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Sample records for beneath agricultural areas

  1. Mathematical modeling of agricultural fires beneath high voltage transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zohri, Emad H.; Shafey, Hamdy M.; Abdel-Salam, M.; Ahmed, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for agricultural fires based on a multi-phase formulation. The model includes dehydration and pyrolysis of agricultural fuel and pyrolysis products. The model considers a homogeneous distribution of the agricultural solid fuel particles, interacting with the gas flow via source terms. These terms include: drag forces, production of water vapour and pyrolysis products, radiative and convective heat exchange. A multi-phase radiative transfer equation for absorbing-emitting medium is considered to account for the radiative heat exchange between the gas and solid phases of the fire. The main outputs of the present model are most important to study the influence of agricultural fire occurring beneath high voltage transmission lines. The agricultural fire causes a flashover due to the ambient temperature rise and soot accumulation on the insulator of these transmission lines. Numerical results of the present model are obtained for flat grassland fires to study the effects of wind velocity, solid fuel moisture content and ignition length on some selected fire outputs. These outputs include the temperature, velocity, soot volume fraction fields of the gas phase, together with fire propagation rate and flame geometry. The numerical results are compared to the available experimental work in the literature. -- Research highlights: → The model is sensitive to the initial condition of the ignition length affecting the fire propagation rate and width. → The model predicts the effects of both the wind velocity and the fuel moisture content on fire propagation rate, in agreement with the available experimental work in the literature. → The model shows that both the wind velocity and the fuel moisture content are important factors affecting the fire plume thickness, location, and inclination. → The model is able to visualize the flame geometry through tracing radiative heat rates exceeding a threshold value for flame visibility (60 k

  2. Heterogeneous Structure and Seismicity beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kato, A.; Sakai, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2010-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes damaged mega-thrust earthquakes. Sato et al. (2005) revealed the geometry of upper surface of PSP, and Hagiwara et al. (2006) estimated the velocity structure beneath Boso peninsula. However, these results are not sufficient for the assessment of the entire picture of the seismic hazards beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area including those due to an intra-slab M7+ earthquake. So, we launched the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (Hirata et al., 2009). Proving the more detailed geometry and physical properties (e.g. velocities, densities, attenuation) and stress field within PSP is very important to attain this issue. The core item of this project is a dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) for making observations in the metropolitan area (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We deployed the 249 seismic stations with a spacing of 5 km. Some parts of stations construct 5 linear arrays at interval of 2 km such as Tsukuba-Fujisawa (TF) array, etc. The TF array runs from northeast to southwest through the center of Tokyo. In this study, we applied the tomography method to image the heterogeneous structure under the Tokyo metropolitan area. We selected events from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) unified earthquake list. All data of MeSO-net were edited into event data by the selected JMA unified earthquake list. We picked the P and S wave arrival times. The total number of stations and events are 421 and 1,256, respectively. Then, we applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) to this dataset and estimated the fine-scale velocity structure. The grid nodes locate 10 km interval in parallel with the array, 20 km interval in perpendicular to the array; and on depth direction, 5 km interval to a depth of less than 50 km and 10 km interval at a depth of more

  3. A highly attennuative zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intensities of seismic waves observed at the dense seismic array of the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) inside the Kanto basin, display unusual distribution patterns. In several occasions, the highest intensities are not observed in the area above an earthquakes hypocenter but appear sifted more than 20 km away. In order to understand the source of this unusual intensity distribution pattern, it is crucial to understand how the waves attenuate before they reach the surface. The attenuation of seismic waves along their path is represented by the t∗ attenuation operator that can be obtained by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. In order to create a high quality dataset, only 1449 earthquakes that are recorded with intensity greater than 0 in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity scale are selected from the JMA unified earthquake list from April 1st 2008 to October 2nd 2013. A grid search method is applied to determine the t∗ values by matching the observed and theoretical spectra. The t∗ data where then inverted to estimate a 3D Q structure with grid points set at a 10 km spacing. We implemented the 3D velocity model estimated by Nakagawa et al., 2012 and in addition we set the initial Q values at 100 for the 0 km grids and to 400 for the grids below them. The obtained model suggests average Q values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin. Furthermore, a low Q zone is observed in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific sea plate. This area is located at approximately 40 km depth, beneath the north-east Tokyo and west Chiba prefectures and is represented by Q values Earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through this low Q area inside the Philippine sea plate and are attenuated significantly. The estimated attenuation distribution at the MeSO-net station for these earthquakes implementing our 3D Q model greatly coincides with the

  4. An investigation of the structure beneath Magadi area in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magadi area is located in the southern part of the Kenyan rift, an active continental rift that is part of the East African Rift system. Local seismic activity monitored previously around Lake Magadi revealed an earthquake cluster caused by swarm activity in the rift centre at shallow depths, which was probably triggered by ...

