WorldWideScience

Sample records for benefits environmental impacts

  1. Cost/benefit analyses of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of cost-benefit analyses are considered. Some topics discussed are: regulations of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); statement of AEC policy and procedures for implementation of NEPA; Calvert Cliffs decision; AEC Regulatory Guide; application of risk-benefit analysis to nuclear power; application of the as low as practicable (ALAP) rule to radiation discharges; thermal discharge restrictions proposed by EPA under the 1972 Amendment to the Water Pollution Control Act; estimates of somatic and genetic insult per unit population exposure; occupational exposure; EPA Point Source Guidelines for Discharges from Steam Electric Power Plants; and costs of closed-cycle cooling using cooling towers. (U.S.)

  2. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  3. Dual discounting in cost-benefit analysis for environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discounting has been a long-established intertemporal efficiency tool in cost-benefit analysis which focuses on project selection at communal level with a view to maximising the social welfare. However, with the relentless growth in environmental stress that, in good parts, stems from investment projects the established criterion in discounting appears to be inadequate especially when environmental issues are taken into consideration. This paper looks at how dual focus on efficiency and sustainability can be achieved by using dual discounting, i.e. discounting environmental benefits separately and differently from other costs and benefits and applies this alternative criterion to an afforestation scheme in the United Kingdom which contains carbon sequestration in addition to timber benefits.

  4. Environmental impact and benefit from hydro-energy: Bulgarian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present hydro energy system in Bulgaria has been constructed mainly in the period 1950-1965. The currently utilized hydro-power potential, only 33% of the estimated technical potential, includes 87 HPP operating in 1991. A complex assessment of the environmental impact of the hydro energy objects as well as a comparative analysis of all energy sources in Bulgaria is made in the framework of Bulgarian Case Study of the DECADES Inter-Agency Project. The main types of environmental impact related to HPP operation are presented in 7 specific categories: land requirements, changes in the landscape, hydrological changes, micro-climatic changes, geodynamic changes, risk from man-made activities; generation of new ecosystems. A technique of expertise in ball is proposed as a suitable quantitative approach for more precise assessment of impact on climate factors from different energy sources. 2 tabs., 5 refs

  5. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  6. The potential economic and environmental impact of a Public Benefit Fund in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined, including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies, and the limitations of the analysis are outlined. (Author)

  7. MEDITERRANEAN FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SIGNIFICANT HEALTH AND NUTRITION BENEFITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nutrition is central in the prevention of food-related non-communicable diseases representing an important health risk factor and an enormous socio-economic burden for Mediterranean societies. Nevertheless, assessment of food systems and diets sustainability should take into account not only their health benefits but also their environmental impacts. This work aims at analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns (MFCPs) and at highlighting their nutrition and health benefits. The paper provides a review on nutrition and health benefits of the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) as well as on water and land resources and biodiversity in the Mediterranean. FAO food consumption statistics and standard footprint data were used to characterise the MFCP and to calculate and discuss environmental impacts, i.e. water, carbon and ecological footprints. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2,300 plant species. The share of plant-based energy in the diet is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe and America. Peoples adhering to the Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrients intakes. The MD was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. During the last decades, the ecological footprint (EF) per capita in the Mediterranean increased while the biocapacity decreased thus the ecological deficit increased. The carbon footprint alone is generally higher than the biocapacity. MENA region has a lower EF than North America. Food consumption represents the highest share of water footprint of consumption (WFC) in the Mediterranean. WFC is lower in Mediterranean countries, especially MENA ones, than in North America. The traditional MD offers considerable health benefits and has lower environmental impacts than Northern

  8. Environmental, economical and social impacts and benefits of biofuels: a global view

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Mota; Mércia Melo de Almeida; Vladimir Costa de Alencar; Wilson Fadlo Curi

    2009-01-01

    The substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels is being stimulated by governments because of the perspective of exhaustion of world oil reserves, in consequence of constant price rising and also because of environmental impacts. It is based on this perspective that this research work was realized, aiming to develop a search of information related to it, mainly exposing environmental, economical and social impacts of fossil fuels and biofuels that naturally are the substitutes of these. Through ...

  9. Environmental impacts and benefits of regional power grid interconnections for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of China's power industry, present situation, environmental influences and potential benefits of regional power grid interconnections in China. Power plants in China are mainly thermal, burning fossil fuels especially coal which emit a great deal of pollutants and greenhouse gases such as SO2, NOx and CO2. China leads all other countries in emissions of SO2, CO2, and the power industry is the largest contributor to these emissions. There are a number of environmental benefits through regional power grid interconnection. That is, the construction of small electricity generation capacity would be avoided; natural resources would be used to generate electricity on a regional scale; and generating sources can be separated from centers of electricity use, which will decrease emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases and help to reduce human exposure to elevated air pollutant concentrations. Therefore, gradually enlarged power grids, and power grid interconnection, should be part of the general pattern of power system development in China

  10. Environmental benefits of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental benefits of ethanol blended fuels in helping to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is one way of addressing air pollution concerns such as ozone formation. The state of California has legislated stringent automobile emissions standards in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Several Canadian cities also record similar hazardous exposures to carbon monoxide, particularly in fall and winter. Using oxygenated fuels such as ethanol, is one way of addressing the issue of air pollution. The net effect of ethanol use is an overall decrease in ozone formation. For example, use of a 10 per cent ethanol blend results in a 25-30 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide emissions by promoting a more complete combustion of the fuel. It also results in a 6-10 per cent reduction of carbon dioxide, and a seven per cent overall decrease in exhaust VOCs (volatile organic compounds). The environmental implications of feedstock production associated with the production of ethanol for fuel was also discussed. One of the Canadian government's initiatives to address the climate change challenge is its FleetWise initiative, in which it has agreed to a phased-in acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles by the year 2005. 9 refs

  11. Assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammingh, P.; Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maas, R. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Holland, M.R. [Ecometrics Research and Consulting EMRC, Reading (United Kingdom); Jonson, J.E. [The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West MSC-W, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    In the last five to ten years, concerns about the health and ecosystem effects of air polluting emissions from ships have grown in international policy debate regarding further air pollutant emissions control. As an outcome of the debate, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted more stringent emission standards in 2008 to further control air pollution from sea shipping. For example, their most stringent nitrogen oxide emission standards are about 75 per cent lower than the standards for current ships. However, these most stringent standards are only mandatory in specific emission control areas designated by the IMO. Such specific areas aim to protect densely populated areas and sensitive ecosystems from air pollution from nearby international shipping. Prior to a possible application for designation of a nitrogen oxide emission control area, the eight North Sea countries commissioned an assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits (this report) and the economic impacts and costs (Danish EPA, 2012). The main conclusions of this assessment are presented and concisely explained below. A detailed elaboration of the work carried out, the results and the uncertainties can be found in 'Full results'.

  12. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    of diverting used clothing from the waste stream. The aim of the study was to assess the net environmental benefits brought by the disposal of used clothing through charities who return them for second-hand sales assuming that second hand clothes (SHC) to some extent replace the purchase of new clothes...... clothes actually results in a decrease of the environmental burden of the life cycle of clothing. The environmental burden of clothing has been studied in several studies. However, most of these studies focus solely on the energy consumption aspects and pay little attention to the potential benefits....... Materials and methods The extent to which SHC introduces such a replacement was investigated applying a methodology in which a questionnaire-based survey was conducted on more than 200 consumers in second-hand shops. The survey was done in Sweden and Estonia and Africa was included by estimation. Based...

  13. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment

  14. [Impact of Phosphogypsum Wastes on the Wheat Growth and CO2 Emissions and Evaluation of Economic-environmental Benefit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Shang, Xiao-xia; Zheng, Pei-hui; Yin, Jin; Kakpa, Didier; Ren, Qian-qi; Faustin, Ogou Katchele; Chen, Su-yun; Xu, Ya; Yao, Tong-yan; Ji, Wei; Qian, Jing-shan; Ma, Shi-jie

    2015-08-01

    Phosphogypsum is a phosphorus chemical waste which has not been managed and reused well, resultantly, causing environmental pollution and land-occupation. Phosphogypsum wastes were used as a soil amendment to assess the effect on wheat growth, yield and CO2 emissions from winter wheat fields. Its economic and environmental benefits were analyzed at the same time. The results showed that wheat yield was increased by 37.71% in the treatment of phosphogypsum of 2 100 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control treatment, throughout the wheat growing season, CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 3% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 1050 kg x hm(-2), while reduced by 8% , 10% , and 6% during the jointing stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively; while CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 7% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 2 100 kg x hm(-2) throughout the wheat growing season, as reduced by 11% , 4% , and 12% during the reviving wintering stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively. It was better for CO2 emission reduction in the treatment of a larger amount of phosphogypsum waste. In the case of application of phosphogypsum waste residue within a certain range, the emission intensity of CO2 ( CO2 emissions of per unit of fresh weight or CO2 emissions of per unit of yield) , spike length, fresh weight and yield showed a significantly negative correlation--the longer the ear length, the greater fresh weight and yield and the lower the CO2 emissions intensity. As to the carbon trading, phosphogypsum utilization was of high economic and environmental benefits. Compared with the control, the ratio of input to output changed from 1: 8.3 to 1: 10.7, which in the same situation of investment the output could be increased by 28.92% ; phosphogypsum as a greenhouse gas reducing agent in the wheat field, it could decrease the cost and increase the environmental benefit totally about 290 yuan per unit of ton. The

  15. Environmental benefits of enclosed conveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, K.

    1995-08-01

    Increasingly stringent legislation on operating controls in the bulk industry and increased environmental awareness has helped promote the role of enclosed conveying systems for solids handling. The article details developments in the field, emphasizing environmental benefits of the various enclosed conveying systems currently on the market. It is divided into sections on: pipe conveyors (from Bridgestone, Sicon, Imperial Technologies, Conveytech, PWM Anlagen and System, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Machinery Company, MAN Takraf, MVT Bernard Blatton and Huwood); en masse conveyors (from Redler and Scren Conveyor Corporation); and high angle conveyors (from Continental Conveyor). Specialist conveyors for Aerobelt Conveyors and Cavier are descried, which in addition to using some form of cladding to provide enclosure, include an air supported conveyor system or one where side rollers are replaced by a UHMW or stainless steel wing support for the conveyor belting provide a dust free system. A table lists details of sale of Continental Conveyor and Equipment Company high angle conveyors. 1 fig., 1 tab., 9 photos.

  16. The benefits from environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental remediation projects inevitably take place against a backdrop of overall social goals and values. These goals can include, for example, full employment, preservation of the cultural, economic and archaeological resources, traditional patterns of land use, spiritual values, quality of life factors, biological diversity, environmental and socio-economic sustainability, protection of public health. Different countries will have different priorities, linked to the overall set of societal goals and the availability of resources, including funding, man-power and skills. These issues are embedded within both a national and local socio-cultural context, and will shape the way in which the remediation process is structured in any one country. The context will shape both the overall objectives of a remediation activity within the framework of competing societal goals, as well as generate constraints on the decision making process. Hence, the overall benefit of a remediation project is determined by its overall efficiency and effectiveness within the given legal, institutional, and governance framework, under the prevailing socio-economic boundary conditions, and balancing technology performance and risk reduction with fixed or limited budgetary resources, and is not simply the result of the technical remediation operation itself. (author)

  17. Environmental Management Accounting - Estimating the Benefit Side

    OpenAIRE

    Csutora, Mária

    2007-01-01

    The presentation focuses on estimating benefits of environmental projects and achievements like image improvement, gaining an environmental award, profit from environmentally benign products, risk reduction benefits, etc. The paper integrates the results and experience gained in three different fields: EMA, evaluation of natural resources and working as a consultant

  18. Scenarios for the environmental impact of fossil fuel power: Co-benefits and trade-offs of carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study uses a hybrid Life Cycle Assessment approach to evaluate the environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) in coal and natural gas based electricity generation, based on IEA scenarios. For the Baseline scenario, all impact categories would increase 2–3-fold in 2050 from 2005 levels. Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are found to decrease by ∼40% in ACTmap scenario and by ∼75% in more CCS-intensive BLUEmap scenario. These climate mitigation scenarios also show significantly reduced impacts of acidification, particulate matter formation and human toxicity, suggesting the existence of co-benefits. For eutrophication, all scenarios indicate substantial increases, but the increases are largest in the Baseline scenario. For photochemical oxidant formation, only the mitigation scenarios manage to stabilize this impact from fossil fuel based power production. This study does not assess the impact of alternative power generation or energy efficiency technology that replaces part of the fossil fuel power in the mitigation scenarios. -- Highlights: ► We perform Life Cycle Assessment of IEA scenarios for fossil fuel power and CCS. ► Used LCA framework incorporates future technical developments and CCS diffusion. ► Significant impact reductions in CCS scenarios compared to Baseline 2050. ► Compared to 2005, modest non-GWP impact reductions in CCS scenarios. ► GWP intensity of fossil fuel power declines by 65 80% in CCS scenarios.

  19. Environmental costs and benefits case study: nuclear power plant. Quantification and economic valuation of selected environmental impacts/effects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study is an application, to a nuclear power plant, of the methodology for quantifying environmental costs and benefits, contained in the regional energy plan, adopted in April, 1983, by the Northwest Power Planning Council, pursuant to Public Law 96-501.The study is based on plant number 2 of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WNP-2), currently nearing completion on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington State. This report describes and documents efforts to quantify and estimate monetary values for the following seven areas of environmental effects: radiation/health effects, socioeconomic/infrastructure effects, consumptive use of water, psychological/health effects (fear/stress), waste management, nuclear power plant accidents, and decommissioning costs. 103 references

  20. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is receiving attention as an approach to reducing US dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. PHEVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect vehicle cost, weight, and performance. We construct PHEV simulation models to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, and GHG emissions over a range of charging frequencies (distance traveled between charges). We find that when charged frequently, every 20 miles or less, using average US electricity, small-capacity PHEVs are less expensive and release fewer GHGs than hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or conventional vehicles. For moderate charging intervals of 20-100 miles, PHEVs release fewer GHGs, but HEVs have lower lifetime costs. High fuel prices, low-cost batteries, or high carbon taxes combined with low-carbon electricity generation would make small-capacity PHEVs cost competitive for a wide range of drivers. In contrast, increased battery specific energy or carbon taxes without decarbonization of the electricity grid would have limited impact. Large-capacity PHEVs sized for 40 or more miles of electric-only travel do not offer the lowest lifetime cost in any scenario, although they could minimize GHG emissions for some drivers and provide potential to shift air pollutant emissions away from population centers. The tradeoffs identified in this analysis can provide a space for vehicle manufacturers, policymakers, and the public to identify optimal decisions for PHEV design, policy and use. Given the alignment of economic, environmental, and national security objectives, policies aimed at putting PHEVs on the road will likely be most effective if they focus on adoption of small-capacity PHEVs by urban drivers who can charge frequently.

  1. Benefit transfers and valuation of environmental improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing demand for analyses of the benefits of environmental improvements (or the costs of environmental damages) has increased interest in using estimates of such benefits in one setting to calculate benefits in another setting. At present, some types of these benefits (or costs) - which can be categorized as effects on health, output, economics assets, and environmental assets - are more amenable to such benefit transfers than others. Original studies that value health effects, for example, do not always lend themselves to benefit transfers. Most of the studies that value mortality risk address the risk of accidental death, which is an inappropriate context for valuing deaths from environmental causes. One way to make benefit transfers more feasible and reliable is to design original research with the purpose of obtaining results to be used in benefit transfers. As an example, one of the most successful benefit-transfer exercises to date involves the US Environmental Protection Agency's cost-benefit analysis of regulations for phasing down the lead content of gasoline. In this analysis, the agency used existing benefit studies to estimate the values of reducing premature deaths an of avoiding acute health effects by decreasing individuals exposure to lead in gasoline. On the basis of these and other estimates, EPA argued that the phasedown made economic sense

  2. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  3. Environmental benefits and social cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Kjær, J.; Brüsh, W.;

    2007-01-01

    (BN) are one example of a possible tool for participatory integrated assessment. BNs allow knowledge and data from economic, social and hydrological domains to be integrated in a transparent, coherent and equitable way. The paper reports on the construction of a BN to assess impacts of pesticide...

  4. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John;

    2012-01-01

    ), (iii) in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate and (iv) long-term monitoring combined with treatment by activated carbon at the nearby waterworks. The life cycle assessment included evaluation of both primary and secondary environmental impacts. The primary impacts are the local human toxic...... impacts due to contaminant leaching into groundwater that is used for drinking water, whereas the secondary environmental impacts are related to remediation activities such as monitoring, drilling and construction of wells and use of remedial amendments. The primary impacts for the compared scenarios were...... higher environmental impacts than they remediate, in terms of person equivalents and assuming equal weighting of all impacts. The ERD and long-term monitoring were the scenarios with the lowest secondary life cycle impacts and are therefore the preferred alternatives. However, if activated carbon...

  5. The environmental benefits of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three more or less reliable methods to determine the financial acceptance of the external effects of the use of wind energy are discussed. Attention is paid to the appreciation of external effects based on the environmental pollution or damage, appreciation based on prevented costs (implied valuation), and appreciation based on surveys, by which the willingness of the civilians to pay for a clean environment can be determined. A first indication of the environmental benefits of wind energy based on the above-mentioned methods is 0.04 to 0.08 DFl per kWh. For the total service life of a wind turbine this amounts to 800-1600 DFl per kW. The environmental benefits can be re-calculated in the form of subsidies, increasing the sellback prices or by means of an environmental levy on electric power generated by conventional power plants. 2 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  6. The environmental benefits of MOX recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the once-through 'direct disposal' irradiated nuclear fuel management strategy with the spent fuel reprocessing and MOX fuel recycle option in terms of three key environmental factors; volumes of waste arising, the radioactivity of those wastes and their radiotoxicity. The waste volume issue is viewed in the context of the complete fuel cycle; uranium ore mining and milling, fuel fabrication, reactor operation and irradiated fuel management. The concept of radiological toxic potential is also introduced and explained. Light Water Reactors (LWRs) form the mainstream of current and envisaged commercial nuclear reactors. Such reactors are generally loaded with enriched uranium fuels, but most can also burn MOX fuels consisting of a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides, the plutonium substituting for fissile U235. Irradiated fuel arisings from the reactors themselves are the same irrespective of whether the direct disposal or recycle strategy is adopted. However, the utilisation of the plutonium from reprocessing in MOX fuel reduces the requirement to mine and process uranium ore, with a corresponding reduction in waste arisings. This benefit is quantified in the paper and the volumes of the various categories of waste arising from the respective spent fuel management strategies are compared. In the once-through cycle, although plutonium is not separated for recycle, there is an accumulation of plutonium in the irradiated fuel which is ultimately disposed of in an underground repository. The paper investigates how the consumption of plutonium in MOX fuel effects the radioactivity and radiotoxicity of the wastes produced by reprocessing and quantifies their impact over time compared to the wastes arising from the direct disposal alternative. Overall, the paper will show that there is a considerable advantage in terms of reduced volume, reduced plutonium inventory and reduced radiotoxicity, of the wastes requiring disposal, in adopting a

  7. Environmental benefits vs. costs of geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, S.B.; Berg, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Boone and Winnebago Counties, Illinois, U.S.A., were selected for this study, required by the Illinois State Senate, because mapping and environmental interpretations were completed there in 1981. Costs of geologic mapping in these counties in 1990 dollars were $290,000. Two estimates of costs of statewide mapping were made, one extrapolated from Boone and Winnebago Counties ($21 million), the other estimated on the basis of differences between the Boone/Winnebago program and proposed mapping program for the State of Illinois ($55 million). Benefits of geologic information come in the form of future avoided costs for environmental cleanup. Only the quantifiable data, available from a few sites, were included. Data collection, based on 55 personal interviews in Boone and Winnebago Counties, were grouped into four cumulative categories with increasing variability. Geologic maps alone cannot account for all avoided costs of future cleanup. Therefore, estimated benefits were reduced by 50, 75, and 90 percent in three scenarios. To account for delays in proper utilization of knowledge gained from a mapping program, a 10-yr delay in benefit realization was assumed. All benefits were converted to 1990 dollars. In benefit category 4, benefit-cost ratios for Boone/Winnebago Counties ranged between 5 and 55. Statewide projection of benefits was based on county areas and an aquifer contamination potential score for each county. Statewide benefit-cost ratio in benefit category 4 ranged from 1.2 to 14 ($21 million mapping costs) and from 0.5 to 5.4 ($55 million mapping costs). ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward. PMID:12046301

  9. Environmental Emissions Nonenergy Benefits Working Paper: ARRA Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, David [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Bausch, Daniel [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Weatherization reduces energy usage by low-income households, and thereby reduces the environmental impacts of the production and consumption of energy and reduces the social costs associated with those environmental impacts. The nonenergy benefits study conducted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) evaluation focused on measuring the emissions reductions resulting from WAP program energy usage reductions and estimating the societal value of those emission reductions. While there are other environmental impacts associated with the WAP program, this study focused on emissions impacts because the 2010 National Research Council (NRC) report Hidden Costs of Energy: The Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use recommended that Congress focus on emissions costs because they have the highest documented social impact costs

  10. Environmental Benefits and Burdens of Phosphorus Recovery from Municipal Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford-Hartke, Zenah; Lane, Joe; Lant, Paul; Leslie, Gregory

    2015-07-21

    The environmental benefits and burdens of phosphorus recovery in four centralized and two decentralized municipal wastewater systems were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). In centralized systems, phosphorus recovered as struvite from the solids dewatering liquid resulted in an environmental benefit except for the terrestrial ecotoxicity and freshwater eutrophication impact categories, with power and chemical use offset by operational savings and avoided fertilizer production. Chemical-based phosphorus recovery, however, generally required more resources than were offset by avoided fertilizers, resulting in a net environmental burden. In decentralized systems, phosphorus recovery via urine source separation reduced the global warming and ozone depletion potentials but increased terrestrial ecotoxicity and salinization potentials due to application of untreated urine to land. Overall, mineral depletion and eutrophication are well-documented arguments for phosphorus recovery; however, phosphorus recovery does not necessarily present a net environmental benefit. While avoided fertilizer production does reduce potential impacts, phosphorus recovery does not necessarily offset the resources consumed in the process. LCA results indicate that selection of an appropriate phosphorus recovery method should consider both local conditions and other environmental impacts, including global warming, ozone depletion, toxicity, and salinization, in addition to eutrophication and mineral depletion impacts. PMID:26121005

  11. Environmentally based Cost-Benefit Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamentals of the basic elements of a new comprehensive economic assessment, MILA, developed in Sweden with inspiration from the Total Cost Assessment-model are presented. The core of the MILA approach is an expanded cost and benefit inventory. But MILA also includes a complementary addition of an internal waste stream analysis, a tool for evaluation of environmental conflicts in monetary terms, an extended time horizon and direct allocation of costs and revenues to products and processes. However, MILA does not ensure profitability for environmentally sound projects. Essentially, MILA is an approach of refining investment and profitability analysis of a project, investment or product. 109 refs., 38 figs

  12. Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impacts of Generic Competition and Benefit Management Practices on Spending for Prescription Drugs - Evidence from Medicares Part...

  13. Environmental impacts program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Impacts Program (EIP) prepared environmental analyses relating to federal energy planning and decision-making processes. This effort includes preparation of Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) and Environmental Assessments (EIAs), development of environmental monitoring strategies and protocols, formulation of guidelines and environmental compliance documents, and technical assistance. The Program assists the Department of Energy (D0E) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accomplishing their environmental responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The EIP is organized around six team activities: Power Stations, Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Geothermal Energy and Fuel Conversions, NEPA Affairs and Fossil Energy, Monitoring Protocols Development, and Solar and Special Projects. Impact statement work is a cooperative effort with the ORNL Energy Division, in which the EIP analyzes issues dealing with terrestrial and aquatic ecology and land and water use. The primary goal of the Program is to promote the inclusion of scientifically sound and supportable environmental analyses and advice as input into major federal decisions. To implement this goal the EIP engaged in several activities this year which provide guidance, technical assistance, planning, and long-range analyses

  14. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  15. Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems

  16. E – COMMERECE: BENEFITS, IMPACTS & BARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    DHARTIBAHEN MANSUKHBHAI CHAUHAN; SIRAJBEG SALIMBEG MIRZA

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to find out the various impacts of E-commerce in thebusiness. This paper finds out the benefits of E-Commerce, impacts of E-commerce onDirect marketing, other marketing, organization, manufacturing, finance and barriersof E-commerce.

  17. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  18. Environmental benefits of DSM externalities and resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, political and regulatory initiatives have prompted the expansion of demand-side management (DSM) programs as a means of realizing environmental and economic benefits for both consumers and electric utilities. The Edison Electric Institute sponsored two recent studies to examine the effectiveness of this effort. A national survey of DSM program activity was conducted to determine the resultant air emissions reductions. Due to pervasive inconsistencies in data measurement and reporting, coupled with the number and degree of assumptions necessary to quantify state-by-state energy savings, scientifically verifiable estimates of these emissions reductions could not be developed. The second study, a review of the development and application of monetized environmental externalities, found that the current state regulatory practice of assigned monetary values to the environmental impacts of resource options is based on imcomplete data and applied in an imbalanced manner. Due to the complexity of assessing the direct impact costs of power generation, shadow prices derived from cost conditions have been developed to assign a dollar value per pound of pollutant. These alternative measures of cost, which vary by as much as 300,000 percent from direct impact costs, are applied only to electricity. This singluar focus placed a potential financial disincentive on electricity use, precludes a balanced assessment of all potential fuel choices and excludes any valuation of the considerable environmental and economic benefits of electric technologies

  19. Environmental Impact Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Section is concerned with preparation of environmental statements and assessments and development of assessment methodologies for energy technologies. During 1976, activities involved nuclear, fossil, and geothermal energy; this work was supported by the U.S.Army, HUD, US ERDA, and US NRC. Two special studies--one on the effects of power plant intake structures on fish impingement and another on multiple uses of cooling lakes--were completed and should serve as references for future analyses. Two research projects sponsored by NRC--the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) to Power Plant Assessment and the Environmental Monitoring Data Evaluation Study--were continued. The purpose of the UA program is to develop fast-transient, one- and two-dimensional transport models for estimating thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological impacts in complicated water bodies. The impact of public use of various products that contain radioactive isotope is being evaluated. The Environmental Impact Sections assistance to NRC expanded to include assessments of fuel-fabrication facilities being considered for relicensing and two uranium in-situ solution mining facility proposals. The work for HUD comprises an assessment of the first application of MIUS in a new town development. A generic environmental statement was prepared and an environmental monitoring program for the facility was designed

  20. Environmental benefits from hydro-thermal coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual hydro- and thermal dominated electric power systems often have characteristics which make coordination between such systems inherently desirable. Operation- and design related differences call for interconnecting the two types of systems, e.g. by a 'pump-storage type' interplay between them. In this scheme the hydro-system can provide for required additional peak power and the necessary 'profiles' of production, while the thermal system covers new energy demand by increased energy production on the course of off-peak hours. Since energy represents one of the crucial building blocks in a modern society, all considerations concerning the development of coordinated systems of first of all focused on the functions and the economics efficiency of these systems and second on the technical solutions that have been developed. However, people have realized that they are part of a larger picture and that their well-being cannot be separated from that of nature. Power production from fossil burning and energy used can give about significant adverse environmental effects through emission into atmosphere of SO2, NOx, CO2, and particulates. The environmental aspects has more or less been neglected in the coordination process. Therefore the time in ripe to extend the discussion to include also environmental effects. The true least-cost solution to the utility operation- and planning problem can only be found by a consistent treatment of environmental effects in all steps of this problem. The paper gives an overview of the problem and demonstrates the environmental benefits from hydro-thermal coordination. (Author)

  1. Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of the theoretical literature and the current debate on the valuation of environmental goods and services, on the discounting of future benefits and costs, and on how social cost benefit analysis (SCBAs) can be integrated in the policy and decision making process. It is concluded that SCBA can be a good decision support method in environmental policy-making if it is transparent and if all impacts are taken into account. Furthermore, the SCBA process should be participative, and politicians must be prepared to take responsibility for the assumptions behind the SCBA, including the assumptions on valuation and on the discount rate. Such a political role makes each SCBA a unique product of a politically responsible actor, and makes it possible for other stakeholders to have calculated an alternative SCBA based on their own assumptions. This Background Study also contains the proceedings of the international SCBA conference organised by RMNO on 16-17 January 2008

  2. Geothermal environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal utilization can cause surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal noise, thermal effects and emission of chemicals as well as affect the communities concerned socially and economically. The environmental impact can be minimized by multiple use of the energy source and the reinjection of spent fluids. The emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuels as an industrial energy source wherever possible

  3. Environment and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to incidents because of the disorder of the environment, the consequences of rural exodus, the improper tourism, and which actions to solve this problem have not been enough. With reference to sustainable development, it is waited that everyone can live under environmental, social and economical equilibrium, and also has reasonable habit, being sensible to the conservation of the environmental practice. The article emphasizes the values as a need in the equilibrium of sustainability, and even made reference to the lost of the country in the sustainable development and that Brazil could have more interest by the cause, mainly in the managing in the use of pesticides e fungicides in agriculture. The concern with the globalized economy is a radical change which the developing countries are facing. The cause affects of pollutions resulting in health problems. The danger that humanity faces with its own action, as predatory fishing, causing aquatic disorder and the invasion of commerce in the area of permanent conservation.

  4. Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering for Environmental Benefits Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the concept of Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering (COTM), which provides environmental benefits without sacrificing throughput. In current...

  5. Environmental Benefits of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaumanis, M; Olesen, E

    2010-01-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt technology promises various benefits, but probably the most significant is the possibility to reduce carbon footprint of asphalt. The degree of emission reduction depends on the production technology, therefore life cycle assessment tool is vital to calculate the benefits and compare technologies.

  6. EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Jan G. Laarman

    1993-01-01

    Discussions of "sustainable development" call attention to various dimensions of human well-being to be considered concomitantly with traditional financial and economic measures. The challenge of environmental impact analysis (EIA) is to encourage re-design of projects so that net benefits are maximized over some weighting of economic, environmental, and other criteria. To date, development organizations have been under attack by environmentalists for ignoring or conveniently overlooking envi...

  7. Environmental impact of greenhouse tomato production in France

    OpenAIRE

    Boulard, Thierry; Raeppel, Caroline; Brun, Richard; Lecompte, François; Hayer, Franck; Carmassi, Giulia; Gaillard, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impact of greenhouse production in France is poorly documented. Environmental benefits versus drawbacks of greenhouse production are not well known. Assessments that intregrate pesticide toxicology and transfer of mass and energy are scarce. Here, we compared the main types of tomato production, heated, year-round production in plastic houses or glasshouses, and seasonal production under polytunnel. Environmental impacts where assesse...

  8. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban Water Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for the California Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a new method of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw water savings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to provide water utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign a monetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any of the Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats only environmen...

  9. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  10. Consumer’s Intention to Purchase Green Brands: the Roles of Environmental Concern, Environmental Knowledge and Self Expressive Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Companies are striving to minimize environmental impact through sustainable business practices. Consumers have become more aware of environmental issues and many companies have recognized the relevance of green marketing in gaining competitive advantage. As a part of green marketing strategy, companies are developing green brands. This paper focuses on the effect of consumer’s concern for environment, environmental knowledge and self expressive benefits on attitude and intention to purchase green brand. Data were collected from 270 Indian consumers. The results of this research show that environmental concern, environmental knowledge and self expressive benefits would positively influence attitude which in turn positively influences intention to purchase green brands. The influence of consumer’s knowledge of the environment on purchase intention was found to be non-significant. Hence, investing resource to promote environmental concern, to impart environmental knowledge and to communicate self expressive benefits will be helpful in increasing purchase intentions of green brands.

  11. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments

  12. A Framework for Determining Highway Truck-Freight Benefits and Economic Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zun; Sage, Jeremy; Goodchild, Anne; Jessup, Eric; Casavant, Kenneth; Knutson, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for calculating both the direct freight benefits and the larger economic impacts of transportation projects. The identified direct freight benefits included in the methodology are travel time savings, operating cost savings, and environmental impacts. These are estimated using regional travel demand models (TDM) and additional factors. Economic impacts are estimated using a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. The total project impacts are estimate...

  13. Environmental Benefits of Warm Mix Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Zaumanis, M; OLESEN, E

    2010-01-01

    WMA is a relatively new technology that allows significant lowering of the production and pavement temperature of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA). It promises various benefits, but probably the most significant is the possibility to reduce carbon footprint of asphalt thus supporting the demands of Kyoto protocol for lowering greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere.

  14. Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits Associated With U.S. Organic Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lohr, Luanne

    2005-01-01

    This case study reviews the economic, social, and environmental benefits associated with organic agriculture in the United States. Measurable impacts are quantified by comparing indicators of benefits in counties with organic farms and counties without. Statistical differences across counties with and without organic farms provide preliminary evidence that organic farms may generate a variety of direct and indirect benefits. Of 36 indicators tested across a range of economic, social, and envi...

