes taking place in packaged fresh produce during storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved water quality can ameliorate effects of climate change on corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Scott A; Done, Terence J

    2009-09-01

    The threats of wide-scale coral bleaching and reef demise associated with anthropogenic climate change are widely known. Moreover, rates of genetic adaptation and/or changes in the coral-zooxanthella partnerships are considered unlikely to be sufficiently fast for corals to acquire increased physiological resistance to increasing sea temperatures and declining pH. However, it has been suggested that coral reef resilience to climate change may be improved by good local management of coral reefs, including management of water quality. Here, using major data sets from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, we investigate geographic patterns of coral bleaching in 1998 and 2002 and outline a synergism between heat stress and nutrient flux as a major causative mechanism for those patterns. The study provides the first concrete evidence for the oft-expressed belief that improved coral reef management will increase the regional-scale survival prospects of coral reefs to global climate change.

  3. Quality indicators in subtropical soils of Formosa, Argentina: Changes for agriculturization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Baridón

    2014-12-01

    The changes produced in the Typic Hapludolls and Typic Argiudolls after 25 years of continuously using native forests, agriculture, fruit plantations and pastures were analyzed. These changes were in pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, total nitrogen, structural stability, hydraulic conductivity, respiration and dehydrogenase and urease and enzyme activity. Variables with significant differences between diverse uses were evaluated by multivariate methods, Principal Component Analysis, and Correlation Analysis. The results of this study showed that total organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, structural stability and dehydrogenase activity are the quality indicators most affected by agriculturization. All are related to organic matter.

  4. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health

    OpenAIRE

    Larry E. Erickson; Merrisa Jennings

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce r...

  5. Complex interactions among climate change, sanitation, and groundwater quality: A case study from Ramotswa, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, B. M.; Altchenko, Y.; Kenabatho, P. K.; Sylvester, S. R.; Villholth, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    With population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate change, groundwater is becoming an increasingly important source of drinking water around the world, including southern Africa. This is an investigation into the coupled human and natural system linking climate change, droughts, sanitation, and groundwater quality in Ramotswa, a town in the semi-arid southeastern Botswana. During the recent drought from 2013-2016, water shortages from reservoirs that supply the larger city of Gaborone resulted in curtailed water supply to Ramotswa, forcing people with flush toilets to use pit latrines. Pit latrines have been suspected as the cause of elevated nitrate in the Ramotswa groundwater, which also contributes to the town's drinking water supply. The groundwater pollution paradoxically makes Ramotswa dependent on Gaborone's water, supplied in large part by surface reservoirs, which are vulnerable to drought. Analysis of long-term rainfall records indicates that droughts like the one in 2013-2016 are increasing in likelihood due to climate change. Because of the drought, many more people used pit latrines than under normal conditions. Analysis of the groundwater for nitrate and using caffeine as an indicator, human waste leaching from pit latrines is implicated as the major culprit for the nitrate pollution. The results indicate a critical indirect linkage between climate change, sanitation, groundwater quality and water security in this area of rapid urbanization and population growth. Recommendations are offered for how Ramotswa's water security could be made less vulnerable to climate change.

  6. Climate change impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A

    2016-01-30

    Climate change is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of climate change on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future climate change scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of changes, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of climate change on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality of life and BMI changes in youth participating in an integrated pediatric obesity treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Lazorick, Suzanne; Lamson, Angela L; Ivanescu, Andrada; Collier, David N