  5. Sampling and Hydrogeology of the Vadose Zone Beneath the 300 Area Process Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2004-01-01

    Four open pits were dug with a backhoe into the vadose zone beneath the former 300 Area Process Ponds in April 2003. Samples were collected about every 2 feet for physical, chemical, and/or microbiological characterization. This reports presents a stratigraphic and geohydrologic summary of the four excavations

  6. Predicting Nitrate Transport under Future Climate Scenarios beneath the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Akbariyeh, S.; Gomez Peña, C. A.; Bartlet-Hunt, S.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of future climate change on soil hydrological processes and solute transport is crucial to develop appropriate strategies to minimize adverse impacts of agricultural activities on groundwater quality. The goal of this work is to evaluate the direct effects of climate change on the fate and transport of nitrate beneath a center-pivot irrigated corn field in Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site. Future groundwater recharge rate and actual evapotranspiration rate were predicted based on an inverse modeling approach using climate data generated by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model under the RCP 8.5 scenario, which was downscaled from global CCSM4 model to a resolution of 24 by 24 km2. A groundwater flow model was first calibrated based on historical groundwater table measurement and was then applied to predict future groundwater table in the period 2057-2060. Finally, predicted future groundwater recharge rate, actual evapotranspiration rate, and groundwater level, together with future precipitation data from WRF, were used in a three-dimensional (3D) model, which was validated based on rich historic data set collected from 1993-1996, to predict nitrate concentration in soil and groundwater from the year 2057 to 2060. Future groundwater recharge was found to be decreasing in the study area compared to average groundwater recharge data from the literature. Correspondingly, groundwater elevation was predicted to decrease (1 to 2 ft) over the five years of simulation. Predicted higher transpiration data from climate model resulted in lower infiltration of nitrate concentration in subsurface within the root zone.

  7. Environmental literacy in agriculture and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujianti, N.; Munandar, A.; Surakusumah, W.

    2018-05-01

    This research aim to investigate the environmental literacy of junior high school students in agricultural and coastal areas in Subang based on knowledge, cognitive skill and attitudes toward to environment. This research used descriptive method. The subjects of the research were 7 grade students of junior high school and involved 62 participants in agriculture area and 64 participants in coastal area. The instrument of environment literacy adapted from Middle School Environment Literacy Survey (MSELS) and adapted to the context of agricultural and coastal area. The results showed that: environmental literacy in agricultural areas is 169.30 with moderate category and environmental literacy in the coastal area is 152.61 in the moderate category.

  8. Annual cropped area expansion and agricultural production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... considerable annual increase of varying extent over time and space for both annual output and area ... The study suggests improving productivity through sustainable agricultural ...

  9. Urban Agriculture: Search for Agricultural Practice in Urbanized Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celile Özçiçek Dölekoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in developing countries involves unplanned migration, unemployment and poverty. The steady shrinking of rural areas and the use of agricultural land for other purposes are progressively increasing the pressure on natural resources. This development on the one hand increases the risk to food security, and on the other triggers climate change. The rural population who migrate to the cities or who are absorbed into urban areas continue their agricultural activities in the urban in order to provide themselves with an income or to maintain their food security. In the big cities of the developed world, contact with nature is kept by means of hobby gardens, recreational areas and urban and suburban plant and animal farming, and creative ideas such as roof gardens can be found. This development, known as urban agriculture, is practiced by 800 million people in the world. Urban agriculture has many economic, social and environmental benefits, but it may also have risks and adverse effects. In this study, the developments in this area in Turkey and the world are presented, and all aspects of its effects and outcomes are discussed.