  15. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. PMID:23792249

  16. Sustainable profit. Insight in to the environmental benefit of the Green Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green investments are investments for environmental projects (e.g. energy conservation, wind energy farms, biological agriculture, sustainable building). An overview is given of the environmental impacts and benefits of green investments within the framework of the Dutch regulation for such investments

  17. Consumer’s Intention to Purchase Green Brands: the Roles of Environmental Concern, Environmental Knowledge and Self Expressive Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Anees Ahmad; K. S. Thyagaraj

    2015-01-01

    Companies are striving to minimize environmental impact through sustainable business practices. Consumers have become more aware of environmental issues and many companies have recognized the relevance of green marketing in gaining competitive advantage. As a part of green marketing strategy, companies are developing green brands. This paper focuses on the effect of consumer’s concern for environment, environmental knowledge and self expressive benefits on attitude and intention to purchase g...

  18. Monetizing the Benefits of Risk and Environmental Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Viscusi, W. Kip

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a response to the opponents of monetization of risk and environmental benefits, such as the authors of Priceless: On Knowing the Price of Everything and the Value of Nothing . Putting benefit values in dollar terms ensures that there will be full recognition of these benefits in the policy evaluation process, and also places them on terms comparable to program costs. Much of the article is devoted to advocating the use of the value of statistical life to value health ris...

  19. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  20. Environmental Impact of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Babor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement and concrete industries are huge. What does this mean in terms of the environment? Concrete and other cementitious materials have both environmental advantages and disadvantages. This paper takes a look at how these materials are made, then reviews a number of environmental considerations relating to their production and use.

  1. Environmental Impact of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Babor; Diana Plian; Loredana Judele

    2009-01-01

    The cement and concrete industries are huge. What does this mean in terms of the environment? Concrete and other cementitious materials have both environmental advantages and disadvantages. This paper takes a look at how these materials are made, then reviews a number of environmental considerations relating to their production and use.

  2. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning......Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... on the impact category. The largest potential of the technology is observed for high-ash lignites, with initial ash content above 30%, for which the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal can outweigh the environmental burden of cleaning for some impact categories. Overall, we recommend to policy...

  3. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize th...

  4. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlson, Mårten, E-mail: mkarlso@kth.se; Mörtberg, Ulla, E-mail: mortberg@kth.se; Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  5. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  6. Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates of the ExternE Project of the EC. A diesel bus with emissions equal to Standard EURO2 of the EC is compared with the same bus equipped with a natural gas engine, for use in Paris and in Toulouse. The damage cost of a diesel bus is significant, in the range of 0.4-1.3 euro/km. Natural gas allows an appreciable reduction of the emissions, lowering the damage cost by a factor of about 2.5 (Toulouse) to 5.5 (Paris). An approximate rule is provided for transferring the results to other cities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of the evolution of the emissions standard towards EURO3, 4 and 5, as well as the effect of uncertainties. Finally a comparison is presented between a EURO2 diesel bus with particle filter, and a gas fueled bus with the MPI engine of IVECO, a more advanced and cleaner technology. With this engine the damage costs of the gas fueled bus are about 3-5 times lower than those of the diesel with particle filter, even though the latter has already very low emissions.(author)

  7. Environmental Co-Benefit Opportunities of Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Armstrong, A.; Burney, J. A.; Easter, S. B.; Hoffacker, M. K.; Moore, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Solar energy reduces greenhouse gas emissions by an order of magnitude when substituted for fossil fuels. Nonetheless, the strategic deployment of solar energy—from single, rooftop modules to utility-scale solar energy power plants—can confer additional environmental co-benefits beyond its immediate use as a low carbon energy source. In this study, we identify a diverse portfolio of environmental co-benefit opportunities of solar energy technologies resulting from synergistic innovations in land, food, energy, and water systems. For each opportunity, we provide a demonstrative, quantitative framework for environmental co-benefit valuation—including, equations, models, or case studies for estimating carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) and cost savings ($US) averted by environmental co-benefit opportunities of solar energy—and imminent research questions to improve certainty of valuations. As land-energy-food-water nexus issues are increasingly exigent in 21st century, we show that environmental co-benefit opportunities of solar energy are feasible in numerous environments and at a wide range of spatial scales thereby able to contribute to local and regional environmental goals and for the mitigation of climate change.

  8. Ecological risk assessment benefits environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbrother, A.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The ecological risk assessment process in its ideal form is an unbiased approach for assessing the probability of harm to the environment as a consequence of a given action. This information can then be combined with other societal values and biases in the management of such risks. However, as the process currently is understood, decision makers often are accused of manipulating information in order to generate decisions or achieve buy in from the public in support of a particular political agenda. A clear understanding of the nature of the risk management process can help define areas where information should be free from social or personal bias, and areas where values and judgments are critical. The authors do not propose to discuss the individual`s decision-making process, but rather to address the social process of risk communication and environmentally-related decision-making, identifying which parts of that process require bias-free, scientifically generated information about the consequences of various actions and which parts need an understanding of the social values which underlie the informed choices among those possible actions.

  9. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.)

  10. Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All nations of the world depend on fossil fuels for their energy needs. However the obligation to reduce CO2 and other gaseous emissions in order to be in conformity with the Kyoto agreement is the reason behind which countries turn to non-polluting renewable energy sources. In this paper the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels is initially presented followed by a study on the environmental protection offered by the two most widely used renewable energy systems, i.e. solar water heating and solar space heating. The results presented in this paper show that by using solar energy, considerable amounts of greenhouse polluting gasses are avoided. For the case of a domestic water heating system, the saving, compared to a conventional system, is about 80% with electricity or Diesel backup and is about 75% with both electricity and Diesel backup. In the case of space heating and hot water system the saving is about 40%. It should be noted, however, that in the latter, much greater quantities of pollutant gasses are avoided. Additionally, all systems investigated give positive and very promising financial characteristics. With respect to life cycle assessment of the systems, the energy spent for manufacture and installation of the solar systems is recouped in about 1.2 years, whereas the payback time with respect to emissions produced from the embodied energy required for the manufacture and installation of the systems varies from a few months to 9.5 years according to the fuel and the particular pollutant considered. Moreover, due to the higher solar contribution, solar water heating systems have much shorter payback times than solar space heating systems. It can, therefore, be concluded that solar energy systems offer significant protection to the environment and should be employed whenever possible in order to achieve a sustainable future

  11. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A comprehensive

  12. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  13. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied.......One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...

  14. Quantifying the multiple, environmental benefits of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Richard; Puttock, Alan; Graham, Hugh; Anderson, Karen; Cunliffe, Andrew; Elliott, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Beavers are ecological engineers with an ability to modify the structure and flow of fluvial systems and create complex wetland environments with dams, ponds and canals. Consequently, beaver activity has potential for river restoration, management and the provision of multiple environmental ecosystem services including biodiversity, flood risk mitigation, water quality and sustainable drinking water provision. With the current debate surrounding the reintroduction of beavers into the United Kingdom, it is critical to monitor the impact of beavers upon the environment. We have developed and implemented a monitoring strategy to quantify the impact of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver on multiple environmental ecosystem services and river systems at a range of scales. First, the experimental design and preliminary results will be presented from the Mid-Devon Beaver Trial, where a family of beavers has been introduced to a 3 ha enclosure situated upon a first order tributary of the River Tamar. The site was instrumented to monitor the flow rate and quality of water entering and leaving the site. Additionally, the impacts of beavers upon riparian vegetation structure, water/carbon storage were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that beaver activity, particularly the building of ponds and dams, increases water storage within the landscape and moderates the river response to rainfall. Baseflow is enhanced during dry periods and storm flow is attenuated, potentially reducing the risk of flooding downstream. Initial analysis of water quality indicates that water entering the site (running off intensively managed grasslands upslope), has higher suspended sediment loads and nitrate levels, than that leaving the site, after moving through the series of beaver ponds. These results suggest beaver activity may also act as a means by which the negative impact of diffuse water pollution from agriculture can be mitigated thus providing cleaner water in rivers downstream

  15. Automobile - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way balances have been drawn up by business companies until now, they can be regarded as an attempt to develop an instrument for environmental management within the company that makes it possible to examine the ecological effects of the manufactured products during their life cycle. The strong points of such ecobalances can be put to use in the following areas in the future: Information on products and processes obtained through an analysis of the weakest points of the production process can be used for puposes of environmental management. With the aid of such examinations for weak points it then becomes possible to optimise products or processes. Comparative studies extending over years permit an assessment of corporate measures for environment protection and process adjustment. Moreover, ecobalances can serve as a guide for the selection of component concepts. The advantage of a balance related to the whole life cycle lies above all in the fact that the piecemeal studies on energy consumption and waste accumulation by stage can now be replaced by an integral, comprehensive registration of data and processes. (orig./UA)

  16. SFR-1, Environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SFR-1 is an underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste. The present report considers the impact on the environment resulting from leakage of radionuclides from SFR-1. The radiation dose to a person in a hypothetical critical group has been estimated for two different situations: 1. the present day situation where the primary recipient is Oeregrundsgrepen with surroundings and 2. a situation when land uplift has altered the landscape to an inland area. The dominating dose pathways are for case 1. consumption of fish caught in Oeregrundsgrepen and for case 2. consumption of drinking water taken from a well drilled downstream the repository

  17. Critical factors in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has shown that it is of proven benefit to the overall planning and environmental management of resource development projects, but certain elements within the application and practice of EIA remain problematic for proponents and regulatory decision makers alike. The use of the word 'critical' in the title of this paper suggests that if the components identified are not considered or implemented properly through the process of EIA, the product will be of less value to both the proponent and decision maker. In the context of EIA, the regulatory, financial, legal and social benefits that accrue make the need for good EIA practice even more imperative. A discussion is included that highlights a number of issues that need to be addressed to improve the effectiveness of EIA, a tool necessary to attaining provincial and federal regulatory approvals. To a large extent, the discussion reflects items of contemporary public concern, and those emerging issues of the scientific and regulatory community. At the same time, it needs to be realized that not all the identified items are necessarily new to the practice of impact assessment, but are nonetheless important to professional environmental impact assessment and decision making. Insight is also provided into the direction of decision making of the Energy and Utilities Board as it will affect the regulatory review and administration of resource development projects in the province of Alberta. 16 refs

  18. CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS OF CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE RESEARCH IN A SCHOOL SETTING

    OpenAIRE

    GUIDRY, VIRGINIA T.; Lowman, Amy; Hall, Devon; BARON, DOTHULA; Wing, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research requires attention to consequences for research participants beyond those typically considered by institutional review boards. The imbalance of power between impacted communities and those who create and regulate pollution creates challenges for participation, yet research can also benefit those involved. Our community-academic partnership designed the Rural Air Pollutants and Children's Health (RAPCH) study to provide positive impacts while measuring healt...

  19. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maritime Nuclear, a joint undertaking of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, proposes to construct a second CANDU 600 MW nuclear-powered generating unit at the site of the existing Point Lepreau Generating Station, in New Brunswick. A feasibility study is now underway and guidelines issued by the Lepreau 2 Environmental Assessment Panel identified six priority issues and concerns. These are: impacts on the biological environment, impacts of radiation on humans, impacts on the socio-economic environment, monitoring, emergency planning, and decommissioning. These factors as well as a description of the site and proposed facility are described in this report

  20. Environmental impact of wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J.; Teilmann, J.

    2013-09-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied.

  1. 78 FR 57447 - Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ...'s Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545, May 26, 1999), project-level air... environmental and mobility benefits of expanded intercity rail service with downtown stations, an improved ACE would provide a catalyst for smart growth in communities by revitalizing city core areas and...

  2. Estimating Environmental Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation with Benefit Transfer: Results from a Benefit-Cost Analysis of FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Whitehead; Adam Z. Rose

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes methods, data, and results associated with the first major attempt to evaluate the environmental benefits of FEMA natural hazards mitigation grants. The study relied heavily on the refinement of benefit transfer methods. Categories of benefits include water quality for recreational and commercial fishing, drinking water, outdoor recreation, hazardous waste, wetlands and aesthetic, health and safety benefits. Environmental and historic benefits proved to be a very minor p...

  3. How do Service Encounters Impact on Relationship Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Hung Wang; Li-Chang Hsu

    2011-01-01

    The literature has generally held that interpersonal-based service encounters strongly affect the relationship benefits, though technology-based service encounters are increasing importance. However, there has been no systematic comparison of the impact of two service encounters on relationship benefits. We test hypotheses about the respective effects of both service encounters on different relationship benefits in two services industries. The results provide support for the proposal model an...

  4. Net environmental benefit: introducing a new LCA approach on wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, D; Bouchard, C; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) allows evaluating the potential environmental impacts of a product or a service in relation to its function and over its life cycle. In past LCAs applied to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the system function definition has received little attention despite its great importance. This has led to some limitations in LCA results interpretation. A new methodology to perform LCA on WWTPs is proposed to avoid those limitations. It is based on net environmental benefit (NEB) evaluation and requires assessing the potential impact of releasing wastewater without and with treatment besides assessing the impact of the WWTP's life cycle. The NEB allows showing the environmental trade-offs between avoided impact due to wastewater treatment and induced impact by the WWTP's life cycle. NEB is compared with a standard LCA through the case study of a small municipal WWTP consisting of facultative aerated lagoons. The NEB and standard LCA show similar results for impact categories solely related to the WWTP's life cycle but differ in categories where wastewater treatment environmental benefit is accounted for as NEB considers influent wastewater quality whereas standard LCA does not. PMID:22508125

  5. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  6. Accounting systems and environmental decision making: what costs, what benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Schilizzi, Steven; Lesourd, Jean-Baptiste

    2001-01-01

    The environmental accounting literature covers both public and private, or corporate, fields. The needs of private firms differ from public organisations in that environmental accounting systems must pay for themselves. Stakeholder analysis and the so-called triple bottom line forget that shareholders (and regulators) must be satisfied. However, unsatisfied stakeholders can impact on the firm’s financial prospects and on shareholder value. This leads to strategic accounting, which endogenises...

  7. Modeling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, João H. N.; Graves, Anil R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, Paul J.; Filippi, R; Keesman, K. J.; van Keulen, Herman; Liagre, F.; Mayus, Martina; Moreno, G.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer a range of environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape biodiversity were chosen as indicators to assess a stratified random sample of 19 landscape test sites in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions of Europe. At each site, the effect of intr...

  8. Modelling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, J. H. N.; Graves, A.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, P.J.; Filippi, R

    2007-01-01

    Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer a range of environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape biodiversity were chosen as indicators to assess a stratified random sample of 19 landscape test sites in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions of Europe. At each site, the effect of introducing a...

  9. Measuring the Environmental Benefits of Wind-Generated Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Cullen

    2013-01-01

    Production subsidies for renewable energy, such as solar or wind power, are rationalized by their environmental benefits. Subsidizing these projects allows clean, renewable technologies to produce electricity that otherwise would have been produced by dirtier, fossil-fuel power plants. In this paper, I quantify the emissions offset by wind power for a large electricity grid in Texas using the randomness inherent in wind power availability. When accounting for dynamics in the production proces...

  10. Unintended environmental consequences and co-benefits of economic restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Suh, Sangwon; Tan, Raymond R

    2013-11-19

    Current economic restructuring policies have ignored unintended environmental consequences and cobenefits, the understanding of which can provide foundations for effective policy decisions for green economy transformation. Using the input-output life cycle assessment model and taking China as an example, we find that household consumption, fixed capital formation, and export are main drivers to China's environmental impacts. At the product scale, major contributors to environmental impacts vary across different types of impacts. Stimulating the development of seven strategic emerging industries will cause unintended consequences, such as increasing nonferrous metal ore usage, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Limiting the surplus outputs in the construction materials industry and metallurgy industry may only help mitigate some of the environmental impacts caused by China's regulated pollutants, with little effect on reducing other impacts, such as marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, and particulate matter formation. However, it will bring cobenefits by simultaneously reducing mineral ore usage, human toxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Sustainable materials management and integrated policy modeling are possible ways for policy-making to avoid unintended consequences and effectively utilize cobenefits. PMID:24117387

  11. Evaluation of environmental impact predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis and evaluation of the ecological monitoring program at the Surry Nuclear Power Plant showed that predictions of potential environmental impact made in the Final Environmental Statement (FES), which were based on generally accepted ecological principles, were not completely substantiated by environmental monitoring data. The Surry Nuclear Power Plant (Units 1 and 2) was chosen for study because of the facility's relatively continuous operating history and the availability of environmental data adequate for analysis. Preoperational and operational fish monitoring data were used to assess the validity of the FES prediction that fish would congregate in the thermal plume during winter months and would avoid the plume during summer months. Analysis of monitoring data showed that fish catch per unit effort (CPE) was generally high in the thermal plume during winter months; however, the highest fish catches occurred in the plume during the summer. Possible explanations for differences between the FES prediction and results observed in analysis of monitoring data are discussed, and general recommendations are outlined for improving impact assessment predictions

  12. Optimisation of environmental benefits associated with energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative environmental effects of current agricultural practices, such as emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility, and erosion, may be reduced when traditional annual food crops are replaced by dedicated perennial energy crops. Cultivation of short-rotation forest (Salix) and energy grass (reed canary grass) can also be used to purify municipal waste water and sludge. Furthermore, the content of heavy metals in the soil can be reduced through Salix cultivation. The economic value of these environmental benefits, including reductions in costs to farmers and society as a whole, has been estimated to be from 1 SEK up to 120 SEK per MWh biomass. For comparison, the production cost (excluding transport) of Salix are about 120 SEK per MWh. Purification of waste water in energy crop cultivation has the highest economic value, followed by reduced nutrient leaching through riparian buffer strips, recirculation of sewage sludge, and reduced wind erosion through shelter belts consisting of Salix. The value of other environmental benefits is estimated to be less than 20 SEK per MWh. If 200,000 ha of Sweden's totally available arable land of 2.8 Mha were available for energy crop cultivation, around 12 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year, at an average cost of about 15 to 20 SEK per MWh, including the value of environmental benefits. It is assumed that priority is given to cultivations with the highest total value, as several different environmental effects could be achieved on the same cultivation site. If 8000,000 ha were to be available, the corresponding cost of some 40 TWh biomass per year would be around 70 SEK per MWh. (au)

  13. 施氮稻田温室气体排放的环境效益评价%Impact of nitrogen fertilizer on the environmental benefit of greenhouse gases emission in rice paddy ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于亚军

    2012-01-01

    Based on the result of field experiment of CO2,CH4 and N2O emission from rice growing season in rice-wheat rotation system in Chengdu plain with static chamber/gas chromatograph techniques,the environmental benefit of gas regulation is investigated with economics methods.The result show as follows: the negative environmental benefit of CO2、CH4 and N2O emission increased 14.4% because of N fertilization in rice paddy,but,the positive benefit of CO2 uptake and O2 emission enhanced 26.2%.So,the total environmental benefit increased 46.7% through gases regulation services in rice paddy ecosystem.Therefore,N fertilization reduces the greenhouse gas density in the atmosphere through strengthening gases regulation services in the rice paddy ecosystem,and the greenhouse effect can be mitigate Rice plays the key role in regulating the gases and reducing the greenhouse effect in rice paddy ecosystem.gas regulation services;environmental benefit;rice paddy ecosystem%基于对成都平原稻田生态系统CO2、CH4和N2O排放的原位观测,应用碳税法、工业制氧成本法和造林成本法对施氮情况下稻田生态系统气体调节的环境效益进行评价。研究表明,施氮情况下,稻田温室气体排放产生的环境负效益增加14.4%,但由于施氮提高了水稻生物量,使稻田生态系统固定CO2和释放O2的环境正效益提高26.2%,因而稻田生态系统通过自身气体调节功能产生的环境效益提高47.8%。所以,施氮通过提高稻田生态系统自身气体调节功能,能够降低大气中温室气体的浓度,抑制温室效应的发生,而水稻在调节稻田气体,减轻温室效应中起到主要作用。

  14. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change. PMID:25825719

  15. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology. PMID:18409652

  16. Proposal of standardization in environmental impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Maitê de Souza Sandoval; Leandro Eugenio da Silva Cerri

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts remains an important critical yet poorly understood component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice. This work is a study upon the findings of a bibliographic review about the evaluation and communication of environmental impact assessment in Brazil practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria, thresholds and EIA methodologies intending to incorporate more efficiency of environmental impact ...

  17. Beyond the throwaway society: A life cycle-based assessment of the environmental benefit of reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Valentina; Sala, Serenella; Mirabella, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In the context of a circular economy, sustainable consumption is often seen as the antithesis of current consumption patterns, which have led to the definition of the so-called throwaway society. Reuse may provide a preferred alternative to other waste management options, because it promotes resource efficiency and may significantly reduce environmental impacts. To appraise the environmental benefits related to reuse of goods, a methodology adopting life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed. A standardized procedure has been developed, identifying reference products within product category subject to reuse, and collecting reliable inventory data as a basis for calculating environmental impact through LCA. A case study on a second-hand shop is presented, and the avoided impacts are quantified. Inventory data were taken both from the literature and directly from sales and surveys submitted to customers. The results are presented, highlighting: 1) for each product category, the average avoided impacts for 1 unit of reused product considered; and 2) for the overall activities of the second-hand shop, the cumulative avoided impacts in 1 yr. In the case study, the higher contribution to avoided impacts comes from the apparel sector, due to the high amount of items sold, followed by the furniture sector, because of the high amount of environmental impacts avoided by the reuse of each single item. PMID:25557152

  18. Environmental impact of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied. (synthesis and review)

  19. Environmental and health benefits of adopting food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Compared to frozen products the chilled stored products are better in textural and sensory qualities, and found to be favored by consumers. Millions of tones of commodities are stored each year in cold storages around the world. In many countries, cold storage facilities find it difficult to maintain the required temperatures, and power cuts and temperature abuse are common. Radiation technology can help reduce the energy requirements considerably, while providing safe products for the market. As the countries do away with the fumigants, and liberally adopt this technology, there would be a tremendous increase in the volume of food commodities to be irradiated. This would necessitate deployment of accelerator based systems, which are high throughput machines, suitable for bulk irradiation at low doses, for example, grain and grain products, and delivering high doses in very short time to commodities requiring higher doses, for example, microbial decontamination of meat and seafood at low temperatures. It is therefore necessary that the stakeholders realize these benefits of food irradiation and help reduce the environmental impact of conventional technologies. (author)

  20. Exploratory benefit-cost analysis of environmental controls on hydrothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; King, M.J.

    1981-02-01

    A study of the value of environmental benefits generated by environmental regulation of hydrothermal sites was initiated to compare these benefits with the estimated costs of regulation. Primary objectives were to 1) evaluate the environmental damages caused by unregulated hydrothermal resource development, 2) use existing environmental and economic data to estimate the dollar value of preventing expected environmental damages at two sites, and 3) compare the benefits and costs of preventing the damages. The sites chosen for analyses were in the Imperial Valley at Heber and Niland, California. Reasons for this choice were 1) there is a high level of commercial interest in developing the Heber known geothermal resource area (KGRA) and the Salton Sea KGRA; 2) the potential for environmental damage is high; 3) existing data bases for these two sites are more comprehensive than at other sites. The primary impacts analyzed were those related to hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions and those related to disposal of spent hydrothermal brine. (MHR)

  1. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  2. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  3. Gm crops: between biological risk and environmental and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes) from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral) to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM) have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteron insects (ILR) or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium). the first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, conferring resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides

  4. Regulatory Impact Analyses of Environmental Justice Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer Banzhaf

    2010-01-01

    Finding an appropriate way to incorporate environmental justice considerations into policy-making has been a procedural challenge since President Clinton issued Executive Order 12,898 over 15 years ago. Moreover, environmental justice continues to be overshadowed by efficiency considerations as embodied in benefit-cost analysis. This article argues that the environmental justice and benefit-cost policies and procedures in EPA's rule-making can both be improved by bringing them closer together...

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment of Manufacturing Industry Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Sigita Židonienė

    2016-01-01

    This article is focused on manufacturing industry and its significant environmental impact aspects coverage in environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports in Lithuania. Firstly, the paper describes how a significant impact can be determined and what sources should be used in its identification. Secondly, the significant environmental aspects related to manufacturing industry are identified. The main result of the paper is the depiction of how identified significant environmental aspects are...

  6. Domestic heating from forest logging residues: environmental risks and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    GIUNTOLI JACOPO; CASERINI Stefano; Marelli, Luisa; Baxter, David; AGOSTINI ALESSANDRO

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) relies largely on bioenergy to achieve its climate and energy targets for 2020 and beyond. Special focus is placed on utilization of biomass residues, which are considered to cause low environmental impacts. We used the dataset from the latest European Commission document on the sustainability of solid and gaseous biomass (SWD2014 259), complementing those results by: i) designing three pathways for domestic-heat production using forest logging residues, with differ...

  7. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs

  8. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  9. Guidebook in using Cost Benefit Analysis and strategic environmental assessment for environmental planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Environmental planning in China may benefit from greater use of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) methodologies. We provide guidance on using these methodologies. Part I and II show the principles behind the methodologies as well as their theoretical structure. Part III demonstrates the methodologies in action in a range of different good practice examples. The case studies and theoretical expositions are intended to teach by way of example as well as by understanding the principles, and to help planners use the methodologies as correctly as possible.(auth)

  10. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Heeter, Jenny; Mai, Trieu; Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Carpenter, Alberta; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Macknick, Jordan; Mills, Andrew; Millstein, Dev

    2016-09-01

    As states consider revising or developing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), they are evaluating policy costs, benefits, and other impacts. We present the first U. S. national-level assessment of state RPS program benefits and impacts, focusing on new renewable electricity resources used to meet RPS compliance obligations in 2013. In our central-case scenario, reductions in life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from displaced fossil fuel-generated electricity resulted in $2.2 billion of global benefits. Health and environmental benefits from reductions in criteria air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter 2.5) were even greater, estimated at $5.2 billion in the central case. Further benefits accrued in the form of reductions in water withdrawals and consumption for power generation. Finally, although best considered resource transfers rather than net societal benefits, new renewable electricity generation used for RPS compliance in 2013 also supported nearly 200,000 U. S.-based gross jobs and reduced wholesale electricity prices and natural gas prices, saving consumers a combined $1.3-$4.9 billion. In total, the estimated benefits and impacts well-exceed previous estimates of RPS compliance costs.

  12. The use of the droppings for the reduction environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of by-products of livestock such as poultry manure, obtained from the manure of poultry farming, in substitution of chemical formulations, generates benefits of economic nature but especially impact environmental. Subject of this paper is the use manure in the cycle of tanning hides and that of the production of fertilizers.

  13. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact....

  14. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  15. Environmental and socioeconomic benefits and limitations of water harvesting techniques in semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Asunción Romero-Díaz, María; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Under climate change, sustainable management of soil and water resources is increasingly important, especially in rainfed agroecosystems of semiarid environments. Water harvesting refers to a range of techniques for the collection and management of flood or rainwater for domestic and agricultural use and for water retention in natural ecosystems. Water harvesting represents a good example of sustainable management of water resources that contribute to water and food security. However, there are often environmental and socioeconomic constraints for implementation of water harvesting techniques, so each condition asks for a specific solution. Here we aim to highlight the environmental and socioeconomic benefits, requirements and limitations of different water harvesting techniques and to characterize their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We reviewed 62 water harvesting techniques for semiarid regions extracted from the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. We discuss aspects related to: i) human and environmental characteristics, ii) cost-benefit ratio during implementation and maintenance phases, iii) socioeconomic and environmental impacts at local and regional scales, and, iv) impacts on ecosystem services. Our review reveals that water harvesting represents very diverse methods of collecting and managing floodwaters and surface runoff. We grouped techniques as 'floodwater harvesting', 'macro-catchment water harvesting', 'micro-catchment water harvesting', and 'rooftop and courtyard' water harvesting. Almost half of all technologies originates from traditional knowledge. The implementation of water harvesting is generally positive on the short-term, to very positive on the long-term, while its maintenance is very positive at short and long-term. However, perception depends on the type of water harvesting and local conditions. Most relevant socioeconomic benefits from

  16. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  17. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot Singh

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic i...

  18. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm’s income from traditional sources and helping to reduce the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This paper investigates the trade-off between the environmental and economic benefits of an agro-energy farm in the Umbria region of Italy that employs livestock sewage and manure, dedicated energy crops (corn and triticale silage and olive waste. The environmental analysis was performed using the LCA methodology, while the economic investigation was carried out by reconstructing the economic balance of the agro-energetic supply chain based on the budgets of each activity performed. The LCA results show, on the one hand, the predominant weight of producing dedicated crops compared to all other processes in the supply chain and, on the other hand, a significant reduction in environmental impact compared to that caused by energy production from fossil fuels. Economic analysis revealed that the results depend significantly on what rate per kWh the government incentives guarantee to agricultural producers of renewable energy.

  19. Investigating preferences for dynamic electricity tariffs: The effect of environmental and system benefit disclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic electricity pricing can produce efficiency gains in the electricity sector and help achieve energy policy goals such as increasing electric system reliability and supporting renewable energy deployment. Retail electric companies can offer dynamic pricing to residential electricity customers via smart meter-enabled tariffs that proxy the cost to procure electricity on the wholesale market. Current investments in the smart metering necessary to implement dynamic tariffs show policy makers’ resolve for enabling responsive demand and realizing its benefits. However, despite these benefits and the potential bill savings these tariffs can offer, adoption among residential customers remains at low levels. Using a choice experiment approach, this paper seeks to determine whether disclosing the environmental and system benefits of dynamic tariffs to residential customers can increase adoption. Although sampling and design issues preclude wide generalization, we found that our environmentally conscious respondents reduced their required discount to switch to dynamic tariffs around 10% in response to higher awareness of environmental and system benefits. The perception that shifting usage is easy to do also had a significant impact, indicating the potential importance of enabling technology. Perhaps the targeted communication strategy employed by this study is one way to increase adoption and achieve policy goals. - Highlights: • We evaluate preferences for domestic dynamic electricity tariffs in the US and EU. • We use an online choice experiment approach with two dynamic tariff options. • People are more likely to switch if shown environmental and system benefits. • People are more likely to switch if they find shifting demand easy to do. • Our results imply the importance of targeted communication and enabling technology

  20. Environmental benefits of electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From an environmental perspective, electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia make sense. Cities in Northeast China, Mongolia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and the Republic of Korea (ROK) suffer from poor air quality due to the extensive use of coal-fired power generation. Rural communities suffer from a deficit of electricity, forcing reliance on coal and biofuels for cooking and heating in the home, which causes health-damaging indoor air pollution. Regional air pollution from acid rain and ozone is widespread. In addition, Japan is finding it hard to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, just across their borders in far eastern Russia are extensive, clean energy resources: hydroelectricity and natural gas, and (potentially) nuclear power and tidal power. It would be environmentally beneficial to generate electricity cleanly in far eastern Russia and transmit the electricity across the borders into China, Mongolia, the DPRK, the ROK, and Japan, thereby displacing coal-fired electricity generation. We estimate that currently planned projects could alleviate the problems of two to five Chinese cities, with the potential for much larger benefits in the future. (author)

  1. Environmental impacts of energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian society today is concerned about the health and environmental risks of technologies. The major environmental issues of concern for technologies available for electricity generation are air emissions, management of wastes generated and land requirements. The production of electricity in India is primarily composed of a mix of thermal and hydroelectric power plants with nuclear energy currently contributing to an extent of slightly above 2.0%. For maintaining a decent living standard the present electricity generation has to be increased manifold and with the existing commercially available technologies this can lead to a greater impact on the environment in the immediate vicinity of plant unless a judicious mix is chosen. India which hardly contributed 1 of the global pollution in the year 1950 contributes about 20% now and with the growth in electricity generation its contribution will also be slightly increasing and hence environment will have to be one of the guiding factors in future choice of technologies for the growth of electric power generation. Indian coal has a very high ash content (30 - 50 %) and hence the fly ash problem in India can be severe. During the year 1993-94 approximately 33 million tonnes of fly ash was generated in India from the coal fired thermal power stations. The land requirement for disposal of this ash is continuously increasing. The disposal of fly ash near water bodies will also create difficulties as in addition to radionuclides, toxic trace elements may also get washed out. Pollution from the use of coal will have a definite effect on the environment in addition to depletion of the energy source

  2. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO2eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  3. Potential environmental benefits from increased use of bioenergy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 x 10(8) metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 x 10(8) metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 x 10(8) t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 x 10(8) t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 x 10(8) t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 x 10(8) t/y of coal and 3.75 x 10(6) t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO(2 )by 11.6 x 10(6) t/y, NO(X) by 1.48 x 10(6) t/y, CO2 by 1.07 x 10(9) t/y, and CH4 by 50 x 10(6) t/y. The reduced SO(2) emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats. PMID:17638052

  4. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  5. Development of a Framework for the Evaluation of the Environmental Benefits of Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Mounem Mouazen; Martin Palmqvist

    2015-01-01

    Although controlled traffic farming (CTF) is an environmentally friendly soil management system, no quantitative evaluation of environmental benefits is available. This paper aims at establishing a framework for quantitative evaluation of the environmental benefits of CTF, considering a list of environmental benefits, namely, reducing soil compaction, runoff/erosion, energy requirement and greenhouse gas emission (GHG), conserving organic matter, enhancing soil biodiversity and fertiliser us...

  6. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, and reduced emissions of SO2, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO2 and SO2, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO2, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for achieving

  7. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  8. Investments in Environmental Research, Science and Technology: Their Impacts on Irrigation and Mussel Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Ross; Hughey, Kenneth F.D.; Meyer-Hubbert, Gerit; Bicknell, Kathryn; Meister, Anton D.; Smallman, Clive; Su-Wuen, Ong

    2004-01-01

    MoRST is evaluating the Environmental Research output class of the Public Good Science Fund to identify inter alia the impacts of Environmental RS&T spending. Three specific questions are: How effective has the funding on Environmental RS&T been? Is Environmental RS&T having a positive effect by delivering real benefits to New Zealand, particularly to the environment? What influences the link between research and tangible positive benefits? This paper reports how case studies applied to irrig...

