Sample records for beneficial intersubjective conjunctions

  1. Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akal


    Full Text Available A large portion of patients applying to the eye clinics are patients suffering from conjunctivitis. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the eye conjunctival layer, and bacterial, viral, chlamydial, neonatal conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis, and irritative conjunctivitis are recognized. The purpose of this paper is to give basic information about conjunctivitis which is an inflammatory disease of the anterior segment and one of the causes of red eye, to illustrate its characteristics and symptoms as well as the laboratory tests used in the differential diagnosis, and to describe the types of treatments that are to be used. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 48-51

  2. The intersubjectivity of embodiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduction: The Intersubjectivity of Embodiment by Fusaroli, R; Demuru, P. & Borghi, A Embodied Human Intersubjectivity: Imaginative Agency, To Share Meaning by Trevarthen, C How Our Bodies Become Us: Embodiment, Semiosis, and Intersubjectivity by Violi, P Intersubjectivity at Close Quarters: H...... Dancers of Tango Argentino Use Imagery for Interaction and Improvisation by Kimmel, M Intersubjectivity and Embodied Communication Systems by Gentilucci, Gianelli, Campione & Ferri The Social World Within Reach: Intersubjective Manifestations of Action Completion by Andren, M The ‘All...

  3. The primacy of intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Drew, Nancy


    The most important result of phenomenological research is the discovery of inherent intersubjectivity. Strategies for reporting phenomenological research and recognizing its intersubjective aspects are discussed. In addition to its significance for the practice of nurturing care, intersubjectivity is discussed in response to criticism of phenomenology as ungeneralizeable research. As the philosophical foundation of all research, phenomenology's singular position as a philosophy and research methodology is discussed.

  4. Intersubjective meaning making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob

    of single-touch screen interaction among 8-9 year-old children presented here, shows that while the constraints of single-touch screens does not support equality of interaction at the verbal and the physical level, there seems to be an intersubjective learning outcome. More precisely, the constraints...... of single-touch screens offer support for intersubjective meaning making in its ability of constraining the interaction. By presenting a short embodied interaction analysis of 22 seconds of collaboration, I illustrate how an embodied interaction perspective on intersubjective meaning making can tell...... a different story about touch-screen supported collaborative learning....

  5. Community, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Cronick, Karen


    This paper deals with the notions of "subjectivity," "intersubjectivity," and "community" from several different points of view that include subjective and intersubjective agency, a sense of community, the community as a social institution, and the idea of social justice. The context of these considerations can be found in the Community-Social-Psychological approach to social action as it is often practiced in Latin America. A review of these themes is considered important because different models of community intervention and practice may lead to different expressions of community interaction.

  6. Stimulating Intersubjective Communication in an Adult with Deafblindness : A Single-Case Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Saskia; Janssen, Marleen J.; Huisman, Mark; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo

    Sensory disabilities may limit a person's development of intersubjectivity, that is, the awareness of self and other, which develops in conjunction with interpersonal communication. This study used intersubjectivity theory to test a new intervention called the High-Quality Communication (HQC)

  7. Stimulating Intersubjective Communication in an Adult with Deafblindness : A Single-Case Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Saskia; Janssen, Marleen J.; Huisman, Mark; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo


    Sensory disabilities may limit a person's development of intersubjectivity, that is, the awareness of self and other, which develops in conjunction with interpersonal communication. This study used intersubjectivity theory to test a new intervention called the High-Quality Communication (HQC) interv

  8. Stimulating Intersubjective Communication in an Adult with Deafblindness: A Single-Case Experiment (United States)

    Damen, Saskia; Janssen, Marleen J.; Huisman, Mark; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo


    Sensory disabilities may limit a person's development of intersubjectivity, that is, the awareness of self and other, which develops in conjunction with interpersonal communication. This study used intersubjectivity theory to test a new intervention called the High-Quality Communication (HQC) intervention for its effects on a young adult with…

  9. Brandom, Wittgenstein and intersubjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sládeček Michal


    Full Text Available The introductory part of the article deals with general features of Brandom’s social pragmatic position. The central part considers Brandom’s interpretation of Kripke’s conception of social character of rules, as well as Habermas’ critique of Brandom’s conception of I-thou and I-we types of intersubjectivity. In the final part the author is surveying Brandom’s interpretation of Wittgenstein’s understanding of intersubjectivity, as well as of norms and rules in general. According to the author, Brandom treats intersubjectivity as immediate communication, while neglecting the role of socially and historically shared norms. Also, Brandom rejected justification of rules by past application, and, by emphasizing the key role of inferential and practical consequences of accepted rules, he considered pragmatic attitudes and commitments as oriented towards future validation of meaning and rules. The author also claims that, from Wittgensteinian perspective, communication and intersubjectivity involve more a profound re-adjustment of interlocutors’ perspectives rather than doxatic interchange of perspectives, as Brandom suggested. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Ethics and Environmental Politics: Institutions, Techniques and Norms in the Challenge of Changing the Natural Environment

  10. Representation, interaction, and intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Alterman, Richard


    What the participants share, their common "sense" of the world, creates a foundation, a framing, an orientation that enables human actors to see and act in coordination with one another. For recurrent activities, the methods the participants use to understand each other as they act change, making the intersubjective space in which actors operate richer and easier to produce. This article works through some of the issues that emerge from a close examination of intersubjectivity as it is managed through representation and interaction. The data that are presented document, in detail, a sequence of related interactions, within and across episodes of cooperation, where continuity and change can be observed. The emergence of conversational structure and coordinating representations are significant milestones in the long-term development of a representational practice that support the runtime co-construction of intersubjective space. Conversational structures emerge interactively to mediate recurrent points of coordination in the domain activity, and only secondarily the conversation itself. Coordinating representations change the representational practice of the participants by making it easier to manage their "shared view" of the collective work, enabling the participants to make progress, expand the field of the common activity, while exhibiting more control of if and when explicit grounding occurs.

  11. The holding environment and intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Ginot, E


    The holding environment is explored in the context of the analytic dyad, where it is seen as rooted in the patient's need to be experientially known through the intersubjective interaction. In examining previous emphasis on holding as an optimally attuned empathic environment provided by the analyst, a broadened view of what constitutes a holding environment is presented, underscoring its interactional nature. A distinction is made between empathic holding based on the patient's expressed material, and holding that is generated through the analyst's intersubjective knowledge, gained via ongoing intersubjective engagements and enactments. It is argued that the unmediated connection to the patient's internal representations resulting from these intersubjective interactions, and the ensuing verbal exploration of them, can create a profound sense of being understood and thus held. A clinical process depicting the experience of holding in an intersubjective context is presented.

  12. Intersubjectivity in video interview. (United States)

    Haddouk, Lise


    The concept of relationship has rapidly evolved over the past few years, since the emergence of the internet network and the development of remote communication and exchanges. The emergence of cyberculture with the development of the internet has led to a new representation of the social link, in which communication never stops. In this context, computer mediated intersubjective relationships represent a main line of thinking and research. Thus, can we consider for example that relationship is only composed of an informational exchange? Would there be other dimensions possibly missing in computer mediated relationships? In this case, how could we re-introduce these aspects, "re-humanize" the remote relationships? New practices in psychology emerge with the ICT usage, both in the fields of research and for therapeutic purposes. Some fields like medicine already use remote health platforms that have proven useful in certain situations. In the field of remote clinical psychology, different media are used that contribute to the framework definition of the remote clinical interview, where the concept of relation holds a central place. Videoconference enables the introduction of an important element from the point of view of sensoriality: the body image, which engages the subjects' interaction in a different way than in a written or verbal exchange. But is the use of videoconference sufficient to establish a clinical framework comparable to the traditional one? How can the computer-mediated relationship enable and establish a potential object relation, rather than a mirrored one? Thinking through an online adaptation of the clinical interview framework led to the elaboration of a specific tool dedicated to this purpose and to research into the access to intersubjectivity in clinical video interview. This study's encouraging results have fostered the pursuit of this experience in the form of a platform dedicated to the conduction of clinical interviews through

  13. The intersubjective links in perversion. (United States)

    Eiguer, Alberto


    The author studies the intersubjective links which the pervert maintains with analyst or partner, attempting to indicate the differences between the investments in each case. Rather than accepting that empathy towards these patients is impossible to achieve and disturbs the countertransference profoundly, it attempts to show that these difficulties may be overcome if they are reinterpreted in the light of the theory of the intersubjective link. The author examines the theories and the practice of intersubjectivity and gives a definition of his approach to the link between two subjects. He applies these ideas to the case of a sexually masochistic female patient. The countertransference is marked successively by indifference, rejection and smothering. The analysis of the analyst's dream allows the situation to evolve. Failures in primary identification can result in domination over others and utilitarianism. The author examines the place of the challenge to the 'Law' and the father (in the attempt by the patient to put a theory to the test) in order to identify the figure of the witness in the pervert's intersubjective links. The desire of the transference would be marked by the figure of the witness rather than by that of the analyst as accomplice.

  14. Bayesian Intersubjectivity and Quantum Theory (United States)

    Pérez-Suárez, Marcos; Santos, David J.


    Two of the major approaches to probability, namely, frequentism and (subjectivistic) Bayesian theory, are discussed, together with the replacement of frequentist objectivity for Bayesian intersubjectivity. This discussion is then expanded to Quantum Theory, as quantum states and operations can be seen as structural elements of a subjective nature.

  15. [Intersubjectivity and interpersonal relations of schizophrenics]. (United States)

    Scharfetter, C


    Original accounts of an introspectively and linguistically highly gifted schizophrenic woman serve as a means to reflect about the meaning of the concept of intersubjectivity in the sense of Husserl, the constitution of self and world and its failure in the schizophrenic ego disorder. Concerning general psychopathology, there can be attempted to propose a typology of disordered intersubjectivity and consequently interpersonality. Psychotherapy of schizophrenics means reconstruction of intersubjectivity.

  16. The analytic third: working with intersubjective clinical facts. (United States)

    Ogden, T H


    In this paper, two clinical sequences are presented in an effort to describe the methods by which the analyst attempts to recognise, understand and verbally symbolize for himself and the analysand the specific nature of the moment-to-moment interplay of the analyst's subjective experience, the subjective experience of the analysand and the intersubjectively-generated experience of the analytic pair (the experience of the analytic third). The first clinical discussion describes how the intersubjective experience created by the analytic pair becomes accessible to the analyst in part through the analyst's experience of 'his own' reveries, forms of mental activity that often appear to be nothing more than narcissistic self-absorption, distractedness, compulsive rumination, daydreaming and the like. A second clinical account focuses on an instance in which the analyst's somatic delusion, in conjunction with the analysand's sensory experiences and body-related fantasies, served as a principal medium through which the analyst experienced and came to understand the meaning of the leading anxieties that were being (intersubjectively) generated.

  17. [Intersubjectivity: Between Explanation and Understanding]. (United States)

    Cely Ávila, Flor Emilce


    The discussion on explanation and understanding has led to a division in the sciences, based on what is considered to be inherent to each of the domains. The task of the natural sciences would be the explanation, while that of the social sciences would be understanding or interpretation.There is a line of work that currently seeks to overcome the methodological dualism and to propose more interdisciplinary studies, such as the studies on emergence of the mental in the framework of intersubjective relationships. In particular, the concept of intersubjectivity defended by the phenomenology as an embodied practice, is being supported by the results of investigations carried out on the basis of the cognitive neuroscience and developmental psychology. Authors from different roots, such as J. Bruner and S. Gallagher propose considering these types of interdisciplinary collaboration as a possible way to integrate the traditions of the explanation and understanding. The purpose of this paper is to analyze to what extent this collaboration between phenomenology and sciences, particularly on the subject of understanding others and their relevance for the understanding of certain psychopathologies, has allowed to close the gap that had opened in the nineteenth century between these traditions.

  18. Subjectivity and intersubjectivity between semiotics and phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marsciani


    Full Text Available A semiotic theory of subjectivity cannot prescind from a radical consideration of the intersubjective dimension, which, from the phenomenological perspective, represents the constitutive instance of the meaning of the world. The theory of signification has yet to come to terms with this fundamental option: the theory of enunciation, for example, is still tied to the alternative between an egological perception of the production of meaning and a truly intersubjective conception. A radically intersubjective understanding of the constitution of meaning must, in the theory of enunciation, include an authentic theory of alterity in which the production of communicative intentions can be described based on a more fundamental transcendental intentionality.

  19. Where intersubjectivity and group analysis meet. (United States)

    Aviv, Alex


    Intersubjectivity can be defined as the union or contact of the subjectivities (Gordon, 1991). In therapy, it refers to the interaction between therapist and patient, and the processes that affect and are affected by that interaction. The essence of these interactions in the setting of group therapy, the obstacles that may arise because of them, and ways in which the therapist may identify and facilitate intersubjectivity in order to promote discourse that will enrich the sessions are discussed. I briefly touch upon earlier theories of psychoanalysis, demonstrating how changes in approaches influenced perceptions of what occurs in therapy. The unique place of intersubjectivity within the group analytic setting is emphasized using several vignettes from sessions I have led as a group analyst candidate to better illustrate how intersubjectivity can be observed in vivo.

  20. Applying Intersubjectivity for Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvaldina Montoya Janecek


    Full Text Available This is an intersubjective review of Loewen, G. V. (2012. Hermeneutic Pedagogy: Teaching and learning as dialogue and interpretation. Alcoa, TN, USA. Old Moon Academic Press. The four authors of the review used a reflective-reflexive, dialogic process to interpret and analyze Loewen’s text. Their review is presented in a dialogue format that resulted after analyzing a much longer set of narrative data.[1][1] Editorial Note: This is a very unusual review! There are four points of interest that make this review an interesting read. The first one concerns the subject of the review: the book on hermeneutics. The second point is the form of the review: it is dialogue between the authors presented in its development. The third point of interest is the personal nature of the contents: the authors masterly show how their work on the review of the book penetrates their lives thus showing the real life with its changes, happiness, sadness, struggles and tribulations. The last point of interest that makes this review worth to be read  is the pioneering character of the work behind this review. Glenda Moss used this review as a tool for professional development for the colleagues in her department. In my humble opinion, this review is the result of the very courageous, pioneering and inspirational work! (Mikhail Gradovski

  1. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dujmovic, Jozo; Larsen, Henrik Legind


    include the full (pure) conjunction, the partial conjunction, the arithmetic mean, the partial disjunction, and the full (pure) disjunction. GCD enables a continuous transition from the full conjunction to the full disjunction, using a parameter that specifies a desired level of conjunction (andness...

  2. Beyond Empathy. Phenomenological Approaches to Intersubjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zahavi


    Full Text Available Drawing on the work of Scheler, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Husserl and Sartre, this article presents an overview of some of the diverse approaches to intersubjectivity that can be found in the phenomenological tradition. Starting with a brief description of Scheler’s criticism of the argument from analogy, the article continues by showing that the phenomenological analyses of intersubjectivity involve much more than a ‘solution’ to the ‘traditional’ problem of other minds. Intersubjectivity doesn’t merely concern concrete faceto-face encounters between individuals. It is also something that is at play in simple perception, in tool-use, in emotions, drives and different types of self-awareness. Ultimately, the phenomenologists would argue that a treatment of intersubjectivity requires a simultaneous analysis of the relationship between subjectivity and world. It is not possible simply to insert intersubjectivity somewhere within an already established ontology; rather, the three regions ‘self’, ‘others’, and ‘world’ belong together; they reciprocally illuminate one another, and can only be understood in their interconnection. 

  3. Intersubjectivity in psychoanalysis: a critical review. (United States)

    Dunn, J


    The intersubjective critique of the classical model's positivistic tradition is examined. Classical analysis construes the core of mental life as a discrete entity that can be relatively interpretively captured as such. In contrast, the intersubjectivists construe core psychic processes as inseparable from a relational matrix. The intersubjective critique is traced to the theoretical tensions in Freud's concepts of transference/countertransference and ego development. Questions are raised whether the current intersubjective challenges actually constitute changes in clinical activity and process. Noted is the ubiquitous overlap between the intersubjective and classical models in all theories of psychoanalysis, as each seem to capture different aspects of mental functioning. Classical analysis maintains a difference between a stultifying 'idealisation' of a positivistically-based objective orientation and a holding such a possibility as only an 'ideal' to strive for: absolutist approaches to theory are unfounded, as the irreducibility of our subjectivity does not reduce us to total ignorance. Adopting an intersubjective orientation does not stop analysts from idealising 'that theory' and imposing it on the patient in an authoritarian manner. Nothing intrinsic to any theory forestalls self-aggradisement, and answers to such problems may lie in other kinds of theoretical debates than these.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the features of intersubjective technology governance. Intersubjective technologies of the state management usually refers to a particular perception of the aims and means management. Discusses the distinctive features and advantages of intersubjective technology governance, formulated on the basis evergetical model of governance. It is noted that polylogical or multi-factorial, a fully decentralized network management and training, other spheres of human life are superior in speed and quality of decisions monologue: the involvement of citizens including civil society to control state can not only reduce tensions between classes and groups, guiding and monolith citizens, but also with time to abandon the usual forms of government in favor of intersubjective control. Evergetics comes from the «superposition» of subject and object management, the «heterogeneity» of the communities and actors, and as researchers and as subjects involved in the decision-making entity and creates, and knows the world: the actor is «inside» the object (society and communicates with other actors in General for their bad life situations. Submission evergetics on productivity on multi-agent and multi-actor management technologies can serve as the basis for building typology and the development of common intersubjective scheme of government.

  5. Intersubjectivity in Husserl’s Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schnell


    Full Text Available In this study, the author develops an original reading of the Fifth Cartesian Meditation. This text, far from giving rise to a “transcendental solipsism”, as classical commentators (Ricoeur, Lévinas, Derrida, etc. claim, leads to a constitution of intersubjectivity on various levels (“primordial”, “intersubjective” et “objective”. In its center, a “phenomenological construction” operates, i.e. a methodological piece that masters the genetic approach of intersubjectivity. Closely following the “almost mathematical” rigour of this crucial text of Husserl’s phenomenology, the author equally tackles the issue of the constitution of the experience of the other and the truly intersubjective structure of transcendental subjectivity. The article concludes with the metaphysical results of the analysis of the experience of the other.

  6. Wrestling with matter: origins of intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Gentile, Jill


    Recent theories of intersubjectivity attach primacy to the creation of meaning between subjects, obscuring the role of the material world to which both Freud and Winnicott attached significance. Yet, as this article argues, intersubjectivity itself is predicated upon a transitional space between subjective creation and material life. After considering Winnicott's conceptions of psychesoma and transitionality, the author examines the developmental literature for precursors in the encounter with matter that set the stage for the emergence both of symbolic life and of an embodied "transitional subject" to come into being. Clinical illustrations are provided.

  7. Mind in practice : a pragmatic and interdisciplinary account of intersubjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Leon Corné de


    This book is about what happens when two people meet. Its main aim is to present an account of intersubjectivity. Most contemporary explanations of intersubjectivity fall into two main categories: theory theory and simulation theory. This book seeks to undermine the picture of intersubjectivity

  8. Mind in practice : a pragmatic and interdisciplinary account of intersubjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Leon Corné de


    This book is about what happens when two people meet. Its main aim is to present an account of intersubjectivity. Most contemporary explanations of intersubjectivity fall into two main categories: theory theory and simulation theory. This book seeks to undermine the picture of intersubjectivity take

  9. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) (United States)

    ... that can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  10. Subjectivity and intersubjectivity of clinical facts. (United States)

    Mayer, E L


    The author has learned a great deal from the IJPA 75th Anniversary Issue, particularly regarding ways in which psychoanalysts across the world are consensually re-defining psychoanalysis as a quintessentially subjective and intersubjective endeavour. In summarising her response to the Issue, she addresses the ways in which its focus on psychoanalytic subjectivity and intersubjectivity helps to define the nature of psychoanalysis as a scientific endeavour. In addition, she identifies an area that she wished had been more developed in the Issue: some further specification of the cognitive and communicative processes that make for psychoanalytic subjectivity and intersubjectivity. She speculates that, as we continue our attempts further to understand those processes, we may find it valuable to look towards a body of research that is absent from consideration in the 75th Anniversary Issue (and is, for that matter, absent from serious and scientific consideration by psychoanalysts in general): research on mental effects currently considered 'anomalous', or outside the bounds of conventionally defined human mental function and capacity. She describes briefly some of that research in the context of its possible relevance to issues of psychoanalytic subjectivity and intersubjectivity. She takes up the specific relevance of that research to phenomena we have traditionally subsumed under categories of experience like intuition, empathic attunement and unconscious communication.

  11. Intersubjective systems theory: a fallibilist's journey. (United States)

    Orange, Donna M


    Intersubjective systems theory is the view that personal experience always emerges, maintains itself, and transforms in relational contexts. It is held for reasons of personal inclinations, philosophical belief, and clinical conviction. As a clinical sensibility, it primarily includes an emphasis on the emotional convictions or organizing principles that systematize experience, the personal engagement of the analyst, and the refusal to argue about reality.

  12. Enacting a social ecology: radically embodied intersubjectivity. (United States)

    McGann, Marek


    Embodied approaches to cognitive science frequently describe the mind as "world-involving," indicating complementary and interdependent relationships between an agent and its environment. The precise nature of the environment is frequently left ill-described, however, and provides a challenge for such approaches, particularly, it is noted here, for the enactive approach which emphasizes this complementarity in quite radical terms. This paper argues that enactivists should work to find common cause with a dynamic form of ecological psychology, a theoretical perspective that provides the most explicit theory of the psychological environment currently extant. In doing so, the intersubjective, cultural nature of the ecology of human psychology is explored, with the challenges this poses for both enactivist and ecological approaches outlined. The theory of behavior settings (Barker, 1968; Schoggen, 1989) is used to present a framework for resolving some of these challenges. Drawing these various strands together an outline of a radical embodied account of intersubjectivity and social activity is presented.

  13. Intersubjectivity, otherness, and thirdness: A necessary relationship. (United States)

    Glocer Fiorini, Leticia


    The author proposes an interplay among the notions of otherness, intersubjectivity and thirdness with its coincidences and oppositions. Its polysemic nature is analyzed in this paper. The relation internal world-external world is at stake and concerns both the construction of subjectivity as well as the way the analytic relation is deemed to assume. This review focuses on the psychoanalytic developments from Freud to posfreudian and contemporary authors plus, at the same time, interdisciplinary proposals are also included. It is also revisited the notion of "analytic field", proposed by Willy and Madeleine Baranger who, early as 1961-62, underlined the transition from "the unipersonal to the intersubjective", emphasizing that this was an expression of a change in the understanding of the analytic treatment. In this paper, the author argues that the concept of otherness introduces a symbolic aspect of decentring into the seeming interactive symmetry of intersubjectivity. At the same time, it is stressed that thirdness places a wedge into the between-subjects, which opens the way from and to recognition of the other and others.

  14. Securing intersubjectivity through interprofessional workplace learning experiences. (United States)

    Billett, Stephen Richard


    Effective interprofessional work is premised on high levels of shared understandings (i.e. intersubjectivity) among those who are co-working. In particular, when quick or seemingly spontaneous responses are required for urgent or immediate action, what is termed as "shared intuition" is highly desirable. Much of the required intersubjectivity can arise ordinarily through everyday healthcare collaborations, such as through joint problem-solving. Yet, a concern is how best to develop these capacities in circumstances when co-working is temporary, fleeting and partial, and also when the goals to be achieved are ambiguous and uncertain, and the processes indeterminate. To achieve the kinds and levels of intersubjectivity required for these non-routine forms of care and intermittent interprofessional working, therefore, likely requires particular curriculum and pedagogic interventions within practice settings. These interventions may be used to shape the organisation and sequencing of experiences for interprofessional work through which can arise a foundation of shared understanding of concepts, procedures and values. Yet, to assist the articulation, sharing, appraising and elaborating shared disciplinary and personal-professional positions, values and procedures, specific pedagogic interventions may also be required, albeit their exercise being embedded in co-working practices in healthcare work activities.

  15. Beneficial biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R Robertson


    Full Text Available Surface-adherent biofilm growth is a common trait of bacteria and other microorganisms in nature. Within biofilms, organisms are present in high density and are enmeshed in an organic matrix containing polysaccharides and other molecules. The close proximity of organisms within biofilms facilitates microbial interactions and signaling, including many metabolic processes in which consortia rather than individual organisms participate. Biofilm growth also enables microorganisms to withstand chemical and biological stresses. Here, we review some current literature and document representative beneficial aspects of biofilms using examples from wastewater treatment, microbial fuel cells, biological repair (biocementation of stonework, and biofilm protection against Candida albicans infections. Finally, we address a chemical ecology strategy whereby desired microbial succession and beneficial biofilm formation can be encouraged via manipulation of culture conditions and bacterial signaling.

  16. Coming to terms with intersubjectivity: keeping language in mind. (United States)

    Litowitz, Bonnie E


    Recent reports of clinical experiences, from multiple theoretical perspectives using different terminologies, converge on the topic of the origin and nature of intersubjectivity as it emerges in clinical interactions. Intersubjectivity is explored from the point of view of language and communication, and the distinctive properties of language that create a shared intrapsychic world, on which intersubjectivity subtends, are discussed. This viewpoint can explain behavior and pathologies that arise from the struggle to maintain one's personal subjectivity in an intersubjective world. Understanding the role and functions of language may also illuminate the therapeutic benefits of talk-based therapies.

  17. Human conjunctivitis. II. Treatment. (United States)

    Leibowitz, H M; Pratt, M V; Flagstad, I J; Berrospi, A R; Kundsin, R


    One hundred forty-three patients (207 eyes) with conjunctivitis or blepharoconjunctivitis were investigated to determine (1) the safety of topical corticosteroid therapy and the relative efficacy of formulations of increasing potency and (2) the effectiveness of a steroid-antibiotic preparation compared to each of its components alone and to a placebo. The corticosteroids were equally effective in suppressing conjunctival inflammation; all were more effective than the placebo. Active conjunctivitis was controlled more readily by those preparations containing a steroid, both alone and in combination. The corticosteroid alone (dexamethasone) was more effective in producing inactivation of conjunctivitis than the antibiotic alone ( a mixture of neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate). This observation remained unchanged when cases of Staphylococcus aureus conjunctivitis were analyzed separately. No serious complications resulted from any treatment regimen.

  18. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) (United States)

    ... you have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread ... can return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to ...

  19. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dujmovic, Jozo; Larsen, Henrik Legind


    The generalized conjunction/disjunction function (GCD) is a continuous logic function of two or more variables that integrates conjunctive and disjunctive properties in a single function. It is used as a mathematical model of simultaneity and replaceability of inputs. Special cases of this function......) or disjunction (orness). In this paper, we investigate and compare various versions of GCD and other mathematical models of simultaneity and replaceability that are applicable in the areas of system evaluation, and information retrieval....

  20. Affectivity in the Young Sartre's Intersubjective Theory

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    Carlos de la Puente


    Full Text Available The intersubjective theory that Sartre proposed in Being and Nothingness contends that human encounters are necessarily reifying. The author proposes that one of the constitutive theoretical elements of this pessimistic view of human encounters is Sartre’s conception of affectivity as a degradation of consciousness. The author explores this vision of affection that Sartre initially developed in his essay Outline of a Theory of Emotions, and concludes that it was this mode of understanding affectivity that later decisively influenced his contention in Being and Nothingness that the essence of human relations is conflict.

  1. The inescapability of intersubjectivity in meaning. (United States)

    Fowers, Blaine J; Lefevor, G Tyler


    Comments on the original article "Life is pretty meaningful," by S. J. Heintzelman and L. A. King (see record 2014-03265-001). The current authors welcome Heintzelman and King's discussion of meaning and agree that meaning is necessary for a good human life. The authors endorse a fully subjective understanding of meaning by focusing on personal experiences of purpose, significance, and life making sense. The current authors suggest, however, that (a) a subjective theory of meaning is only one approach to meaning, (b) the subjective theory creates serious difficulties, and (c) intersubjectivity is necessary to adequately understand meaning.

  2. Considering the nature of intersubjectivity within professional nursing. (United States)

    Pierson, W


    The notion of intersubjectivity raises fundamental epistemological and ontological questions concerning how individuals come to know one another and how that knowing affects action. Within the sphere of professional nursing, relationship, as an intersubjective process between individuals, constitutes an integral element of professional nursing practice. Understanding the notion of relationship in terms of an intersubjective process is frequently laden with difficulty due to the polarization of intersubjectivity within either a traditional scientific position or a human science perspective. Reconciliation of both ways of knowing, however, may allow nurses to bring forward a broader base and scope of information to appreciate the experience of others. This article examines some of the notions of intersubjectivity and proposes an alternative understanding.

  3. Infant intersubjectivity: research, theory, and clinical applications. (United States)

    Trevarthen, C; Aitken, K J


    We review research evidence on the emergence and development of active "self-and-other" awareness in infancy, and examine the importance of its motives and emotions to mental health practice with children. This relates to how communication begins and develops in infancy, how it influences the individual subject's movement, perception, and learning, and how the infant's biologically grounded self-regulation of internal state and self-conscious purposefulness is sustained through active engagement with sympathetic others. Mutual self-other-consciousness is found to play the lead role in developing a child's cooperative intelligence for cultural learning and language. A variety of preconceptions have animated rival research traditions investigating infant communication and cognition. We distinguish the concept of "intersubjectivity", and outline the history of its use in developmental research. The transforming body and brain of a human individual grows in active engagement with an environment of human factors--organic at first, then psychological or inter-mental. Adaptive, human-responsive processes are generated first by interneuronal activity within the developing brain as formation of the human embryo is regulated in a support-system of maternal tissues. Neural structures are further elaborated with the benefit of intra-uterine stimuli in the foetus, then supported in the rapidly growing forebrain and cerebellum of the young child by experience of the intuitive responses of parents and other human companions. We focus particularly on intrinsic patterns and processes in pre-natal and post-natal brain maturation that anticipate psychosocial support in infancy. The operation of an intrinsic motive formation (IMF) that developed in the core of the brain before birth is evident in the tightly integrated intermodal sensory-motor coordination of a newborn infant's orienting to stimuli and preferential learning of human signals, by the temporal coherence and intrinsic

  4. Feelings and Intersubjectivity in Qualitative Suicide Research. (United States)

    Boden, Zoë V R; Gibson, Susanne; Owen, Gareth J; Benson, Outi


    In this article, we explore how feelings permeated our qualitative research on suicide. Drawing on phenomenological theory, we argue for the epistemic and ethical importance of the feelings that emerge through research encounters, considering them to be embodied, intersubjective, and multilayered, and requiring careful interpretation through a "reflexivity of feelings." We sketch a tentative framework of the ways that we experienced feelings in our research and give three in-depth examples to illustrate some of the different layers and types of feelings we identified. We reflexively interpret these feelings and their role in our analysis and then discuss some of the ethical and methodological issues related to examining feelings in suicide research, and research more generally.

  5. Genesis and intersubjectivity: levels of mediation. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya


    I will make a brief comment on the thesis of José C. Loredo-Narciandi and José C. Sánchez-González (2012) "Neither Dichotomies Nor Dualism; Simply Genesis". Denying any reductionism and reification, they insists the importance of inseparable relation between subject and object, then discuss about genesis. I pointed out that their argument lacks an important element, i.e., mediator that differ from mere physical object. After discussing mediators nature, I discriminate the three level of interaction which mediated by mediator. The first is the pre-interaction level, the second is physical interaction level and the third is sign or language interaction level. The last argument of mine is about how we can solve the problem of reification and reductionism. In the argument it is pointed out that intersubjectivity is key concept for understanding and solving the problem appropriately.

  6. [Intersubjectivity and historicity: contributions of modern hermeneutics to ethnographic research]. (United States)

    Costa, Maria Cristina Silva


    Considering the large penetration of the hermeneutic paradigm in contemporary social research, this article proposes the reflection on some of its theoretical and methodological assumptions which can be trussed under the categories "intersubjectivity" and "historicity".

  7. Intersubjectivity and interaction in the analytic relationship: a mainstream view. (United States)

    Levine, H B; Friedman, R J


    The authors conceptualize intersubjectivity as a meta-theory that reflects the inherent nature of human relatedness and is conceptually independent of any particular theory of mind or school of psychoanalysis. Their view of intersubjectivity joins the emotional life of the analyst to that of the patient and places the analytic relationship at the center of the analytic process. They contrast intersubjectivity with traditional classical conflict theory so as to clarify the relevance of intersubjectivity for psychoanalytic clinical theory and therapeutic practice. In so doing, they hope to direct analysts more firmly toward the study of the unconscious dyadic contributions to the affective, inactive, and interactive dimensions of the analytic situation and their impact upon the patient's actions within and experience of the analytic relationship. To illustrate their thesis, two hours from an analysis are presented in detail.

  8. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij


    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  9. Critical reflections on intersubjectivity in psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Hautmann, Gregorio; Maestro, Sandra


    The authors review the philosophical trend known as postmodernism and the way it has influenced a part of psychoanalytic thought, concluding with some comments on the qualities and shortcomings of the new developments. The authors consider the origins and the cultural and aesthetic-philosophical meaning of postmodernism, identifying some key concepts such as deconstructionism, the disappearance of the 'individual subject' and individual identity, and the rejection of 'in-depth' models of psychoanalysis. Then they examine various, wide-ranging developments in psychoanalytic thought and treatment. They review the intersubjective field in psychoanalysis, especially in the USA, and then explore whether the underlying lack of truth to be discovered, stressed by these 'new view' statements, or the fact that the 'truth' only exists in linguistic-narrative constructions is consistent with basic analytic concepts such as the unconscious, phantasy, transference and countertransference, which recall the tri-dimensional nature of inner psychic reality. The psychoanalytic process is a condition activated through a bond that is able to hold and contain the relationship of the analytic couple and the patient's unconscious world and not through hermeneutic or narrative constructions.

  10. Subjectivity and intersubjectivity in psychiatric diagnosis. (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas


    The establishment of criteriological diagnostic systems since the 1980s has increased the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis. On the other hand, the limits of this approach for clinicians and researchers are becoming increasingly apparent. In particular, the assessment of subjective experience is nearly excluded on the theoretical level and undervalued on the pragmatic level, with detrimental consequences for the validity of psychiatric diagnosis, empirical research and therapeutic purposes. To correct this unfavourable development, three major approaches to the assessment of mental illness should be equally taken into account: (1) the positivistic, objectifying or 3rd-person approach as endorsed by DSM-IV and ICD-10, focusing mainly on observable behavioural symptoms; (2) the phenomenological, subject-oriented or 1st-person approach, focusing on the patient's self-experience and exploring its basic structures, and (3) the hermeneutic, intersubjective or 2nd-person approach, mainly aiming at the co-construction of narratives and interpretations regarding the patient's self-concept, relationships and conflicts. These three approaches will be compared regarding their respective values for psychopathological description, diagnosis, research and therapeutic purposes.



    C. Srinivas


    Conjunctivitis and its treatment have been widely described in ancient Indian medicine, 50 cases of Conjunctivitis (Acute) were clinically studied with Glycyrrhiza glabra along with comparative approach of Chlorophenicol. 25 cases studied with Glycyrrhiza glabra have shown encouraging results from which the author concludes that, the drug has got a definite role in Conjunctivitis

  12. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia. (United States)

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor


    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  13. The phenomenology of the intersubjective impairment. (United States)

    Hipolito, Ines


    Several studies suggest that the disorders of the self include a disturbance of the most elementary component of self - the minimal self. Characterizing these disorders and understanding the mechanisms involved remain a challenge to medical epistemology and health care professionals. In the present work, I bring together concepts of different fields, such as neuroscience, epistemology and phenomenology. The main goal is to show that the second-person perspective can be used to point out particular features of social cognition and its related psychopathology. Taking the hypothesis that the second-person perspective is the congruence point between an objective process and the subjective experience, I will attempt to explain schizophrenia as a self-related deficit, first in the light of the first-person and the third-person perspective and afterward, in the light of the poorly less understood second-person perspective. On the one hand, the first-person experience is correlated both with space and time. In fact, psychiatric patients report subjective experiences that can be understood within research on the bodily self, such as (1) spatially incongruent proprioception and (2) impaired sense of time as the basic mechanism that allows conscious experience. On the other hand, the second-person approach has already begun to prove productive within social cognition research, pointing out the importance of experiencing and interacting with others as our primarily way well-being. I will phenomenological analyse subjective and intersubjective experience in the disorders of the self and derive practical consequences to evidence-based medicine.

  14. Indeterminacy of translation and impaired intersubjectivity in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Schönknecht, Peter; Mundt, Christoph


    Impaired intersubjectivity in schizophrenia has been subject to debate in clinical psychiatry and psychotherapy. In this paper, we will discuss recent perspectives on disordered intersubjectivity among the core symptoms of schizophrenic psychoses. Based on symptoms crucial for communication deficits in schizophrenia, we address indeterminacy of translation as a potential default in the therapeutic setting. The concept of indeterminacy of translation reviewed here assumes that no reference for translation of languages is given, but principles to substitute this non-referring space of unknown terms are to be demonstrated: firstly, a maxim of indulgence which requires that as many true considerations as possible have to be achieved by the final interpretation of a proposition, and secondly, a coherence which is given when the considerations are deductable and not contradictory. Indulgence and coherence are hypothesized as reflecting an approximation process of reconstructing intersubjectivity in conditions where it is severely disturbed such as schizophrenia.

  15. Intersubjectivity and narcissism in group psychotherapy: how feedback works. (United States)

    Cohen, B D


    In group psychotherapy, inter-subjectivity is complicated by the number and quality of therapist-member, member-member, and member-group relations. Inter-member feedback structures the relational process. However, fears of narcissistic injury engender resistance to this form of engagement. The nature of the narcissistic belief system that motivates such resistance is discussed. Then, two models of feedback are presented: the cybernetic and the inter-subjective. In the cybernetic model, feedback is intended to inform recipients about themselves and to change their behavior accordingly. As such, this model is consistent with narcissistic beliefs in the power of others' perceptions to control one's being, identity, or value. The inter-subjective model focuses, instead, on what feedback tells recipients about their donors' worlds. This model and some of its parameters are exemplified clinically.

  16. Phenomenological views on intersubjectivity: towards a reinterpretation of consciousness. (United States)

    Flores-González, Luis Manuel


    Intersubjectivity and consciousness are reinterpreted according to the dynamic and relational coordinates of lived experience. Consciousness is not just another property of the subject, but rather the condition itself of his/her own being-in-the-world. The different aspects of consciousness are the moments and movements which constitute its intentional structure. These structures lead us to reinterpret material embodiment, temporality, and intersubjectivity as the "complex" steps taken by consciousness, which in its movements does not turn inward, on itself like a transcendental, reasoning, and self-centred consciousness, but, on the contrary, as an embodied consciousness immersed in others and in the world.

  17. Figuration of the real as an intersubjective process. (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis A


    In this paper, I make use of the term figuration, which relates to the process of giving shape to unconscious contents in the form of meaningful presentations. My interest is in how traumatic experience succeeds or fails to become psychically figured and thereby susceptible to elaboration and absorption through intersubjective process. I argue that the process of figuration always occurs in an actual or implied intersubjective context and involves, thereby, a central feature of an exchange between subject and Other. These concepts are discussed and applied to a case report of an analytic psychotherapy involving a traumatic dream and its sequellae.

  18. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns (United States)

    ... Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... recién nacidos Newborns with symptoms of conjunctivitis (pink eye) should see a doctor right away. Neonatal ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Ksenzova


    Full Text Available Allergic conjunctivitis is a widely spread disease, which is often accompanied with an allergic rhinitis. According to the up to date recommendations, the treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis is based on 3 key principles: elimination of the allergen, conducting an allergen targeted immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy. The medication treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis should include antihistamines of the 2nd generation and/or intranasal corticosteroids. Their effectiveness was proven with the findings of numerous place controlled surveys; in most cases they are safe. The usage experience of the intranasal formulation of mometasone furoate (Nasonex shows that with a minimal biological availability of the medication and the absence of its influence upon the «hypothalamus–hypophysis–adrenal glands» system and growth of children, mometasone can be a medication of choice to treat children's rhino conjunctivitis.Key words: children, allergic conjunctivitis, treatment.

  20. The Intersubjective Ethic of Julieta Paredes’ Poetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Daly


    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the feminist activist group Mujeres Creando’s contemporary urban street performances and Julieta Paredes‘ poetry catalyze discussions around intersubjective ethics in the Andes. First, I discuss subjectivity as suspended in the inextricable space between embodiment and textuality, between the physical attributes of breathing bodies and the subsequent categorization of them in language and texts. Second, I argue that Mujeres Creando's and Paredes’ emphasis on the body as a site of active resistance to social norms contributes to the creation of what Emmanuel Levinas calls a “living poetic.“ This living, embodied poetic is less about producing a frozen "said," fixed in language than about creating  a breathing, moving "saying", as is perpetuated through spoken dialogue. The necessity for an ethical poetic emerges out of colonial conditions that have created definitions of the human and the “less than” or “other than,” often based on superficial physical categorizations. Ultimately, through their ongoing work, Mujeres Creando and Julieta Paredes expand the potential for a more inclusive community based upon mutual responsibility and respect for the self and other, regardless of race, gender, or sexuality. Este trabajo explora los modos en que la poesía de Julieta Paredes y los performances callejeros del colectivo feminista Mujeres Creando catalizan discusiones en torno a una ética intersubjetiva en los Andes. Comienzo discutiendo la subjetividad como situada en el inextricable espacio entre la corporeización y la textualidad, entre las cualidades físicas de cuerpos que respiran y su subsecuente categorización en lengua y textos. En segundo lugar, sostengo que el énfasis que Mujeres Creando y Paredes ponen en el “cuerpo” como sitio de resistencia activa a la normatividad social, contribuye a la creación de lo que Emmanuel Levinas llama una “poética viva”.Se trata de una po

  1. Time, intersubjectivity, and musical relationship in Alfred Schutz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Venturini


    Full Text Available In this work I tackle certain aspects of the relationship between time and intersubjectivity in Alfred Schutz. I present a summary of the methodological architecture of the Austrian sociologist, outlining the specificity of the relationship between time and consciousness. I discuss the treatment of the musical experience as an example of the peculiar declination of a series of temporal dynamics connected to the intersubjective creation of meanings. Finally, I set out some thoughts related to the debate on the relationship between time, intersubjectivity and music in Schutz. The musical relationship is a context endowed with meaning, not the object of conceptualization, that allows us to identify in a paradigmatic way the relationship between the subjective sense and experience of the other. The theory of appresentation of Schutz is the center of the process of constitution of meaning of the understanding of the other. The emergence of meaning is related to the dynamics of the passive and active poles of the consciousness and the constitution, in the we-relation, of a radically intersubjective dimension that exceeds the Cartesian distinction between inside and outside.

  2. Analogy and Intersubjectivity: Political Oratory, Scholarly Argument and Scientific Reports. (United States)

    Gross, Alan G.


    Focuses on the different ways political oratory, scholarly argument, and scientific reports use analogy. Specifically, analyzes intersubjective agreement in Franklin D. Roosevelt's First Inaugural address, the scholarly argument between Sir Karl Popper and Thomas S. Kuhn, and the scientific reports of various mathematicians and scientists. (PD)

  3. Intersubjectivity: Interactional Trouble-Sourcing and 'Problem Pictures'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgrebe, Jeanette


    . As a result, misunderstandings, dis- agreements, lack of understanding and other breaches of intersubjectivity are not necessarily solved instantaneously, which in turn may lead to the forming of fuzzy concepts for design, a fuzziness that then later has to be resolved in order for the participants to reach...

  4. Grounding Signs of Culture: Primary Intersubjectivity in Social Semiosis (United States)

    Cowley, Stephen J.; Moodley, Sheshni; Fiori-Cowley, Agnese


    The article examines how infants are first permeated by culture. Building on Thibault (2000), semiogenesis is traced to the joint activity of primary intersubjectivity. Using an African example, analysis shows how--at 14 weeks--an infant already uses culturally specific indicators of "what a caregiver wants." Human predispositions and…

  5. Analogy and Intersubjectivity: Political Oratory, Scholarly Argument and Scientific Reports. (United States)

    Gross, Alan G.


    Focuses on the different ways political oratory, scholarly argument, and scientific reports use analogy. Specifically, analyzes intersubjective agreement in Franklin D. Roosevelt's First Inaugural address, the scholarly argument between Sir Karl Popper and Thomas S. Kuhn, and the scientific reports of various mathematicians and scientists. (PD)

  6. Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte


    Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These

  7. Stereoscopic depth increases intersubject correlations of brain networks. (United States)

    Gaebler, Michael; Biessmann, Felix; Lamke, Jan-Peter; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Walter, Henrik; Hetzer, Stefan


    Three-dimensional movies presented via stereoscopic displays have become more popular in recent years aiming at a more engaging viewing experience. However, neurocognitive processes associated with the perception of stereoscopic depth in complex and dynamic visual stimuli remain understudied. Here, we investigate the influence of stereoscopic depth on both neurophysiology and subjective experience. Using multivariate statistical learning methods, we compare the brain activity of subjects when freely watching the same movies in 2D and in 3D. Subjective reports indicate that 3D movies are more strongly experienced than 2D movies. On the neural level, we observe significantly higher intersubject correlations of cortical networks when subjects are watching 3D movies relative to the same movies in 2D. We demonstrate that increases in intersubject correlations of brain networks can serve as neurophysiological marker for stereoscopic depth and for the strength of the viewing experience.

  8. Intersubjective relation: change alternative for the human health professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Chapela M


    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To exemplify the relationships between changes in the body inscriptions of people exposed to professional health services and the inter-subjective hyphens occurring in those relationships. 2. To identify in those relationships some components of subordination and autonomy. Methodology: here I present one aspect of a critical qualitative case study of a health promotion intervention. Results: the examples provided show changes in the body inscriptions as a product of capital recuperation processes that took part during the intervention. Conclusions: in the particular characteristics of the inter-subjective hyphen unavoidable in the health profession practice, there are subordination and autonomy possibilities. A critical qualitative inquiry perspective can not just improve the understanding of the social determinants of health and subjects’ body inscriptions, but also may help to search for new health concepts and to transform practices which are undermining the capacity of subject to produce their spaces and develop their ethic capacity.

  9. Intersubjectivity in schizophrenia: life story analysis of three cases. (United States)

    Irarrázaval, Leonor; Sharim, Dariela


    The processes involved in schizophrenia are approached from a viewpoint of understanding, revealing those social elements susceptible to integration for psychotherapeutic purposes, as a complement to the predominant medical-psychiatric focus. Firstly, the paper describes the patients' disturbances of self-experience and body alienations manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Secondly, the paper examines the patients' personal biographical milestones and consequently the acute episode is contextualized within the intersubjective scenario in which it manifested itself in each case. Thirdly, the patients' life stories are analyzed from a clinical psychological perspective, meaningfully connecting symptoms and life-world. Finally, it will be argued that the intersubjective dimension of the patients' life stories shed light not only on the interpersonal processes involved in schizophrenia but also upon the psychotherapeutic treatment best suited to each individual case.

  10. [Mirror neurons--novel data on the neurobiology of intersubjectivity]. (United States)

    Simon, Mária; Herold, Róbert; Fekete, Sándor; Tényi, Tamás


    Social experiences are largely intersubjective in nature, offering an abundance of pre-reflective, simulative knowledge of others' subjective experiences. In the last decades, special mirror neurons have been found in the premotor area and in the posterior parietal cortex. They directly link perception to action: the perception of actions activates the relevant parts of the observer's motor system. Emotional expressions evoke resonance states inside the observer in a similar way. Besides underscoring the prereflective and implicit nature of intersubjectivity, this can provide an access to the neuronal basis of empathy and intuition. Moreover, a new integration of psychoanalysis and neuroscience seems to be possible, which shifts the psychoanalytic technique toward non-verbal and non-interpretative methods, and can explain psychoanalytic phenomena, such as introjection, projection, transference, counter-transference, and the very complex enactments.

  11. Intersubjectivity in schizophrenia: Life story analysis of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor eIrarrázaval


    Full Text Available The processes involved in schizophrenia are approached from a viewpoint of understanding, revealing those social elements susceptible to integration for psychotherapeutic purposes, as a complement to the predominant medical-psychiatric focus. Firstly, the paper decsribes the patients’ disturbances of self experience and body alienations manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Secondly, the paper examines the patients’ personal biographical milestones, and consequently, the acute episode is contextualized within the intersubjective scenario in which it manifested itself in each case. Thirdly, the patients’ life stories are analysed from a clinical psychological perspective, meaningfully connecting symptoms and lifeworld. Finally, it will be argued that the intersubjective dimension of the patients’ life stories shed light not only on the interpersonal processes involved in schizophrenia but also upon the psychotherapeutic intervention best suited to each individual case.