  10. Priority of areas for agricultural radiovulnerability mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo, E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V., E-mail: chpd@cnps.embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos; Rochedo, Pedro R.R., E-mail: rochedopedro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico; Silva, Diogo N.G., E-mail: diogongs@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho

    2013-07-01

    The methodology for classifying areas according to soil properties for the vulnerability to a {sup 137}Cs contamination is of high importance to the preparedness related to nuclear and/or radiological accidents that lead to release of radionuclides to the environment with the consequent contamination of agricultural areas. The priority of research for agricultural areas should then focus on the surrounding areas of nuclear power plant that have higher probability of public exposure through the ingestion pathway. The objective of this work was to create a rank order for priority of areas to be mapped based on EMBRAPA database on soil properties. The 16 municipalities previously selected to define parameters for dose assessment simulations related to the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants, located in the district of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, have been investigated in order to create this rank order to direct the research on radio vulnerability mapping, considering their relevance to public exposure based on their agricultural productivity. The two aspects selected in this study account for the maximum loss of income and to the collective doses that can be averted due to the banning of agricultural products. These quantities are inputs to optimization analysis. The priority defined shall then guide research on both the adequate values for the transfer factors and on the agricultural countermeasures suitable to each area according to the cause(s) of their vulnerability and their typical agricultural crops. (author)

  11. Priority of areas for agricultural radiovulnerability mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Perez, Daniel V.; Rochedo, Pedro R.R.; Silva, Diogo N.G.

    2013-01-01

    The methodology for classifying areas according to soil properties for the vulnerability to a 137 Cs contamination is of high importance to the preparedness related to nuclear and/or radiological accidents that lead to release of radionuclides to the environment with the consequent contamination of agricultural areas. The priority of research for agricultural areas should then focus on the surrounding areas of nuclear power plant that have higher probability of public exposure through the ingestion pathway. The objective of this work was to create a rank order for priority of areas to be mapped based on EMBRAPA database on soil properties. The 16 municipalities previously selected to define parameters for dose assessment simulations related to the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants, located in the district of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, have been investigated in order to create this rank order to direct the research on radio vulnerability mapping, considering their relevance to public exposure based on their agricultural productivity. The two aspects selected in this study account for the maximum loss of income and to the collective doses that can be averted due to the banning of agricultural products. These quantities are inputs to optimization analysis. The priority defined shall then guide research on both the adequate values for the transfer factors and on the agricultural countermeasures suitable to each area according to the cause(s) of their vulnerability and their typical agricultural crops. (author)

  12. The soil moisture regimes beneath forest and an agricultural crop in southern India--Measurement and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, R.J.; Hall, R.L.; Swaminath, M.H.; Murthy, K.V.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental effects of plantations of fast growing tree species has been a subject of some controversy in recent years. Extensive soil moisture measurements were made at three sites in Karnataka, southern India. At each site measurements were made beneath a number of vegetation types. These included fast growing tree species (Eucalyptus, Casuarina and Leucaena), degraded natural forest and an agricultural crop (ragi). The measurements indicate that beneath mature forest the available soil water is exhausted towards the end of the dry season, usually by March. The soil only becomes completely wetted if the subsequent monsoon has above average rainfall; during the weak monsoon of 1989 the soil remained approximately 150 mm below field capacity. After the monsoon (and during breaks in the monsoon) soil moisture depletion is between three and five mm per day. This rate decreases as the soil drys out. All the mature forest types show a similar soil water regime. This contrasts strongly with that of the agricultural crop, which shows much smaller changes. A range of soil water accounting models was applied to these data. The most successful are those which use the Penman formulation to estimate the potential evaporation and include a two-layer soil water depletion model. The more general Penman-Monteith formulation was also tested

  13. Priority of areas for agricultural countermeasure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, E.R.R.; Barboza, A.E.; Igreja, E.; Silva, D.N.G. da; Wasserman, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Within the overall preparedness related to nuclear and/or radiological accidents that lead to the release of radionuclides to the environment with the consequent contamination of agricultural areas, the priority of research for agricultural areas should then focus on the surrounding areas of nuclear power plants that have higher probability of public exposure through the ingestion pathway. The objective of this work was to create a rank order of priority of agricultural products to be considered in assessing the effects of countermeasures, based on both economic value and doses to the public. Additionally, the study describes relevant needs of radioecological studies to improve short and long-terms dose assessments. . Sixteen municipalities surrounding the Brazilian Nuclear Power Central were analyzed for a contamination with 137 Cs, considering seasonal aspects related to agricultural practices in the Southeastern Brazil. Rank order provided by considering economical aspects shows that there is a need for radioecological research for some high value products, such as palmetto and sugar cane, and the need to include in the current model more detailed description for some food items, such as eggs. Combined rank criteria shows that main product within the considered area is milk. As so, the study of countermeasures for the ingestion of milk should be prioritized. (authors)

  14. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-04-06

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas.