  9. Environmental impact assessment: Process and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the procedures and issues regarding the preparation of an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as promulgated by the US Congress in 1969 are discussed. NEPA procedures and requirements are covered in general, while particular attention is given to the preparation of the environmental impact assessment. Also included is a discussion of the social impact assessment. The aim of the social impact assessment is to address the social issues involved in enhancing public understanding of the hazardous risks, thereby mitigating any conflicts that may arise in the NEPA process. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Assessment of the environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells (FCs) offer significant environmental benefits over competing technologies and hence the environment is a strong driving force behind the development of FC systems for transport and stationary applications. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of FC and competing systems, and points out strengths and weaknesses of the different FC systems, suggesting areas for improvement. The results presented build on earlier work [D. Hart, G. Hoermandinger, Initial assessment of the environmental characteristics of fuel cells and competing technologies, ETSU F/02/00111/REP/1, ETSU, Harwell, UK, 1997.] and provide a detailed analysis of a wider range of systems, The analysis takes the form of a model, which compares system emissions (global, regional and local pollutants) and energy consumption on a full fuel cycle basis. It considers a variety of primary energy sources, intermediate fuel supply steps and FC systems for transport and stationary end-uses. These are compared with alternative systems for transport and stationary applications. Energy and pollutant emission reductions of FC systems compared to alternative vehicle technology vary considerably, though all FC technologies show reduction in energy use and CO2 emissions of at least 20%; as well as reductions of several orders of magnitude in regulated pollutants compared to the base-case vehicle. The location of emissions is also of importance, with most emissions in the case of FC vehicles occurring in the fuel supply stage. The energy, CO2 and regulated emissions advantages of FC systems for distributed and baseload electricity are more consistent than for transport applications, with reductions in regulated pollutants generally larger than one order of magnitude compared to competing technologies. For CHP applications, the advantages of FC systems with regard to regulated pollutants remain large. However, energy and CO2 emission advantages are reduced, depending largely on the assumptions made for

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kerbrat, Olivier; Le Bourhis, Florent; MOGNOL, Pascal; Hascoët, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    International audience This chapter focuses on the environmental studies in additive manufacturing. For a cleaner production, environmental impacts that occur during the manufacturing phase should be assessed with accuracy. First, the literature on all the studies led to the characterization of the environmental impact of additive manufacturing processes. The studies on electric energy consumption of these processes are analyzed here, and then some studies taking into account raw material ...

  12. Reducing the environmental impact of road and rail vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods have been developed to measure in situ the dynamic impact of both road and rail vehicles on the infrastructure and the environment. The resulting data sets have been analysed to quantify the environmental impacts in a transparent manner across both modes. A primary concern is that a small number of vehicles are being operated outside safe or regulatory limits which can have a disproportionate large impact. The analysis enables the various impacts to be ranked across both modes so enabling one to discern the benefits of intermodal transport. The impact of various policy options is considered and how to identify vehicles which can be classified as environmentally friendly. This would require European agreement as many heavy goods vehicle operate across country borders.

  13. Environmental impact prediction using remote sensing images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pezhman ROUDGARMI; Masoud MONAVARI; Jahangir FEGHHI; Jafar NOURI; Nematollah KHORASANI

    2008-01-01

    Environmental impact prediction is an important step in many environmental studies. Awide variety of methods have been developed in this concern. During this study, remote sensing images were used for environmental impact prediction in Robatkarim area, Iran, during the years of 2005~2007. It was assumed that environmental impact could be predicted using time series satellite imageries. Natural vegetation cover was chosen as a main environmental element and a case study. Environmental impacts of the regional development on natural vegetation of the area were investigated considering the changes occurred on the extent of natural vegetation cover and the amount of biomass. Vegetation data, land use and land cover classes (as activity factors) within several years were prepared using satellite images. The amount ofbiomass was measured by Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) based on satellite images. The resulted biomass estimates were tested by the paired samples t-test method. No significant difference was observed between the average biomass of estimated and control samples at the 5% significance level. Finally, regression models were used for the environmental impacts prediction. All obtained regression models for prediction of impacts on natural vegetation cover show values over 0.9 for both correlation coefficient and R-squared. According to the resulted methodology, the prediction models of projects and plans impacts can also be developed for other environmental elements which may be derived using time series remote sensing images.

  14. Biodecontamination of concrete surfaces: Occupational and environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managers and engineers around the globe are presently challenged by high estimated costs for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities which are no longer needed or are abandoned. It has been estimated that more than 73 Km2 of contaminated concrete currently exists in the USDOE complex and is increased many fold when similar facilities are accounted for in other countries. Needs for the decontamination of concrete have been identified as: more cost effective decontamination methods, reduction of secondary wastes, minimized worker radiation exposures and, contaminant containment. Recently environmental microbes have been harnessed to remove the surface of concrete as a technique for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). This biodecontamination technology has been tested by INEL and BNFL scientists and engineers in both US and United Kingdom nuclear facilities. Biodecontamination field tests at a shutdown nuclear reactor facility (EBR-I) have shown radioactively contaminated surface removed at rates of 4--8 mm/yr, thus validating the feasibility of this technology. Engineering economic analyses indicate two attractive benefits embedded in this approach to concrete D and D: (1) due to the passive nature of the technique, a cost savings of more than an order of magnitude is projected compared to the current labor intensive physical decontamination techniques; and (2) the exposure to humans and the natural environment is greatly reduced due to the unattended, highly contained biodecontamination process

  15. Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas utilisation in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushammala, Mohammed Fm; Qazi, Wajeeha A; Azam, Mohammed-Hasham; Mehmood, Umais A; Al-Mufragi, Ghithaa A; Alrawahi, Noor-Alhuda

    2016-08-01

    Municipal solid waste disposed in landfill sites decomposes under anaerobic conditions and produces so-called landfill-gas, which contains 30%-40% of carbon dioxide (CO2) and 50%-60% of methane (CH4). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO2 Therefore, migration of landfill-gas from landfills to the surrounding environment can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine municipal solid waste generation in Oman over the years 1971-2030, to quantify annual CH4 emissions inventory that resulted from this waste over the same period of time, and to determine the economic and environmental benefits of capturing the CH4 gas for energy production. It is found that cumulative municipal solid waste landfilled in Oman reaches 3089 Giga gram (Gg) in the year 2030, of which approximately 85 Gg of CH4 emissions are produced in the year 2030. The study also found that capturing CH4 emissions between the years 2016 and 2030 could attract revenues of up to US$333 million and US$291 million from the carbon reduction and electricity generation, simultaneously. It is concluded that CH4 emissions from solid waste in Oman increases enormously with time, and capture of this gas for energy production could provide a sustainable waste management solution in Oman. PMID:26922087

  16. Environmental impacts of the draft Dutch National Transport Policy Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of an analysis of the environmental impacts of policy proposals, taken up in the new Dutch National Transport Policy Document for improvement of accessibility and reliability of the main motorway network in the Netherlands, are presented. Major conclusions are that pricing policies proposed in the policy document effectively improve accessibility and reduce environmental impacts due to road traffic. The size of environmental benefits of the proposed kilometre charge, however, is determined by the final design of the policy measure. Furthermore, the policy document proposes secondary road expansion be state-funded if this would mean a contribution to reducing congestion on the main motorway network. However, before state-funding is decided, more research on the costs and benefits of secondary road network expansion is necessary, including the transfer of environmental and social problems from the main motorway network to the secondary road network. Furthermore, it would seem important to have local and regional authorities pay attention to noise hotspots in their transport policy development, since without additional measures, the number of noise hotspots along secondary roads will sharply increase. Finally, further research on giving priority to infrastructure projects within the proposed infrastructure investment in combination with pricing policies packages is recommended. Combinations of pricing and expanding existing infrastructure may reduce the need to construct new motorway links, reduce negative impacts on nature conservation areas and rural landscapes, and result in higher net economic benefits

  17. The blackberry value chain in Caldas, Colombia: Impacts and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaías Tobasura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The value chain approach analyzes the overall performance of the subsystems including agricultural, industrial agro-industrial and commercial articulated to a particular production process. The cultivation of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth peculiar activities to farm production has grown in area and productivity in the department of Caldas. The article is a detailed follow-up on blackberry production in the municipalities of Aguadas, Aranzazu and Manzanares. The value chain was developed under government sponsored programs, whereby farmers are organized in village associations, as well as local and regional intermediaries, and few agroindustries that transform and distribute the production in the domestic market. The study shows a concentration of negative impacts and social benefits in the production link, and a concentration of economic benefits towards agribusiness in the transformation link.

  18. The impact of supply management on environmental performance outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Wendy L.; Ellram, Lisa M.; Carter, Craig R.

    2004-12-01

    Environmentally responsible manufacturing is concerned with minimizing the environmental impact of products from development to end-of-life disposal or remanufacture. Environmental pressures from customers, regulation, legislation and competition have made organizations more aware of the impact that products have on the natural environment. This study focuses on environmental concerns during the early stages of product design. We examine these concerns with a specific focus on the involvement of supply management personnel, inter-organizational supplier relationships and a determination of how environmental issues affect supplier selection and supply base management. The literature on environmental supplier and purchasing involvement in product development and environmental supplier selection criteria and codes of conduct is reviewed. Following this, secondary data from the websites of environmentally proactive organizations will be gathered to examine what type of tracking is used for suppliers. Finally, discussions with proactive organizations will be presented during the conference that explore the role of supply management personnel in capturing, measuring, quantifying and reporting on the environmental costs and benefits associated with its suppliers. This research provides insights into how the involvement of supply management can improve the environmental performance outcomes of an organization.

  19. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  20. MONETARY ESTIMATES OF SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS AND BENEFITS IN THE WIND ENERGY SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia, Alina; Popa, Daniela; Aurelia-Gabriela ANTONESCU

    2014-01-01

    Monetary estimating the social and environmental costs and benefits of energy is a key to the development of truly green projects that would allow first of all presentation of economic, social and environmental benefits and costs to the stakeholders so that they would form a scientific opinion about what really happens in green economy. Through this study we tried to present and monetary estimate a series of social and environmental costs and benefits of wind energy given the challenges which...

  1. Intentional Exposure Studies of Environmental Agents on Human Subjects: Assessing Benefits and Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Resnik, David B.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I assess the benefits and risks of studies that intentionally expose research subjects to environmental agents. I describe these types of studies, identify their benefits and risks, compare these studies to other research methods that can be used to investigate the relationship between environmental exposures and disease, and discuss some issues related to research design and risk minimization. I argue that the benefits of intentional environmental exposure studies outweigh t...

  2. United States experience in environmental cost-benefit analysis for nuclear power plants with implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental cost-benefit analysis in the United States involves a comparison of diverse societal impacts of the proposed developments and its alternatives. Regarding nuclear power plant licensing actions, such analyses include the need for base-load electrical generating capacity versus the no-action alternative; alternative sources of energy; alternative sites for the proposed nuclear plants; and alternative technologies for mitigating environmental impacts. Many U.S. experiences and environmental assessment practices and comparative resource requirements presented in this report will not provide a wholly reliable reflection of the precise situation of each country. Nevertheless, the procedural and substantive issues encountered by the United States in nuclear power plant licensing may exhibit a number of important, if rough, parallelisms for other countries. Procedural issues dealt with include: the scoping of alternatives and impact issues; the problem of balancing incommensurable impacts; and treating uncertainty in measuring or forecasting certain kinds of environmental impacts. Although substantive environmental impact issues will vary appreciably among nations, it is to be expected that many of the substantive impact issues such as impacts on biota, community-related effects, and aesthetic impacts will also have some measure of universal interest to other countries

  3. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  4. The Environmental Impacts of Electric Bikes in Chinese Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, Christopher; Weinert, Jonathan; Ma, Chaktan

    2007-01-01

    Electric bikes have captured a large share of trips in many Chinese cities. They provide high levels of mobility and use little energy, two things that Chinese cities need to optimize. However, these benefits come at a cost, particularly emissions from primarily coal power plants and increased lead waste from battery use. Chinese policy makers are struggling with developing appropriate policy that maximizes modal options and mobility and minimizes environmental impacts. Electric bikes us...

  5. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed...

  6. Car 'organ-transplant': anticipating energy and environmental benefits of cleaner technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Filipe; Viegas, Jose Manuel (CESUR/Inst. Superior Tecnico (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    The transport sector faces multiple challenges including the accommodation of increasing fuel prices and environmental pressures. These hurdles become more important in road transport where cars hold a larger share of final energy consumption and emissions. Although not solved, the situation is improving in general and the question of accelerating the transition to new technologies is dominant, yet not sufficient. Technological turnover of car fleets is determined by the replacement of older vehicles by new models. Depending on the diffusion of new cars and driving forces for technological change, the total displacement of older technologies can last 10 to more than 40 years. Car Organ Transplant (COT) is explored here as a complementary alternative to conventional technological turnover of fleets by which potential benefits are delayed as obsolete technologies continue to pollute at preceding levels. COT corresponds to replacing obsolete powertrain and ancillary equipments with cleaner technologies. Consequently, car's service time is extended with upgraded and fully functional technologies. We analyzed lifecycle environmental and economic benefits of COT by comparing different car-ownership approaches over 20 years: keeping car, buying new car, buying remarketed-car; buying transplanted-car or transplanting own car. We concluded that COT is potentially attractive for owners while improving energy and environmental performance of automobility. Additionally, we estimated the pervasiveness of COT in the Portuguese car fleet and corresponding impacts. We concluded that COT potentially yields significant energy and environmental benefits for society. Barriers and implications of COT for the automotive industry were identified. Importantly, increased standardization, modularity-in-design and modularity-in-production are necessary. Lastly, new relationships between car makers and customers may arise like 'evolutionary car selling' by which planned COT

  7. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Lostwood Proposed Wilderness

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a draft of an analysis of the environmental impact wilderness designation would pose for the proposed Lostwood Wilderness area. Topics covered...

  8. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  9. Environmental impacts of Proalcool: production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impacts caused by the Programa Nacional do Alcool -PROALCOOL - Brazil, are analysed. Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo States are studied, comparing the regional differences. The production and the consumption phases are analysed separately. (L.J.C.)

  10. Confronting reality in strategic environmental assessment in Slovenia — Costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We enlarge on the viewpoint published in the Environmental Impact Assessment Review in 2012 — A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments. Additional alerts concerning the procedural ineffectiveness of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process from the cost–benefit point of view are advanced. The major contribution to the long lasting, costly SEA processes, comes from ultraistic treatment of Natura 2000. The case study deals with a plan for constructing a traffic bypass around Škofljica, a town near Ljubljana. Based on their conclusions the authors propose that the following elements of the SEA procedure should be improved and optimised: –CBA for SEA should become a regular component when measuring its effectiveness. –Concretisation of expected SEA inputs to the plan should clarify its role at the earliest stage of the process. –SEA should contribute interactively to the optimisation of alternatives; cost–benefit analysis of the SEA process could support this process. –Nature protection interest should be confronted and balanced with wider development interests as formulated in the plan and should not be applied in absolute terms (e.g. Natura 2000). - Highlights: • SEA in Slovenia is ineffective and costly • SEA serves fundamentalism of nature protection through the Natura 2000 system • SEA does not support optimization and improvement of development projects

  11. Environmental impact analysis with the airspace concept evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; DiFelici, John; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Miraflor, Raymond M. C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center has developed the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), which is a fast-time simulation tool for evaluating Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. This paper describes linking a capability to ACES which can analyze the environmental impact of proposed future ATM systems. This provides the ability to quickly evaluate metrics associated with environmental impacts of aviation for inclusion in multi-dimensional cost-benefit analysis of concepts for evolution of the National Airspace System (NAS) over the next several decades. The methodology used here may be summarized as follows: 1) Standard Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise and emissions-inventory models, the Noise Impact Routing System (NIRS) and the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS), respectively, are linked to ACES simulation outputs; 2) appropriate modifications are made to ACES outputs to incorporate all information needed by the environmental models (e.g., specific airframe and engine data); 3) noise and emissions calculations are performed for all traffic and airports in the study area for each of several scenarios, as simulated by ACES; and 4) impacts of future scenarios are compared to the current NAS baseline scenario. This paper also provides the results of initial end-to-end, proof-of-concept runs of the integrated ACES and environmental-modeling capability. These preliminary results demonstrate that if no growth is likely to be impeded by significant environmental impacts that could negatively affect communities throughout the nation.

  12. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Lapčikova; Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-01-01

    The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental im...

  13. Game theoretic analysis of environmental impact assessment system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Hongguang; QI Ye; PU Xiao; GONG Li

    2007-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) system has been established in China since 1973.In present EIA cases,there are four participants in general:governments,enterprises,EIA organizations and the public.The public has held responsible for both social costs and social duties.The public supervises social costs produced by enterprises discharging pollutant in EIA.However public participation is mostly deputized by governments,which severely weaken the independence of the public as one participant in EIA.In this paper,EIA refers to the different attitudes of the participants whose optional strategies may be described by a proper game model.According to disfigurements in EIA,three sides (governments,enterprises,and EIA organizations)dynamic iterative game theory of many phases is established referring to iterative game theory,dynamic game theory of incomplete information,and perfect Bayesian equilibrium theory to analyze the reciprocity relation among governments,EIA organizations and enterprises.The results show that in a short period,economic benefit is preponderant over social benefit.Governments and enterprises both do not want to take EIA to reveal social costs.EIA organizations' income comes from enterprises and the collusions are built between them to vindicate economic benefit.In a long run,social benefit loss caused by environmental pollution must be recuperated sooner or later and environmental deterioration will influence the achievements of economic benefit,so both governments and eaterprises are certain to pursue high social benefit and willing to take EIA,helpful to increase private benefit.EIA organizations will make fair assessment when their economic benefit are ensured.At present,the public as silent victims can not take actual part in EIA.The EIA system must be improved to break the present equilibrium of three sides,bringing the public to the equilibrium to exert public supervision.

  14. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  15. Valuing the benefits of environmental policy: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howarth A; Pearce DW; Ozdemiroglu E; Seccombe-Hett T; Wieringa K; Streefkerk CM; Hollander AEM de; EFTEC; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study seeks to set priorities for environmental policy in the Netherlands. We focused on seven environmental issues including: climate change, acidification, low level ozone, particulate matter, noise, eutrophication and land contamination. These issues are prioritised using three different app

  16. Environmental impact of energy systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impact of energy systems and an improvement of environmental situation in Lithuania are discussed. The number of polluting plants exceeds 40 thousand, the most harmful are power plants and boilers. The non-homogenous distribution of power and industrial plants cause very different contamination in Lithuania. fig

  17. Environmental benefit, side effects and objective-oriented financing of agri-environmental measures: Case study of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how to allocate the available budget for agri-environmental measures to maximise environmental benefits and to minimise potential negative side effects resulting for farmers from the implementation of agri-environmental measures. According to the governmental and EU regulations farmers should be fully reimbursed with compensation payments for the implementation of agri-environmental measures and thus for their environmental services. However, research results from...

  18. Impact of emerging environmental constraints on uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supply in the long term of uranium fuel is critical to the nuclear power industry. The general expectation at present is that future supply will be generated in a manner that meets current rigorous environmental standards. These standards, as defined by, for example, regulators, industry, international lending organizations and the IAEA, require minimal impact to the environment using a sustainable development approach that responsibly balances environmental, social and economic factors. The environmental factors that are associated with modern developments fall into two groupings: (1) conventional environmental issues, such as land use, effluent discharges and impact on biota; (2) emerging regulatory issues based upon evolving risk assessment approaches and determinations. It is the latter, in our experience, that poses the greatest risk to the long term uranium supply. Modern experience in Canada indicates that mines can be developed in a manner that satisfies conventional environmental assessment criteria. As such, there should be minimal environmental constraints to developing new supplies when they are developed using modern assessment and regulatory standards. However, when a strong precautionary, environmentally protectionist, view of development is utilized, to the exclusion of social and economic considerations, the perception of risk can become tied too closely to possible effects rather than actual impacts. This protectionist perception of risk to the environment has the potential to threaten the development of new projects through the imposition of prohibitively expensive requirements or restrictions with questionable environmental benefits, which in turn threatens the reliability of the long term global uranium supply. It is only through a balanced and systematic approach to sustainable development that both uranium supply and environmental protection will be assured. The paper briefly discusses the more conventional environmental and socioeconomic

  19. Pathways and impacts of nitrogen in water bodies: establishing a framework for integrated assessment modelling of management benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Monetization of environmental benefits has become relevant as an element of proportionality tests required for justifications under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4 (relating to benefits andcosts of measures). This study extends an impact pathway approach to analysis of aquatic pollution, whereby both ecosystem and human health effects are considered. Diffuse nitrogen-loss from agricultural activities is the main pollution source in focus within the framework, while the catchments...

  20. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement. Supplemental information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains supplemental information to the Environmental Impact Statement that was issued on the proposed second nuclear generating station Point Lepreau-2 in New Brunswick, Canada. Some issues dealt with here are the terrestrial and aquatic impacts of radioactive and thermal releases to the environment, radiation safety for the human population, socio-economic impacts on the region in regards to housing, social services and employment, and monitoring programs for all aspects of the development, construction and operation of the plant

  1. Environmental impact statement - Beverly uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heathgate Resources Pty Ltd, an Australian affiliate of General Atomics of the USA, proposes to establish and operate a uranium mine at Beverley in northern South Australia. Mining by in situ leach (ISL) methods is proposed to produce up to 1000 tonnes yellowcake per annum, for sale and export over a minimum 15 year mine life. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required by State and Commonwealth legislation under the Commonwealth Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act, 1974 and the South Australian Development Act, 1993. This EIS addresses the mining proposal, the existing environment, impacts of the mine on the environment, environmental safeguards, monitoring and proposed rehabilitation measures

  2. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  3. Designing environmental research for impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C A; Lefroy, E C; Caddy-Retalic, S; Bax, N; Doherty, P J; Douglas, M M; Johnson, D; Possingham, H P; Specht, A; Tarte, D; West, J

    2015-11-15

    Transdisciplinary research, involving close collaboration between researchers and the users of research, has been a feature of environmental problem solving for several decades, often spurred by the need to find negotiated outcomes to intractable problems. In 2005, the Australian government allocated funding to its environment portfolio for public good research, which resulted in consecutive four-year programmes (Commonwealth Environmental Research Facilities, National Environmental Research Program). In April 2014, representatives of the funders, researchers and research users associated with these programmes met to reflect on eight years of experience with these collaborative research models. This structured reflection concluded that successful multi-institutional transdisciplinary research is necessarily a joint enterprise between funding agencies, researchers and the end users of research. The design and governance of research programmes need to explicitly recognise shared accountabilities among the participants, while respecting the different perspectives of each group. Experience shows that traditional incentive systems for academic researchers, current trends in public sector management, and loose organisation of many end users, work against sustained transdisciplinary research on intractable problems, which require continuity and adaptive learning by all three parties. The likelihood of research influencing and improving environmental policy and management is maximised when researchers, funders and research users have shared goals; there is sufficient continuity of personnel to build trust and sustain dialogue throughout the research process from issue scoping to application of findings; and there is sufficient flexibility in the funding, structure and operation of transdisciplinary research initiatives to enable the enterprise to assimilate and respond to new knowledge and situations. PMID:25557212

  4. 78 FR 13082 - Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    .../hydraulic processes from reconfiguration of stream channels and lagoon surface water features. Project and... Impact Statement, Upper Truckee River and Marsh Restoration Project, El Dorado County, California AGENCY... Truckee River Restoration and Marsh Restoration Project (Project). The California Tahoe Conservancy...

  5. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...... current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared to...... other life cycle stages. The energy consumption is significant, particularly from some fishing methods, and it generates a considerable impact potential. In addition, other types of impacts such as seafloor damage and discard tend to be proportional to energy consumption per kg caught fish. It is...

  6. Achieving global environmental benefits through local development of clean energy? The case of small hilly hydel in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and development are closely intertwined. Yet, increasing fossil fuel-based energy consumption contributes significantly to environmental problems both locally and globally. This article explores the interlinkages between local livelihood and environmental benefits from the provision of energy to remote rural households through small hydropower development. The analysis is based on research carried out around a large development project designed to assist the Government of India in the optimum utilization of small hydropower resources in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions. There are about 100,000 villages in India that are not connected to electricity supply, many of them in the hilly regions with ample hydropower potential. The project aimed to demonstrate the utility of and options for providing electricity to such villages through clean mini-hydro. The article addresses the nature of the impacts of the demonstration small hydel schemes on the local communities, to what extent they translate into environmental benefits both locally and globally, and the perceptions and participation of the local communities in these small hydro schemes. The study explores the impacts of the schemes on financial capital, natural capital, social capital, physical capital, human capital, and gender equity in the local communities. It further provides a discussion on the links between local and global environmental benefits. Overall, it is found that the schemes' impacts both on the local communities and the environment are mostly marginally positive or neutral, although achieving clearly demonstrable benefits would require major upscaling of the effort involving broader changes than possible under this project. Furthermore, it is argued that some of the assumptions behind the project design were faulty. Involvement of the local communities and direct livelihood benefits to them are essential for the long-term sustainability of the small hydro schemes. The discussion and

  7. Companies' strategies to decrease environmental impacts: the French example of the environmental impacts assessments law implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Borderon, Séverine; Sanseverino-Godfrin, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    Companies' impacts on biodiversity can provoke irreversible damage. Biodiversity is drastically decreasing, and alarming preoccupations related to climate change arise. It is important to take conscience that humans' activities play an important part on such a result. In order to help companies to limit their impact on biodiversity, the law has developed tools such as environmental impact assessments. It aims at responsibilising firms by improving their knowledge on their environmental impact...

  8. Environmental impact of hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installed hydropower potential of Romania is evaluated to 15,700 MW and 42 billion MWh/year power generation. Only 39% of this potential are currently being utilized. In this note, the impact of Somes-Tarnita and Mariselu-Cluj hydropower systems on the environment is presented. Also, the socio-economic effects on the local communities are considered. These two hydropower systems supply a total electric power of 470 GWh/year

  9. Society environmental economic benefits of swan-labelled workwear service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Dall, Ole; Thomsen, Henning;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental and socio-economic comparison of textile supply of workwear with and without the Nordic Swan labelling scheme. The study is part of a project for development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison for product groups. The study was...

  10. Investigating the Benefits of Participatory Action Research for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) continues to focus on enhancing people's ecological knowledge to encourage sustainable actions. This deficit approach presumes that once informed about environmental harms, people will work towards sustainable solutions for healthy societies. Yet research overwhelmingly demonstrates that knowledge of environmental…

  11. Environmental cost benefit analysis for a coal-fired power plant. An application of dispersion modelling coupled with GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, local air quality impacts of a proposed conventional coal-fired power at Icel region has been investigated using numerical dispersion modeling studies coupled with a GIS application. Within the impact area of the facility, Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST2) dispersion model has been used to estimate ground level concentrations of air pollutants originating from the power plant. For the same impact area, GIS applications have been utilized to determine the agricultural yield distribution. For this purpose, relevant satellite images were digitized, classified and statistically analyzed. Based on the predicted ground level pollutant concentrations and sensitivity of the agricultural crops to those, agricultural yield loss was estimated for the impact area. The results have been quantified and validated in monetary terms for the purpose of performing an environmental cost benefit analysis. Comparison of the conventional cost benefit analysis with the environmental cost benefit analysis showed the significance of the external cost of the proposed facility, resulting from the environmental damages. 6 refs

  12. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  13. Environmental impact of ongoing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present technology in the management of uranium mine and mill wastes, coupled with appropriate site selection, quality construction and good operating procedures, can ensure that impacts on health, safety and the environment will be acceptably low over the period of operation. The methods of chemical and physical stabilization of the tailings and retention structures are also compatible with close-out procedures and will ensure that any releases to the environment will continue to be within the requirements, assuming the continued availability of surveillance

  14. Energy generation x environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims: to analyze the various sources of energy giving a general idea of the good and bad points for each power generation model, and its impact in the environment, with the purpose of considering the best available options; research on alternative sources of energy production as well as Brazil's resources in a particular source of energy and point out their strengths and weaknesses; report the best options to take advantage of the available resources for energy production in Triangulo Mineiro, a region within Minas Gerais state

  15. Energetic technologies and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monograph is a collective work by scientist from CIEMAT (Spanish centre for research on energy, environment and technology). By reviewing the central topics of their own work, the authors present a world-wide update of the state of the arts of the different technologies involved in energy production. The chapters fo through the more promising technologies related to the diverse energy sources, from the nuclear to the renewable and chemical a large gamut of energy supply ways is revised. The analysis of the production technologies is accompanied by considerations of the environmental implications, an aspect to wich a whole part of the volume is devoted. The book begins with a foreword by Dr. Felix Yndurain, former General Director of CIEMAT and follows with a general introduction to the main topics, that are presented in three parts, with specific introductions. There is also a closing fourth part that includes some additional activities where more basic and technical developments are included. The first part is devoted to energy of nuclear origin. In two separate sections, fission and fusion technologies are covered. The fission section points towards the present day problems of nuclear plants (ageing, accidents, risk analysis, etc.), reprocessing of the nuclear fuel, radioactive wastes and environmental radioactivity. The fusion section contains a critical account of the present and expected developments of the fusion reactors together with an exposition of the related plasma physics problems. The second part comprises two sections devoted to energy generation of renewable and chemical origin, respectively. Tehcnologies for solar, wind and biomass energies are thoroughly exposed along the renewable energy section whereas the chemical energy section is devoted to the modern technologies of clean fossil fuel combustion and gasification, as well as to the new appealing subject of direct electric generation with fuel cells. The main environmental and social

  16. Review of Soil Carbon Management: Economics, Environmental and Societal Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book provides a “big picture” look at the processes and benefits of soil carbon (c) management. The book is targeted to policy makers and gives policy recommendations in addition to providing technical information. The first section of the book contains a summary of current programs that foste...

  17. Methods and benefits of environmental testing and engineering. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegahn, K.F.; Holatka, S. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    Topics of this conference have been: Investigating the long-term durability of surface protection systems using an environmental simulation plant; virtual weathering-visions and first steps; polymer weathering: dose response-functions - a contribution for the mapping of air pollution effects; EUROTEST - a project using 'black box' technology for better transportation and packaging; use of fragility test results in cushion design for products containing heavy critical components; environmental requirements and life-time of airbag systems; over the HALT - highly accelerated life testing; accelerated ageing of light dosimeters; test systems for the determination of evaporative emissions; management of product sustainability and its transfer into practice; the series hybrid micro-bus; environmental guidelines for standardisation - the role of CEN environmental help desk. (orig./SR)

  18. Environmental Enterprise Risk Management Benefits for a Government Contractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Guinn

    2012-05-01

    An often overlooked advantage that an Environmental Enterprise Risk Management System (ERMS) has to organizations is the added protection from the Civil False Claims Act (FCA) for activities under a government contract.

  19. The Effect of Social perception of environmental problems and goods on the practice of cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunuel, M.; Delgado, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    When revealed, willingness to pay (WTP) is considerably lesser than willingness to accept (WTA), as economists explain. Sociological studies in Spain reveal that citizens assign a high value to the environment (high WTA), but are not ready to pay to preserve it (low WTP)because they think that it is industrial sector and the government's responsibility. This is a new factor, not studied before, that may result in underestimating environmental goods when WTP is used. The gap between WTP and WTA makes cost-benefits analysis difficult, creating the risk of environmental political judgments being replaced by pseudo scientific noise instead of by objective economic analysis.hence, it is sometimes convenient to use alternative methods to cost-benefit analysis: cost-effectiveness analysis trade-off analysis, economic-impact valuation, and risk-benefit analysis. (Author)

  20. Environmental benefits of extensive livestock farming: wildfire prevention and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Jabier

    2012-01-01

    Livestock production systems are progressively shifting towards an industrialized model that is outcompeting extensive livestock farms in regions such as Mediterranean Europe. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing debate on the environmental sustainability of these changing livestock systems by focusing on two linked environmental issues (wildfires and climate change) and on Spain as a representative study case. In recent decades, wildfires have dramatically increased in...

  1. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Executive Order 12898, open-quote Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,close-quote directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies' incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping

  2. Environmental impact of Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    The explosion of a supernovae (SN) represents the sudden injection of about 10^51 ergs of thermal and mechanical energy in a small region of space, causing the formation of powerful shock waves that propagate through the interstellar medium at speeds of several thousands of km/s. These waves sweep, compress and heat the interstellar material that they encounter, forming the supernova remnants. Their evolution over thousands of years change forever, irreversibly, not only the physical but also the chemical properties of a vast region of space that can span hundreds of parsecs. This contribution briefly analyzes the impact of these explosions, discussing the relevance of some phenomena usually associated with SNe and their remnants in the light of recent theoretical and observational results.