  12. Intersubjectivity in schizophrenia: life story analysis of three cases (United States)

    Irarrázaval, Leonor; Sharim, Dariela


    The processes involved in schizophrenia are approached from a viewpoint of understanding, revealing those social elements susceptible to integration for psychotherapeutic purposes, as a complement to the predominant medical-psychiatric focus. Firstly, the paper describes the patients’ disturbances of self-experience and body alienations manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Secondly, the paper examines the patients’ personal biographical milestones and consequently the acute episode is contextualized within the intersubjective scenario in which it manifested itself in each case. Thirdly, the patients’ life stories are analyzed from a clinical psychological perspective, meaningfully connecting symptoms and life-world. Finally, it will be argued that the intersubjective dimension of the patients’ life stories shed light not only on the interpersonal processes involved in schizophrenia but also upon the psychotherapeutic treatment best suited to each individual case. PMID:24575073

  13. What can human-animal interaction tell us about intersubjectivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    interacting in the same phenomelogical world? This preliminary observation remains insignificant unless we consider forms of interactions where a doubt can be cast on the nature of the participant’s subjecthood/autonomy. In this regard, human-animal interactions constitute an interesting topic of inquiry......: intersubjectivity presupposes subject, and western continental philosophy (and its many outcomes) still has some doubts on the nature, or even on the existence, of animal subjectivity. Yet, we argue that a praxeological and ethnomethodologically informed approach might help consider the problem from another...... as a subject. That implies to observe how in « lived action and lived contexts » (Wieder, 1980) intersubjectivity is achieved, created, actively accomplished and oriented to. To address this, we examine sequences of video-recorded interactions between humans and dogs, in domestic or training settings. Despite...

  14. Human conjunctivitis. I. Diagnostic evaluation. (United States)

    Leibowitz, H W; Pratt, M V; Flagstad, I J; Berrospi, A R; Kundsin, R


    One hundred forty-three patients (207 eyes) with conjunctivitis or blepharoconjunctivitis were studied. Attempts were made to establish an etiologic diagnosis by clinical and laboratory methods. The etiologic diagnosis that was made on the basis of the initial clinical examination correlated poorly with the results of standard laboratory tests. Conversely, the standard laboratory evaluation failed to establish a definitive diagnosis in the majority of cases. These findings suggest that the diagnostic dogmatism prevalent in conjunctivitis is unwarranted. Morphologic signs and routine laboratory tests leave us without a verified etiologic diagnosis in a substantial number of cases.¿

  15. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando


    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  16. Computational Analysis of Intersubject Variability and Thrombin Generation in Dilutional Coagulopathy (United States)


    T R A N S F U S I O N P R A C T I C E Computational analysis of intersubject variability and thrombin generation in dilutional coagulopathy_3610 2475... intersubject variability. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A thoroughly vali- dated computational model was used to simulate throm- bin generation curves for 472...parameters in diluted blood plasma displayed significant intersubject variabil- ity (with a coefficient of variation up to approx. 28%). Nevertheless

  17. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas


    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  18. Imaginative literature and Bion's intersubjective theory of thinking. (United States)

    Shields, Walker


    The author applies Bion's intersubjective theory of thinking to study the influence of imaginative literature on the development of the capacity for figurative or metaphorical thought in response to affect-laden experience. Using a selection from Emily Dickinson's poetry and a soliloquy from Shakespeare's Hamlet in a study group model to illustrate this application of Bion's theory, he proposes that such literature may itself serve as a potential container/contained of unique affective power to maturation of the thinking apparatus and sustain the capacity for reverie and creative interpretive thought in the midst of intense emotional engagement.

  19. Dynamics of beneficial epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Berdahl, Andrew; De Bacco, Caterina; Dumas, Marion; Ferdinand, Vanessa; Grochow, Joshua A; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Kallus, Yoav; Kempes, Christopher P; Kolchinsky, Artemy; Larremore, Daniel B; Libby, Eric; Power, Eleanor A; Stern, Caitlin A; Tracey, Brendan


    Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches as well as an empirical analysis of concept propagation. First, in evolutionary models, we show that a beneficial horizontally-transmissible element, such as viral DNA, spreads super-exponentially through a population, substantially more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in an epidemiological social network approach, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to faster-than-exponential fixation in the population. Third, in a sociological model with strategic rewiring, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce super-exponential fixation rates,...

  20. Augmented “Ouch!”. : How to create intersubjective augmented objects into which we can bump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberati, Nicola


    The aim of this work is to provide the elements to design an intersubjective augmented reality in order to make the augmented objects part of our everyday world. This work will analyse intersubjectivity from a phenomenological point of view using the works by Husserl and Schutz. Thanks to these two

  1. Communication between Children with Deafness, Blindness and Deafblindness and Their Social Partners: An Intersubjective Developmental Perspective (United States)

    Damen, Saskia; Janssen, Marleen J.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo


    Trevarthen's theory of innate intersubjectivity is relevant to understanding communication problems in children with sensory disabilities. Trevarthen and Aitken used the term "intersubjectivity" to describe "the ability of humans to detect and change each other's minds and behavior". When children lack auditory and/or visual…

  2. Creating Intersubjectivity during Socio-Dramatic Play at an Australian Kindergarten (United States)

    Whitington, Victoria; Floyd, Irene


    Socio-dramatic play (SDP) creates a zone of proximal development in which optimum cognitive development occurs. To participate successfully in this kind of play children and their partners must create shared meaning, or what is referred to in the socio-cultural literature as intersubjectivity. Based on intersubjectivity and SDP, this study…


    Sadurní Brugué, Marta; Pérez Burriel, Marc


    Babies are born with an innate drive or intrinsic motive formation with which to communicate and share meanings with others and that some authors have called intersubjectivity (S. Bråten & C. Trevarthen, 2007; C. Trevarthen, 1974, 2001). Around the ninth month of life, this motivation changes and passes from a person-to-person dyadic (primary intersubjectivity) to a person-person-object relationship (secondary intersubjectivity). S. Bråten and C. Trevarthen (2007) also proposed a third form or layer of intersubjectivity known as tertiary intersubjectivity. One hundred fifteen free-play sessions of 27 mother-child dyads (13 girls and 14 boys ages 9-37 months) were filmed and categorized using the Level of Intersubjective Attunement Scale (LISA-T; M. Pérez Burriel & M. Sadurní Brugué, 2014; M. Sadurní Brugué & M. Pérez Burriel, 2012). Results from these nine hierarchical levels are presented, following a developmental sequence or population trajectory around an interindividual variability. In this article, we propose viewing these age-related levels as windows of achievement of intersubjective milestones. The statistical analysis suggested a redesign of the LISA-T levels of intersubjectivity; thus, results from this redesign and the debate on the implications of these transitions in infant mental health development are presented.

  4. Communication between Children with Deafness, Blindness and Deafblindness and Their Social Partners: An Intersubjective Developmental Perspective (United States)

    Damen, Saskia; Janssen, Marleen J.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo


    Trevarthen's theory of innate intersubjectivity is relevant to understanding communication problems in children with sensory disabilities. Trevarthen and Aitken used the term "intersubjectivity" to describe "the ability of humans to detect and change each other's minds and behavior". When children lack auditory and/or visual…

  5. Beneficial Insects: Beetles


    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron


    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  6. Symbolic objects as sediments of the intersubjective stream of feelings. (United States)

    Guimarães, Danilo Silva


    Taking into account that feeling is "the critical mediating process of the person-world relationships" (Josephs, Theory & Psychology 10(6):815, 2000), this article focuses on the artistic symbolic object as constraints that direct someone's feelings. Johansen (2010) states that the literary discourse "is designed to arousing and forming the feelings of listeners and readers" (p. 185). Distancing from strict literary production, I've used the testimony of the Brazilian songwriter, composer and performer, Tom Zé (2003), in order to discuss the intersubjective aspect of feelings articulation in his artistic work. Is proposed that the creative process of a symbolic object, which can be considered art, is a circumstance of a most general intersubjective-cultural process in which novel objects are built. If the specificity of art is to give a symbolic shape to human feeling (cf. Langer 1953), I argue that it is a sort of mediation which allows otherness to elaborate their affections through its objective guidance. In contrast with the scientific method of objective creation that is an effort for silencing contradictions (cf. Stengers 2002), the object of art remains open to multiple interpretations, stimulating the other to recursively speak and feel through it.

  7. Analytic impasse and the third: clinical implications of intersubjectivity theory. (United States)

    Aron, Lewis


    The author examines the notion of the third within contemporary intersubjectivity theory. He utilizes a variety of metaphors (the triangle, the seesaw, strange attractors, and the compass) in an effort to explain this often misunderstood concept in a clear and readily usable manner. An argument is made to the effect that intersubjectivity theory has direct implications for clinical practice, and that the notion of the third is particularly useful in understanding what happens in and in resolving clinical impasses and stalemates. Specifically, the author suggests that certain forms of self-disclosure are best understood as attempts to create a third point of reference, thus opening up psychic space for self-reflection and mentalization. He provides a clinical case as well as a number of briefer vignettes to illustrate the theoretical concepts and to suggest specific modifications of the psychoanalyst's stance that give the patient greater access to the inner workings of the analyst's mind. This introduces a third that facilitates the gradual transformation from relations of complementarity to relations of mutuality.

  8. Intersubjectivity and Techno-Science: Jürgen Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Bogdan


    Full Text Available By emphasizing the relationship between techno-science and intersubjectivity, the present text critically explores some of Jürgen Habermas’s central tenets of philosophical reconstruction. As the author of the “communicative turn” in Critical Theory, Habermas emphatically states that intersubjectivity as linguistic interaction provides the answer to the long dispute around subject/object relationship. From this point of view, modern philosophy of consciousness including here also Adorno and the first generation of Critical Theory seem to advocate an outmoded philosophical reflection. Despite the optimism in the communicative action’s capacity to solve this old source of philosophical puzzlement, our contention is that Habermas remains caught up in a series of contradictions. Subject/object relationship cannot be answered by simply disolving it in communicative practices. Moreover, we believe that Habermas’s philosophical project continues to be haunted by Adorno’s negative dialectic: nonidentity and self-reflection are still indispensable moments in facing these contradictions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel E. Shenderey


    Full Text Available Modern researches show that intersubject communications atinitial stages of their inclusion in cognitive activity of studentsplay a role of the situational starting, inducing incentive. The knowledge gained by students as a result of the previousexperience of assimilation of intersubject communicationsbecomes regulators of its informa-tive activity at any stage ofinclusion of intersubject communications in cognitive activityand developments of research competence.

  10. Intersubjectivity and the creation of meaning in the analytic process. (United States)

    Maier, Christian


    By means of a clinical illustration, the author describes how the intersubjective exchanges involved in an analytic process facilitate the representation of affects and memories which have been buried in the unconscious or indeed have never been available to consciousness. As a result of projective identificatory processes in the analytic relationship, in this example the analyst falls into a situation of helplessness which connects with his own traumatic experiences. Then he gets into a formal regression of the ego and responds with a so-to-speak hallucinatory reaction-an internal image which enables him to keep the analytic process on track and, later on, to construct an early traumatic experience of the analysand.

  11. Intersubjectivity as a possible way to inhabit future cyberplaces. (United States)

    Galimberti, Carlo; Brivio, Eleonora; Cantamesse, Matteo; Cilento Ibarra, Francesca


    A change of perspective in online interaction research, shifts attention from technologies to what people actually do online. It's time to study how subjects interact with others and how they 'take possession' of virtual environments on a perceptive, emotional and relational plan. This paper illustrates: a) how actors 'construct' themselves as subjects facing others during online interactions; b) the relationships actors establish with virtual environments and how actors transform 'simple' cyberspaces in cyberplaces; c) how actors - on the basis of a) and b) - 'bridge the gap' between them and their interlocutors using communication as a tool to give form to intersubjectivity, intended as an effective relational structure. A research program built around these three issues - both on the theoretical and empirical plan - should become the core of Social Psychology of Cyberplaces as this paper will demonstrate.

  12. Commentary on "Conceptions of modern psychiatry": from attachment to intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Allen, Jon G


    I am honored and humbled by the invitation to comment on the wisdom of a true giant in the history of psychiatry, Harry Stack Sullivan. Resonating with the prescience of his thought as any contemporary reader would, I am astonished by its pertinence to current concerns. Four domains of resonance strike me: the role of neurobiology in psychiatry, the social origins of mind in attachment relationships, the contribution of self-hate to suicide and, perhaps most important for clinicians, the intersubjective process of diagnostic understanding and treatment. As an expression of admiration for the timelessness of Sullivan's essay and appreciation for all we have learned from him, my comments merely explicate how some of his thoughts are playing out in contemporary theory and research.

  13. From selfobjects to dialogue: a journey through the intersubjective field. (United States)

    Jacobs, Lynne


    The intersubjective field concept is a doorway to a dialogical sensibility. A dialogical attitude recognizes just how thoroughly and intimately any effort to understand another implicates both parties in the dialogue. The therapist's task is to engage in a dialogue that stands the greatest chance of enabling the therapist to understand how our patients' experiences--and ours--make perfect sense at this time in this situation together, even when our patients' statements challenge our equilibrium or raise our defenses. In addition, many patients also struggle toward an engagement with their analyst not just as a repetitive figure (and not even as someone who merely serves their developmental needs). I think they strive for a more complex experience of the analyst in his or her subjectivity. Our ability to welcome them into our experiential worlds is often transformative in restoring a sense of dignity to emotionally alienated patients. An extended case example demonstrates these ideas.

  14. Beyond Objectivity and Subjectivity: The Intersubjective Foundations of Psychological Science. (United States)

    Mascolo, Michael F


    The question of whether psychology can properly be regarded as a science has long been debated (Smedslund in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50, 185-195, 2016). Science is typically understood as a method for producing reliable knowledge by testing falsifiable claims against objective evidence. Psychological phenomena, however, are traditionally taken to be "subjective" and hidden from view. To the extent that science relies upon objective observation, is a scientific psychology possible? In this paper, I argue that scientific psychology does not much fail to meet the requirements of objectivity as much as the concept of objectivity fails as a methodological principle for psychological science. The traditional notion of objectivity relies upon the distinction between a public, observable exterior and a private, subjective interior. There are good reasons, however, to reject this dichotomy. Scholarship suggests that psychological knowledge arises neither from the "inside out" (subjectively) nor from the outside-in (objectively), but instead intersubjective processes that occur between people. If this is so, then objectivist methodology may do more to obscure than illuminate our understanding of psychological functioning. From this view, we face a dilemma: Do we, in the name of science, cling to an objective epistemology that cuts us off from the richness of psychological activity? Or do we seek to develop a rigorous intersubjective psychology that exploits the processes through which we gain psychological knowledge in the first place? If such a psychology can produce systematic, reliable and useful knowledge, then the question of whether its practices are "scientific" in the traditional sense would become irrelevant.

  15. Semantics of Distinguishing Criteria: from Subjective to Intersubjective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Takac, Jan Sefranek


    Full Text Available In this article we are aiming to build cognitive semantics over a first person perspective. Our goal is to specify meanings connected to cognitive agents, rooted in their experience and separable from language, covering a wide spectrum of cognitions ranging from living organisms (animals, pre-verbal children and adult humans to artificial agents and that the cognitive semantics covers a broad, continuous, spectrum of meanings.As regards the used method, the first person perspective enables a kind of grounding of meanings in cognitions. An ability of cognitive agents to distinguish is a starting point of our approach, distinguishing criteria and schemata are the basic semantic constructs.The resulting construction is based on a projection of the environment into a cluster of current percepts and a similarity function on percepts. Situation schemata, more sophisticated similarity functions, event schemata and distinguishing criteria are built over that basis. Inference rules and action rules are components of our semantics.An interesting property of the proposed semantics is that it makes possible coexistence of subjective and intersubjective meanings. Subjective (first person perspective meanings are primary, and we have shown the way from them to collectively accepted (third person perspective meanings via observable behaviour and feedback about success/failure of actions. An abductive reasoning is an important tool on that way. A construct of an instrument, which represents a measure for using intersubjective meanings, is introduced. The instrument serves as a tool for an inclusion of sophisticated meanings, e.g. of scientific constructs, into our framework.

  16. When is Concentration Beneficial?


    Liron-Espana, Carmen; Lopez, Rigoberto A.


    This paper separates market power and efficiency effects of concentration in a sample of 255 U.S. manufacturing industries and computes welfare changes from rises in concentration. The empirical findings reveal that in nearly two-third of the cases, consumers lose as efficiency gains are generally pocketed by the industries. From an aggregate welfare standpoint, concentration is found to be beneficial in nearly 70% of the cases, mostly for low and moderate levels of concentration being partic...

  17. Surrender and Subjectivity: Merleau-Ponty and Patočka on Intersubjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddo Evink


    Full Text Available In Jan Patočka’s phenomenology of intersubjectivity one can find clear influences of Merleau-Ponty. By both philosophers intersubjectivity is seen as a form of reversibility that has a primacy above personal subjectivity. But Patočka adds to this idea of reversibility the notion of surrender or dedication. In this article it is demonstrated how Patočka’s conception on surrender is developed in his idea of the three movements of human existence. Moreover, the understanding of intersubjectivity through surrender is presented as an important step towards an answer to several points of critique on Merleau-Ponty’s views on intersubjectivity, that were brought to the fore by Claude Lefort. Finally, in this article several aspects of surrender are distinguished in order to give more insight in the functioning and effects of the third movement of human life.

  18. A double-masked study to compare the efficacy and safety of topical cromolyn for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-lin Liu


    Conclusion: Cromolyn 2 % ophthalmic solution was effective and safe to treat allergic conjunctivitis. A short-term use of cromolyn 2 % ophthalmic solution with 0.01% BAK would not cause any significant toxicity in patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Preservative-free cromolyn may be beneficial to the compromised eyes or eyes required of long-term medication.

  19. The intersubjective and cooperative origins of consciousness: an evolutionary-developmental approach. (United States)

    Cortina, Mauricio; Liotti, Giovanni


    We discuss consciousness from evolutionary and developmental perspectives. The expansion of communicative abilities was a necessary step for the emergence of a new type of cooperation based on equality that probably appeared for the first time among nomadic hunter gatherers during the upper Paleolithic era. In turn, this new level of cooperation gave raise to an expanded form of consciousness. From a developmental perspective an expansion of intersubjective abilities and consciousness go together. Three basic levels of intersubjectivity are present in humans. A primary form of intersubjective communication is accompanied by a primary form of consciousness that is not easily accessible for conscious scrutiny. During the second year of human life secondary forms of intersubjectivity expand consciousness from the immediacy of one-to-one interactions, to include a shared understanding of intentions and goals with caregivers. Secondary forms of intersubjectivity give raise to the type of consciousness characterized by preverbal symbols and images--a primordial form of conceptual knowledge. A further step in intersubjective communication uses the meanings and concepts that have emerged earlier in development and transforms them into words. The leap into language allows our species to conceive past, present, and future simultaneously. The cultural transmission of knowledge and social mores depends on these abilities. This further expands the scope of consciousness and creates conditions for self reflection, a type of consciousness that is uniquely human.

  20. Cicatrizing conjunctivitis associated with paraneoplastic lichen planus. (United States)

    Hahn, J M; Meisler, D M; Lowder, C Y; Tung, R C; Camisa, C


    To report two cases of cicatrizing conjunctivitis associated with paraneoplastic lichen planus. Case reports. Two patients were examined because of redness and discomfort in both eyes. A 63-year-old woman with follicular, small-cleaved cell lymphoma had cicatrizing conjunctivitis, stomatitis, vulvitis, and skin lesions. A 25-year-old man with malignant thymoma had cicatrizing conjunctivitis, erosive stomatitis, and penile papules. Histopathologic studies of conjunctiva and skin biopsy specimens in the first patient and labial biopsy specimens in the second revealed lichen planus. Paraneoplastic lichen planus is a possible cause of cicatrizing conjunctivitis associated with inflammatory skin and mucous membrane disease.

  1. The shadow of familiarity: a contributor to the intersubjective field. (United States)

    Winborn, Mark


    This paper examines the influence of familiarity on the progress of analysis. It is proposed that familiarity is a particular aspect of the intersubjective field which emerges over time and begins to shape and influence the behaviours, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of the participants. It is also proposed that states of familiarity can have facilitative or defensive functions in an analytic relationship and that it is an influence co-created in the field. The experience of familiarity operates as background to our various foreground concerns in analytic work and therefore exists primarily as an implicit, rather than explicit, experience in analysis. Defensive familiarity often creates a feeling of relatedness that is subtly unrelated, a form of pseudo-intimacy. Parallels between defensive familiarity and related concepts are examined including defences against the unknown, role responsiveness, romantic love, the image of the stranger, and unformulated experience. This paper concludes with two case examples and a discussion of procedural knowledge in the implicit domain as an explanatory framework for the understanding of familiarity states in the analytic setting.

  2. Multivariate models of inter-subject anatomical variability. (United States)

    Ashburner, John; Klöppel, Stefan


    This paper presents a very selective review of some of the approaches for multivariate modelling of inter-subject variability among brain images. It focusses on applying probabilistic kernel-based pattern recognition approaches to pre-processed anatomical MRI, with the aim of most accurately modelling the difference between populations of subjects. Some of the principles underlying the pattern recognition approaches of Gaussian process classification and regression are briefly described, although the reader is advised to look elsewhere for full implementational details. Kernel pattern recognition methods require matrices that encode the degree of similarity between the images of each pair of subjects. This review focusses on similarity measures derived from the relative shapes of the subjects' brains. Pre-processing is viewed as generative modelling of anatomical variability, and there is a special emphasis on the diffeomorphic image registration framework, which provides a very parsimonious representation of relative shapes. Although the review is largely methodological, excessive mathematical notation is avoided as far as possible, as the paper attempts to convey a more intuitive understanding of various concepts. The paper should be of interest to readers wishing to apply pattern recognition methods to MRI data, with the aim of clinical diagnosis or biomarker development. It also tries to explain that the best models are those that most accurately predict, so similar approaches should also be relevant to basic science. Knowledge of some basic linear algebra and probability theory should make the review easier to follow, although it may still have something to offer to those readers whose mathematics may be more limited. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inter-subject neural code converter for visual image representation. (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Miyawaki, Yoichi; Kamitani, Yukiyasu


    Brain activity patterns differ from person to person, even for an identical stimulus. In functional brain mapping studies, it is important to align brain activity patterns between subjects for group statistical analyses. While anatomical templates are widely used for inter-subject alignment in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, they are not sufficient to identify the mapping between voxel-level functional responses representing specific mental contents. Recent work has suggested that statistical learning methods could be used to transform individual brain activity patterns into a common space while preserving representational contents. Here, we propose a flexible method for functional alignment, "neural code converter," which converts one subject's brain activity pattern into another's representing the same content. The neural code converter was designed to learn statistical relationships between fMRI activity patterns of paired subjects obtained while they saw an identical series of stimuli. It predicts the signal intensity of individual voxels of one subject from a pattern of multiple voxels of the other subject. To test this method, we used fMRI activity patterns measured while subjects observed visual images consisting of random and structured patches. We show that fMRI activity patterns for visual images not used for training the converter could be predicted from those of another subject where brain activity was recorded for the same stimuli. This confirms that visual images can be accurately reconstructed from the predicted activity patterns alone. Furthermore, we show that a classifier trained only on predicted fMRI activity patterns could accurately classify measured fMRI activity patterns. These results demonstrate that the neural code converter can translate neural codes between subjects while preserving contents related to visual images. While this method is useful for functional alignment and decoding, it may also provide a basis for

  4. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia. (United States)

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E


    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny.

  5. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics (United States)

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao


    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as “health friendly bacteria”, which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller’s diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  6. Beneficial uses of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.R.


    An overall decline in technical literacy within the American public has come at a time when technological advances are accelerating in the United States and around the world. This had led to a large communication gulf between the general public and the technologists. Nowhere is this more evident then with the topic of radiation. Regrettably, too few people know about sources of radiation, the pervasiveness, amounts, and variabilities, and do not have a true understanding of the environment in which we live. Nor do many people know that radiation has been used in beneficial ways for decades around the world. While the general public does not know of the scientific applications to which radiation has been deployed, it nevertheless had benefited tremendously from these efforts. Thanks to the well know properties of radiation, scientific ingenuity has found many uses of radiation in chemical and agricultural research, biomedical research, in the diagnoses and treatment of hundreds of types of diseases, in industrial applications, food irradiation, and many others. This paper provides a sample of the types of uses to which radiation has been used to help advance the betterment of humankind.

  7. Taking Conjunction Search to a Higher Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M. Wolfe


    Full Text Available In visual search for conjunctions, targets are defined by combinations of features. Thus, targets might be RED VERTICAL items among RED horizontal and green VERTICAL distractors. Guided Search and similar models argue that features are conjoined only once an object is attended. However, efficient conjunction search is possible because observers can guide attention toward red and toward vertical. Real-world objects may be defined by the conjunction of many features, with no one feature defining the target. Can attention be guided to higher order conjunctions? We created 6D conjunction stimuli and varied the number of features shared between targets and distractors and the number of distractor types. RT x set size slopes range from 1.4 msec/item when two distractor types each share three features with the target to 66 msec/item when six distractor types each share five features with the target. Using different 3D conjunctions, we held distributions of features constant (1/3 of each of three colors, shapes, and orientations. We varied the grouping of distractors in order to look for evidence of simultaneous guidance by multiple attributes versus sequential grouping of subsets (Find the odd orientation in this color subset. We find that guidance and grouping may both contribute to efficient conjunction search.

  8. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani


    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  9. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition. (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nicholas


    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  10. Intersubjectivity in Wittgenstein and Freud: other minds and the foundations of psychiatry. (United States)

    Loizzo, J


    Intersubjectivity, the cooperation of two or more minds, is basic to human behavior, yet eludes the grasp of psychiatry. This paper traces the dilemma to the "problem of other minds" assumed with the epistemologies of modern science. It presents the solution of Wittgenstein's later philosophy, known for his treatment of other minds in terms of "human agreement in language." Unlike recent studies of "Wittgenstein's psychology," this one reviews the Philosophical Investigations' "private language argument," the crux of his mature views on mind. It reads that argument as recording his shift from the modern egocentric paradigm of mind to an intersubjective one. The paper contrasts the merits of Wittgenstein's reduction of subject and object to grammar with the problems of Freud's metapsychological reduction. It shows how Wittgenstein's intersubjective method avoids the excesses of behaviorism and phenomenology, offering a specifically human way to adapt mechanistic and interpretive means to the communicative ends of psychiatry.

  11. Me and you, the soul of the aporia of intersubjectivity in Husserl’s phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Delgado Lombana


    Full Text Available This article aims to address the rising debate about the plane aporia phenomenological constitucion of otherness, by Husserl in the Cartesian Meditations. Because of the length of the text, we must focus on the Fifth Meditacion (In the transcendental sphere of Being is revealed as intersubjectivity monadological, which can be considered as the climax and centerpiece of the exhibition made by Husserl, which attempts to account the relationship between operant subjectivity (ego constituent and otherness constituted. From the outset, the aporía of intersubjectivity is determined by the nability to interpret the status of otherness without traveling by a preponderance that the ego is operating on another, ie, the inability to accept the objectivity of intersubjectivity if not is presumed certainty of the transcendental subject.

  12. Beyond the self: Intersubjectivity and the social semiotic interpretation of the selfie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sumin; Zappavigna, Michele


    As an iconic image of our time, the selfie has attracted much attention in popular media and scholarly writing. The focus so far has been on the representation of the self or subjectivity. We propose a complementary perspective that foregrounds the intersubjective function of the selfie. We argue...... that the presence of selfhood is often an assumption. What distinguishes the selfie from other photographic genres is its ability to enact intersubjectivity – the possibility for difference of perspectives to be created and this difference to be shared between the image creator and the viewer. Based on a social...... semiotic analysis of selfies on Instagram, we identify four subtypes of selfie, each deploying a combination of visual resources to represent a distinct form of intersubjectivity. Our analysis suggests that the potential for empowerment is inherent in the visual structure of the selfie, and that...

  13. Bodily selves in relation: embodied simulation as second-person perspective on intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio


    This article addresses basic aspects of social cognition focusing on the pivotal role played by the lived body in the constitution of our experience of others. It is suggested that before studying intersubjectivity we should better qualify the notion of the self. A minimal notion of the self, the bodily self, defined in terms of its motor potentialities, is proposed. The discovery of mirror mechanisms for action, emotions and sensations led to the proposal of an embodied approach to intersubjectivity-embodied simulation (ES) theory. ES and the related notion of neural reuse provide a new empirically based perspective on intersubjectivity, viewed first and foremost as intercorporeality. ES challenges the notion that folk psychology is the sole account of interpersonal understanding. ES is discussed within a second-person perspective on mindreading.

  14. Intersubjectivity as a Measure of Social Competence among Children Attending Head Start: Assessing the Measure's Validity and Relation to Context (United States)

    Garte, Rebecca R.


    The present paper reported on a new method and procedure for assessing preschooler's social competence. This method utilized an observational measure of intersubjectivity to assess the social competence that develops in real time during interaction between two or more children. The measure of intersubjectivity reflected a conceptualization of the…

  15. 'I' and 'other' in online interactions: intersubjectivity as a social bridge. (United States)

    Galimberti, Carlo; Cilento Ibarra, Francesca


    The aim of this work is to propose Intersubjectivity as a key concept in a social interpretation of online dynamics while studying CyberPsychology and its applications. Dialogue is the inner soul of the Self, considered as "a dynamic multiplicity of voiced positions." The link between the Self and the Others must be considered too. Through dialogue, interlocutors negotiate both ideas and their self-images. Starting from 'single' intentions (a representation of what each participant wants to present outside), interactions support a co-construction of shared and linked images of interlocutors, called Subjectivities. These two or more Subjectivities are the basis of the Intersubjective dimension of an interaction.

  16. Pediatric allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Qiao; Yizhen Hu; Zhinan Wang


    Objective: To assess the relationship between allergic conjunctivitis(AC) and allergic rhinitis(AR) in pediatric ophthalmology and E.N.T outpatient clinic. Methods:Eight hundred and ninety two patients were enrolled in survey during Mar. 2005~Jan. 2007, 407 allergic conjunctivitis cases were placed in the ophthalmology clinic group and 485 allergic rhinitis cases were from the E.N.T clinic.The comorbid disorders, histories, symptoms, signs of patients were recorded. Type 1 allergy was tested in 479 cases by a specific IgE antibody blood test. Eosinophils were detected in superficial conjunctival scrapings of the superior tarsal conjunctiva and mucosa surface scrapings of middle nasal meatus in 88 cases with both diseases. Results:302(74%), 374(92%), 116(29%) in 407 cases with allergic conjunctivitis had concomitant eczema, rhinitis and asthma, respectively; 334(69%), 430(89%), 145(30%) in 485 cases with allergic rhinitis had concomitant eczema, allergic conjunctivitis and asthma, respectively. The prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis concomitant allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis concomitant allergic conjunctivitis had no significant difference(x2=2.6, P>0.05). The prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis concomitant eczema and asthma also had no significant difference (x2=3.08; x2=0.21, P>0.05). The degree of severity of two kinds of disease symptoms is not parallel, in the patients with seasonal allergic conjuctivitis(SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis(PAC), the clinical signs of AR were always severer(x2=258.2, P<0.05)than those of AC. However, the results coincided with the cases with vernal keratoconjuctivitis(VKC)(x2=66.5, P<0.05); Eosinophils were revealed in 50(57%) conjunctival scrapings and nasal mucosa scrapings(x2=1.5, P>0.05), 47(53%) cases had positive results in both scrapings. The main aeroallergens were house dust mites, house dust and fungi, and the main food-allergens were fish, crab and shrimp

  17. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis]. (United States)

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I


    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  18. Rapid Diagnosis of Chlamydial Conjunctivitis in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJX; LiYP


    Purpose:To evaluate the techniques of rapid and accurate diagnosis of chlamydial conjunctivitis.Methods:Total 100 conjunctivitis patients(200 eyes) were studied.Twenty-tw of 100 cases were diagnosed as chlamydial conjunctivitis.The infected epithelia were scraped from tarsal conjunctive of both eyes and stained separately with Giemsa(100 cases)and immunofluorescnce (anti-chlamydial antigen monoclonal antibody,100 cases)Result:In immunofluorescent staining,38 cases were seen positive staining and 62 were negative.In giemsa staining,29 were positive,and 71 were negative.In 22 cases with clinical diagnosis of chlamydial conjunctivitis,13 cases were confirmed,and 9 were excluded by immunofluorescent staining,Technically,immunofluorescent and Gemsa stain takes 45 and 40 minutes,respectively.Conclusion:Comparing to Giemsa stain,38 of 100 scraping specimens were positive (38%) by immunofluorescent stainign,29 of 100 per cent were psitive by Giemsa staining,Giemsa staining takes 5 minutes less than immunofluorescent stainign (40 versus 45 minutes),however,the positive staining in immunofluorescent staining is much easier to be recognized than Giemsa staining.

  19. Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions. (United States)

    Dumitru, Magda L; Joergensen, Gitte H


    Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity.

  20. STEREO Superior Solar Conjunction Mission Phase (United States)

    Ossing, Daniel A.; Wilson, Daniel; Balon, Kevin; Hunt, Jack; Dudley, Owen; Chiu, George; Coulter, Timothy; Reese, Angel; Cox, Matthew; Srinivasan, Dipak; hide


    With its long duration and high gain antenna (HGA) feed thermal constraint; the NASA Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) solar conjunction mission phase is quite unique to deep space operations. Originally designed for a two year heliocentric orbit mission to primarily study coronal mass ejection propagation, after 8 years of continuous science data collection, the twin STEREO observatories entered the solar conjunction mission phase, for which they were not designed. Nine months before entering conjunction, an unforeseen thermal constraint threatened to stop daily communications and science data collection for 15months. With a 3.5 month long communication blackout from the superior solar conjunction, without ground commands, each observatory will reset every 3 days, resulting in 35 system resets at an Earth range of 2 AU. As the observatories will be conjoined for the first time in 8 years, a unique opportunity for calibrating the same instruments on identical spacecraft will occur. As each observatory has lost redundancy, and with only a limited fidelity hardware simulator, how can the new observatory configuration be adequately and safely tested on each spacecraft? Without ground commands, how would a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft safely manage the ever accumulating system momentum without using propellant for thrusters? Could science data still be collected for the duration of the solar conjunction mission phase? Would the observatories survive? In its second extended mission, operational resources were limited at best. This paper discusses the solutions to the STEREO superior solar conjunction operational challenges, science data impact, testing, mission operations, results, and lessons learned while implementing.

  1. Intersubjective Interaction Between Deaf Parents/Deaf Infants During the Infant's First 18 Months. (United States)

    Roos, Carin; Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie; Falkman, Kerstin W


    This study is part of a larger longitudinal project with the aim of focusing early social interaction and development of mentalizing ability in 12 deaf infants, including the interaction between the infants and their deaf parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe early social interaction and moments of intersubjectivity between the deaf infants and their deaf parents during the first 18 months of the infant's life. The study is focused on the dyadic interaction rather than on the behaviors of the infant and the caregiver separately. In the analysis, the Intersubjective Developmental Theory Model (Loots, Devisé, & Sermijn, 2003) and the definitions of moments of intersubjectivity (Loots, Devisé, & Jacquet, 2005) were used. The findings show that the participating infants follow a typical developmental trajectory of intersubjectivity, both with regard to developmental stages and age. This development is supported by a visual, simultaneous way of communicating by gaze rather than having constant eye contact. Parents use complex visual communication skills in maintaining joint attention and also expect the infant to grasp the meaning of the interaction by use of gaze contact.

  2. Divergent Language Choices and Maintenance of Intersubjectivity: The Case of Danish EFL Young Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa; Sert, Olcay

    Using CA of 2 hours of video-recordings, this study illustrates the interactional resources employed by Danish young EFL learners and their teacher in maintaining intersubjectivity and pedagogical foci. The results reveal two sequential formats that help to ensure student understanding, as well...

  3. Collaborative Virtual Environments as Means to Increase the Level of Intersubjectivity in a Distributed Cognition System (United States)

    Ligorio, M. Beatrice; Cesareni, Donatella; Schwartz, Neil


    Virtual environments are able to extend the space of interaction beyond the classroom. In order to analyze how distributed cognition functions in such an extended space, we suggest focusing on the architecture of intersubjectivity. The Euroland project--a virtual land created and populated by seven classrooms supported by a team of…

  4. Communication between children with congenital deafness, blindness and deafblindness and their social partners: an intersubjective perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Saskia; Janssen, Marleen J; Ruijssenaars, Wied A.J.J.M.; Schuengel, Carlo


    Trevarthen’s theory of innate intersubjectivity is relevant to understanding communication problems in children with sensory disabilities. Trevarthen and Aitken used the term “intersubjectivity” to describe “the ability of humans to detect and change each other’s minds and behavior”. When children l

  5. Silent Speech: Narration, Gender and Intersubjectivity in Two Young Adult Novels (United States)

    Hartley-Kroeger, Fiona


    Combining feminist and narratological perspectives, this paper examines the construction of subjectivity in two young adult novels with a range of narratorial positions. The investigation is grounded in Robyn McCallum's work on intersubjectivity, in which interrelationships affecting subjectivity are only possible when the narrative permits a…

  6. Mimetic Desire and Intersubjectivity in Disciplinary Cultures: Constraints or Enablers to Learning in Higher Education? (United States)

    Gunn, Vicky


    The interplay of the inner lives (intersubjectivity) of students and academics within a range of disciplinary cultural manifestations is a key element in the generation of student learning. This article suggests that research on student learning has yet to adequately articulate how this interplay occurs, suggesting that a focus on the influence of…

  7. The Move to Intersubjectivity: A Clinical and Conceptual Shift of Perspective (United States)

    Balbernie, Robin


    The concept of intersubjectivity may be used to illuminate the way in which we observe and describe many of the interpersonal processes that begin in infancy. The more traditional psychoanalytic ideas of holding and containment, as well as relatively recent concepts such as attunement and reflective function, can be seen as belonging within this…

  8. Early diagnosis of dementia based on intersubject whole-brain dissimilarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, S.; Loog, M.; Lijn, F. van der;


    . A kNN classifier was trained on the dissimilarity matrix and the performance was tested in a leave-one-out experiment. A classification accuracy of 81% was attained (spec. 83%, sens. 79%). This demonstrates the potential of whole-brain intersubject dissimilarities to aid in early diagnosis of dementia....

  9. Intersubjective Interaction between Deaf Parents/Deaf Infants during the Infant's First 18 Months (United States)

    Roos, Carin; Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie; Falkman, Kerstin W.


    This study is part of a larger longitudinal project with the aim of focusing early social interaction and development of mentalizing ability in 12 deaf infants, including the interaction between the infants and their deaf parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe early social interaction and moments of intersubjectivity between the deaf…

  10. Contextual and Conceptual Intersubjectivity and Opportunities for Emergent Science Knowledge about Sound (United States)

    Larsson, Jonna


    The purpose of the present article was to gain knowledge about what aspects of, and in what way, contextual and conceptual intersubjectivity contribute to emergent science knowledge about sound. Starting from a Vygotskian theoretical base, the article rests on the work of Fleer (early learning and development. Cultural-historical concepts in play,…

  11. Inter-subject alignment of human cortical anatomy using functional connectivity


    Conroy, Bryan R.; Singer, Benjamin D.; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Ramadge, Peter J.; Haxby, James V.


    Inter-subject alignment of functional MRI (fMRI) data is necessary for group analyses. The standard approach to this problem matches anatomical features of the brain, such as major anatomical landmarks or cortical curvature. Precise alignment of functional cortical topographies, however, cannot be derived using only anatomical features.

  12. Three-dimensional B-spline-based intersubject nonrigid registration with geodesic closest points constraints (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Liu, Feng; Deng, Fuqin; Tsui, Hungtat


    Due to the variance between subjects, there is usually ambiguity in intensity-based intersubject registration. The topological constraint in the brain cortical surface might be violated because of the highly convolved nature of the human cortical cortex. We propose an intersubject brain registration method by combining the intensity and the geodesic closest point-based similarity measurements. Each of the brain hemispheres can be topologically equal to a sphere and a one-to-one mapping of the points on the spherical surfaces of the two subjects can be achieved. The correspondences in the cortical surface are obtained by searching the geodesic closest points in the spherical surface. The corresponding features on the cortical surfaces between subjects are then used as anatomical landmarks for intersubject registration. By adding these anatomical constraints of the cortical surfaces, the intersubject registration results are more anatomically plausible and accurate. We validate our method by using real human datasets. Experimental results in visual inspection and alignment error show that the proposed method performs better than the typical joint intensity- and landmark-distance-based methods.

  13. Conjunction and Teaching Reading Skills in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Caifeng


    Conjunction contributes to organizing and managing stretches of discourse, indicating the way the information is arranged. Successfully identifying these discourse markers is of great benefit to the reader to extract the required information from what he/she reads, especially for the candidates who are tested for their reading abilities in a given time, for these markers give clues to the reader and make the perception easier and save a lot of time. To teach students to explore reading skills and read successfully all by themselves, language teachers had better keep in mind the significance of conjunction and get students to share and apply it.

  14. Collaborative Work Environment for Operational Conjunction Assessment (United States)

    Laporte, F.; Christy, S.

    Conjunction Messages (CM) provided by JSpOC are complete and valuable data to evaluate the level of risk of conjunctions, decide and choose avoidance actions. Nevertheless, conjunction assessment remains a difficult task which requires Middle Man between the CM provider (JSpOC) and Owner/Operators. Operational collision threat characterization is now an essential component of space mission operations. Most spacecraft operators have some sort of a process to evaluate and mitigate high-risk conjunction events. As the size of the space object catalog increases, satellite operators will be faced with more conjunction events to evaluate. Thus more sophisticated collision threat characterization and collision avoidance strategies must be implemented thought Middle Man entities. CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation Service, Alerts and Recommendations) is the French Middle Man. CAESAR relies on a collaborative work environment between all members of CAESAR team and its subscribers. For CAESAR, the collaborative work environment is based on JAC software and a dedicated secure webserver SpOD Space Operational Data. JAC software is not the Main Flight Dynamics (FD) software used by CAESAR team, but it is a light friendly CM dedicated software to be used on a laptop by on-call teams or support dialogue between Middle Man and FD teams. The dedicated secure webserver is a key element to share data and information between actors. This paper presents the main feedbacks from CAESAR team operational experience with regards to its collaborative work environment components: - JAC software which is not a classical Flight Dynamics software, its MMI is designed to be very quickly taken over (by teams not using it on daily basis) while also offering all the expertise levels required by the Middle Man team. JAC is used by CAESAR on-call team and all FD teams who subscribed to CAESAR. JAC is also distributed by CNES and therefore already used by some operational teams for Conjunction

  15. Temporal Phenomena in the Korean Conjunctive Constructions (United States)

    Kim, Dongmin


    The goal of this study is to characterize the temporal phenomena in the Korean conjunctive constructions. These constructions consist of three components: a verbal stem, a clause medial temporal suffix, and a clause terminal suffix. This study focuses on both the temporality of the terminal connective suffixes and the grammatical meanings of the…

  16. Cohesion in Interlanguage: A Study of Conjunction. (United States)

    Beebe, Leslie M.

    A study of textual cohesion in the oral discourse of learners of English as a second language had as subjects 19 Asians from 4 language backgrounds, who were living and, in most cases, studying English in the United States. Analysis of taped conversations focused on the use of conjunctive adjuncts of three kinds: (1) simple adverbs (e.g., and,…

  17. Beneficial Pleiotropic Effects of Statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Lunder


    Conclusions: In the current article we review the pharmacological mechanisms of action, which contribute to the beneficial pleiotropic effects of statins. Described mechanisms are supported by the evidence obtained from clinical trials in the last decade.

  18. Beneficial Use of Dredged Material (United States)

    An important goal of managing dredged material is to ensure that the material is used or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner.Most of this dredged material could be used in a beneficial manner instead.

  19. Anterior diffuse scleritis diagnosed as conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige


    Full Text Available This article presents a case of anterior diffuse scleritis that initially was diagnosed as conjunctivitis. Anterior diffuse scleritis (ADS is a potentially vision-threatening inflammation of the sclera whose etiology may include autoimmune and systemic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis. The signs and symptoms of ADS include pain, tearing, tenderness, redness, painful sensitivity to light and decreased visual acuity. Ocular and physical examinations including blood tests to rule out underlying causes are important. Medications such as corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflam-matory drugs and possibly immune-suppressants are used in the management of ADS. If care is not taken, ADS can be mis-diagnosed as conjunctivitis because the redness is similar in both conditions. Such mis-diagnosis can be sight-threatening and therefore it is essential that primary eye care practitioners are cautious in all diagnoses of red eye conditions. (S Afr Optom 2012 71(1 51-54

  20. Evaluation of cytologic findings in feline conjunctivitis. (United States)

    Hillström, Anna; Tvedten, Harold; Källberg, Maria; Hanås, Sofia; Lindhe, Anna; Holst, Bodil Ström


    Cytologic examination of smears prepared from ocular swabs of conjunctiva from cats with conjunctivitis permits identification of the type of inflammation and possibly specific microorganisms. Results of studies of the diagnostic utility of cytology for detection of infectious causes of feline conjunctivitis have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to describe cytologic findings in cats with conjunctivitis and to compare those findings with results of PCR analysis for feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), Chlamydophila felis (C felis), and Mycoplasma felis (M felis). Conjunctival smears from 88 cats with conjunctivitis and 10 healthy control cats were stained with a Romanowsky stain and evaluated for the type of inflammation and evidence of an infectious agent. PCR analysis for FHV-1, C felis, and M felis was performed. Infectious agents identified by PCR analysis were FHV-1 in 9 cats (10%), C felis in 8 cats (9%), and M felis in 6 cats (7%). Inclusions interpreted as chlamydial inclusions were found in all cytologic smears from cats positive for C felis by PCR analysis and in 3 PCR-negative cats. Inclusions interpreted as Mycoplasma organisms were found in 3 of 6 cats that were PCR-positive for M felis and in 1 PCR-negative cat. FHV-1 inclusion bodies were not detected on cytologic examination. Cytologic examination can be diagnostic for C felis infection when many typical inclusions are present. Cytologic examination was unreliable in diagnosing M felis infection, and viral inclusions of FHV-1 were not found in specimens stained with Romanowsky stains. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. JAC Software, Solving Conjunction Assessment Issues (United States)

    Laporte, F.


    Conjunction Messages (CM) provided by JSpOC are complete and valuable data to evaluate the level of risk of conjunctions, decide and choose avoidance actions. Nevertheless, conjunction assessment remains a difficult task which requires Middle Man between the CM provider (JSpOC) and Owner/Operators. CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation Service, Alerts and Recommendations) is the French Middle Man. CAESAR relies on a collaborative work environment between CAESAR team and its subscribers. For CAESAR, the collaborative work environment is based on JAC software and a dedicated secure webserver. JAC software is not the Main Flight Dynamics (FD) software used by CAESAR team, but it is a light friendly CM dedicated software to be used on laptops by on-call teams or support dialogue between Middle Man and FD teams. This paper presents the main feedbacks from CAESAR team operational experience and how each new encountered issue has enriched JAC Software functions. JAC has got two levels: - JAC Basic version, to be aware of the situation described with CMs : automatic download of CM from websites with secure password management, capacity to manage CM from different providers, management of the downloaded CM database, visualization of the key data given by the different CM related to each close approach, visualization of the evolution of those key data through tables-graphs-3Danimations, capacity to copy/paste and edit CM data to illustrate sensibility of key parameters, capacity to use several pre-defined dispersions for each primary, printable summary of analysis, statistics on CM in database, - JAC Expert version, to take and validate a decision of avoidance action: sensitivity analysis to errors, thresholds chosen by the user, simulation of maneuvers on the satellite of interest to determine their effect in terms of mitigation of the identified risk. JAC Expert version also includes a monitoring capacity to enable 24/7 analysis. JAC Basic and JAC Expert are

  2. The Negations of Conjunctions, Conditionals, and Disjunctions (United States)


    Glenberg, Robertson, Jansen , & Glenberg, 1999; Hald, Hocking, Vernon, Marshall, & Garnham, 2013). Early psycho logical studies of negation focused on the...conjunctions than for disjunctions, and of intermediate difficulty for conditionals (Experiment 2). This result is contrary to the PSYCOP theo ry (Rips, 1994...2004). The probability of conditionals. Psychologia, 47, 207–225. Glenberg, A. M., Robertson, D. A., Jansen , J. L., & Glenberg, M. C. J. (1999). Not

  3. Tsukamurella conjunctivitis: A novel clinical syndrome


    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-yung


    In this report, we describe the first three cases of Tsukamurella conjunctivitis in the literature. All three patients presented with congestion of one eye with small amounts of serous discharge for 1 to 2 days. All three recovered after 10 days of treatment with polymyxin B-neomycin or chloramphenicol eyedrops. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the three isolates recovered from the serous discharge of the three patients showed that they were all Tsukamurella species. The phenotypic charact...

  4. The Functions of Danish Causal Conjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Therkelsen


    Full Text Available In the article I propose an analysis of the Danish causal conjunctions fordi, siden and for based on the framework of Danish Functional Grammar. As conjunctions they relate two clauses, and their semantics have in common that it indicates a causal relationship between the clauses. The causal conjunctions are different as far as their distribution is concerned; siden conjoins a subordinate clause and a main clause, for conjoins two main clauses, and fordi is able to do both. Methodologically I have based my analysis on these distributional properties comparing siden and fordi conjoining a subordinate and a main clause, and comparing for and fordi conjoining two main clauses, following the thesis that they would establish a causal relationship between different kinds of content. My main findings are that fordi establishes a causal relationship between the events referred to by the two clauses, and the whole utterance functions as a statement of this causal relationship. Siden presupposes such a general causal relationship between the two events and puts forward the causing event as a reason for assuming or wishing or ordering the caused event, siden thus establishes a causal relationship between an event and a speech act. For equally presupposes a general causal relationship between two events and it establishes a causal relationship between speech acts, and fordi conjoining two main clauses is able to do this too, but in this position it also maintains its event-relating ability, the interpretation depending on contextual factors.