  15. Low-Q structure beneath The Geysers area in the northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, M.

    2010-12-01

    A large reservoir is located beneath The Geysers geothermal area, northern California. Seismic tomography revealed high-velocity (high-V) and low-Vp/Vs zones in the reservoir (Julian et al., 1996) and a decrease of Vp/Vs from 1991 to 1998 (Guasekera et al., 2003) due to withdrawal of steam from the reservoir. I build on these earlier studies by performing the attenuation tomography in this region to investigate the Q structure. The target region, 38.5-39.0°N and 122.5-123°W, covers The Geysers area. I use seismographs of Northern California Earthquake Data Center, which recorded 1235 earthquakes with magnitude larger than 2.0 and resolved focal mechanisms from 2002 to 2008. The band-pass filtered seismographs are analyzed for collecting the maximum amplitude data. Three kinds of Butterworth band-pass filters, such as 1-3, 3-7, and 7-15, correspond to the analysis of the Q structure for 2, 5, and 10 Hz, respectively. I use the P- and S-wave maximum amplitudes between the two seconds after the arrival of those waves in order to avoid the effects by coda. A total of 8980 P- and 1086 S-wave amplitude data for 949 earthquakes recorded at 48 stations are available for the analysis using the attenuation tomographic method (Zao et al., 1996). Extremely low-Qp and Qs zones are found at the northwestern (NW) of The Geysers area at sea level. These zones are consistent with the high-Vp and Vs and low-Vp/Vs zones located at the NW part of the reservoir. The low-Qs zone extends to the southeast (SE) and with approximately 15 km length and 5 km width and has another negative peak beneath the SE part of the reservoir. This low-Qs zone is also consistent with the high-Vp and Vs regions of the reservoir characterized by a low-Vp/Vs zone. However, Qp in the SE part is slightly high. Below sea level in The Geysers reservoir, there are a main greywacke layer and a felsite layer. Above sea level, there is a greenstone melange beneath the NW extremely low-Qp and Qs region and a

  16. Potential Magma Chambers beneath the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan: Results from Magnetotelluric Survey and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Previous earthquakes analysis indicated existing seismicity anomaly beneath Tatun volcano, Taiwan, possibly caused by the fluid activity of the volcano. Helium isotope studies also indicated that over 60% of the fumarolic gases and vapors originated from deep mantle in the Tatun volcano area. The chemistry of the fumarolic gases and vapors and seismicity anomaly are important issues in view of possible magma chamber in the Tatun volcano, where is in the vicinity of metropolitan Taipei, only 15 km north of the capital city. In this study magnetotelluric (MT) soundings and monitoring were deployed to understand the geoelectric structures in the Tatun volcano as Electromagnetic methods are sensitive to conductivity contrasts and can be used as a supplementary tool to delineate reservoir boundaries. An anticline extending more than 10 km beneath the Chih-Shin-Shan and Da-You-Kan areas was recognized. Low resistivity at a shallow and highly porous layer 500m thick might indicate circulation of heated water. However, a high resistivity layer at depth between 2 and 6 km was detected. This layer could be associated with high micro-earthquakes zone. The characteristics of this layer produced by either the magma chamber or other geothermal activity were similar to that of some other active volcanic areas in the world. At 6 km underground was a dome structure of medium resistivity. This structure could be interpreted as a magma chamber in which the magma is possibly cooling down, as judged by its relatively high resistivity. The exact attributes of the magma chamber were not precisely determined from the limited MT soundings. At present, a joint monitors including seismic activity, ground deformation, volcanic gases, and changes in water levels and chemistry are conducted by universities and government agencies. When unusual activity is detected, a response team may do more ground surveys to better determine if an eruption is likely.