  3. The value of environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment and the economy are inextricably linked. Today the environmental, economic, and social associated with project and program decisions are at times of such a magnitude and duration that they exceed our ability to understand, let alone mitigate them. Energy production, distribution, pricing, policies, end uses, and externalities demonstrate the need for wise planning and informed decision making. International cooperation, based upon mutually shared respect, responsibility, and innovative solutions is an essential component of addressing contemporary issues, impacts, and opportunities. Both egypt and the united states have laws requiring environmental impact assessments. Just as egypt can learn from our successes and failures in the environmental impact assessment field over the past 36 years, the united states and other nations can learn as egypt develops and innovates its own approaches and solutions

  4. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    slow; pollution control agencies need to address existing emissions with in-use programs, such as exhaust trap retrofits and smoke inspections. Such a program is underway in California. These and other steps that can be continued and improved will allow the use of the diesel engine, with its superior fuel consumption, to continue to benefit society while greatly reducing its negative environmental and health impacts. The next ten years can and must become the "Decade of Clean Diesel." PMID:11417675

  5. Nuclear energy: biological effects and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is concerned with the large development of nuclear power plants and the recent nuclear catastrophe which has made clear how the hazards resulting from radioactivity affect public health and the environment. Environmental effects of nuclear power plants operating in normal conditions are small, but to obtain nuclear power plants of reduced radioactivity, optimization of their design, construction, operation and waste processing plays a decisive role. Biological effects of ionizing radiations and environmental impacts of Nuclear Power plants are developed

  6. The environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, G. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The California renewable energy industries have worked diligently during the past couple of years to develop public policies conducive to the future of renewable energy production within the context of electric market restructuring and the evolving competitive electric services industry. The state`s biomass power industry has organized itself as the California Biomass Energy Alliance (CBEA), and has participated vigorously in the regulatory and legislative processes. In order to reward biomass power generators for the special services they provide, CBEA has promoted the concept of providing incentives specifically targeted to biomass within the context of any renewables program enacted in the state. This concept has been embraced by the other renewables industry organizations, but resisted by the utilities. This study represents an effort to identify, characterize, ad quantify the environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California, and to elucidate the future role of biomass power production within the context of the evolving deregulation of the California electricity industry. The report begins with a review of the development and growth of the California biomass power industry during the past 15 years. This is followed by an analysis of the biomass fuels market development during the same period. It examines trends in the types and costs of biomass fuels. The environmental performance of the mature California biomass energy industry is analyzed, and takes into account the environmental impacts of the industry, and the impacts that would be associated with disposing of the materials used as fuels if the biomass power industry were not in operation. The analysis is then extended to consider the environmental and economic consequences of the loss of biomass generating capacity since 1993. The report ends with a consideration of the future prospects for the industry in the context of restructuring.

  7. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture. PMID:20122392

  8. Climate benefits and environmental challenges related to urban food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Verzandvoort, S.J.E.; Mol, G.; Meulen, van der, A.; Oostrom, van, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In a short literature review, we have collected available knowledge on the potential benefits of urban agriculture, as part of local food systems, on climate change mitigation and adaptation. The effects of urban agriculture on climate change mitigation and adaptation depend on the type of agricultural practice (e.g. in greenhouses, in soil, in artificial substrates used resources) and the difference with previous land use (e.g. leading to an increase or decrease of sealed soil surface and gr...

  9. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduces the subject with an overview of the regulatory requirments and philosophy applied to uranium mines and mills. The special attention given to tailings management is highlighted, and a discussion of the basic environmental concerns is concluded with an itemizing of the main tasks facing the AECB. The extent of the environmental impact of uranium mining, milling and waste management is illustrated with specific details pertaining to mines in the Elliot Lake area. The author concludes that the impact on the ground and surface water system is not alarming, and the impact on air quality is not significant beyond a few hundred metres from the mining facilities. The publicly perceived impact is discussed, followed by a rationale for the continued licensing of new uranium mining operations complete with tailings management facilities

  10. Reaping Environmental Benefits of a Global Hydrogen Economy: How Large, Fow Soon, and at What Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Western world has taken an aggressive posture to transition to a global hydrogen economy. While numerous technical challenges need to be addressed to achieve this it is timely to examine the environmental benefits and risks of this transition. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the leak rates in global hydrogen infrastructure and the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) are principal sources of uncertainty in our assessment.

  11. Regulatory Compliance and Environmental Benefit Analysis of Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy conservation achieved by utilizing waste heat in the energy and industrial sectors has became more and more important after the energy crisis in the 1970s because it plays a vital role in the potential energy-efficiency improvement. In this regard, cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP systems are thus becoming attractive due to the energy, economic, and environmental policies for pursuing stable electricity supply, sustainable development and environmental pollution mitigation in Taiwan. The objective of this paper is to present an updated analysis of CHP systems in Taiwan during the period from 1990 to 2010. The description in the paper is thus based on an analysis of electricity supply/consumption and its sources from CHP systems during the past two decades, and centered on two important regulations in compliance with CHP systems (i.e., Energy Management Law and Environmental Impact Assessment Act. Based on the total net power generation from CHP systems (i.e., 35,626 GWh in 2011, it was found that the carbon dioxide reduction benefits were estimated to be around 20,000 Gg.

  12. Environmental impact assessment of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear desalination is gaining interest among the IAEA Member States, as indicated by the planned projects, and it is expected that the number of nuclear desalination plants will increase in the near future. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that disseminate information regarding the technical and economic feasibility of nuclear desalination. With the rising environmental awareness, in the scope of IAEA's activities on seawater desalination using nuclear power, a need was identified for a report that would provide a generic assessment of the environmental issues in nuclear desalination. In order to offer an overview of specific environmental impacts which are to be expected, their probable magnitude, and recommended mitigation measures, this publication encompasses information provided by the IAEA Member States as well as other specialized sources. It is intended for decision makers and experts dealing with environmental, desalination and water management issues, offering insight into the environmental aspects that are essential in planning and developing nuclear desalination

  13. Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated

  14. Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Olatubi, W.O.; Pulsipher, A.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

    2005-05-01

    The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated. (author)

  15. The Benefits of Improved Environmental Accounting: An Economic Framework to Identify Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, James

    1998-01-01

    Improved environmental accounting is increasingly seen by corporate managers and environmental advocates alike as a necessary complement to improved environmental decision-making within the private sector. This paper develops an economic approach to the evaluation of environmental accounting's benefits and derives the value, and determinants, of improved accounting information in several production and capital budgeting contexts. Using concepts from managerial economics, finance, and organiza...

  16. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    OpenAIRE

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project management processes.

  17. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  18. Environmental impact of scrapping old cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, Bert van; Moll, Henri C.; Dirks, Jessica

    2000-01-01

    Many countries introduced scrapping programs in the 90s, partly legitimated by environmental impact reductions. However, reducing the age of the current car fleet may result in an increase of life-cycle CO2 emissions. This will probably also be true for cars to be produced in future unless fuel effi

  19. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project...

  20. Innovative grassland management systems for environmental and livelihood benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, David R.; Guodong, Han; Xiangyang, Hou; Michalk, David L.; Fujiang, Hou; Jianping, Wu; Yingjun, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands occupy 40% of the world’s land surface (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) and support diverse groups, from traditional extensive nomadic to intense livestock-production systems. Population pressures mean that many of these grasslands are in a degraded state, particularly in less-productive areas of developing countries, affecting not only productivity but also vital environmental services such as hydrology, biodiversity, and carbon cycles; livestock condition is often poor and ho...

  1. Demolish or refurbish – Environmental benefits of housing conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ding

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and energy efficiency are some of the most pressing issues facing China today. With its economic growth since 1978, the government has struggled to contain environmental damages and social unrest related to the economy’s rapid transformation. With the rapid growth in population and urbanization the demand for housing has escalated and traditional housing has been under threat of demolition to make way for new construction. Traditional housing is generally considered wasteful in its use of land and/or energy, and is often demolished for more intensive and more energy-efficient housing, despite the resulting loss of embodied energy and urban amenity. A research project was undertaken to study the environmental performance of traditional housing in Hangzhou. The project looks into analyzing and comparing embodied energy and CO2 for seven dwellings. In addition indoor climate data were recorded and collected in the form of hourly temperature and humidity readings for one year in six local houses and in a modern unit as a control for one year. The research results reveal that there is little difference in environmental performance between traditional and conventional modern construction and the value of conservation rather than demolition as a strategic development for the construction industry.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the national SIHTI 2 (Energy and Environment) research programme, VTT studied potential environmental impacts of a biomass-fuelled IGCC power plant. The plant was planned to be built at the Enso Publication Papers Mill in Summa, close to the town of Hamina. The objectives of the study were to assess potential impacts of the whole power production chain, from the collection, handling and transportation of biofuels to the final treatment of emissions, waste waters and solid wastes from the IGCC plant. Impacts on the surrounding community and the environment, on the soil, water, air and biosphere, health and safety aspects, as well as socioeconomic impacts were assessed. The severity of secondary impacts on the environment was also evaluated. Comparisons with impacts of the present power production at Summa, and with those of coal and natural gas fired IGCC-plants were also carried out. In the assessment, the work requirements given by the new Finnish EIA law were followed as closely as possible, although no public hearings were arranged. Environmental and local authorities were, however, contacted. The fuel capacity of the planned IGCC plant would be 141 MWth, which corresponds to about 600 000 tons/a of wet biofuel (moisture about 50 %). This amount was planned to be covered by biofuel wastes available at Summa, and at other Enso plants, and by forest residues within relatively easy access. The impacts of the collection of logging residues on the forest ecosystem were assessed by the Finnish Forest Research Institute. (14 refs.)

  3. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

  4. The effects of customer benefit and regulation on environmental product innovation. Empirical evidence from appliance manufacturers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental product (EP) innovations and their determinants have received increasing attention from researchers during the past years. So far, empirical studies have shown inconsistent results, especially regarding the impact of regulation. In this paper, I seek to advance the understanding of EP-innovation by introducing and testing a novel research framework. First, a novel unit of analysis, the environmental issue level, is applied. EP-innovation is not studied in broad terms but specifically for four environmental issues that are relevant to the electrical and electronic appliances industry: energy efficiency, toxic substances, material efficiency, and electromagnetic fields. Second, the customer benefit, a concept from the green marketing literature, is included as an explanatory variable for EP-innovation for the first time. The argument is that green products which besides their public benefits have private environmental benefits for the customer (e.g., energy savings) will generate stronger consumer demand and can thus constitute the firm's motivation to implement those innovations in the first place. Third, EP-innovation is observed more comprehensively, measuring its extent and level of novelty. I apply this research framework to study EP-innovations of German manufacturers of electrical and electronic appliances. My results support the issue level as unit of analysis. The impact of customer benefit and regulation on EP-innovation is analyzed with logit regression and the results clearly show that both customer benefit and regulation play a key role for EP-innovation. They not only foster the implementation of EP-innovations but also their broad application and their level of novelty. (author)

  5. Seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers. Environmental benefits and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This symposium informed on the current state of seasonal thermal energy storage in the soil and, especially, in aquifers. Furthermore, the potentially negative impact of such plants on the environment was discussed. Seasonal thermal energy storage is a suitable method in particular in combination with solar energy and for cogeneration power plants. For each technical paper presented a separate subject analysis was carried through. (BWI)

  6. Risk and environmental impact assessment: nuclear and environmental licensing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aims of this paper are the identification and discussion of interfaces and application of common concepts in the existing nuclear and environmental licensing procedures. Risk and impact assessment of nuclear electricity generation are two of these concepts which are discussed detail. The risk concept, which had initially focused on engineering projects, has been extended to many other areas of human activity. Risk resulting from the use of ionization radiation has been associated to the dose for the critical members of the public. Therefore, radiation protection applies basic dose limits which are established in national and international recommendations. These recommendations are increasing the emphasis to keep all the exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonable achievable, economical and social factors being taken into account. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment has been used as a tool in planning and decision-making processes, thus including environmental concern in the discussion of social and economical development strategies. This paper aims to discuss the association of these two concepts by presenting the procedures of control of radiological impact during normal operation of a nuclear power plant and the various forms of risk communication to the public in the case of events occurrence. (author). 13 refs

  7. HYDROLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS CAUSED BY DEFORESTATION UNDERGROUND: PETROPOLIS, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Magalhães da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion in Petropolis region is due to massive deforestation for housing and other human activities. Deforestation is the main cause ecological imbalances, resulting in: flooding, decrease in porosity and desertification of soil. By AIA semi-qualitative technique analysis it studied possible losses and benefits of urban expansion in the locality, if changes were likely or not of occurrence and their level of impaction. It was observed that the probability of occurrence of damage was much higher than that of benefits. The result corroborates the literature, therefore, has been seen that vegetation plays an important role in water control of the town, and also in the physical and chemical soil. The probability of catastrophic consequences, due to deforestation, is extremely high, and even mid-sized consequences have capacity of environmental impacts that are likely to be irreversible. Deforestation intensifies the consequences of major frequent rainfall in the summer of the State of Rio de Janeiro, so the higher the deforestation, the greater the likelihood of recurrent and intense rainfall events resulting from large. Therefore, it is necessary to control urban sprawl in the region to reduce water environmental impact in the region. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.17327

  8. Brazilian waste potential: energy, environmental, social and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential energy that could be produced from solid wastes in Brazil tops 50 TWh. Equivalent to some 17% of the nation's total power consumption at costs that are competitive with more traditional options, this would also reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, managing wastes for energy generation purposes could well open up thousands of jobs for unskilled workers. Related to power generation and conservation, energy use requires discussions on the feasibility of each energy supply option, and comparison between alternatives available on the market. Power conservation is compared to projects implemented by the Federal Government, while power generation is rated against thermo-power plants fired by natural gas running on a combined cycle system. Although the operating costs of selective garbage collection for energy generation are higher than current levels, the net operating revenues of this scheme reach some US$ 4 billion/year. This underpins the feasibility of garbage management being underwritten by energy uses and avoided environmental costs. The suggested optimization of the technical, economic, social and environmental sustainability of the expansion of Brazil's power sector consists of compatibilizing the use of fossil and renewable fuels, which is particularly relevant for hybrid thermo-power plants with null account on greenhouse gases emissions

  9. Environmental impact of high voltage aerial transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of environmental impacts caused by the aerial transmission lines and the measures for reducing these impacts are discussed, considering the impact over the soil in different areas, biological effects caused by delayed exposure and visual impacts due to the line structures. A methodology for the impact evaluation and the aspects of the Environmental Impact Studies and Environmental Impact Report are also studied. (C.G.C.). 2 refs, 1 fig

  10. Environmental impact statement requirements for CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the legal framework on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regarding the activities of the National Atomic Energy Commission (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), and particularly, the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements of CNEA (PN-PR-027). According to the distribution of powers stated in article 41 of the National Constitution, the environmental legal framework is constituted by National minimum standards for environmental protection and complementary provincial and municipal regulations. As a result, the EIA legal framework is not uniform across the Nation, and therefore, it differs according to the jurisdiction in which the activity subject to EIA is developed. Notwithstanding, the General Statute of the Environment (25.675) requires EIA for any project or activity developed in the National territory, which may cause a significant degradation to the environment, any of its components, or affect the populations' quality of life in a significant way. Since CNEA develops activities along the National territory, it is not possible to determine a uniform legal EIA framework for the entire Institution. Consequently, the binding requirements for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of CNEA activities differ among the activities developed in the different locations and atomic centers. In order to achieve a uniform environmental performance in CNEA, it has been considered necessary to uniform, in the internal sphere, the binding requirements for EIS, by means of a procedure written within the framework of the Environmental Management System of the Institution. The purpose of the Procedure for Internal Management of Environmental Impact Statements is to determine the requirements to be complied by the atomic centers, locations and enterprises associated with CNEA, regarding EIS Management. This Procedure shall apply to those projects and activities subjected to EIA, according to a

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Implicit Environmental Impacts of Construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Xiao-gen; LI Hui-qiang; TANG Li

    2009-01-01

    Assessment system of implicit environmental impacts was established including environmental impact indicator, resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantification of environmental impact indicators is based on the life cycle assessment system of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the evaluation software BEES. Normalization reference values and weights of 12 categories of environmental impacts were identified, and the environmental impact indicators in the phases of raw material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, use and end of life were analyzed. By analyzing the environmental performance of a university refectory as a case study, it is demonstrated that human health, global warming and acidification are the first three environmental impacts in 12 categories. The total implicit environmental impact load per square meter of this project is 18.448×10~(-2) standard human equivalent weight. Moreover, 97.3% of total environmental impacts occur in the phase of raw material extraction.

  12. Methodology for Environmental Impact Statements for Silviculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of silviculture, especially for new methods, is required by Swedish law. This report describes the development of an EIA for silviculture methods in detail. The description is based on the general guidelines for EIA, and on examples from EIA performed in other fields. We have taken in account only forestry practice and silviculture that use the forest as a resource for raw materials for industrial use (paper mills, power plants) are included. The primary cause for development of new silvicultural methods is economy. Secondarily, consumer pressure has made environmental aspects a sales argument, which may become of primary importance to survival of a company in the future. It is therefore most likely that forestry companies will introduce new and more environmentally safe methods. The EIA should list possible impacts of a forest management method, point out unknown factors of possible importance and include suggestions for mitigation of negative environmental effects. Impacts that are not due to silviculture, such as those of air pollution, ought to be included in order to facilitate optimal management of the forest. There may for example arise a need for forest liming or fertilization of the forest. In general terms, EIA serves as a control instrument for the authorities as stated by law, but the main advantages will be the progressive adjustments of methods developed by companies and authorities. 27 refs

  13. Final Environmental Impact Statement Resource Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BPA's preferred alternative is the Emphasize Conservation Alternative. System and environmental costs are low. Environmental impacts from conservation are minimal. This alternative is cost-effective and environmentally responsible; only the High Conservation Alternative has lower costs and fewer environmental impacts. However, there is some concern about the cost-effectiveness, reliability, and commercial availability of the high conservation resources. If the supply of the additional conservation potential was confirmed and it became cost-effective, the High Conservation Alternative would be preferred. The Draft Resource Programs EIS was released for public review during the summer of 1992. Comments received by letter or in the public hearing held June 16, 1992, were used to revise and update data and analyses of the EIS (public comments and BPA's responses are contained in Volume III of the Final EIS). In addition, a number of revisions were made in the Chapter 3 material describing each resource type, and in Chapter 4 and the Summary, to assure consistency with the modeling and analysis in Chapter 5. Additional information about the capacity aspects of each resource type and alternative has been added, and the material on conservation and its impacts has been reorganized

  14. SITO, Environmental Impact of Major Industrial Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITO evaluates the impact of major industrial activities on the environment. The method applied accounts for the alterations of ecological, physico-chemical, aesthetical and social values caused by the development of the considered activity. Such values are usually considered as not quantifiable but very important for the quality of the environment. 2 - Method of solution: The territory affected by the industrial project is described in a one-dimensional (for example a coast development) or two-dimensional representation as a lattice of square meshes of equal size. A major feature of the model is that the impact factors are considered with reference to each single mesh. The following vectors and matrices are evaluated: a) Matrix of environmental quality characteristics. It is the product of the environmental quality index matrix and the vector of weighting factors. b) Vector of the initial environmental values. It is the sum of the columns of matrix (a). c) Matrix obtained when the environmental quality characteristics matrix is multiplied by the vector of project action factors, taking into account distance effects. d) Vector of the final environmental values. This is the sum of columns of matrix (c)

  15. Resource Programs: Final Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every two years, BA prepares a Resource Program, which identifies the resource actions BA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Programs Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document that will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to this EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. The alternatives represent the range of actions BA could take to meet its load obligations. Each of the alternatives allows BA to meet the almost 5,000 average megawatt load increase that could occur with high load growth, or an equivalent need for resources caused by a combination of load growth and any future loss of resources

  16. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang K

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaizhi Tang,1 Xiong Liu,1 Stacey L Harper,2 Jeffery A Steevens,3 Roger Xu1 1Intelligent Automation, Inc, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 3US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA Abstract: As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake, and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity. To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI. NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS, Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. Keywords: nanomaterial environmental impact, data integration, data management

  17. 7 CFR 2902.8 - Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining life cycle costs, environmental and... DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 2902.8 Determining life cycle costs, environmental and health benefits, and performance. (a) Providing information on life cycle costs...

  18. Environmental impact of climate change in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change results in the increase or decrease in temperature and rainfall. These have significant impact on environment - impinge agricultural crop yields, affect human health, cause changes to forests and other ecosystems, and even impact our energy supply. Climate change is a global phenomenon and its impact can be observed on Pakistan's economy and environment. This paper contains details concerning the climate change and environmental impacts. It takes into account current and projected key vulnerabilities, prospects for adaptation, and the relationships between climate change mitigation and environment. The purpose of the study is to devise national policies and incentive systems combined with national level capacity-building programs to encourage demand-oriented conservation technologies. Recommendations are also made to abate the climate change related issues in country. (author)

  19. Environmental impact of high voltage substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Romanian methodology for simultaneous environmental and human risk evaluation in case of HV installations within substations pertaining to nuclear power stations, based on EU regulation is now applicable in Cernavoda substation. High voltage substations are zones where the environmental impact is focused on electromagnetic field that's causes particular effects in living tissues (human being included). That is the reason why is necessary to identify the potential risk sources, the asses including the way to correct them and to dissimulate the results to the staff and the operational personal.(author)

  20. Environmental impact of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment, is radioactive, by reason of reception of rays of sky and earth, atoms on body and normal activities(fossil fuel). Activities on fossil fuel cycle, led to environmental pollutions. Also, the aim of this research is survey of environmental impact of nuclear power plant and determination management and monitoring policies. The result of this research showed that in the fossil fuel cycle (exploration, extraction, mill), produced different level radioactive wastes (low, middle, high), chemical material, heat, oily material and wastewater, that by use of radioactive waste management, destructive effect of pollutant can be decreased

  1. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of recycling spent ion exchange brines by catalytic treatment of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Bergquist, Allison M; Jeong, Sangjo; Guest, Jeremy S; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Salt used to make brines for regeneration of ion exchange (IX) resins is the dominant economic and environmental liability of IX treatment systems for nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources. To reduce salt usage, the applicability and environmental benefits of using a catalytic reduction technology to treat nitrate in spent IX brines and enable their reuse for IX resin regeneration were evaluated. Hybrid IX/catalyst systems were designed and life cycle assessment of process consumables are used to set performance targets for the catalyst reactor. Nitrate reduction was measured in a typical spent brine (i.e., 5000 mg/L NO3(-) and 70,000 mg/L NaCl) using bimetallic Pd-In hydrogenation catalysts with variable Pd (0.2-2.5 wt%) and In (0.0125-0.25 wt%) loadings on pelletized activated carbon support (Pd-In/C). The highest activity of 50 mgNO3(-)/(min - g(Pd)) was obtained with a 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%In/C catalyst. Catalyst longevity was demonstrated by observing no decrease in catalyst activity over more than 60 days in a packed-bed reactor. Based on catalyst activity measured in batch and packed-bed reactors, environmental impacts of hybrid IX/catalyst systems were evaluated for both sequencing-batch and continuous-flow packed-bed reactor designs and environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid system were found to be 38-81% of those of conventional IX. Major environmental impact contributors other than salt consumption include Pd metal, hydrogen (electron donor), and carbon dioxide (pH buffer). Sensitivity of environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid reactor system to sulfate and bicarbonate anions indicate the hybrid system is more sustainable than conventional IX when influent water contains catalyst reactor systems have potential to reduce resource consumption and improve environmental impacts associated with treating nitrate-contaminated water sources. PMID:26005787

  2. Perceived and actual environmental benefits of the Los Angeles urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; McCarthy, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    There has been a widespread movement to plant more trees and increase canopy cover in cities throughout the United States, in order to enhance ecosystem services provided by urban forests. The city of Los Angeles has been engaged in a widespread tree planting program with the goal of increasing tree cover, particularly in low income neighborhoods. However, the Los Angeles urban forest is almost entirely non-native, located predominately in former semi-arid shrublands and grasslands. We used multiple approaches to evaluate environmental costs and benefits of urban trees in Los Angeles, both as they are perceived by local residents, as well as actual physical impacts of urban tree processes on the environment. We conducted an internet survey of attitudes and preferences for specific tree functional types, ecosystem services, and potential costs. We also directly measured urban forest structure and function including species and functional biodiversity, transpiration, basal area increments, hydraulic architecture, and leaf gas exchange. We translated these processes into categories of ecosystem services and costs such as water use, latent heat fluxes, water use efficiency, growth rates, sensitivity to drought stress, and aesthetic traits (flowering, fruiting, etc.). We found that provision of shade by urban trees is highly valued by local residents, and in fact, the urban forest has a significant impact on surface temperatures. Aesthetics benefits are also commonly cited as desirable traits. Although aesthetic and other cultural ecosystem services are difficult to quantify, we found spatial patterns in aesthetic traits influenced by neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Local residents seemed less concerned about the water use of irrigated urban trees, but we found significant rates of transpiration in urban trees and forest plots depending on species that may be important in the local hydrologic budget, which is increasingly constrained by water shortages. There was

  3. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitate Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  4. Natural environmental impacts on teleost immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrinos, Daniel L; Bowden, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    The environment in which teleosts exist can experience considerable change. Short-term changes can occur in relation to tidal movements or adverse weather events. Long-term changes can be caused by anthropogenic impacts such as climate change, which can result in changes to temperature, acidity, salinity and oxygen capacity of aquatic environments. These changes can have important impacts on the physiology of an animal, including its immune system. This can have consequences on the well-being of the animal and its ability to protect against pathogens. This review will look at recent investigations of these types of environmental change on the immune response in teleosts. PMID:26973022

  5. Benefits of improved environmental cooperation on a joint DoD/DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous Federal facilities within the US involve multiple government agencies that face overlapping environmental concerns. This paper highlights the benefits of looking beyond the strict letter of environmental regulations that might affect a single tenant or environmental site to cooperative environmental efforts that focus on the entire facility, consistent with the missions of participating agencies. Using Kirtland Air Force Base (AFB) as a model, seven areas of Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cooperation are discussed that span technical, regulatory compliance, and administrative issues

  6. Manual: environmental impact statement and intervention regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to be able to fulfil also legally the important tasks of environmental protection and natural preservation in the last ten years numerous legal provisions have been issued. Many of these laws require that the environmental impact of projects and constructional measures is taken into account to a higher degree. Two important instruments in this connection are the impact statement and the intervention regulation of natural preservation. Their importance and consequences for the planning and realization of projects are until now not sufficiently know. This manual is to fill this gap. This booklet shall help builder-owners and investors to realize their building projects in a way which is compatible with the environment. For architects and planners information is given in this manual about the requirements to be fulfilled in the individual planning and licensing procedures. The booklet is structured in a way that builder-owners, consultants and authorities find quickly the information needed. (orig./KW)

  7. 2004 Power marketing program. Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1 - summary and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sierra Nevada Region proposes to develop a plan to allocate power within its marketing areas of California and Nevada. Five alternatives were analyzed based on the possible range of operations of the Central Valley Project (CVP) hydroelectric system, levels of power purchases, and customer group allocations. Scheduling of the hydropower generating plants is the key difference across the alternatives. The peaking, preferred, renewables, and no-action alternatives are based on scheduling to emphasize peaking power. The baseload alternative assumes steady water releases. The analysis found no significant impacts overall. However, peaking operations tend to result in the greatest benefits and least negative effects to resources where impacts could be quantified. The peaking alternative was selected as the environmentally preferred alternative. The peaking alternative would add up to 317 MW of load-carrying capacity during August compared to taking no action. The preferred alternative results in up to a 262-MW gain and the baseload alternative results in a loss of 581 MW in comparison to the no-action alternative. Although it is not possible to determine where or when any lost capacity would be made up, building replacement capacity would result in land-use impacts and the use of natural and financial resources. The baseload alternative would result in more stable pool fluctuation within regulating reservoirs, which may benefit resident fish, recreation, and cultural resources; but these effects would be minor and could not be quantified. Environmental impacts within the CVP are limited to fluctuations in the regulating reservoirs. Changes in allocations to customer groups result in negligible regional economic effects. The renewables alternative is similar in CVP operation to the peaking alternative and melds 50 MW of renewables with CVP hydropower. Its environmental impacts vary, depending on the presence of biomass in the resource mix. 84 refs., 44 figs., 27 tabs

  8. Environmental Radioactive Impact Associated to Uranium Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One century of uranium mining in Europe and North-America created a legacy of ore mining and milling sites needing rehabilitation for environmental and human safety. In the last decades developments of uranium mining displaced the core of this activity to Australia, Canada and African countries. In the coming years, uranium mining is expected to grow further, in those countries and elsewhere, due to the possible increase of nuclear power production and thus the amount of radioactive and toxic tailing materials will grow. Approach: International radiation protection guidelines and legislation have known recent developments and set the radiation dose limit applied to members of the public at 1 mSv y-1. Taking into account past and present uranium waste management and environmental remediation measures adopted already in some countries, we assessed the implications of enforcing this new dose limit in uranium milling and mining areas. Results: The radioactive impact of uranium mining and milling was illustrated through case studies. Environmental radioactivity monitoring and surveillance carried out in areas impacted by uranium mining and milling industry showed generally that dose limit for members of the public was exceeded. The compliance with this dose limit is nowadays the main goal for environmental remediation programs of legacy sites implemented in European Union countries. Taking into account the new radiation protection regulations, a change is required in mining practices from traditionally reactionary (problem solving to proactive (integrated management and life-cycle approach. Conclusion: A new paradigm in uranium mining should be implemented worldwide to ensure reduced environmental radioactivity impact current and future reduced radiation risk exposure of population.

  9. Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment for Risk Governance Purposes; Across What Do We Integrate?

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Lebret

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder p...

  10. 75 FR 8988 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Yosemite Institute Environmental Education Campus; Yosemite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Yosemite Institute Environmental Education...) identifying and evaluating three alternatives for redeveloping the Yosemite Institute Environmental Education... has provided environmental education in Yosemite since 1971, and since 1973 has been based at...

  11. Standardized input for Hanford environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models and computer programs for simulating the environmental behavior of radionuclides in the environment and the resulting radiation dose to humans have been developed over the years by the Environmental Analysis Section staff, Ecological Sciences Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Methodologies have evolved for calculating raidation doses from many exposure pathways for any type of release mechanism. Depending on the situation or process being simulated, different sets of computer programs, assumptions, and modeling techniques must be used. This report is a compilation of recommended computer programs and necessary input information for use in calculating doses to members of the general public for environmental impact statements prepared for DOE activities to be conducted on or near the Hanford Reservation

  12. Environmental impacts of alternative pricing systems for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch Minister of Transport requested a platform of Dutch non-governmental organizations to recommend a new vehicle taxation scheme supported by the general public. This report documents an analysis of the environmental impacts of alternative pricing scenarios for car and freight traffic formulated by the platform, including congestion charges, car kilometre charges, and heavy duty vehicle charges. Major conclusions drawn from this analysis are, firstly, that kilometre charges for car owners, replacing today's road and vehicle purchase taxes, are effective in reducing emissions from road traffic. The size of environmental benefit of the proposed kilometre charge, however, is strongly determined by the design of the policy measure. Secondly, congestion charges on the main motorway network have minor effects on emissions from road traffic at a national scale and local air quality along motorways, both on the short (2010) and longer term (2020). Thirdly, the introduction of an environmental-performance related kilometre charge for heavy duty vehicles on the short term will result in a quicker renovation of the truck fleet and reduce emissions and improve local air quality along motorways. Introduction on the longer term will result in much smaller environmental impacts

  13. NEON: Contributing continental-scale long-term environmental data for the benefit of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, B.; Aulenbach, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a NSF funded national investment in physical and information infrastructure. Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we develop climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. NEON's goal is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on continental-scale ecology by providing physical and information infrastructure. The NEON framework will take standardized, long-term, coordinated measurements of related environmental variables at each of its 62 sites across the nation. These observations, collected by automated instruments, field crews, and airborne instruments, will be processed into more than 700 data products that are provided freely over the web to support research, education, and environmental management. NEON is envisioned to be an integral component of an interoperable ecosystem of credible data and information sources. Other members of this information ecosystem include Federal, commercial, and non-profit entities. NEON is actively involved with the interoperability community via forums like the Foundation for Earth Science Information Partners and the USGS Community for Data Integration in a collective effort to identify the technical standards, best practices, and organizational principles that enable the emergence of such an information ecosystem. These forums have proven to be effective innovation engines for the experimentation of new techniques that evolve into emergent standards. These standards are, for the most part, discipline agnostic. It is becoming increasingly evident that we need to include socio-economic and public health data sources in interoperability initiatives, because the dynamics of coupled

  14. Low environmental impact technologies for road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Simone

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The “sustainability” concept relates to the prolonging of human economic systems with as little detrimental impact on ecological systems as possible. Construction that exhibits good environmental stewardship and practices that conserve resources in a manner that allow growth and development to be sustained for the long-term without degrading the environment are indispensable in a developed society.Past, current and future advancements in road construction as an environmentally sustainable paving material are especially important because the quantities of asphalt used annually in Europe as well as in the U.S. and all over the world are large. This research project is aimed to demonstrate the dual value of some new technologies in regards to the environmental and mechanical performance and to suggest a low environmental impact design procedure. In fact, the use of eco-friendly materials is the first phase towards an eco-compatible design but it cannot be the only step. The eco-compatible approach should be extended also to the design method and material characterization because only with these phases is it possible to exploit the maximum potential properties of the used materials.