  5. Conjunctive and prepositional comparatives in Slovenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sašo Živanović


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the distribution of conjunctive and prepositional comparative structures in Slovenian. They are introduced by the complementiser kot and the preposition od, respectively. Comparative structures are categorised along three dimensions: (i the morphological environment of the comparative morpheme (yielding amount and quality comparatives; (ii the syntactic environment of the comparative morpheme (eight syntactic environments are discussed: (nominative subject, (accusative direct object, (dative indirect object, prepositional object, locative adverbial, temporal adverbial, some other adverbial, and predicate; (iii the syntactic environment (the same environments as above are discussed of the associate (the non-elided phrase in the comparative complement is the remnant; its counterpart with the same grammatical function in the matrix clause is the associate. The comparison of conjunctive and prepositional comparatives shows that the distribution of the latter is more restricted and also exhibits more inter-speaker variation than the former. Conjunctive comparatives are acceptable in virtually all combinations of the above-mentioned parameters, the only exception being quality comparatives withan adverbial or predicate associate where the comparative morpheme is embedded in the associate. The only absolute generalisation that can be made about prepositional comparatives is that the associate must be either a subject or a direct object; all other generalisations are merely tendencies.

  6. Intersubjectivity as co-phenomenology: from the holism of meaning to the being-in-the-world-with-others. (United States)

    Cornejo, Carlos


    I outline in this paper a pragmatical approach to meaning. Meaning is defined as a phenomenologically experienced construal. As such, it is a dynamic object whose first evidence comes from the first person rather than the third one. At the same time, the approach assumes that meaning is not an individual creation, but rather an intersubjective one. Origins of meaning are also to be founded not 'in the head' of a cognitive system or subject, but in the intersubjective space contingently formed between a subject (S), an other (O) and a common object (R), which they talk about. Approaching this minimal communicative situation therefore requires realizing that the phenomenological dimension is always implied in any intersubjective encounter. The observed synchronized co-feeling among subjects, upon which language comprehension takes place, I call 'co-phenomenology'. When analyzed in this way, intersubjectivity shows at the same time its social, phenomenological and biological dimensions.

  7. Evaluation of connectedness between the University courses of Physics and Chemistry basing on the graph model of intersubject links (United States)

    Gnitetskaya, Tatyana; Ivanova, Elena


    An application of the graph model of inter-subject links to University courses of Physics and Chemistry is presented in this article. A part of inter-subject space with directions of inter-subject links from Physics to Chemistry in the group of physical concepts has been shown. The graph model of inter-subject links includes quantitative indicators. Its numerical values are given in the article. The degree of connectedness between the data of Physics and Chemistry courses is discussed for the courses considered. The effect of the courses placement within a curriculum on the value of their connectedness is shown. The placement of courses within a curriculum can provide the study of the courses at the same time or consecutive study, when one course precedes another.

  8. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models (United States)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.


    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  9. [Imaginary dimension and intersubjectivity in public health organizations: implications to managerial work and organizational change]. (United States)

    Azevedo, Creuza da Silva


    This paper deals with organization management in a new perspective, stressing the micro-social aspects and the role of individuals in the process of implementing change in public health organizations such as hospitals. Following the paths of French psychosociology, the article approaches the imaginary, intersubjective and collective dimensions of these organizations, highlighting the ways hospitals' directors and employees engage themselves in a struggle for power, affiliation and recognition. An essentially interactive and intersubjective activity, management is examined in the light of psychoanalysis's leadership function. It seems crucial to take into account the directors' potential structuring role in order to understand the organizational changing processes. Nevertheless, the mounting crisis in Rio de Janeiro public health services does not favor change and the building of personal bonds, but disruption, dismantle of institutional affiliations. In this scenario, the management structuring function and the director's social and psychological mediating role lose ground.

  10. Oneself as Another: Intersubjectivity and Ethics in Alzheimer’s Illness Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Burke


    Full Text Available This paper considers what is at stake in telling the story of another’s illness and in taking on the history of another’s dementia as part of one’s own life narrative. Through a close analysis of Michael Ignatieff’s Scar Tissue, it explores the ways in which writing about the experience of caring for a parent with dementia speaks to the intersubjective dimensions of selfhood but also complicates the ways in which the very concept of intersubjectivity is often evoked within scholarship on personhood. It argues that an engagement with this kind of narrative is illuminating in this context because it exposes some of the emotional, memorial, and ethical difficulties that attend the experience of writing for and about another person when he or she is no longer able to do so.

  11. Integrating cultural community psychology: activity settings and the shared meanings of intersubjectivity. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Clifford R; Tharp, Roland G


    Cultural and community psychology share a common emphasis on context, yet their leading journals rarely cite each other's articles. Greater integration of the concepts of culture and community within and across their disciplines would enrich and facilitate the viability of cultural community psychology. The contextual theory of activity settings is proposed as one means to integrate the concepts of culture and community in cultural community psychology. Through shared activities, participants develop common experiences that affect their psychological being, including their cognitions, emotions, and behavioral development. The psychological result of these experiences is intersubjectivity. Culture is defined as the shared meanings that people develop through their common historic, linguistic, social, economic, and political experiences. The shared meanings of culture arise through the intersubjectivity developed in activity settings. Cultural community psychology presents formidable epistemological challenges, but overcoming these challenges could contribute to the transformation and advancement of community psychology.

  12. Shall we dance? Music as a port of entrance to maternal-infant intersubjectivity in a context of postnatal depression. (United States)

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Rodrigues, Helena; Loots, Gerrit; De Coster, Lotta; Du Ville, Kevin; Matthijs, Liesbeth; Simcock, David; Pattyn, Nathalie


    The present study introduces the concept of a mother-infant group therapy that makes use of music, singing, and moving to establish maternal-infant intersubjectivity. It was conducted in a residential mother-baby unit for mothers with postnatal depression and their infants over a 5-week period. Maternal-infant intersubjectivity of four dyads in relation to the group dynamics were microanalyzed for Sessions 1 and 5. We made within-session (i.e., beginning-middle-end) and between-session (Session 1 vs. Session 5) comparisons for the number of intersubjectivity moments (ISMs), total time of intersubjectivity (IST), and the mean duration of ISMs on a dyadic (i.e., own mother/infant involved) and a nondyadic level (i.e., own mother/infant not involved). In addition, three ISM levels (degree of group contribution) were distinguished. The results indicated a significant increase of ISMs/IST from Session 1 to Session 5. Within-session analyses showed that ISMs/IST significantly decreased through Session 1 and remained stable throughout Session 5. Intersubjectivity occurred mainly on ISM Level 1 during Session 1 and on ISM Level 3 during Session 5, suggesting increased dyadic autonomy and self-efficacy. The results are discussed in relation to the musical characteristics of mother-infant dyads, music improvisation techniques, group processes, and intersubjective development.

  13. Dark Focus: Intersubject Variation, Intrasubject Stability, and Relationship to Near Retinoscopy. (United States)


    constructing "and maintaining the laser-Badal optometer , Ms. Nell Davis for II typing this manuscript, and the many staff members who collected measured with the laser-Badal optometer . This instrument measures the accommodative status of an individual without itself influencing the person’s...the retinoscope. Using a laser-Badal optometer , several experiments were conducted to ¾’ determine intersubject differences and intrasubject stability


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rizo Garcia


    Full Text Available In spite of the proliferation of digital communication forms, is urgent for communication research to strengthen the works around the interpersonal dimension of communicative processes. To do so, communication field needs to extend the boarding spectrum of interpersonal communication, an object that has been relegated to a secondary plane by the predominance of mass media research. This work is based on the need to distinguish intersubjective communication from interpersonal communication, two terms that are often conceived as synonymous. Even though both share the same empirical referents, their theoretical foundations are different. This essay presents three theoretical perspectives to define intersubjective communication –symbolic interactionism, phenomenological sociology and the Theory of Communicative Action– that share an interest beyond the situations of face to face interaction in which all subjects are daily immersed. A documentary and interpretive methodology is used in this work, because it's an argumentative essay that tries to outline some theoretical and conceptual guidelines to think –and make complex– interpersonal and intersubjective communication. It is relevant the approach of both communication types from different fields aside the strictly communicational; for that reason, in this essay are emphasized contributions made from other areas such as philosophy and social psychology.

  15. Review of forms of intersubjectivity in infant research and adult attachment. (United States)

    Werner, Elizabeth; Monk, Catherine


    Reviews the book, Forms of Intersubjectivity in Infant Research and Adult Attachment by Beatrice Beebe, Steven Knoblauch, Judith Rustin, and Dorienne Sorter (2005). In this book, the authors use their 10 years of collaborative work to produce an in-depth and well-constructed discussion of verbal and nonverbal forms of intersubjectivity as observed in the treatment setting and as evidenced by data generated from more mainstream child development studies. They move beyond the lack of integration between these related though often dramatically disconnected disciplines and build on infant researchers' understanding of "prereflective" caregiver-child interactions to offer a new theory of intersubjectivity that enhances our understanding of the clinical interaction with adult patients. This book is not for those therapists who are interested in learning well-specified, new interventions to use in their psychotherapy practice. It is also not suggested for those clinicians who do not have some background in psychoanalytic theory and practice. It is, however, recommended for those clinicians who work psychodynamically and are interested in developing their awareness of the nonverbal aspects of treatment and the co-construction of the therapeutic encounter. This book would also be useful to those in the field of psychotherapy research as it poses new questions about the nature of the therapeutic process and suggests the importance of examining the role that implicit, nonverbal interactions play in psychotherapy. Beebe, Knoblauch, Rustin, and Sorter's book is well constructed, persuasively argued, and highly recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Subject in first person--subject in third person: subject, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Lazar, R


    In this article, the author traces the history of the concepts of subject, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity in different psychoanalytic theories in the last decades. She argues that the uniqueness of these concepts and their different implications were not emphasized enough. The author discusses the various implications and contexts of the concept of subject in psychoanalytic theory proper and to relate as to: (1). The need to distinguish between the concepts of subject and subjectivity; (2). The mutual interdependence of the subject and his subjectivity and the intersubjective domain (both in the development of the individual and in theoretical thought pertaining to it). Her point of departure is from the position of the subject as a free creature, the centrality of the experiencing individual, from his/her perspective--the subject in the first person. She tries to explain the paradox implicit in the experiential dimension, the place of the other as participant, as both negating and recognizing--the subject in the third person. She suggests the interdependency of the first-person experience of subjectivity on the intersubjective dimension.

  17. Two war-torn soldiers: combat-related trauma through an intersubjective lens. (United States)

    Carr, Russell B


    The author, himself an Iraq war veteran, presents a contemporary psychodynamic understanding, known as intersubjective therapy, of combat-related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). At the onset of this case example, the patient was highly suicidal and his PTSD symptoms had not responded to a first-line treatment: manualized cognitive processing therapy. Robert Stolorow's intersubjective, psychodynamic approach to traumatic emotional experiences was then selected for treatment, and illustrates how combat in Afghanistan shattered this soldier's world and self experience. Therapeutic action arises from this intersubjective perspective by providing a relational home so that unendurable emotions can be borne, processed, and integrated to achieve a more constant and individualized sense of self. Being a two-person model of therapy, the author also describes how his work with this traumatized soldier affected him, ultimately contributing to his own sense of authentic existing. The author discusses the need for therapists to recognize and acknowledge to traumatized patients their shared finitude and the ubiquity of trauma. In the Postscript, the patient describes what he felt was therapeutic and contrasts this to his previous experiences with manualized cognitive processing therapy.

  18. Graph-based inter-subject pattern analysis of FMRI data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Takerkart

    Full Text Available In brain imaging, solving learning problems in multi-subjects settings is difficult because of the differences that exist across individuals. Here we introduce a novel classification framework based on group-invariant graphical representations, allowing to overcome the inter-subject variability present in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data and to perform multivariate pattern analysis across subjects. Our contribution is twofold: first, we propose an unsupervised representation learning scheme that encodes all relevant characteristics of distributed fMRI patterns into attributed graphs; second, we introduce a custom-designed graph kernel that exploits all these characteristics and makes it possible to perform supervised learning (here, classification directly in graph space. The well-foundedness of our technique and the robustness of the performance to the parameter setting are demonstrated through inter-subject classification experiments conducted on both artificial data and a real fMRI experiment aimed at characterizing local cortical representations. Our results show that our framework produces accurate inter-subject predictions and that it outperforms a wide range of state-of-the-art vector- and parcel-based classification methods. Moreover, the genericity of our method makes it is easily adaptable to a wide range of potential applications. The dataset used in this study and an implementation of our framework are available at

  19. An Intersubjective View of Empathy and Hypnotic Trance: Response to Wickramasekera II. (United States)

    Henning, Janna A


    In response to Wickramasekera II's description of his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis in "Mysteries of hypnosis and the self are revealed by the psychology and neuroscience of empathy" (Wickramasekera II, 2015), Henning offers further reflections on what empathy might be and what it allows therapists to do, particularly in conditions of hypnotic trance. She defines her intersubjective view of hypnotic trance as an experience in which client and therapist mutually engage in a shared state of consciousness, and a mutual bidirectional or multidirectional exchange of verbal and nonverbal, as well as conscious and unconscious, material occurs, and which may include shared taking on of roles and expectations in each party, as suggested by the other, particularly when both client and therapist are highly hypnotizable. Research on the concept of "mutual hypnosis," or co-trance, is reviewed, and barriers to scholarly discussions about intersubjectivity in therapy relationships are described. Concepts from other disciplines and traditions, including quantum physics, transpersonal psychology, contemplative Christianity, and shamanistic practices and trance in other cultures are then offered to clarify the processes of intersubjectivity, and perspectives about empathy and hypnotic co-trance are offered from the context of the author's own clinical work as a trauma therapist. Finally, suggestions are provided for future research approaches and methods to further explore and understand these phenomena.

  20. Feline Epitheliotropic Mastocytic Conjunctivitis in 15 Cats. (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C


    Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.

  1. [Conjunctivitis due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans: case report]. (United States)

    Lucatelli, Juliana Faggion; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente; Picoli, Simone Ulrich


    We report here a case of conjunctivitis in an immunocompetent patient due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was associated with the use of rigid contact lenses. The bacteria were isolated from the scraped conjunctival swab as well as from the lens cleaning fluid. A. xylosoxidans is an opportunistic pathogen, especially in immunocompromised patients; however, in isolates of ocular infections, from immunocompetent patients, it may be confused with other gram-negative organisms, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Due to an increased resistance against different antimicrobial agents, A. xylosoxidans must be fully identified and differentiated from other gram-negative isolates from ocular infections.

  2. Tsukamurella conjunctivitis: a novel clinical syndrome. (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung


    In this report, we describe the first three cases of Tsukamurella conjunctivitis in the literature. All three patients presented with congestion of one eye with small amounts of serous discharge for 1 to 2 days. All three recovered after 10 days of treatment with polymyxin B-neomycin or chloramphenicol eyedrops. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the three isolates recovered from the serous discharge of the three patients showed that they were all Tsukamurella species. The phenotypic characteristics of the isolate obtained from one patient best fit the phenotypic profile of Tsukamurella pulmonis, whereas those of the other two best fit that of Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens.

  3. Mycoplasmas associated with bovine conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. (United States)

    Naglić, T; Sanković, F; Madić, J; Hajsig, D; Seol, B; Busch, K


    In two separate herds of fattening calves a sudden-onset outbreak of ocular disease with profuse lacrimation occurred. The disease resembled the early stage of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis but after a few days the clinical signs of bronchopneumonia appeared. From conjunctival swabs Mycoplasma (M.) bovigenitalium, M. bovirhinis and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were isolated. Moraxella bovis infection was not established. In one of the herds M. bovigenitalium was also found in the pneumonic lungs of dead calves. In one herd M. bovoculi was isolated from a cow with chronic keratoconjunctivitis, housed together with affected calves. Mycoplasmas were not isolated from ocular swabs of six bulls originating from a Reproductive Centre with temporary occurrence of unilateral serous conjunctivitis resistant to antibiotic therapy.

  4. Pharm GKB: Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NDFRT: Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic (N0000000834) Common Searches Search Medline Plus Search CTD Pharm GKB: Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic ... ...Overview Alternate Names: PharmGKB Accession Id: PA166048914 External Vocabularies

  5. Conjunctions in Malaysian Secondary School English Language Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Philip


    Full Text Available The present research aims to investigate the distribution pattern of conjunctions and their ranking in two different corpora, namely the Malaysian school English language Textbook Corpus (Textbook Corpus and the British National Corpus (BNC. An additional objective of the study was to find out how conjunctions had been presented in the Malaysian school English language textbooks (Forms 1-5. The method applied was qualitative content analysis. The findings indicated that coordinating conjunctions were the most frequent conjunctions that occurred in the five textbooks followed by subordinating and correlative conjunctions. The ranking of the different types of conjunctions in the Textbook Corpus was similar to that of the reference corpus, BNC. The results also indicated that the textbooks failed to present conjunctions effectively. The findings are expected to help textbook developers or language teachers in developing or adapting learning materials. Keywords: Conjunctions, Textbook evaluation, Distribution patterns

  6. Reducing the Familiarity of Conjunction Lures with Pictures (United States)

    Lloyd, Marianne E.


    Four experiments were conducted to test whether conjunction errors were reduced after pictorial encoding and whether the semantic overlap between study and conjunction items would impact error rates. Across 4 experiments, compound words studied with a single-picture had lower conjunction error rates during a recognition test than those words…

  7. Extensional versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment. (United States)

    Tversky, Amos; Kahneman, Daniel


    Judgments under uncertainty are often mediated by intuitive heuristics that are not bound by the conjunction rule of probability. Representativeness and availability heuristics can make a conjunction appear more probable than one of its constituents. Alternative interpretations of this conjunction fallacy are discussed and attempts to combat it…

  8. The roots of empathy: the shared manifold hypothesis and the neural basis of intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio


    Starting from a neurobiological standpoint, I will propose that our capacity to understand others as intentional agents, far from being exclusively dependent upon mentalistic/linguistic abilities, be deeply grounded in the relational nature of our interactions with the world. According to this hypothesis, an implicit, prereflexive form of understanding of other individuals is based on the strong sense of identity binding us to them. We share with our conspecifics a multiplicity of states that include actions, sensations and emotions. A new conceptual tool able to capture the richness of the experiences we share with others will be introduced: the shared manifold of intersubjectivity. I will posit that it is through this shared manifold that it is possible for us to recognize other human beings as similar to us. It is just because of this shared manifold that intersubjective communication and ascription of intentionality become possible. It will be argued that the same neural structures that are involved in processing and controlling executed actions, felt sensations and emotions are also active when the same actions, sensations and emotions are to be detected in others. It therefore appears that a whole range of different "mirror matching mechanisms" may be present in our brain. This matching mechanism, constituted by mirror neurons originally discovered and described in the domain of action, could well be a basic organizational feature of our brain, enabling our rich and diversified intersubjective experiences. This perspective is in a position to offer a global approach to the understanding of the vulnerability to major psychoses such as schizophrenia.

  9. The relational unconscious: a core element of intersubjectivity, thirdness, and clinical process. (United States)

    Gerson, Samuel


    The relational unconscious is the fundamental structuring property of each interpersonal relation; it permits, as well as constrains, modes of engagement specific to that dyad and influences individual subjective experience within the dyad. Three usages of the concept of thirdness are delineated and contrasted with the concept of the relational unconscious, which, it is suggested, has the advantage of being both consistent with existing views of unconscious processes and more directly applicable to therapeutic concerns. Enactments and intersubjective resistances are viewed as clinical manifestations of the relational unconscious, and the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis results, in part, from altering the structure of the relational unconscious that binds analysand and analyst.

  10. Intersubjectivity, social microcosm, and the here-and-now in a support group for nurses. (United States)

    Brandman, W


    Intersubjectivity, a concept from Watson's nursing model is interwoven with the group dynamics of social microcosm and the here-and-now. Examples from a graduate nursing student's clinical experience illustrate the application of a transpersonal dynamic, formerly associated with dyads, to interactions between a nurse and a support group. A psychiatric consultation liaison nurse specialist student facilitates a support group for registered nurses in a neurological intensive care unit, in response to a group-perceived need to improve communications between nurses, nurses and patients, and nurses and physicians. Discovery and processing of hidden anger and pain activates healing for these nurses.

  11. [Anthropophobia: psychopathological approach to the interactions between body, inter-subjectivity and language]. (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Bouderlique, J


    Anthropophobia is the general term often taken as an equivalent to social phobia which comprises the several afflictions known in Europe under names like autodysosmophobia, scopophobia, erythrophobia, and olfactory reference syndrome, among others. Following a general introduction to anthropophobia, we will use three short observations to illustrate a phenomenological approach which shows both the confusion between the two dimensions of corpority and intersubjectivity and the specific relations joining body and language that are characteristic of this pathology. In addition to that, a psychoanalytical insight shows that anthropophobic patients possess traits that are specific to the intrusion complex and that reveal an evolutionary stage between narcissism and Oedipian phases.

  12. Allergic conjunctivitis in Jos-Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziah N Malu


    Full Text Available Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC may follow seasonal or perennial pattern. There are climatic and racial risk factors involved in some types of AC. It is more prevalent in warm climatic conditions and among Afro-Caribbeans, Arabs and Asians and less among the White populations. Clinical presentations also seem to follow climatic and genetic predisposition. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of AC and its clinical presentations in a hospital setting in this region in people of all ages. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective study of new patients seen at Adoose Specialist Hospital, Jos the capital city of Plateau State in North Central Nigeria with clinical diagnosis of AC from 2000 to 2009. Results: There were 972 subjects, 474 (48.8% males and 498 (51.2% females with M:F ratio of 1:1.05. The most common symptom was itching followed by redness, pains, watery/mucoid discharge, sticky eyes, puffy eyes and photophobia. The presence of papillae in the upper tarsal or lower conjunctiva, a discrete or confluent gelatinous hypertrophy of the limbal conjunctiva (Trantas dots, hyperpigmentation, hyperemia/chemosis of the conjunctiva were the common signs. AC was more prevalent in those aged 1−16 years 38.4% decreasing to 4.9% in the age group above 50 years. The presentation followed perennial pattern, with a peak around July. The most prevalent ocular comorbid condition was refractive error (distant RE and presbyopia in 15.4%, followed by pterygium/pinguecula 3.6%, bacterial conjunctivitis in 2.2%, glaucoma 2.1% and eyelid disorders 1.7%. Cataract was present in1.3%, and keratopathy1.1%. Other conditions such as episcleritis, dry eye, vitamin A deficiency and posterior segment disease were also present in decreasing order. Systemic association were few with generalised body atopy in 0.3%. Conclusion: The prevalence of AC was 32% and is similar to what pertains in some of the African hospital studies

  13. Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi, E-mail: [Servico de Endoscopia Respiratoria, Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil)


    To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)

  14. Graves’ Ophthalmopathy Misdiagnosed as Relapsing Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini P. Chatziralli


    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female patient presented at the outpatients’ Department of Ophthalmology with epiphora, eyelid swelling, and a foreign body feeling in the right eye. The symptoms were present for 4 months, and the patient was treated as suffering from relapsing conjunctivitis. The slit lamp examination revealed keratitis due to exposure, related with the deficient closure of the eyelids. There was a 2 mm difference in the readings with the Hertel exophthalmometry examination between the eyes. Her medical history was clear, and she was referred for computed tomography of the orbits and brain and biochemical examinations (FT3, FT4, and TSH to investigate the presence of an intraorbital mass. FT3 was significantly increased and TSH was accordingly low, indicating the diagnosis of Graves’ disease, which presented without other signs and symptoms apart from ophthalmopathy. Computed tomography scan excluded the diagnosis of an intraorbital mass. Therefore, it is important not to underestimate the ocular manifestations of systemic diseases.

  15. The development of conjunction use in advanced L2 speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Jaroszek


    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a longitudinal study of how the use of conjunctions, as an aspect of spoken discourse competence of 13 selected advanced students of English, developed throughout their 3-year English as a foreign language (EFL tertiary education. The analysis was carried out in relation to a number of variables, including 2 reference levels, one representing English native discourse and the other observed in teacher talk in actual EFL classes, language type exposure, as registered by the participants of the study on a weekly basis, and teaching procedures. The study investigated possible factors determining the development of 3 aspects of conjunction use: (a formal conjunctions, (b specific conjunctions, that is, those conjunctions that are both characteristic of natural English discourse and are underrepresented in L2 discourse, and (c conjunction diversity. The results point to a restricting effect of teacher talk on the development of specific conjunction use and conjunction diversity. These 2 aspects of conjunction use enjoyed only a slight rise, approaching the teacher reference level. On the other hand, formal conjunctions use did increase radically throughout the study, exceeding the native reference level. In this case teacher talk played a reinforcing role at most. As indicated in a correlational analysis, although there was a clear tendency of the participants’ development of conjunction use towards the native reference level, exposure to authentic English may not have been facilitative of the development of this discourse aspect. An interesting observation was made with reference to the effect of formal instruction on the development of conjunction use: Although the subjects did receive intensive training in conjunction use in the 1st semester of their EFL course, it was not until the 2nd year that their levels of formal conjunction use in spoken output increased. This suggests that formal instruction may have

  16. Conjunction Assessment Screening Volume Sizing and Event Filtering in Light of Natural Conjunction Event Development Behaviors (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Pachura, D. A.


    Conjunction Assessment screening volumes used in the protection of NASA satellites are constructed as geometric volumes about these satellites, of a size expected to capture a certain percentage of the serious conjunction events by a certain time before closest approach. However, the analyses that established these sizes were grounded on covariance-based projections rather than empirical screening results, did not tailor the volume sizes to ensure operational actionability of those results, and did not consider the adjunct ability to produce data that could provide prevenient assistance for maneuver planning. The present study effort seeks to reconsider these questions based on a six-month dataset of empirical screening results using an extremely large screening volume. The results, pursued here for a highly-populated orbit regime near 700 km altitude, identify theoretical limits of screening volume performance, explore volume configuration to facilitate both maneuver remediation planning as well as basic asset protection, and recommend sizing principles that maximize volume performance while minimizing the capture of "chaff" conjunctions that are unlikely ever to become serious events.

  17. Emphaty as the foundation of the social sciences and of social life: a reading of Husserl's phenomenology of transcendental intersubjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Vandenberghe


    Full Text Available Starting with an overview of possible solutions to the problem of social order, the author presents a non-acritical reconstruction of Edmund Husserl's transcendental phenomenology of intersubjectivity as a sympathetic alternative to Habermas's theory of communicative action. By means of a detailed analysis of the concept of empathy (Einfühlung, he shows that Husserl's phenomenology of intersubjectivity offers a triple foundation of the sciences. As a warrant of the objectivity of the world, it grounds the natural sciences; as a presupposition of sociality, it founds the social sciences; as mediated by culture, it grounds the social sciences as human sciences.

  18. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen


    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  19. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen


    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  20. Temporal dynamics of musical emotions examined through intersubject synchrony of brain activity. (United States)

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Cochrane, Tom; Cojan, Yann; Vuilleumier, Patrik


    To study emotional reactions to music, it is important to consider the temporal dynamics of both affective responses and underlying brain activity. Here, we investigated emotions induced by music using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a data-driven approach based on intersubject correlations (ISC). This method allowed us to identify moments in the music that produced similar brain activity (i.e. synchrony) among listeners under relatively natural listening conditions. Continuous ratings of subjective pleasantness and arousal elicited by the music were also obtained for the music outside of the scanner. Our results reveal synchronous activations in left amygdala, left insula and right caudate nucleus that were associated with higher arousal, whereas positive valence ratings correlated with decreases in amygdala and caudate activity. Additional analyses showed that synchronous amygdala responses were driven by energy-related features in the music such as root mean square and dissonance, while synchrony in insula was additionally sensitive to acoustic event density. Intersubject synchrony also occurred in the left nucleus accumbens, a region critically implicated in reward processing. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of an approach based on ISC to explore the temporal dynamics of music perception and emotion in naturalistic conditions.

  1. The dialectic between self-determination and intersubjectivity in creating the experience of self. (United States)

    Becker, Mitchel; Shalgi, Boaz


    This paper explores the concept of delineation in light of the dialectical process as currently defined in the relational or intersubjective literature. Although this concept is also based on projective identification processes, we see it as a broader concept. Using the modern dialectic model we propose two modes of delineation. One mode involves an interaction between the subjective organizing principles of the family and its members, on the one hand, and the child's own subjective organizing principles, on the other hand, in a mutual process of construction, destruction, and reconstruction of self-definition. We term this concept mutual intersubjective delineation. The second mode of delineation is the individual experience of selfhood or "me"-ness as a monadic entity removed from all contextual interaction with other and thus termed the self-determined delineation. These two modes of delineation are seen as inherent, mutually defining processes of personality development. The manner in which the adolescent negotiates the dialectic tension between these two modes of delineation is seen as an essential process in the development of a dynamic, vital, and integrated self.

  2. "But-He'll Fall!": Children with Autism, Interspecies Intersubjectivity, and the Problem of 'Being Social'. (United States)

    Solomon, Olga


    'Being autistic' or 'having Autism Spectrum Disorder' implies a limited range of 'being social,' but the in situ organization of interaction, what Maynard and Marlaire (Qual Soc 15(2):177-202, 1992) call the 'interactional substrate,' within which this delimitation enfolds is usually hidden from sight. Analysis of processes constituting different 'interactional substrates' provides a view of how one comes to be known by and to self and others as a certain kind of being who is available (or not) for acting and feeling in certain ways. People diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013) are often described as 'being' impaired in intersubjective understanding of others. But the story of ASD as an impairment of sociality and intersubjectivity becomes more complicated when animals enter into the picture. I consider two interactional substrates: a psychological interview in a mental health clinic, and an animal-assisted activity in a child's neighborhood. I aim to elucidate the practical problems of 'being social' encountered by two children with ASD, both nine-year-old girls, within these two very differently organized interactional substrates. I consider ways in which 'being with' therapy animals provides a way of 'being social' through "sensory modalities of knowing" (Haraway, When species meet, 2008:371).

  3. Looking back, looking forward: a reexamination of Benjamin Wolstein's interlock and the emergence of intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Bonovitz, Christopher


    In this paper the author takes a close look at Benjamin Wolstein's chapter, 'Therapy', from his book, Countertransference, published in 1959. This chapter contains a discussion of what he refers to as the interlock between analyst and patient, or today what we might describe as transference/countertransference enactment. The author shows how Wolstein's concept of the interlock and its relation to the analyst's countertransference was radical and innovative for its time. Wolstein's notion of a transference/countertransference interlock, along with the seminal contributions of Ferenczi and some of the early interpersonal theorists, anticipates the complexities of a two-person psychology and the entanglement which can occur from the intermingling of unconscious processes of analyst and patient in the experiential field. The author highlights three main ideas. First, the author provides a brief review of enactment with an emphasis on the role of the analyst's participation as conceptualized by the various theoretical perspectives. An historical context is given for Wolstein's clinical theorizing. Second, the author explicates Wolstein's concept of the interlock, with particular attention to the processes involved which account for the complexities it presents. Third, the author examines the 'working through' process, including the emergence of intersubjectivity in the resolution of the interlock. The author shows throughout Wolstein's emphasis on the influence of the analyst's personal psychology, mutuality, and intersubjectivity, all of which anticipated the gradual interpersonalization of psychoanalysis across the various schools of thought.

  4. Halting aphasic interaction: creation of intersubjectivity and spousal relationship in situ. (United States)

    Aaltonen, Tarja; Laakso, Minna


    This article discusses a communicative phenomenon that is relatively less studied: getting stuck in an aphasic conversation. Although aphasia as a medical and linguistic condition has been widely examined, the more social and participatory aspects of the symptom are not so well-known. Aphasia forms a threat to the emergence of a shared understanding, as well as to the experience of being in the shared, i.e., in the intersubjective, social world. In our analysis, we closely explore how understanding is constructed in the sequential organization of conversation. We use two data corpora when analysing the halting interaction. In our data, we detected two kinds of interactive halts that emerged in connection with aphasic word searching. First, 'real halts' were caused by the aphasic person's inability to find correct words and the co-participants were also not able to resolve the problem. Second, 'exam halts' occurred when the co-participant did not provide the missing words despite knowing what the aphasic speaker was trying to say. We discuss how this halting phenomenon is linked with the notions of intersubjectivity and face-work and conclude that real halts are more directly caused by the aphasic condition, whereas exam halts reflect the spousal relationship in the form of face-work.

  5. On failed intersubjectivity: Recollections of loneliness experiences in offspring of Holocaust survivors. (United States)

    Wiseman, Hadas


    Intergenerational consequences of extensive trauma experienced by parents for the loneliness experienced by their children were explored in 52 adults (26 men and 26 women) who grew up in Holocaust survivor families. These adults, children of mothers who had survived Nazi concentration camps, were recruited from a random nonclinical Israeli sample. A narrative analysis of their recollected accounts of loneliness in childhood and adolescence yielded 4 major categories of loneliness experiences in the context of growing up in Holocaust survivor families: (a) echoes of parental intrusive traumatic memories; (b) echoes of parental numbing and detachment; (c) perceived parents' caregiving style; and (d) social comparison with other families, in particular the lack of grandparents. The echoes of the parental trauma in the recollected loneliness accounts are conceptualized as representing a sense of failed intersubjectivity in these interpersonal processes. The experiences of not being understood by others, not understanding others, and the lack of shared understanding involved in failed intersubjectivity are discussed and related to the importance of opening lines of communication between survivors and their descendents.

  6. Early intersubjective skills and the understanding of intentionality in young children with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J; Fidler, Deborah J; Hepburn, Susan L; Rogers, Sally J


    This study examined the relationship between early intersubjective skills (joint attention and affect sharing) and the development of the understanding of intentionality in 16 young children with Down syndrome (DS) and 16 developmentally matched children with other developmental disabilities (DD). The study of intentionality focuses on how children come to understand the goal-directed actions of others and is an important precursor to the development of more complex social cognitive skills, such as theory of mind. Joint attention and affect sharing were examined using the Early Social Communication Scales (Mundy, Sigman, & Kasari, 1990; Seibert, Hogan, & Mundy, 1982). Meltzoff's (1995) behavioral reenactment paradigm was used to examine the understanding of intentionality. For children with DS, higher rates of affect sharing were associated with poorer intention reading abilities. This pattern was not observed in children with other DD. These results suggest that the intersubjective strengths associated with DS may not support the development of intentionality-interpretation skills. Future research is needed to explore if children with DS have the joint attention behaviors needed to be intentional.

  7. Modeling inter-subject variability in fMRI activation location: A Bayesian hierarchical spatial model (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nee, Derek E.


    Summary The aim of this work is to develop a spatial model for multi-subject fMRI data. There has been extensive work on univariate modeling of each voxel for single and multi-subject data, some work on spatial modeling of single-subject data, and some recent work on spatial modeling of multi-subject data. However, there has been no work on spatial models that explicitly account for inter-subject variability in activation locations. In this work, we use the idea of activation centers and model the inter-subject variability in activation locations directly. Our model is specified in a Bayesian hierarchical frame work which allows us to draw inferences at all levels: the population level, the individual level and the voxel level. We use Gaussian mixtures for the probability that an individual has a particular activation. This helps answer an important question which is not addressed by any of the previous methods: What proportion of subjects had a significant activity in a given region. Our approach incorporates the unknown number of mixture components into the model as a parameter whose posterior distribution is estimated by reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo. We demonstrate our method with a fMRI study of resolving proactive interference and show dramatically better precision of localization with our method relative to the standard mass-univariate method. Although we are motivated by fMRI data, this model could easily be modified to handle other types of imaging data. PMID:19210732

  8. Moving beyond computational cognitivism: understanding intentionality, intersubjectivity and ecology of mind. (United States)

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Cosmelli, Diego


    The emergence of the Cognitive Sciences, in the middle of the 20th Century, was initially based on an abstract model of the mind: the computer metaphor. The human mind was understood in analogy to the digital computer, as a rule-based, symbol processor. As a consequence, the human being was envisioned as logically-rationally guided, radically disembodied and isolated from culture. Over the last few decades, several disciplines, such as Biology, Mathematics, Philosophy, Psychology and Neuroscience, have begun to address the study of intentionality, intersubjectivity and natural cognition. Searching for a better understanding of these complex issues, a number of approaches have been developed with the promise of capturing the specific qualities of human cognition, radically omitted from a computationalist view of mind. Nevertheless, since these research programs are rather recent, concrete methodological designs and empirical approaches in the form of experimentally testable hypotheses are still scarce. This special issue brings together several perspectives in order to propose alternative research approaches in the topics of Intentionality, Intersubjectivity and Ecology of Mind. We believe it is necessary to discuss and advance towards explicit empirical frames in the form of actual experiments, specific predictions and formal models. The essays presented here constitute an attempt to move in this direction, with the specific aim of reconsidering the study of some forgotten properties of brain and mind.

  9. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A. (eds.)


    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Experience, Intersubjectivity, and Reflection: A Human Science Perspective on Preparation of Future Professionals in Adaptive Physical Activity (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro


    The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…

  11. Inter-subjectivity and Domestication in the Making of a Global Region: Territorialization of Salmon in the Chilean Patagonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Gustavo; Arce, A.M.G.; Fisher, E.F.


    This article examines transformations in the Chilean Patagonia, a region that has become a world leader in Salmon production for global markets. Employing ethnographic methods, this study examines the possibilities of considering inter-subjectivities in the processes of conforming important regions

  12. Inter-subjectivity and Domestication in the Making of a Global Region: Territorialization of Salmon in the Chilean Patagonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Gustavo; Arce, A.M.G.; Fisher, E.F.


    This article examines transformations in the Chilean Patagonia, a region that has become a world leader in Salmon production for global markets. Employing ethnographic methods, this study examines the possibilities of considering inter-subjectivities in the processes of conforming important regions

  13. Progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuemin Zhao; Xuliang Yang; Zhenfu Luo; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song


    China’s energy supply heavily relies on coal and China’s coal resource and water resource has a reverse distribution. The problem of water shortages restricts the applications of wet coal beneficiation technologies in drought regions. The present situation highlights the significance and urgency of developing dry beneficiation technologies of coal. Besides, other countries that produce large amounts of coal also encounter serious problem of lack of water for coal beneficiation, such as American, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Turkey and India. Thus, dry coal beneficiation becomes the research hot-points in the field of coal cleaning worldwide in recent years. This paper systematically reviewed the promising research efforts on dry coal beneficiation reported in literature in last 5 years and discussed the progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation worldwide. Finally, we also elaborated the prospects and the challenges of the development of dry coal beneficiation.

  14. The Benefits of Single-Touch Screens in Intersubjective Meaning Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove


    What are the benefits of single-touch screens? The paper presents findings of one video extract from ten months of observation of single-touch screen interaction among 8-9 year-old children. Recent studies of collaborative learning mediated by digital touch screens and tabletops emphasize...... the possibilities for equal levels of verbal and physical participation.Additionally, these studies suggest that multi-touch technologies offer more task-oriented activities compared to single-touch screen interaction, in which discussion about turn-taking is more prevalent from the outset. In contrast, applying...... the Embodied Interaction Analysis, we find that the constraints of single-touch screens offer support for intersubjective meaning making in their capacity of constraining the interaction. This “grain of sand” shows how children display and construct a shared work space through embodied interaction...

  15. Motion or activity: their role in intra- and inter-subject variation in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben E; Nørgaard, Minna D; Rostrup, Egill;


    MRI to pre-surgical planning because of a higher requirement for intra-subject precision. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of residual movement artefacts on intra-subject and inter-subject variability in the observed fMRI activation. Ten subjects were examined using three different...... word-generation tasks. Two of the subjects were examined 10 times on 10 different days using the same paradigms. We systematically investigated one approach of correcting for residual movement effects: the inclusion of regressors describing movement-related effects in the design matrix of a General...... Linear Model (GLM). The data were analysed with and without modeling the residual movement artefacts and the impact on inter-session variance was assessed using F-contrasts. Inclusion of motion parameters in the analysis significantly reduced both the intra-subject as well as the inter-subject-variance...

  16. Hybridity and intersubjectivity in the clinical encounter: impact on the cultural formulation. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan


    Most case studies of the cultural formulation have focused on encounters with a single clinician. This article examines the assessment of a patient across different settings in which multiple clinicians developed separate understandings of the patient's identity. The formal cultural formulation prepared by the last clinician to work with the patient revealed a vastly different picture than what was previously recognized, reflecting both the impact of the identity of the clinician and the systematic evaluation process on the nature of the patient's responses. This suggests that cultural hybridity can stimulate new modes of inquiry as people integrate disparate cultural references to fashion a new identity. Intersubjectivity can also alter information elicited by clinicians. The conclusion highlights the need for practice guidelines for use of the cultural formulation across treatment settings.

  17. Intersubjectivity, Hermeneutics, and the Production of Knowledge in Qualitative Mennonite Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Peter Unger


    Full Text Available In this article, the author explores the nature of interpretation as it pertains to qualitative methods of inquiry. He elaborates on the epistemological problems that occur in discussions of the nature of human and social sciences as distinct from the theoretical foundations of the natural sciences. The examination of Mennonite scholarship provides an interesting case study as to the requirements of a hermeneutical social science because of the range of scholarly frameworks and varying locations of identity of the scholars in relation to the broader Mennonite community. The author argues that Mennonite scholarship is novel in the manner by which Mennonite scholars contribute to and participate within broad Mennonite intersubjective understandings. By extension, Mennonite scholars are able to deal with common epistemological problems and dichotomies that arise in the context of the researcher and the object of study.

  18. 论巴赫金的主体间性%On the Intersubjectivity of Bakhtin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As for Bakhtin' s intersubjectivity , it is thought to be peopleoriented . The nature of intersubjeetiveity is to seek the essence of life , the possibility of communication in the contrast between Ego and others. The paper thinks the establishment of personality should be carried out in the participating in the aesthetic process and in the self - responsibility.%巴赫金的主体问性以“人”为中心,在自我与他人的观照中认识生命的本真,在“我眼中之我”和“他人眼中之我”中寻找对话交流的可能性。在审美的积极参与性中,在自我的责任意识中确立自我的主体人格。

  19. Sibling recognition and the development of identity: intersubjective consequences of sibling differentiation in the sister relationship. (United States)

    Vivona, Jeanine M


    Identity is, among other things, a means to adapt to the others around whom one must fit. Psychoanalytic theory has highlighted ways in which the child fits in by emulating important others, especially through identification. Alternately, the child may fit into the family and around important others through differentiation, an unconscious process that involves developing or accentuating qualities and desires in oneself that are expressly different from the perceived qualities of another person and simultaneously suppressing qualities and desires that are perceived as similar. With two clinical vignettes centered on the sister relationship, the author demonstrates that recognition of identity differences that result from sibling differentiation carries special significance in the sibling relationship and simultaneously poses particular intersubjective challenges. To the extent that the spotlight of sibling recognition delimits the lateral space one may occupy, repeatedly frustrated desires for sibling recognition may have enduring consequences for one's sense of self-worth and expectations of relationships with peers and partners.

  20. Deconstructing the myth of the neutral analyst: an alternative from intersubjective systems theory. (United States)

    Stolorow, R D; Atwood, G F


    A critique is offered of four conceptions of neutrality that have been prominent in the psychoanalytic literature: neutrality as (1) abstinence, (2) anonymity, (3) equidistance, and (4) empathy. It is argued that once the psychoanalytic situation is recognized as an intersubjective system of reciprocal mutual influence, the concept of neutrality is revealed to be an illusion. Hence, interpretations are always suggestions, transference is always contaminated, and analysis are never objective. An alternative to neutrality is found in the investigatory stance of empathic-introspective inquiry. This mode of inquiry is sharply distinguished from the prescribing of self-expressive behavior on the part of analysis, and the distinction is illustrated with a clinical vignette.

  1. School Students' Reasoning about Conjunction and Conditional Events. (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.; Moritz, Jonathan B.


    Reports on a study designed to provide baseline data in the area of conjunction and conditional events. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed improvement with grade in expressing probability numerically and distinguishing conditional events, but no change in incidence of conjunction errors. (Author/MM)

  2. Electroencephalogram-based scaling of multifocal visual evoked potentials: effect on intersubject amplitude variability. (United States)

    Klistorner, A I; Graham, S L


    The interindividual variability of the visual evoked potential (VEP) has been recognized as a problem for interpretation of clinical results. This study examines whether VEP variability can be reduced by scaling responses according to underlying electroencephalogram (EEG) activity. A multifocal objective perimeter provided different random check patterns to each of 58 points extending out to 32 degrees nasally. A multichannel VEP was recorded (bipolar occipital cross electrodes, 7 min/eye). One hundred normal subjects (age 58.9 +/- 10.7 years) were tested. The amplitude and inter-eye asymmetry coefficient for each point of the field was calculated. VEP signals were then normalized according to underlying EEG activity recorded using Fourier transform to quantify EEG levels. High alpha-rhythm and electrocardiogram contamination were removed before scaling. High intersubject variability was present in the multifocal VEP, with amplitude in women on average 33% larger than in men. The variability for all left eyes was 42.2% +/- 3.9%, for right eyes 41.7% +/- 4.4% (coefficient of variability [CV]). There was a strong correlation between EEG activity and the amplitude of the VEP (left eye, r = 0.83; P < 0.001; right eye, r = 0.82; P < 0.001). When this was used to normalize VEP results, the CVs dropped to 24.6% +/- 3.1% (P < 0.0001) and 24.0% +/- 3.2% (P < 0.0001), respectively. The gender difference was effectively removed. Using underlying EEG amplitudes to normalize an individual's VEP substantially reduces intersubject variability, including differences between men and women. This renders the use of a normal database more reliable when applying the multifocal VEP in the clinical detection of visual field changes.

  3. The intersubjective endeavor of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second-person perspective approach. (United States)

    Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa


    Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of "otherness." We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which-by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms-takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients' first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from "within," if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis causing neonatal conjunctivitis in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakar S


    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is considered a major aetiological agent of conjunctivitis in newborns. The objective of the present study was to determine the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis and clinico-epidemiological correlates of chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. Fifty-eight newborns with signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis were studied. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to Gram staining, routine bacteriological culture, culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA staining for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 18 (31% neonates. Findings suggest that since C. trachomatis is the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, routine screening and treatment of genital C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women and early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal Chlamydial conjunctivitis may be considered for its prevention and control.

  5. The preposition potential in formation of conjunctional means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjuškevič Marija I.


    Full Text Available In the article the ability of preposition to form conjunction or its equivalent has been considered. The mechanism of denominalization has been shown on the Russian material with the involvement of the author’s observations on prepositions in the Belarusian language - the morphological form transformation in to the subordinate part of complex sentence. The author’s conception is: 1 the syntaxeme is the actant position in the sentence; 2 the syntaxeme consists of the formant (preposition + flexion and nominative component (substantive; 3 at the level of the complex sentence the same actant position may take the predicative unit (subordinate part of the complex sentence; 4 the formant of the predicative syntaxeme in transforms is the conjunctional combination “preposition + demonstrative pronoun that + subordinate part conjunction“. The preposition at case syntaxeme transformation in to predicative does not change its function, but it is included in to the conjunctional formant as one of the elements of more complex formant - conjunctional combination. Each element of the conjunctional combination fulfills its function: the preposition still forms the syntaxeme, but with more complex nominative component as predicative unit, the pronoun that is “flection“ of this nominative component (subordinate part, and the conjunction acts as the explicator, providing grammatical connection of the nominative component of syntaxeme with the “flexion“ and the preposition. It is noted that the mechanism and the results of denominalization depend on the syntaxemes repertoire and character and on the preposition meaning: the same preposition, with different meaning has different conjunctional potential. In to the mechanism of denominalization are involved categorematic names (classifiers, which initially are used as structural vocabulary for forming secondary prepositions, and together with them, for forming conjunctional combinations. The methods

  6. Factors that influence the generation of autobiographical memory conjunction errors. (United States)

    Devitt, Aleea L; Monk-Fromont, Edwin; Schacter, Daniel L; Addis, Donna Rose


    The constructive nature of memory is generally adaptive, allowing us to efficiently store, process and learn from life events, and simulate future scenarios to prepare ourselves for what may come. However, the cost of a flexibly constructive memory system is the occasional conjunction error, whereby the components of an event are authentic, but the combination of those components is false. Using a novel recombination paradigm, it was demonstrated that details from one autobiographical memory (AM) may be incorrectly incorporated into another, forming AM conjunction errors that elude typical reality monitoring checks. The factors that contribute to the creation of these conjunction errors were examined across two experiments. Conjunction errors were more likely to occur when the corresponding details were partially rather than fully recombined, likely due to increased plausibility and ease of simulation of partially recombined scenarios. Brief periods of imagination increased conjunction error rates, in line with the imagination inflation effect. Subjective ratings suggest that this inflation is due to similarity of phenomenological experience between conjunction and authentic memories, consistent with a source monitoring perspective. Moreover, objective scoring of memory content indicates that increased perceptual detail may be particularly important for the formation of AM conjunction errors.