  17. Seismic evidence of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath Izu-Bonin area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Gao, Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), separating the rigid lithosphere and the ductile asthenosphere layers, is the seismic discontinuity with the negative velocity contrast of the Earth's interior [Fischer et al., 2010]. The LAB has been also termed the Gutenberg (G) discontinuity that defines the top of the low velocity zone in the upper mantle [Gutenberg, 1959; Revenaugh and Jordan, 1991]. The seismic velocity, viscosity, resistivity and other physical parameters change rapidly with the depths across the boundary [Eaton et al., 2009]. Seismic detections on the LAB in subduction zone regions are of great help to understand the interactions between the lithosphere and asthenosphere layers and the geodynamic processes related with the slab subductions. In this study, the vertical broadband waveforms are collected from three deep earthquake events occurring from 2000 to 2014 with the focal depths of 400 600 km beneath the Izu-Bonin area. The waveform data is processed with the linear slant stack method [Zang and Zhou, 2002] to obtain the vespagrams in the relative travel-time to slowness domain and the stacked waveforms. The sP precursors reflected on the LAB (sLABP), which have the negative polarities with the amplitude ratios of 0.17 0.21 relative to the sP phases, are successfully extracted. Based on the one-dimensional modified velocity model (IASP91-IB), we obtain the distributions for six reflected points of the sLABP phases near the source region. Our results reveal that the LAB depths range between 58 and 65 km beneath the Izu-Bonin Arc, with the average depth of 62 km and the small topography of 7 km. Compared with the results of the tectonic stable areas in Philippine Sea [Kawakatsu et al., 2009; Kumar and Kawakatsu, 2011], the oceanic lithosphere beneath the Izu-Bonin Arc shows the obvious thinning phenomena. We infer that the lithospheric thinning is closely related with the partial melting, which is caused by the volatiles continuously released

  18. Agricultural in protect areas: agronomic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Tarantino

    Full Text Available Among the various aims of the protect lands, as expressed by the art. 1 of the L. 394/91, there is “the promotion of educational, formative, experimental and interdisciplinary activities, as well as recreational activities”. Considering the multiplicity of the protect areas functions as well as the interests and the problems involved in their management, the most suitable research in this field is that according to a “systemic” approach. It concerns the study of the most high hierarchical levels: agricultural, farming and agro-territorial levels. The researches regard not only the environmental sustainability of crops production, including the control of the erosion risks and the management of the pasturing areas, but also other aspects that result less conventional than the classical questions of the Agronomy. They include the land planning, the productions of local and typical markets, the production dependent on the organic farming on the environmental preservation, the management of areas which result of particular interest for wild fauna, the renaturalization of degraded areas, the eco-sustainable management of water resources, the multifunctional agriculture, the landscape improvement and the biodiversity enhancement.

  19. Rainwater lens dynamics and mixing between infiltrating rainwater and upward saline groundwater seepage beneath a tile-drained agricultural field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Vermue, E.; Post, V.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin rainwater lenses (RW-lenses) near the land surface are often the only source of freshwater in agricultural areas with regionally-extensive brackish to saline groundwater. The seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of these lenses are poorly known. Here this knowledge gap is addressed by

  20. Ground-water quality beneath an urban residential and commercial area, Montgomery, Alabama, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer, which is composed of the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations, supplies more than 50 percent of the ground water used for public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The city of Montgomery, Alabama, is partially built upon a recharge area for the Black Warrior River aquifer, and is one of many major population centers that depend on the Black Warrior River aquifer for public water supply. To represent the baseline ground-water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer, water samples were collected from 30 wells located in a low-density residential or rural setting; 9 wells were completed in the Coker Formation, 9 wells in the Gordo Formation, and 12 wells in the Eutaw Formation. To describe the ground-water quality beneath Montgomery, Alabama, water samples also were collected from 30 wells located in residential and commercial areas of Montgomery, Alabama; 16 wells were completed in the Eutaw Formation, 8 wells in alluvial deposits, and 6 wells in terrace deposits. The alluvial and terrace deposits directly overlie the Eutaw Formation with little or no hydraulic separation. Ground-water samples collected from both the rural and urban wells were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. Samples from the urban wells also were analyzed for bacteria, chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases, and sulfur hexafluoride. Ground-water quality beneath the urban area was compared to baseline water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer.Compared to the rural wells, ground-water samples from urban wells contained greater concentrations or more frequent detections of chloride and nitrate, and the trace metals aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected more frequently and in greater concentrations in ground-water samples collected from urban wells than in ground-water samples from rural wells.The Spearman rho

  1. Construction of the seismic wave-speed model by adjoint tomography beneath the Japanese metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Takayuki