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  16. Cover crops effect on farm benefits and nitrate leaching: linking economic and environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Vanclooster, Marnik; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Introducing cover crops interspersed with intensively fertilized crops in rotation has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of the technique is still limited because growing CC could lead to extra costs for the farm in three different forms: direct, indirect, and opportunity costs. Environmental studies are complex, and evaluating the indicators that are representative of the environmental impact of an agricultural system is a complicated task that is conducted by specialized groups and methodologies. Multidisciplinary studies may help to develop reliable approaches that would contribute to choosing the best agricultural strategies based on linking economic and environmental benefits. This study evaluates barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo) as cover crops between maize, leaving the residue in the ground or selling it for animal feeding, and compares the economic and environmental results with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. Nitrate leaching for different weather conditions was calculated using the mechanistic-deterministic WAVE model, using the Richards equation parameterised with a conceptual model for the soil hydraulic properties for describing the water flow in the vadose zone, combined with field observed data. The economic impact was evaluated through stochastic (Monte-Carlo) simulation models of farms' profits using probability distribution functions of maize yield and cover crop biomass developed fitted with data collected from various field trials (during more than 5 years) and probability distribution functions of maize and different cover crop forage prices fitted from statistical sources. Stochastic dominance relationships are obtained to rank the most profitable strategies from a farm financial perspective

  17. Incorporating environmental co-benefits into climate policies: A regional study of the cement industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First study on the co-benefits of mitigation measures in the cement sector in China. • We evaluate the economic value of damage of various pollutants at local level. • We evaluate 18 energy-saving technologies for 31 provinces in cement sector. • The value for the co-benefits ranged from 3 $/t CO2 to 39 $/t CO2. • The large spatial variations may justify stringent targets for richer provinces. - Abstract: We analyzed the impacts of incorporating local air quality improvement and environmental co-benefits into the climate policy and mitigation technology assessment of the cement sector in China. Local air quality can benefit from reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which consequently lowers abatement costs and strengthens the cost-effectiveness of mitigation technologies. We used a simplified approach to estimate environmental damage factors due to air pollution at the sub-national level in China. The calculated economic costs of environmental damage due to PM10, NOx, and SO2 were 7,714 $/t, 1,006 $/t, and 902 $/t, respectively. These values vary among the provinces. We found that most energy-saving technologies in the cement industry will create significant co-benefits, ranging from 3 $/t CO2 to 39 $/t CO2 at the national level; however, a tradeoff for carbon capture and storage (CCS) and energy-saving technologies also resulted with increased electricity consumption. Large spatial variations of co-benefits can be gained at the sub-national level and justify the enactment of more stringent climate policies in the wealthier regions in China

  18. Using Choice Experiments to Assess Environmental Impacts of Dams in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Botelho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite their well-known benefits in electricity production, dams are also responsible for some adverse environmental impacts affecting particularly the wellbeing of residents of the local communities. These environmental damages have not been included in the cost-benefit analysis of hydropower developments mainly because of the difficulty to determine their value. The prime objective of this paper is to measure the economic values of several environmental impacts due to the dams' activity in Portugal, using a discrete choice experiments approach. With the results of this research paper, we expect to contribute to a more efficient and thorough cost-benefit analysis within the complex process of deciding the optimal location of future dams to be built not only in Portugal, but elsewhere. The addition of this stage to the decision-making process allows the integration of economic, social and environmental dimensions, promoting a richer and more informed decision process.

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment for Potential Continuous Processes for the Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Singh; Helen H. Lou; Ralph W. Pike; Adedeji Agboola; Xiang Li; Jack R. Hopper; Carl L. Yaws

    2008-01-01

    As an emerging discipline, nanotechnology has the potential to improve environmental sustainability through its application in pollution prevention, treatment, remediation, etc. One challenging issue in the growth of nanotechnology is how to produce purified carbon nanotubes (CNT) in commercial quantities at affordable price and with low environmental impacts. A detailed assessment of such a manufacturing process from both economic and environmental aspects at the design phase will benefit bo...

  20. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 1930's, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M ampersand I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M ampersand I studies; Irrigation/M ampersand I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M ampersand I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement

  1. The impact of Environmental regulation on corporate environmental investment of Computer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper environmental regulation intensity is built. Panel regression model and Grouping regression are used to verify impact of environmental regulation on corporate environmental investment of computer industry. Panel regression results show there is a negative correlation between environmental regulation intensity and environmental investment of computer industry. Grouping regression results show that environmental regulation has a “Threshold Effect” on environmental investment...

  2. Integrating nutritional benefits and impacts in a life cycle assessment framework: A US dairy consumption case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Fulgoni III, Victor; Heller, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    Although essential to understand the overall health impact of a food or diet, nutrition is not usually considered in food-related life cycle assessments (LCAs). As a case study to demonstrate comparing environmental and nutritional health impacts we investigate United States dairy consumption....... Nutritional impacts, interpreted from disease burden epidemiology, are compared to health impacts from more tradi-tional impacts (e.g. due to exposure to particulate matter emissions across the life cycle) considered in LCAs. After accounting for the present consumption, data relating dairy intake to public...... health suggest that low-fat milk leads to nutritional benefits up to one additional daily serving in the American diet. We demonstrate the importance of considering the whole-diet and nutritional trade-offs. The estimated health impacts of various dietary scenarios may be of comparable magnitude...

  3. Changes in environmental impacts of major crops in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Suh, Sangwon

    2015-09-01

    As with life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in general, agricultural LCAs often rely on static and outdated inventory data, but literature suggests that agricultural systems may be highly dynamic. Here, we applied life cycle impact assessment methods to investigate the trends and underlying drivers of changes in non-global environmental impacts of major crops in the US. The results show that the impact per hectare corn and cotton generated on the ecological health of freshwater systems decreased by about 50% in the last decade. This change is mainly due to the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which has reduced the application of insecticides and relatively toxic herbicides such as atrazine. However, the freshwater ecotoxicity impact per hectare soybean production increased by 3-fold, mainly because the spread of an invasive species, soybean aphid, has resulted in an increasing use of insecticides. In comparison, other impact categories remained relatively stable. By evaluating the relative ecotoxicity potential of a large number of pesticides, our analysis offers new insight into the benefits associated with GM crops. Our study also implies that because different impact categories show different degrees of changes, it is worthwhile focusing on the rapidly changing categories when updating agricultural LCA databases under time and resource constraints.

  4. Comparing the Impacts of Social Security Benefit Reductions on the Income Distribution of the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Pfau, Wade Donald

    2006-01-01

    Benefit reductions will likely be a part of the eventual Social Security reform in the United States. This research attempts to quantify the intragenerational and intergenerational impacts of different benefit reduction proposals on the incomes of the elderly. Reforms include across-the-board benefit cuts, price indexing, and reductions to the cost-of-living adjustment. Restoring the projected seventy-five year balance for the Trust Fund through benefit reductions will significantly lower ...

  5. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  6. 75 FR 26272 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite... Environmental Impact Statement for development of a new environmental education center in Yosemite National Park... practical the NPS will begin to implement development of a new environmental education center at...

  7. Environmental Impacts of the Use of Ecosystem Services: Case Study of Birdwatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Jakub

    2014-09-01

    The main reason for promoting the concept of ecosystem services lies in its potential to contribute to environmental conservation. Highlighting the benefits derived from ecosystems fosters an understanding of humans' dependence on nature, as users of ecosystem services. However, the act of using ecosystem services may not be environmentally neutral. As with the use of products and services generated within an economy, the use of ecosystem services may lead to unintended environmental consequences throughout the `ecosystem services supply chain.' This article puts forward a framework for analyzing environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services, indicating five categories of impact: (1) direct impacts (directly limiting the service's future availability); and four categories of indirect impacts, i.e., on broader ecosystem structures and processes, which can ultimately also affect the initial service: (2) impacts related to managing ecosystems to maximize the delivery of selected services (affecting ecosystems' capacity to provide other services); (3) impacts associated with accessing ecosystems to use their services (affecting other ecosystem components); (4) additional consumption of products, infrastructure or services required to use a selected ecosystem service, and their life-cycle environmental impacts; and (5) broader impacts on the society as a whole (environmental awareness of ecosystem service users and other stakeholders). To test the usefulness of this framework, the article uses the case study of birdwatching, which demonstrates all of the above categories of impacts. The article justifies the need for a broader consideration of environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services.

  8. Evaluation of Stakeholder Impacts in Cost-Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins

    1999-01-01

    The scope of the analyses of public and private investment projects is expanded beyond the traditional criteria of financial and economic net present value. If the economic and financial analyses are carried out using a common numeraire, they can include issues of stakeholder impacts, poverty impact, and an assessment of the long-term sustainability of the project. We can assess the income impacts on different interest groups. This forces the analyst to do reconciliation between the economic ...

  9. Preparation of environmental reports and impact statements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable first-hand experience has accumulated during the past decade in the United States regarding the preparation of environmental reports (ER) and environmental impact statements (EIS) for nuclear power plants. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), which is responsible for regulating the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, is required under the National Environmental Policy Act to prepare an EIS for each plant. To obtain information essential to the EIS, the USNRC requires that each power company submit an ER. This paper focuses on the interrelationships of the two environmental documents and discusses the environmental review process and the environmental laws and regulations related to the licensing of nuclear power plants. It also describes the format and content, environmental issues, data requirements, and impact assessment methodologies for preparation of the ER and EIS. Problems associated with preparing the EIS are presented, with particular emphasis on the problems and methodologies associated with evaluating environmental costs and benefits

  10. Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-06

    This analysis is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the benefits and impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). This joint National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory project provides a retrospective analysis of RPS program benefits and impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions reductions, air pollution emission reductions, water use reductions, gross jobs and economic development impacts, wholesale electricity price reduction impacts, and natural gas price reduction impacts. Wherever possible, benefits and impacts are quantified in monetary terms. The paper will inform state policymakers, RPS program administrators, industry, and others about the costs and benefits of state RPS programs. In particular, the work seeks to inform decision-making surrounding ongoing legislative proposals to scale back, freeze, or expand existing RPS programs, as well as future discussions about increasing RPS targets or otherwise increasing renewable energy associated with Clean Power Plan compliance or other emission-reduction goals.

  11. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  12. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 775.11 Section 775.11 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.11 Environmental impact statements. (a) Determining scope. Before...

  13. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120–140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power. (letter)

  14. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  15. Estimation on the Total Quantity of Biomass Energy and Its Environmental Benefit Analysis in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to estimate the total quantity of biomass energy and analyze its environmental benefit in Shandong Province.[Method] Based on the data from the statistics yearbook of Shandong Province in 2010,the total quantity of biomass resources and biomass energy in Shandong Province in 2009 was estimated,and its environmental benefit was analyzed.[Result] Biomass resources in Shandong Province mainly refer to crop residues,forest residues,grassland changed from degraded land.If degraded land be...

  16. Benefits and Financial Impacts of Adopting Technology in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenman, Katri; Isomursu, Minna; Federley, Maija; Seisto, Anu

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an analysis of the impacts of adopting information and communication technology (ICT) solutions in a learning context. The analysis is based on a literature survey of articles reporting research cases studying the impact of adopting ICT based solutions in various learning contexts. The subject has been reviewed…

  17. Citizens' actions and environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Above all, two kinds of citizens' participation in environmental decisions are to be considered: on the one hand the suit for damages and compensation for the purpose of internalization of external effects, and on the other hand the actions with the aim to influence character and content of public final decision cases. This is where cooperation and contributions towards state activities with more concern for the environment come into it. This sphere is investigated. Combined are the possibility of judicially arranged citizens' participation and a modern instrument of public decision: environmental impact statements. At the moment these appear to become exclusively an instrument for internal administration management. However, it is possible - this can be confirmed in comparative law - to couple this for the purpose of administration created instrument of technology assessment with citizens' actions. Therefore, the article aims to point to a solution how modern administration management through judicial mediation can orientate itself according to citizens' interests. (orig./LN)

  18. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  19. Radiological environmental impact of phosphogypsum- an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major radionuclide present in phosphogypsum from fertilizer manufacturing process is 226Ra. Amount of phosphogypsum disposed on land is about 100 MT the world over accounting for an activity of 100 T Bq per year. In India over 4 T Bq (approx. 100 Ci) of 226Ra is disposed off through phosphogypsum every year by various fertilizer units. The concentration of 226Ra in the aquatic environment near phosphogypsum piles vary from 0.002 to 0.04 Bq l-1, however the movement of activity through soil is negligible. Higher uptake is reported in biological material resulting in enhanced population dose. Direct exposure from gypsum piles is estimated to give a per capita dose of about 3 mSv per year. Studies on the occupational and environmental radiation exposure in the phosphate fertilizer industry and environmental impact of phosphogypsum disposal in the country needs detailed study. (author). 29 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Management of intermediate level radioactive waste, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapters are devoted to the following topics: background and description; environmental impact of the proposed action; unavoidable adverse environmental effects; alternatives; relationship between short-term uses and long term productivity; state, local, or regional conflicts; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; and cost benefit analysis. Four Appendices are provided: Glossary of terms; Characterization of existing environment; Calculations; Environmental monitoring of existing environment

  1. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  2. Influence of construction and demolition waste management on the environmental impact of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Environmental impacts of different demolition practices. ► “Top-down” approach to the Life Cycle Analysis methodology. ► Results based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities. ► Not every type of selective demolition brings about environmental benefits. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to quantify comparable environmental impacts within a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) perspective, for buildings in which the first (Materials) and last (End of Life) life cycle stages are adjusted to several waste/material management options. Unlike most LCAs, the approach is “top-down” rather than “bottom-up”, which usually involves large amounts of data and the use of specific software applications. This approach is considered appropriate for a limited but expedient LCA designed to compare the environmental impacts of different life cycle options. Present results, based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities, show that shallow, superficial, selective demolition may not result in reduced environmental impacts. Calculations actually show an increase (generally less than 5%) in most impact categories for the Materials and End of Life stages because of extra transportation needs. However, core material separation in demolition operations and its recycling and/or reuse does bring environmental benefits. A reduction of around 77% has been estimated in the climate change impact category, 57% in acidification potential and 81% in the summer smog impact (for the life cycle stages referred).

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATE PROVIDING WITH MANAGERIAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri, A. H. Mahvi, M. Younesian, R. Nabizadeh, I. Hashemi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available At this study, an environmental impact assessment establishment of Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulted from establishment of the industrial estate were investigated, using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the environmental harmful impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done regarding to the amount and kind of predicted pollutions for industrial estate at the construction and operational phases. The environmental impact assessment of the investigated estate was studied at the three terms of immediate, direct and indirect impacts at the short, medium and long term. By expanding of Leopold Matrix to four parted matrix, in addition to amount, importance and extend of the impacts, the remaining duration of impact in the environment were assessed as a separate factor in environmental impact assessment. The results of the study with two alternatives, such as; No (performance of the project with no concern for environmental issue and as yes (performance of the project with application of the environmental harmful impacts were studied in construction and operation phases. The impact assessment of "NO" property resulted (-1065, therefore the execution of project was rejected, but after reducing the harmful impact performance which were resulted (+1095 has been accepted. Therefore, method of reducing harmful environmental impacts along with environmental management programs introduced and accepted in this study.

  4. Evaluation Tools of nanomaterials environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology show an increasing spread thanks to the special properties of nanomaterials (NM). Knowledge of the NM behavior and interactions with the environment and human health is still insufficient to assess the impact of the NM. A multidisciplinary, multidimensional and systemic such as that of the life cycle (Life Cycle Thinking - LCT), applied through the tool Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is essential in environmental sustainability assessment of technologies, with some limitations that can be overcome through integration with other instruments such as, for example, non-linear models, analysis of flows of material, Risk Assessment (RA). This article offers a detailed analysis of the state and the main problems related to the application of LCA and RA to NM both separately and in combined use; They will then discuss the strategies and integrations needed to overcome the limitations of both methods and obtain robust assessments of the impacts on health and the environment

  5. Ethanol in gasoline: environmental impacts and sustainability review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerns the use of ethanol as a gasoline (petrol) additive, at levels around 10% by volume ('E10') as well as an 85% blend ('E85'). By detailed reviews of the peer-reviewed and technical literature, five environmental aspects of ethanol enrichment are examined: (1) its purported reduction in air pollutant emissions; (2) its potential impact on subsurface soils and groundwater; (3) its purported reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the energy efficiency of ethanol; and (5) the overall sustainability of ethanol production. The study indicates that E10 is of debatable air pollution merit (and may in fact increase the production of photochemical smog); offers little advantage in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency or environmental sustainability; and will significantly increase both the risk and severity of soil and groundwater contamination. In contrast, E85 offers significant greenhouse gas benefits, however it will produce significant air pollution impacts, involves substantial risks to biodiversity, and its groundwater contamination impacts and overall sustainability are largely unknown. (author)

  6. Safety impact--the risk/benefits of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Gérard

    2009-12-01

    It is amazing to see how much the approach of the food risk analysis evolved in the recent years. For half a century and the birth of the risk assessment methodology in the food domain, only no appreciable health risk was considered acceptable by the manager. This is the vocabulary used in the case of a voluntary, deliberated human action, as the use of food additives (definition of ADI). In the case of risks not resulting from such an action, as that of the presence of contaminants, the risk assessor allocates provisional tolerable daily, weekly or monthly intake that are the basis for regulation. This vocabulary is in agreement with the objective which consists in approaching closer possible of the zero risk which is the wish of a majority of the consumers. Some years ago, the risk managers insisted to obtain from the assessors as often as possible a quantitative risk evaluation. More recently even, the managers would like to decide on the basis of a balance of risk and benefit acceptable for management purposes. Finally, they hope that general principles and tools will be available for conducting a quantitative risk-benefit analysis for foods and food ingredients. What is possible in the case of functional foods (FF)? Based on the definition of FF proposed in the programme FUFOSE, one has to distinguish between different situations in order to assess the risk: that of a micro-, that of a macro-component or that of a whole food. These situations have been clearly described in the document resulting from FOSIE. The standardized methodology relevant to assess micro-components is not well adapted to the assessment of whole food. Concepts of substantial equivalence and of history of safe use could be useful tools in this case. However, quantitative risk assessment remains a very difficult exercise. If a process for the assessment of health benefit of FF has been proposed as an outcome of the PASSCLAIM action, the quantification of this benefit needs adequate tools

  7. Biofuel policy must evaluate environmental, food security and energy goals to maximize net benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Steven E.; Rajagapol, Deepak; Hochman, Gal; Zilberman, David D; Roland-Holst, David

    2009-01-01

    The biofuel industry has received billions of dollars in support from governments around the world, as political leaders respond to new environmental and energy-security imperatives. However, a growing body of research highlights nontrivial costs associated with biofuel production, including environmental destruction and diminished food security, and questions the magnitude of perceived benefits. We discuss the ability of biofuels to accomplish climate change, rural development and energy-sec...

  8. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems-Part II: The environmental impact of replacing various reference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the overall environmental impact when biogas systems are introduced and replace various reference systems for energy generation, waste management and agricultural production. The analyses are based on Swedish conditions using a life-cycle perspective. The biogas systems included are based on different combinations of raw materials and final use of the biogas produced (heat, power and transportation fuel). A general conclusion is that biogas systems normally lead to environmental improvements, which in some cases are considerable. This is often due to indirect environmental benefits of changed land use and handling of organic waste products (e.g. reduced nitrogen leaching, emissions of ammonia and methane), which often exceed the direct environmental benefits achieved when fossil fuels are replaced by biogas (e.g. reduced emissions of carbon dioxide and air pollutants). Such indirect benefits are seldom considered when biogas is evaluated from an environmental point of view. The environmental impact from different biogas systems can, however, vary significantly due to factors such as the raw materials utilised, energy service provided and reference system replaced

  9. What's Powering Wind? Measuring the Environmental Benefits of Wind Generated Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Production subsidies for renewable energy have experienced intermittent support from the federal government. One reason for less than united support arises from uncertainty over the environmental impact of projects implemented because of such subsidies. Wind energy in particular has taken advantage of federal subsidies, but what has been the environmental impact? Taking investment in wind capacity as given, I am able to identify the short run substitution patterns between wind power and conve...

  10. Environmental benefits and sustainable land-use options in the Jambi transect, Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdiyarso, D. [Bogor Agricultural Univ., Bogor (Indonesia). Dept. of Geophysics and Meteorology; Noordwijk, M. van [International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Bogor (Indonesia); Wasrin, U.R. [Bogor Agricultural Univ., Bogor (Indonesia). Faculty of Forestry; Tomich, T.P. [International Center for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi (Kenya); Gillison, A.N. [Center for Biodiversity Management, Yungaburra QLD, (Australia)

    2002-06-01

    Loss of environmental services provided by forests is a non-linear process in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Intermediate-intensity land-use types in the form of complex agroforests have maintained global environmental benefits under a sustainable and profitable land use regime. Conversion to tree crop monocultures, however, poses a challenge to the environmental stakeholders and an opportunity from to stakeholders in the private economy. We quantified environmental indicators, as well as profitability and sustainability of a range of existing and possible production systems. Criteria and indicators were used at plot to landscape scales, taking into account local, national and global perspectives. Agronomic sustainability and profitability were assessed at plot level as they are of primarily local concern, while environmental services of forests, such as plant species and functional type richness, carbon stocks, greenhouse gas emissions, and trans-boundary haze, which are of national and global concern, were assessed at landscape level. Quantitative trade-offs and complementarities were analysed between global environmental benefits and local profitability. The current trend towards simplification of the complex agro-ecosystems and inherent loss of environmental services of forests is driven by profitability. The sequence in which environmental services of forests are lost is: standing carbon stocks, biodiversity, and low or negative greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Are screening processes effective instruments and what are the environmental benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2003-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)is the process by which the effects that proposed projects are likely to have with respect to a number of environmental criteria is evaluated. Screening is an activity carried out in advance of an EIA to determine whether, in fact, it is necessary to undertake...... full assessment.The paper discuss the extent of changes due to the screening process, and ask questions like what kind of environmental considerations do the changes reflect? And are they in line with EIA's holistic environmental approach?......Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)is the process by which the effects that proposed projects are likely to have with respect to a number of environmental criteria is evaluated. Screening is an activity carried out in advance of an EIA to determine whether, in fact, it is necessary to undertake a...

  12. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin BRICIU; Leontina BETIANU

    2010-01-01

    Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives most attention. Limits of traditional financ...

  13. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-07-16

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. Depending on location, we estimate that the combined health, environmental, and climate benefits from wind or solar range from $10/MWh to $100/MWh, and the sites with the highest energy output do not yield the greatest social benefits in many cases. We estimate that the social benefits from existing wind farms are roughly 60% higher than the cost of the Production Tax Credit, an important federal subsidy for wind energy. However, that same investment could achieve greater health, environmental, and climate benefits if it were differentiated by region. PMID:23798431

  14. Financial benefit of implementing Environmental Management System ISO 14001 in Icelandic companies

    OpenAIRE

    Erla Björk Sigurgeirsdóttir 1965

    2014-01-01

    General public, companies and public organizations in Iceland, as elsewhere in the world, meet increased demand for more emphasis on environmental issues and protection of nature. The requirements for minimizing the impact on the environment (by reducing energy usage, increasing environmental awareness, and reducing general waste, for example) have become a serious issue worldwide. The environmental management system ISO 14001 is a procedure that some companies have adopted in order to red...

  15. When do firms benefit from environmental regulations? A simple microeconomic approach to the Porter controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Bonato, Dario; Schmutzler, Armin

    2000-01-01

    Michael Porter and others have recently argued that suitable environmental regulations are likely to induce cost-reducing innovations. We analyze under which conditions such arguments might be consistent with microeconomic analysis, and under which additional conditions the firms' benefits might exceed the costs. It turns out that this requires fairly specific conditions.

  16. When do Finns Benefit from Environmental Regulations? A Simple Microeconomic Approach to the Porter Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Bonato; Armin Schmutzler

    2000-01-01

    Michael Porter and others have recently argued that suitable environmental regulations are likely to induce cost-reducing innovations. We analyze under which conditions such arguments might be consistent with microeconomic analysis, and under which additional conditions the firms' benefits might exceed the costs. It turns out that this requires fairly specific conditions.

  17. Southpoint power plant final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for a proposed lease of acreage on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Mohave County, Arizona for development of a natural gas fired 500 megawatt combined cycle power plant. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) serves as the federal lead agency and the Fort Mojave Indian Tribe (FMIT) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) are cooperating agencies for the EIS process. The purpose of this document is to provide information to the public and to interested public agencies regarding the environmental consequences of the approval of a long-term lease for the construction and operation of the proposed Southpoint power plant. The FEIS, prepared by Hallock/Gross, Inc. under the direction of the BIA and in cooperation with the FMIT and WAPA, addresses the comparative analysis of alternatives and evaluates the environmental consequences of such alternatives on various resources and addresses public comments. A number of technical reports were used in the preparation of the Draft EIS and FEIS and are available for review as Appendices to this document under separate cover that can be reviewed at the BIA offices which are listed

  18. A Computer-Based Approach to Environmental Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fedra, K.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requires the qualitative and quantitative prediction, assessment and evaluation of the impacts of human activities on the environment in terms of appropriate indicators. Various types of models are major tools for the prediction and analysis of these impacts. They must describe environmental systems in terms of those indicators that environmental law and regulations define and prescribe to evaluate the severity of impacts. In this report, methods and...

  19. 77 FR 68813 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... accordance with the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970, as amended (30 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.), the BLM Bishop Field... Federal Register (76 FR 16806). Publication of the NOI initiated a public scoping period, which included... Environmental Impact Report for the Casa Diablo IV Geothermal Development Project, CA AGENCY: Bureau of...

  20. 75 FR 25288 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Report and Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern California Edison Eldorado-Ivanpah Transmission Project... need for the EITP project is to respond to Southern California Edison's (SCE) application for a right.... Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6, 1506.10, and 43 CFR 1610.2 Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director. BILLING...

  1. Impact of Environmental Education Kit on Students’ Environmental Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Misbahul Jannah; Lilia Halim; T. Subahan Mohd Meerah; Muhammad Fairuz

    2013-01-01

    To support the implementation of environmental education (EE) across the curriculum, WWF-Malaysia has developed Environmental Education Kit (EE-Kit) to increase the level of environmental literacy of students. Environmental literacy is a part of EE that refers to knowledge, awareness, behavior, environmental attitude and participation. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of environmental literacy amongst students based on gender and stream of study also student perception on ...

  2. A Multi-module Approach to Calculation of Oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) Environmental Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerco, Carl F.

    2015-08-01

    Environmental benefits are one of the motivations for management restoration of depleted bivalve populations. We describe a series of linked modules for benefits calculation. The modules include: oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) bioenergetics, materials transport via the tidal prism, and benefits quantification. Quantified benefits include carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal and shell production. The modules are demonstrated through application to the Great Wicomico River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Oysters on seven reefs (total area 2.8 × 105 m2) are calculated to remove 15.2, 6.2, and 0.2 tons per annum of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, respectively, from the Great Wicomico. Oyster mortality contributes 108 tons per annum dry weight shell to the reefs.

  3. Pathways and impacts of nitrogen in water bodies: establishing a framework for integrated assessment modelling of management benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob

    Monetization of environmental benefits has become relevant as an element of proportionality tests required for justifications under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4 (relating to benefits andcosts of measures). This study extends an impact pathway approach to analysis of aquatic...... pollution, whereby both ecosystem and human health effects are considered. Diffuse nitrogen-loss from agricultural activities is the main pollution source in focus within the framework, while the catchments explored are situated in Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway and UK. Methodologically...... the study demonstrates how state-of-the-art environmental modelling can be linked with valuation to provide an adequate cross-media assessment framework relevant to integrated water quality management. The results must be regarded as illustrative and more research is required in several areas to consolidate...

  4. Labor market participation: The impact of social benefits in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Kamila; Mysíková, Martina

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to quantify the impact of social benefits on labor market participation in the Czech Republic. It applies the logistic regression to estimate the probability of labor market participation depending on social benefits related to net wage of the individuals, controlling for individual and household characteristics (age, presence of spouse and children etc.). The work disincentives via social benefits do exist and proved to be relatively strong. When trying to understand the reas...

  5. A cost benefit review of applying quality assurance principles to project management of environmental cleanup programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the cost/benefit mechanism used for applying the theory and practical aspects of QA principles as a management tool to project management of environmental cleanup projects. This includes reviewing and guidelines and requirements to determine the practical aspects of applying these requirements to environmental project management. Thus, there is a feedback loop for comparison of the cost/benefits of application of each stage of the project. The project's major stages include planning, environmental sampling, analysis of data samples, data/information management to include reporting, and follow- up, post-cleanup sampling with continued data management. A comparison is also made of the theory with the practical aspects of each of these stages

  6. Cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water system for wastewater reuse and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Wang, X C

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a net benefit value (NBV) model for cost-benefit evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse projects, and attention was mainly paid to decentralized systems which are drawing wide interests all over the world especially in the water-deficient countries and regions. In the NBV model, all the factors related to project costs are monetary ones which can be calculated by using traditional methods, while many of the factors related to project benefits are non-monetary ones which need sophisticated methods for monetization. In this regard, the authors elaborated several methods for monetization of the benefits from wastewater discharge reduction, local environment improvement, and human health protection. The proposed model and methods were applied for the cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water reclamation and reuse project in a newly developed residential area in Xi'an, China. The system with dual-pipe collection and grey water treatment and reuse was found to be economically ineligible (NBV > 0) when all the treated water is reused for artificial pond replenishment, gardening and other non-potable purposes by taking into account the benefit of water saving. As environmental benefits are further considered, the economic advantage of the project is more significant. PMID:19403964

  7. Quantification of environmental impacts of various energy technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfors, A. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses problems related to economic assessment of the environmental impacts and abatement measures in connection with energy projects. Attention is called to the necessity of assessing environmental impacts both in the form of reduced economic welfare and in the form of costs of abatement measures to reduce the impact. In recent years, several methods for valuing environmental impacts have been developed, but the project shows that few empirical studies have been carried out. The final report indicates that some important factors are very difficult to evaluate. In addition environmental impacts of energy development in Norway vary considerably from project to project. This makes it difficult to obtain a good basis for comparing environmental impacts caused by different technologies, for instance hydroelectric power versus gas power or wind versus hydroelectric power. It might be feasible however to carry out more detailed economic assessments of environmental impacts of specific projects. 33 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change

  9. Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment for Risk Governance Purposes; Across What Do We Integrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder perspectives and differences in impact indicators that emanate from these different fields and paradigms. PMID:26703709

  10. 76 FR 53531 - Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Public law 109-59, SAFETEA-LU, Title VI, Section 6002, Efficient Environmental Reviews for Project... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS AGENCY: Federal Highway... this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a...

  11. The use of poultry dejections for the reduction of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of livestock products such as poultry dejections, contained in the manure of poultry farming in substitution of chemical formulations, generates economic benefits but above all of environmental impact. Subject of this paper is the use of poultry manure in the cycle of tanning hides and in the production of fertilizers.

  12. Targeting safety. Studying health and environmental impacts of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's energy planners and decision makers must consider complex and difficult questions particularly for the generation of electricity. The factors at play are related to the entire fuel chain of the energy source, including technical and economic performance and health and environmental impacts. While costs remain a key factor, they must be measured in comparative ways. This fact, together with the needs of many countries to define their energy and electricity programs in a sustainable manner, has provided the basis for a growing interest in comparative assessment of different electricity generation options, especially from environmental and human health points of view. Against this backdrop, the IAEA has been supporting various activities in this field, namely: International Symposium on Health impacts of Different Sources of Energy in 1981; International Symposium on the Risks and benefits of Energy Systems, in 1984; Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment in 1991; International Symposium on Electricity, Health and the Environment: Comparative Assessment in Support of Decision making in 1995

  13. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  14. Peat 2003. Production, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. Harvesting concessions must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the increased energy prices. In 2003, about 2,628,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in district heating plants. In 2003, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4,0 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,825,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2003, imports amounted to 382,3000 metric tons or 1.3 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 103,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. The peat market in Sweden is divided into the energy market and the cultivation market. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy

  15. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  16. Depleted UF6 programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has developed a program for long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride, a product of the uranium enrichment process. As part of this effort, DOE is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the depleted UF6 management program. This report duplicates the information available at the web site (http://www.ead.anl.gov/web/newduf6) set up as a repository for the PEIS. Options for the web site include: reviewing recent additions or changes to the web site; learning more about depleted UF6 and the PEIS; browsing the PEIS and related documents, or submitting official comments on the PEIS; downloading all or part of the PEIS documents; and adding or deleting one's name from the depleted UF6 mailing list

  17. Watershed management program. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Northwest Power Act, BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of fish and wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian tribes, state agencies property owners, private conservation groups, and Federal agencies. Future watershed management actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include in-channel modifications and fish habitat enhancement structures; riparian restoration and other vegetation management techniques; agricultural management techniques for crop irrigation, animal facilities, and grazing; road, forest, urban area, and recreation management techniques; mining reclamation; and similar watershed conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual watershed management projects are planned and carried out with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as over time

  18. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of de

  19. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AGENCIES: A STUDY IN QUÉBEC, CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    LUIS E. SÁNCHEZ; PIERRE ANDRÉ

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a knowledge intensive activity that benefits from a highly structured approach to knowledge management (KM). In a survey of KM initiatives in two Québec government agencies, the Environmental Assessment Department and the Environment Public Hearings Bureau, knowledge repositories were mapped and officers were invited to reply to a questionnaire enquiring about the knowledge repositories' usefulness. Their perception about knowledge creation within each...