  7. Plant immune responses triggered by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, A.C.M. van; Ent, S. van der; Pieterse, C.M.J.


    Beneficial soil-borne microorganisms, such as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizal fungi,can improve plant performance by inducing systemic defense responses that confer broad-spectrum resistance to plant pathogens and even insect herbivores. Different beneficial microbe-associated m

  8. Beneficial Insects and Spiders of Alaska (United States)

    The development of integrated pest management programs is dependent on the availability of biological information on beneficial insects and natural enemies of agricultural pests. This cooperative effort between ARS and UAF represents the first manual on beneficial insects and natural enemies of pest...

  9. Quantum-like models cannot account for the conjunction fallacy

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer-Kassem, Thomas; Guerci, Eric


    Human agents happen to judge that a conjunction of two terms is more probable than one of the terms, in contradiction with the rules of classical probabilities---this is the conjunction fallacy. One of the most discussed accounts of this fallacy is currently the quantum-like explanation, which relies on models exploiting the mathematics of quantum mechanics. The aim of this paper is to investigate the empirical adequacy of major such quantum-like models. We first argue that they can be tested in three different ways, in a question order effect configuration which is different from the traditional conjunction fallacy experiment. We then carry out our proposed experiment, with varied methodologies from experimental economics. The experimental results we get are at odds with the predictions of the quantum-like models. This strongly suggests that the quantum-like account of the conjunction fallacy fails. Future possible research paths are discussed.

  10. Use of artificial tears in cases of allergic conjunctivitis


    D. Yu. Maycuk; L. B. Chilingaryan; I. A. Pronkin; A. R. Grigoryan


    Purpose: to evaluate the effectiveness of artificial tears use, particularly Ophtolique eye drops in cases of allergic conjunctivitis.Methods: 2 groups (30 patients each) with allergic conjunctivitis and complains for tearing were observed. Shirmer and Norn tests, lissamine and fluorescein staining were performed weekly during 21 day period. All patients were receiving standard anti-allergic treatment, but in 2-nd group the artificial tears were administered.Results: Mean time for allergic sy...

  11. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci in Conjunctivitis and Blepharitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (C-NS) are regarded asnormal flora of the lids and conjunctiva.The ability of these organisms tocause conjunctivitis and blepharitis can be overlooked or disregarded.Toelucidate the role of individual C-NS species in these eye diseases wecompared Staphylococcus sp.isolated from the conjunctiva and lids of 50healthy volunteers with 248 strains of Staphylococcus isolated frompatients with staphylococcal conjunctivitis or blepharitis.S.epidermidiswas the most frequent spec...

  12. The phenomenology of intersubjectivity in Jaspers and Husserl: on the capacities and limits of empathy and communication in psychiatric praxis. (United States)

    Luft, Sebastian; Schlimme, Jann E


    In this article, we present two accounts of intersubjectivity in Jaspers and Husserl, respectively. We argue that both can be brought together for a more satisfying account of empathy and communication in the context of psychiatric praxis. But while we restrict ourselves for the most part to this praxis, we also indicate the larger agenda that drives Jaspers and Husserl, despite all disagreement. Here we spell out, in particular, how a phenomenologically inspired account of empathy and intersubjectivity can have larger ramifications for a theory of social life and interaction. Finally, we argue for a 'relaxed' view concerning the relation between pure and applied phenomenology, such that both can mutually benefit from one another.


    Okesola, A.O.; Salako, A.O.


    Objective: In bacterial conjunctivitis, clinical presentations are not diagnostic of the causative agent, therefore, microbiological analysis is mandatory for specific treatment option. This study was undertaken to determine the microbiology profile of bacterial conjunctivitis in our environment. Methodology: This is a laboratory-based study carried out in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Conjunctival swabs collected from 365 patients with clinically diagnosed conjunctivitis, were analysed by standard bacteriological methods. Results: Bacterial pathogens were detected in 342 (93.7%) conjunctival samples while 23(6.3%) were sterile. Of the pathogens, 256 (74.9%) were Staphylococcus aureus, 35(10.2%) Coagulase- negative staphylococci, 22 (6.4%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , 11(3.2%) Escherichia coli, 7(2.1%) Klebsiella species, 5(1.5%) Streptococcus pneumoniae , 4(1.2%) Haemophilus influenzae, 1(0.3%) Proteus mirabilis, and 1(0.3%)Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The highest rate of conjunctivitis 96(26.3%) was found among infants and children (0-10years).Resistance rates to most of the tested antibiotics were high. However, 67% of them were susceptible to ceftriaxone while only 39.2% were susceptible to chloramphenicol. Conclusion: This study has recorded high antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens of conjunctivitis in this environment; therefore, determining the susceptibility pattern of these pathogens to available antibiotics is crucial to effective management of bacterial conjunctivitis. PMID:25161470

  14. Memory conjunction clusters: Influence of familiarity and recollection. (United States)

    Leding, Juliana K


    In the memory conjunction paradigm, the number of times that constituents of conjunction lures were studied and the method of presentation were varied. In two experiments, participants were presented with eight parent items that could be recombined at test to form a conjunction lure. The constituents that were shared between the parent items and the conjunction lures were either presented in the same words (e.g., blackmail and jailbird presented four times each for the conjunction lure blackbird) or in different words (e.g., the targets footstool, footlocker, foothill, footbridge, baseball, softball, basketball, and golfball for the conjunction lure football). In both experiments, rates of false recognition were higher in the Different condition as opposed to the Same condition. These results provide evidence that participants in the Same condition were able to utilise a recall-to-reject strategy by remembering the repeatedly presented parent word. In the Different condition, participants were not able to utilise that strategy and instead relied on the familiarity of the repeatedly presented constituents which led to higher rates of false recognition.

  15. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Juri Taborri


    Full Text Available Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6, with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02. Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population.

  16. Time-resolved detection of stimulus/task-related networks, via clustering of transient intersubject synchronization. (United States)

    Bordier, Cécile; Macaluso, Emiliano


    Several methods are available for the identification of functional networks of brain areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time-series. These typically assume a fixed relationship between the signal of the areas belonging to the same network during the entire time-series (e.g., positive correlation between the areas belonging to the same network), or require a priori information about when this relationship may change (task-dependent changes of connectivity). We present a fully data-driven method that identifies transient network configurations that are triggered by the external input and that, therefore, include only regions involved in stimulus/task processing. Intersubject synchronization with short sliding time-windows was used to identify if/when any area showed stimulus/task-related responses. Next, a first clustering step grouped together areas that became engaged concurrently and repetitively during the time-series (stimulus/task-related networks). Finally, for each network, a second clustering step grouped together all the time-windows with the same BOLD signal. The final output consists of a set of network configurations that show stimulus/task-related activity at specific time-points during the fMRI time-series. We label these configurations: "brain modes" (bModes). The method was validated using simulated datasets and a real fMRI experiment with multiple tasks and conditions. Future applications include the investigation of brain functions using complex and naturalistic stimuli.

  17. Multi-modal inter-subject registration of mouse brain images (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Rosen, Glenn; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.


    The importance of small animal imaging in fundamental and clinical research is growing rapidly. These studies typically involve micro PET, micro MR, and micro CT images as well as optical or fluorescence images. Histological images are also often used to complement and/or validate the in vivo data. As is the case for human studies, automatic registration of these imaging modalities is a critical component of the overall analysis process, but, the small size of the animals and thus the limited spatial resolution of the in vivo images present specific challenges. In this paper, we propose a series of methods and techniques that permit the inter-subject registration of micro MR and histological images. We then compare results obtained by registering directly MR volumes to each other using a non-rigid registration algorithm we have developed at our institution with results obtained by registering first the MR volumes to their corresponding histological volume, which we reconstruct from 2D cross-sections, and then registering histological volumes to each other. We show that the second approach is preferable.

  18. Intersubjectivity, affective neuroscience, and the neurobiology of autistic spectrum disorders: a systematic review. (United States)

    Aitken, Kenneth J


    Intersubjectivity is an approach to the study of social interaction viewed from a perspective which rejects the view that reducing any such analysis to study at the level of the individual is adequate to address the issues of social functioning. It also stresses the view that social processes cannot be reduced to cognitive ones - most of the important questions in the study of developmental psychopathology deal with issues which have commonality with many other species and are patent well before the ontological emergence of 'cognitive' abilities. In this paper we review the evidence in this area, and discuss a range of issues relevant to autistic spectrum disorders. We focus in particular on social interaction; the role of the Intrinsic Motive Formation and recent work on mirror neurons in autism; genetic and teratogenic factors in the genesis of autism; and the role of a number of biological factors in pathogenesis - tryptophan; vitamin B12; sterol metabolism; glutamate and GABA; and the Fragile-X expansion.

  19. Symbols and their function in managing the anxiety of change: an intersubjective approach. (United States)

    Rose, J


    The author suggests that change inevitably creates anxiety because of loss and confrontation with the unknown. It is proposed that one function of symbols is to manage the anxiety of change. They do this by creating a means by which anxieties can be presented to the subject and then communicated to another mind. These creations are called symbolic because, it is proposed, their purpose is the communication as well as the incorporation of internal anxieties and desires with external exigencies, which might be termed symptoms. Viewing them in this way enables the analyst to put symbolic phenomena as they emerge in an analysis into an intersubjective perspective. The author suggests that thinking of symbols as purely intrasubjective phenomena limits our perspective. It is more technically useful to look at the communicative aspects of symbols as they present themselves to the symbolising subject; and, subsequently, to the analyst in the dialogue within the psychoanalytic setting because the objective and temporal dimension of the setting can thereby be included. Two clinical examples of symbols are discussed, one that was brought for analysis and a second that developed in the course of an analysis. One is given as an example of resistance to change, whereas the other revealed an unconscious drive for change.

  20. In dogs we trust? Intersubjectivity, response-able relations, and the making of mine detector dogs. (United States)

    Kirk, Robert G W


    The utility of the dog as a mine detector has divided the mine clearance community since dogs were first used for this purpose during the Second World War. This paper adopts a historical perspective to investigate how, why, and to what consequence, the use of minedogs remains contested despite decades of research into their abilities. It explores the changing factors that have made it possible to think that dogs could, or could not, serve as reliable detectors of landmines over time. Beginning with an analysis of the wartime context that shaped the creation of minedogs, the paper then examines two contemporaneous investigations undertaken in the 1950s. The first, a British investigation pursued by the anatomist Solly Zuckerman, concluded that dogs could never be the mine hunter's best friend. The second, an American study led by the parapsychologist J. B. Rhine, suggested dogs were potentially useful for mine clearance. Drawing on literature from science studies and the emerging subdiscipline of "animal studies," it is argued that cross-species intersubjectivity played a significant role in determining these different positions. The conceptual landscapes of Zuckerman and Rhine's disciplinary backgrounds are shown to have produced distinct approaches to managing cross-species relations, thus explaining how diverse opinions on minedog can coexist. In conclusion, it is shown that the way one structures relationships between humans and animals has profound impact on the knowledge and labor subsequently produced, a process that cannot be separated from ethical consequence.

  1. Playing with reality: IV. A theory of external reality rooted in intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Target, Mary


    The authors explore the interpersonal aspects of the early development of an experience of external reality and the roots of this experience in primary intersubjectivity. They suggest some implications that this has for psychoanalytic work with the patient's experience of external reality. They argue that the external world is not an independently existing 'given', for the infant to discover, as is sometimes implicitly assumed. Infants acquire knowledge about the world not just through their own explorations of it but by using other minds as teachers. The experience of external reality is invariably shaped through subjectivities. The authors argue that at first the infant assumes that his knowledge is knowledge held by all, that what he knows is known by others and that what is known by others is accessible to him. Only slowly does the uniqueness of his own perspective differentiate so that a sense of mental self can develop. In clinical work we frequently observe the undoing of this process of differentiation, and understanding the underlying mechanisms can be helpful in managing the transference and countertransference consequences when the process has been derailed.

  2. Psychotherapy and Its Role in Psychiatric Practice: A Position Paper. II. Objective, Subjective, and Intersubjective Science. (United States)

    Shapiro, Yakov; John, Nicholas; Scott, Rowan; Tomy, Nadia


    In the first article in this 2-part series, we outlined a psychobiological model of psychiatric treatment and reviewed the evidence showing psychotherapy to be a form of biological intervention that induces lasting alterations in brain structure and function. In this second article, we focus on the adaptive model of psychopathology, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions, the synergistic effects of combined psychotherapy and psychopharmacology treatments, and attention to the patient's subjective experience and the doctor-patient alliance to complement an "objective" case formulation. The evidence strongly suggests the need for an integrated treatment approach based on the objective, subjective, and intersubjective science that forms the foundation of psychiatry as a clinical discipline, in which psychotherapy and psychopharmacology are seen as complementary treatments within a systemic approach to psychiatric care and training. What emerges is the integrated psychobiological model of care with a complex treatment matrix unique to each patient-provider pair and comprised of biological, experiential, and relational domains of treatment which form the foundation of psychiatry as a science of attachment and meaning.

  3. Intersubject Differences in False Nonmatch Rates for a Fingerprint-Based Authentication System

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    Jeroen Breebaart


    Full Text Available The intersubject dependencies of false nonmatch rates were investigated for a minutiae-based biometric authentication process using single enrollment and verification measurements. A large number of genuine comparison scores were subjected to statistical inference tests that indicated that the number of false nonmatches depends on the subject and finger under test. This result was also observed if subjects associated with failures to enroll were excluded from the test set. The majority of the population (about 90% showed a false nonmatch rate that was considerably smaller than the average false nonmatch rate of the complete population. The remaining 10% could be characterized as “goats” due to their relatively high probability for a false nonmatch. The image quality reported by the template extraction module only weakly correlated with the genuine comparison scores. When multiple verification attempts were investigated, only a limited benefit was observed for “goats,” since the conditional probability for a false nonmatch given earlier nonsuccessful attempts increased with the number of attempts. These observations suggest that (1 there is a need for improved identification of “goats” during enrollment (e.g., using dedicated signal-driven analysis and classification methods and/or the use of multiple enrollment images and (2 there should be alternative means for identity verification in the biometric system under test in case of two subsequent false nonmatches.

  4. Age-Related Deficits in Conjunctive Representation of Complex Objects (United States)

    Scheerer, Nichole; Marrone, Diano F.


    Although some evidence is consistent with the notion that distinct cortical systems support memory and perception, mounting evidence supports a representational-hierarchical view of cognition, which posits that distinctions lie in simple feature representations versus more complex conjunctive representations of many stimulus features simultaneously. Thus, typical memory tasks engage different regions from typical perception tasks because they inherently test information on opposing ends of this continuum. Memory deficits are reliably reported with age, but the tasks used to make these conclusions predominantly rely on conjunctive representations. To test the extent to which age-related deficits may be accounted for by perceptual processing, this study investigated discriminations involving conjunctive representations in older adults. Results show that adults aged 50 to 77 are impaired, relative to their younger counterparts, on discriminations requiring feature conjunctions, but not simple feature representations. These findings support recent data showing an agerelated decline in the ability to form conjunctive representations. Furthermore, these data suggest that some ‘mnemonic’ deficits associated with age may in fact be the result of deficits in perception rather than memory. PMID:25308561

  5. Satellite orbital conjunction reports assessing threatening encounters in space (SOCRATES) (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Alfano, S.


    While many satellite operators are aware of the possibility of a collision between their satellite and another object in earth orbit, most seem unaware of the frequency of near misses occurring each day. Until recently, no service existed to advise satellite operators of an impending conjunction of a satellite payload with another satellite, putting the responsibility for determining these occurrences squarely on the satellite operator's shoulders. This problem has been further confounded by the lack of a timely, comprehensive data set of satellite orbital element sets and computationally efficient tools to provide predictions using industry-standard software. As a result, hundreds of conjunctions within 1 km occur each week, with little or no intervention, putting billions of dollars of space hardware at risk, along with their associated missions. As a service to the satellite operator community, the Center for Space Standards & Innovation (CSSI) offers SOCRATES-Satellite Orbital Conjunction Reports Assessing Threatening Encounters in Space. Twice each day, CSSI runs a list of all satellite payloads on orbit against a list of all objects on orbit using the catalog of all unclassified NORAD two-line element sets to look for conjunctions over the next seven days. The runs are made using STK/CAT-Satellite Tool Kit's Conjunction Analysis Tools-together with the NORAD SGP4 propagator in STK. This paper will discuss how SOCRATES works and how it can help satellite operators avoid undesired close approaches through advanced mission planning.

  6. Oleanolic acid controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

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    Claudia Córdova

    Full Text Available Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivitis, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA, and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases.

  7. [Recovery of intersubjectivity and empathy in schizophrenics: through a characteristic type of friendship "frolicking"]. (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko


    The author has noticed a characteristic form of close, frolicsome friendship between recovering adolescent schizophrenic patients. It occurs in groups of young patients in a psychiatric clinic and in a day-care institution. Through this type of friendship, their intersubjectivity, ability for empathy and human relations develop, essential changes for the amelioration of schizophrenia. It is characterized by 1 A mutual relationship on equal terms with another schizophrenic patient of the same sex and generation; particularly close friendship between two patients, or sometimes several patients who form a group, spending much time together. 2 Playful, childish behavior, jokes and jests; Patients laugh and make others laugh, playing together. 3 Touching the friends' bodies and coordinated playing such as dancing and singing together. 4 Chatting and having common interests, along with sharing various experiences. 5 Enjoyment with so much energy that sometimes, as in a gang, social norms are contravened. 6 Being a transient phenomenon that ends naturally after a certain period. Through such friendship, the adolescents show mental growth compared with their premorbid state. They come to sympathize with others' feelings and willingly cooperate. Their social relationships and spheres of activity expand, and spontaneity and self-esteem become improved. They come to assert themselves adequately, tolerate stress, and conform to social norms. Moreover, they advance to developing a purpose. e.g. work. To be able to have empathy through friendship with those of the same sex and generation is a basic developmental theme generally seen in childhood and pre-adolescence. Such friendship between the patients studied represents benign regression in such a developmental period. This type of friendship is characterized by a frolicsome and playful atmosphere. Frolicking by means of jokes, jests and body-touching, and play with coordinated acts lead to the sharing of emotions and

  8. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes. (United States)

    Zamioudis, Christos; Pieterse, Corné M J


    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and Rhizobium bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen for the plant. Several other types of beneficial soilborne microbes, such as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and fungi with biological control activity, can stimulate plant growth by directly suppressing deleterious soilborne pathogens or by priming aboveground plant parts for enhanced defense against foliar pathogens or insect herbivores. The establishment of beneficial associations requires mutual recognition and substantial coordination of plant and microbial responses. A growing body of evidence suggests that beneficial microbes are initially recognized as potential invaders, after which an immune response is triggered, whereas, at later stages of the interaction, mutualists are able to short-circuit plant defense responses to enable successful colonization of host roots. Here, we review our current understanding of how symbiotic and nonsymbiotic beneficial soil microbes modulate the plant immune system and discuss the role of local and systemic defense responses in establishing the delicate balance between the two partners.

  9. Inter-subject synchronization of brain responses during natural music listening. (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Chordia, Parag; Khouzam, Amirah; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod


    Music is a cultural universal and a rich part of the human experience. However, little is known about common brain systems that support the processing and integration of extended, naturalistic 'real-world' music stimuli. We examined this question by presenting extended excerpts of symphonic music, and two pseudomusical stimuli in which the temporal and spectral structure of the Natural Music condition were disrupted, to non-musician participants undergoing functional brain imaging and analysing synchronized spatiotemporal activity patterns between listeners. We found that music synchronizes brain responses across listeners in bilateral auditory midbrain and thalamus, primary auditory and auditory association cortex, right-lateralized structures in frontal and parietal cortex, and motor planning regions of the brain. These effects were greater for natural music compared to the pseudo-musical control conditions. Remarkably, inter-subject synchronization in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus was also greater for the natural music condition, indicating that synchronization at these early stages of auditory processing is not simply driven by spectro-temporal features of the stimulus. Increased synchronization during music listening was also evident in a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal attention network and bilateral cortical regions involved in motor planning. While these brain structures have previously been implicated in various aspects of musical processing, our results are the first to show that these regions track structural elements of a musical stimulus over extended time periods lasting minutes. Our results show that a hierarchical distributed network is synchronized between individuals during the processing of extended musical sequences, and provide new insight into the temporal integration of complex and biologically salient auditory sequences.

  10. Inter-subject correlation in fMRI: method validation against stimulus-model based analysis.

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    Juha Pajula

    Full Text Available Within functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, the use of the traditional general linear model (GLM based analysis methods is often restricted to strictly controlled research setups requiring a parametric activation model. Instead, Inter-Subject Correlation (ISC method is based on voxel-wise correlation between the time series of the subjects, which makes it completely non-parametric and thus suitable for naturalistic stimulus paradigms such as movie watching. In this study, we compared an ISC based analysis results with those of a GLM based in five distinct controlled research setups. We used International Consortium for Brain Mapping functional reference battery (FRB fMRI data available from the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging image data archive. The selected data included measurements from 37 right-handed subjects, who all had performed the same five tasks from FRB. The GLM was expected to locate activations accurately in FRB data and thus provide good grounds for investigating relationship between ISC and stimulus induced fMRI activation. The statistical maps of ISC and GLM were compared with two measures. The first measure was the Pearson's correlation between the non-thresholded ISC test-statistics and absolute values of the GLM Z-statistics. The average correlation value over five tasks was 0.74. The second was the Dice index between the activation regions of the methods. The average Dice value over the tasks and three threshold levels was 0.73. The results of this study indicated how the data driven ISC analysis found the same foci as the model-based GLM analysis. The agreement of the results is highly interesting, because ISC is applicable in situations where GLM is not suitable, for example, when analyzing data from a naturalistic stimuli experiment.

  11. Inter-subject synchronization of brain responses during natural music listening (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A.; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Chordia, Parag; Khouzam, Amirah; Levitin, Daniel J.; Menon, Vinod


    Music is a cultural universal and a rich part of the human experience. However, little is known about common brain systems that support the processing and integration of extended, naturalistic ‘real-world’ music stimuli. We examined this question by presenting extended excerpts of symphonic music, and two pseudomusical stimuli in which the temporal and spectral structure of the Natural Music condition were disrupted, to non-musician participants undergoing functional brain imaging and analysing synchronized spatiotemporal activity patterns between listeners. We found that music synchronizes brain responses across listeners in bilateral auditory midbrain and thalamus, primary auditory and auditory association cortex, right-lateralized structures in frontal and parietal cortex, and motor planning regions of the brain. These effects were greater for natural music compared to the pseudo-musical control conditions. Remarkably, inter-subject synchronization in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus was also greater for the natural music condition, indicating that synchronization at these early stages of auditory processing is not simply driven by spectro-temporal features of the stimulus. Increased synchronization during music listening was also evident in a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal attention network and bilateral cortical regions involved in motor planning. While these brain structures have previously been implicated in various aspects of musical processing, our results are the first to show that these regions track structural elements of a musical stimulus over extended time periods lasting minutes. Our results show that a hierarchical distributed network is synchronized between individuals during the processing of extended musical sequences, and provide new insight into the temporal integration of complex and biologically salient auditory sequences. PMID:23578016

  12. The intersubjective endeavour of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second person perspective approach

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    Laura eGalbusera


    Full Text Available Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of otherness.We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first- and second-person approaches. Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, American Psychiatric Association, 2013 and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which - by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioural symptoms - takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first person experience. But how can we speak about a first person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from within, if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it

  13. Modern opportunities of therapeutic treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. A review

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    D. Yu. Maychuk


    Full Text Available H1‑receptor antagonists are drugs of choice to treat allergy. They work very fast as their therapeutic effect develops within 10‑15 min, have good tolerability and almost no adverse side-effects, and require no frequent instillations. Levocabastine quickly inhibits allergic reaction caused by specific allergen or histamine. Levocabastine while being a highly-selective H1‑receptor antagonist is the most perspective topical mono-drug used to treat acute allergic conjunctivitis. Levocabastine applied on a spot produces instant effect which persists for a long time so that instillations twice a day (BID are enough. Levocabastine is more effective than other 15 antihistamines. In contrast to previous antihistamines, levocabastine blocks vasodilatation and reduces vascular permeability increase. Levocabastine eye drops have good tolerability comparable with cromoglicic acid eye drops and placebo. Levocabas tine is successfully used in allergic conjunctivitis (pollinosis, perennial, vernal, rhinoconjunctivitis treatment in children. Its efficacy is the same or even higher than that of cromoglycate and azelastine. 20 clinical studies (more than 1200 patients revealed that levocabastine eye drops are effective, work quickly and have good tolerability. This drug is efficient in allergic conjunctivitis treatment and acute infectious conjunctivitis complex therapy. 

  14. Conjunction Faces Alter Confidence-Accuracy Relations for Old Faces (United States)

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R.


    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and…

  15. On the Importance of Conjunctions in CET-4 Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To some extent,the score of writing part influences the total score of CET-4.With cohesion and coherence theory and the scoring criteria in CET-4 writing as its foundation,questionnaire as its main research method,this paper discusses the importance of conjunctions in CET-4 writing,and offers implications for the teaching of English writing in class.

  16. Time Dependence of Collision Probabilities During Satellite Conjunctions (United States)

    Hall, Doyle T.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.


    The NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team has recently implemented updated software to calculate the probability of collision (P (sub c)) for Earth-orbiting satellites. The algorithm can employ complex dynamical models for orbital motion, and account for the effects of non-linear trajectories as well as both position and velocity uncertainties. This “3D P (sub c)” method entails computing a 3-dimensional numerical integral for each estimated probability. Our analysis indicates that the 3D method provides several new insights over the traditional “2D P (sub c)” method, even when approximating the orbital motion using the relatively simple Keplerian two-body dynamical model. First, the formulation provides the means to estimate variations in the time derivative of the collision probability, or the probability rate, R (sub c). For close-proximity satellites, such as those orbiting in formations or clusters, R (sub c) variations can show multiple peaks that repeat or blend with one another, providing insight into the ongoing temporal distribution of risk. For single, isolated conjunctions, R (sub c) analysis provides the means to identify and bound the times of peak collision risk. Additionally, analysis of multiple actual archived conjunctions demonstrates that the commonly used “2D P (sub c)” approximation can occasionally provide inaccurate estimates. These include cases in which the 2D method yields negligibly small probabilities (e.g., P (sub c)) is greater than 10 (sup -10)), but the 3D estimates are sufficiently large to prompt increased monitoring or collision mitigation (e.g., P (sub c) is greater than or equal to 10 (sup -5)). Finally, the archive analysis indicates that a relatively efficient calculation can be used to identify which conjunctions will have negligibly small probabilities. This small-P (sub c) screening test can significantly speed the overall risk analysis computation for large numbers of conjunctions.

  17. Neural basis of moral elevation demonstrated through inter-subject synchronization of cortical activity during free-viewing.

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    Zoë A Englander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust. Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two "other-praising" emotions--Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty, and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion.

  18. Neural Basis of Moral Elevation Demonstrated through Inter-Subject Synchronization of Cortical Activity during Free-Viewing (United States)

    Englander, Zoë A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Morris, James P.


    Background Most research investigating the neural basis of social emotions has examined emotions that give rise to negative evaluations of others (e.g. anger, disgust). Emotions triggered by the virtues and excellences of others have been largely ignored. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of two “other-praising" emotions – Moral Elevation (a response to witnessing acts of moral beauty), and Admiration (which we restricted to admiration for physical skill). Methodology/Principal Findings Ten participants viewed the same nine video clips. Three clips elicited moral elevation, three elicited admiration, and three were emotionally neutral. We then performed pair-wise voxel-by-voxel correlations of the BOLD signal between individuals for each video clip and a separate resting-state run. We observed a high degree of inter-subject synchronization, regardless of stimulus type, across several brain regions during free-viewing of videos. Videos in the elevation condition evoked significant inter-subject synchronization in brain regions previously implicated in self-referential and interoceptive processes, including the medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and insula. The degree of synchronization was highly variable over the course of the videos, with the strongest synchrony occurring during portions of the videos that were independently rated as most emotionally arousing. Synchrony in these same brain regions was not consistently observed during the admiration videos, and was absent for the neutral videos. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest that the neural systems supporting moral elevation are remarkably consistent across subjects viewing the same emotional content. We demonstrate that model-free techniques such as inter-subject synchronization may be a useful tool for studying complex, context dependent emotions such as self-transcendent emotion. PMID:22745745

  19. Intersubject variability in the analysis of diffusion tensor images at the group level: fractional anisotropy mapping and fiber tracking techniques. (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Unrath, Alexander; Riecker, Axel; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan


    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides comprehensive information about quantitative diffusion and connectivity in the human brain. Transformation into stereotactic standard space is a prerequisite for group studies and requires thorough data processing to preserve directional inter-dependencies. The objective of the present study was to optimize technical approaches for this preservation of quantitative and directional information during spatial normalization in data analyses at the group level. Different averaging methods for mean diffusion-weighted images containing DTI information were compared, i.e., region of interest-based fractional anisotropy (FA) mapping, fiber tracking (FT) and corresponding tractwise FA statistics (TFAS). The novel technique of intersubject FT that takes into account directional information of single data sets during the FT process was compared to standard FT techniques. Application of the methods was shown in the comparison of normal subjects and subjects with defined white matter pathology (alterations of the corpus callosum). Fiber tracking was applied to averaged data sets and showed similar results compared with FT on single subject data. The application of TFAS to averaged data showed averaged FA values around 0.4 for normal controls. The values were in the range of the standard deviation for averaged FA values for TFAS applied to single subject data. These results were independent of the applied averaging technique. A significant reduction of the averaged FA values was found in comparison to TFAS applied to data from subjects with defined white matter pathology (FA around 0.2). The applicability of FT techniques in the analysis of different subjects at the group level was demonstrated. Group comparisons as well as FT on group averaged data were shown to be feasible. The objective of this work was to identify the most appropriate method for intersubject averaging and group comparison which incorporates intersubject variability of

  20. Self and other in communication and cognition: the role of auto-communication and intersubjectivity in autopoiesis of psychic systems. (United States)

    Märtsin, Mariann


    By referring to Niklas Luhmann's theory of self-referential systems, Aldo Mascareño (2008, submitted for publication) gives an account of system-environment interrelatedness, explaining how social and individual constitute each other through the process of communication and co-creation of meanings. Two possible extensions to his account are discussed. Firstly, auto-communication within the system that happens without any external reference needs to be taken into account while describing the existence and constant re-creation of psychic systems. Secondly, in order for the system and environment or two systems to communicate, an imagined and temporary intersubjectivity between the two needs to be assumed.

  1. Analysis of Intra- and Intersubject Variability in Oral Drug Absorption in Human Bioequivalence Studies of 113 Generic Products. (United States)

    Sugihara, Masahisa; Takeuchi, Susumu; Sugita, Masaru; Higaki, Kazutaka; Kataoka, Makoto; Yamashita, Shinji


    In this study, the data of 113 human bioequivalence (BE) studies of immediate release (IR) formulations of 74 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) conducted at Sawai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., was analyzed to understand the factors affecting intra- and intersubject variabilities in oral drug absorption. The ANOVA CV (%) calculated from area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) in each BE study was used as an index of intrasubject variability (Vintra), and the relative standard deviation (%) in AUC was used as that of intersubject variability (Vinter). Although no significant correlation was observed between Vintra and Vinter of all drugs, Vintra of class 3 drugs was found to increase in association with a decrease in drug permeability (P(eff)). Since the absorption of class 3 drugs was rate-limited by the permeability, it was suggested that, for such drugs, the low P(eff) might be a risk factor to cause a large intrasubject variability. To consider the impact of poor water solubility on the variability in BE study, a parameter of P(eff)/Do (Do; dose number) was defined to discriminate the solubility-limited and dissolution-rate-limited absorption of class 2 drugs. It was found that the class 2 drugs with a solubility-limited absorption (P(eff)/Do < 0.149 × 10(-4) cm/s) showed high intrasubject variability. Furthermore, as a reason for high intra- or intersubject variability in AUC for class 1 drugs, effects of drug metabolizing enzymes were investigated. It was demonstrated that intrasubject variability was high for drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 while intersubject variability was high for drugs metabolized by CYP2D6. For CYP3A4 substrate drugs, the Km value showed the significant relation with Vintra, indicating that the affinity to the enzyme can be a parameter to predict the risk of high intrasubject variability. In conclusion, by analyzing the in house data of human BE study, low permeability, solubility-limited absorption, and high affinity to CYP3A4 are

  2. Intra- and inter-subject variation in lower limb coordination during countermovement jumps in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coordination pattern and coordination variability (intra-subject and inter-subject) in children and adults during vertical countermovement jumps. Ten children (mean age: 11.5±1.8years) and ten adults (mean age: 26.1±4.9years) participated...... in the experiment. Lower body 3D-kinematics and kinetics from both legs were obtained during 9 vertical jumps of each subject. Coordination pattern and coordination variability of intra-limb and inter-limb coupling were established by modified vector coding and continuous relative phase. The adult group jumped...

  3. The Roles of Beneficiation in Lunar Work (United States)

    Rickman, Doug L.


    Natural feedstocks used for any process are intrinsically variable. They may also contain deleterious components or low concentrations of desired fractions. For these three reasons it is standard industrial practice to beneficiate feedstocks. This is true across all industries which trans-form raw materials into standardized units. On the Moon there are three natural resources: vacuum, radiation and regolith. To utilize in situ resources on the Moon it is reasonable to presume some beneficiation of the regolith (ground rock) resource will be desirable if not essential. As on Earth, this will require fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the relevant processes, which are exceeding complex in detail. Further, simulants are essential test articles for evaluation of components and systems planned for lunar deployment. Simulants are of course made from geologic feedstocks. Therefore, there is variation, deleterious components and incorrect concentrations of desired fractions in the feedstocks used for simulants. Thus, simulant production can benefit from beneficiation of the input feedstocks. Beneficiation of geologic feedstocks is the subject of extractive metallurgy. Clearly, NASA has two discrete interests pertaining to the science and technology of extractive metallurgy.

  4. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.


    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and

  5. 7 CFR 1421.6 - Beneficial interest. (United States)


    ... have control of the commodity, such person must have complete decision-making authority regarding...-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans and loan deficiency payments, a...

  6. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects]. (United States)

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A


    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits.

  7. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Zamioudis, Christos|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313964742; Berendsen, Roeland L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824151; Weller, David M.; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373; Bakker, Peter A H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623


    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of patho

  8. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Zamioudis, C.; Berendsen, R.L.; Weller, D.M.; Van Wees, S.C.M.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.


    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth–promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of patho

  9. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.


    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and

  10. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Zamioudis, C.; Berendsen, R.L.; Weller, D.M.; Van Wees, S.C.M.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.


    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth–promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of patho

  11. A Discussion of the Relationship between Metadiscourse and Intersubjectivity%元话语与主体间性的关系刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    元话语是人表义过程中的常用语言资源,人的表义过程会标示主体间性。通过考察话语分析领域对元话语的认识和梳理语言学领域对主体间性的释解,揭示了主体间性的本质内涵,分析了元话语与主体间性之间的关系,认为主体间性是元话语使用中自然带有的一种内在属性,元话语不仅是人话语交际过程中主体间性意识的外在表达,而且是展示话语主体间性的主要符号资源。%Metadiscourse comes to be linguistic resources commonly used in people’s meaning processes, which are often carried out with their intersubjectivity signified. With an examination of the understandings of metadiscourse in the field of discourse analysis and the interpretations in the field of linguistics, the paper reveals the essential connotation of intersubjectivity and provides an analysis of the relationship between metadiscourse and intersubjectivity. The paper argues that intersubjectivity is an inherent attribute of metadiscourse in use. It is also recognized in the paper that metadiscourse is not only the external expression of the intersubjective consciousness in people’s communication, but also the major semiotic resource manifesting discoursal intersubjectivity.

  12. 中国译论中主体间性思想之探究%On Intersubjectivity About the Chinese Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the influence of the deconstruction,intersubjectivity has arisen in translation studies,and it has been used in translation theory.The Chinese traditional thought of harmony between man and nature is the budding of the intersubjectivity put forward by western scholars,and the Chinese modern translation theory with the impact of this philosophy has been with the imprint of intersubjectivity.The intersubjectivity made by western philosophy gives the new opportunity for the translation studies,and the modern meanings of the intersubjectivity bring about the vigorous life for Chinese translation.The Chinese translators should carry forward the essence of Chinese traditional translation theory,at the same time,combine with the modern meanings of intersubjectivity to find the new way of Chinese translation development.%受解构主义思潮的影响,翻译研究出现了间性思维,主体间性从哲学层面引入翻译研究。中国传统哲学中"天人合一"思想是主体间性的早期萌芽,受这种哲学思想影响下的中国现代译论,也明显带有主体间性思想的印记。主体间性的现代性,给中国译学的发展注入了生机。中国译者在发扬中国传统译论的理论精髓的同时,应适当结合主体间性的现代意义,为中国译学找出新的发展契机。

  13. Sujeito, intersubjetividade e práticas de saúde Subject, intersubjectivity, and health practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita Ayres


    Full Text Available Neste artigo se discute o conceito de sujeito utilizado nas práticas de saúde. Parte-se da tese de que a concepção de sujeito predominante no pensamento sanitário não está em sintonia com valores e pressupostos que orientam as principais propostas de renovação de conceitos e práticas de saúde na atualidade. Defende-se o caráter relacional, pragmático e reconstrutivo das identidades subjetivas, contra o caráter individualista, apriorístico e objetificado prevalente nas práticas do setor. Desdobra-se desta reflexão a defesa de transformações das práticas de saúde, com base em "giros" teórico-filosóficos, relacionados entre si: a secundarização da idéia de sujeito em favor da idéia de contextos de intersubjetividade, na construção de categorias para o conhecimento e intervenção; b subsunção do interesse pelo controle técnico das doenças na idéia mais abrangente de sucesso prático de projetos de felicidade humana, na definição das finalidades da intervenção; c transformação do cuidado, na atitude orientadora do conjunto das ações voltadas para a saúde das pessoas.This article discusses the concept of subject as used in health practices. The underlying thesis is that the predominant concept of subject in the health field is not in keeping with the values and premises currently orienting the renewal of health concepts and practices, which defend the relational, pragmatic, and reconstructive nature of subjective identities as opposed to the individualistic, a priori, and objectified approach prevailing in practice in the health sector. This reflection leads to the defense of changes in health practices, based on interrelated theoretical/philosophical twists: a as a priority, replace the notion of subject with that of contexts of intersubjectivity, in the construction of categories for knowledge and intervention; b subsume the interest in the technical control of diseases within the broader idea of practical

  14. A generous ontology: Identity as a process of intersubjective discovery – An African theological contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion A. Forster


    Full Text Available The answer to the question ‘who am I?’ is of fundamental importance to being human. Answers to this question have traditionally been sought from various disciplines and sources, which include empirical sources, such as biology and sociology, and phenomenological sources, such as psychology and religion. Although the approaches are varied, they have the notion of foundational truth, whether from an objective or subjective perspective, in common. The question of human identity that is the subject of this paper is germinated from the title of a book by WITS academic, Ivor Chipkin, entitled, Do South Africans exist? Nationalism, democracy and the identity of ‘the people’ (2007. This paper does not discuss Chipkin’s thoughts on nationalism and democracy; however, it considered the matter of human identity that is raised by his question. The approach taken by this paper on the notion of identity was significantly influenced by Brian McLaren’s postmodernist approach to Christian doctrine as outlined in his book A generous orthodoxy (2004 – a term coined by Yale Theologian, Hans Frei. The inadequacies of traditional approaches to human identity and consciousness that are based upon ‘foundational knowledge’ were thus considered. Both subjective and objective approaches to identity were touched upon, showing the weaknesses of these approaches in dealing with the complex nature of true human identity. The paper then presented an integrative framework for individual consciousness that is not static or ultimately quantifiable, but rather formulated in the process of mutual discovery that arises from a shared journey. The approach presented here drew strongly upon the groundbreaking work of Ken Wilber and Eugene de Quincey and related their ontological systems to the intersubjective approach to identity that can be found in the African philosophy and theology of ‘ubuntu’. This paper focused on how the ethics and theology of this

  15. Conjunctive Surface Water and Groundwater Management under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong eZhang


    Full Text Available Climate change can result in significant impacts on regional and global surface water and groundwater resources. Using groundwater as a complimentary source of water has provided an effective means to satisfy the ever-increasing water demands and deal with surface water shortages problems due to robust capability of groundwater in responding to climate change. Conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater is crucial for integrated water resources management. It is helpful to reduce vulnerabilities of water supply systems and mitigate the water supply stress in responding to climate change. Some critical challenges and perspectives are discussed to help decision/policy makers develop more effective management and adaptation strategies for conjunctive water resources use in facing climate change under complex uncertainties.

  16. Segmentation of Telugu Touching Conjunct Consonants Using Overlapping Bounding Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bharathi


    Full Text Available Telugu is an ancient historic language. It is spoken by about 84.6 million people of Andhra Pradesh. The script has circular orthography with few horizontal and slant strokes. Huge literature exists for this language in printed form which needs to be preserved by scanning and converting it into editable form. Segmentation of touching characters is a major issue in any OCR system. Segmenting the wordsinto individual glyphs by Connected Component Analysis yields poor results due to touching characters. Touching conjunct consonants is the major component which needs to be properly addressed for improving the accuracy of an OCR system. In this paper an overlapping bounding box approach is presented for segmenting the conjunct consonants along with an algorithm for identifying the correcttouching location. An accuracy rate of 91.27% is achieved.

  17. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Space Object Conjunction Assessment (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F Landis


    This paper shows how satellite owner/operators may use sequential estimates of collision probability, along with a prior assessment of the base risk of collision, in a compound hypothesis ratio test to inform decisions concerning collision risk mitigation maneuvers. The compound hypothesis test reduces to a simple probability ratio test, which appears to be a novel result. The test satisfies tolerances related to targeted false alarm and missed detection rates. This result is independent of the method one uses to compute the probability density that one integrates to compute collision probability. A well-established test case from the literature shows that this test yields acceptable results within the constraints of a typical operational conjunction assessment decision timeline. Another example illustrates the use of the test in a practical conjunction assessment scenario based on operations of the International Space Station.

  18. An outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Melaka, Malaysia. (United States)

    Ghazali, O; Chua, K B; Ng, K P; Hooi, P S; Pallansch, M A; Oberste, M S; Chua, K H; Mak, J W


    This paper reports a second outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis due to coxsackievirus A24 in peninsular Malaysia. Between June 2002 and early October 2003, 10,327 patients, comprising 3,261 children and 7,066 adults, were treated for acute conjunctivitis in 11 government health clinics in the Melaka Tengah district of the state of Melaka. The figure grossly underestimates the size of the outbreak; as no patients treated in private clinics in the same district were included. Institution and household surveillance showed that the commonest presenting clinical feature of the illness was eye-discharge (91.2%), followed by foreign body sensation (81.8%), pain (78.3%) and subconjunctival haemorrhage (74.4%). The mean duration of illness was 6.5 and five days for patients with and without subconjunctival haemorrhage respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haitao


    Full Text Available In contemporary China, the theory of intersubjectivity causes great significance to the construction of modern Chinese aesthetic theory but this kind of transverse dimensions of space on the outside of the transplantation of theory gave rise to some bad effects to traditional culture and classical Chinese aesthetics. Article presents a qualitative method. Its purpose to conduct research on intersubjectiveness spirit of Chinese aesthetics and literature from the dimensions of the longitudinal time. The discussion will also cause a vital significance to the building of contemporary Chinese aesthetics in this direction.

  20. Invariance of Conjunctions of Polynomial Equalities for Algebraic Differential Equations (United States)


    non- linear hybrid systems by linear algebraic methods. In Radhia Cousot and Matthieu Martel, editors, SAS, volume 6337 of LNCS, pages 373–389. Springer...Tarski. A decision method for elementary algebra and geometry. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 59, 1951. [36] Wolfgang Walter. Ordinary...Invariance of Conjunctions of Polynomial Equalities for Algebraic Differential Equations Khalil Ghorbal1 Andrew Sogokon2 André Platzer1 July 2014

  1. [Therapy of chronic allergic conjunctivitis with sodium cromoglycate (lecrolin)]. (United States)

    Polunin, G S; Makarov, I A


    The efficacy of lecrolin (2% sodium cromoglycate) eye drops was assessed in 22 patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Positive effect was attained in all the patients on day 4.0 +/- 1.2. Signs of the disease exacerbation completely disappeared in 68% of patients in 8.3 +/- 2.4 days. No side effects of any type were observed for a month of using lecrolin eye drops.

  2. Simulation and analysis of conjunctive use with MODFLOW's farm process. (United States)

    Hanson, R T; Schmid, W; Faunt, C C; Lockwood, B


    The extension of MODFLOW onto the landscape with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates fully coupled simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow and runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. This allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within "water-balance subregions" comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Simulation of micro-agriculture in the Pajaro Valley and macro-agriculture in the Central Valley are used to demonstrate the utility of MF-FMP. For Pajaro Valley, the simulation of an aquifer storage and recovery system and related coastal water distribution system to supplant coastal pumpage was analyzed subject to climate variations and additional supplemental sources such as local runoff. For the Central Valley, analysis of conjunctive use from different hydrologic settings of northern and southern subregions shows how and when precipitation, surface water, and groundwater are important to conjunctive use. The examples show that through MF-FMP's ability to simulate natural and anthropogenic components of the hydrologic cycle, the distribution and dynamics of supply and demand can be analyzed, understood, and managed. This analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding them in the simulation and are difficult to estimate a priori.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yu. Petrova


    Full Text Available The article deals with the description of conjuction of two different meanings or shades of meanings of polysemic words in one word usage in the poetic text. Some types of contexts with such conjunction are discussed: sentences with co-ordinated parts, statements with similes, etc. Meaning conjunction in different parts of speech is studied; the combination in one word usage of free and phraseologically bound meanings; of usual and terminological meanings, of the dictionary word meaning and its semantic transformation in the poetic language. Special attention is paid to investigation of meaning conjunction of words of the same semantic class, based on the study of color adjectives. Adjectives red, purple, pink, blue and derivative verbs are discussed. In poetic metaphors and similes two menings of these words overlap: the direct meaning referring to the tenor and the figurative (personifying meaning referring to the vehicle. The figurative meaning characterizes the color of human skin caused by some physical / emotional processes (not race. The conclusion is made that in such words in the literray text coincidence of the direct level of the text and its figurative level is established. It is proposed to include search for other classes of such words and their description in the task of future research. 

  4. The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Process: Overview and Operational Experiences (United States)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft


    Orbital debris poses a significant threat to spacecraft health and safety. Recent events such as China's anti-satellite test and the Breeze-M rocket explosion have led to an even greater awareness and concern in the satellite community. Therefore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established requirements that routine conjunction assessment screening shall be performed for all maneuverable spacecraft having perigees less than 2000 km or within 200 km of geosynchronous altitude. NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed an operational collision risk assessment process to protect NASA s high-value unmanned (robotic) assets that has been in use since January 2005. This paper provides an overview of the NASA robotic conjunction assessment process, including descriptions of the new tools developed to analyze close approach data and of the risk mitigation strategies employed. In addition, statistical data describing the number of conjunctions experienced are presented. A debris avoidance maneuver performed by Aura in June of 2008 is described in detail to illustrate the process.

  5. Emedastine and allergic conjunctivitis: new preparation. Poor assessment. (United States)


    (1) There is no clearly established reference eye-drop preparation for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. Steroid eye drops must be avoided. Virtually the only criterion on which to base the choice among the other antiallergic eye drops is the type and presence of preservatives, as these must be avoided by the small number of patients who are allergic to them. (2) In our opinion the clinical file on the 0.05% emedastine eye drops now available in France fails to answer many practical questions, as it almost solely comprises single-dose clinical pharmacology studies. (3) A trial involving 221 patients with allergic conjunctivitis, during a period of pollination, showed no tangible difference in efficacy between 0.05% emedastine and 0.05% levocabastine eye drops after 6 weeks of treatment. (4) The main adverse effects observed in clinical trials were local, consisting of eye redness, dryness and discomfort. When taken orally, emedastine is known to prolong the QT interval, and it is difficult to determine the precise cardiac risk during ocular administration. (5) 0.05% emedastine eye drops change nothing in the management of allergic conjunctivitis.