    2017-04-01

    The Japanese metropolitan area has high risks of earthquakes and volcanoes associated with convergent tectonic plates. It is important to clarify detail three-dimensional structure for understanding tectonics and predicting strong motion. Classical tomographic studies based on ray theory have revealed seismotectonics and volcanic tectonics in the region, however it is unknown whether their models reproduce observed seismograms. In the present study, we construct new seismic wave-speed model by using waveform inversion. Adjoint tomography and the spectral element method (SEM) were used in the inversion (e.g. Tape et al. 2009; Peter et al. 2011). We used broadband seismograms obtained at NIED F-net stations for 140 earthquakes occurred beneath the Kanto district. We selected four frequency bands between 5 and 30 sec and used from the seismograms of longer period bands for the inversion. Tomographic iteration was conducted until obtaining the minimized misfit between data and synthetics. Our SEM model has 16 million grid points that covers the metropolitan area of the Kanto district. The model parameters were the Vp and Vs of the grid points, and density and attenuation were updated to new values depending on new Vs in each iteration. The initial model was assumed the tomographic model (Matsubara and Obara 2011) based on ray theory. The source parameters were basically used from F-net catalog, while the centroid times were inferred from comparison between data and synthetics. We simulated the forward and adjoint wavefields of each event and obtained Vp and Vs misfit kernels from their interaction. Large computation was conducted on K computer, RIKEN. We obtained final model (m16) after 16 iterations in the present study. For the waveform improvement, it is clearly shown that m16 is better than the initial model, and the seismograms especially improved in the frequency bands of longer than 8 sec and changed better for seismograms of the events occurred at deeper than a

  2. Agricultural production data for the Sizewell area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The proposed site for the Sizewell B nuclear power station is located at the centre of the East Suffolk coastline. The county itself is predominantly agricultural, producing a very wide range of foodstuffs which in the case of one or two particular foodstuffs contribute a significant proportion of the total national production. A general view of the agricultural setting within which the development would be sited and a compendium of more detailed agricultural data relating to the immediate vicinity of the site, which has been drawn on in the Ministry's assessment of the radiological impact of routine atmospheric waste emission, are given. (U.K.)

  3. Prominent reflector beneath around the segmentation boundary between Tonankai-Nankai earthquake area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Shinohara, M.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In most cases, first break of such large events of Nankai Trough usually begins from southwest off the Kii Peninsula so far. The idea of split Philippine Sea plate between the Kii Peninsula and the Shikoku Island, which explains seismicity, tectonic background, receiver function image and historical plate motion, was previously suggested. Moreover, between the Kii Peninsula and the Shikoku Island, there is a gap of deep low-frequency events observed in the belt-like zone along the strike of the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In 2010 and 2011, we conducted the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle and reflection (MCS) seismic study, and long-term observation from off Shikoku and Kii Peninsula. Marine active source seismic data have been acquired along grid two-dimensional profiles having the total length of ~800km/year. A three-dimensional seismic tomography using active and passive seismic data observed both land and ocean bottom stations have been also performed. From those data, we found a possible prominent reflector imaged in the offshore side in the Kii channel at the depth of ~18km. The velocity just beneath the reflector cannot be determined due to the lack of ray paths. Based of the amplitude information, we interpret the reflector as the forearc Moho based on the velocity gap (from ~6.4km/s to ~7.4km/s). However, the reflector is shallower than the forearc Moho of other area along the Nankai Trough. Similar reflectors are recognized along other seismic profiles around the Kii channel. In this presentation, we will show the result of structure analysis to understand the peculiar structure including the prominent reflector around the Kii channel. Relation between the structure and the existence of the segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake or seismic gap of the deep low-frequency events will be also

  4. Seismic Constraints on the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary Beneath the Izu-Bonin Area: Implications for the Oceanic Lithospheric Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qinghui; Wei, Rongqiang; Zhou, Yuanze; Gao, Yajian; Li, Wenlan

    2018-01-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is the seismic discontinuity with negative velocity contrasts in the upper mantle. Seismic detections on the LAB are of great significance in understanding the plate tectonics, mantle convection and lithospheric evolution. In this paper, we study the LAB in the Izu-Bonin subduction zone using four deep earthquakes recorded by the permanent and temporary seismic networks of the USArray. The LAB is clearly revealed with sP precursors (sdP) through the linear slant stacking. As illustrated by reflected points of the identified sdP phases, the depth of LAB beneath the Izu-Bonin Arc (IBA) is about 65 km with a range of 60-68 km. The identified sdP phases with opposite polarities relative to sP phases have the average relative amplitude of 0.21, which means a 3.7% velocity drop and implies partial melting in the asthenosphere. On the basis of the crustal age data, the lithosphere beneath the IBA is located at the 1100 °C isotherm calculated with the GDH1 model. Compared to tectonically stable areas, such as the West Philippine Basin (WPB) and Parece Vela Basin (PVB) in the Philippine Sea, the lithosphere beneath the Izu-Bonin area shows the obvious lithospheric thinning. According to the geodynamic and petrological studies, the oceanic lithospheric thinning phenomenon can be attributed to the strong erosion of the small-scale convection in the mantle wedge enriched in volatiles and melts.