  20. Environmental impacts of human action in watercourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes do Carmo, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    The economic, social and environmental conditions of various European river basins and estuarine systems have changed dramatically in the last decades as a consequence of anthropogenic effects, and they will go on changing in the years to come due to increasing human pressure. Particularly in Portugal, various river-estuary systems have undergone several human interventions, notably engineering works to restore considerable stretches of channels and river banks. Whenever the characteristics and natural evolution of a river are altered as a result of human intervention there is an environmental impact. In other words, it is understood that differences can be observed between any present situation that is the result of the evolution of an environment after human intervention, and the natural situation that would have existed if this type of intervention had not taken place, taking into account our previous knowledge of the situation. A thorough understanding of the fluvial processes and new strategies are needed to develop a multifunctional use structure, which must take into account the many-faceted aims of sustainable development. This paper provides a brief description of the nature and distribution of the direct and indirect types of impact arising out of building and operating large dams, as well as some specific points that should be taken into consideration. It also reflects on the way in which the problem of extracting inert material from water environments has been dealt with in Portugal and offers a brief technical contribution which, although qualitative, provides a basic record and explanation of the consequences of significant interventions in water environments that have not been properly assessed or have not taken other mitigating circumstances into consideration.

  1. Final environmental impact statement. Marquez uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of many activities TVA has undertaken to ensure an adequate supply of uranium for these plants, TVA has proposed to underground mine, through its operator, the uranium deposits located in the Canon de Marquez in McKinley County, New Mexico. Construction and operation of the underground mine would be expected to have the following environmental effects: (a) a temporary change in land use for 48.5 hectares from wildlife habitat and recreation to mineral extraction; (b) a minor alteration in topography near the proposed pond sites due to reclamation of waste rock piles; (c) minimal impacts on land due to limited vehicular traffic and road construction; (d) temporary depression of ground water levels in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation in the mine vicinity during mine life; (e) short-term project-induced impacts to surface water and shallow ground water quality; (f) a temporary decrease in air quality in the vicinity of the mining operations due to fugitive dust and exhaust emissions from combustion-driven mining and support vehicles and releases of radon and short-lived radon progeny from ventilation shafts and ore piles; (g) a temporary decrease of plant and animal species at the mine site; (h) a minor and temporary effect on aquatic systems downstream from the mine and settling ponds due to sedimentation; and (i) a minor increase of noise levels in the immediate vicinity of mine shafts and vents. The no action alternative and alternatives for securing uranium ore by other methods were considered but were found insufficient to meet TVA objectives. None of the alternatives explored were environmentally preferable. TVA also evaluated site specific alternatives including the following: different shaft and support building siting, mining techniques, and reclamation options. 25 figures, 20 tables

  2. A comparison of the environmental benefits of bagasse-derived electricity and fuel ethanol on a life-cycle basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energetic utilisation of agricultural residues is considered to be an important element in any strategy to achieve renewable energy targets. In the approximately 80 cane-sugar producing countries there is potential to make better use of the fibrous residue known as bagasse. Subject to improved energy efficiency, sugar producers could supply energy either as 'green', co-generated electricity, or as fuel ethanol through cellulose hydrolysis followed by fermentation. This paper compares their projected environmental benefits from a life-cycle perspective, using South African data. Mass and energy analyses were prepared for the two systems and a base case (producing sugar with current methods), relative to the annual sugarcane production on one hectare. In both cases, the environmental burdens avoided by replacing an equivalent amount of fossil energy were included. The results obtained confirm that for all the impact categories considered, both 'bioenergy' products result in environmental benefits. The co-generation option results in lower energy-related emissions (i.e. lower global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials), whereas the fuel ethanol option is preferred in terms of resource conservation (since it is assumed to replace oil not coal), and also scores better in terms of human and eco-toxicity if assumed to replace lead-bearing oxygenates

  3. 3.4 Environmental impacts: energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subchapter 3.4 'Environmental impact of the energy industry' of the 7th state of the environment report analyzes the current situation in Austria and briefly describes the following aspects: environmental policy targets, uniform taxation of energy, use of renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy, energy input, electricity supply and input, energy input into space heating and air conditioning systems, and renewable energy. In 2002, the input of final energy was risen by about 5 % in comparison to 1998. During this period, the largest increments in final energy inputs were recorded in the mobility sector with + 9.4 %, and in the private households sector with + 8.3 % . The goods production sector showed a slight decrease of about 1.3 % between 1998 and 2002. The 'goods production', 'mobility' and 'private households' sectors combined require about 87 % of the total final energy input. The final energy input for space heating and hot water in 2001 was 5.7 % above the input in 1998. Energy supply from renewable energy sources rose by about 13.8 % in 2002 compared to 1998. Domestic electricity consumption (excluding consumption for pumped-storage systems) in 2002 was about 10.5 % above consumption in 1998. Physical imports and physical exports in 2002 increased about 32 % and 8.6 % correspondingly compared to 1999. (nevyjel)

  4. Benefits, Potential Risks and Environmental Safety Assessments of Herbicide-resistant Transgenic Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei; LI Xinhai; WANG Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant transgenic soybean was rapidly and commercially utilized in the world since 1996, and the planted percentage was up to 77% in 2009. Although multiple benefits have achieved through transgenic soybean utilization, the potential risk to environment is widely being concerned. It is essential to reduce the environmental risks for transgenic soybean and for other similar transgenic crops by using available biosafty knowledge to establish the risk assessment system. This review emphasized the herbicide- resistant transgenic soybean production, research and development, benefits and potential risks, and environment risk assessing methods for giving advisory opinion to commercially plant herbicide-resistant transgenic soybean in China.

  5. The environmental benefits of cellulosic energy crops at a landscape scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops--particularly the cellulosic energy crops current under development. For this discussion, the term energy crop refers to a crop grown primarily to create feedstock for either making biofuels such as ethanol or burning in a heat or electricity generation facility. Cellulosic energy crops are designed to be used in cellulose-based ethanol conversion processes (as opposed to starch or sugar-based ethanol conversion processes). As more cellulose can be produced per hectare of land than can sugar or starch, the cellulose-based ethanol conversion process is a more efficient sue of land for ethanol production. Assessing the environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing cellulosic energy crops especially at the landscape or regional scale. However, to set the stage for this discussion, the authors begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  6. 77 FR 11084 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... environmental infrastructure and resource protection and development projects described in subsection (c... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Cambria Water Supply Project, San Luis Obispo County, CA...

  7. 78 FR 59712 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the 3 Bars Ecosystem and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... biological control treatments, prescribed fire or wildland fire for resource benefit, and other management... not include prescribed fire or wildland fire for resource benefit. The Minimal Land Disturbance... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the 3 Bars Ecosystem and Landscape...

  8. The impact of Environmental regulation on corporate environmental investment of Computer Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper environmental regulation intensity is built. Panel regression model and Grouping regression are used to verify impact of environmental regulation on corporate environmental investment of computer industry. Panel regression results show there is a negative correlation between environmental regulation intensity and environmental investment of computer industry. Grouping regression results show that environmental regulation has a “Threshold Effect” on environmental investment of computer industry.

  9. E-IMPACT - A ROBUST HAZARD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    KHANDOKER A. HOSSAIN; FAISAL KHAN; KELLY HAWBOLDT

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a hazard-based environmental impact assessment approach (E-Impact), for evaluating the environmental impact during process design and retrofit stages. E-Impact replaces the normalisation step of the conventional impact assessment phase. This approach compares the impact scores for different options and assigns a relative score to each option. This eliminates the complexity of the normalisation step in the evaluation phase. The applicability of the E-Impact has been illustr...

  10. Using Environmental Impact Statements as an Introduction to Technical Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Charlton

    1993-01-01

    Outlines a method of introducing technical writing students to Environmental Impact Statements, which can help students understand decision-making processes, heighten their environmental awareness, and generate class camaraderie. (SR)

  11. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MACHINERY SECTORS TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher than standard environmental cost, and contribute to low real benefit. Electric accumulator & battery, secondary special industrial machinery, motorcycle, bicycle & other carriages, and engines and turbines need to monitor closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than other production sector do and they have high environmental cost. In order to decide the sustainable development strategy of the country, there is a need to use this research to support decision-making.

  12. Methods and techniques for prediction of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the procedure that helps decision makers understand the environmental implications of their decisions. The prediction of environmental effects or impact is an extremely important part of the EIA procedure and improvements in existing capabilities are needed. Considerable attention is paid within environmental impact assessment and in handbooks on EIA to methods for identifying and evaluating environmental impacts. However, little attention is given to the issue distribution of information on impact prediction methods. The quantitative or qualitative methods for the prediction of environmental impacts appear to be the two basic approaches for incorporating environmental concerns into the decision-making process. Depending on the nature of the proposed activity and the environment likely to be affected, a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods is used. Within environmental impact assessment, the accuracy of methods for the prediction of environmental impacts is of major importance while it provides for sound and well-balanced decision making. Pertinent and effective action to deal with the problems of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources and sustainable development is only possible given objective methods and techniques for the prediction of environmental impact. Therefore, the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems, decided to set up a task force, with the USSR as lead country, on methods and techniques for the prediction of environmental impacts in order to undertake a study to review and analyse existing methodological approaches and to elaborate recommendations to ECE Governments. The work of the task force was completed in 1990 and the resulting report, with all relevant background material, was approved by the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems in 1991. The present report reflects the situation, state of

  13. Waste management operations, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapters are provided on background; anticipated benefits; characterization of the INEL environment; environmental impact of operations; unavoidable adverse environmental effects; relationship between short-term uses and long-term productivity; relationship of waste management to land use, policies, and controls; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; alternatives; and cost-benefit analysis. The five appendices are: References; Glossary of terms and abbreviations; Listing and disposition of past INEL releases; Calculational methods; and Summary of INEL waste statistics and improvements for 1975 and 1976 with projections of future wastes and projects

  14. Navajo transmission project Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine Power Authority, a Navajo Nation enterprise, proposes to construct a 500 kilovolt transmission line planned to deliver electrical power from the Shiprock Substation in northwestern New Mexico to either the Mead or the Marketplace Substation in southern Nevada. The line would relieve constraints on transmission of electricity west from the Four Comers area; improve operational flexibility and reliability of the overall system; and allow increased economical transfers, sales, and purchases in the Rocky Mountains/Four Comers/Desert Southwest region. Also, the project allows an opportunity for the Navajo Nation to participate in the electrical utility industry and promote economic development to benefit the people of the Navajo Nation. Alternatives considered include energy conservation and electric load management, new generation facilities, use of existing transmission systems, alternative transmission technologies, no action, and the proposed action. For the proposed action, several alternative routes and ancillary facility locations are addressed: four alternative routes and five substations in the eastern portion of the project area; and six alternative routes, three substation sites, and a microwave communication facility in the western portion of the project area. The existing condition of the environmental resources in the project area is described and potential impacts on those resources as a result of the proposed action are addressed. The impacts of the proposed action would be caused mainly by access roads, tower sites, and other associated facilities on soils, vegetation, wildlife, and cultural and paleontological resources, and the impact of the transmission line's presence on visual resources and land uses

  15. Generic environmental impact statement for license renewal of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of the Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants contains the appendices. These include: (A) General characterisitics and environmental settings of domestic nuclear plants, (B) Definition of impact initiators, (C) Socioeconomics and case studies, (D) Aquatic organisms and human health, (E) Radiation protection considerations, (F) Methodology for assessing impacts to aquatic ecology and water resources, (G) Postulated accidents, and (H) Environmental statutes and regulations affecting license renewal

  16. School Indoor Environmental Quality Assessments and Interventions: Benefits of Effective Partnerships in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.; Kim, Janice; Smorodinsky, Svetlana

    2002-07-01

    Public, private, government, and university stakeholders have focused increasing attention on children's environmental health. Priority areas have been healthy school environments including indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ); susceptibilities of children to environmental factors and associated illness; and, understanding exposure to biological, chemical, and physical agents. As multidisciplinary teams, studies and intervention demonstrations in California public schools were conducted. A common theme among them was a ''partnership,'' the collaboration between stakeholders from the aforementioned sectors. Federal funding and local bond measures for planning, maintenance, and modernization of school facilities have recently been authorized. Therefore, beneficial ''partnerships'' should be established to conduct needed IEQ, environmental health, and productivity research, development and demonstration. This commentary describes benefits for stakeholders and five strategies for future effective collaborations.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  18. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  19. 75 FR 883 - Environmental Impact Statement; Maricopa County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... operational efficiency, were identified as important elements of the Maricopa Association of Government's... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on proposed operational improvements to the Interstate...

  20. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development

  1. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Condit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  2. A practical method of performing cost-benefit analysis of occupational and environmental protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical method of performing cost-benefit analysis for radiation protective measures relative to specific jobs or projects has been developed. The method is applicable to protective measures for both occupational and public radiation exposures. The method provides a straightforward, consistent procedure for weighing the cost and impact of protective measures against the benefits derived. The procedure employs various decision gates based on person-rem dollar figures and an ALARA factor analysis that weighs nonquantitative parameters. The procedure is designed to be used by job planners, design engineers, or other personnel, with appropriate consultation by qualified health physicists. 2 figs

  3. Impact of increasing milk production on whole farm environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing herd milk production can provide both economic benefit to the producer and environmental benefit to society. Simulated dairy farms with average annual herd productions from 16,000 to 30,000 lb/cow illustrate that increasing milk yield per cow improves feed efficiency, reduces feed costs a...

  4. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can...

  5. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  6. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation

    OpenAIRE

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M. Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-01-01

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. De...

  7. How to Evaluate Capital Projects that Offer Environmental/Carbon Reduction Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Lefley; Joseph Sarkis

    2013-01-01

    In many cases, projects that have strong environmental / carbon reduction benefits may be neglected due to biases associated with traditional project appraisal approaches. To reduce the level of rejections for such projects, the authors apply an innovative methodology, the financial appraisal profile (FAP) model. FAP is a normative model that seeks to address some of the issues and limitations posed by standard appraisal and evaluation approaches. By making the right decision in the first pla...

  8. Dark tourism. The Effects of Motivation and Environmental Attitudes on the Benefits of Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Te-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the experience model for visitors participating in Dark Tourism. The Hsiaolin Village relics, which were destroyed by the 2009 typhoon in Taiwan, are selected as the research subject. A total of 341 visitors to Hsiaolin Village Memorial Park were interviewed through a survey questionnaire. Structural equation models (SEMs) were utilized to verify the causal relationship among the visitors ’Dark Tourism motivation, environmental attitudes, and benefits of experience ...

  9. Using stated preferences to estimate the environmental benefits of using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner; Hitzhusen, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Using biodiesel fuel to reduce emissions from diesel engines is an area of increasing interest. Many environmental benefits associated with biodiesel are not traded in markets and their estimation requires economic valuation methods applied to non-market goods and services. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation survey conducted in 2006 in two Ohio regions to estimate willingness to pay for air pollution reduction arising from using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines. The dou...

  10. Does Forest Certification in Developing Countries Have Environmental Benefits? Insights from Mexican Corrective Action Requests

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Allen; Raimondi, Alicia; Cubbage, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Certification is intended to improve management of and environmental outcomes in developing country forests. Yet we know little about whether and how it actually generates such benefits. To address that question, we analyze 1,162 corrective action requests (CARs) issued after third-party inspections of a diverse set of 35 forests in Mexico certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). CARs detail the changes in procedures and on-the-ground conditions that forest managers must make to eit...

  11. Design-with-Nature for Multifunctional Landscapes: Environmental Benefits and Social Barriers in Community Development

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg’s design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated f...

  12. Health and Environmental Benefits of Reduced Pesticide Use in Uganda: An Experimental Economics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonabana-Wabbi, Jackline; Taylor, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental procedures were employed to value both health and environmental benefits from reducing pesticide use in Uganda. The first experiment, an incentive compatible auction involved subjects with incomplete information placing bids to avoid consuming potentially contaminated groundnuts/water in a framed field experimental procedure. Three experimental treatments (information, proxy good, and group treatments) were used. Subjects were endowed with a monetary amount (starting capital)...

  13. Health and Environmental Benefits of Reduced Pesticide Use in Uganda: An Experimental Economics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonabana-Wabbi, Jackline

    2007-01-01

    Two experimental procedures are employed to value both health and environmental benefits from reducing pesticides in Uganda. The first experiment, an incentive compatible auction involves subjects with incomplete information placing bids to avoid consuming potentially contaminated groundnuts/water in a framed field experimental procedure. Three experimental treatments (information, proxy good, and group treatments) are used. Subjects are endowed with a monetary amount (starting capital) equiv...

  14. Stakeholder Pressures, Environmental Impact and Managerial Initiatives of SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    impact was available in Denmark. Consequently, a longitudinal research project was initiated to enlighten the situation. This study investigates environmentally related initiatives taken in response to the perception of stakeholder pressures and the perceived corporate environmental impact. The empirical......Environmental sustainability has become an issue of uttermost importance for business organisations. Therefore, the implementation of corporate environmental initiatives has been vigorously embraced by industry. Two decades ago, no clear picture of industry initiatives to reduce their environmental...... popularity of self-regulation, voluntary initiatives do not tend to be widely adopted by SMEs, stressing a need for a continuing regulation of industry’s behaviour in relation to environmental issues....

  15. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs. PMID:26387347

  16. Peat 2000. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses peat as a natural resource. It describes the peat land area, the peat harvest area, the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation, trade, research and development, and the government grant to the peat industry. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. More than six millions hectares have been defined as peat land (with a peat layer of more than 30 cm) in Sweden, which means that about 15 per cent of the total land area consists of peat lands. Thinner peat layers (wet mineral soils) cover an additional 10 per cent of the land area. At the end of 1999 concessions for fuel peat harvesting had been granted for 45,000 hectares or 0.8 per cent of the total peat land area. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 2000, about 1,372,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 2000, the total use

  17. Peat 1999. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses peat as a natural resource. It describes the peat land area, the peat harvest area, the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation, trade, research and development, and the government grant to the peat industry. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. More than six millions hectares have been defined as peat land (with a peat layer of more than 30 cm) in Sweden, which means that about 15 per cent of the total land area consists of peat lands. Thinner peat layers (wet mineral soils) cover an additional 10 per cent of the land area. At the end of 1999 concessions for fuel peat harvesting had been granted for 45 900 hectares or 0.8 per cent of the total peat land area. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 1999, about 2 650 000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 1999, the total use

  18. Progress in reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:Over the past several years, great progress has been made in understanding and reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes. Our understanding of sea floor impacts has been helped along by new environmental assessment tools such us computer modeling of sea floor deposition of drilling discharges, sediment profile imaging, and in situ sediment toxicity bioassays. To further reduce environmental impacts, new pollution prevention technologies have been developed that can shrink the environmental footprint of offshore drilling. These technologies reduce the total amount of drilling wastes discharged and include cuttings dryers and centrifuges that can reduce the drilling fluid content of drill cuttings to below 10 percent. In conclusion, the oil and gas industry is adopting more environmentally compatible drilling fluids, new environmental assessment tools and pollution prevention technologies that dramatically reduce the amount of drilling wastes discharged. Together, all of these elements have the potential to reduce environmental impacts of offshore drilling

  19. A statistical proposal for environmental impact assessment of development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impact assessment of development projects is a fundamental process, which main goal is to avoid that their construction and functioning, lead to serious and negative consequences on the environment. Some of the most important limitations of the models employed to assess environmental impacts, are the subjectivity of its parameters and weights, and the multicolineality among the variables, which represent high quantities of similar information. This work presents a multivariate statistical-based method that tries to diminish such limitations. For this purpose, environmental impact assessment, is valuated through different environmental impact attributes and environmental elements, synthesized in an environmental quality index (ICA in Spanish). ICA can be applied at different levels, such as at a project level, or applied only at a partial level on one or some environmental components.

  20. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  1. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown

  2. Peat 2002. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur (1 USD approx. 7.8 SEK). Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 2002, about 2,885,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 2001, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4.1 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,800,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2001, imports amounted to 329,311 metric tons or 1.1 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 91,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. Fuel peat is used at district heating power plants. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy sources. Some companies are privately owned, while others are owned by municipalities, which also manage district heating plants and thereby integrate

  3. Wildlife mitigation program final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and improvement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative, i.e., not to establish program-wide standards. Five standardizing (action) alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information

  4. Wildlife mitigation program. Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information

  5. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  6. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This text was written to accompany a course concerning the need, environmental costs, and benefits of electrical power generation. It was compiled and written by a committee drawn from educators, health physicists, members of industry and conservation groups, and environmental scientists. Topics include: the increasing need for electrical power,…

  7. Risks and benefits of removal of impacted third molars. A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, P; Precious, D

    1992-02-01

    A critical review of the literature about risks and benefits of the removal of impacted 3rd molar teeth is presented in 4 categories: risk of non-intervention, risk of intervention, benefit of non-intervention and benefit of intervention. There are well-defined criteria for removal of impacted 3rd molar teeth. Absolute indications and contra-indications for the removal of asymptomatic 3rd molar teeth cannot be established because no long-term studies exist which validate the benefit to the patient either of early removal or of deliberate retention of these teeth. The prudent course of action for the clinician to follow is based on rational clinical decision-making using traditional methods of evaluation to effect the optimal outcome, keeping the interests of the individual patient above all else. PMID:1569360

  8. Health and environmental benefits related to electric vehicle introduction in EU countries

    OpenAIRE

    J. Buekers; Van Holderbeke, M.; Bierkens, J.; Int Panis, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of electric vehicles (EV) can help to reduce CO2-emissions and the dependence on petroleum products. However, sometimes relatively larger air pollutant emissions from certain power plants can offset the benefits of replacing internal combustion engine (ICE) cars with EV. The goal of this study was to compare the societal impact (climate change & health effects) of EV introduction in the EU-27 under different scenarios for electricity production. The analysis shows that countries ...

  9. Environmental optimization in fractionating industrial wastes using cost-benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stenis, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes that industrial waste be regarded, in a business economic sense, as having the same basic status as regular products. A basic mathematical expression for assigning industrial costs to waste is presented. The expression can be employed in conjunction with cost-benefit analysis for estimating the "true" internal costs of industrial waste. In two case studies presented, industrial waste was found to have a substantial negative impact on profits. This is seen as a po...

  10. Matrix of Aspects and Environmental Impacts as a Tool of Disclosure of Environmental Contingencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diene Hellmann Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Companies that, as a result of their activities, cause an impact on the environment may incur environmental contingencies. Depending on the extent of the impact and the likelihood of future monetary obligations, accounting standards determine situations in which the company shall disclose such events in the explanatory notes. To contribute to this topic, this article aims to verify how a matrix of aspects and environmental impacts can contribute to the accounting disclosure of environmental contingencies for resellers in gas stations. To achieve this, this study used a matrix formed by information regarding the aspects and environmental impacts, in which were considered the scope, severity, and frequency of occurrence of each analyzed situation. The results show that instances of environmental impact in the business environment might be followed through the matrix of environmental aspects and impacts, and that this tool can help in judging which information is subject to disclosure in the notes.

  11. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangolells, Marta, E-mail: marta.gangolells@upc.edu; Casals, Miquel, E-mail: miquel.casals@upc.edu; Forcada, Núria, E-mail: nuria.forcada@upc.edu; Macarulla, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.macarulla@upc.edu

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  12. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  13. Benefits/impacts of utilizing depleted uranium silicate glass as backfill for spent fuel waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment has been made of the benefits and impacts which can be derived by filling a spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canister with depleted uranium silicate (DUS) glass at a reactor site. Although the primary purpose of the DUS glass fill would be to enhance repository performance assessment and control criticality of geologic times, a number of benefits to the waste management system can be derived from adding the DUS glass prior to shipment from the reactor site

  14. Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.; Cai, Yongxia; Thomson, Allison; Zhang, Xuesong; Jones, Russell; McCarl, Bruce A.; Crimmins, Allison; Martinich, Jeremy; Cole, Jefferson; Ohrel, Sara; DeAngelo, Benjamin; McFarland, James; Strzepek, Kenneth; Boehlert, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been numerous studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry, but relatively little research examining the long-term net impacts of a stabilization scenario relative to a case with unabated climate change. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from 32.7 billion to 54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative mitigation and adaptation actions.

  15. Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert H.; Cai, Yongxia; Thomson, Allison M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Jones, Russ; McCarl, Bruce A.; Crimmins, Allison; Martinich, Jeremy; Cole, Jefferson; Ohrel, Sara; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, Jim; Strzepek, K.; Boehlert, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been numerous studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry, but relatively little research examining the long-term net impacts of a stabilization scenario relative to a case with unabated climate change. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from $32.7 billion to $54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative mitigation and adaptation actions.

  16. Cost analysis and environmental impact of nonthermal technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost of high pressure processing (HPP) orange juice and its environmental impact were estimated. In addition, the environmental impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and thermal pasteurization were assessed for comparison. The cost analysis was based on commercial processing conditions that wer...

  17. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  18. Reduction of the environmental impacts in crystalline silicon module manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review the most important options to reduce environmental impacts of crystalline silicon modules. We investigate which are the main barriers for implementation of the measure. Finally we review which measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction. Reduc

  19. Alternative electrical transmission systems and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    A general description is provided of electrical transmission systems as an aid in determining their environmental impacts. Alternating current, direct current, overhead systems, underground systems, and water crossings are treated. The cost, performance, reliability, safety, and environmental impact of these systems are compared.

  20. Environmental impact assessment of different design schemes of an industrial ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Aditi; Lou, Helen H.; Yaws, Carl L.; Hopper, Jack R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Pike, Ralph W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Industrial ecosystem is an important approach for sustainable development. In an industrial ecosystem, a group of industries are inter-connected through mass and energy exchanges for mutual benefits. However, some mass and energy exchange activities may cause unexpected environmental impacts. Therefore, it is vital to evaluate the environmental impacts of the symbiosis in order to provide a clear guidance for the decision-makers and stakeholders. The agro-chemical complex in the Lower Mississippi River Corridor with thirteen chemical and petrochemical industries emits huge amount of carbon dioxide. A bi-level design methodology is used to reconfigure this complex for utilizing surplus carbon dioxide. By using a superstructure-based approach, a new design scheme for this industrial ecosystem is proposed. In this paper, an LCA-type environmental impact assessment of different design schemes for this complex is conducted using the software TRACI, a tool developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). This analysis compares various environmental impacts of different designs and identifies the potential trade-offs in different environmental impact categories. This information provides deep insight about the environmental sustainability of industrial ecosystems and facilitates the development of the most eco-effective symbiosis for recycle, reuse and resource conservation. (author)

  1. Environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining of uranium at the Ranger and Jabiluka mines in Australia's Northern Territory has been assessed as a case study for the environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia. The level of environmental protection achieved has been very high. However, a number of social indicators reveal that the social impact of development in the region, including the mining of uranium, has been significant. A program is now underway to redress these social issues. Links between social and environmental impact have been identified. In today's world, the standards and practices in environmental protection are as much determined by social attitudes as they are by scientific and technical assessment. (author)

  2. Environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining of uranium at the Ranger and Jabiluka mines in Australia's Northern Territory has been assessed as a case study for the environmental and social impact of uranium mining in Australia. The level of environmental protection achieved has been very high. However, a number of social indicators reveal that the social impact of development in the region, including the mining of uranium, has been significant. A programme is now underway to redress these social issues. Links between social and environmental impact have been identified. In today's world, the standards and practices in environmental protection are as much determined by social attitudes as they are by scientific and technical assessment. (author)

  3. The environmental impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major environmental hazards associated with nuclear power stations are outlined. The environmental and biological effects of air pollution, thermal pollution, radioactive effluent from power stations and fuel reprocessing plants, and radioactive waste disposal are dealt with, and the safety of nuclear power stations is discussed. In addition, some comparisons are made of the environmental hazards associated with alternative methods of power generation. (author)

  4. Dark tourism. The Effects of Motivation and Environmental Attitudes on the Benefits of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang, Te-Yi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the experience model for visitors participating in Dark Tourism. The Hsiaolin Village relics, which were destroyed by the 2009 typhoon in Taiwan, are selected as the research subject. A total of 341 visitors to Hsiaolin Village Memorial Park were interviewed through a survey questionnaire. Structural equation models (SEMs were utilized to verify the causal relationship among the visitors ’Dark Tourism motivation, environmental attitudes, and benefits of experience in Dark Tourism relics. The benefits of experience in Dark Tourism are divided into social benefits, learning benefits, and pressure relief for psychological benefits in this study. The empirical results show that the higher Dark Tourism motivation could enhance the visitors’ environmental attitudes towards Dark relics and further affect the acquired benefits of experience. Moreover, the stronger Dark Tourism motivation could directly influence the psychological benefits of experience such as emotional and pressure relief. The direct effects of learning and social benefits are not as strong where the benefits of experience are affected by the emotional perception of environmental attitudes. In other words, environmental attitudes present partial mediating effects. The research results provide useful reference information for the planning of Dark Tourism relics and the development of tourism activities.El objetivo de este estudio consiste en discutir el modelo de experiencia de los visitantes que participan en actividades de turismo negro. Como objeto de estudio se han seleccionado las ruinas del pueblo de Hsiaolin, Taiwán, destruido en 2009 por un tifón. Se realizaron entrevistas mediante cuestionario a 341 visitantes del Hsiaolin Village Memorial Park. Para comprobar la relación causal entre las motivaciones de los visitantes que realizan actividades de turismo negro, sus actitudes medioambientales y los beneficios de la experiencia en la ruinas de

  5. Environmental impacts assessment: Instruments for environmental policy making and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of evaluation criteria for environmental impacts assessments in Italy covers the following aspects: the efficacy of current Italian normatives governing assessment methods, the current approach of regional public administrations, the necessity for the creation of a national regulating board, environmental impacts assessment for complex environmental systems, the application of impacts assessment recommendations to resource development modelling in the planning of integrated environmental-economic systems, the involvement of the general public in decision making, techniques to determine the monetary worth of environmental resources, the use of multi-criteria analysis techniques

  6. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  7. Environmental benefits of cropland conversion to hybrid poplar: economic and policy considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate environmental benefits that might accrue from conversion of farmland to short-rotation woody crops (SRWC), a hypothetical conversion of 10%, 20% and 30% of cropland was modeled in a watershed of the Lower Minnesota River. The analysis synthesized output from a watershed model (ADAPT) with literature-based estimates of productivity and economic values for water quality, forest conservation and carbon sequestration. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to estimate ranges of environmental benefit values for cropland conversion to SRWCS. The summed average net benefits justified annual public subsidies ranging from $44 to 596 ha-1, depending on market scenario and conversion level. Cropland conversion to SRWCs reduced cumulative annual stream flows, sediment and nitrogen loadings by up to 9%, 28% and 15%, respectively. Reduced sediment loads resulted in potential average annual public savings on culvert and ditch maintenance costs of $9.37 Mg-1 of sediment not delivered to the watershed outlet. Hybrid poplars over a 5-year rotation produced an estimated annual economic value due to carbon sequestration of $13-15 ha-1 when used for bioenergy and $29-33 ha-1 (depending on conversion rate) when converted to wood products. If hybrid poplars are substituted for aspen traditionally harvested from natural woodlands, the poplars create annual forest preservation values of $4.79-5.44 ha-1. (author)

  8. Impact of Environmental Education Kit on Students’ Environmental Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbahul Jannah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To support the implementation of environmental education (EE across the curriculum, WWF-Malaysia has developed Environmental Education Kit (EE-Kit to increase the level of environmental literacy of students. Environmental literacy is a part of EE that refers to knowledge, awareness, behavior, environmental attitude and participation. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of environmental literacy amongst students based on gender and stream of study also student perception on the use of EE-Kit. 345 secondary school students age 14 and 16 years old participated in this survey study and 10 students were interviewed. An EE teaching kit was used to teach the students. Using descriptive and inferential statistics it was determined that there was a significant difference in the level of environmental literacy based on gender, whereas for class stream reveals no significant difference. However, the level on environmental literacy based on gender and class stream are still at the moderate and low level. It also was found that knowledge of and about the environment is at low level as compared to environment attitude, behavior, awareness and environment participation. It appears that perception and students practice related to positive behavior towards environment exist despite the lack of knowledge in and on environment. However, that does not guarantee students to manage the environment effectively. Implication of this study suggests that knowledge, attitude and developing positive behavior towards environment need to be developed in an integrated way. The study recommends that the inculcation of environmental literacy through the use of EE-Kit among students in rural areas needs to be improved in building citizens who can preserve and conserve the environment.

  9. Multi-Year Analysis Examines Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    As states consider revising renewable portfolio standard (RPS) programs or developing new ones, careful assessments of the costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing policies will be critical. RPS programs currently exist in 29 states and Washington, D.C. Many of these policies, which were enacted largely during the late 1990s and 2000s, will reach their terminal targets by the end of this decade. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are engaged in a multi-year project to examine the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state RPS polices both retrospectively and prospectively. This fact sheet overviews this work.