  6. Conjunctions in ELF academic discourse: a corpus-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Centonze


    Full Text Available Abstract – Conjunctions as fundamental elements in the construction of discourse cohesion represent a relatively neglected research area, due to their complexity and the bewildering number of “conjunctive relations” (Halliday and Hasan 1976: 226 that they may express in context, as also highlighted in Christiansen (2011. In addition to this, there does not seem to be a shared view as far as the classification and denomination of the different kinds of conjunctions are concerned (cf. Halliday and Hasan 1976; Vande Kopple 1985; Martin and Rose 2003; Hyland 2005b. The selection of a specific type of conjunction acquires more importance because they are typically open to so many different interpretations, especially when the participants in the speech event come from diverse lingua-cultural backgrounds (cf. Guido 2007; Guido 2008; Cogo et al. 2011.Following the taxonomy provided by Halliday and Hasan (1976 for conjunctions, our study attempts to shed light on the usage of conjunctions by ELF speakers in specific contexts. We shall consider ten transcripts taken from the VOICE Corpus (Seidlhofer et. al 2013, namely five interviews and five conversations in multicultural academic contexts (approximately 4,000 words each, and analyze the number of instances for each type of conjunction (additive, adversative, clausal, temporal as well as continuatives in depth, by adopting a quantitative as well as a qualitative method and by using TextSTAT 2.9 (Huning 2012. We shall then move on to the analysis of conjunctions with respect to their internal properties/collocates and eventually see the occurrence of conjunctions by comparing them with the two different speech events which are chosen as the subject of our study, i.e. interviews and conversations. We shall see the extent to which certain conjunctions are more restricted than others in terms of usage (cf. Leung 2005 in both types of speech events, despite the great number of options available to the

  7. Quantum structure of negation and conjunction in human thought. (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas


    We analyze in this paper the data collected in a set of experiments investigating how people combine natural concepts. We study the mutual influence of conceptual conjunction and negation by measuring the membership weights of a list of exemplars with respect to two concepts, e.g., Fruits and Vegetables, and their conjunction Fruits And Vegetables, but also their conjunction when one or both concepts are negated, namely, Fruits And Not Vegetables, Not Fruits And Vegetables, and Not Fruits And Not Vegetables. Our findings sharpen and advance existing analysis on conceptual combinations, revealing systematic deviations from classical (fuzzy set) logic and probability theory. And, more important, our results give further considerable evidence to the validity of our quantum-theoretic framework for the combination of two concepts. Indeed, the representation of conceptual negation naturally arises from the general assumptions of our two-sector Fock space model, and this representation faithfully agrees with the collected data. In addition, we find a new significant and a priori unexpected deviation from classicality, which can exactly be explained by assuming that human reasoning is the superposition of an "emergent reasoning" and a "logical reasoning," and that these two processes are represented in a Fock space algebraic structure.

  8. Quantum Structure of Negation and Conjunction in Human Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts


    Full Text Available We analyze in this paper the data collected in a set of experiments investigating how people combine natural concepts. We study the mutual influence of conceptual conjunction and negation by measuring the membership weights of a list of exemplars with respect to two concepts, e.g., {it Fruits} and {it Vegetables}, and their conjunction {it Fruits And Vegetables}, but also their conjunction when one or both concepts are negated, namely, {it Fruits And Not Vegetables}, {it Not Fruits And Vegetables} and {it Not Fruits And Not Vegetables}. Our findings sharpen and advance existing analysis on conceptual combinations, revealing systematic deviations from classical (fuzzy set logic and probability theory. And, more important, our results give further considerable evidence to the validity of our quantum-theoretic framework for the combination of two concepts. Indeed, the representation of conceptual negation naturally arises from the general assumptions of our two-sector Fock space model, and this representation faithfully agrees with the collected data. In addition, we find a new significant and a priori unexpected deviation from classicality, which can exactly be explained by assuming that human reasoning is the superposition of an `emergent reasoning' and a `logical reasoning', and that these two processes are represented in a Fock space algebraic structure.

  9. [Origins of dialogue: phenomenological theories of intersubjectivity in developmental perspectives and as a foundation of psychotherapeutic processes]. (United States)

    Schmoll, D; Haltenhof, H


    Recognizing the other with his/her psychic peculiarity is an important assumption for psychotherapy. But how is empathy possible? Answers are to be expected by phenomenological-philosophical approaches concerning intersubjectivity and infant research. They are described in a comprehensive way and related to each other in spite of their epistemological differences. As can be seen in the beginning of showing and reading maternal emotions (so-called "social referencing") an infant is able to show intersubjective behaviour from the age of nine months on. Research on the reflected image of the infant and the development of shame shows that consciousness of the ego is not built before the age of one and a half years. These empirically well established results contradict those phenomenological approaches claiming that the other cannot be experienced directly but via cognitive analogies of own emotions (Lipps, Husserl). They better fit an anthropology that states the human being as an innate dialogically structured one and therefore being capable of empathy. Therefore the base for a deeper understanding of the following results of psychotherapy-research is established: 1. Early infant's memories probably do not exist as isolated images but are embedded in interactional structures. 2. Strict therapeutical abstinence may be experienced as a denial of communication and may have a retraumatic effect. 3. Quality of therapeutical relationship is crucial for the success of psychotherapy.

  10. The beneficial biological properties of salicylic acid


    Randjelović Pavle; Veljković Slavimir; Stojiljković Nenad; Sokolović Dušan; Ilić Ivan; Laketić Darko; Randjelović Dušica; Randjelović Nebojša


    Salicylic acid is a phytochemical with beneficial effects on human well-being. Salicylic acid is a phenolic compound and is present in various plants where it has a vital role in protection against pathogenic agents. Natural sources include fruits, vegetables and spices. The most famous and defined effect of salicylic acid is prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. Salicylic acid has antiinflammatory effects through suppression of transcription of genes for cyclooxygenase. Most of the pharmacolog...

  11. Semaphorin 3A controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junmi; Tanaka; Hideo; Tanaka; Nobuhisa; Mizuki; Eiichi; Nomura; Norihiko; Ito; Naoko; Nomura; Masayuki; Yamane; Tomonobu; Hida; Yoshio; Goshima; Hiroshi; Hatano; Hisashi; Nakagawa


    AIM: To assess the efficacy of topical Semaphorin 3A(SEMA3A) in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.METHODS: Experimental allergic conjunctivitis(EAC)mice model induced by short ragweed pollen(SRW) in 4-week-old of BALB/c mice, mice were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin(H&E) staining, immunofluor-escence and light microscope photographs. Early phase took the samples in 24 h after instillation and late phase took the samples between 4 to 14 d after the start of treatment. The study use of topical SEMA3A(10 U, 100 U,1000 U) eye drops and subconjunctival injection of SEMA3 A with same concentration. For comparison, five types of allergy eyedrops were quantified using clinical characteristics.· RESULTS: Clinical score of composite ocular symptoms of the mice treated with SEMA3 A were significantly decreased both in the immediate phase and the late phase compared to those treated with commercial ophthalmic formulations and non-treatment mice. SEMA3 A treatment attenuates infiltration of eosinophils entering into conjunctiva in EAC mice. The score of eosinophil infiltration in the conjunctiva of SEMA3 A 1000 U-treated group were significantly lower than low-concentration of SEMA3 A treated groups and non-treated group. SEMA3 A treatment also suppressed T-cell proliferation in vitro and decreased serum total Ig E levels in EAC mice. Moreover, treatment of SEMA3 A suppressed Th2-related cytokines(IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4)and pro-inflammatory cytokines(IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α)release, but increased regulatory cytokine IL-10 concentration in the conjunctiva of EAC mice.CONCLUSION: SEMA3 A as a biological agent, showed the beneficial activity in ocular allergic processes with the less damage to the intraocular tissue. It is expected that SEMA3 A may be contributed in patients with a more severe spectrum of refractory ocular allergic diseases including allergic conjunctivitis in the near future.

  12. On variables with few occurrences in conjunctive normal forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kullmann, Oliver


    We consider the question of the existence of variables with few occurrences in boolean conjunctive normal forms (clause-sets). Let mvd(F) for a clause-set F denote the minimal variable-degree, the minimum of the number of occurrences of variables. Our main result is an upper bound mvd(F) nM(surp(F)) must have a non-trivial autarky (so clauses can be removed satisfiability-equivalently by an assignment satisfying some clauses and not touching the other clauses). It is open whether such an autarky can be found in polynomial time.

  13. Improved Conjunction Analysis via Collaborative Space Situational Awareness (United States)

    Kelso, T.; Vallado, D.; Chan, J.; Buckwalter, B.

    With recent events such as the Chinese ASAT test in 2007 and the USA 193 intercept in 2008, many satellite operators are becoming increasingly aware of the potential threat to their satellites as the result of orbital debris or even other satellites. However, to be successful at conjunction monitoring and collision avoidance requires accurate orbital information for as many space objects (payloads, dead satellites, rocket bodies, and debris) as possible. Given the current capabilities of the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN), approximately 18,500 objects are now being tracked and orbital data (in the form of two-line element sets) is available to satellite operators for 11,750 of them (as of 2008 September 1). The capability to automatically process this orbital data to look for close conjunctions and provide that information to satellite operators via the Internet has been continuously available on CelesTrak, in the form of Satellite Orbital Conjunction Reports Assessing Threatening Encounters in Space (SOCRATES), since May 2004. Those reports are used by many operators as one way to keep apprised of these potential threats. However, the two-line element sets (TLEs) are generated using non-cooperative tracking via the SSN's network of radar and optical sensors. As a result, the relatively low accuracy of the data results in a large number of false alarms that satellite operators must routinely deal with. Yet, satellite operators typically perform orbit maintenance for their own satellites, using active ranging and GPS systems. These data are often an order of magnitude more accurate than those available using TLEs. When combined (in the form of ephemerides) with maneuver planning information, the ability to maintain predictive awareness increases significantly. And when satellite operators share this data, the improved space situational awareness, particularly in the crowded geosynchronous belt, can be dramatic and the number of false alarms can be reduced

  14. The impact of visual communication on the intersubjective development of early parent-child interaction with 18- to 24-month-old deaf toddlers. (United States)

    Loots, Gerrit; Devisé, Isabel; Jacquet, Wolfgang


    This article presents a study that examined the impact of visual communication on the quality of the early interaction between deaf and hearing mothers and fathers and their deaf children aged between 18 and 24 months. Three communication mode groups of parent-deaf child dyads that differed by the use of signing and visual-tactile communication strategies were involved: (a) hearing parents communicating with their deaf child in an auditory/oral way, (b) hearing parents using total communication, and (c) deaf parents using sign language. Based on Loots and colleagues' intersubjective developmental theory, parent-deaf child interaction was analyzed according to the occurrence of intersubjectivity during free play with a standard set of toys. The data analyses indicated that the use of sign language in a sequential visual way of communication enabled the deaf parents to involve their 18- to 24-month-old deaf infants in symbolic intersubjectivity, whereas hearing parents who hold on to oral-only communication were excluded from involvement in symbolic intersubjectivity with their deaf infants. Hearing parents using total communication were more similar to deaf parents, but they still differed from deaf parents in exchanging and sharing symbolic and linguistic meaning with their deaf child.

  15. What Is It Like to Be a Person Who Knows Nothing? Defining the Active Intersubjective Mind of a Newborn Human Being (United States)

    Trevarthen, Colwyn


    As thinking adults depend upon years of practical experience, reasoning about facts and causes, and language to sustain their knowledge, beliefs and memories, and to understand one another, it seems quite absurd to suggest that a newborn infant has intersubjective mental capacities. But detailed research on how neonatal selves coordinate the…

  16. Max Scheler's theory of intersubjectivity%马克斯·舍勒的主体间性思想研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春时; 王欢欢


    Compared to other phenomenologists,Max Scheler has two characteristics in his study of intersubjectivity.First,his study of the relation between i and you is based on intersubjectivity,rath-er than on subjectivity.Second,his study reveals two trends,that is,naturalism and fideism.How-ever,his theory of intersubjectivity has two defects.First,he does not expound the conditions of in-tersubjectivity in naturalism and fideism,which lies in the identification of Being.Second,he does not ask whether the intersubjectivity in naturalism or fideism is real intersubjectivity,which we believe lies in the intersubjectivity of aesthetics.%相比于其他现象学家,马克斯·舍勒对主体间性的探讨具有两个特点。首先,他不是从主体性哲学的角度来探究我-你关系,而是从主体间性的角度来研究我-你关系。其次,这种主体间性的探究又具备两种倾向,一种是自然主义的倾向,一种是信仰主义的倾向。不过,他对主体间性思想探究存在下述两个问题。第一,他没有追问自然主义的主体间性和信仰主义的主体间性何以可能的问题,在我们看来,存在的同一性为二者的存在奠定了根基;第二,他没有追问,自然主义的主体间性和信仰主义的主体间性是否是真正的主体间性,是一种本真性的我-你关系,在我们看来,二者都不是,只有审美主体间性才是真正的主体间性,才是真正的我-你关系。

  17. Optic Nerve Injury in a Patient with Chronic Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribhi Hazin


    Full Text Available Manipulation of the optic nerve can lead to irreversible vision changes. We present a patient with a past medical history of skin allergy and allergic conjunctivitis (AC who presented with insidious unexplained unilateral vision loss. Physical exam revealed significant blepharospasm, mild lid edema, bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, afferent pupillary defect, and slight papillary hypertrophy. Slit lamp examination demonstrated superior and inferior conjunctival scarring as well as superior corneal scarring but no signs of external trauma or neurological damage were noted. Conjunctival cultures and cytologic evaluation demonstrated significant eosinophilic infiltration. Subsequent ophthalmoscopic examination revealed optic nerve atrophy. Upon further questioning, the patient admitted to vigorous itching of the affected eye for many months. Given the presenting symptoms, history, and negative ophthalmological workup, it was determined that the optic nerve atrophy was likely secondary to digital pressure from vigorous itching. Although AC can be a significant source of decreased vision via corneal ulceration, no reported cases have ever described AC-induced vision loss of this degree from vigorous itching and chronic pressure leading to optic nerve damage. Despite being self-limiting in nature, allergic conjunctivitis should be properly managed as extreme cases can result in mechanical compression of the optic nerve and compromise vision.

  18. Therapeutic targeting of eosinophil adhesion and accumulation in allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eBaiula


    Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules.Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target.Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs.This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis.

  19. Effect of rasanjana madhu ashchyotana in netra abhishyanda (mucopurulent conjunctivitis). (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Atul; Tanwar, Manoj


    To evaluate the comparative efficacy of Ayurvedic formulation a Rasanjana Madhu (RM) eye drops and Honey Rose (HR) water eye drops in Netra Abhishyanda in mucopurulent conjunctivitis, the current study is planned. Total of 35 patients attending the outpatient department of Shalakya Tantra at R. G. G. Postgraduate Ayurvedic College, Paprola, Distt. Kangra, Himachal Pradesh with characteristic features of Netra Abhishyanda were selected for the present study. Twenty patients were given trial drug, i.e., RM eye drops, while 15 patients were given HR eye drops. Random sampling technique was adopted for the present study. The duration of the treatment was 7 days with 1 week follow-up. Patients receiving the trial group demonstrated reduction of redness, burning sensation, lacrimation, photophobia, foreign body sensation, discharge, and congestion, which were statistically significant with 93% patients cured or markedly improved category. Signs and symptoms stated above were also statistically reduced with HR eye drops, probably because of well-documented hygroscopic and bacteriocidal properties of honey. Based on the study, it can be concluded that, RM eye drops are very effective in the management of Netra Abhishyanda viz. Infective conjunctivitis.

  20. Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation (United States)


    Future human lunar habitation requires using in situ materials for both structural components and oxygen production. Lunar bases must be constructed from thermal-and radiation-shielding materials that will provide significant protection from the harmful cosmic energy which normally bombards the lunar surface. In addition, shipping oxygen from Earth is weight-prohibitive, and therefore investigating the production of breathable oxygen from oxidized mineral components is a major ongoing NASA research initiative. Lunar regolith may meet the needs for both structural protection and oxygen production. Already a number of oxygen production technologies are being tested, and full-scale bricks made of lunar simulant have been sintered. The beneficiation, or separation, of lunar minerals into a refined industrial feedstock could make production processes more efficient, requiring less energy to operate and maintain and producing higher-performance end products. The method of electrostatic beneficiation used in this research charges mineral powders (lunar simulant) by contact with materials of a different composition. The simulant acquires either a positive or negative charge depending upon its composition relative to the charging material.

  1. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.


    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  2. Local diffusion homogeneity (LDH): an inter-voxel diffusion MRI metric for assessing inter-subject white matter variability. (United States)

    Gong, Gaolang


    Many diffusion parameters and indices (e.g., fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD]) have been derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. These parameters have been extensively applied as imaging markers for localizing white matter (WM) changes under various conditions (e.g., development, degeneration and disease). However, the vast majority of the existing parameters is derived from intra-voxel analyses and represents the diffusion properties solely within the voxel unit. Other types of parameters that characterize inter-voxel relationships have been largely overlooked. In the present study, we propose a novel inter-voxel metric referred to as the local diffusion homogeneity (LDH). This metric quantifies the local coherence of water molecule diffusion in a model-free manner. It can serve as an additional marker for evaluating the WM microstructural properties of the brain. To assess the distinguishing features between LDH and FA/MD, the metrics were systematically compared across space and subjects. As an example, both the LDH and FA/MD metrics were applied to measure age-related WM changes. The results indicate that LDH reveals unique inter-subject variability in specific WM regions (e.g., cerebral peduncle, internal capsule and splenium). Furthermore, there are regions in which measurements of age-related WM alterations with the LDH and FA/MD metrics yield discrepant results. These findings suggest that LDH and FA/MD have different sensitivities to specific WM microstructural properties. Taken together, the present study shows that LDH is complementary to the conventional diffusion-MRI markers and may provide additional insights into inter-subject WM variability. Further studies, however, are needed to uncover the neuronal mechanisms underlying the LDH.

  3. Local diffusion homogeneity (LDH: an inter-voxel diffusion MRI metric for assessing inter-subject white matter variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaolang Gong

    Full Text Available Many diffusion parameters and indices (e.g., fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD] have been derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data. These parameters have been extensively applied as imaging markers for localizing white matter (WM changes under various conditions (e.g., development, degeneration and disease. However, the vast majority of the existing parameters is derived from intra-voxel analyses and represents the diffusion properties solely within the voxel unit. Other types of parameters that characterize inter-voxel relationships have been largely overlooked. In the present study, we propose a novel inter-voxel metric referred to as the local diffusion homogeneity (LDH. This metric quantifies the local coherence of water molecule diffusion in a model-free manner. It can serve as an additional marker for evaluating the WM microstructural properties of the brain. To assess the distinguishing features between LDH and FA/MD, the metrics were systematically compared across space and subjects. As an example, both the LDH and FA/MD metrics were applied to measure age-related WM changes. The results indicate that LDH reveals unique inter-subject variability in specific WM regions (e.g., cerebral peduncle, internal capsule and splenium. Furthermore, there are regions in which measurements of age-related WM alterations with the LDH and FA/MD metrics yield discrepant results. These findings suggest that LDH and FA/MD have different sensitivities to specific WM microstructural properties. Taken together, the present study shows that LDH is complementary to the conventional diffusion-MRI markers and may provide additional insights into inter-subject WM variability. Further studies, however, are needed to uncover the neuronal mechanisms underlying the LDH.

  4. Patterns of responses to alternative medicines in controlling allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Deepak


    Full Text Available This analysis identifies the various patterns of the responses of the medicines in controlling allergic conjunctivitis. The mean S Deviation coefficient of variation, correlation matrix and loading of factors are worked out as stated in the tables. In the present case the Eigen values greater than 1.50 are retained. The four factors retained explain 68% of the total variations of the 16 responses. The first factor shows 23.38% of variations in total responses while first two and first three factors show 42.39% and 58.64% respectively. Thus medicine affective in controlling the symptoms are given In the descending order: oxymetazoline and sodium salicylate and Sodium cromoglycate, Oxymetazoline and Disodium CCromoglycate & Sodium Salicylate and disodium Cromoglycate.

  5. San Joaquin-Tulare Conjunctive Use Model: Detailed model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.


    The San Joaquin - Tulare Conjunctive Use Model (SANTUCM) was originally developed for the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program to evaluate possible scenarios for long-term management of drainage and drainage - related problems in the western San Joaquin Valley of California. A unique aspect of this model is its coupling of a surface water delivery and reservoir operations model with a regional groundwater model. The model also performs salinity balances along the tributaries and along the main stem of the San Joaquin River to allow assessment of compliance with State Water Resources Control Board water quality objectives for the San Joaquin River. This document is a detailed description of the various subroutines, variables and parameters used in the model.

  6. Use of subepithelial conjunctive tissue graft in root covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Clemente Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Gingival recession may cause cosmetic changes and root hypersensitivity, which can alter mastication and tooth brushing, and thus contribute to the progression of periodontal disease. Treatment of gingival recessions with subepithelial conjunctive tissue grafting is very predictable due to its bilaminar nature. However, some factors may influence the success of the procedure, among them: selection of the lesion; characteristics of the defect with regard to the depth and width of the recession, the deeper and wider the recession, the worse the prognosis, and also the presence of restorations. Furthermore, it is necessary to control the etiologic factors of recessions, such as inflammation and traumatic brushing, control of systemic factors, occlusal trauma, smoking and harmful habits, technical considerations and asepsis. The success of the procedure must be based on observing the possible factors that might influence their predictability, as well as respecting the basic principles of mucogingival surgery.

  7. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes. (United States)

    Pieterse, Corné M J; Zamioudis, Christos; Berendsen, Roeland L; Weller, David M; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Bakker, Peter A H M


    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. A wide variety of root-associated mutualists, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Trichoderma, and mycorrhiza species sensitize the plant immune system for enhanced defense without directly activating costly defenses. This review focuses on molecular processes at the interface between plant roots and ISR-eliciting mutualists, and on the progress in our understanding of ISR signaling and systemic defense priming. The central role of the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 in the onset of ISR and the role of phytohormones and defense regulatory proteins in the expression of ISR in aboveground plant parts are highlighted. Finally, the ecological function of ISR-inducing microbes in the root microbiome is discussed.

  8. Beneficial properties of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomičić Zorica M.


    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii is unique probiotic and biotherapeutic yeast, known to survive in gastric acidity and it is not adversely affected or inhibited by antibiotics or does not alter or adversely affect the normal microbiota. S. boulardii has been utilized worldwide as a probiotic supplement to support gastrointestinal health. The multiple mechanisms of action of S. boulardii and its properties may explain its efficacy and beneficial effects in acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases that have been confirmed by clinical trials. Caution should be taken in patients with risk factors for adverse events. Its potential application in various dairy foods could offer an alternative probiotic product to people suffering from antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This review discusses the evidence for efficacy and safety of S. boulardii as a probiotic for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders in humans.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

  10. Electrostatic Separator for Beneficiation of Lunar Soil (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Arens, Ellen; Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James


    A charge separator has been constructed for use in a lunar environment that will allow for separation of minerals from lunar soil. In the present experiments, whole lunar dust as received was used. The approach taken here was that beneficiation of ores into an industrial feedstock grade may be more efficient. Refinement or enrichment of specific minerals in the soil before it is chemically processed may be more desirable as it would reduce the size and energy requirements necessary to produce the virgin material, and it may significantly reduce the process complexity. The principle is that minerals of different composition and work function will charge differently when tribocharged against different materials, and hence be separated in an electric field.

  11. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback


    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  12. Azithromycin reduces inflammation in a rat model of acute conjunctivitis (United States)

    Fernandez-Robredo, Patricia; Recalde, Sergio; Moreno-Orduña, Maite; García-García, Laura; Zarranz-Ventura, Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo


    Purpose Macrolide antibiotics are known to have various anti-inflammatory effects in addition to their antimicrobial activity, but the mechanisms are still unclear. The effect of azithromycin on inflammatory molecules in the lipopolysaccharide-induced rat conjunctivitis model was investigated. Methods Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups receiving topical ocular azithromycin (15 mg/g) or vehicle. In total, six doses (25 µl) were administered as one dose twice a day for three days before subconjunctival lipopolysaccharide injection (3 mg/ml). Before the rats were euthanized, mucus secretion, conjunctival and palpebral edema and redness were evaluated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine gene expression for interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. Interleukin-6 was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, nuclear factor-kappa B with western blot, and MMP-2 activity with gelatin zymogram. Four eyes per group were processed for histology and subsequent periodic acid-Schiff staining and CD68 for immunofluorescence. The Student t test or the Wilcoxon test for independent samples was applied (SPSS v.15.0). Results Azithromycin-treated animals showed a significant reduction in all clinical signs (p<0.05) compared to controls. Interleukin-6 (p<0.05), nuclear factor-kappa B protein expression (p<0.01), and MMP-2 activity (p<0.05) in conjunctival homogenates were significantly reduced compared with the control animals. MMP-2 gene expression showed a tendency to decrease in the azithromycin group (p=0.063). Mucus secretion by goblet cells and the macrophage count in conjunctival tissue were also decreased in the azithromycin group (p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that azithromycin administration ameliorates induced inflammation effects in a rat model of acute conjunctivitis. PMID:23378729

  13. Conjunctivitis as seen in Ile-Ife | Adegbehingbe | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective: To survey the clinical pattern of conjunctivitis with the aim ... Method: Patients with clinical features of conjunctivitis form the cohort of this study. ... sensitivity tests, and were investigated by standard microbiological methods.

  14. NERBio: using selected word conjunctions, term normalization, and global patterns to improve biomedical named entity recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Hsieh-Chuan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical named entity recognition (Bio-NER is a challenging problem because, in general, biomedical named entities of the same category (e.g., proteins and genes do not follow one standard nomenclature. They have many irregularities and sometimes appear in ambiguous contexts. In recent years, machine-learning (ML approaches have become increasingly common and now represent the cutting edge of Bio-NER technology. This paper addresses three problems faced by ML-based Bio-NER systems. First, most ML approaches usually employ singleton features that comprise one linguistic property (e.g., the current word is capitalized and at least one class tag (e.g., B-protein, the beginning of a protein name. However, such features may be insufficient in cases where multiple properties must be considered. Adding conjunction features that contain multiple properties can be beneficial, but it would be infeasible to include all conjunction features in an NER model since memory resources are limited and some features are ineffective. To resolve the problem, we use a sequential forward search algorithm to select an effective set of features. Second, variations in the numerical parts of biomedical terms (e.g., "2" in the biomedical term IL2 cause data sparseness and generate many redundant features. In this case, we apply numerical normalization, which solves the problem by replacing all numerals in a term with one representative numeral to help classify named entities. Third, the assignment of NE tags does not depend solely on the target word's closest neighbors, but may depend on words outside the context window (e.g., a context window of five consists of the current word plus two preceding and two subsequent words. We use global patterns generated by the Smith-Waterman local alignment algorithm to identify such structures and modify the results of our ML-based tagger. This is called pattern-based post-processing. Results To develop our ML

  15. Testing Boundary Conditions for the Conjunction Fallacy: Effects of Response Mode, Conceptual Focus, and Problem Type (United States)

    Wedell, Douglas H.; Moro, Rodrigo


    Two experiments used within-subject designs to examine how conjunction errors depend on the use of (1) choice versus estimation tasks, (2) probability versus frequency language, and (3) conjunctions of two likely events versus conjunctions of likely and unlikely events. All problems included a three-option format verified to minimize…

  16. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of chrome ore beneficiation plant tailing and its beneficiated products (United States)

    Das, S. K.


    Mineralogical characterization and liberation of valuable minerals are primary concerns in mineral processing industries. The present investigation focuses on quantitative mineralogy, elemental deportment, and locking-liberation characteristics of the beneficiation of tailings from a chrome ore beneficiation plant in the Sukinda region, Odisha; methods used for the study of the beneficiated tailings are QEMSCAN®, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mineral chemistry by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The tailing sample was fine grained (69.48wt% below 45 μm size), containing 20.25wt% Cr2O3 and 39.19wt% Fe2O3, with a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 0.51. Mineralogical investigations using QEMSCAN studies revealed that chromite, goethite, and gibbsite are the dominant mineral phases with minor amounts of hematite, kaolinite, and quartz. The sample contained 34.22wt% chromite, and chromite liberation is more than 80% for grains smaller than 250 μm in size. Based on these results, it was predicted that liberated chromite and high-grade middling chromite particles could be separated from the gangue by various concentration techniques. The tailing sample was beneficiated by hydrocyclone, tabling, wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), and flotation in order to recover the chromite. A chromite concentrate with 45.29wt% Cr2O3 and a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 1.85 can be produced from these low-grade chromite ore beneficiation plant rejects.

  17. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun


    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankalp Raj


    Full Text Available New innovations and advances in science and technology in the present day have made considerable and significant changes in the lifestyle of people all around the globe. Communication from one part of the world to another is possible at the hit of a button . Social networking is being rampantly used everywhere and by everybody, be it youngsters or the older generation. Facebook and Whatsapp are the most commonly used means of communication in social networking at present. Smart phones functioning as minicomp uters with fast internet connectivity in the pockets of today’s technosavy generation have made them create and spend most of their time interacting with people in a virtual world. There is an urgent need to understand the dynamics of social media and its effects on the lifestyle of people. Studies documenting the same have been very few. This study was conducted to understand the benefits and harms towards health and academics of MBBS students. This cross - sectional study on 147 MBBS students revealed inter esting findings and opinions of the students. Effects of Facebook and What Sapp on productivity and sleep disturbances due to it were the significant findings of the study. Facebook and Whatsapp can be considered both beneficial and harmful and it solely d epends on how it is being put to use

  19. Nanoscale particles in technological processes of beneficiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Popel


    Full Text Available Background: Cavitation is a rather common and important effect in the processes of destruction of nano- and microscale particles in natural and technological processes. A possible cavitation disintegration of polymineral nano- and microparticles, which are placed into a liquid, as a result of the interaction of the particles with collapsed cavitation bubbles is considered. The emphasis is put on the cavitation processes on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles, which is suitable for the description of the real situations.Results: The results are illustrated for the minerals that are most abundant in gold ore. The bubbles are generated by shock loading of the liquid heated to the boiling temperature. Possibilities of cavitation separation of nano- and microscale monomineral fractions from polymineral nano- and microparticles and of the use of cavitation for beneficiation are demonstrated.Conclusion: The cavitation disintegration mechanism is important because the availability of high-grade deposits in the process of mining and production of noble metals is decreasing. This demands for an enhancement of the efficiency in developing low-grade deposits and in reprocessing ore dumps and tailings, which contain a certain amount of noble metals in the form of finely disseminated fractions. The cavitation processes occuring on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles are occasionally more effective than the bulk cavitation processes that were considered earlier.

  20. Beneficial effects of antioxidative lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Nakagawa


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is caused by exposure to reactive oxygen intermediates. The oxidative damage of cell components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids one of the important factors associated with diabetes mellitus, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. This occurs as a result of imbalance between the generations of oxygen derived radicals and the organism’s antioxidant potential. The amount of oxidative damage increases as an organism ages and is postulated to be a major causal factor of senescence. To date, many studies have focused on food sources, nutrients, and components that exert antioxidant activity in worms, flies, mice, and humans. Probiotics, live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts provide many beneficial effects on the human health, have been attracting growing interest for their health-promoting effects, and have often been administered in fermented milk products. In particular, lactic acid bacteria (LAB are known to conferre physiologic benefits. Many studies have indicated the antioxidative activity of LAB. Here we review that the effects of lactic acid bacteria to respond to oxidative stress, is connected to oxidative-stress related disease and aging.

  1. The psychotherapy of schizophrenia through the lens of phenomenology: intersubjectivity and the search for the recovery of first- and second-person awareness. (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Lysaker, Paul H


    Phenomenological analyses suggest that persons with schizophrenia have profound difficulties with meaningfully engaging the world and situating a sense of self intersubjectively, which leads to the experience of self as absent. In this paper we explore the implications of this view for understanding the workings and potential of individual psychotherapy. Following an examination of individual psychotherapy transcripts for over 60 persons with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders we offer four principles for psychotherapy and provide clinical vignettes to exemplify these points. We suggest that the psychotherapy of persons with schizophrenia may be conceptualised as a "dialogical prosthesis" that helps individuals recover past selves then kindle internal and external dialogue, which partially enables a sense of the self to emerge. The therapeutic process consists of assisting persons to move towards recovery by providing an intersubjective space where they can evolve the first-person perspective of themselves and the second-person perspective when encountering others.

  2. Location-based effects underlie feature conjunction benefits in visual working memory. (United States)

    Wang, Benchi; Cao, Xiaohua; Theeuwes, Jan; Olivers, Christian N L; Wang, Zhiguo


    Studies of visual working memory (VWM) have reported that different features belonging to the same object (conjunctions) are better retained than the same features belonging to spatially separated objects (disjunctions). This conjunction benefit has been taken as evidence for the theory that VWM representations are object-based. However, compared to separate features, conjunctions also occupy fewer locations. Here we tested the alternative hypothesis that the conjunction benefit reflects a spatial-based rather than an object-based advantage. Experiment 1 shows a clear VWM conjunction benefit for spatially laid out displays of memory items. However, when the same items were presented sequentially at one location (i.e., location was noninformative), memory performance was equivalent for conjunction and disjunction conditions. Experiment 2 shows that only when the probe carries spatial information (i.e., it matches the location of the memory item) does a conjunction benefit occur. Taken together, these results put important boundaries on object-based theories of VWM.

  3. Privately Releasing Conjunctions and the Statistical Query Barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Anupam; Roth, Aaron; Ullman, Jonathan


    Suppose we would like to know all answers to a set of statistical queries C on a data set up to small error, but we can only access the data itself using statistical queries. A trivial solution is to exhaustively ask all queries in C. Can we do any better? + We show that the number of statistical queries necessary and sufficient for this task is---up to polynomial factors---equal to the agnostic learning complexity of C in Kearns' statistical query (SQ) model. This gives a complete answer to the question when running time is not a concern. + We then show that the problem can be solved efficiently (allowing arbitrary error on a small fraction of queries) whenever the answers to C can be described by a submodular function. This includes many natural concept classes, such as graph cuts and Boolean disjunctions and conjunctions. In doing so we also give a new learning algorithm for submodular functions that improves upon recent results in a different context. While interesting from a learning theoretic point of v...

  4. Diagnosis and management of allergic conjunctivitis in pediatric patients. (United States)

    Berger, William E; Granet, David B; Kabat, Alan G


    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), although one of the most common ocular disorders in pediatric patients, is frequently overlooked, misdiagnosed, and undertreated in children. To guide pediatric health care professionals in the optimal diagnosis and management of AC in pediatric patients. To identify any existing best practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of AC in pediatric patients, a review of the literature published between 2004 and January 2015 was conducted. Diagnosis and treatment algorithms and guidelines for pediatric patient referrals were then developed. A literature search to identify best practice guidelines for the treatment of AC in pediatric patients failed to return any relevant articles, which highlighted the need for best practice recommendations. Based on publications on adult AC and clinical experience, this review provides step-by-step guidance for pediatric health care professionals, including recognizing clinical features of AC, establishing a comprehensive medical history, and performing a thorough physical examination to ensure a correct diagnosis and the optimal treatment or referral to an eye care specialist or allergist when required. In addition to established drug treatments, the role of subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy is discussed to inform pediatric health care professionals about alternative treatment options for patients who do not tolerate pharmacotherapy or who do not respond sufficiently. The diagnostic and treatment algorithms and guidelines provided in this review help address the current literature and educational gap and may lead to improvements in diagnosis and management of pediatric AC.

  5. Mental Models for the Negation of Conjunctions and Disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Macbeth


    Full Text Available This study investigates why reasoning that involves negation is extremely difficult. We presented participants with reasoning problems containing sentences with negation of conjunctions and disjunctions in order to test predictions derived from the Mental Models Theory of human thought. According to this theory, reasoning consists of representing and comparing possibilities. Different sentential forms would require different cognitive demands. In particular, responses to a sentential negation task would be modulated by working memory load. This prediction would hold for correct responses but also for the general pattern of responses that includes incorrect responses when the task offers different response options. A within-subjects experimental design with selection paradigm was applied to test these predictions. Experimental comparisons and a complementary descriptive study yielded evidence consistent with the theory-driven predictions derived from the Mental Models Theory. The working memory load was critical for the modulation of correct responses and overall responses. We discussed alternative accounts, and suggested additional predictions for further evaluation of these phenomena.

  6. Electrochemical methods in conjunction with capillary and microchip electrophoresis. (United States)

    Mark, Jonas J P; Scholz, Rebekka; Matysik, Frank-Michael


    Electromigrative techniques such as capillary and microchip electrophoresis (CE and MCE) are inherently associated with various electrochemical phenomena. The electrolytic processes occurring in the buffer reservoirs have to be considered for a proper design of miniaturized electrophoretic systems and a suitable selection of buffer composition. In addition, the control of the electroosmotic flow plays a crucial role for the optimization of CE/MCE separations. Electroanalytical methods have significant importance in the field of detection in conjunction with CE/MCE. At present, amperometric detection and contactless conductivity detection are the predominating electrochemical detection methods for CE/MCE. This paper reviews the most recent trends in the field of electrochemical detection coupled to CE/MCE. The emphasis is on methodical developments and new applications that have been published over the past five years. A rather new way for the implementation of electrochemical methods into CE systems is the concept of electrochemically assisted injection which involves the electrochemical conversions of analytes during the injection step. This approach is particularly attractive in hyphenation to mass spectrometry (MS) as it widens the range of CE-MS applications. An overview of recent developments of electrochemically assisted injection coupled to CE is presented.

  7. Size Bounds for Conjunctive Queries with General Functional Dependencies

    CERN Document Server

    Valiant, Gregory


    This paper resolves the main open question left by Gottlob, Lee, and Valiant (PODS 2009)[GLV09], establishing tight worst-case bounds for the size of the result Q(D) of a conjunctive query Q to a database D given an arbitrary set of functional dependencies. We show that the lower bound presented in [GLV09] in which the variables of the query are "colored" so as to yield a coloring number C(Q) for each query Q is, in fact, also an upper bound. To show this, we formalize the original intuition that each color used represents some possible entropy of that variable, and express the maximum possible size increase as a linear program that seeks to maximize how much more entropy is in the result of the query than the input. Although this linear program has exponentially many variables, we also show that we can decide in polynomial time whether the result can be any larger than the input database.

  8. Cortex-based inter-subject analysis of iEEG and fMRI data sets: application to sustained task-related BOLD and gamma responses. (United States)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Singer, Neomi; Podlipsky, Ilana; Fried, Itzhak; Hendler, Talma; Goebel, Rainer


    Linking regional metabolic changes with fluctuations in the local electromagnetic fields directly on the surface of the human cerebral cortex is of tremendous importance for a better understanding of detailed brain processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and intra-cranial electro-encephalography (iEEG) measure two technically unrelated but spatially and temporally complementary sets of functional descriptions of human brain activity. In order to allow fine-grained spatio-temporal human brain mapping at the population-level, an effective comparative framework for the cortex-based inter-subject analysis of iEEG and fMRI data sets is needed. We combined fMRI and iEEG recordings of the same patients with epilepsy during alternated intervals of passive movie viewing and music listening to explore the degree of local spatial correspondence and temporal coupling between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI changes and iEEG spectral power modulations across the cortical surface after cortex-based inter-subject alignment. To this purpose, we applied a simple model of the iEEG activity spread around each electrode location and the cortex-based inter-subject alignment procedure to transform discrete iEEG measurements into cortically distributed group patterns by establishing a fine anatomic correspondence of many iEEG cortical sites across multiple subjects. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-modal inter-subject cortex-based distributed analysis for combining iEEG and fMRI data sets acquired from multiple subjects with the same experimental paradigm but with different iEEG electrode coverage. The proposed iEEG-fMRI framework allows for improved group statistics in a common anatomical space and preserves the dynamic link between the temporal features of the two modalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inter-subject correlation of brain hemodynamic responses during watching a movie: localization in space and frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka-Pekka Kauppi


    Full Text Available Cinema is a promising naturalistic stimulus that enables, for instance, elicitation of robust emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Inter-subject correlation (ISC has been used as a model-free analysis method to map the highly complex hemodynamic responses that are evoked during watching a movie. Here, we extended the ISC analysis to frequency domain using wavelet analysis combined with non-parametric permutation methods for making voxel-wise statistical inferences about frequency-band specific ISC. We applied these novel analysis methods to a dataset collected in our previous study where 12 subjects watched an emotionally engaging movie “Crash” during fMRI scanning. Our results suggest that several regions within the frontal and temporal lobes show ISC predominantly at low frequency bands, whereas visual cortical areas exhibit ISC also at higher frequencies. It is possible that these findings relate to recent observations of a cortical hierarchy of temporal receptive windows, or that the types of events processed in temporal and prefrontal cortical areas (e.g., social interactions occur over longer time periods than the stimulus features processed in the visual areas. Software tools to perform frequency-specific ISC analysis, together with a visualization application, are available as open source Matlab code.

  10. Atlasing location, asymmetry and inter-subject variability of white matter tracts in the human brain with MR diffusion tractography. (United States)

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Ffytche, Dominic H; Bizzi, Alberto; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Allin, Matthew; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin; Williams, Steven C; Murphy, Declan G M; Catani, Marco


    The purpose of this study is to create a white matter atlas of the human brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and to describe the constant and variable features of the major pathways. DTI was acquired from 40 healthy right-handed adults and reconstructed tracts mapped within a common reference space (MNI). Group effect maps of each tract defined constant anatomical features while overlap maps were generated to study inter-subject variability and to compare DTI derived anatomy with a histological atlas. Two patients were studied to assess the localizing validity of the atlas. The DTI-derived maps are overall consistent with a previously published histological atlas. A statistically significant leftward asymmetry was found for the volume and number of streamlines of the cortico-spinal tract and the direct connections between Broca's and Wernicke's territories (long segment). A statistically significant rightward asymmetry was found for the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the fronto-parietal connections (anterior segment) of the arcuate fasciculus. Furthermore, males showed a left lateralization of the fronto-temporal segment of the arcuate fasciculus (long segment), while females had a more bilateral distribution. In two patients with brain lesions, DTI was acquired and tractography used to show that the tracts affected by the lesions were correctly identified by the atlas. This study suggests that DTI-derived maps can be used together with a previous histological atlas to establish the relationship of focal lesions with nearby tracts and improve clinico-anatomical correlation.

  11. Psychological Repair: The Intersubjective Dialogue of Remorse and Forgiveness in the Aftermath of Gross Human Rights Violations. (United States)

    Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla


    The possibility of psychological repair after mass trauma is considered here in the context of the global trend of dialogue between survivors and perpetrators in the aftermath of mass atrocities. Stories of remorse and forgiveness illustrate and allow reflection on the last two decades' experience in dealing with the past, as exemplified by truth commissions in countries like South Africa and Rwanda. Three aspects of this experience are stressed. First, it is argued that the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) of South Africa was a unique dialogic space that enabled the emergence of new subjectivities in the encounter between survivors and perpetrators. Second, concepts of intersubjectivity are used to explore how a psychoanalytic perspective might contribute to understanding the process of trauma testimony, and to examine the different ways in which empathy plays out in survivors' and perpetrators' responses as witnesses to trauma testimony. A key element here is the aspect of concern and care for the other that is linked to the empathy-remorse-forgiveness cycle in the dialogue between victim and perpetrator. Finally, remorse and its relation to forgiveness are explored. Contextually rich case study material from research on forgiveness illustrates this discussion.

  12. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske


    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  13. Mars Conjunction Crewed Missions With a Reusable Hybrid Architecture (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Strange, Nathan J.; Qu, Min; Hatten, Noble


    A new crew Mars architecture has been developed that provides many potential benefits for NASA-led human Mars moons and surface missions beginning in the 2030s or 2040s. By using both chemical and electric propulsion systems where they are most beneficial and maintaining as much orbital energy as possible, the Hybrid spaceship that carries crew round trip to Mars is pre-integrated before launch and can be delivered to orbit by a single launch. After check-out on the way to cis-lunar space, it is refueled and can travel round trip to Mars in less than 1100 days, with a minimum of 300 days in Mars vicinity (opportunity dependent). The entire spaceship is recaptured into cis-lunar space and can be reused. The spaceship consists of a habitat for 4 crew attached to the Hybrid propulsion stage which uses long duration electric and chemical in-space propulsion technologies that are in use today. The hybrid architecture's con-ops has no in-space assembly of the crew transfer vehicle and requires only rendezvous of crew in a highly elliptical Earth orbit for arrival at and departure from the spaceship. The crew transfer vehicle does not travel to Mars so it only needs be able to last in space for weeks and re-enter at lunar velocities. The spaceship can be refueled and resupplied for multiple trips to Mars (every other opportunity). The hybrid propulsion stage for crewed transits can also be utilized for cargo delivery to Mars every other opportunity in a reusable manner to pre-deploy infrastructure required for Mars vicinity operations. Finally, the Hybrid architecture provides evolution options for mitigating key long-duration space exploration risks, including crew microgravity and radiation exposure.

  14. Conjunction error rates on a continuous recognition memory test: little evidence for recollection. (United States)

    Jones, Todd C; Atchley, Paul


    Two experiments examined conjunction memory errors on a continuous recognition task where the lag between parent words (e.g., blackmail, jailbird) and later conjunction lures (blackbird) was manipulated. In Experiment 1, contrary to expectations, the conjunction error rate was highest at the shortest lag (1 word) and decreased as the lag increased. In Experiment 2 the conjunction error rate increased significantly from a 0- to a 1-word lag, then decreased slightly from a 1- to a 5-word lag. The results provide mixed support for simple familiarity and dual-process accounts of recognition. Paradoxically, searching for an item in memory does not appear to be a good encoding task.

  15. Recent trends in chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis among neonates and adults in an Irish hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, Michael


    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are two important and frequently overlooked causes of neonatal and adult conjunctivitis. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In order to improve primary treatment, prevention, and control of infection caused by these organisms, an analysis of all cases presenting from July 2002 to December 2006 at a major Irish regional teaching hospital was performed. RESULTS: There were 51 cases of conjunctivitis in total. Among neonates and adults, C. trachomatis was the most common cause of conjunctivitis. Of the adult patients, 75% were men. The annual incidence of adult chlamydial conjunctivitis increased yearly from 2002 and correlated with an overall increase in genital chlamydia infection in the region. Neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis has an overall incidence of 0.65\\/1000 live births and is continuing to rise annually. In 2006, gonococcal conjunctivitis accounted for 20% of all cases of conjunctivitis caused by sexually transmitted bacteria presenting to our hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in the incidence of gonococcal keratitis serves to remind us that this important infection should be borne in mind when treating cases of purulent conjunctivitis. The diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment with systemic antibiotics.

  16. [The value of the cytological exam in the diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis]. (United States)

    Turlea, M; Raica, D; Ciocmăreanu, M; Haidar, A; Jinga, F


    Cytologic investigations was performed in four groups of patients: central group (10 cares), without pathologic lesions; 12 patients were admitted with allergic conjunctivitis (with positive allergy tests, atopic state or clinical manifest allergic diseases), 20 cases with bacterial conjunctivitis; 8 cases with mix allergic and bacterial conjunctivitis (that hardly respond to therapy). Smears from the conjunctivae secretion were air-dried and stained with blue-polycrometanin Drăgan method. Cytologic lesions characteristic for each group of patients are described. Our results suggest that cytology from the conjunctivae secretion is helpful in the diagnosis of the allergic etiology; also, it accurately the allergic components mix conjunctivitis.

  17. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Holt, Rebecca [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by scarcity, and where most water resources are fully allocated, prospective development will require minimizing water use and seeking to use water resources in the most efficient manner. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater provides just such an opportunity. Conjunctive use includes two main practices: First, integrating surface water diversions and groundwater withdrawals to maximize efficiency and minimize impacts on other resource users and ecological processes. Second, conjunctive use includes capturing surplus or unused surface water and injecting or infiltrating that water into groundwater aquifers in order to increase recharge rates. Conjunctive management holds promise as a means of addressing some of the West's most intractable problems. Conjunctive management can firm up water supplies by more effectively capturing spring runoff and surplus water, and by integrating its use with groundwater withdrawals; surface and groundwater use can be further integrated with managed aquifer recharge projects. Such integration can maximize water storage and availability, while simultaneously minimizing evaporative loss, reservoir sedimentation, and surface use impacts. Any of these impacts, if left unresolved, could derail commercial-scale unconventional fuel development. Unconventional fuel developers could therefore benefit from incorporating conjunctive use into their development plans. Despite its advantages, conjunctive use is not a panacea. Conjunctive use means using resources in harmony to maximize and stabilize long-term supplies it does not mean maximizing the use of two separate but interrelated resources for unsustainable short-term gains and it cannot resolve all problems or provide water where no unappropriated water exists. Moreover, conjunctive use may pose risks to ecological values forgone when water that would otherwise remain in a stream

  18. 试论慈善捐赠的主体间性%Dissertting the Framing Significance of Intersubjectivity Charitable Donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Philanthropy is an important force to promote social harmony and progress , and the development charity donation is an eter-nal theme.In the West, charitable giving emphasizes on human values under Christianity , through the process from the traditional ma-terials donated to the service and then donated to the organization relying on donations of professional constructed donor and the recipi -ent of the donation pattern intersubjectivity and philosophy .Charitable donations respect the rights and obligations between subjects and the parties mutually body .In the background of national mobilization charitable , philanthropic donations between research subject , both to promote the rich philanthropic theory , especially charitable and cultural development , and can be used to guide the development of philanthropy .%在西方,基督教义下的慈善捐赠重视人的价值,经历了由传统的物质捐赠到服务捐赠再到以组织为依托的专业捐赠的过程,构建了捐赠者与受赠者互为主体的捐赠格局和理念。主体间性的慈善捐赠尊重捐赠者与受赠者双方的权利与义务,双方互为主体。在全民慈善总动员的时代背景下,对主体间性慈善捐赠的研究,既能够促进慈善理论的丰富和慈善文化的发展,又能够在实践上用来指导慈善事业运作,促进慈善事业的发展。

  19. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.