    2013-07-10

    Changes in Quality of Life (QOL) measures over time with treatment of obesity have not previously been described for youth. We describe the changes from baseline through two follow up visits in youth QOL (assessed by the Pediatric Quality Life Inventory, PedsQL4.0), teen depression (assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ9A), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score. We also report caregiver proxy ratings of youth QOL. A sample of 267 pairs of youth and caregiver participants were recruited at their first visit to an outpatient weight-treatment clinic that provides care integrated between a physician, dietician, and mental health provider; of the 267, 113 attended a visit two (V2) follow-up appointment, and 48 attended visit three (V3). We investigated multiple factors longitudinally experienced by youth who are overweight and their caregivers across up to three different integrated care visits. We determined relationships at baseline in QOL, PHQ9A, and BMI z-score, as well as changes in variables over time using linear mixed models with time as a covariate. Overall across three visits the results indicate that youth had slight declines in relative BMI, significant increases in their QOL and improvements in depression. We encourage clinicians and researchers to track youth longitudinally throughout treatment to investigate not only youth's BMI changes, but also psychosocial changes including QOL.

  8. Effect of diabetes on outcome and changes in quality of life after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Otso; Julkunen, Juhani; Saarinen, Timo; Laurikka, Jari; Tarkka, Matti R

    2005-03-01

    An increasing proportion of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are diabetics who are known to carry a higher mortality and morbidity in association with operation, but data on whether health-related quality of life improves similarly after coronary artery bypass grafting in diabetic and nondiabetic patients are limited. We assessed in detail changes in health-related quality of life (RAND-36 Health Survey) during the first year after coronary artery bypass grafting. Seventy-four of the 508 patients (14.6%) operated on in a single institution had a history of diabetes and were compared to nondiabetics. The RAND-36 Health Survey was used as an indicator of quality of life. Assessments were made preoperatively and repeated 12 months later. Thirty-day mortality was 2.7% versus 1.6% (p = 0.511) and one-year survival was 94.6% versus 97.0% (p = 0.287) in the diabetics and nondiabetics, respectively. Diabetics improved significantly (p diabetics as well as in nondiabetics. Both groups experienced closely similar freedom from anginal symptoms at one year (86.2% vs 90.5%, p = 0.280). Although diabetic patients differ from nondiabetics having slightly inferior quality of life before and one year after coronary artery bypass grafting, they gain similar improvement of quality of life in one year after surgery when compared to nondiabetics.

  9. From student to graduate: longitudinal changes in the qualities of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Leanne S; Johnson, Maree

    2015-12-01

    To examine the development of perceived qualities of nursing from student to graduate nurse over time. Researchers continue to explore student nurse and new graduate nurse attrition, particularly in the light of a looming crisis in nursing recruitment and retention. Qualities of nurses represent the job fit of nursing from student to graduate years. A prospective longitudinal design with a convenience sample was used for this study. Data were collected annually from 2009-2012 through the completion of a short on-line survey. The sample size of undergraduate nurses in year 1 was 676, with 527 in year 2, 339 in year 3 and 190 in year 4. Only 136 participants completed the survey each year forming the complete data set for analysis. Most qualities of nursing differed significantly across time with the qualities of Caring, Empathetic, Knowledge and Respectful demonstrating strong changes. Most declines in scores occurred on graduation. Caring, the central tenet of nursing increased during the student years and declined slightly on graduation. This unique longitudinal study of Australian nurses suggests that the clinical experience and theoretical grounding provided in our University programs, has resulted in an increasing cumulative effect in the third year supporting most qualities of nurses/nursing understood in year 1, that is, the career fit to perceptions, has been achieved. The decline in the 1(st) year of graduation, where the concept of workplace misfit is occurring, is where further nurse graduate support is urgently required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Estimation of environmental flow incorporating water quality and hypothetical climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Bendangtola; Chaudhary, Shushobhit; Dhanya, C T; Kumar, Arun

    2017-05-01

    Environmental flows (Eflow, hereafter) are the flows to be maintained in the river for its healthy functioning and the sustenance and protection of aquatic ecosystems. Estimation of Eflow in any river stretch demands consideration of various factors such as flow regime, ecosystem, and health of river. However, most of the Eflow estimation studies have neglected the water quality factor. This study urges the need to consider water quality criterion in the estimation of Eflow and proposes a framework for estimating Eflow incorporating water quality variations under present and hypothetical future scenarios of climate change and pollution load. The proposed framework is applied on the polluted stretch of Yamuna River passing through Delhi, India. Required Eflow at various locations along the stretch are determined by considering possible variations in future water quantity and quality. Eflow values satisfying minimum quality requirements for different river water usage classes (classes A, B, C, and D as specified by the Central Pollution Control Board, India) are found to be between 700 and 800 m 3 /s. The estimated Eflow values may aid policymakers to derive upstream storage-release policies or effluent restrictions. Generalized nature of this framework will help its implementation on any river systems.