  10. Economic valuation of the environmental impact of logging residue recovery and nutrient compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the environmental impact of logging residue recovery (LRR) and nutrient compensation (NC) in Sweden is analysed and evaluated economically. Logging reside recovery and recirculation of wood ash can generate local environmental benefits, such as reduced soil acidification and, primarily in southern Sweden, also improved nitrogen balance and reduced nutrient leaching from forest land. Recovery of residues leads to a slight increase in net emissions of carbon dioxide, compared with on site decomposition, but this increase is small compared with the net emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel cycles. The impact of toxic compounds is estimated to be insignificant, as is that on biodiversity, when current guidelines for forestry management methods are followed. The total cost, including direct costs and environmental costs/benefits, of LRR and NC is estimated to be about 1.1, 3.3 and 4.6 US dollars/GJ in southern, central and northern Sweden, respectively. For comparison, the current direct cost of LRR, excluding NC, is, on average, about 4.0 US dollars/GJ in Sweden. Almost one-third of the Swedish forest fuel potential is estimated to be located in the south, but this potential varies from about 50 to over 100 PJ per year depending on the assumptions made. Thus, when local environmental benefits are also considered, the overall economic benefit derived from the utilisation of forest fuels could increase significantly in southern Sweden, where large quantities of logging residues are available. (author)

  11. Griffith energy project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Arizona. The Project would be a merchant plant which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. The existing environmental resource conditions in the Project area and the potential impacts on the resources by the proposed action and alternatives are described. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management

  12. Environmental benefits from marketable discharge permits or an ecological versus economical perspective on marketable permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economists typically extol the virtues of marketable discharge permits based on their ability to obtain a given environmental standard at least cost. Previous empirical studies of marketable permits have quantified the benefits from the use of permits relative to a command-and-control system in terms of cost savings. Occasionally, the benefits of a permit system are described by noting that the efficiency of such systems would allow improved environmental quality relative to a command-and-control system for the same cost. That is, the increased efficiency resulting from a permit system would allow environmental regulators to tighten emission standards, resulting in less pollution while still holding costs at their initial level. This paper presents a simple conceptual model that examines the potential emission savings from a marketable permit system. The conceptual model is empirically implemented with data on abatement costs for light-duty vehicles in California. The emission saving potential is directly compared with the cost saving potential. Although cost savings from a marketable permit system in this context are found to be relatively modest, on the order of 1% to 10%, the emission savings potential is found to be much larger. Estimates of the emission savings possibilities range from about 7% to 65%

  13. Impact of standards and certification on environmental impairment liability insurance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impairment liability (EIL) insurance is available for petroleum storage tank and other environmental exposures. Recent standards and performance criteria for leak detection for underground storage tanks (USTs) and other technical standards for USTs have been both a benefit and an interference to risk-based underwriting of storage tank EIL insurance programs. Insurance underwriters and state financial responsibility program administrators are confronted with confusing information to manage these environmental risks. Standards and certification are also key issues for site assessment programs. Recent activities from ASTM and the Institute for Environmental Auditing (IEA) have addressed the need to increase the professional stature of site assessments and environmental management. Reaction and acceptance of these efforts by the users have been mixed. Ultimately, these efforts will greatly impact insurance coverage for environmental risks

  14. Environmental security benefits arising from Russian/Norwegian/US cooperation in the high Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past practices associated with the civilian and military use of nuclear power in NW Russia present large environmental security risks of international concern. These risks arise from a variety of practices associated with weapons production, testing, power production and waste management. The threats presented by these activities are multimedia in nature, span political boundaries and cannot be simply or inexpensively remediated. Today, cooperative efforts are being undertaken to improve environmental security by remediating existing and potential emission sources. Initial efforts focused on the upgrade and expansion of the Murmansk Low-level Liquid Waste Treatment Facility, Murmansk, Russia. This facility handles wastes generated during the decommissioning of Russian Nuclear Navy submarines and from the operation of the Russian commercial nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. This upgraded facility is now being constructed and is expected to be completed by March 1998. Completion of this facility will result in the cessation of any future dumping of liquid radioactive wastes into the Barents and Kara Seas. Another large environmental security risk is the LEPSE. The LEPSE is a ship docked in Murmansk, Russia, that contains ∼650 spent fuel elements as well as other solid and liquid wastes from Russian nuclear vessels. International efforts are now being mounted to remove the spent and damaged fuel from this ship, including the safe removal and storage/disposal of the fuel elements. This paper will summarize the environmental security problems presented by these different sources and the likely environmental security benefits associated with their remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Environmental impact and sustainability of portuguese fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Baeta, Ana Filipa Ribeiro, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Marinha), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2009 Assess fishing impacts on marine ecosystem and fisheries sustainability is essential to achieve proper management of the sector and for the conservation of resources and marine ecosystem. The main fishing impacts (bycatch, namely of protected species, discards, and impacts on habitats and on marine trophic web) of seven Portuguese fisheries were assessed. The ecological impact requiring m...

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Investment Decisions: Chapter 13 (Evaluation of Stakeholder Impacts)

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo; Arnold C. Harberger

    2011-01-01

    The stakeholder impacts of a project can be estimated by the comparison of the financial and economic impacts of the project on the key stakeholders of a project. This analysis allows one to estimate how the income changes caused by the project that are distributed across the key groups affected by the project. This analysis allow for a reconciliation of the financial, economic, and distributional aspects of a cost benefit analysis. It also identifies if the project does or does not address t...

  17. Environmental benefits of parking-integrated photovoltaics: A 222kWp experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; García-Valverde, Rafael; Espinosa, Nieves; García-Cascales, M. Socorro; Sánchez-Lozano, Juan M.; Urbina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle assessment of a grid-connected, parking integrated, 222kWp cadmium telluride photovoltaic system has been performed. The system was built at the University of Murcia and has been monitored for 2.5years (sampling data every 5min). The detailed material inventory, the energy embedded...... in the system, the energy payback time, and the energy return factor of the facility have been obtained and are 6.31TJ equivalent primary energy, 2.06 and 12.16years, respectively. The average performance ratio is 0.8 with a slight monthly variation. Additionally, the environmental benefits of the...

  18. Emergency use of groundwater as a backup supply: Quantifying hydraulic impacts and economic benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Li, Zhen; Hermans, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater can play an important role in water-supply emergency planning. A framework is presented for assessing the hydraulic impacts and associated costs of using groundwater as a backup supply when imported-water deliveries are disrupted, and for quantifying the emergency benefits of groundwater management strategies that enable better response to such disruptions. Response functions are derived, which relate additional groundwater pumpage during water-supply emergencies to impacts such as increased pumping costs, subsidence, and seawater intrusion. Monte Carlo analysis is employed to estimate the incremental costs of using groundwater as a backup supply. The emergency benefits of alternative groundwater management strategies are computed for different expected durations of imported water disruption, percentages of imported water replaced by groundwater, and threshold drawdowns for subsidence impacts. The methodology is applied to the coastal Los Angeles Basin. For this case study, emergency benefits of artificial recharge strategies are dominated by reduction of potential subsidence costs. The variance of the results also is primarily due to subsidence effects. Incorporation of probability distributions reflecting a larger expected use of groundwater during the imported-water disruption results in higher estimated emergency benefits of artificial recharge strategies. The framework presented for quantifying incremental costs and economic benefits of using groundwater as a backup supply could be applied to a broad range of water emergency planning decisions.

  19. Navajo transmission project. Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine Power Authority, a Navajo Nation enterprise, proposes to construct a 500 kilovolt transmission line planned to deliver electrical power from the Shiprock Substation in northwestern New Mexico to the Marketplace Substation in southern Nevada. The line would relieve constraints on transmission of electricity west from the Four Corners area; improve operational flexibility and reliability of the overall system; and allow increased economical transfers, sales, and purchases in the Rocky Mountains/Four Corners/Desert Southwest region. Also, the project allows an opportunity for the Navajo Nation to participate in the electrical utility industry and promote economic development to benefit the people of the Navajo Nation. Six alternatives were considered and include (1) energy conservation and electric load management, (2) new generation facilities, (3) use of existing transmission systems, (4) alternative transmission technologies, (5) no action, and (6) the proposed action. For the proposed action, the following alternative routes and ancillary facility locations are addressed in the EIS: four alternative routes and five substations in the eastern portion of the project area; and six alternative routes, three substation sites, and a microwave communication facility in the western portion of the project area. The existing condition of the environmental resources in the project area is described, and potential impacts on those resources as a result of the proposed action are addressed. The impacts of the proposed action would be caused mainly by access roads, tower sites, and other associated facilities on soils, vegetation, wildlife, and cultural and paleontological resources; and the impact of the transmission line's presence on visual resources and land uses. Public comments on the draft EIS are addressed in this FEIS

  20. Environmental considerations. Environmental impacts of uranium mining in South Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent investigations of uranium mining and milling activities in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico revealed serious environmental problems associated with these activities. An investigation was undertaken in the South Texas Uranium Belt to determine whether or not similar or other environmental problems existed. The study describes: (1) the history of uranium mining and milling in South Texas, (2) the area economy and demography, (3) the occurrence of uranium ore and (4) the regulatory aspects of uranium mining and milling in South Texas. The commercial recovery and processing of uranium in this area is described in some detail. Exploration, open pit mining, in-situ solution mining and processing techniques for ''yellowcake'' (U3O8), the uranium product of the area, are discussed. The state and federal regulations pertinent to uranium mining and milling are summarized. Finally, the environmental effects of these activities are discussed and conclusions and recommendations are drawn

  1. Environmental impact statement - an effective tool for successful mine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining is a hazardous operation which must be designed to succeed under very unpredictable environmental, geological and marketing conditions over a committed life of thirty years or longer. It is well-established by now that mining has tremendous social, economic and environmental impacts on society in general and on local communities in particular. Mining's image has begun to improve with effective hazard controls and property reclamation through improved mine design and restoration plans. Much of the credit for this achievement should go to Environmental Impact Statement and related permitting requirements for mining projects. An Environmental Impact Statement with respect to almost every type of mining project is now frequently required by major banks, and other funding agencies, governmental agencies and/or citizen groups involved in the permitting process. This impact statement ensures that the proposed project has the potential to succeed under all foreseeable environmental, geological and marketing problems throughout its projected life and to guarantee the return of the initial capital with interest. In short, the impact statement offers assurance that the final project will culminate with positive environmental and social impacts. The relevance and contributions of Environmental Impact Statements in mine design, as well as their applications and development procedures are presented. 3 refs., 8 figs

  2. Quantifying the health and environmental benefits of wind power to natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How tangible are the costs of natural gas compared to the benefits of one of the fastest growing sources of electricity – wind energy – in the United States? To answer this question, this article calculates the benefits of wind energy derived from two locations: the 580 MW wind farm at Altamont Pass, CA, and the 22 MW wind farm in Sawtooth, ID. Both wind farms have environmental and economic benefits that should be considered when evaluating the comparative costs of natural gas and wind energy. Though there are uncertainties within the data collected, for the period 2012–2031, the turbines at Altamont Pass will likely avoid anywhere from $560 million to $4.38 billion in human health and climate related externalities, and the turbines at Sawtooth will likely avoid $18 million to $104 million of human health and climate-related externalities. Translating these negative externalities into a cost per kWh of electricity, we estimate that Altamont will avoid costs of 1.8–11.8 cents/kWh and Sawtooth will avoid costs of 1.5–8.2 cents/kWh. - Highlights: ► This study compares the benefits of wind energy with natural gas. ► The Altamont Pass windfarm will avoid $560 million to $4.38 billion in externalities. ► The Sawtooth wind farm will produce about $18 million to $104 million in human health and climate benefits. ► Natural gas prices rise by 1.5–11.8 cents/kWh if they include the cost of such externalities.

  3. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA is...... product system sets the frame for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and the bearings it has on current LCIA methodology are described in this paper together with the newest developments within this discipline.......What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory of...

  4. Environmental Impacts. Chapter 3. [Overview of environmental impacts by employing the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In consideration of the possible environmental impacts resulting from the disposal of radioactive waste and carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations, there will be above ground disturbances to the land on which the surface infrastructures of the disposal facility will be sited, and which will lead to chains of resource uses and emissions from their construction and operation. For both waste types in question, the burdens on the environment from these processes can largely be measured in tens of years, and measures to reduce or limit them can be done in a reactionary and continuous manner. On the other hand, however, the disposal and containment of these wastes must, for the purposes of repository design, either be considered as potentially permanent in the case of radioactive waste, or ultimate in the case of CO2. This means that, in practical terms, measures to control the environmental impacts during the decay or the mineralization processes, which continue long after above ground activities have ceased, can be done only once, prior to the emplacement of the waste in the geological formation. Both natural and engineered barriers are incorporated into the disposal schemes with the ultimate objective of immobilizing the transport of radionuclides or CO2 within the host geological formations, the duration of the necessary containment period being either until the waste has reached background radiation levels or the CO2 has chemically bonded with the host rock. Thus, potential environmental impacts occurring here would be due to a release or transport of radionuclides or CO2 into the surrounding geology and water courses prior to the end of the containment period, which, as described, must be guarded against from the outset. Indeed, if the safe and effective containment of wastes cannot be assured, then the justification for the geological disposal is, in itself, highly questionable. Therefore, with regard to the below ground disposal phase and however long that

  5. From Burdens to Benefits: The Societal Impact of PDL-Enriched, Efficacy-Enhanced Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaha, Steven H.; Glassett, Kelly F.; Rosenlund, David; Copas, Aimee; Huddleston, T. Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Societies continue to absorb increased burdens in cost for helping citizens unable to achieve at optimal levels. Building on past research, we project educational benefits to offset current societal burdens through enhanced educator capabilities. Studies reviewed show participation in a high-impact professional development and learning solution…

  6. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    OpenAIRE

    Biancamaria Torquati; Sonia Venanzi; Adriano Ciani; Francesco Diotallevi; Vincenzo Tamburi

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the f...

  7. Environmental impact assessment in the Fijian state sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 20 years, the South Pacific state of Fiji has required developers to conduct more than 70 environmental impact assessments (EIA), without specifying the environmental quality or impacts it considers (in)appropriate. It has ignored aspects of EIA to which agencies funding development have paid little attention--assessing alternatives, monitoring outcomes and enforcing consent conditions. This infers the Fijian state is not serious about using EIA to control environmental quality. Factors other than technical shortcomings are shaping the way the state constrains EIA practice. Unless these factors change, the comprehensive EIA system proposed in Sustainable Development legislation will not prevent environmental degradation

  8. A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    The understanding and assessment of environmental impact on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental impacts.

  9. Public understanding of environmental impacts of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity deregulation has aroused concern that environmental quality might be harmed by consumer preferences for cheap, 'dirty' (e.g., coal) electricity products, despite the perhaps stronger influence of supply side policy on environmental impacts. This outcome depends on public understanding of the environmental impacts of their decisions, which this study explored with interviews, focus groups, and surveys in New Jersey. People had thought little about the topic, were unable to articulate how electricity production might affect the environment except in very general terms, and were mostly unwilling to guess whether deregulation's impacts would be negative, neutral or positive. Those who did guess expected negative impacts less than any other kind. Reactions to specific 'reasons' for expecting no, positive or negative impacts suggested that consumers had little structure to their mental models in this area; for example, people who thought positive-impact reasons were probably true were not necessarily likely to see negative-impact reasons as probably false. However, in the aggregate, people seemed to have a fairly consistent ranking of energy sources by expected negative environmental impacts. Earlier research found that consumers comparing two electricity products on environmental impacts reached different decisions if they had energy-source-only or energy-source-plus-emissions information. Although regulator-required 'environmental labels' for electricity products provide both source and emissions data, it is not clear that they do an adequate job of both alerting consumers to the possibility of negative environmental impacts and identifying the relative life-cycle impacts of different products so as to produce informed consumer decisions

  10. An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation

  11. North Central Transmission Line: Guidelines for the environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelines that Manitoba Hydro must follow in the preparation of the environmental impact statement on the proposed North Central Transmission Line (TCTL) project are presented. The project consists of a 138 kV transmission line, two 25 kV distribution lines, and related ancillary structures and facilities. The review process must be sensitive to cultural and community needs and must involve those most directly affected, and should be grounded in the impacted northern communities. The review should include a project background, the proposal, a description of the existing natural and socio-economic environment, and must address employment, education and training, impacts on renewable resource harvesting, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts, legal/jurisdictional issues, infrastructure, mitigation and compensation, and environmental monitoring and follow-up. 1 fig., 20 tabs

  12. Qualitative assessment of environmental impacts through fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vagueness of many concepts usually utilized in environmental impact studies, along with frequent lack of quantitative information, suggests that fuzzy logic can be applied to carry out qualitative assessment of such impacts. This paper proposes a method for valuing environmental impacts caused by projects, based on fuzzy sets theory and methods of approximate reasoning. First, impacts must be described by a set of features. A linguistic variable is assigned to each feature, whose values are fuzzy sets. A fuzzy evaluation of environmental impacts is achieved using rule based fuzzy inference and the estimated fuzzy value of each feature. Generalized modus ponens has been the inference method. Finally, a crisp value of impact is attained by aggregation and defuzzification of all fuzzy results

  13. Gallon Model for the evaluation of environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When it is necessary to know the impact grade that will have the environment for the introduction of a project or handling plan, it is appealed to a study of environmental impact that quantifies variables of qualitative type to obtain results of quantitative type. The evaluation of environmental impacts is necessary to know which phases or actions of the different projects have negative or positive repercussions or far-reaching about the different susceptible environmental factors to receive impacts, and to determine previously, the most important aspects to determine the level of impact of the projects or handling plans. The evaluation measures the repercussions and consequences of the different activities of the industry on the environment, allowing to evaluate the future conditions of the habitat, being an excellent tool for making decisions regarding the possible future impact that can have an industrial process or project to diminish the nature

  14. Environmental impact assessment around TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population distribution, atmospheric change, X/Q, characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem around Seoul site were surveyed. Environmental radiation and radioactivities such as grossα, grossβ, Cs-137, Sr-90 and H-3 of various environmental samples were analyzed. The values of environmental radiation dose tended to increase gradually in the light of the recent five years' results of environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear power plants from 1980 to 1984, however, the changes were not significant. In addition, continuous assessment of environmental radiation monitoring on the roofs of main building and life science building at KAERI showed that the environmental radiation dose tended to increase a little during the night time. Judging from the above results, it is concluded that environmental contamination level by radioactive materials could be ignored in the case of radioisotope production or experiment using radioisotopes except the release of gaseous radioactive materials such as Ar-41 of short half life by the operation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  15. Valuing the benefits of improved marine environmental quality under multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhkanen, Heidi; Piirsalu, Evelin; Nõmmann, Tea; Karlõševa, Aljona; Nõmmann, Sulev; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Hanley, Nick

    2016-05-01

    Many marine ecosystems are under increasing pressure from multiple stressors. In the Baltic Sea, these stressors include oil and chemical spills from shipping, nutrient run-off from land and the introduction of non-indigenous species. All of these pressures have been growing over recent years. Increasing pressures lead to reductions in environmental quality, which produce negative effects on human well-being. In this paper, the choice experiment method is used to estimate the benefits to people in Estonia resulting from reductions in pressure from multiple stressors in the Baltic Sea. The main results show that, firstly, respondents have a positive, statistically-significant willingness to pay to reduce each of the three stressors analysed. Secondly, the average willingness to pay for the improvement in the quality of all Estonian marine waters to achieve Good Environmental Status is around 65 euro per household per year, with a 95% confidence interval of 48-77 euro. Thirdly, the greatest share of value of this total economic benefit is derived from the willingness to pay for reductions in the risk of large scale oil and chemical spills. PMID:26881728

  16. Design-with-nature for multifunctional landscapes: environmental benefits and social barriers in community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan

    2013-11-01

    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg's design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg's Ecological Determinism design approach. The Woodlands, TX, USA, an ecologically designed community development under McHarg's approach, is compared with two adjacent communities that follow the conventional design approach. Using national environmental databases and multiple-year residents' survey information, this study assesses three landscape performance metrics of McHarg's approach: stormwater runoff, urban heat island effect, and social acceptance. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to assess the development extent and land surface temperature distribution. Results show that McHarg's approach demonstrates benefits in reducing runoff and urban heat island effect, whereas it confronts challenges with the general acceptance of manicured landscapes and thus results in a low safety perception level when residents interact with naturally designed landscapes. The authors argue that design-with-nature warrants multifunctionality because of its intrinsic interdisciplinary approach. Moreover, education and dissemination of successful examples can achieve a greater level of awareness among the public and further promote multifunctional design for landscape sustainability. PMID:24169408

  17. Benefits, environmental risks, social concerns, and policy implications of biotechnology in aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapuscinski, A.R.; Hallerman, E.M.

    1994-10-01

    Among the many methodologies encompassing biotechnology in aquaculture, this report addresses: the production of genetically modified aquatic organisms (aquatic GMOs) by gene transfer, chromosome set manipulation, or hybridization or protoplast fusion between species; new health management tools, including DNA-Based diagnostics and recombinant DNA vaccines; Marker-assisted selection; cryopreservation; and stock marking. These methodologies pose a wide range of potential economic benefits for aquaculture by providing improved or new means to affect the mix of necessary material inputs, enhance production efficiency, or improve product quality. Advances in aquaculture through biotechnology could simulate growth of the aquaculture industry to provide a larger proportion of consummer demand, and thereby reduce pressure and natural stocks from over-harvest. Judicious application of gamete cryopreservation and chromosome set manipulations to achieve sterilization could reduce environmental risks of some aquaculture operations. Given the significant losses to disease in many aquaculture enterprises, potential benefits of DNA-based health management tools are very high and appear to pose no major environmental risks or social concerns.

  18. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM10 emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO2 emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector

  19. Preparation of environmental impact statements: radiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive analysis of potential radiological impact needs to be developed in nuclear power reactor impact statements. The analysis should examine the pathways that may result in radioactive material from effluents and waste streams interacting with man and biota. Each facility location and proposed mode of operation needs independent study to establish the principal and significant pathways of radiation exposure

  20. Social and environmental impact assessment - theoretical contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Moutinho, Nuno; Mouta, Helena

    2011-01-01

    When we have to make an investment decision, we have to consider social and environmental factors that can bring some doubts about the project. We analyse not only which social and environmental characteristics to assess, but also identify main risks and show how to mitigate them. In addition, we support the idea that both areas have to be analysed at the beginning of the project and that it has to be done at the time investors analyse other factors, in particular technical issues.

  1. Designing buildings with reduced environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    OBLAK, MIHA

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies the new guidelines for designing buildings that are more environmentally friendly, with greater emphasis on the Decree on Green Public Procurement. Recently, new environmental legislation, standards and laws have been adopted, both nationally and internationally. The construction sector consumes 40 % of all materials, 40 % of all energy and produces 35 % of all waste, which is why Slovenia and the European Union promote and develop a variety of environmen...

  2. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    OpenAIRE

    Tang K.; Liu X; Harper SL; Steevens JA; Xu R

    2013-01-01

    Kaizhi Tang,1 Xiong Liu,1 Stacey L Harper,2 Jeffery A Steevens,3 Roger Xu1 1Intelligent Automation, Inc, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 3US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA Abstract: As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended ...

  3. Impacts of Shrimp Farming on the Socioeconomic and Environmental Conditions in the Coastal Regions of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M S; M. Serajul Islam; Wahab, M.A.; A.A. Miah; A.H.M. Mustafa Kamal

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out to analyze the comparative economic returns of alternate shrimp-crop farming and to assess the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of shrimp farming in coastal areas of Bangladesh. Shrimp farmers as well as other groups of people such as land lessors, shrimp farm labourers and shrimp seed collectors directly benefited and affected were randomly selected for the study. Accordingly, an appropriate number of all these sample households were selected from four differ...

  4. Environmental impact of road transport in Portugal and effects of hydrogen technologies penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Travassos, Maria Antónia; Sá, A. I. Correia de; Luz, Paulo P. da; Rangel, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Road traffic is one of the transportation sectors with faster growth due to the of vehicle fleets increase and a strong investment in road infrastructure and also one of the most important emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs).With introduction, in this sector, of a new renewable fuel, like hydrogen, a reduction of the reported pollutant is foreseen. In this work, an analysis of the environmental benefits resulting from the introduction of hydrogen on road transport in Portugal is made. Impact ...

  5. Environmental impact assessment of the penetration of hydrogen technologies in Portugal's road transport

    OpenAIRE

    Travassos, Maria Antónia; Sá, A. I. Correia de; Luz, Paulo P. da; Rangel, C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Road traffic is one of the transportation sectors with faster growth and also one of the most important emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this work, an analysis of the environmental benefits resulting from the introduction of hydrogen on road transport in Portugal is made. Impact is analyzed mainly looking at the pollutant emissions provided by road transport at the point of use. Emissions associated to road transport have been estimated using the software COPERT (version 4), since it p...

  6. Penetration of hydrogen technologies: study on the environmental impact of road transport in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Travassos, Maria Antónia; Sá, A. I. Correia de; Luz, Paulo P. da; Rangel, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Road traffic is one of the transportation sectors with faster growth and also one of the most important emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this work, an analysis of the environmental benefits resulting from the introduction of hydrogen on road transport in Portugal is made. Impact is analyzed mainly looking at the pollutant emissions provided by road transport at the point of use. Emissions associated to road transport have been estimated using the software COPERT (version 4), since it p...

  7. An environmental impact causal model for improving the environmental performance of construction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Casals, Alba; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing efforts made by the construction sector to reduce the environmental impact of their processes, construction sites are still a major source of pollution and adverse impacts on the environment. This paper aims to improve the understanding of construction-related environmental impacts by identifying on-site causal factors and associated immediate circumstances during construc- tion processes for residential building projects. Based on the literature and focus g...

  8. Environmental and Social Impacts of Oil Palm Plantations and their Implications for Biofuel Production in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Komarudin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of oil palm with linkages to biofuel in Indonesia and analyzes the associated environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We selected three plantation study sites in West Papua (Manokwari, West Kalimantan (Kubu Raya, and Papua (Boven Digoel to assess the impacts. Research findings indicate that the development of oil palm in all three sites has caused deforestation, resulting in significant secondary external impacts such as water pollution, soil erosion, and air pollution. In terms of social impacts, many stakeholder groups, i.e., employees, out-growers, and investing households, report significant gains. However, we found these benefits were not evenly distributed. Other stakeholders, particularly traditional landowners, experienced restrictions on traditional land use rights and land losses. We observed increasing land scarcity, rising land prices, and conflicts over land in all sites. Three major trade-offs are associated with the development of oil palm plantations, including those related to biofuels: unevenly distributed economic benefits are generated at the cost of significant environmental losses; there are some winners but also many losers; and economic gains accrue at the expense of weak rule of law. To reduce the negative impacts and trade-offs of oil palm plantations and maximize their economic potential, government decision makers need to restrict the use of forested land for plantation development, enforce existing regulations on concession allocation and environmental management, improve monitoring of labor practices, recognize traditional land use rights, and make land transfer agreements involving customary land more transparent and legally binding.

  9. Environmental impacts of energy gases. A factual handbook. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook gives a thorough review of gas fuels, their properties, production, environmental impacts, uses as well as comparisons with other fuels (Biofuels, Petroleum, Coal, Peat). Legislation and rules for Sweden and the European Union are also treated. The book is made up of the following chapters: Introduction, Pollutants, Facts on liquid and solid fuels, Facts on gas fuels, Environmental impacts, Regulations, Air quality, Emission limits, Licensing and permits, Economic incentives, Pollution control technology, Appliances, boilers, engines and power plants, Environmental impacts of the full fuel cycle (LCA), Case studies: heating plants, cogeneration, power plants, power production systems, heavy vehicles, Environmental advantages from introduction of gas fuels, R and D needs, Energy and environmental statistics

  10. Energy and environmental quality: case histories of impact management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of energy source devlopments and environmental protection dealing with impacts, and legal aspects of pollution controls and resource management, and case history studies of major energy projects is presented

  11. Initial results of India's environmental impact assessment of nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    The Indian Deepsea Experiment (INDEX) was intiated in 1995, with the objective of predicting the environmental impact of nodule mining, in the Central Indian Basin. More than 20 scientists and technical staff of the National Institute...

  12. K Basins environmental impact statement technical input document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the technical input necessary to develop and evaluate the alternatives within the Environmental Impact Statement for the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel From the K Basins at the Hanford Site

  13. Environmental impact of ethanol-methanol-gasoline fuel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main information of Environmental impact study - The use of methanol as fuel are described, including the emissions, comparative evaluations with others fuels, the danger for the health and the toxicity. (C.G.C.)

  14. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  15. The innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations on maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Repka, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Maritime transport is facing wide-ranking challenges due to stricter environmental regulations. It has been positioned that these stricter environmental regulations will significantly hamper the competitiveness of the shipping industry and other export/import oriented industries. However......, contrasting views, arguing that environmental regulations will, in fact, enhance firms’ competitiveness by inducing innovation, have also been voiced. Here this issue is examined through a literature review on the innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations (i.e. the Porter Hypothesis), in...... of environmental regulations on maritime transport. Therefore, the review concludes in suggestions for further studies on the use of marine scrubber systems as an illustrative case study example....

  16. High level waste repository site suitability criteria. Environmental impact statement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach (methodology) which has been developed for the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) is described. A suggested outline is presented for the High Level Waste Repository Site Suitability Criteria EIS together with a detailed description of the approach to be used in preparing the EIS. In addition, a methodology is presented by which the necessary cost/benefit/risk comparisons of alternative sets of site suitability criteria can be made. The TERA environmental research data bank, a computerized data bank which contained information on current and historical licensing activities for power plants was modified to include information on generic or programmatic EIS related issues. The content of the modified data bank was utilized to develop the EIS outline presented in this report. The report recommends that a modified matrix evaluation approach be used to make the cost/benefit/risk comparisons. The suggested matrix is designed to facilitate between criteria comparative analyses of economic, environmental, sociological and radiological risk factors. The quantitative compositing of dollar cost and benefits, environmental and sociological impacts, and radiological risks is to be performed using a semi-analytical, semi-visual procedure based on the concept of ''decision surfaces.''

  17. Monetary valuation with impact pathway analysis: Benefits of reducing nitrate leaching in European Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Hansen, Morten Søes; Carstensen, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    Integrated assessment frameworks which can account comprehensively for the benefits related to water quality improvements have not yet been established. The main challenge is to link economic valuation with hydrological data in an appropriate way.We here explore the so-called ‘impact pathway...... approach’ as a novel analytical method in the area ofwater management. It can identify site- and catchment-specific benefits associated with management measures by linking economic and hydrological data through consecutive modelling stages, allowing for monetization of specific end point effects. This...

  18. Environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    David Glasser; Diane Hildebrandt; Xinying Liu

    2012-01-01

    Electric vehicles have been seen by some policymakers as a tool to target reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.1,2 Some researchers have shown that the full environmental impact of electric vehicles depends very much on the cleanliness of the electricity grid.3 In countries such as the USA and China, where coal-fired power plants still play a very important role in electricity generation, the environmental impact of electric vehicles is equivale...

  19. Introduction to the environmental impact of construction and building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    “Woodhead Publishing series in civil and structural engineering, nr. 49” Earth's natural resources are finite and face increasing human pressure. Over the last few decades, concern has been growing about resource efficiency and the environmental impact of material consumption. The construction industry is responsible for the consumption of a relevant part of all produced materials, however, only recently has this industry started to worry about its environmental impacts. This chapter highl...

  20. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    OpenAIRE

    Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling mun...

  1. Japan's environmental impact in Southeast Asia: Lessons for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Hikari

    2011-01-01

    Japan imported substantial amounts of tropical timber in the post-World War II period and the environmental impact of this on the rainforests in Southeast Asia has generated considerable controversy. This paper seeks to explore the environmental impact of Japan’s involvement in Southeast Asia with particular regards to forestry and examine whether Japan can play a positive role in promoting sustainable development in Southeast Asia, especially in countries where major deforestation has taken ...

  2. Environmental Impacts from the Operation of Cooling Towers at SRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-06-26

    An assessment has been made of the environmental effects that would occur from the operation of cooling towers at the SRP reactors. A more realistic numerical model of the cooling tower plume has been used to reassess the environmental impacts. The following effects were considered: (1) the occurrence of fog and ice and their impact on nearby structures, (2) drift and salt deposition from the plume, (3) the length and height of the visible plume, and (4) the possible dose from tritium.

  3. Environmental impact evaluation using an agent based simulation framework

    OpenAIRE

    Schroijen, M.J.T.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental issues play an increasingly important role in aviation, affecting the desirability of novel technologies directly. The desirability of a certain technology with respect to environmental issues is determined by the system of systems level impact instead of the often used system level impact. Changing this perspective introduces additional complexities in how the system level evaluation should be related to the desired system of systems (SoS) level evaluation. A framework is propo...

  4. Coal mining in Bangladesh: Options to mitigate environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Angen, Meara Rose

    2008-01-01

    This study examines methods of mitigating the environmental impacts of coal mining in Bangladesh. Coal is expected to aid in providing energy security for the country in the short-term. The coal mining industry is currently in its infancy, and no policy exists. This study examines the government policies of three diverse countries and discovers that there are several instruments commonly used to reduce the environmental impacts of coal mining. These instruments include regulations that set st...

  5. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    OpenAIRE

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the 2 most important problems caused by dairy cattle. These problems are largely caused by nitrate leaching and emissions from animal housing. The DAIRY model indicates that the costs of reducing the O...