    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  20. The Early Efficacy of Topical Levocabastine in Patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujishima


    Conclusions: Although artificial tears had a positive effect in reducing symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, by the washing out of allergens, levocabastine was more effective than artificial tears in controlling acute symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, demonstrating that the selective H1 histamine-receptor antagonist action of levocabastine is rapidly effective in a clinical setting.

  1. On the conjunction practical stability and controllability of large-scale impulsive control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilan CHEN; Jitao SUN


    We studied the conjunction practical stability and controllability of large-scale impulsive control systems by using the comparison systems and vector Lyapunov functions.Then the less conservative sufficient conditions for conjunction practical stability and controllability of large-scale impulsive control system were obtained.

  2. Interpretation formulas for conjunctions and particles in the explanatory Ukrainian language dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Bugakov


    Full Text Available Interpretation formulas for conjunctions and particles in the explanatory Ukrainian language dictionary Interpretation formulas for conjunctions and particles in the Ukrainian Language Dictionary are defined. The peculiarities of presenting lexical semantics for these parts of speech in the explanatory part of the dictionary entry are described. The way of presenting interpretation formulas using synonyms is also described.

  3. Collision Avoidance Short Course: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis - NASA Robotic CARA. Part I: ; Theory (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Frigm, Ryan C.


    Satellite conjunction assessment is perhaps the fastest growing area in space situational awareness and protection with military, civil and commercial satellite owner-operators embracing more and more sophisticated processes to avoid the avoidable - namely collisions between high value space assets and orbital debris. NASA and Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) have collaborated to offer an introductory short course on all the major aspects of the conjunctions assessment problem. This half-day course will cover satellite conjunction dynamics and theory. Joint Space Operations Center (JsPOC) conjunction data products, major risk assessment parameters and plots, conjunction remediation decision support, and present and future challenges. This briefing represents the NASA portion of the course.

  4. Theoretical Connotation of the Intersubjectivity Moral Education%浅谈主体间性德育的理论内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    主体间性德育是师生主体间在生活世界里为达到共同遵守道德规范和实施道德行为所展开的交互共在、协同互动的交往过程。道德教育源于生活,回归并融入生活世界的德育,它建构了主体间精神活动的过程,成为主体间性德育的基础;师生主体间在相互尊重、相互理解、相互认同的基础上,从而形成一种以"互交主体"为中心的师生主体间协同互助的融合,成为主体间性德育的本质所在。%The intersubjectivity moral education is the contacting process for teachers and students in real life.Moral education originates from life,getting back to and mixing together with the real life is the process of building people's spirit activity in the real world,which is the basis of the intersubjectivity moral education.Based on the mutual understanding and respect,students and teachers can communicate with each other to get moral common sense.Reaching spirit agreement by emotional communication is the essence of the intersubjectivity moral education.

  5. Heel-strike in walking: assessment of potential sources of intra- and inter-subject variability in the activation patterns of muscles stabilizing the knee joint. (United States)

    Huber, Cora; Federolf, Peter; Nüesch, Corina; Cattin, Philippe C; Friederich, Niklaus F; Tscharner, Vinzenz von


    The electromyographic (EMG) signal is known to show large intra-subject and inter-subject variability. Adaptation to, and preparation for, the heel-strike event have been hypothesized to be major sources of EMG variability in walking. The aim of this study was to assess these hypotheses using a principal component analysis (PCA). Two waveform shapes with distinct characteristic features were proposed based on conceptual considerations of how the neuro-muscular system might prepare for, or adapt to, the heel-strike event. PCA waveforms obtained from knee muscle EMG signals were then compared with the predicted characteristic features of the two proposed waveforms. Surface EMG signals were recorded for ten healthy adult female subjects during level walking at a self-selected speed, for the following muscles; rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris. For a period of 200 ms before and after heel-strike, EMG power was extracted using a wavelet transformation (19-395 Hz). The resultant EMG waveforms (18 per subject) were submitted to intra-subject and inter-subject PCA. In all analyzed muscles, the shapes of the first and second principal component (PC-) vectors agreed well with the predicted waveforms. These two PC-vectors accounted for 50-60% of the overall variability, in both inter-subject and intra-subject analyses. It was also found that the shape of the first PC-vector was consistent between subjects, while higher-order PC-vectors differed between subjects. These results support the hypothesis that adaptation to, and preparation for, a variable heel-strike event are both major sources of EMG variability in walking.

  6. On Construction of Intersubjectivity Relations between Teachers and Students of Vocational Education%论职业教育师生主体间性关系的建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 李蓉; 杨庆云


    随着主体性向主体间性的哲学转型,主体间性问题越来越成为当代哲学探讨的焦点之一。现今,随着职业教育在国民教育体系中的地位不断上升,借助于主体问性,为职业教育新型师生关系的构建提供了新的视角和基本策略。%With the philosophical transition from subjectivity to intersubjectivity, issue of intersubjectivity has been one of the key focuses in the contemporary philosophical research. As the statue' s improvement of vocational education in national education system, intersubjectivity has provided new angles and strategies to construct the new relationship between Vocational Education teachers and students.

  7. Beneficial effect of Curcumin in Letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sushma Reddy


    Conclusion: Curcumin showed beneficial effects in Letrozole induced PCOS in female Wistar rats. Its effect was comparable to that of Clomiphene citrate, most widely used treatment for ovulation induction in PCOS condition.

  8. Graphene-based composite materials beneficial to wound healing (United States)

    Lu, Bingan; Li, Ting; Zhao, Haitao; Li, Xiaodong; Gao, Caitian; Zhang, Shengxiang; Xie, Erqing


    We use electrospinning to prepare chitosan-PVA nanofibers containing graphene. The nanofibers can be directly used in wound healing: graphene, as an antibacterial material, can be beneficial for this. A possible antibacterial mechanism for graphene is presented.

  9. Lunar Oxygen and Silicon Beneficiation Using Only Solar Power Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Element beneficiation from a moving, ionized plasma can be accomplished through the principles of mass spectroscopy. Two US patents were recently awarded to the PI...

  10. Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions


    Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Sessitsch, Angela


    It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO2, drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate chan...

  11. Criticism and Reconstruction——On Translation Intersubjectivity%批判与建构——论翻译的主体间性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭芳; 黄振定


    翻译主体间性是近几年以来翻译界的热点问题,但大多关注作者、译者和读者3者的交互关系,对翻译主体间性的哲学基础和语言学基础则较少关注。翻译主体间性以实践哲学为哲学基础,以交往理性为理性基础,以言语行为理论和普遍语用学为语言学基础,正是基于这样的基础,我们说翻译主体间性是具有建构意义的。在此基础上,笔者拟提出并论证新的翻译标准:交往语用等效。%Translation intersubjectivity,a heated issue in translation field recently,attracts more and more attention in the topic of inter-relationship among the author,translator and readers,but attracts less attention about its philosophical foundation and linguistic perspective.Based on practical philosophy,communicative rationality,speech act theory and universal pragmatics,the theory of translation intersubjectivity is significantly reconstructive to translation studies.On this basis,a new translation criterion—communicative pragmatic equivalence is proposed.

  12. Rational CoMMunicative Actions-the Intersubjectivity of Translation%理性的交往--翻译的主体间性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on Habermas’ Theory of Communicative Action,this paper has made a research into the intersubjectivity in trans-lation. With the help of discussing the intersubjectivity in“the Self”,“the Rationality”,and“the Language”,this paper elaborates that translations are the rational communicative actions among translators,writers and readers,in which they understand each other successfully in the way of communicating equally and restraining each other rationally. This paper provides an idea to avoid wrong translating norms.%从哈贝马斯的交往行为理论出发,通过探讨“自我”“理性”和“语言”几个重要概念的主体间性问题,揭示了翻译活动是译者、作者和读者主体之间的理性交往过程,他们之间只有通过平等的对话和理性的相互制约,才能达成翻译的成功,为避免极端的翻译方法提供了一种思路。

  13. Polymorphism in the ADRB2 gene explains a small portion of intersubject variability in pain relative to cervical dilation in the first stage of labor. (United States)

    Terkawi, Abdullah S; Jackson, William M; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Tabassum, Rabeena; Flood, Pamela


    Variability in labor pain has been associated with demographic, clinical, and psychological factors. Polymorphisms of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) influence sensitivity to experimental pain in humans and are a risk factor for chronic pain. The authors hypothesized that polymorphisms in ADRB2 may influence labor pain. After Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, the authors prospectively obtained hourly pain reports from 233 nulliparous parturients during the first stage of labor, of which 199 were included in the current analysis. DNA from blood samples was genotyped at polymorphisms in the genes for the β2-adrenergic receptor, the μ opioid receptor subtype 1, catechol-O-methyltransferase, fatty acid amide hydrolase, and the oxytocin receptor. Labor pain as a function of cervical dilation was modeled with previously described methods. Patient covariates, ADRB2 genotype, and obstetrical and anesthesia treatment were evaluated as covariates in the model. Labor pain more rapidly became severe in parturients heterozygous or homozygous for the G allele at rs1042714 in the ADRB2 gene. Labor pain increased more rapidly after artificial rupture of membranes, augmentation with oxytocin, and in younger women. Inclusion of covariates explained approximately 10% of the variability between subjects. ADRB2 genotype explained less than 1% of the intersubject variability. ADRB2 genotype correlates with labor pain but explained less than 1% of the intersubject variance in the model.

  14. New conjunctive reagents as cross-coupling partners en route to retinoid-like polyenes. (United States)

    Lipshutz, Bruce H; Clososki, Giuliano C; Chrisman, Will; Chung, David W; Ball, David B; Howell, Jennifer


    [structure: see text] New conjunctive reagents E-2 and Z-3 can be used, after transmetalation, in Negishi couplings with vinyl and aryl iodides. The subsequently unmasked terminal alkynes can be further manipulated to arrive at retinoid-like products.

  15. Assessment, Planning, and Execution Considerations for Conjunction Risk Assessment and Mitigation Operations (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Levi, Joshua A.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.


    An operational Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) concept is the real-time process of assessing risk posed by close approaches and reacting to those risks if necessary. The most effective way to completely mitigate conjunction risk is to perform an avoidance maneuver. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented a routine CARA process since 2005. Over this period, considerable experience has been gained and many lessons have been learned. This paper identifies and presents these experiences as general concepts in the description of the Conjunction Assessment, Flight Dynamics, and Flight Operations methodologies and processes. These general concepts will be tied together and will be exemplified through a case study of an actual high risk conjunction event for the Aura mission.

  16. Vygotsky and intersubjectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krichevets A.N.


    Full Text Available Lev Vygotsky’s statement on the development of the higher psychological functions— from the interpsychological form to the intrapsychological form—is discussed in the article. I describe the changing of Vygotsky’s interest from nonverbal to verbal communication and his emphasis on verbal communication as an only kind of interpsychological function. I then analyze works that show the importance of nonverbal communication in this process. I raise the questions of what an interpsychological function is and who is its “owner.” I argue that immediate response to the behavior (verbal and nonverbal of another person is a basis for the psychological functions of a child, and this basis continues to influence processes in later stages of human development, including adulthood. Thus, interpsychological function in the development of the child is inevitably connected with some kind of passivity in reactions to social stimulation.

  17. Power, boundaries, intersubjectivity. (United States)

    Owen, Ian R


    The first part of this paper is a brief overview of the keynote speech given by Jeffrey Masson at the Sixth Conference of the Society for Existential Analysis, London, entitled Issues of power in the psychotherapeutic relationship, in which Masson raised various questions about the assumptions of what constitutes the alleged inappropriate behaviour of therapists, and the boundaries of the professional role that must not be overstepped. These criticisms are begun to be addressed in this paper. The overall aim of this paper is to promote a sceptical and critical discussion of the psychotherapeutic relationship and a few of its founding assumptions.

  18. A System Dynamics Model to Conserve Arid Region Water Resources through Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Conjunction with a Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Niazi


    Full Text Available Groundwater depletion poses a significant threat in arid and semi-arid areas where rivers are usually ephemeral and groundwater is the major source of water. The present study investigated whether an effective water resources management strategy, capable of minimizing evaporative water losses and groundwater depletion while providing water for expanded agricultural activities, can be achieved through aquifer storage and recovery (ASR implemented in conjunction with water storage in an ephemeral river. A regional development modeling framework, including both ASR and a dam design developed through system dynamics modeling, was validated using a case study for the Sirik region of Iran. The system dynamics model of groundwater flow and the comprehensive system dynamics model developed in this study showed that ASR was a beneficial strategy for the region’s farmers and the groundwater system, since the rate of groundwater depletion declined significantly (from 14.5 meters per 40 years to three meters over the same period. Furthermore, evaporation from the reservoir decreased by 50 million cubic meters over the simulation period. It was concluded that the proposed system dynamics model is an effective tool in helping to conserve water resources and reduce depletion in arid regions and semi-arid areas.

  19. Conjunctivitis and Total IgE in Lacrimal Fluid: Lacrytest Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Monzón


    Full Text Available Total tear IgE has been considered to play an important role in allergic conjunctivitis, and measurement has been considered useful for diagnosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether Lacrytest®, a new commercialised method to detect IgE levels in lacrimal fluid, could constitute a screening test for the diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis. This was a cross-sectional study. Patients with seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and a control group were included. Clinical history, ophthalmic examination, skin prick test and conjunctival provocation test were obtained. Lacrytest® was later performed in all groups. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: thirty with IgE-mediated conjunctivitis and, nine with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and fifteen controls. Lacrytest® was negative in all controls, positive in 20% of the IgE-mediated conjunctivitis group and in 88.9% of the vernal keratoconjunctivitis group. Global statistically-significant differences were found among the three groups (=.003. Sensitivity of the test in the IgE-mediated conjunctivitis group was 20%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 38.46%, while in VKC sensitivity was 88.88%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 93.75%. Our data confirm that this test is not useful for screening allergic conjunctivitis. Lacrytest®, while not providing any useful information to an allergist, could be helpful for ophthalmologists to confirm an IgE-mediated or VKC conjunctivitis.

  20. Aspects of the semantic structure of the text: Conjunctions and particles as predicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topolińska Zuzanna


    Full Text Available The author argues in favor of the thesis that on the semantic level conjunctions and particles function as predicates, in other words, as constitutive members of propositions; they imply propositional, and only propositional, arguments and - in case of conjunctions - reflect the train of our thought, respectively provide information about relations between the events as perceived by the author of the text, and - in case of particles - reflect the speaker’s evaluation of corresponding events.

  1. A microbiological study of neonatal conjunctivitis in two hospitals in Tehran, Iran (United States)

    Afjeiee, Seyed Abolfazl; Tabatabaei, Sedigheh Rafiei; Fallah, Fatemeh; Shiva, Farideh; Zanjani, Nafiseh Tahami; Fard, Arezou Tavakkoly; Adabian, Saadat; Rahbar, Mohammad; Nourinia, Ramin; Karimi, Abdollah


    Objective To determine the prevalence of neonatal conjunctivitis and to identify the causative agents of ophthalmia neonatorum in two university affiliated hospitals from 2008 to 2009. Methods All neonates admitted in the neonatal department during the study period were examined for the presence of conjunctivitis. Two swab specimens containing epithelial cells of the conjunctiva were collected from newborns presenting with conjuntival inflammation. Laboratory diagnosis was based on direct smear for Gramstaining and bacterial culture. The isolated bacteria were identified using standard procedures. PCR and cell culture were used for identification. Results Of the 2 253 neonates, (age ranged 1–30 days), clinical findings of conjunctivitis were found in 241 cases (10.7%). The most commonly isolated bacteria were Coagulase negative staphylococci, (n=130, 53.9%); Chlamydia trachomatis was the second most common cause of acute neonatal conjunctivitis (n=40, 16.6%). Bacterial cultures were negative in 47 neonates (19.5%) despite clinical signs of conjunctivitis. The median age at presentation for bacterial culture positive was day 8 of life. Conclusions Neonatal conjunctivitis is prevalent in newborns; Gram positive cocci and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common causative organisms.

  2. What is your neural function, visual narrative conjunction? Grammar, meaning, and fluency in sequential image processing. (United States)

    Cohn, Neil; Kutas, Marta


    Visual narratives sometimes depict successive images with different characters in the same physical space; corpus analysis has revealed that this occurs more often in Japanese manga than American comics. We used event-related brain potentials to determine whether comprehension of "visual narrative conjunctions" invokes not only incremental mental updating as traditionally assumed, but also, as we propose, "grammatical" combinatoric processing. We thus crossed (non)/conjunction sequences with character (in)/congruity. Conjunctions elicited a larger anterior negativity (300-500 ms) than nonconjunctions, regardless of congruity, implicating "grammatical" processes. Conjunction and incongruity both elicited larger P600s (500-700 ms), indexing updating. Both conjunction effects were modulated by participants' frequency of reading manga while growing up. Greater anterior negativity in frequent manga readers suggests more reliance on combinatoric processing; larger P600 effects in infrequent manga readers suggest more resources devoted to mental updating. As in language comprehension, it seems that processing conjunctions in visual narratives is not just mental updating but also partly grammatical, conditioned by comic readers' experience with specific visual narrative structures.

  3. Investigation of an outbreak of Moraxella conjunctivitis at a Navajo boarding school. (United States)

    Schwartz, B; Harrison, L H; Motter, J S; Motter, R N; Hightower, A W; Broome, C V


    In 1986, an outbreak of Moraxella follicular conjunctivitis occurred in girls attending a Navajo boarding school in New Mexico. We diagnosed 19 cases of culture-proven, and 21 of clinical conjunctivitis based on isolation of Moraxella from conjunctival cultures and the occurrence of symptoms significantly associated with positive culture. Sharing eye makeup was significantly associated with Moraxella-positive conjunctivitis (odds ratio [OR] = 7.2, P = .004) and showed a trend toward significance in those with clinical conjunctivitis (OR = 2.9, P = .09). Eyeliner and eye shadow were implicated (OR = 4.1, P less than .05). We cultured samples of 13 students' makeup; one third of the eyeliners were positive for Moraxella. Nasal carriage of Moraxella was found in 35 (44%) of the 79 female boarders and in 20 (21%) of 97 Navajo patients at two nearby clinics. In a prospective evaluation of the effect of patient education and rifampin therapy on the occurrence of conjunctivitis during an 11-month follow-up period, both types of intervention were successful in significantly reducing the rate of conjunctivitis when compared with that in a control group.

  4. Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions. (United States)

    Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela


    It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change.

  5. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Levasseur, A.A.


    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of advanced coal-cleaning technologies aimed at expanding the use of the nation`s vast coal reserves in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner. Because of the lack of practical experience with deeply beneficiated coal-based fuels, PETC has contracted Combustion Engineering, Inc. to perform a multi-year project on `Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.` The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs.

  6. Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.


    Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

  7. 中国古代文论的审美主体间性特征研究%Research on the Aesthetic Intersubjectivity Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    当前的世界,是全球化的思潮逐渐蔓延的时代,同时,现代性的思潮危机也是我们必须反思的内容,在两者相互碰撞的时代危机之下,我们可以从审美主体间性这一全新的角度来对中国古代文论进行全新的考察。我们认为,中国古代文论的审美主体间性主要体现在浑融的艺术感知性、双向对举的艺术张力以及艺类渗透的文本融合性。中国古代文论的这种审美主体间性是与西方文论有着截然不同的特质的,是具有中国特色的古典文论,它对世界美学都会产生极为重要的影响,而且也应该成为世界美学中的重要组成部分。%The current world is the era in which the current of globalization is gradually spreading, while at the same time, the crisis of modernity of thought is what we must reflect on. Under the age of crisis in which the contents of the two colliding, we can carry out a new study on Chinese Ancient Literature from a new perspective of aesthetic intersubjectivity. The writer believes that the aesthetic intersubjectivity of Chinese Ancient Literature is mainly reflected in the artistic perception of oneness, two-way artistic tension and text fusion of art class penetration. The aesthetic intersubjectivity of Chinese Ancient Literature has distinct traits compared with western literary theory, which is classical literary theory with Chinese characteristics and is an important part and will have a very important impact on aesthetics in the world.

  8. “不可译”论的主体间性批判%Critical View on the Intersubjectivity of Untranslatability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The idea of untranslatability has a long history. However,ideas on whether untranslatability of linguistic structure or un-translatability of cultural tradition underestimate the potential cognitive power of brain,wrongly speculate the nature of language,over-emphasize the subjectivity and ignore the intersubjectivity. Under the framework of intersubjectivity,the seemingly“untranslatable”language and cultural phenomena have intrinsic“translatable”linguistic philosophy. Therefore,this paper reviews this issue according to the theory of intertextuality translation,the theory of linguistic change from social linguistics,and the theory of deconstructive trans-lation and points out the idea of untranslatability ignores the fundamental humanistic attribute of language and reveals its agnosticism in essence from the perspective of linguistic intersubjectivity.%“不可译”论有着悠久的历史,不论是关于语言结构的“不可译”,还是文化传统的“不可译”断言,都是对人脑认知功能潜势的低估,是对语言本质认识的讹推,是对主体性的过分执著和对主体间性的无视。从主体间性的认识论出发,那些看似“不可译”的语言、文化现象天生就带有“可译”性的语言哲学基础。基于此,根据“互文性翻译”理论、社会语言学的“语言变化”理论、“解构翻译”理论对“不可译”论依次进行审视,并最终从语言的主体间性角度指出“不可译”论忽略了语言的人文主义根本属性,可以彰显其本质上的“不可知”论属性。

  9. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. (United States)


    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 182.40 Section 182.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their...

  10. Neonatal conjunctivitis (United States)

    ... given right after birth Infection by bacteria or viruses Bacteria that normally live in a woman's vagina may ... the time of delivery. She still may carry bacteria or viruses that can cause this problem.

  11. Total Probability of Collision as a Metric for Finite Conjunction Assessment and Collision Risk Management (United States)

    Frigm, R.; Johnson, L.

    The Probability of Collision (Pc) has become a universal metric and statement of on-orbit collision risk. Although several flavors of the computation exist and are well-documented in the literature, the basic calculation requires the same input: estimates for the position, position uncertainty, and sizes of the two objects involved. The Pc is used operationally to make decisions on whether a given conjunction poses significant collision risk to the primary object (or space asset of concern). It is also used to determine necessity and degree of mitigative action (typically in the form of an orbital maneuver) to be performed. The predicted post-maneuver Pc also informs the maneuver planning process into regarding the timing, direction, and magnitude of the maneuver needed to mitigate the collision risk. Although the data sources, techniques, decision calculus, and workflows vary for different agencies and organizations, they all have a common thread. The standard conjunction assessment and collision risk concept of operations (CONOPS) predicts conjunctions, assesses the collision risk (typically, via the Pc), and plans and executes avoidance activities for conjunctions as a discrete events. As the space debris environment continues to increase and improvements are made to remote sensing capabilities and sensitivities to detect, track, and predict smaller debris objects, the number of conjunctions will in turn continue to increase. The expected order-of-magnitude increase in the number of predicted conjunctions will challenge the paradigm of treating each conjunction as a discrete event. The challenge will not be limited to workload issues, such as manpower and computing performance, but also the ability for satellite owner/operators to successfully execute their mission while also managing on-orbit collision risk. Executing a propulsive maneuver occasionally can easily be absorbed into the mission planning and operations tempo; whereas, continuously planning evasive

  12. Space Weather Impacts to Conjunction Assessment: A NASA Robotic Orbital Safety Perspective (United States)

    Ghrist, Richard; Ghrist, Richard; DeHart, Russel; Newman, Lauri


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the risk of on-orbit collisions from other satellites and debris objects and has instituted a process to identify and react to close approaches. The charter of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) task is to protect NASA robotic (unmanned) assets from threats posed by other space objects. Monitoring for potential collisions requires formulating close-approach predictions a week or more in the future to determine analyze, and respond to orbital conjunction events of interest. These predictions require propagation of the latest state vector and covariance assuming a predicted atmospheric density and ballistic coefficient. Any differences between the predicted drag used for propagation and the actual drag experienced by the space objects can potentially affect the conjunction event. Therefore, the space environment itself, in particular how space weather impacts atmospheric drag, is an essential element to understand in order effectively to assess the risk of conjunction events. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of the impact of space weather on conjunction assessment activities: both accurately determining the current risk and assessing how that risk may change under dynamic space weather conditions. We are engaged in a data-- ]mining exercise to corroborate whether or not observed changes in a conjunction event's dynamics appear consistent with space weather changes and are interested in developing a framework to respond appropriately to uncertainty in predicted space weather. In particular, we use historical conjunction event data products to search for dynamical effects on satellite orbits from changing atmospheric drag. Increased drag is expected to lower the satellite specific energy and will result in the satellite's being 'later' than expected, which can affect satellite conjunctions in a number of ways depending on the two satellites' orbits

  13. A twenty-one year surveillance of adenoviral conjunctivitis in Sapporo, Japan. (United States)

    Aoki, Koki; Tagawa, Yoshitugu


    We have studied the clinicoetiological, serological, and molecular epidemiological features of adenoviral conjunctivitis under the auspices of the nationwide surveillance project in Sapporo, located in northern Japan. We were able to analyze the results of 1,454 cases of adenoviral, herpetic, and chlamydial conjunctivitis. We found that adenonovirus serotypes 8, 19, and 37 caused severe conjunctivitis without systemic symptoms, whereas serotypes Ad3, Ad7, and Ad11 caused mild conjunctivitis with systemic involvement. Ad4 showed a broad range of symptoms, from PCF to EKC. Adenoviral conjunctivitis had seasonal outbreaks in the summer in association with adequate temperature and humidity in Sapporo. Neutralization antibodies against Ad8, Ad19, and Ad37 were detected in fewer than 20% of cases, and so the incidence of epidemics with these serotypes may rise in the coming years. The main genome types of adenovirus in Sapporo were Ad4a, Ad8e, Ad19a, Ad19b, and Ad37p, a, and b.

  14. The Effect of Air Pollution on the Occurrence of Nonspecific Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Li


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the short-term effect of air pollution on occurrence of nonspecific conjunctivitis. Methods. Data were collected from outpatient visits from cases with conjunctivitis over a period of one year. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the number of outpatient visits and the air quality and the lag effect of air quality on conjunctivitis occurrence. Results. The air quality index on the day of presentation (P=0.023, one day before presentation (P=0.049, and two days before presentation day (P=0.050 had a positive relation with outpatient visits for conjunctivitis. The air quality index (P=0.001 and outpatient visits number per day (P=0.013 in autumn and winter (October to March were significantly higher than those in spring (April and summer (September. Conclusions. The air quality index within two days before presentation affected the probability of attending the outpatient clinic for nonspecific conjunctivitis. High number of cases can be expected in colder season.

  15. The bacterial etiology of conjunctivitis in early infancy. Eye Prophylaxis Study Group. (United States)

    Krohn, M A; Hillier, S L; Bell, T A; Kronmal, R A; Grayston, J T


    The authors conducted this study to determine the etiologic agents of conjunctivitis in early infancy. From 1985 to 1990, 630 infants enrolled in a randomized, controlled, double-masked study of eye prophylaxis were observed for 60 days after delivery for signs of conjunctivitis. The following isolates were categorized as pathogens: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria cinerea, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Using conditional logistic regression for analysis of 97 infant pairs, the authors identified isolates categorized as pathogens almost exclusively among cases (odds ratio (OR) = 18.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-128). Among the microorganisms which have not usually been regarded as pathogens in the etiology of infant conjunctivitis, Streptococcus mitis was the only microorganism associated with an increased risk of conjunctivitis (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.8-15.0). The findings concerning the species of bacteria most often associated with conjunctivitis, as well as the finding that method of delivery is unimportant, suggest that bacteria were transmitted to the infants' eyes after birth and not from the birth canal.

  16. Slowed Search in the Context of Unimpaired Grouping in Autism: Evidence from Multiple Conjunction Search. (United States)

    Keehn, Brandon; Joseph, Robert M


    In multiple conjunction search, the target is not known in advance but is defined only with respect to the distractors in a given search array, thus reducing the contributions of bottom-up and top-down attentional and perceptual processes during search. This study investigated whether the superior visual search skills typically demonstrated by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would be evident in multiple conjunction search. Thirty-two children with ASD and 32 age- and nonverbal IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children were administered a multiple conjunction search task. Contrary to findings from the large majority of studies on visual search in ASD, response times of individuals with ASD were significantly slower than those of their TD peers. Evidence of slowed performance in ASD suggests that the mechanisms responsible for superior ASD performance in other visual search paradigms are not available in multiple conjunction search. Although the ASD group failed to exhibit superior performance, they showed efficient search and intertrial priming levels similar to the TD group. Efficient search indicates that ASD participants were able to group distractors into distinct subsets. In summary, while demonstrating grouping and priming effects comparable to those exhibited by their TD peers, children with ASD were slowed in their performance on a multiple conjunction search task, suggesting that their usual superior performance in visual search tasks is specifically dependent on top-down and/or bottom-up attentional and perceptual processes.

  17. [Functional morphology of conjunctive tissue stroma of spleen in the age aspect]. (United States)

    Al'fonsova, E V


    The article presents the data on the structural and functional changes of conjunctive tissue of the spleen in postnatal ontogenesis of a person. The study was performed on 125 cadaveric spleens of the people of both sexes, who died from traumas and diseases not causing pathologic changes in the spleen. Definition of ontogenetic phases and chronological confines of age periods was identified according to Bunak V. V. (1965). The measurement of linear dimensions and mass of organ, histological, histochemical study and morphometry were performed. According to factual evidence, at the age from birth to 4 years the content of lymphatic follicles increases against a background of decrease of conjunctive tissue component and red pulp in the area of spleen section. By 8 or 10 years the part of lymphoid tissue decreases, but the part of conjunctive tissue and red pulp increases. Ageing symptoms are revealed at the age of 18, the increase of volume of conjunctive tissue component and destruction of external elastic membrane of trabecular artery of spleen take place. The destruction of elastic and reticulin fibers of soft skeleton, reduction of cellular elements (cells, fibroblasts and fibrocytes) and conjunctive tissue stroma collagenization are observed at a mature and old age.

  18. Aesthetics of Otherness:Variation of Transcendence and Intersubjectivity%他者性的美学:超越性与主体间性的变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    他者性美学是在他者性哲学的基础上形成的。列维纳斯从他者的超越性出发,把审美界定为超越经验意识的感觉,把美确定为物的本原状态。这样,他的美学就具有自然主义的倾向,而否认了审美的超越性。同时,他认为美只是"物"的还原,它超越于存在,因此不是主体,也不是人的对象,与人无关。这一思想固然摆脱了主体性,但也否定了审美的主体间性。另一个他者性美学家路易斯认为,审美源于道,道是他者,具有伦理性。艺术的他者性体现在语言、文本、创作、接受各个环节,因此审美具有公共性、客观性,而不是主体性的活动。这一理论使审美的超越性和主体间性发生了变异。从本质上说,他者性美学对他者的超越性和非主体性的强调,实际上是超越性和主体间性理论的扭曲形式。在这个意义上,他者性美学的发生,为肯定审美的主体间性和超越性开辟了道路。%Aesthetics of otherness is formed on the basis of philosophy of otherness.Starting from the transcendence of others,Levinas defined aesthetics as the sense of transcending empirical consciousness and beauty as the primary state of things.Thus done,he gave a naturalistic tendency to his aesthetics,denying transcendence of beauty appreciation.Meanwhile,he believed that beauty was reduction of "things" and transcended existence,so it had nothing to do with men,neither as the subject nor as the object of men.Although his idea broke away from subjectivity,it denied intersubjectivity in beauty appreciation.Louis,another aesthetician of otherness,thought that beauty appreciation originated from Tao,which was the other and ethical.Artistic otherness gives expression to language,text,writing and reception.Thus,beauty appreciation is not a subjective,but public and objective activity.This theory brought about variation to aesthetic transcendence and intersubjectivity.In essence,aesthetics of

  19. Titanium as a Beneficial Element for Crop Production. (United States)

    Lyu, Shiheng; Wei, Xiangying; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Cun; Wang, Xiaoming; Pan, Dongming


    Titanium (Ti) is considered a beneficial element for plant growth. Ti applied via roots or leaves at low concentrations has been documented to improve crop performance through stimulating the activity of certain enzymes, enhancing chlorophyll content and photosynthesis, promoting nutrient uptake, strengthening stress tolerance, and improving crop yield and quality. Commercial fertilizers containing Ti, such as Tytanit and Mg-Titanit, have been used as biostimulants for improving crop production; however, mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects still remain unclear. In this article, we propose that the beneficial roles Ti plays in plants lie in its interaction with other nutrient elements primarily iron (Fe). Fe and Ti have synergistic and antagonistic relationships. When plants experience Fe deficiency, Ti helps induce the expression of genes related to Fe acquisition, thereby enhancing Fe uptake and utilization and subsequently improving plant growth. Plants may have proteins that either specifically or nonspecifically bind with Ti. When Ti concentration is high in plants, Ti competes with Fe for ligands or proteins. The competition could be severe, resulting in Ti phytotoxicity. As a result, the beneficial effects of Ti become more pronounced during the time when plants experience low or deficient Fe supply.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perrotta


    Full Text Available It is well established that exercise increases energy levels and mood state. At least 20 published studies, indicate a link between physical activity and signs of prosperity. There is much medical evidence showing the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Currently there is growing interest to see ifphysical activity can also improve symptoms of mental illness

  1. The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods. (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy; Viñuela, Elisa; Zappalà, Lucia; Desneux, Nicolas


    Spinosyn-based products, mostly spinosad, have been widely recommended by extension specialists and agribusiness companies; consequently, they have been used to control various pests in many different cropping systems. Following the worldwide adoption of spinosad-based products for integrated and organic farming, an increasing number of ecotoxicological studies have been published in the past 10 years. These studies are primarily related to the risk assessment of spinosad towards beneficial arthropods. This review takes into account recent data with the aim of (i) highlighting potentially adverse effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods (and hence on ecosystem services that they provide in agroecosystems), (ii) clarifying the range of methods used to address spinosyn side effects on biocontrol agents and pollinators in order to provide new insights for the development of more accurate bioassays, (iii) identifying pitfalls when analysing laboratory results to assess field risks and (iv) gaining increasing knowledge on side effects when using spinosad for integrated pest management (IPM) programmes and organic farming. For the first time, a thorough review of possible risks of spinosad and novel spinosyns (such as spinetoram) to beneficial arthropods (notably natural enemies and pollinators) is provided. The acute lethal effect and multiple sublethal effects have been identified in almost all arthropod groups studied. This review will help to optimise the future use of spinosad and new spinosyns in IPM programmes and for organic farming, notably by preventing the possible side effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.

  2. Electrochemical Remediation of Dredged Material for Beneficial Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.


    electroosmotic flow occured (0.01 mL/cm2-hr) and that sediments were effectively dewatered. These experimental results suggest electrochemical techniques should be evaluated for full-scale treatment of dredged material for upland beneficial use and may also be applicable for treatment of material placed...

  3. Control of the peachtree borer using beneficial nematodes (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...

  4. A review on the beneficial aspects of food processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Fogliano, V.; Pellegrini, N.; Stanton, C.; Scholz, G.; Lalljie, S.P.D.; Somoza, V.; Knorr, D.; Rao Jasti, P.; Eisenbrand, G.


    The manuscript reviews beneficial aspects of food processing with main focus on cooking/heat treatment, including other food-processing techniques (e.g. fermentation). Benefits of thermal processing include inactivation of food-borne pathogens, natural toxins or other detrimental constituents, prolo

  5. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert


    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...

  6. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.


    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  7. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.


    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  8. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia (United States)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  9. Factitious foods to reduce production costs of beneficial insects (United States)

    This article reports the use of factitious foods such as Tenebrio molitor pupa, E. kuehniella eggs, Ephestia eggs, and or Artemia franciscana eggs for the rearing of beneficial insect such as Podisus maculiventris, spined soldier bug and several ladybird predators belonging to the Coccinellidae fam...

  10. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.


    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  11. Enhancing the health-beneficial qualities of whole grain rice (United States)

    Various pre- and post-harvest approaches (i.e. pre-germination of whole grains and reduced milling degree) to enhancing the health beneficial compounds of whole grain and milled rice have been reported. A discussion of the results from our pre-harvest efforts is as follows. The majority of rice cons...

  12. 主体间性视阈下的文艺学思辨%Speculative Literary and Art in the Perspective of Intersubjectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    主体间性理论强调社会主体的主客观统一,是从哲学层面,多角度认识人、文化、社会之间的平等共存。大学文艺学课程建设中的核心文学理论课学习涉及整个社会和文化领域,既要求完整的理论结构,又要具备强烈的现实意义,既要符合政治性,又要具备文学的多样性和丰富性,与主体间性理论契合。因此,运用该理论围绕艺术审美建立一套能够深入阐释文学的深广文化内涵的概念范畴的课程,适应当代中国文化转型需要,推动文学的深入发展,建立当代有特色的社会主义价值体系和文学理论体系,有着重大意义。%Intersubjectivity stresses the unity of subjectivity and objectivity which is from multiple layers to understand human,culture and society.The core of course is the theories and related social and cultural fields which requires not only the complete theory structures,but also the intense actual meaning.All these must be political,diverse and rich and can be combined with intersubjectivity.Therefore,setting up a set of conceptual category course is suitable for the transition of Chinese culture and advocates the further development of literature.It is vey important to set up the Chinese characteristic socialism value system and literary system.

  13. Space Debris Conjunction Risk Assessment for the ATV-Jules Verne Mission (United States)

    Delavault, S.; Dupuis, G.; Perrachon, P.


    This paper focuses on the collision risk assessment, between ATV and space debris, managed in ATV-CC at CNES during phasing to docking and de-orbit phases. First, the methods and results of middle and short term mission analyses are detailed. The effects of the two fragmentation events which occurred shortly before and after the launch (the US ASAT on USA 193 and the natural fragmentation of the Russian satellite COSMOS 2421) have been evaluated using models and data from GRAVES and USSTRATCOM catalogues. The results showed a important impact on the foreseen conjunction rate. Second, the operational procedure of the conjunction management is described. The operational organization within ATV-CC teams and with the international partners is also presented. Then, a statement of the operational conjunction management is done, showing a good consistency level with the predictions. Eventually this led to 3 avoidance events (but only one avoidance maneuver).

  14. A New Caching Technique to Support Conjunctive Queries in P2P DHT (United States)

    Kobatake, Koji; Tagashira, Shigeaki; Fujita, Satoshi

    P2P DHT (Peer-to-Peer Distributed Hash Table) is one of typical techniques for realizing an efficient management of shared resources distributed over a network and a keyword search over such networks in a fully distributed manner. In this paper, we propose a new method for supporting conjunctive queries in P2P DHT. The basic idea of the proposed technique is to share a global information on past trials by conducting a local caching of search results for conjunctive queries and by registering the fact to the global DHT. Such a result caching is expected to significantly reduce the amount of transmitted data compared with conventional schemes. The effect of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated by simulation. The result of experiments indicates that by using the proposed method, the amount of returned data is reduced by 60% compared with conventional P2P DHT which does not support conjunctive queries.

  15. Ocular rosacea: an underdiagnosed cause of relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis in the elderly. (United States)

    De Marchi, Sergio Umberto; Cecchin, Emanuela; De Marchi, Sergio


    Red eye and relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis are among the most common ocular disease in elderly patients. In these cases the search for causes is difficult and frustrating. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with a long history of red eye and relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis caused by ocular rosacea. In this patient the proper diagnosis was performed after 10 years of ocular disease, and repeated evaluations by general practitioners and clinical specialists, only after the appearance of facial signs of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Adequate therapy with oral doxycycline led to the improvement of the clinical picture that previously had shown a poor response to several topical treatments. The possibility of ocular rosacea should be considered in evaluating an elderly patient with persistent red eye and relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis. Making the proper diagnosis is crucial because ocular rosacea does not respond as expected to topical therapy and may lead to severe corneal involvement.

  16. Treatment of ligneous conjunctivitis with amniotic membrane transplantation and topical cyclosporine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Yalcin Tok


    Full Text Available Ligneous conjunctivitis (LC is a rare form of bilateral chronic recurrent disease in which thick membranes form on the palpebral conjunctiva and other mucosal sites. We report the clinical features and describe the management of two cases. Case 1 was an 8-month-old patient with bilateral membranous conjunctivitis. Case 2 was a 5-year-old patient with unilateral membranous conjunctivitis, esotropia, mechanical ptosis and complicated cataract, and had been treated with a number of medications. Histological investigation of the membrane in both cases showed LC. Treatments with amniotic membrane transplantation and institution of topical cyclosporine have shown good response. There has been complete resolution of the membranes with no recurrence at the end of 40- and 28-month follow-ups, respectively. No treatment related side effects were seen. Thus, it appears that amniotic membrane transplantation and topical cyclosporine are effective alternatives for the treatment of LC.

  17. Neural correlates of context-dependent feature conjunction learning in visual search tasks. (United States)

    Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Greenlee, Mark W; Tse, Peter U


    Many perceptual learning experiments show that repeated exposure to a basic visual feature such as a specific orientation or spatial frequency can modify perception of that feature, and that those perceptual changes are associated with changes in neural tuning early in visual processing. Such perceptual learning effects thus exert a bottom-up influence on subsequent stimulus processing, independent of task-demands or endogenous influences (e.g., volitional attention). However, it is unclear whether such bottom-up changes in perception can occur as more complex stimuli such as conjunctions of visual features are learned. It is not known whether changes in the efficiency with which people learn to process feature conjunctions in a task (e.g., visual search) reflect true bottom-up perceptual learning versus top-down, task-related learning (e.g., learning better control of endogenous attention). Here we show that feature conjunction learning in visual search leads to bottom-up changes in stimulus processing. First, using fMRI, we demonstrate that conjunction learning in visual search has a distinct neural signature: an increase in target-evoked activity relative to distractor-evoked activity (i.e., a relative increase in target salience). Second, we demonstrate that after learning, this neural signature is still evident even when participants passively view learned stimuli while performing an unrelated, attention-demanding task. This suggests that conjunction learning results in altered bottom-up perceptual processing of the learned conjunction stimuli (i.e., a perceptual change independent of the task). We further show that the acquired change in target-evoked activity is contextually dependent on the presence of distractors, suggesting that search array Gestalts are learned. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2319-2330, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%: a novel topical fluoroquinolone for bacterial conjunctivitis. (United States)

    O'Brien, Terrence P


    Acute bacterial conjunctivitis, the most common cause of conjunctivitis, is responsible for approximately 1% of all primary-care consultations. Of the topical ophthalmic antibiotics used to treat acute bacterial conjunctivitis, fluoroquinolones are especially useful because they possess a broad antibacterial spectrum, are bactericidal in action, are generally well tolerated, and have been less prone to development of bacterial resistance. Besifloxacin, the latest advanced fluoroquinolone approved for treating bacterial conjunctivitis, is the first fluoroquinolone developed specifically for topical ophthalmic use. It has a C-8 chlorine substituent and is known as a chloro-fluoroquinolone. Besifloxacin possesses relatively balanced dual-targeting activity against bacterial topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase (topoisomerse II), two essential enzymes involved in bacterial DNA replication, leading to increased potency and decreased likelihood of bacterial resistance developing to besifloxacin. Microbiological data suggest a relatively high potency and rapid bactericidal activity for besifloxacin against common ocular pathogens, including bacteria resistant to other fluoroquinolones, especially resistant staphylococcal species. Randomized, double-masked, controlled clinical studies demonstrated the clinical efficacy of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% administered three-times daily for 5 days to be superior to the vehicle alone and similar to moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5% for bacterial conjunctivitis. In addition, besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% administered two-times daily for 3 days was clinically more effective than the vehicle alone for bacterial conjunctivitis. Besifloxacin has also been shown in preclinical animal studies to be potentially effective for the "off-label" treatment of infections following ocular surgery, prophylaxis of endophthalmitis, and the treatment of bacterial keratitis. Taken together, clinical and preclinical animal studies

  19. Unilateral acute conjunctivitis due to Oestrus ovis in a veterinary doctor (United States)

    Vijayalekshmi, Sujatha; Shukla, Harsha


    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues and organs of animals or man by fly larvae. We report a human case of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by the larvae of a sheep nasal botfly, Oestrus ovis, for the first time in a veterinary doctor. A 25-year-old veterinary doctor presented with severe symptoms of conjunctivitis. The larvae, 3 in number, were observed in the bulbar conjunctiva and the symptoms of the eye improved within a few hours of their removal. It is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of larval conjunctivitis as a significant possibility in the veterinary fraternity especially during the summer season. PMID:23633869

  20. Successful treatment of ligneous conjunctivitis with topical fresh frozen plasma in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Özen Tunay


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA 6-month-old female infant presented to our clinic with bilateral eyelid swelling, yellowish-white membranes under both lids, and mucoid ocular discharge. Her aunt had similar ocular problems that were undiagnosed. The conjunctival membranes were excised and histopathological investigation of these membranes showed ligneous conjunctivitis. Further, laboratory examination revealed plasminogen deficiency. A good response was observed to topical fresh frozen plasma (FFP treatment without systemic therapy, and the membranes did not recur during the treatment. Topical FFP treatment may facilitate rapid rehabilitation and prevent recurrence in patients with ligneous conjunctivitis.

  1. A Practical Approach for Scalable Conjunctive Query Answering on Acyclic {EL}^+ Knowledge Base (United States)

    Mei, Jing; Liu, Shengping; Xie, Guotong; Kalyanpur, Aditya; Fokoue, Achille; Ni, Yuan; Li, Hanyu; Pan, Yue

    Conjunctive query answering for {EL}^{++} ontologies has recently drawn much attention, as the Description Logic {EL}^{++} captures the expressivity of many large ontologies in the biomedical domain and is the foundation for the OWL 2 EL profile. In this paper, we propose a practical approach for conjunctive query answering in a fragment of {EL}^{++}, namely acyclic {EL}^+, that supports role inclusions. This approach can be implemented with low cost by leveraging any existing relational database management system to do the ABox data completion and query answering. We conducted a preliminary experiment to evaluate our approach using a large clinical data set and show our approach is practical.

  2. Successful treatment of ligneous conjunctivitis with topical fresh frozen plasma in an infant. (United States)

    Tunay, Zuhal Özen; Özdemir, Özdemir; Acar, Damla; Gül, Ece; Akbay, Serap


    A 6-month-old female infant presented to our clinic with bilateral eyelid swelling, yellowish-white membranes under both lids, and mucoid ocular discharge. Her aunt had similar ocular problems that were undiagnosed. The conjunctival membranes were excised and histopathological investigation of these membranes showed ligneous conjunctivitis. Further, laboratory examination revealed plasminogen deficiency. A good response was observed to topical fresh frozen plasma (FFP) treatment without systemic therapy, and the membranes did not recur during the treatment. Topical FFP treatment may facilitate rapid rehabilitation and prevent recurrence in patients with ligneous conjunctivitis.

  3. Feline herpesvirus 1 and Chlamydophila felis prevalence in cats with chronic conjunctivitis. (United States)

    Wieliczko, A K; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K


    The prevalence of Chlamydophila felis and Feline Herpesvirus type 1 was investigated in 30 cats with chronic conjunctivitis, with use of conjunctival swabs and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In cats with chronic conjunctivitis the DNA of C. felis and FHV-1 was detected in 2 of 30 cats (6.7%) and in 10 of 30 animals (33.3%), respectively. One case of FHV-1 DNA, and none of C. felis was found in control group. There was no case of co-infection with both pathogens.

  4. Contrastive Study of Korean Conjunctive Adverb and Chinese Conjunctive%韩国语接续副词与汉语连词的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Korean and Chinese languages have the same cultural origin, which bear some similarities and differences in many aspects. Korean auxiliary words and conjunctive adverbs function as the connection of grammatical units, while it is conjunctions that function in Chinese. Therefore, Chinese students get confused about the use of Korean conjunctive adverbs due to the negative transfer. The comparative study of language features of Chinese and Korean is a must for Chinese learners.%韩中语言同属于汉字文化圈,在很多方面具有共同点,但也有很多不同点。韩国语中的助词、连接语尾以及接续副词共同承担着连接语法单位的作用,但在汉语中仅有连词作为连接素发挥连接功能。所以,学生在学习接续副词的过程中,由于受母语影响而造成在韩国语接续副词的使用过程中出现很多混乱和错误现象。因此,对中国学生来说,正确认识韩中语言各自的特征,对它们进行比较研究,准确区分二者的共同点和不同点,必将对他们在学习韩国语接续副词的过程中起到事半功倍的效果。

  5. Key Challenges and Opportunities for Conjunctive Management of Surface and Groundwater in Mega-Irrigation Systems: Lower Indus, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the scope of conjunctive management in the Lower Indus part of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS, and the contribution this could make towards food security and socio-economic development. The total Gross Command Area (GCA of the Lower Indus is 5.92 Mha, with a cultivable command area (CCA of 5.43 Mha, most of which is in Sindh Province. There is a limited use of groundwater in Sindh (about 4.3 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM for two reasons: first, there is a large area where groundwater is saline; and second, there is a high surface irrigation supply to most of the canal commands, e.g., average annual supply to rice command is 1723 mm, close to the annual reference crop evapotranspiration for the area, while there is an additional annual rainfall of about 200 mm. These high irrigation allocations, even in areas where groundwater is fresh, create strong disincentives for farmers to use groundwater. Consequently, areas are waterlogged to the extent of 50% and 70% before and after the monsoon, respectively, which contributes to surface salinity through capillary rise. In Sindh, about 74%–80% of the available groundwater recharge is lost in the form of non-beneficial evaporation. This gives rise to low cropping intensities and yields compared to fresh groundwater areas elsewhere in the IBIS. The drought of 1999–2002 has demonstrated a reduction in waterlogging without any corresponding reduction in crop yields. Therefore, in order to efficiently meet current water requirements of all the sectors, i.e., agriculture, domestic and industrial, an ab initio level of water reallocation and efficient water management, with consideration to groundwater quality and its safe yield, in various areas are recommended. This might systematically reduce the waterlogged areas, support greater cropping intensity than is currently being practiced, and free up water for horizontal expansion, such as in the Thar Desert.