  11. Integrated Management of Residential Indoor Air Quality: A Call for Stakeholders in a Changing Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Marie-Eve; Poulin, Patrick; Campagna, Céline; Leclerc, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-25

    A paradigm change in the management of environmental health issues has been observed in recent years: instead of managing specific risks individually, a holistic vision of environmental problems would assure sustainable solutions. However, concrete actions that could help translate these recommendations into interventions are lacking. This review presents the relevance of using an integrated indoor air quality management approach to ensure occupant health and comfort. At the nexus of three basic concepts (reducing contaminants at the source, improving ventilation, and, when relevant, purifying the indoor air), this approach can help maintain and improve indoor air quality and limit exposure to several contaminants. Its application is particularly relevant in a climate change context since the evolving outdoor conditions have to be taken into account during building construction and renovation. The measures presented through this approach target public health players, building managers, owners, occupants, and professionals involved in building design, construction, renovation, and maintenance. The findings of this review will help the various stakeholders initiate a strategic reflection on the importance of indoor air quality and climate change issues for existing and future buildings. Several new avenues and recommendations are presented to set the path for future research activities.

  12. Cochlear implantation in late-implanted prelingually deafened adults: changes in quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatman, Louise V; Huinck, Wendy J; Langereis, Margreet C; Snik, Ad F M; Mulder, Jef J

    2014-02-01

    With expanding inclusion criteria for cochlear implantation, the number of prelingually deafened persons who are implanted as adults increases. Compared with postlingually deafened adults, this group shows limited improvement in speech recognition. In this study, the changes in health-related quality of life in late-implanted prelingually deafened adults are evaluated and related to speech recognition. Quality of life was measured before implantation and 1 year after implantation in a group of 28 prelingually deafened adults, who had residual hearing and who used primarily oral communication. Patients completed 3 questionnaires (Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire, Glasgow Benefit Inventory, and Health Utility Index 3). Postoperative scores were compared with preoperative scores. Additionally, phoneme recognition scores were obtained preimplantation and 1 year postimplantation. Quality of life improved after implantation: scores on the Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire improved significantly in all subdomains (basic speech perception, advanced speech perception, speech production, self-esteem, activity, and social interaction), the total Glasgow Benefit Inventory score improved significantly, and the Health Utility Index 3 showed a significant improvement in the utility score and in the subdomains "hearing" and "emotion." Additionally, a significant improvement in speech recognition scores was found. No significant correlations were found between gain in quality of life and speech perception scores. The results suggest that quality of life and speech recognition in prelingually deafened adults significantly improved as a result of cochlear implantation. Lack of correlation between quality of life and speech recognition suggests that in evaluating performance after implantation in prelingually deafened adults, measures of both speech recognition and quality of life should be used.

  13. Climate change impacts on human health over Europe through its effect on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Ruth M; Heal, Mathew R; O'Connor, Fiona M

    2017-12-05

    This review examines the current literature on the effects of future emissions and climate change on particulate matter (PM) and O 3 air quality and on the consequent health impacts, with a focus on Europe. There is considerable literature on the effects of climate change on O 3 but fewer studies on the effects of climate change on PM concentrations. Under the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th assessment report (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), background O 3 entering Europe is expected to decrease under most scenarios due to higher water vapour concentrations in a warmer climate. However, under the extreme pathway RCP8.5 higher (more than double) methane (CH 4 ) abu