  6. Life cycle analysis for the assessment of environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the structure of a model and a database devoted to the life-cycle analysis of industrial products for the assessment of environmental impacts. The data cover a large variety of industrial sectors; the whole life-cycle of the products has to be considered when the environmental impacts are calculated. The author considers that the data format could be standardized in view of exchanging data between different studies and to enlarge the quality of the studies. (author)

  7. Environmental impact on the polar regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remote and frigid polar regions are no longer isolated from the activities, pollutants, and controversies that bedevil their more temperate neighbors, say three researchers at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks. For example, Daniel A. Jaffe, Elizabeth Leighton, and Mark A. Tumeo point to traces of DDT, PCBs, and heavy metals that routinely turn up in arctic marine mammals and to the ozone hole over the Antarctic. While similar in environmental makeup, the arctic and Antarctic are poles apart in their political structure and, thus, in their environmental exposure, the researchers note. The Antarctic is managed under a long-standing international treaty, while the arctic is sovereign territory to eight separate nations. The international treaty sets aside the Antarctic for peaceful scientific research within strict environmental boundaries. It bans both military activity and minerals extraction-the two activities that have caused the most damage in the arctic. The main threats to Antarctica's environment come from the intrusion of major scientific research operations and the growing tourism industry. On the other hand, the arctic suffered from the massive Cold War military buildup by both the United States and the former Soviet Union. The environmental residue from that buildup is only now being revealed, the authors say. Major oil and gas drilling and coal and metal-ore mining also have taken a huge environmental toll, they add

  8. 75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne National Park,...

  9. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National Preserve... to inform preparation of a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  10. Environmental Impact of Teleworking and Teleshopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    This paper analyses the impact of two ICT applications on the total demand for transport (telework and teleshopping). These applications are selected as they were expected to be among the applications with the highest potential for savings in transport. The analysis indicates that the total impac...... is limited and might be even negative if rebound effects are included, and that the promotion of ICT applications must be accommodated by other measures before a noticeable positive impact on transport behaviour can be achieved....

  11. A life cycle assessment framework combining nutritional and environmental health impacts of diet: a case study on milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Heller, Martin C.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While there has been considerable effort to understand the environmental impact of a food or diet, nutritional effects are not usually included in food-related life cycle assessment (LCA). Methods We developed a novel Combined Nutritional and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (CONE......-LCA) framework that evaluates and compares in parallel the environmental and nutritional effects of foods or diets. We applied this framework to assess human health impacts, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), in a proof-of conceptcase study that investigated the environmental and nutritional...... human health effects associated with the addition of one serving of fluid milk to the present average adult US diet. Epidemiology-based nutritional impacts and benefits linked to milk intake, such as colorectal cancer, stroke, and prostate cancer, were compared to selected environmental impacts...

  12. Environmental impact of noise from mobile outdoor equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, F. de; Gerretsen, E.; Borst, J.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of European Directive 2000/14/EC relating to the noise emission by equipment for use outdoors, an environmental impact assessment was required to investigate the need for new or tighter noise limits. In contrast to other environmental noise sources, the operating locat

  13. 75 FR 71179 - Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ...-- Environmental Division, MS 242, 4050 Taylor Street, San Diego, CA 92110, Regular Office Hours 7 a.m. to 3 p.m., Telephone number 619-688- 0240, e-mail Kevin.Hovey@dot.ca.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Effective July 1... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA AGENCY:...

  14. Environmental impact evaluation using an agent based simulation framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroijen, M.J.T.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental issues play an increasingly important role in aviation, affecting the desirability of novel technologies directly. The desirability of a certain technology with respect to environmental issues is determined by the system of systems level impact instead of the often used system level im

  15. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribe...... consumption seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  16. The impact of the member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the fourth enlargement (with Sweden, Austria and Finland) on the European Union's environmental policy. This is done by comparing the priorities and strategies of the newcomers with those of the former environmental pioneers (Germany, Netherlands and Denmark)....

  17. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form...

  18. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  19. Identifying potential environmental impacts at the pre-construction stage

    OpenAIRE

    Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gassó Domingo, Santiago; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Roca Ramon, Xavier; Fuertes Casals, Alba

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a systematic approach for dealing with potential adverse environmental impacts at the pre-construction stage. The proposed methodology serves as an assessment tool for construction projects to measure the environmental performance of their construction activities. It also provides a consistent basis for comparisons and for future eco-labelling and environmental benchmarking among construction companies and constructies sites. Within the methodological framework, nine cat...

  20. DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE LIBERALISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Walkenhorst

    2004-01-01

    A reduction of trade barriers will influence the overall scale of agricultural activities, the structure of agricultural production in different countries, the mix of inputs and outputs, the production technology, and the regulatory framework. These adjustments, in turn, will impact on the international and domestic environment by increasing or reducing environmental harm and creating or destroying environmental amenities. International environmental effects include transboundary spill-overs,...

  1. Environmental impact of radioactive releases. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Symposium was aimed at reviewing recent developments and studies environmental impact of radioactive released, as well as new information on the environmental transfer of radionuclides, and also to provide forum for technical information exchange. It was also intended to provide an occasion for presenting the main results of two major IAEA programmes: The Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP) and International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP). Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Jabiluka project - Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Appendices provide various technical data in support of studies presented in the Main Report, including the guidelines for an EIS at Jabiluka, environmental requirements, waste management plan, water management system criteria, water quality data, transport licensing and security procedures, rehabilitation plus specialist studies into ore characteristics, noise issues and haulage risk assessment. Copyright (1996) Energy Resources of Australia Limited

  3. The impact of US environmental laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, the world oil markets had two major risks to manage: supply and price. But now there is a third. With pollution laws in the United States and elsewhere becoming increasingly stringent, global environmentalism is set to become a key variable in the trading of oil products. And with it comes major new trading opportunities. (author)

  4. Quantification of the environmental impact of different dietary protein choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Lucas; Soret, Sam

    2003-09-01

    Quantitative environmental evaluations of meat, fresh vegetables, and processed protein based on soybeans suggest that the environmental burden of vegetarian foods is usually relatively low when production and processing are considered. The environmental comparison of cheese varieties made from cow milk and directly from lupine and the evaluation of energy inputs in fish protein and vegetable protein also suggest an environmental advantage for vegetarian food. In the evaluation of processed protein food based on soybeans and meat protein, a variety of environmental impacts associated with primary production and processing are a factor 4.4-> 100 to the disadvantage of meat. The comparison of cheese varieties gives differences in specific environmental impacts ranging between a factor 5 and 21. And energy use for fish protein may be up to a factor 14 more than for protein of vegetable origin. Assessment suggests that on average the complete life cycle environmental impact of nonvegetarian meals may be roughly a factor 1.5-2 higher than the effect of vegetarian meals in which meat has been replaced by vegetable protein. Although on average vegetarian diets may well have an environmental advantage, exceptions may also occur. Long-distance air transport, deep-freezing, and some horticultural practices may lead to environmental burdens for vegetarian foods exceeding those for locally produced organic meat. PMID:12936964

  5. An exergy-based framework for evaluating environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis framework introduced in this paper utilizes the recognition that exergy is a form of environmental free energy to provide a fundamental basis for valuing environmental interactions independent from their secondary impacts (e.g., global warming, photochemical smog). In order to extend exergy to analyze environmental interactions, modifications are required to the traditional representation of the environment and definition of the dead state used in technical exergy analysis. These are accomplished through a combination of logical extensions and use of non-equilibrium thermodynamic principles. The framework is comprised of two separate components: (1) environmental exergy analysis and (2) anthropocentric sensitivity analysis. Environmental exergy analysis is based on fundamental thermodynamic principles and analysis techniques. It extends the principles of technical exergy analysis to the environment in order to quantify the locations, magnitudes, and types of environmental impact-state change, alteration of natural transfers, and destruction change. Anthropocentric sensitivity analysis is based on the concepts of anthropocentric value and anthropocentric sensitivity. It enables the results of environmental exergy analysis to be interpreted for decision making, but at the expense of introducing some subjectivity into the framework. A key attribute of the framework is its ability to evaluate and compare the environmental performance of energy systems on a level playing field, regardless of the specifics of the systems-resources, by-products, sizes, time scales. -- Highlights: → The analysis framework introduced in this paper utilizes the recognition that exergy is a form of environmental free energy. → The framework is comprised of two separate components: (1) environmental exergy analysis and (2) anthropocentric sensitivity analysis. → Environmental exergy analysis extends the principles of technical exergy analysis to the environment in order to

  6. Is environmental impact assessment regulation a 'burden' to private firms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of environmental regulation on macroeconomic performance has been studied in some depth over the last 15 years. Similarly, impact on profit performance, investment intention and location decisions of firms has also been studied, although in less depth. There has been less academic interest, however, in the impact that environmental regulation has on the strategic objectives of companies. This article reports on a research project that focused on the impact that environmental approvals regulation (predominantly environmental impact assessment, EIA) has on proposed new development in the international mining sector. Based on a large and externally valid survey of senior mining company executives in Australia and Canada in the late 1990s, the research indicated that a significant majority of firms consider the environmental approvals process to be an important determinant of investment strategy. An initial reaction to these figures might suggest that the majority of respondents believe the environmental approvals process to be a negative influence. However, further questioning indicated that only a small proportion of companies in both countries thought of the environmental approvals process as an impediment to development. Instead, it is clear that most firms see EIA as a catalyst for integrating environmental design into the early planning of a project, thereby alleviating the need to spend money on overcoming environmental problems once a poorly designed project has been commissioned. The somewhat surprising conclusion that companies see environmental approvals regulation as important, but as an encouragement to development rather than as an impediment, goes against much previous industry and academic comment and, at least in relation to the mining sector, refutes the idea that EIA is ''burdensome''

  7. Energy Resources of Iran and Their Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bubnov, V; Mehdizadeh, M.

    2014-01-01

     The paper presents an analysis of main sources of energy resource production and their sale  in the domestic and export markets. The authors have analyzed type of domestic energy consumers and estimated their environmental impacts. The paper shows that the shift to alternative energy sources will reduce an ecological impact on the environment.

  8. Energy Resources of Iran and Their Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bubnov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  The paper presents an analysis of main sources of energy resource production and their sale  in the domestic and export markets. The authors have analyzed type of domestic energy consumers and estimated their environmental impacts. The paper shows that the shift to alternative energy sources will reduce an ecological impact on the environment.

  9. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...

  10. Fella River (Italy) hydroelectric power plant environmental impacts assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This procedure for the evaluation of the environmental impacts of a hydroelectric power plant on the Fella River (Udine, Italy) uses an original method with personal computer programs which allow a rapid data elaboration and detailed maps of local impacts. The knowledge gained from this application can be useful for similar applications which require a modification of water downflow. 8 refs., 4 figs

  11. Environmental impacts of products: A detailed review of studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Jansen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects of economic activities are ultimately driven by consumption, via impacts of the production, use, and waste management phases of products and services ultimately consumed. Integrated product policy (IPP) addressing the life-cycle impacts of products forms an innovative new gener

  12. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin;

    2012-01-01

    vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply the...

  13. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  14. A retrospective review of FERC's environmental impact statement on open transmission access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analysis of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 888 which proposes to increase competition in the United States wholesale electricity markets by promoting open access to transmission lines. The final environmental impact statement (FEIS) for FERC Order 888 was issued in 1996. It included comprehensive forecasts of the environmental impacts of increased competition. The FEIS presented many different scenarios for electric power generation and their associated air emissions for years 2000, 2005 and 2010. At the time, in 1996, it was determined that competition would increase air emissions somewhat under certain scenarios, but would decrease emissions slightly under other scenarios. It was suggested that the general environmental impact of increased competition would be small and that the benefits of competition would be much more significant. This paper looks at the FEIS projections for year 2000 with the benefit of hindsight, and compares it with actual experience up to and including that year. Lessons that can be learned about the expected and unexpected environmental implications of greater competition in the electricity industry were identified. The general conclusion is that since natural gas prices have remained high while coal prices remained low, coal was the preferred fuel for power generation. Increased competition resulted in increased air emissions. FERC's projections of national NOx and carbon dioxide emission in 2000 were also lower than actual experience, as was their projection for national power demand. 15 refs., 13 tabs., 30 figs., 2 appendices

  15. APPLICATION OF MCDM METHODS IN EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on evaluation of environmental impacts in the Pilot organization using multiple MCDM methods. The aim of this study was to determine the objectivity and reliability of the MCDM methods for the purpose of evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts, which is considered as a key step in the implementation of ISO 14001 standard (Environmental Management System. For this purpose, multiple methods AHP, AHP Entropy, TOPSIS, VIKOR and Entropy VIKOR have been used in the paper. The results of this comparative analysis were carried out on concrete data.

  16. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... overall assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of...... consumption seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  17. Carbon Capture and Sequestration. Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, P.; Santillo, D. [Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-01

    Over the last few years, understanding of the profound implications of anthropogenically driven climate change has grown. In turn, this has fuelled research into options to mitigate likely impacts. Approaches involving the capture of carbon dioxide and its storage in geological formations, or in marine waters, have generated a raft of proposed solutions. The scale of some of these proposals is such that they will exert impacts of global significance in their own right. Proposals fall into two broad categories: (1) storage of liquid CO2 or products of reacted CO2 into intermediate/deep oceanic waters. and (2) storage of liquid CO2 into sub-seabed or terrestrial geological formations. For the most part, while the technical feasibility of these schemata has been widely explored, the same is not true of their ecological implications. In the case of deep/intermediate oceanic waters, poor baseline understanding of the associated ecosystems is a considerable impediment to any reliable predictive assessment of likely impacts of carbon dioxide storage in these systems. Disruption of marine microbiological processes and degradation of benthic ecosystems, including those with high levels of endemicity, have been identified as potentially serious impacts. Similarly, the physiology, ecology and likely responses of micro-organisms present in targeted geological formations require evaluation prior to any consideration of the use of such formations for storage of CO2. In addition, the impacts of any leakage to surface need also to be considered. Accordingly this paper explores current uncertainties and detailed informational needs related to ocean and geological storage of fossil fuel-derived CO2. Particular emphasis is placed upon the ecological impacts of these proposals in relation to existing and emergent understanding of deep water/soil ecosystems and the indeterminacies attached to this understanding.

  18. Multi-Objective Planning of Multi-Type Distributed Generation Considering Timing Characteristics and Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to multi-type distributed generation (DG planning based on the analysis of investment and income brought by grid-connected DG. Firstly, the timing characteristics of loads and DG outputs, as well as the environmental benefits of DG are analyzed. Then, on the basis of the classification of daily load sequences, the typical daily load sequence and the typical daily output sequence of DG per unit capacity can be computed. The proposed planning model takes the location, capacity and types of DG into account as optimization variables. An improved adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Case studies have been carried out on the IEEE 14-node distribution system to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  19. Environmental and economic benefit of recycling model of packaging waste:a case study on aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Pingsha

    2004-01-01

    In order to achieve sustainable utilization of natural resources, save energy and protect environment and ecosystem, it is important for a region or a nation to develop and implement a viable waste recycling model from both theoretical and practical point of view. Some packaging recycling models operated in developed countries are introduced in this article. Aluminium can recovery and recycling is emphasized. Cost effective, economic and environmental benefit of different models are compared and analyzed. The result shows that all recycling models have their characteristics due to the initial purpose of recovery and the situation of the implementing country. However, all the models contribute to the reduction of municipal solid waste disposal and resources conservation.

  20. Identification and assessment of environmental benefits from solar hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental benefits associated with the utilization of solar energy for hot water production are estimated in this work. The case of a particular country, Greece, and its electricity production system is employed to show the direct consequences of substituting electricity with solar energy for hot water production. The amount of conventional fuel saved, i.e. lignite and oil, is estimated, and the reduction in air pollution is calculated. This allows the calculation of reduction emission factors for solar hot water production to be undertaken. Data, with respect to the materials and the amount of energy necessary for the construction of the solar heaters, are also presented. These can serve as inputs to an energy-environment policy framework in order to lead to reduction of air pollutants like SO2, NOX and particulates, and the release of the greenhouse gas CO2 into the atmosphere. (Author)

  1. Long-Term Implications of Sustained Wind Power Growth in the United States: Potential Benefits and Secondary Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Lantz, Eric; Macknick, Jordan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev

    2016-10-01

    We model scenarios of the U.S. electric sector in which wind generation reaches 10% of end-use electricity demand in 2020, 20% in 2030, and 35% in 2050. As shown in a companion paper, achieving these penetration levels would have significant implications for the wind industry and the broader electric sector. Compared to a baseline that assumes no new wind deployment, under the primary scenario modeled, achieving these penetrations imposes an incremental cost to electricity consumers of less than 1% through 2030. These cost implications, however, should be balanced against the variety of environmental and social implications of such a scenario. Relative to a baseline that assumes no new wind deployment, our analysis shows that the high-penetration wind scenario yields potential greenhouse-gas benefits of $85-$1,230 billion in present-value terms, with a central estimate of $400 billion. Air-pollution-related health benefits are estimated at $52-$272 billion, while annual electric-sector water withdrawals and consumption are lower by 15% and 23% in 2050, respectively. We also find that a high-wind-energy future would have implications for the diversity and risk of energy supply, local economic development, and land use and related local impacts on communities and ecosystems; however, these additional impacts may not greatly affect aggregate social welfare owing to their nature, in part, as resource transfers.

  2. Modeling the development and utilization of bioenergy and exploring the environmental economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A complete bioenergy flow is schemed to industrialize bioenergy utilization. • An input–output optimization simulation model is developed. • Energy supply and demand and bioenergy industries’ development are optimized. • Carbon tax and subsidies are endogenously derived by the model. • Environmental economic benefits of bioenergy utilization are explored dynamically. - Abstract: This paper outlines a complete bioenergy flow incorporating bioresource procurement, feedstock supply, conversion technologies and energy consumption to industrialize the development and utilization of bioenergy. An input–output optimization simulation model is developed to introduce bioenergy industries into the regional socioeconomy and energy production and consumption system and dynamically explore the economic, energy and environmental benefits. 16-term simulation from 2010 to 2025 is performed in scenarios preset based on bioenergy industries, carbon tax-subsidization policy and distinct levels of greenhouse gas emission constraints. An empirical study is conducted to validate and apply the model. In the optimal scenario, both industrial development and energy supply and demand are optimized contributing to a 8.41% average gross regional product growth rate and a 39.9% reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the base scenario. By 2025 the consumption ratio of bioenergy in total primary energy could be increased from 0.5% to 8.2%. Energy self-sufficiency rate could be increased from 57.7% to 77.9%. A dynamic carbon tax rate and the extent to which bioenergy industrial development could be promoted are also elaborated. Regional economic development and greenhouse gas mitigation can be potentially promoted simultaneously by bioenergy utilization and a proper greenhouse gas emission constraint. The methodology presented is capable of introducing new industries or policies related to energy planning and detecting the best tradeoffs of

  3. An analysis of used lubricant recycling, energy utilization and its environmental benefit in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing used lubricants as energy sources has been currently demonstrated to be one of the best available waste management methods. In this regard, used lubricants for use as energy sources in Taiwan thus became popular in recent years. The objective of this study was to present a comprehensive analysis of used lubricant-to-energy in Taiwan, which includes status of lubricant consumption, and used lubricant generation and its recycling (i.e., collection and treatment) management system. It was found that a major market for utilizing used lubricants in Taiwan (over 90%) was reused as fuel oils or auxiliary fuels in the cogeneration system. Under the regulatory authorization of the Waste Management Act and the Petroleum Administration Act, the central competent authorities encouraged the energy-intensive industries in the waste-to-energy through the excess electricity purchase and subsidiary incentives. Based on the certified volume of collected used lubricant and its energy use proportion in 2009, the total energy potential and the environmental benefit of mitigating CO2 emissions in place of fuel oils were preliminarily calculated to be around 9.4 x 102 TJ and 7.3 x 107 kg, respectively. -- Highlights: → A comprehensive analysis of used lubricant-to-energy in Taiwan was carried out, including generation and its recycling management system. → Legislative influences on used lubricant recycling are significant because of subsidiary incentives, including recycling fee submitting and surplus electricity selling. → Total energy potential and environmental benefit of mitigating CO2 emissions were preliminarily calculated to be around 9.4 x 102 TJ and 7.3 x 107 kg, respectively.

  4. Construction site environmental impact in civil engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, José M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their operational stage. The impact of construction sites of smaller projects in urban areas tends to merit less attention, despite their importance for cit...

  5. Environmental impacts of China's WTO-accession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. We analyse the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favour of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves. (author)

  6. The convention on environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (EIA Convention) is the first multilateral treaty to specify the procedural rights and duties of Parties with regard to transboundary impacts of proposed activities and to provide procedures, in a transboundary context, for the consideration of environmental impacts in decision-making. The EIA Convention, elaborated under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), was adopted at Espoo, Finland, in February 1991. Obligations stipulated, and measures and procedures provided for in this Convention are described. (author)

  7. Environmental impact assessment in practice: A gender critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author evaluates the extent to which environmental impact assessment (EIA) as conceptualized by EIA systems is a gendered process. Through a discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with bureaucrats, technocrats, and activists involved with the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India, the author examines the practice of EIA in a Third World country. She uses a theoretical framework, informed by a theory of gender, to evaluate the interviews. In practice, EIA is marked by gender biases that ignore the gender-specific nature of impacts. Such biases distort the impact assessment process, making environmental sustainability difficult, if not impossible, to achieve

  8. A study into life cycle environmental impacts of photovoltaic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Cells (LCA). It was undertaken by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) on behalf of ETSU for the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). This study uses the technique of LCA to examine all aspects of the production, use and disposal of PVs and the consequent environmental effects. This allows an appraisal of the environmental effects of increasing UK production of PVs to supply more demand for electricity in the EU and the developing world. Impacts result from obtaining raw materials, manufacturing solar power generating equipment, and any final disposal or recycling requirements. The environmental impacts resulting from these phases are known as the PV LIfe Cycle impacts. (author)

  9. The Impact of a Cash Benefit Reform on Parents’ Labour Force Participation.

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Ghazala

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of a recent Norwegian family policy reform. The reform provides benefits of up to NOK 3000 per month to all families with 1-3 year old children, who do not utilise state subsidised day care centres. We investigate the reform’s effect on parents’ labour force participation. Our findings suggest that, on average, women’s labour force participation decreases and specialisation of work between couples increases after the reform. When we evaluate the reform’s impact...

  10. Impact of environmental pollution on pregnancy outcome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Dejmek, Jan; Selevan, S. G.; Beneš, I.; Solanský, I.

    Amsterdam : IOS Press, 2000 - ( And erson, D.; Karakaya, A.; Šrám, R.), s. 127-133 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SI340/1/1997 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) (PHARE II, AC/HEA/18) Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SPECIAL TYPES OF LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality was monitored for one year at a hillfill, a balefill, a millfill, a strip mine landfill, and a permitted sanitary landfill to determine the impact of each on water quality. The leachate generated by the hillfill was the strongest during initial decomposition. Howeve...

  12. Cultural And Environmental Factors Impacting Mexican Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    The presentation will be an overview of cultural and organizational factors that influence the way libraries operate and provide services in Mexico. Culture is an underlying factor that influences the way librarians do business, and environmental factors determine, on the other hand, how a library organization operates and communicates with the outside world. These two factors are crucial for those who come from abroad and want to do business with Mexican libraries.

  13. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hayati; M.H. Sayadi

    2012-01-01

    Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban...

  14. Environmental impacts of nonfusion power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data were collected on the environmental effects of power sources that may be competitive with future fusion reactor power plants. Data are included on nuclear power plants using HTGR, LMBR, GCFR, LMFBR, and molten salt reactors; fossil-fuel electric power plants; geothermal power plants; solar energy power plants, including satellite-based solar systems; wind energy power plants; ocean thermal gradient power plants; tidal energy power plants; and power plants using hydrogen and other synthetic fuels as energy sources

  15. Dyes-environmental impact and remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luciana; Alves, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dyes are an important class of synthetic organic compounds used in many industries, especially textiles. Consequently, they have become common industrial environmental pollutants during their synthesis and later during fibre dyeing. Textile industries are facing a challenge in the field of quality and productivity due to the globalization of the world market. As the highly competitive atmosphere and the ecological parameters become more stringent, the prime concern of the textile processors i...

  16. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential ...

  17. An international comparison of the impact of child benefits on poverty outcomes for single mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Wim Van Lancker; Joris Ghysels; Bea Cantillon

    2012-01-01

    Single mothers are vulnerable to living in poverty in contemporary European societies, which translates into economic dependency and threatens women’s capacity to form autonomous households. Given their difficulties to engage in paid employment in a context of increasing dual earnership, the question how to safeguard the economic status of single mothers is a crucial one. In this article we address this issue by focusing on child benefits and exploring their impact on the poverty risk of sing...

  18. Making a Difference Matters: Impact Unlocks the Emotional Benefits of Prosocial Spending

    OpenAIRE

    Aknin, Lara B.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Whillans, Ashley V.; Grant, Adam M.; Norton, Michael Irwin

    2013-01-01

    When does giving lead to happiness? Here, we present two studies demonstrating that the emotional benefits of spending money on others (prosocial spending) are unleashed when givers are aware of their positive impact. In Study 1, an experiment using real charitable appeals, giving more money to charity led to higher levels of happiness only when participants gave to causes that explained how these funds are used to make a difference in the life of a recipient. In Study 2, participant...

  19. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  20. Silver emissions and their environmental impacts: a multilevel assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Graedel, T E

    2007-09-01

    A detailed accounting of environmental releases of silver is presented for the year 1997, based on data from Yale University's Stocks and Flows (STAF) project and other sources. The analysis is carried out for 64 countries, eight regions, and the world. From the chemical composition and receiving media of these different releases, each emission category is assigned an environmental impact score in accordance with the Indiana Relative Chemical Hazard (IRCH) ranking system. Flows are scaled by impact and land area to form an overall semiquantitative assessment of the environmental impact of silver. Of the 64 countries, the United States has the highest gross emissions for nearly all flows to the environment. On a regional basis, Asia is the largest emitter of silver directly to land and water. In major silver-producing countries, tailings tend to have the highest environmental impact of any emissions category; in nonproducing countries, it is dissipation to land (Hong Kong having the highest impact in this category). Globally, more than 13 Gg of silver are emitted annually to the environment, with that in tailings and landfills making up almost three-fourths of the total. The utility of this method for evaluating the environmental impact of other metals is explored. PMID:17937316

  1. Approach on the Method of Environmental Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis%环境经济损益分析方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡应成; 张海清

    2001-01-01

    The environmental economic cost-benefit analysis is discussed in this essay, including identification and screening qualification of impact factor, the calculation and impact of economic cost-benefit. This method is concise and feasible from a real case.%建设项目环境影响评价工作中的环境经济损益分析通常采用费用——效益法。本文对影响因子的类型及其量化方法、经济损益计算方法及经济损益评价方法进行了深入地探讨,实例分析说明这套方法操作简明,行之有效。

  2. A Maintainability Prediction Method Considering Environmental Impacts and Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability prediction is one kind of primary maintainability action. Design deficiency would be found through predicting maintainability parameters under certain conditions. Now a maintainability prediction method that mainly considers maintenance time or maintenance man-hour is a kind of prediction method with a single index. With increasing product complexity and people's environmental consciousness, more attention is paid to environment impacts and maintenance cost or resource consumption in the maintenance process. It is necessary for a maintainability prediction method that can predict maintenance cost and maintenance environmental impacts. A new maintainability prediction method is presented in this paper based on analyzing existing maintainability prediction methods.The method is MABTCE (maintenance activity based timing/costing/environment impact assessment )and can predict maintenance time, maintenance costing and maintenance environmental impacts andthen improve maintainability design with prediction results.

  3. Environmental impact evaluation for high-speed railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓东; 付延冰; 陈治亚; 刘恒斌

    2014-01-01

    Environmental impact evaluation system boundary of high-speed railway was defined based on the total life cycle theory, and the index system to evaluate the environmental impact of high-speed railway was established with the fuzzy analytic hierarchy method, and the matter-element evaluation model was established on the basis of the extension theory. By calculating its comprehensive interrelatedness, the evaluation rank of environment impacts of high-speed railway was determined. The numerical example shows that the model has vast prospect, which can not only expand the application areas of extension theory, but also change the traditional evaluation methods and provide new ideas and means for environmental impact evaluation of high-speed railway.

  4. New technology in everyday life - social processes and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    aspect both of changes in everyday life and of the environmental impact of everyday-life activities. Technological change is often seen as an important part of the solutions to environmental problems, however, when technological change is seen from the perspective of everyday life, this image becomes...... more complex. In this paper technological changes are explored from the perspective of consumption and everyday life, and it is argued that environmental impacts arise through the interplay of technology, consumption and everyday life. Firstly, because technological renewals form integral parts of......In the environmental debate it is increasingly acknowledged that our way of life has profound environmental consequences. Therefore, it becomes ever more important to focus on and to understand how everyday life is formed and how it changes over time. Changing technology constitutes an important...

  5. Resource programs: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Resource Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program's Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS

  6. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  7. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  8. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A.; Rich, Karl M.; Mariner, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R.; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  9. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A Jones

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  10. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Expressing Cry1 Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosie;

    2010-01-01

    assembled on the potential environmental impact of Cry1 expressing maize. The available literature so far suggests only minor environmental effects. The majority of laboratory studies and all the field studies reviewed did not reveal any unexpected adverse or long-term effectson the environment. Negative......For more than a decade, genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (‘Bt’) that encode lepidopteran-specific protein toxins (Cry1Ab and Cry1F) have been engineered into maize for protection against lepidopteran pests. An extensive body of research data and environmental risk assessments (ERA) has been......-term environmental effects during GMO cultivation....

  11. Environmental impacts of Norwegian gas export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the impacts of increased production of natural gas in Norway on the emission of carbon dioxide in Western Europe. The discussion is organized around a numerical simulation model of the energy markets in Western Europe. It is found that increasing the production of gas in Norway decreases the total short-term emission of carbon dioxide in Western Europe. If the increased quantity of gas is exported, the net emission is still reduced in the short term, but less than it would if the gas had been used for energy production. In the end, the impact on the environment depends critically on whether or not investments in nuclear energy can be made

  12. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is now involved from the early planning stages in the development of uranium mine/mill facilities. As a result, new facilities (including tailings management areas) are designed and developed to meet a high standard. The impact of the mines and tailings areas in the Elliot Lake area on ground and surface waters and air quality is discussed in detail

  13. TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstration project: Environmental and economic benefits by environmental management in freight transportation. Main report; TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstrationsprojekt: Miljoemaessige og oekonomiske benefits ved miljoestyring i godstransport. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the transECO{sub 2} project has was to carry out cooperation projects between companies in order to demonstrate an effect for the environment and for the economy of the companies (earnings and costs) of environmental management related to transportation of goods. 10 demonstration projects were carried thorugh in cooperation with 14 companies. 8 subjects were analysed through the transECO{sub 2} project: 1. Environmental data; 2. Benefits from the environmental management work; 3. Use of new technology; 4. Cooperation; 5. Environment and logistics; 6. Education and competence; 7. Environment and business strategy; 8. Environmental statement/tagging. (EHS)

  14. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost–benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO2. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: ► Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. ► It moderates the problem of global warming. ► It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. ► This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  15. Environmental impact study of Orion Nebula dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, new high-quality extinction curves are presented for Theta-1 Ori A, C, and D, and Theta-2 Ori A and B, over the wavelength range 3300-6000 A. These are coupled with near-infrared and ultraviolet data to produce extinction curves from 0.12 to 3.5 microns. The Orion Nebula region is interesting in that most of the known processes of dust-grain growth, processing, and destruction may be operating nearly simultaneously in close proximity to one another. Each of these processes is considered with respect to the observed extinction curves and environmental conditions in the Orion Nebula and its associated molecular cloud. Plausible grain populations are fit to the observed extinction curves. A good fit to the average Theta Ori extinction curve can be obtained with: (1) a combination of larger than normal silicate grains produced through coagulation and accretion; (2) evaporation of volatile mantles; and (3) a reduction in the column density of small (smaller than 0.01 micron) grains responsible for the bump and far-ultraviolet extinction through differential acceleration due to radiation pressure and possible evaporation. It seems plausible to explain the observed peculiar extinction in the Orion Nebula simply by environmental effects on otherwise normal grains. 59 references

  16. Economic and environmental impacts of community-based residential building energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input–output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can be estimated for various conservation measures. A ‘worst to first’ (WF) energy efficient investment strategy is adopted to optimize the level of various direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts on the local community. This evaluation helps to illumine opportunities to establish specific energy reduction targets having greatest economic impact in the community. From an environmental perspective, short term economy-wide CO2 emissions increase because of the increased community-wide economic activities spurred by the production and installation of energy efficiency measures, however the resulting energy savings provide continuous CO2 reduction for various target savings. - Highlights: • WF energy efficient strategy helps to optimize various level of economic impacts. • Greatest community benefits are achieved from specific energy reduction targets. • Community-wide economic impacts vary for different energy conservation measures

  17. The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

  18. 75 FR 5873 - Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From CPV Ashley Wind...) of renewable energy from CPV Ashley Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV), a direct subsidiary of CPV Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV REC). In order to supply this renewable energy, CPV is proposing...

  19. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact... Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF ACTIONS BY MULTILATERAL... Summaries will be available for review and copying at least 120 days before scheduled consideration of...

  20. Environmental impact of radionuclides from uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium tailings are the product of uranium milling process. Radionuclides from Uranium tailings can diffusion into the environment as radon and its progeny. Moreover, it can migrate of horizontal and vertical in the soil with the uranium tailings water. The soil, surface water and ground water are thus seriously polluted. The radionuclides specific activity (measured using HPGe r spectrometer) the soil such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K from tailings, downstream of tailings dam with different depth and different distances are studied. The impacts of Uranium tailings to environment are also analyzed. (authors)