  6. Role and functions of beneficial microorganisms in sustainable aquaculture. (United States)

    Zhou, Qunlan; Li, Kangmin; Jun, Xie; Bo, Liu


    This paper aims to review the development of scientific concepts of microecology and ecology of microbes and the role and functions of beneficial microorganisms in aquaculture and mariculture. Beneficial microorganisms play a great role in natural and man-made aquatic ecosystems based on the co-evolution theory in living biosphere on earth. Their functions are to adjust algal population in water bodies so as to avoid unwanted algal bloom; to speed up decomposition of organic matter and to reduce CODmn, NH3-N and NO2-N in water and sediments so as to improve water quality; to suppress fish/shrimp diseases and water-borne pathogens; to enhance immune system of cultured aquatic animals and to produce bioactive compounds such as vitamins, hormones and enzymes that stimulate growth, thus to decrease the FCR of feed.

  7. Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Malusá


    Full Text Available The increasing need for environmentaly friendly agricultural practices is driving the use of fertilizers based on beneficial microorganisms. The latter belong to a wide array of genera, classes, and phyla, ranging from bacteria to yeasts and fungi, which can support plant nutrition with different mechanisms. Moreover, studies on the interactions between plant, soil, and the different microorganisms are shedding light on their interrelationships thus providing new possible ways to exploit them for agricultural purposes. However, even though the inoculation of plants with these microorganisms is a well-known practice, the formulation of inocula with a reliable and consistent effect under field conditions is still a bottleneck for their wider use. The choice of the technology for inocula production and of the carrier for the formulation is key to their successful application. This paper focuses on how inoculation issues can be approached to improve the performance of beneficial microorganisms used as a tool for enhancing plant growth and yield.

  8. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects. (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman


    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  9. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttan Ramadasan


    Full Text Available Abstract The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Long-term consumption of tea catechins could be beneficial against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes and could reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action.

  10. Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers (United States)

    Malusá, E.; Sas-Paszt, L.; Ciesielska, J.


    The increasing need for environmentaly friendly agricultural practices is driving the use of fertilizers based on beneficial microorganisms. The latter belong to a wide array of genera, classes, and phyla, ranging from bacteria to yeasts and fungi, which can support plant nutrition with different mechanisms. Moreover, studies on the interactions between plant, soil, and the different microorganisms are shedding light on their interrelationships thus providing new possible ways to exploit them for agricultural purposes. However, even though the inoculation of plants with these microorganisms is a well-known practice, the formulation of inocula with a reliable and consistent effect under field conditions is still a bottleneck for their wider use. The choice of the technology for inocula production and of the carrier for the formulation is key to their successful application. This paper focuses on how inoculation issues can be approached to improve the performance of beneficial microorganisms used as a tool for enhancing plant growth and yield. PMID:22547984

  11. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert


    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  12. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert;

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  13. Beneficial Plant Microbe Interaction in Adverse Climatic Condition


    Mohammad Oves


    There are two well-known old American and Japanese quotes "snug as a bug in a rug” and ‘Tade kuu mushi mo suki-zuki’ which means very comfortable and everyone has their own tastes respectively, both quotes are best fit for beneficial plantmicrobes (PM) interactions. Most of the plants interact largely with diverse microorganisms in their surrounding environment but the question arises why PM interaction exist everywhere in agroecosystem with sustainability? PM interactions were occurred from ...

  14. Is Part-Time Employment Beneficial for Firm Productivity?


    Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.


    This paper analyzes whether part-time employment is beneficial for firm productivity in the service sector. Using a unique dataset on the Dutch pharmacy sector that includes the work hours of all employees and a “hard” physical measure of firm productivity, we estimate a production function including heterogeneous employment shares based on work hours. We find that a larger part-time employment share leads to greater firm productivity. Additional data on the timing of labor demand show that p...

  15. Test results of beneficiation of lignites deriving from opencast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacskai, G.; Schmied, L.; Szabo, I.


    The possible varieties of lignite beneficiation of Hungarian lignites as well as the experiences from abroad are discussed. Improvement of the quality of lignites includes homogenization, pre-sorting, wet sorting and pre-drying. The possibilities of producing cemented lignite briquette, of the thermal benefication are outlined. The anticipated costs and length of time necessary to establish lignite briquetting plants in Hungary under different economic conditions are listed.

  16. Total Probability of Collision as a Metric for Finite Conjunction Assessment and Collision Risk Management (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.; Plakalovic, Dragan


    On-orbit collision risk is becoming an increasing mission risk to all operational satellites in Earth orbit. Managing this risk can be disruptive to mission and operations, present challenges for decision-makers, and is time-consuming for all parties involved. With the planned capability improvements to detecting and tracking smaller orbital debris and capacity improvements to routinely predict on-orbit conjunctions, this mission risk will continue to grow in terms of likelihood and effort. It is very real possibility that the future space environment will not allow collision risk management and mission operations to be conducted in the same manner as it is today. This paper presents the concept of a finite conjunction assessment-one where each discrete conjunction is not treated separately but, rather, as a continuous event that must be managed concurrently. The paper also introduces the Total Probability of Collision as an analogous metric for finite conjunction assessment operations and provides several options for its usage in a Concept of Operations.

  17. [Comparative characteristics of methods for the hepatic tissue conjunction in its wedge-like resection]. (United States)

    Furmanov, Iu A; Krivenko, I Iu; Savitskaia, I M; Geĭlenko, O A


    As a result of investigation for accessible and secure method for the biotissues conjunction, using physical facilities, the plasma and thermoflow welding was developed, efficacy of which was confirmed doing comparative analysis of data, obtained while applying the adhesive and suture methods.

  18. Performance of Ductless Personalized Ventilation in Conjunction with Displacement Ventilation: Impact of Workstations Layout and Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvonova, Barbara; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    The performance of a new personalized ventilation system, referred to as ductless personalized ventilation (DPV), was studied in full-scale room experiments in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV). The idea behind DPV is to utilize clean and cool air supplied via DV. In the experiment...

  19. Testing Quantum Models of Conjunction Fallacy on the World Wide Web (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Arguëlles, Jonito Aerts; Beltran, Lester; Beltran, Lyneth; de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas


    The `conjunction fallacy' has been extensively debated by scholars in cognitive science and, in recent times, the discussion has been enriched by the proposal of modeling the fallacy using the quantum formalism. Two major quantum approaches have been put forward: the first assumes that respondents use a two-step sequential reasoning and that the fallacy results from the presence of `question order effects'; the second assumes that respondents evaluate the cognitive situation as a whole and that the fallacy results from the `emergence of new meanings', as an `effect of overextension' in the conceptual conjunction. Thus, the question arises as to determine whether and to what extent conjunction fallacies would result from `order effects' or, instead, from `emergence effects'. To help clarify this situation, we propose to use the World Wide Web as an `information space' that can be interrogated both in a sequential and non-sequential way, to test these two quantum approaches. We find that `emergence effects', and not `order effects', should be considered the main cognitive mechanism producing the observed conjunction fallacies.

  20. Conjunctive management of surface and groundwater resources under projected future climate change scenarios (United States)

    Mani, Amir; Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Naz, Bibi S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha


    This study introduces a mixed integer linear fractional programming (MILFP) method to optimize conjunctive use of future surface water and groundwater resources under projected climate change scenarios. The conjunctive management model maximizes the ratio of groundwater usage to reservoir water usage. Future inflows to the reservoirs were estimated from the future runoffs projected through hydroclimate modeling considering the Variable Infiltration Capacity model, and 11 sets of downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 global climate model projections. Bayesian model averaging was adopted to quantify uncertainty in future runoff projections and reservoir inflow projections due to uncertain future climate projections. Optimized conjunctive management solutions were investigated for a water supply network in northern Louisiana which includes the Sparta aquifer. Runoff projections under climate change scenarios indicate that runoff will likely decrease in winter and increase in other seasons. Results from the developed conjunctive management model with MILFP indicate that the future reservoir water, even at 2.5% low inflow cumulative probability level, could counterbalance groundwater pumping reduction to satisfy demands while improving the Sparta aquifer through conditional groundwater head constraints.

  1. Comparative effectiveness and molecular pharmacological mechanisms of antiallergic agents on experimental conjunctivitis in mice. (United States)

    Hu, S; Merayo-Lloves, J; Zhao, T; Foster, C S


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of antiallergic agents in the treatment of experimental murine ragweed conjunctivitis. SWR/J mice were divided into eight groups: 1; normal controls (unmanipulated); 2, untreated; 3, lodoxamide; 4, cromolyn; 5, livocarbastine; 6, nedocromil; 7, buffer solution (BS); and 8, tetrandine (TDR). Groups 2-8 were exposed to ragweed pollen through topical application to conjunctival and nasal mucosa, followed by conjunctival challenge with the allergen. Allergic conjunctivitis was evaluated by scoring of the clinical signs and histopathology. mRNA gene expression of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in conjunctiva was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction techniques. Exposed mice developed allergic conjunctivitis clinically and histologically that was modulated by topical lodoxamide, cromolyn, livocarbastine, or nedocromil eye drops or TDR intraperitoneally injected. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated that the drugs and TDR significantly reduced conjunctival eosinophil infiltration and the number of intact and degranulating mast cells. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA gene expression in conjunctiva of treated mice was inhibited compared with untreated and BS-treated controls. No IL-6 mRNA expression was observed even on the conjunctiva of the untreated mice. The antiallergic drugs and TDR exerted a similar action on the murine model of allergic conjunctivitis and demonstrated pharmacologic effectiveness on the conjunctival mRNA expression of cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha.

  2. Feature Engineering for Drug Name Recognition in Biomedical Texts: Feature Conjunction and Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyu Liu


    Full Text Available Drug name recognition (DNR is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge.

  3. Feature engineering for drug name recognition in biomedical texts: feature conjunction and feature selection. (United States)

    Liu, Shengyu; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Fan, Xiaoming


    Drug name recognition (DNR) is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge.

  4. A novel case of chronic conjunctivitis in a 58-year-old woman caused by Raoultella. (United States)

    Zuberbuhler, B; Abedin, A; Roudsari, A


    A 58-year-old woman presented to eye emergency with a chronic conjunctivitis which was diagnosed by laboratory microbiological testing to be due to the environmental pathogen Raoultella planticola. The organism was sensitive to Chloramphenicol and the patient made a rapid recovery on these drops. This is the first report of this organism infecting the eye.

  5. Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum (United States)

    Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.


    High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

  6. Impact of food disinfection on beneficial biothiol contents in vegetables. (United States)

    Qiang, Zhimin; Demirkol, Omca; Ercal, Nuran; Adams, Craig


    In this work we investigated the impact of food disinfection on the beneficial biothiol contents in a suite of vegetables consumed daily, including spinach, green bean, asparagus, cucumber, and red pepper. Four disinfection technologies commonly studied and/or used in food processing and preservation, including hydrogen peroxide, free chlorine, and gaseous- and aqueous-phase ozone, were examined with common dosages and contact times. Results indicate that the common disinfection technologies may result in significant loss of beneficial biothiols in vegetables which are essentially important to human health. For example, as much as 70% of biothiols were lost when spinach was treated with hydrogen peroxide (5.0 wt %) for 30 min. Approximately 48-54% of biothiols were destroyed by free chlorine and gaseous- and aqueous-phase ozone under typical contacting conditions. In red pepper, about 60-71% of reduced glutathione was oxidized by the disinfectants. The potential decrease in biothiols during disinfection was dependent upon the biothiol type, the disinfectant, and the vegetable. The effectiveness of total bacterial inactivation by the four disinfection technologies was concurrently evaluated. Results show that free chlorine is most effective, achieving disinfection efficiencies of greater than 4 log for all study vegetables. This study may provide important information for the food industry to design optimum contacting methods for vegetables to simultaneously achieve sufficient bacterial disinfection while minimizing loss of beneficial biothiols.

  7. Next-Generation Beneficial Microbes: The Case of Akkermansia muciniphila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice D. Cani


    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disorders are worldwide epidemic. Among the different environmental factors, the gut microbiota is now considered as a key player interfering with energy metabolism and host susceptibility to several non-communicable diseases. Among the next-generation beneficial microbes that have been identified, Akkermansia muciniphila is a promising candidate. Indeed, A. muciniphila is inversely associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiometabolic diseases and low-grade inflammation. Besides the numerous correlations observed, a large body of evidence has demonstrated the causal beneficial impact of this bacterium in a variety of preclinical models. Translating these exciting observations to human would be the next logic step and it now appears that several obstacles that would prevent the use of A. muciniphila administration in humans have been overcome. Moreover, several lines of evidence indicate that pasteurization of A. muciniphila not only increases its stability but more importantly increases its efficacy. This strongly positions A. muciniphila in the forefront of next-generation candidates for developing novel food or pharma supplements with beneficial effects. Finally, a specific protein present on the outer membrane of A. muciniphila, termed Amuc_1100, could be strong candidate for future drug development. In conclusion, as plants and its related knowledge, known as pharmacognosy, have been the source for designing drugs over the last century, we propose that microbes and microbiomegnosy, or knowledge of our gut microbiome, can become a novel source of future therapies.

  8. Chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-bacteria associations. (United States)

    Scharf, Birgit E; Hynes, Michael F; Alexandre, Gladys M


    Beneficial plant-microbe associations play critical roles in plant health. Bacterial chemotaxis provides a competitive advantage to motile flagellated bacteria in colonization of plant root surfaces, which is a prerequisite for the establishment of beneficial associations. Chemotaxis signaling enables motile soil bacteria to sense and respond to gradients of chemical compounds released by plant roots. This process allows bacteria to actively swim towards plant roots and is thus critical for competitive root surface colonization. The complete genome sequences of several plant-associated bacterial species indicate the presence of multiple chemotaxis systems and a large number of chemoreceptors. Further, most soil bacteria are motile and capable of chemotaxis, and chemotaxis-encoding genes are enriched in the bacteria found in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. This review compares the architecture and diversity of chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-associated bacteria and discusses their relevance to the rhizosphere lifestyle. While it is unclear how controlling chemotaxis via multiple parallel chemotaxis systems provides a competitive advantage to certain bacterial species, the presence of a larger number of chemoreceptors is likely to contribute to the ability of motile bacteria to survive in the soil and to compete for root surface colonization.

  9. Besifloxacin: a novel anti-infective for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L Comstock


    Full Text Available Timothy L Comstock1, Paul M Karpecki2, Timothy W Morris3, Jin-Zhong Zhang41Global Medical Affairs, Pharmaceuticals, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 2Koffler Vision Group, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Research and Development Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 4Global Preclinical Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USAAbstract: Bacterial conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is demographically unbiased in its prevalence and can be caused by a variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Timely empiric treatment with a broad-spectrum anti-infective, such as a topical fluoroquinolone, is critical in preventing potentially irreversible ocular damage. However, the rise in ocular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates and the patterns of fluoroquinolone resistance for patients with other ocular bacterial infections mandate the need for new agents targeted for ocular use. Besifloxacin, a novel broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone, is approved for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. It has a uniquely balanced dual-targeting activity that inhibits both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and is associated with a lower incidence of resistance development. Besifloxacin is not marketed in other formulations, ensuring that its exposure is limited to bacterial populations in and around the eye. This specifically precludes any bacterial exposure to besifloxacin resulting from systemic use, which further reduces the likelihood of emergence of bacterial resistance. In vitro, besifloxacin has demonstrated equivalent or superior activity compared with other commonly used topical antibiotics. In clinical trials, besifloxacin has consistently demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis. Besifloxacin is considered safe and is well tolerated with no observed contraindications.Keywords: conjunctivitis, fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin

  10. Efficacy of topical application of 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of allergic conjunctivitis


    Hazarika, Ajit Kumar; Singh, Prodip Kumar


    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis is commonly observed eye diseases in Sikkim, India due to the abundance of seasonal pollens, environmental pollutants, and house dust. We evaluated the efficacy of topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of simple allergic conjunctivitis. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was designed consisting of 41 patients with refractory simple allergic conjunctivitis, whose condition responded very poorly to conventional anti-all...

  11. Integrated analysis of three bacterial conjunctivitis trials of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%: etiology of bacterial conjunctivitis and antibacterial susceptibility profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas W


    Full Text Available Wolfgang Haas1, Lynne S Gearinger1, Dale W Usner2, Heleen H DeCory3, Timothy W Morris11Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, 2Clinical Affairs, 3Global Pharmaceutical Medical Affairs, Bausch and Lomb Inc, Rochester, NY, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to report on the bacterial species isolated from patients with bacterial conjunctivitis participating in three clinical trials of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%, and their in vitro antibacterial susceptibility profiles.Methods: Microbial data from three clinical studies, conducted at multiple clinical sites in the US and Asia were integrated. Species were identified at a central laboratory, and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for various antibiotics, including β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides.Results: A total of 1324 bacterial pathogens representing more than 70 species were isolated. The most common species were Haemophilus influenzae (26.0%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.8%, Staphylococcus aureus (14.4%, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (8.4%. H. influenzae was most frequently isolated among patients aged 1–18 years, while S. aureus was most prevalent among those >65 years. Drug resistance was prevalent: Of H. influenzae isolates, 25.3% were β-lactamase positive and 27.2% of S. pneumoniae isolates were penicillin-intermediate/resistant; of S. aureus isolates, 13.7% were methicillin-resistant (MRSA, and of these, 65.4% were ciprofloxacin-resistant, while 45.9% of S. epidermidis isolates were methicillin-resistant (MRSE, and, of these, 47.1% were ciprofloxacin-resistant. Besifloxacin was more potent than comparator fluoroquinolones overall, and particularly against Gram-positive bacteria. Against ciprofloxacin-resistant MRSA and MRSE, besifloxacin was four-fold to ≥ 128-fold more potent than other fluoroquinolones.Conclusions: While the pathogen distribution in bacterial conjunctivitis has not changed, drug resistance is increasing. Patient

  12. On the Intersubjectivity of the Characters’ Relationship in the Novel“Anna of the Five Towns”%论《五镇的安娜》中人物关系的主体间性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    英国作家阿诺德·贝奈特的《五镇的安娜》在人物关系上互为主体,其小说人物“特尔赖特———安娜”“安娜———迈诺斯/威利”之间突显出一种主体间性。“特尔赖特———安娜”的关系表明主体间性的失衡,“安娜———迈诺斯/威利”的关系代表了主体间性的延伸,而贯穿主体间性始终的则是以安娜父亲为代表的父权意志。《五镇的安娜》对父权话语的反抗和对女性自由问题的探求,其目的和意义在于追求女性个体的自由,实现主体间性的平衡。%Arnold Bennett was a British author in the late nineteenth century. His novel “Anna of the Five Towns” is about the relationship between the characters. The intersubjectivity of “Anna of the Five Towns”is mainly shown in the relation of “Tellwright-Anna” and “Anna-Mynors/Willie”. The relationship between “Tellwright-Anna” indicates an imbalanced intersubjectivity, and the relationship of “Anna-Mynors/Willie” represents the extension of the intersubjectivity. While Anna's father representing the patriarchal will is always throughout the intersubjectivity. The freedom of women and the revolt against patriarchal discourse are explored in "Anna of the Five Towns ". The purpose and significance is the pursuit of freedom of individual women to achieve a balance between subjectivity.

  13. Intersubjectivity as a Logical Starting Point to Build College Students’ Management Model%以主体间性为逻辑起点构建大学生管理模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Subjectivity,inter-subjectivity,intersubjectivity as a kind of humanism philosophy view of the world,the human way of life in the real world has made a different interpretation,universal,had a profound impact on college students’ management. In today’s world is a kind of harmony,equality,and people are in the relationship,they connect with each other in communication practice,interdependence and common development, show the intersubjectivity;and subjectivity,the inter-subjectivity and attention of the college student management is in trouble,therefore,to the intersubjectivity is a college student management model to construct the logical choice inevitably.%主体性、主体际性、主体间性作为一种人学理念的世界观,对现实世界中人的生存方式作出了不同解读,具有普遍意义,对大学生管理产生了深远的影响。当今世界人与人是一种和谐、平等、共在的关系,他们在交往实践中相互联系、相互依存、共同发展,表现出主体间性;而主体性、主体际性及其关照下的大学生管理却陷入重重困境,因此,走向主体间性是大学生管理模式建构必然的逻辑选择。

  14. Suppression of Beneficial Mutations in Dynamic Microbial Populations (United States)

    Bittihn, Philip; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S.


    Quantitative predictions for the spread of mutations in bacterial populations are essential to interpret evolution experiments and to improve the stability of synthetic gene circuits. We derive analytical expressions for the suppression factor for beneficial mutations in populations that undergo periodic dilutions, covering arbitrary population sizes, dilution factors, and growth advantages in a single stochastic model. We find that the suppression factor grows with the dilution factor and depends nontrivially on the growth advantage, resulting in the preferential elimination of mutations with certain growth advantages. We confirm our results by extensive numerical simulations.

  15. Beneficial microstructured titania photoanodes for improving DSSC performance (United States)

    Ahmed, Saquib

    Critical assessment of economically viable renewable energy sources is essential for the development of a globally sustainable society. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) offer a viable alternative to traditional silicon and thin film photovoltaic (PV) technologies owing to their potential low cost and facile manufacturing. The two main challenges in enhancing device cell performance lie in improving the open circuit voltage (VOC), and suppressing recombination in the semiconductor TiO2 matrix. This thesis explores the latter challenge through investigation of a novel microstructured TiO2 photoanode system. In this research, we have synthesized CTAB-templated mesoporous, anatase, high surface area TiO2 using an acidic precursor to enhance dye adsorption. Through simple supramolecular self-assembly of the TiO2 particles during the synthesis, we have discovered a self-assembled system of TiO2 nanocrystallite aggregates with high surface area, which when applied as the photoanode in DSSCs, result in a novel high-roughness film beneficial for dye adsorption, and also lead to enhanced intrinsic light-scattering within the film itself. The TiO2 nanocrystallites are highly crystalline, with good interconnectivity for improved electron conduction. An additional unique and beneficial feature inherent of this novel photoanode film is its hierarchical meso- and macro-porosity, leading to improved electrolyte percolation through the TiO2 matrix---thereby providing better access to dye molecules for regeneration to occur more effectively (enhanced charge transfer). In all, we have fabricated a TiO2 system through a one-step process that incorporates key beneficial microstructural features crucial for enhancing DSSC behavior. We have further carried out critical TiCl4 surface treatment studies of this porous electrode structure of TiO2 aggregates to understand and improve upon recombination kinetics in the photonanode film matrix, together with enhancing its intrinsic light

  16. Ethics as a beneficial Trojan horse in a technological society. (United States)

    Queraltó, Ramón


    This article explores the transformation of ethics in a globalizing technological society. After describing some basic features of this society, particularly the primacy it gives to a special type of technical rationality, three specific influences on traditional ethics are examined: (1) a change concerning the notion of value, (2) the decreasing relevance of the concept of axiological hierarchy, and (3) the new internal architecture of ethics as a net of values. These three characteristics suggest a new pragmatic understanding of ethics. From a pragmatic perspective, the process of introducing ethical values into contemporary society can be regarded as a beneficial Trojan horse, a metaphor that will be developed further.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Ahmad


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to study the process of Web mining techniques, features, application ( e-commerce and e-business and its beneficial areas. Web mining has become more popular and its widely used in varies application areas (such as business intelligent system, e-commerce and e-business. The e-commerce or e-business results are bettered by the application of the mining techniques such as data mining and text mining, among all the mining techniques web mining is better.

  18. 主体间性哲学观照下的汉诗文化意象翻译%A Study of Culture-bound Image Translation in Chinese Ancient Poetry from the Perspective of Intersubjectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文以主体间性理论为支撑,透视了汉诗文化意象翻译中的文化内涵,并从文化翻译观的角度探讨了文化意象翻译与主体间性之间的关系。此外,文章还通过具体译例分析了主体间性理论对汉诗文化意象翻译的启示及如何突破意象的不可译性。%Based on the theory of intersubjectivity,this paper first expounds the cultural connotation in translation of culture-bound image in Chinese poetry,then discusses the relationship between culture-bound image translation and intersubjectivity from the perspective of cultural translation,and finally in translation cases it analyzes the enlightenment from intersubjectivity theory concerning the culture-bound image translation in Chinese ancient poetry and overcoming the untranslatability in translation.

  19. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations (United States)

    Newman, Lauri K.; Frigm, Ryan C.; Duncan, Matthew G.; Hejduk, Matthew D.


    Reacting to potential on-orbit collision risk in an operational environment requires timely and accurate communication and exchange of data, information, and analysis to ensure informed decision-making for safety of flight and responsible use of the shared space environment. To accomplish this mission, it is imperative that all stakeholders effectively manage resources: devoting necessary and potentially intensive resource commitment to responding to high-risk conjunction events and preventing unnecessary expenditure of resources on events of low collision risk. After 10 years of operational experience, the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) is modifying its Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to ensure this alignment of collision risk and resource management. This evolution manifests itself in the approach to characterizing, reporting, and refining of collision risk. Implementation of this updated CONOPS is expected to have a demonstrated improvement on the efficacy of JSpOC, CARA, and owner/operator resources.

  20. Optimizing Reservoir-Stream-Aquifer Interactions for Conjunctive Use and Hydropower Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Fayad


    Full Text Available Conjunctive management of water resources involves coordinating use of surface water and groundwater resources. Very few simulation/optimization (S-O models for stream-aquifer system management have included detailed interactions between groundwater, streams, and reservoir storage. This paper presents an S-O model doing that via artificial neural network simulators and genetic algorithm optimizer for multiobjective conjunctive water use problems. The model simultaneously addresses all significant flows including reservoir-stream-diversion-aquifer interactions in a more detailed manner than previous models. The model simultaneously maximizes total water provided and hydropower production. A penalty function implicitly poses constraints on state variables. The model effectively finds feasible optimal solutions and the Pareto optimum. Illustrated is application for planning water resource and minihydropower system development.

  1. Critical appraisal of bepotastine in the treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy B Wingard


    Full Text Available Jeremy B Wingard, Francis S MahUPMC Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Bepotastine besilate 1.5% solution is an H1-antihistamine recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the topical treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis. Several clinical studies have demonstrated its safety as well as its efficacy versus placebo. This review finds that bepotastine besilate 1.5% solution is a suitable alternative to other agents within the class of H1-antihistamines, but there are no clinical trial data to suggest that it holds any specific advantages over other agents.Keywords: allergic conjunctivitis, antihistamine, ocular itching

  2. Orbital data applications for space objects conjunction assessment and situation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lei; Liang, Yan-Gang; Li, Ke-Bo


    This book introduces readers to the application of orbital data on space objects in the contexts of conjunction assessment and space situation analysis, including theories and methodologies. It addresses the main topics involved in space object conjunction assessment, such as: orbital error analysis of space objects; close approach analysis; the calculation, analysis and application of collision probability; and the comprehensive assessment of collision risk. In addition, selected topics on space situation analysis are also presented, including orbital anomaly and space event analysis, and so on. The book offers a valuable guide for researchers and engineers in the fields of astrodynamics, space telemetry, tracking and command (TT&C), space surveillance, space situational awareness, and space debris, as well as for graduates majoring in flight vehicle design and related fields.

  3. Radio sounding of the solar corona during 1995 solar conjunction of the Ulysses spacecraft (United States)

    Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Karl, J.; Edenhofer, P.; Asmar, S. W.


    The Ulysses spacecraft will pass through superior solar conjunction on March 5 1995, a few days before its perihelion and passage through the ecliptic plane. Dual-frequency S/X-band ranging and Doppler observations will be conducted in support of the Ulysses Solar Corona Experiment (SCE) during a three-week interval centered on the conjunction. The occultation geometry is unique in the annals of interplanetary exploration. As viewed from Earth, the spacecraft will appear to cut diagonally through the southwest quadrant of the solar corona from the South Pole to the equator. The minimum proximate distance to the Sun of the radio ray path will be 21.6 solar radius. The entire latitude scan from pole to equator occurs for a limited range of solar offset distances (is less than 30 solar radius thus facilitating the separation of latitudinal from radial variations in the coronal density and associated parameters of interest.

  4. An epidemic of viral acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Delhi in 1994


    Satpathy Gita; Mohanty Sujata; Nayak Niranjan


    An epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis affecting persons of all ages and both sexes occurred in Delhi and surrounding areas during the monsoon season of 1994. The symptoms lasted on an average for 4-5 days. In some of the patients corneal involvement was observed. Conjunctival swabs from the affected patients were processed for viral antigen detection, virus isolation and bacterial culture and sensitivity. Viral antigen was detected in 62% (31/50) of the smears tested by indi...

  5. Periocular necrotizing fasciitis associated with kerato-conjunctivitis and treated with medical management: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shome Debraj


    Full Text Available We report a 25-year-old systemically healthy male who presented with periocular necrotizing fasciitis (NF in the left eyelid. This was associated with the presence of immunologically mediated marginal kerato-conjunctivitis, in the same eye. This potentially dangerous lid infection and the associated ocular surface infection resolved successfully, with medical management. We report this case to highlight the successful conservative management of periocular NF and the hitherto unreported anterior segment involvement.

  6. Clinical research of loratadine and diclofenac sodium eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis

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    Jian Shen


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate clinical efficacy of loratadine and diclofenac sodium eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis and to improve the outcomes of patients with allergic conjunctivitis.METHODS: The selected 154 patients(158 eyeswith allergic conjunctivitis were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 77 patients(79 eyes in each group. Patients in control group were treated with loratadine. Patients in observation group were treated with diclofenac sodium eye drops besides loratadine. Scores on symptoms and physical signs of two groups were compared and clinical efficacy of two group was evaluated and compared. RESULTS: Before treatments, the scores on symptoms and physical signs of two groups were not significantly different(P>0.05. After treatments,the scores of observation group on eye itching, tearing, photophobia, burning sensation and foreign body sensation were respectively 1.03±0.10, 0.83±0.10, 0.62±0.06, 0.80±0.05 and 1.10±0.09score. The scores on conjunctival congestion and edema, secretions, nipple-like follicular on palpebral conjunctiva, limbus change, corneal epithelial changes as well as eyelid and periocular edema of observation group were respectively 0.95±0.08,0.63±0.05,1.32±0.13,0.67±0.06,0.72±0.06, 0.55±0.04score.All the aspects mentioned above were lower in observation group than in control group and the differences were statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION: Systemic treatment of loratadine combined with local treatment of diclofenac sodium eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis can relieve the clinical signs and symptoms better, make the treatment more effective with easy drug administration, which is an effective treatment.

  7. Linear Look-ahead in Conjunctive Cells: An Entorhinal Mechanism for Vector-Based Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Kubie


    Full Text Available The crisp organization of the firing bumps of entorhinal grid cells and conjunctive cells leads to the notion that the entorhinal cortex may compute linear navigation routes. Specifically, we propose a process, termed linear look-ahead, by which a stationary animal could compute a series of locations in the direction it is facing. We speculate that this computation could be achieved through learned patterns of connection strengths among entorhinal neurons. This paper has three sections. First, we describe the minimal grid cell properties that will be built into our network. Specifically, the network relies of rigid modules of neurons, where all members have identical grid scale and orientation, but differ in spatial phase. Additionally, these neurons must be densely interconnected with synapses that are modifiable early in the animal’s life. Second, we investigate whether plasticity during short bouts of locomotion could induce patterns of connections amongst grid cells or conjunctive cells. Finally, we run a simulation to test whether the learned connection patterns can exhibit linear look-ahead. Our results are straightforward. A simulated 30-minute walk produces weak strengthening of synapses between grid cells that do not support linear look-ahead. Similar training in a conjunctive-cell module produces a small subset of very strong connections between cells. These strong pairs have three properties: The pre- and post-synaptic cells have similar heading direction. The cell pairs have neighboring grid bumps. Finally, the spatial offset of firing bumps of the cell pair is in the direction of the common heading preference. Such a module can produce strong and accurate linear look ahead starting in any location and extending in any direction. We speculate that this process may: 1. compute linear paths to goals; 2. update grid cell firing during navigation; and 3. stabilize the rigid modules of grid cells and conjunctive cells.

  8. Repair of a Perforated Sinus Membrane with a Subepithelial Palatal Conjunctive Flap: Technique Report and Evaluation


    Gehrke, S. A.; S. Taschieri; Del Fabbro, M.; Corbella, S.


    The maxillary sinus grafting procedure has proven to be an acceptable modality for bone augmentation to provide a base for endosseous implants, routinely used for the rehabilitation of posterior maxilla. Perforation of the membrane is the most common complication in this type of procedure. This paper presents a technique for repairing a perforated Schneiderian membrane with a conjunctive connective tissue graft harvested from the palate and shows the histological and radiographic evaluation o...

  9. Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in an Infant with Adenoviral Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunay


    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP has been a major problematic disorder during childhood. Laser photocoagulation (LPC has been proven to be effective in most of the ROP cases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis (AVC is responsible for epidemics among adult and pediatric population. It has also been reported to be a cause of outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICU several times. We herein demonstrate a case with AVC who underwent LPC for ROP. And we discuss the treatment methodology in such cases.

  10. A method for physically based model analysis of conjunctive use in response to potential climate changes (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Faunt, C.C.; Cayan, D.; Schmid, W.


    Potential climate change effects on aspects of conjunctive management of water resources can be evaluated by linking climate models with fully integrated groundwater-surface water models. The objective of this study is to develop a modeling system that links global climate models with regional hydrologic models, using the California Central Valley as a case study. The new method is a supply and demand modeling framework that can be used to simulate and analyze potential climate change and conjunctive use. Supply-constrained and demand-driven linkages in the water system in the Central Valley are represented with the linked climate models, precipitation-runoff models, agricultural and native vegetation water use, and hydrologic flow models to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Simulated precipitation and temperature were used from the GFDL-A2 climate change scenario through the 21st century to drive a regional water balance mountain hydrologic watershed model (MHWM) for the surrounding watersheds in combination with a regional integrated hydrologic model of the Central Valley (CVHM). Application of this method demonstrates the potential transition from predominantly surface water to groundwater supply for agriculture with secondary effects that may limit this transition of conjunctive use. The particular scenario considered includes intermittent climatic droughts in the first half of the 21st century followed by severe persistent droughts in the second half of the 21st century. These climatic droughts do not yield a valley-wide operational drought but do cause reduced surface water deliveries and increased groundwater abstractions that may cause additional land subsidence, reduced water for riparian habitat, or changes in flows at the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The method developed here can be used to explore conjunctive use adaptation options and hydrologic risk assessments in regional hydrologic systems throughout the world.

  11. Harry Potter and the Upcoming Venus-Jupiter Conjunction: A Unique Outreach Opportunity (United States)

    Larsen, K.


    As we prepare for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), we should be on the lookout for celestial events which we can use not only to popularise the IYA2009 and practise our outreach skills, but which also have natural connections to popular culture. The Venus-Jupiter conjunction this autumn is such an opportunity, given several direct connections to the use of astronomy in J. K. Rowling's famous Harry Potter universe.

  12. Operational Implementation of a Pc Uncertainty Construct for Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (United States)

    Newman, L.; Hejduk, M.; Johnson, L.


    Earlier this year the NASA Conjunction Assessment and Risk Analysis (CARA) project presented the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of a method to include the uncertainties in the calculation inputs when computing the probability of collision (Pc) between two space objects, principally uncertainties in the covariances and the hardbody radius. The output of this calculation approach is to produce rather than a single Pc value an entire probability density function that will represent the range of possible Pc values given the uncertainties in the inputs and bring CA risk analysis methodologies more in line with modern risk management theory. The present study provides results from the exercise of this method against an extended dataset of satellite conjunctions in order to determine the effect of its use on the evaluation of conjunction assessment (CA) event risk posture. The effects are found to be considerable: a good number of events are downgraded from or upgraded to a serious risk designation on the basis of consideration of the Pc uncertainty. The findings counsel the integration of the developed methods into NASA CA operations.

  13. Epidemiological Study of Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Conjunctivitis in a Level III Neonatal Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Dias


    Full Text Available Background. Conjunctivitis is one of the most frequently occurring hospital-acquired infections among neonates, although it is less studied than potentially life-threatening infections, such as sepsis and pneumonia. Objectives. The aims of our work were to identify epidemiologic characteristics, pathogens, and susceptibility patterns of bacterial hospital-acquired conjunctivitis (HAC in a level III neonatal unit. Materials and Methods. Data were collected retrospectively from patient charts and laboratory databases. Hospital-acquired conjunctivitis was defined in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN diagnostic criteria. Results. One or more episodes of HAC were diagnosed in 4,0% ( of 1492 neonates admitted during the study period. Most of the episodes involved premature (75,4% and low birth weight (75,4% neonates. Infection rates were higher among patients undergoing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (46,7%, parenteral nutrition (13,6%, and phototherapy (6,8%. Predominant pathogens included Serratia marcescens (27,9%, Escherichia coli (23%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%. Susceptibility patterns revealed bacterial resistances to several antibiotic classes. Gentamicin remains the adequate choice for empirical treatment of HAC in our NICU. Conclusion. It is important to know the local patterns of the disease in order to adjust prevention strategies. Our work contributes to the epidemiological characterization of a sometimes overlooked disease.

  14. Consideration of Collision "Consequence" in Satellite Conjunction Assessment and Risk Analysis (United States)

    Hejduk, M.; Laporte, F.; Moury, M.; Newman, L.; Shepperd, R.


    Classic risk management theory requires the assessment of both likelihood and consequence of deleterious events. Satellite conjunction risk assessment has produced a highly-developed theory for assessing collision likelihood but holds a completely static solution for collision consequence, treating all potential collisions as essentially equally worrisome. This may be true for the survival of the protected asset, but the amount of debris produced by the potential collision, and therefore the degree to which the orbital corridor may be compromised, can vary greatly among satellite conjunctions. This study leverages present work on satellite collision modeling to develop a method by which it can be estimated, to a particular confidence level, whether a particular collision is likely to produce a relatively large or relatively small amount of resultant debris and how this datum might alter conjunction remediation decisions. The more general question of orbital corridor protection is also addressed, and a preliminary framework presented by which both collision likelihood and consequence can be jointly considered in the risk assessment process.

  15. Epidemiological Study of Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Conjunctivitis in a Level III Neonatal Unit (United States)

    Dias, Catarina; Gonçalves, Márcia; João, Anabela


    Background. Conjunctivitis is one of the most frequently occurring hospital-acquired infections among neonates, although it is less studied than potentially life-threatening infections, such as sepsis and pneumonia. Objectives. The aims of our work were to identify epidemiologic characteristics, pathogens, and susceptibility patterns of bacterial hospital-acquired conjunctivitis (HAC) in a level III neonatal unit. Materials and Methods. Data were collected retrospectively from patient charts and laboratory databases. Hospital-acquired conjunctivitis was defined in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) diagnostic criteria. Results. One or more episodes of HAC were diagnosed in 4,0% (n = 60) of 1492 neonates admitted during the study period. Most of the episodes involved premature (75,4%) and low birth weight (75,4%) neonates. Infection rates were higher among patients undergoing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (46,7%), parenteral nutrition (13,6%), and phototherapy (6,8%). Predominant pathogens included Serratia marcescens (27,9%), Escherichia coli (23%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%). Susceptibility patterns revealed bacterial resistances to several antibiotic classes. Gentamicin remains the adequate choice for empirical treatment of HAC in our NICU. Conclusion. It is important to know the local patterns of the disease in order to adjust prevention strategies. Our work contributes to the epidemiological characterization of a sometimes overlooked disease. PMID:23766676

  16. A Powerful, Cost Effective, Web Based Engineering Solution Supporting Conjunction Detection and Visual Analysis (United States)

    Novak, Daniel M.; Biamonti, Davide; Gross, Jeremy; Milnes, Martin


    An innovative and visually appealing tool is presented for efficient all-vs-all conjunction analysis on a large catalogue of objects. The conjunction detection uses a nearest neighbour search algorithm, based on spatial binning and identification of pairs of objects in adjacent bins. This results in the fastest all vs all filtering the authors are aware of. The tool is constructed on a server-client architecture, where the server broadcasts to the client the conjunction data and ephemerides, while the client supports the user interface through a modern browser, without plug-in. In order to make the tool flexible and maintainable, Java software technologies were used on the server side, including Spring, Camel, ActiveMQ and CometD. The user interface and visualisation are based on the latest web technologies: HTML5, WebGL, THREE.js. Importance has been given on the ergonomics and visual appeal of the software. In fact certain design concepts have been borrowed from the gaming industry.

  17. Impact of Non-Gaussian Error Volumes on Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (United States)

    Ghrist, Richard W.; Plakalovic, Dragan


    An understanding of how an initially Gaussian error volume becomes non-Gaussian over time is an important consideration for space-vehicle conjunction assessment. Traditional assumptions applied to the error volume artificially suppress the true non-Gaussian nature of the space-vehicle position uncertainties. For typical conjunction assessment objects, representation of the error volume by a state error covariance matrix in a Cartesian reference frame is a more significant limitation than is the assumption of linearized dynamics for propagating the error volume. In this study, the impact of each assumption is examined and isolated for each point in the volume. Limitations arising from representing the error volume in a Cartesian reference frame is corrected by employing a Monte Carlo approach to probability of collision (Pc), using equinoctial samples from the Cartesian position covariance at the time of closest approach (TCA) between the pair of space objects. A set of actual, higher risk (Pc >= 10 (exp -4)+) conjunction events in various low-Earth orbits using Monte Carlo methods are analyzed. The impact of non-Gaussian error volumes on Pc for these cases is minimal, even when the deviation from a Gaussian distribution is significant.

  18. Conjunction Assessment Techniques and Operational Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Carpenter, Russell; Farahmand, Mitra; Ottenstein, Neil; Demoret, Michael; Godine, Dominic


    This paper will describe the results that have been obtained to date during the MMS mission concerning conjunction assessment. MMS navigation makes use of a weak-signal GPS-based system: this allows signals to be received even when MMS is flying above the GPS orbits, producing a highly accurate determination of the four MMS orbits. This data is downlinked to the MMS Mission Operations Center (MOC) and used by the Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) for both maneuver design and conjunction assessment. The MMS fly in tetrahedron formations around apogee, in order to collect simultaneous particles and fields science data. The original plan was to fly tetrahedra between 10 and 160 km in size; however, after Phase 1a of the mission, the science team requested that smaller sizes be flown if feasible. After analysis (to be detailed in a companion paper), a new minimum size of 7 km was decided upon. Flying at this reduced scale size makes conjunction assessment between the MMS spacecraft even more important: the methods that are used by the MMS FDOA to address this problem will be described in the paper, and a summary given of the previous analyses that went into the development of these techniques. Details will also be given of operational experiences to date. Finally, two CA mitigation maneuver types that have been designed (but never yet required to actually be performed) will also be outlined.

  19. Polar and Cluster observations of a dayside inverted-V during conjunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Menietti


    Full Text Available We investigate particle and fields data during a conjunction of the Polar and Cluster spacecraft. This conjunction occurs near the dayside cusp boundary layer when a dayside inverted-V was observed in the particle data of both satellites. Electron, ion, electric field, and magnetic field data from each satellite confirm that the dayside inverted-V (DSIV structure is present at the location of both satellites and the electric fields persist from the altitude of the Polar (lower spacecraft to the altitude of the Cluster spacecraft. We observe accelerated, precipitating electrons and upward ions along the magnetic field. In addition, large amplitude electric fields perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field seen by Polar and by Cluster suggest significant parallel electric fields associated with these events. For similar DSIV events observed by the Polar spacecraft, plasma waves (identified as possible Alfvén waves have been observed to propagate in both directions along the magnetic field line. Future conjunctions will be necessary to confirm that DSIVs are associated with reconnection sites.

  20. Virology and epidemiology analyses of global adenovirus-associated conjunctivitis outbreaks, 1953-2013. (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhao, N; Sha, J; Wang, C; Jin, X; Amer, S; Liu, S


    This study aimed to compare the virology and epidemiology of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF) and acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) outbreaks worldwide caused by the human adenovirus (HAdV) from 1953 to 2013. Eighty-three hexon sequences from 76 conjunctivitis outbreaks were analysed and subtyped using Mega 5.05, Clustal X and SimPlot software. Epidemiology was performed for the area, age and seasonal distribution. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the isolates could be divided into three subgenetic lineages, without a common ancestor. The major causes of the outbreaks were Ad8, Ad7 and Ad2 co-infection with enterovirus 70 (EV70) in EKC, PCF and AHC, respectively. The epidemiological findings suggested that EKC and AHC were circulating predominantly in Asia during the early winter and spring, whereas PCF was circulating mainly in China, Australia and the United States during the summer. This study suggests that EKC, AHC and PCF outbreaks have different circulating patterns throughout the world and are caused by different adenovirus serotypes. A global surveillance system should be established to monitor conjunctivitis outbreaks in the future.

  1. Prostaglandin signaling suppresses beneficial microglial function in Alzheimer's disease models. (United States)

    Johansson, Jenny U; Woodling, Nathaniel S; Wang, Qian; Panchal, Maharshi; Liang, Xibin; Trueba-Saiz, Angel; Brown, Holden D; Mhatre, Siddhita D; Loui, Taylor; Andreasson, Katrin I


    Microglia, the innate immune cells of the CNS, perform critical inflammatory and noninflammatory functions that maintain normal neural function. For example, microglia clear misfolded proteins, elaborate trophic factors, and regulate and terminate toxic inflammation. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, beneficial microglial functions become impaired, accelerating synaptic and neuronal loss. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to microglial dysfunction is an important objective for identifying potential strategies to delay progression to AD. The inflammatory cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2 (COX/PGE2) pathway has been implicated in preclinical AD development, both in human epidemiology studies and in transgenic rodent models of AD. Here, we evaluated murine models that recapitulate microglial responses to Aβ peptides and determined that microglia-specific deletion of the gene encoding the PGE2 receptor EP2 restores microglial chemotaxis and Aβ clearance, suppresses toxic inflammation, increases cytoprotective insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling, and prevents synaptic injury and memory deficits. Our findings indicate that EP2 signaling suppresses beneficial microglia functions that falter during AD development and suggest that inhibition of the COX/PGE2/EP2 immune pathway has potential as a strategy to restore healthy microglial function and prevent progression to AD.

  2. Identifying beneficial qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for plants. (United States)

    Rubio, M Belén; Quijada, Narciso M; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa


    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners.

  3. Surface modification of materials to encourage beneficial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amreeta Sarjit


    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of sessile microorganisms that grow and produce extrapolymeric substances on an abiotic or biotic surface. Although biofilms are often associated with negative impacts, the role of beneficial biofilms is wide and include applications in bioremediation, wastewater treatment and microbial fuel cells. Microbial adhesion to a surface, which is highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the cells and surfaces, is an essential step in biofilm formation. Surface modification therefore represents an important way to modulate microbial attachment and ultimately biofilm formation by microorganisms. In this review different surface modification processes such as organosilane surface modification, plasma treatment, and chemical modification of carbon nanotubes, electro-oxidation and covalent-immobilization with neutral red and methylene blue molecules are outlined. The effectiveness of these modifications and their industrial applications are also discussed. There is inadequate literature on surface modification as a process to enhance beneficial biofilm formation. These methods need to be safe, economically viable, scalable and environmental friendly and their potential to fulfil these criteria for many applications has yet to be determined.

  4. Identifying Beneficial Qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for Plants (United States)

    Rubio, M. Belén; Quijada, Narciso M.; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa


    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners. PMID:24413597

  5. Beneficial effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on the body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi ZHANG; Zhao-nian ZHOU


    Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a common problem in clinic and there is no satisfactory method for prevention or treatment of I/R injury so far.Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH),similar to the concept of ischemia preconditioning(IPC)or altitude hypoxia adaptation (AHA),has been recognized to confer a protective effect on heart against I/R injury with a longer protective effect than IPC and a less adverse effect than AHA.It has been proved that CIHH increases myocardial tolerance to ischemia or hypoxia,reserving cardiac function and preventing arrhythmia during I/R.Multiple mechanisms or pathway underlying the cardiac protection of ClHH have been proposed,such as induction of heatshock protein,enhancement of myocardial antioxidation capacity,increase of coronary flow and myocardial capillary angiogenesis,activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels,inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pores,and activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).In addition,CIHH has been found having many beneficial effects on the body,such as promotion of health,increase of oxygen utilization,and prevention or treatment for some diseases.The beneficial effects of ClHH and potential mechanisms are reviewed mainly based on the researches performed by our group.

  6. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?]. (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof


    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic.