  5. New areas in agricultural and food marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Harmsen, Hanne; Larsen, Hanne Hartvig

    1997-01-01

    of the laws of economics that growth in markets for food products, if any, is not in terms of quantity, but in terms of value. - Most industrialised economies are characterised by an oversupply of agricultural products. - A global tendency towards deregulation, decrease of government subsidies to producers...

  6. Development of innovation infrastructure of agricultural production Lviv area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Chemerys

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovative infrastructure of agrarian production in Lviv Area and basic problems of its development are investigated. On the basis of the conducted cluster analysis in the article six optimum areas are offered clusterizations of agricultural production, which are certain after the criterion of balanced cluster educations. The first area of clusterization is most suitable for development of plant-grower. In particular, in four its districts, almost fourth part of plant-grower products is concentrated in the permanent costs of 2010 year. The second area of clusterization can be identified as mainly stock-raising, as its localization in the districts of foot-hill of area creates favourable terms for the production of meat and milk goods. The third area can be attributed to balanced stock-raising-plant-grower straight, with development of agriculture, oriented to the sale of products to the cities, above all things in Lviv. The fourth area of clusterization can be considered mainly plant-grower-oriented with simultaneous development of the suckling cattle breeding. The fifth area of clusterization, as marked already, can be identified as innovative oriented with predominance of stock-raising and production of goods on an export. A sixth (mountain area of clusterization is the least suitable for development of agriculture (except for the milk and meat cattle breeding. The applied approach is based on the account of ten key indexes which characterize potential of agricultural production development in each districts of Lviv Area: products of plant-grower are in all categories of economic agents; products of stock-raising are in all categories of economic agents; area of agricultural lands which are engaged in an agricultural production area of plough-land of economic agents which are engaged in an agricultural production; sowing areas are in all categories of economic agents; a quantity of cattle is in all categories of economic agents; a quantity of

  7. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  8. Geohydrology and ground-water quality beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-06-01

    Ground water enters the 300 Area from the northwest, west, and southwest. However, throughout most of the 300 Area, the flow is to the east and southeast. Ground water flows to the northeast only in the southern portion of the 300 Area. Variations in level of the Columbia River affected the ground-water system by altering the level and shape of the 300 Area watertable. Large quantities of process waste water, when warmed during summer months by solar radiation or cooled during winter months by ambient air temperature, influenced the temperature of the ground water. Leaking pipes and the intentional discharge of waste water (or withdrawal of ground water) affected the ground-water system in the 300 Area. Water quality tests of Hanford ground water in and adjacent to the 300 Area showed that in the area of the Process Water Trenches and Sanitary Leaching Trenches, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions are more dilute, and nitrate and chloride ions are more concentrated than in surrounding areas. Fluoride, uranium, and beta emitters are more concentrated in ground water along the bank of the Columbia River in the central and southern portions of the 300 Area and near the 340 Building. Test wells and routine ground-water sampling are adequate to point out contamination. The variable Thickness Transient (VTT) Model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer underlying the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and verified. The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model of distribution of contaminants in the saturated regime under the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and tested

  9. Inventory of Agricultural Land Area of Egypt Using Modis Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereher, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    A new generation of satellite data has been emerged since the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS), in 1999, for monitoring land resources and terrestrial environments. Agricultural land area of Egypt in 2005 was estimated using MODIS data. Four scenes were utilized to extract the total country area. MODIS vegetation Indices product (MOD 13 QI) was the most suitable to extract the total gross cultivated land area of Egypt. An unsupervised classification algorithm was applied to estimate the cultivated land area, which approached 8.2 million feddans in 2005. The Nile Delta contains the majority of agricultural lands (63.2%). The Nile Valley and EI-Fayoum Depression possess 33.9% and the remaining little percent (∼3%) represents the scattered agricultural land along the Suez Canal, Sinai and the Western Desert. The classification accuracy of agricultural land reached 84%, revealing higher confidence of assessment. The present study asserts on the importance of using remote sensing in monitoring agricultural land resources

  10. Elevation of water table and various stratigraphic surfaces beneath e area low level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, Laura [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, Patti [; Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-02

    This memorandum describes work that supports revision of the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) for the E Area Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). The work summarized here addresses portions of the PA Strategic Planning Team's recommendation #148b (Butcher and Phifer, 2016).