  7. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria. (United States)

    Zamioudis, Christos; Mastranesti, Parthena; Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Blilou, Ikram; Pieterse, Corné M J


    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of the most abundant genera of the root microbiome. Here, by employing a germ-free experimental system, we demonstrate the ability of selected Pseudomonas spp. strains to promote plant growth and drive developmental plasticity in the roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. By studying cell type-specific developmental markers and employing genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate the crucial role of auxin signaling and transport in rhizobacteria-stimulated changes in the root system architecture of Arabidopsis. We further show that Pseudomonas spp.-elicited alterations in root morphology and rhizobacteria-mediated systemic immunity are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. This study sheds new light on the ability of soil-borne beneficial bacteria to interfere with postembryonic root developmental programs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  9. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. (United States)

    Parvez, S; Malik, K A; Ah Kang, S; Kim, H-Y


    Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid bacteria consumption include: (i) improving intestinal tract health; (ii) enhancing the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients; (iii) reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals; and (iv) reducing risk of certain cancers. The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying gut pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial compounds, competing for pathogen binding and receptor sites as well as for available nutrients and growth factors, stimulating immunomodulatory cells, and producing lactase. Selection criteria, efficacy, food and supplement sources and safety issues around probiotics are reviewed. Recent scientific investigation has supported the important role of probiotics as a part of a healthy diet for human as well as for animals and may be an avenue to provide a safe, cost effective, and 'natural' approach that adds a barrier against microbial infection. This paper presents a review of probiotics in health maintenance and disease prevention.

  10. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity. (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie


    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment.

  11. Perlecan and the Blood-Brain Barrier: Beneficial Proteolysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eRoberts


    Full Text Available The cerebral microvasculature is important for maintaining brain homeostasis. This is achieved via the blood-brain barrier (BBB, composed of endothelial cells with specialized tight junctions, astrocytes and a basement membrane. Prominent components of the basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM include fibronectin, laminin, collagen IV and perlecan, all of which regulate cellular processes via signal transduction through various cell membrane bound ECM receptors. Expression and proteolysis of these ECM components can be rapidly altered during pathological states of the central nervous system. In particular, proteolysis of perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, occurs within hours following ischemia induced by experimental stroke. Proteolysis of ECM components following stroke results in the degradation of the basement membrane and further disruption of the BBB. While it is clear that such proteolysis has negative consequences for the BBB, we propose that it also may lead to generation of ECM protein fragments, including the C-terminal domain V (DV of perlecan, that potentially have a positive influence on other aspects of CNS health. Indeed, perlecan DV has been shown to be persistently generated after stroke and beneficial as a neuroprotective molecule and promoter of post-stroke brain repair. This mini-review will discuss beneficial roles of perlecan protein fragment generation within the brain during stroke.

  12. 苏轼文艺美学的主体间性%The Intersubjectivity of Su Shi’s Literary Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Although the intersubjectivity of Su Shi’s literary aesthetics was not complete or pure, or consciously taking the initiative to pursue, he was serious about the aesthetic experience. His aesthetic experience could transform freely between real space and aesthetic space. And his action of getting through the external restriction of various forms of art to enter the aesthetic realm of freedom indeed push the Chinese aesthetics forward.%苏轼文艺美学的主体间性虽不充分、不纯粹,还不是有意识地主动追求,但其对审美体验的重视,其在现实空间和审美空间之间自由转换的审美体验,以及打通多种艺术形式的外在限制进入自由超越的审美境界,确实将中华美学向前推了一小步。

  13. Event-related potentials to conjunctions of spatial frequency and orientation as a function of stimulus parameters and response requirements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenemans, J.L.; Kok, A.; Smulders, F.T.


    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 7 male graduate students who were required to push a button in response to a given conjunction of spatial frequency and orientation (target) and to ignore conjunctions sharing with the target only frequency (frequency-relevant), only orientation (or

  14. 21 CFR 582.30 - Natural substances used in conjunction with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural substances used in conjunction with spices... with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. Natural substances used in conjunction with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for...

  15. Spices: the savory and beneficial science of pungency. (United States)

    Nilius, Bernd; Appendino, Giovanni


    Spicy food does not only provide an important hedonic input in daily life, but has also been anedoctically associated to beneficial effects on our health. In this context, the discovery of chemesthetic trigeminal receptors and their spicy ligands has provided the mechanistic basis and the pharmacological means to investigate this enticing possibility. This review discusses in molecular terms the connection between the neurophysiology of pungent spices and the "systemic" effects associated to their trigeminality. It commences with a cultural and historical overview on the Western fascination for spices, and, after analysing in detail the mechanisms underlying the trigeminality of food, the main dietary players from the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels are introduced, also discussing the "alien" distribution of taste receptors outside the oro-pharingeal cavity. The modulation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 by spices is next described, discussing how spicy sensations can be turned into hedonic pungency, and analyzing the mechanistic bases for the health benefits that have been associated to the consumption of spices. These include, in addition to a beneficial modulation of gastro-intestinal and cardio-vascular function, slimming, the optimization of skeletal muscle performance, the reduction of chronic inflammation, and the prevention of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We conclude by reviewing the role of electrophilic spice constituents on cancer prevention in the light of their action on pro-inflammatory and pro-cancerogenic nuclear factors like NFκB, and on their interaction with the electrophile sensor protein Keap1 and the ensuing Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity. Spicy compounds have a complex polypharmacology, and just like any other bioactive agent, show a balance of beneficial and bad actions. However, at least for moderate consumption, the balance seems definitely in favour of the positive side, suggesting that a spicy diet, a caveman

  16. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects. (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe


    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  17. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Berni Canani; Margherita Di Costanzo; Ludovica Leone; Monica Pedata; Rosaria Meli; Antonio Calignano


    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from nonabsorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport,ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status,reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition,a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases,hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different;many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine.

  18. Beneficially reusing LLRW the Savannah River Site Stainless Steel Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.


    With 68 radioactively contaminated excess Process Water Heat Exchangers the Savannah River Site launched its program to turn potential LLRW metal liabilities into assets. Each Heat Exchanger contains approximately 100 tons of 304 Stainless Steel and could be disposed as LLRW by land burial. Instead the 7000 tons of metal will be recycled into LLRW, HLW, and TRU waste containers thereby eliminating the need for near term land disposal and also eliminating the need to add more clean metal to the waste stream. Aspects of the partnership between DOE and Private Industry necessary to accomplish this new mission are described. A life cycle cost analysis associated with past practices of using carbon steel containers to indefinitely store material (contributing to the creation of today`s legacy waste problems) is presented. The avoided cost calculations needed to support the economics of the ``Indifference`` decision process in assessing the Beneficial Reuse option relative to the Burial option are described.

  19. The application of the electrodynamic separator in minerals beneficiation (United States)

    Skowron, M.; Syrek, P.; Surowiak, A.


    The aim of presented paper is elaboration of methodology of upgrading natural minerals in example of chalcocite and bornite sample. The results were obtained by means of laboratory drum separator. This device operates in accordance to properties of materials, which in this case was electrical conductivity. The study contains the analysis of the forces occurring inside of electrodynamic separator chamber, that act on the particles of various electrical properties. Both, the potential and electric field strength distributions were calculated, with set of separators setpoints. Theoretical analysis influenced on separator parameters, and hence impacted the empirical results too. Next, the authors conducted empirical research on chalcocite and bornite beneficiation by means of electrodynamic separation. The results of this process were shown graphically in form of upgrading curves of chalcocite considering elementary copper and lead.

  20. Beneficial effects of footbaths in controlling spasticity after stroke (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Shimodozono, Megumi; Etoh, Seiji; Shimozono, Yurika; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi


    Footbaths are considered to provide beneficial thermal therapy for post-stroke patients with spasticity, but their anti-spastic effects have not been investigated comprehensively. The present study aimed to evaluate alterations in motor-neuron excitability using F-wave parameters in post-stroke patients with spastic hemiplegia. Subjects’ legs below the knee joint were immersed in water at 41°C and F-wave recordings were made over the abductor hallucis muscle before, immediately after, and 30 min after thermal treatment. Antidromic stimulation was performed on the tibial nerve at the ankle. Measurements included F-wave amplitude, F-wave/M-response ratio, changes in modified Ashworth scale (MAS), body temperature and surface-skin temperature. The mean values of both F-wave parameters were higher on the affected side before footbath treatment. In post-stroke patients, the mean values of F-wave parameters were significantly reduced after footbath treatment ( P rehabilitation.

  1. Beneficial effects of melatonin in experimental models of Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong CHENG; Zheng FENG; Qing-zhu ZHANG; Jun-tian ZHANG


    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive degenerative disorder, is characterized by the presence of amyloid deposits, neurofibrillary tangles and neuron loss.Emerging evidence indicates that antioxidants could be useful either for the prevention or treatment of AD. It has been shown that melatonin is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Additionally, melatonin stimulates several antioxidative enzymes and improves mitochondrial energy metabolism. These findings led us to study amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice, ovariectomized rats, and pheochromocytoma and astroglioma cell lines, to observe whether melatonin had any effect on Alzheimer's symptoms or pathological changes. We found that melatonin had many beneficial effects in experimental models of AD, including improvement of cognitive function, anti-oxidative injury, anti-apoptosis, inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and Aβ fiber formation. Several groups have shown that melatonin has an inhibitory effect on tau protein hyperphosphorylation.These actions may potentially slow down or stop the progression of dementia.

  2. Beneficial and harmful roles of bacteria from the Clostridium genus. (United States)

    Samul, Dorota; Worsztynowicz, Paulina; Leja, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz


    Bacteria of the Clostridium genus are often described only as a biological threat and a foe of mankind. However, many of them have positive properties and thanks to them they may be used in many industry branches (e.g., in solvents and alcohol production, in medicine, and also in esthetic cosmetology). During the last 10 years interest in application of C. botulinum and C. tetani in medicine significantly increased. Currently, the structure and biochemical properties of neurotoxins produced by these bacterial species, as well as possibilities of application of such toxins as botulinum as a therapeutic factor in humans, are being intensely researched. The main aim of this article is to demonstrate that bacteria from Clostridium spp. are not only pathogens and the enemy of humanity but they also have many important beneficial properties which make them usable among many chemical, medical, and cosmetic applications.

  3. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Mok


    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln.

  4. Critical evaluation of toxic versus beneficial effects of methylglyoxal. (United States)

    Talukdar, D; Chaudhuri, B S; Ray, M; Ray, S


    In various organisms, an array of enzymes is involved in the synthesis and breakdown of methylglyoxal. Through these enzymes, it is intimately linked to several other physiologically important metabolites, suggesting that methylglyoxal has some important role to play in the host organism. Several in vitro and in vivo studies showed that methylglyoxal acts specifically against different types of malignant cells. These studies culminated in a recent investigation to evaluate a methylglyoxal-based formulation in treating a small group of cancer patients, and the results were promising. Methylglyoxal acts against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. However, recent literature abounds with the toxic effects of methylglyoxal, which are supposed to be mediated through methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end products (AGE). Many diseases such as diabetes, cataract formation, hypertension, and uremia are proposed to be intimately linked with methylglyoxal-derived AGE. However methylglyoxal-derived AGE formation and subsequent pathogenesis might be a very minor event because AGE are nonspecific reaction products that are derived through the reactions of carbonyl groups of reducing sugars with amino groups present in the side chains of lysine and arginine and in terminal amino groups of proteins. Moreover, the results of some in vitro experiments with methylglyoxal under non-physiological conditions were extrapolated to the in vivo situation. Some experiments even showed contradictory results and were differently interpreted. For this reason conclusions about the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal have often been neglected, thus hindering the advancement of medical science and causing some confusion in fundamental understanding. Overall, the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal far outweigh its possible toxic role in vivo, and it should be utilized for the benefit of suffering humanity.

  5. Is membrane sweeping beneficial at the initiation of labor induction? (United States)

    Al-Harmi, Jehad; Chibber, Rachana; Fouda, Mohamed; Mohammed, Zeinab K; El-Saleh, Eyad; Tasneem, Asiya


    To determine whether cervical membrane sweeping during labor induction is beneficial. Outcomes of labor after induction in pregnant women at term were compared in a randomized trial. Women were assigned to having their membranes "swept" or "not swept" at the initiation of labor induction. We recruited a total of 870 women of which 70 were excluded. There were 400 nullipara (Group A) [198 "swept", 202 "not swept"] and 400 multiparas (Group B) (201 "swept" and 199 "not swept"]. Among group A who received intravaginal prostaglandin (PG) E2, those who had simultaneous sweeping had significantly shorter mean induction-labor interval (12.9 ± 1.3 versus 16.2 ± 1.1 hours, p = 0.046), lower mean dose of oxytocin (6.6 ± 0.6 versus 10.11 ± 1.4 mU/minute, p = 0.01), and increased normal delivery rates (vaginal delivery 82.8% versus 58.6%, p = 0.01). Sweeping also had a favorable effect on nulliparas who had ARM and received oxytocin alone (mean induction-labor interval 5.9 ± 2.9 versus 10.9 ± 2.6 hours p = 0.04, mean maximum dose of oxytocin 9.8 ± 1.1 versus 15.2 ± 1.1 mU/min, p = 0.01). These results were restricted to women with unfavorable cervix in Group A those who had membrane sweeping. Membrane sweeping, has beneficial effects on labor and delivery, which is limited to nulliparas with unfavorable cervix requiring PGE2 or Oxytocin alone.

  6. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations (United States)

    Newman, L.; Hejduk, M.; Frigm, R.; Duncan, M.


    On-orbit collisions pose a significant mission risk to satellites operating in the space environment. Recognizing the likelihood and consequence of on-orbit collisions, NASA has taken several proactive measures to mitigate the risk of both a catastrophic loss of mission and the increase in the space debris population. In fall 2004, NASA GSFC established an Agency-wide, institutionalized process and service for identifying and reacting to predicted close approaches. The team responsible for executing this mission is the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team. By fall 2005, this process had resulted in the execution of the first collision avoidance maneuver by a NASA unmanned satellite. In February 2008, NASA adopted a policy, documented in NASA Procedural Requirement 8715.6a Process for Limiting Orbital Debris that directed maneuverable satellites to have such an on-orbit collision mitigation process. In 2009, NASA decided to require support for all operational satellites. By January 2014, the CARA team has processed nearly 500,000 close approach messages from the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) and has assisted our mission customers with planning and executing over 75 collision avoidance maneuvers for unmanned satellites in LEO, GEO, and HEO orbital regimes. With the increase in number of operational missions supported; growth in the orbital debris environment due to events such as the intentional destruction of the Fengyun 1-C satellite in 2007 and collision between Iridium-33 and Cosmos-2251; and improvements to the United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and its ability to track, catalog, and screen against small debris objects, the demands on the CARA process have consequently required the CARA Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to evolve to manage those demands. This evolution is centered on the ability to effectively and efficiently manage JSpOC, CARA, and Mission Operations resources, applying operational and analytical

  7. Conjunctive Management of Multi-Aquifer System for Saltwater Intrusion Mitigation (United States)

    Tsai, F. T. C.; Pham, H. V.


    Due to excessive groundwater withdrawals, many water wells in Baton Rouge, Louisiana experience undesirable chloride concentration because of saltwater intrusion. The study goal is to develop a conjunctive management framework that takes advantage of the Baton Rouge multi-aquifer system to mitigate saltwater intrusion. The conjunctive management framework utilizes several hydraulic control techniques to mitigate saltwater encroachment. These hydraulic control approaches include pumping well relocation, freshwater injection, saltwater scavenging, and their combinations. Specific objectives of the study are: (1) constructing scientific geologic architectures of the "800-foot" sand, the "1,000-foot" sand, the "1,200-foot" sand, the "1,500-foot" sand, the "1,700-foot" sand, and the "2,000-foot" sand, (2) developing scientific saltwater intrusion models for these sands. (3) using connector wells to draw native groundwater from one sand and inject to another sand to create hydraulic barriers to halt saltwater intrusion, (4) using scavenger wells or well couples to impede saltwater intrusion progress and reduce chloride concentration in pumping wells, and (5) reducing cones of depression by relocating and dispersing pumping wells to different sands. The study utilizes optimization techniques and newest LSU high performance computing (HPC) facilities to derive solutions. The conjunctive management framework serves as a scientific tool to assist policy makers to solve the urgent saltwater encroachment issue in the Baton Rouge area. The research results will help water companies as well as industries in East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring parishes by reducing their saltwater intrusion threats, which in turn would sustain Capital Area economic development.

  8. Doxycycline exerts multiple anti-allergy effects to attenuate murine allergic conjunctivitis and systemic anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Su, Wenru; Wan, Qian; Han, Longhui; Huang, Jingwen; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Song Guo; Liang, Dan


    Allergic diseases, which affect up to 20-30% of the world population, are still therapeutic challenge for allergists. Tetracyclines, which belong to an antibiotic drug family that possesses a striking variety of non-antibiotic properties, have been successfully applied to a wide range of diseases. However, their roles in allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis and their underlying anti-allergy mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we reported that treatment with doxycycline significantly reduced IgE release from mouse B cells and the degranulation and inflammatory cytokines production of mouse mast cells (MCs) activated by IgE-dependent way. Furthermore, doxycycline treatment significantly inhibited histamine-induced vascular hyperpermeability in vitro. Mechanistically, the doxycycline-mediated inhibition of B cells, MCs and histamine may occur via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In vivo, our results demonstrated that treatment with doxycycline significantly attenuated clinical symptoms of mouse models of experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) with a significant decrease in inflammatory cell frequency, IgE production, histamine release, and a decrease in TNF-α and IL-4 production. Using mouse models of MCs-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA), we further confirmed anti-allergy effects of doxycycline and doxycycline-mediated inhibitory effects on MCs. Furthermore, our results showed that doxycycline significantly attenuate histamine-induced systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction (HISA) with a significantly downregulation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS/VE-cadherin pathway. The doxycycline-mediated anti-allergy effects during EAC, PSA and HISA were abrogated when an Akt activator, SC79, was administered. These findings suggest that doxycycline inhibits B cell, MC and histamine function and attenuates experimental allergic conjunctivitis and systemic anaphylaxis by possible modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  9. Conjunctive management of multi-reservoir network system and groundwater system (United States)

    Mani, A.; Tsai, F. T. C.


    This study develops a successive mixed-integer linear fractional programming (successive MILFP) method to conjunctively manage water resources provided by a multi-reservoir network system and a groundwater system. The conjunctive management objectives are to maximize groundwater withdrawals and maximize reservoir storages while satisfying water demands and raising groundwater level to a target level. The decision variables in the management problem are reservoir releases and spills, network flows and groundwater pumping rates. Using the fractional programming approach, the objective function is defined as a ratio of total groundwater withdraws to total reservoir storage deficits from the maximum storages. Maximizing this ratio function tends to maximizing groundwater use and minimizing surface water use. This study introduces a conditional constraint on groundwater head in order to sustain aquifers from overpumping: if current groundwater level is less than a target level, groundwater head at the next time period has to be raised; otherwise, it is allowed to decrease up to a certain extent. This conditional constraint is formulated into a set of mixed binary nonlinear constraints and results in a mixed-integer nonlinear fractional programming (MINLFP) problem. To solve the MINLFP problem, we first use the response matrix approach to linearize groundwater head with respect to pumping rate and reduce the problem to an MILFP problem. Using the Charnes-Cooper transformation, the MILFP is transformed to an equivalent mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). The solution of the MILP is successively updated by updating the response matrix in every iteration. The study uses IBM CPLEX to solve the MILP problem. The methodology is applied to water resources management in northern Louisiana. This conjunctive management approach aims to recover the declining groundwater level of the stressed Sparta aquifer by using surface water from a network of four reservoirs as an

  10. Umbilical hernia repair in conjunction with abdominoplasty: a surgical technique to maintain umbilical blood supply. (United States)

    Bruner, Terrence W; Salazar-Reyes, Hector; Friedman, Jeffrey D


    Abdominal wall hernias are often diagnosed on clinical examination or encountered intraoperatively during an abdominoplasty. Traditional surgical techniques for abdominoplasty and umbilical hernia repair, when performed simultaneously, can potentially compromise the vascular supply to the umbilicus. The authors describe a simplified surgical technique for the correction of umbilical hernias in conjunction with abdominoplasty. This procedure avoids any fascial incisions immediately adjacent to the umbilicus, thereby maintaining a maximal blood supply to the umbilical stalk. Over a six-year period, 17 patients underwent the described procedure. None have had a recurrence of their hernia or umbilical necrosis, and the aesthetics of the umbilicus have been improved.

  11. Collision Avoidance: Coordination of Predicted Conjunctions between NASA Satellites and Satellites of other Countries (United States)

    Kelly, A.; Watson, W.


    This paper describes one of the challenges facing the flight operations teams of the International Earth Observing constellation satellites at the 705 km orbit, including NASAs satellites. The NASA Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) Project has been dealing with predicted conjunctions (close approach) between operational/non-operational space objects and the satellites in the International Earth observing constellations for several years. Constellation satellites include: NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra, Aqua, and Aura, CloudSat, the joint NASA/CNES CALIPSO mission, Earth Observing 1 (EO-1), the Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission-Water 1 (GCOM-W1) mission, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 7 and Landsat 8, and until 2013, Argentinas SAC-C mission and the CNES PARASOL mission. The NASA Conjunction Analysis and Risk Assessment (CARA) team provides daily reports to the ESMO Project regarding any high interest close approach events (HIEs) involving the constellation satellites. The daily CARA reports provide risk assessment results that help the operations teams to determine if there is a need to perform a risk mitigation action. If the conjuncting space object is an operational satellite that is capable of maneuvering, the affected satellite team needs to coordinate their action plan with the owner operator of the conjuncting satellite. It is absolutely critical for the two teams to communicate as soon as possible. The goal is to minimize the collision risk; this can happen if both satellite operators do not coordinate their maneuver plans. The constellation teams have established guidelines for coordinating HIEs. This coordination process has worked successfully for several years for satellites that are operated by other organizations in the United States and by NASAs international partners, all with whom NASA has a cooperative agreement. However, the situation is different for HIEs with

  12. Prevalence of trachoma in chronic conjunctivitis, Birjand, Islamic Republic of Iran. (United States)

    Yaqubi, G H; Anani, G R


    Between January 1999 and December 2000, 80 consecutive patients with chronic conjunctivitis presenting in the eye clinic of Birjand University of Medical Sciences were assessed for trachoma and chlamydial infection. Direct fluorescent antibody test was used to assess trachoma and Giemsa staining to detect chlamydial infection. Trachoma was detected in 10% of the patients and chlamydial infection detected in 6.3%. The results were similar for both sexes. Although the findings are hospital-based, the prevalence was not so high as to suggest prophylactic use of azithromycin (World Health Organization protocol) for eradication of trachoma in the Birjand population. Further epidemiological studies are recommended.

  13. Pyometra presenting in conjunction with bowel cancer in a post-menopausal women: a case report (United States)

    Soleymani majd, Hooman; Watermeyer, Sean; Ismail, Lamiese


    This case describes a 71 year old, post-menopausal woman who developed vaginal discharge. This complaint ultimately led to the discovery of bowel cancer in conjunction with a large sterile pyometra. The pyometra was not due to genital malignancy. The most likely conclusion is that the pyometra may have arisen as an inflammatory response to the adjacent bowel pathology. This case report highlights the need for clinicians to consider non-gynaecological cancer as a possible cause for otherwise unexplained pyometra. PMID:18606021

  14. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Analysis of Orbital Conjunction Data (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis; Gold, Dara


    We propose a Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for analysis of commonly available predictions associated with spacecraft conjunctions. Such predictions generally consist of a relative state and relative state error covariance at the time of closest approach, under the assumption that prediction errors are Gaussian. We show that under these circumstances, the likelihood ratio of the Wald test reduces to an especially simple form, involving the current best estimate of collision probability, and a similar estimate of collision probability that is based on prior assumptions about the likelihood of collision.

  15. 连接词与语篇体裁%Conjunction and Text Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭南珍; 李国庆


    本篇论文以海明威小说中的微型语域语篇体裁为语料,重点探讨了语篇中连接词与语篇体裁之间的关系.本文提出的假设是:语篇中连接词的选择和语篇体裁之间有着密不可分的关系.分析论证表明:叙述体语篇以外向型的表时间的连接词为其主要连接词,描述体语篇以表复加逻辑语义的连接词为主要连接词.语篇不同的交际目的使具有不同语义内涵的连接词在某类语篇体裁中占主导位置.以上发现可以帮助得出如下基本结论:语言是一个社会符号体系.语篇体裁在本质上也是一个社会符号体系,就连接词而言,不同类型的语篇体裁所具有的不同的交际目的可以使信息发出者偏重选择具有不同类型逻辑语义关系的连接词.%In this paper the author mainly discusses the relationship between Conjunction and genre. The hypothesis the thesis proposes is that there exists a certain relationship between the semantic systems of Conjunction and the higher semiotic organization of text, genre. Through analysis of the micro-register texts taken from Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea, it is found that narrative texts are always having the external temporal successive conjunctive relation as the dominating relation. And in the non-narrative text such as the Descriptive Text, the internal additional logical semantic relation or the internal temporal logical semantic relation dominates text. Our finding demonstrates that the options of the logico-semantic relation of Conjunction are closely related to genre and the text identification and classification.

  16. Characterization of regional left ventricular function in nonhuman primates using magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers: a test-retest repeatability and inter-subject variability study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sampath

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF. Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs, that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain

  17. The Body - Intersubjectivity as the Basis of the Aesthetic Common Sense%审美共通感的“身体间性”基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    “他人审美鉴赏的不可替代”始终在瓦解着审美共通感的基础,这也成为康德美学遗留下的一大疑难。黑格尔、胡塞尔、海德格尔乃至萨特等人的思考,使得“他人”浮出思想的地平线,但是由于未能逾越出“唯我论”的局限,他人最终成为自我的尖锐对立。梅洛一庞蒂在对胡塞尔的相关思考进行深度开掘后,通过身体现象学确认了“他人与我”的身体间性关系,从而为审美共同感及他人“神圣不可侵犯的优先性与超验性”奠定了基础。%Others aesthetic appreciation will destroy the foundation of the aesthetic common sense ; it is al- so a difficult problem from Kant' s aesthetics. Hegel, Husserl, Heidegger and Sartre pay attention to the "Oth- ers", but they can not transcend the solipsism, so the "Others" become the opposition to the "Myself" even- tually. Merleau- Ponty establishes the body -intersubjectivity between the "Others" and "Myself" by body phenomenology, and lays the foundation for the aesthetic common sense and the priority and transcendence of the "Others".

  18. 交往理性观照下的翻译主体间性%Intersubjectivity in Translation from the Perspective of Communicative Rationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学华; 吴凌


    20世纪70年代以来,在笛卡尔的"我思故我在"哲学体系基础上建立起的西方主体性哲学稍有衰退,主体间性思想随之逐渐兴起。哈贝马斯的交往行为理论强调主体间的相互尊重、双向交往和理解,使交往行为者与世界建立起联系,以此来解决翻译研究单主体范式的困惑,使翻译活动中各主体之间能在理想的语境下通过交流,达成有效理解,清楚认识,和谐共存。%Since the 1970s,the western subjective philosophy,which is based on the Philosophical system of Descartes,is in its twilight.On the other hand,the idea of intersubjectivity is taken seriously.Habermas' theory of communicative action stresses the mutual respect,two-way exchanges and understanding between subjects,in establishing a connection between communicative actors and the world.In this way,the confusion on the single-subject paradigm in translation studies can be solued.Also,through communication in the translation activities,subjects can achieve an effective understanding and harmonious coexistence in an ideal context.

  19. Reliable conjunctive use rules for sustainable irrigated agriculture and reservoir spill control (United States)

    Schoups, Gerrit; Addams, C. Lee; Minjares, Jose Luis; Gorelick, Steven M.


    We develop optimal conjunctive use water management strategies that balance two potentially conflicting objectives: sustaining irrigated agriculture during droughts and minimizing unnecessary spills and resulting water losses from the reservoir during wet periods. Conjunctive use is specified by a linear operating rule, which determines the maximum surface water release as a function of initial reservoir storage. Optimal strategies are identified using multiobjective interannual optimization for sustainability and spill control, combined with gradient-based annual profit maximization. Application to historical conditions in the irrigated system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, yields a Pareto curve of solutions illustrating the trade-off between sustaining agriculture and minimizing spills and water losses. Minimal water losses are obtained by maximizing surface water use and limiting groundwater pumping, such that reservoir levels are kept sufficiently low. Maximum agricultural sustainability, on the other hand, results from increased groundwater use and keeping surface water reservoir levels high during wet periods. Selected optimal operating rules from the multiobjective optimization are tested over a large number of equally probable streamflow time series, generated with a stochastic time series model. In this manner, statistical properties, such as the mean sustainability and sustainability percentiles, are determined for each optimal rule. These statistical properties can be used to select rules for water management that are reliable over a wide range of streamflow conditions.

  20. Diabetic foot ulcers in conjunction with lower limb lymphedema: pathophysiology and treatment procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanapathy M


    Full Text Available Muholan Kanapathy,1 Mark J Portou,1,2 Janice Tsui,1,2 Toby Richards1,21Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, 2Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs are complex, chronic, and progressive wounds, and have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. A particular aspect of DFU that has not been reviewed extensively thus far is its management in conjunction with peripheral limb edema. Peripheral limb edema is a feature of diabetes that has been identified as a significant risk factor for amputation in patients with DFU. Three major etiological factors in development of lymphedema with concurrent DFU are diabetic microangiopathy, failure of autonomic regulation, and recurrent infection. This review outlines the pathophysiology of lymphedema formation in patients with DFU and highlights the cellular and immune components of impaired wound healing in lymphedematous DFU. We then discuss the principles of management of DFU in conjunction with lymphedema.Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, lymphedema, chronic wound, wound management

  1. Repair of a Perforated Sinus Membrane with a Subepithelial Palatal Conjunctive Flap: Technique Report and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gehrke


    Full Text Available The maxillary sinus grafting procedure has proven to be an acceptable modality for bone augmentation to provide a base for endosseous implants, routinely used for the rehabilitation of posterior maxilla. Perforation of the membrane is the most common complication in this type of procedure. This paper presents a technique for repairing a perforated Schneiderian membrane with a conjunctive connective tissue graft harvested from the palate and shows the histological and radiographic evaluation of the results. Ten consecutives cases with the occurrence of membrane perforation were included in this study. All were repaired with a flap of tissue removed from the palatine portion near to the surgical site. The technique is demonstrated through a clinical case. The results showed successful integration of 88.8% of the implants after 12 months from prosthesis installation. Histological evaluation of the samples showed that the use of nanocrystalized hydroxyapatite showed an adequate stimulation of boné neoformation within 6 months. Radiographic evaluation revealed a small apical implant bone loss, not compromising their anchorages and proservation. Thus, it can be concluded that the use of conjunctive technique with collected palate flap for sealing the perforation of the membrane of the sinus may have predictable result.

  2. Feedback of land subsidence on the movement and conjunctive use of water resources (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Schmid, W.; Hughes, J. D.


    The dependency of surface- or groundwater flows and aquifer hydraulic properties on dewatering-induced layer deformation is not available in the USGS's groundwater model MODFLOW. A new integrated hydrologic model, MODFLOW-OWHM, formulates this dependency by coupling mesh deformation with aquifer transmissivity and storage and by linking land subsidence/uplift with deformation-dependent flows that also depend on aquifer head and other flow terms. In a test example, flows most affected were stream seepage and evapotranspiration from groundwater (ETgw). Deformation feedback also had an indirect effect on conjunctive surface- and groundwater use components: Changed stream seepage and streamflows influenced surface-water deliveries and returnflows. Changed ETgw impacted on irrigation demand, which jointly with altered surface-water supplies resulted in changed supplemental groundwater requirements and pumping and changed return runoff. This modeling feature will improve the impact assessment of dewatering-induced land subsidence/uplift (following irrigation pumping or coal-seam gas extraction) on surface receptors, inter-basin transfers, and surface-infrastructure integrity. A hypothetical example and the Central Valley are used to demonstrate the utility and importance of the new subsidence model linkages for conjunctive use.

  3. Azelastine hydrochloride, a dual-acting anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution, for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia B Williams


    Full Text Available Patricia B Williams1,2, Elizabeth Crandall2, John D Sheppard1,21Thomas R Lee Center for Ocular Pharmacology, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, A, USAAbstract: Over 50% of patients who seek treatment for allergies present with ocular ­symptoms. Our current ability to control ocular allergic symptoms is greater than ever before. Newer dual-acting topical eyedrops attack multiple facets of the allergic cascade. Azelastine has antihistaminic effects providing immediate relief, mast cell stabilization providing early-phase intervention, and inhibition of expression and activation of anti-inflammatory mediators which characterize the late phase of the immune reaction. The ophthalmic eyedrop formulation is approved for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in adults and children aged over 3 years. In clinical trials comparing azelastine with other dual-acting eyedrops, such as levocabastine and olopatadine, azelastine was reported to be slightly less efficacious and to sting briefly upon administration. Even so, many patients experienced the full benefit of symptom relief, and preferred azelastine. As a broad-spectrum drug, azelastine offers many desirable properties for management of ocular allergies. Because it can often produce maximal effect with just twice-daily dosing, azelastine is a particularly good choice for the allergic population in whom minimizing exposure to topical products and preservatives is a key concern.Keywords: allergic conjunctivitis, dual acting anti-inflammatory, H1 receptor antagonism, mast cell stabilization, inflammatory mediator inhibition

  4. Shape and color conjunction stimuli are represented as bound objects in visual working memory. (United States)

    Luria, Roy; Vogel, Edward K


    The integrated object view of visual working memory (WM) argues that objects (rather than features) are the building block of visual WM, so that adding an extra feature to an object does not result in any extra cost to WM capacity. Alternative views have shown that complex objects consume additional WM storage capacity so that it may not be represented as bound objects. Additionally, it was argued that two features from the same dimension (i.e., color-color) do not form an integrated object in visual WM. This led some to argue for a "weak" object view of visual WM. We used the contralateral delay activity (the CDA) as an electrophysiological marker of WM capacity, to test those alternative hypotheses to the integrated object account. In two experiments we presented complex stimuli and color-color conjunction stimuli, and compared performance in displays that had one object but varying degrees of feature complexity. The results supported the integrated object account by showing that the CDA amplitude corresponded to the number of objects regardless of the number of features within each object, even for complex objects or color-color conjunction stimuli. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy in conjunction with mitomycin C in corneal macular and granular dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Yuksel


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the visual outcomes, recurrence patterns, safety, and efficacy of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK in conjunction with mitomycin C (MMC for corneal macular and granular diystrophies. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD that caused superficial corneal plaque opacities, and Group 2 included patients with granular corneal dystrophy (GCD. Patients in both groups were pre-, peri-, and postoperatively evaluated. The groups were compared in terms of uncorrected visual acuity (VA, best spectacle-corrected VA, presence of mild or significant recurrence, and time of recurrence. Results: Eighteen eyes (nine with MCD and nine with GCD of 18 patients (10 men and eight women were included. PTK was performed for each eye that was included in this study. The mean ablation amount was 117.8 ± 24.4 µm and 83.5 ± 45.7 µm in MCD and GCD, respectively, (p=0.18. The postoperative improvement of the mean VA was similar between the two groups before recurrences (p>0.43 and after recurrences (p>0.71. There were no statistically significant differences in the recurrence rate and the recurrence-free period for any recurrence type. Conclusion: PTK was an effective, safe, and minimally invasive procedure for patients with MCD and GCD. PTK in conjunction with MMC was similarly effective for both groups in terms of recurrence and visual outcomes.

  6. Levocabastine eye drops are effective and well tolerated for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunello Wüthrich


    Full Text Available This open-label, prospective, multicentre, 4-week trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy and tolerability of twice daily levocabastine eye drops (0.5 mg/ml, with sodium cromoglycate nasal spray for the relief of concurrent nasal symptoms if required, in a total of 233 children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. No correlation between efficacy, tolerability and age was found. Investigator assessments revealed that the total severity of ocular symptoms decreased by 84 ± 34% in patients < 12 years and 85 ± 30% in those ≥ 12 years, with corresponding reductions in the total severity of ocular findings of 84% in both patient groups over the 4-week treatment period. Global assessments of therapeutic efficacy revealed the effect of therapy on ocular symptoms to be excellent or good in 81% of patients < 12 years and 82% of those ≥ 12 years after 2 weeks of treatment, with corresponding values at the end of the trial of 88% and 82% in the two groups, respectively. Treatment tolerability was considered to be excellent or good by 94% of patients overall. Application site reactions were the most common adverse event associated with ocular levocabastine, occurring in 13% of patients < 12 years and 9% of those ≥ 12 years. Twice daily levocabastine eye drops therefore appear to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in children.

  7. Event-related potentials and illusory conjunctions in the time domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gil-Gómez de Liaño


    Full Text Available (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation, RSVP can migrate forming a wrong combination or illusory conjunction. Several serial and parallel models have been proposed to explain the generation of this type of errors. The behavioral results fit better the two-stage parallel model than other serial and parallel models. However, they have not been studied the psychophysiological correlates that distinguish successful bindings from Illusory Conjunctions. The goal here is to collect electrophysiological records during this task to determine the degree to which they converge with the evidence from behavioral results. One RSVP task required to identify the only uppercase word in a stream of lowercase words at a rate of 12 items/sec. As in previous experiments, more intrusions from post-target items than from pre-target items were observed. The results from eventrelated potentials are also more supportive for the two-stage parallel model than for the serial or other parallel models, as reflected in the differential waves associated to correct and wrong combinations

  8. Beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on liver regeneration in cirrhosis. (United States)

    Ozdogan, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren; Dundar, Kadir; Albayrak, Levent; Devay, Seda; Gundogdu, Haldun


    Underlying hepatic injury and cirrhosis are leading factors that interfere with the post-operative liver regeneration and function. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been reported to ameliorate the ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver, to induce compensatory hypertrophy of the predicted remnant liver in rats after portal vein ligation and to augment liver regeneration after hepatectomy in non-cirrhotic rats. Our aim was to determine the effect of HBO treatment on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in normal and cirrhotic mice in this experimental study. The effect of HBO on liver regeneration was studied in a mice model combining carbon tetrachloride induced cirrhosis and partial hepatectomy. Mice were divided into four groups: Control, cirrhotic, non-cirrhotic HBO-treated, and cirrhotic HBO-treated. All animals underwent 40% hepatectomy. Liver regeneration was evaluated by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeling index. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were measured to evaluate liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased in HBO-treated cirrhotic group compared to cirrhosis group after hepatectomy (P = 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). The proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index was significantly higher in HBO treated cirrhotic group than in cirrhotic group after hepatectomy (P = 0.022). Our results suggest that HBO treatment improves liver functions and augments hepatocyte regeneration in cirrhotic mice after hepatectomy. Post-operative HBO treatment may have a beneficial effect on post-operative liver function and regeneration in cirrhotic patients.

  9. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam


    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  10. Can vineyard biodiversity be beneficial for viticulture and tourism? (United States)

    Hervé, Morgane; Kratschmer, Sophie; Gregorich, Claudia; Silvia, Winter; Montembault, David; Zaller, Johann G.; Guernion, Muriel; Jung, Vincent; Schuette, Rebekka; Paredes, Daniel; Guzman Diaz, Gema; Cabezas Luque, Jose Manuel; Hoble, Adela; Popescu, Daniela; Burel, Françoise; Cluzeau, Daniel; Bergmann, Holger; Potthoff, Martin; Nicolai, Annegret


    The European research BiodivERsA project VineDivers aims to link ecosystem services and vine production, in an integrative approach that considers both landscape structure and cultural practices (cover-crops versus bare soils), in vineyards of Austria, France, Romania and Spain. Such services studied are (i) provisioning and regulation services by soil biota and pollinators, and (ii) landscape cultural services. In this study, we want to know if landscape beneficial for biodiversity providing ecosystem services at a plot scale also have an aesthetical value. An interdisciplinary approach was chosen to include both ecological and sociological data. First, we analyzed the influence of soil management practices and landscape complexity on soil biota, inter-row flora and bees. Second, we implemented a questionnaire based on photographs about biodiversity perception and visual aesthetic evaluation. Our results highlighted the effect of landscape complexity and soil management intensity on biodiversity and their ecological and cultural ecosystem services. This allows us to discuss the global importance of biodiversity for a wine-producing region. Further analysis within the VineDivers project will focus on an assessment of the biodiversity importance for local viticulture economy.

  11. Primary beneficiation of tantalite using magnetic separation and acid leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Nete; F Koko; T Theron; W Purcell; JT Nel


    Primary beneficiation was successfully performed prior to dissolution of manganotantalite (sample A) and ferrotantalite (sample C) samples obtained from two different mines in the Naquissupa area, Mozambique. Magnetic separation removed the majority of iron and tita-nium, whereas H2SO4 leaching removed a large portion of thorium and uranium in these samples. Analytical results indicated that 64.14wt%and 72.04wt%of the total Fe and Ti, respectively, and~2wt%each of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were removed from sample C (ferrotantalite) using the magnetic separation method, whereas only 9.64wt%and 8.66wt%of total Fe2O3 and TiO2, respectively, and~2wt%each of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were removed from sample A (manganotantalite). A temperature of 50°C and a leaching time of 3 h in the presence of concentrated H2SO4 were observed to be the most appropriate leaching conditions for removal of radioactive elements from the tantalite ores. The results obtained for sample A under these conditions indicated that 64.14wt%U3O8 and 60.77wt%ThO2 were leached into the acidic solution, along with 4.45wt%and 0.99wt%of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5, respectively.

  12. The Beneficial Role of Mobility for the Emergence of Innovation. (United States)

    Armano, Giuliano; Javarone, Marco Alberto


    Innovation is a key ingredient for the evolution of several systems, including social and biological ones. Focused investigations and lateral thinking may lead to innovation, as well as serendipity and other random discovery processes. Some individuals are talented at proposing innovation (say innovators), while others at deeply exploring proposed novelties, at getting further insights on a theory, or at developing products, services, and so on (say developers). This separation in terms of innovators and developers raises an issue of paramount importance: under which conditions a system is able to maintain innovators? According to a simple model, this work investigates the evolutionary dynamics that characterize the emergence of innovation. In particular, we consider a population of innovators and developers, in which agents form small groups whose composition is crucial for their payoff. The latter depends on the heterogeneity of the formed groups, on the amount of innovators they include, and on an award-factor that represents the policy of the system for promoting innovation. Under the hypothesis that a "mobility" effect may support the emergence of innovation, we compare the equilibria reached by our population in different cases. Results confirm the beneficial role of "mobility", and the emergence of further interesting phenomena.

  13. Can misfolded proteins be beneficial? The HAMLET case. (United States)

    Pettersson-Kastberg, Jenny; Aits, Sonja; Gustafsson, Lotta; Mossberg, Anki; Storm, Petter; Trulsson, Maria; Persson, Filip; Mok, K Hun; Svanborg, Catharina


    By changing the three-dimensional structure, a protein can attain new functions, distinct from those of the native protein. Amyloid-forming proteins are one example, in which conformational change may lead to fibril formation and, in many cases, neurodegenerative disease. We have proposed that partial unfolding provides a mechanism to generate new and useful functional variants from a given polypeptide chain. Here we present HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) as an example where partial unfolding and the incorporation of cofactor create a complex with new, beneficial properties. Native alpha-lactalbumin functions as a substrate specifier in lactose synthesis, but when partially unfolded the protein binds oleic acid and forms the tumoricidal HAMLET complex. When the properties of HAMLET were first described they were surprising, as protein folding intermediates and especially amyloid-forming protein intermediates had been regarded as toxic conformations, but since then structural studies have supported functional diversity arising from a change in fold. The properties of HAMLET suggest a mechanism of structure-function variation, which might help the limited number of human protein genes to generate sufficient structural diversity to meet the diverse functional demands of complex organisms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudarshana kriya is a Sanskrit term meaning ―proper vision, purified action by controlling the breath. Kri means to act with awareness. It normalizes breathing by concentrating on it systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 subjects with type II diabetes 20 males, 20 females with age group of 40-60 were chosen. They underwent sudarshana kriya training for 6 days organized in Bangalore. A written consent was taken from subjects. They participated in 6 day Sudarshana kriya training held at Bangalore by a trained teacher. This 6 day training includes Sudarshana kriya and meditation. Our Study is designed to study the glycemic control and antilipemic effect of Sudarshana kriya in TypeII Diabetes Mellitus. RESULTS: Sudarshana kriya appears to be specialized pranayamic breathing capable of inducing series of beneficial changes besides causing significant fall of sugar levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a raise in HDL cholesterol (p<0.001 CONCLUSION: Sudarshan Kriya can be used along with oral hypoglycemic agents as a holistic adjunct approach for a better glycemic and lipid profile control. Regular practice of Sudarshana Kriya reduces symptoms of mental depression for treating stress and anxiety in post- traumatic stress disorder. Sudarshana Kriya leaves one more alert aware, attentive and focused

  15. Nephromyces, a beneficial apicomplexan symbiont in marine animals (United States)

    Saffo, Mary Beth; McCoy, Adam M.; Rieken, Christopher; Slamovits, Claudio H.


    With malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), Toxoplasma, and many other species of medical and veterinary importance its iconic representatives, the protistan phylum Apicomplexa has long been defined as a group composed entirely of parasites and pathogens. We present here a report of a beneficial apicomplexan: the mutualistic marine endosymbiont Nephromyces. For more than a century, the peculiar structural and developmental features of Nephromyces, and its unusual habitat, have thwarted characterization of the phylogenetic affinities of this eukaryotic microbe. Using short-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences as key evidence, with sequence identity confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we show that Nephromyces, originally classified as a chytrid fungus, is actually an apicomplexan. Inferences from rDNA data are further supported by the several apicomplexan-like structural features in Nephromyces, including especially the strong resemblance of Nephromyces infective stages to apicomplexan sporozoites. The striking emergence of the mutualistic Nephromyces from a quintessentially parasitic clade accentuates the promise of this organism, and the three-partner symbiosis of which it is a part, as a model for probing the factors underlying the evolution of mutualism, pathogenicity, and infectious disease. PMID:20736348

  16. Graphic values for some organic constitutents of beneficiated coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlenberger, L.B. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))


    Graphic techniques exist which can accurately predict values for calorific value, organic sulfur, and possibly other constituents of the organic portion of beneficiated coal sample fractions. These techniques also permit a determination of coal rank to be made without the use of the approximations required in the standard procedure. Fractions of IBC-101 with varying ash contents were produced by froth flotation. The various fractions were analyzed by the coal analysis laboratory and the particular data type was plotted in each case vs. the individual ash content of each fraction, using Lotus 123 and Freelace software packages. Such plots for calorific value and organic sulfur have, so far, been made. These curves and the information they contain are discussed in this report. A comparison of the graphic mineral matter value with the usual one calculated from the Parr approximation has been made. Eventually, the data may lead to an effective way to estimate inorganic carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and other organic constitents of coal. All data will be made available to researchers.

  17. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States))


    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  18. Modified TMV Particles as Beneficial Scaffolds to Present Sensor Enzymes. (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Wabbel, Katrin; Eber, Fabian J; Krolla-Sidenstein, Peter; Azucena, Carlos; Gliemann, Hartmut; Eiben, Sabine; Geiger, Fania; Wege, Christina


    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a robust nanotubular nucleoprotein scaffold increasingly employed for the high density presentation of functional molecules such as peptides, fluorescent dyes, and antibodies. We report on its use as advantageous carrier for sensor enzymes. A TMV mutant with a cysteine residue exposed on every coat protein (CP) subunit (TMVCys) enabled the coupling of bifunctional maleimide-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-biotin linkers (TMVCys/Bio). Its surface was equipped with two streptavidin [SA]-conjugated enzymes: glucose oxidase ([SA]-GOx) and horseradish peroxidase ([SA]-HRP). At least 50% of the CPs were decorated with a linker molecule, and all thereof with active enzymes. Upon use as adapter scaffolds in conventional "high-binding" microtiter plates, TMV sticks allowed the immobilization of up to 45-fold higher catalytic activities than control samples with the same input of enzymes. Moreover, they increased storage stability and reusability in relation to enzymes applied directly to microtiter plate wells. The functionalized TMV adsorbed to solid supports showed a homogeneous distribution of the conjugated enzymes and structural integrity of the nanorods upon transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. The high surface-increase and steric accessibility of the viral scaffolds in combination with the biochemical environment provided by the plant viral coat may explain the beneficial effects. TMV can, thus, serve as a favorable multivalent nanoscale platform for the ordered presentation of bioactive proteins.

  19. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerza Abdul Razak


    Full Text Available Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states.

  20. The beneficial effects of taurine to counteract sarcopenia. (United States)

    Scicchitano, Bianca M; Sica, Gigliola


    Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly. It is well established that changes in the quantity and the quality of dietary proteins, as well as the intake of specific amino acids, are able to counteract some of the physiopathological processes related to the progression of the loss of muscle mass and may have beneficial effects in improving the anabolic response of muscle in the elderly. Taurine is a non-essential amino acid expressed in high concentration in several mammalian tissues and particularly in skeletal muscle where it is involved in the modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel regulation and where it also acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory factor. The aim of this review is to summarize the pleiotropic effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and to discuss its role in regulating signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of muscle homeostasis. We also highlight the potential use of taurine as a therapeutic molecule for the amelioration of skeletal muscle function and performance severely compromised during aging.