  11. Uranium Contamination in the Subsurface Beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Thorne, Paul D.; Williams, Mark D.

    2008-02-29

    This report provides a description of uranium contamination in the subsurface at the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The principal focus is a persistence plume in groundwater, which has not attenuated as predicted by earlier remedial investigations. Included in the report are chapters on current conditions, hydrogeologic framework, groundwater flow modeling, and geochemical considerations. The report is intended to describe what is known or inferred about the uranium contamination for the purpose of making remedial action decisions.

  12. Metal contamination of agricultural soils in the copper mining areas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soma Giri

    2017-06-07

    Jun 7, 2017 ... Agricultural soil; heavy metals; copper mining areas; multivariate analysis; ... multivariate statistical analysis. 2. ... sieved through standard sieve of 200 mesh size (Giri ... Pearson's correlation is a bivariate correlation ... is a variation reduction technique in which a num- ... Varimax rotation is applied to all the.

  13. The non-agricultural areas of Canada and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhof, Dorothy; Marshall, Heather

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 90% of the Canadian land mass is non-agricultural. It is a source of food to native peoples and sport hunters. Although agricultural areas have been extensively monitored for the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain, very little work has been done on radionuclides in the natural environment in Canada. The exceptions are specific problems such as radiocesium in the lichen-caribou food chain in the Arctic and natural radioactivity in the vicinity of uranium mines. A systematic study of natural food chains is being initiated. This paper presents the results of the study so far and proposed future directions. (author)

  14. Agricultural practice and social change in Berastagi area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Sri Alem Br

    2018-03-01

    This paper discusses how agricultural practices build social change in the Berastagi highlands. Agricultural products from this area are the vegetable supplier base for Medan City and other surrounding cities. The supply involves a network of trades involving many actors with many interests, as well as generating migration from other areas around and coming from different ethnicities. The migrants’ settlements are concentrated in certain areas of the region around Berastgai. This paper will illustrate the interaction between these aspects to bring about social change in Berastagi. This research uses qualitative method. Primary data were obtained through in-depth interview techniques and participant observation. Secondary data accessed from relevant agencies. This discussion shows how the pattern of social relationships changed due to changes in the goals of agricultural practices that not only oriented local markets but also exports. Competition, secrecy, and money orientation have become part of their planting activities. On the other hand, trade networks also construct them to work together in a particular context. This paper shows that agricultural activities and all things related to it reflect a broader context to see the development of small towns that also affect the development of the surrounding villages.

  15. Lithosphere density structure beneath the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas derived from GOCE gradients data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional density model of the crust and uppermost mantle is determined by the inversion of a set of GOCE gravity and gradients residual anomalies beneath the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas. In our work, we choose five independent gravity gradients (Txx, Tzz, Txy, Txz, Tyz to perform density inversion. Objective function is given based on Tikhonov regularization theory. Seismic S-wave velocities play the role of initial constraint for the inversion based on a relationship between density and S-wave velocity. Damped Least Square method is used during the inversion. The final density results offer some insights into understanding the underlying geodynamic processes: (1 Low densities in the margin of the Tibet, along with low wave velocity and resistivity results, yield conversions from soft and weak Tibet to the hard and rigid cratons. (2The lowest densities are found in the boundary of the plateau, instead of the whole Tibet indicates that the effects of extrusion stress environment in the margin affect the changes of the substance there. The substances and environments conditioning for the earthquake preparations and strong deformation in this transitional zone. (3 Evident low-D anomaly in the upper and middle crust in the Lasha terrane and Songpan-Ganzi terrane illustrated the eastward sub-ducted of southeastern Tibet, which could be accounts for the frequent volcano and earthquakes there.

  16. Integrated Methodology for Estimating Water Use in Mediterranean Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Zalidis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural use is by far the largest consumer of fresh water worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, where it has reached unsustainable levels, thus posing a serious threat to water resources. Having a good estimate of the water used in an agricultural area would help water managers create incentives for water savings at the farmer and basin level, and meet the demands of the European Water Framework Directive. This work presents an integrated methodology for estimating water use in Mediterranean agricultural areas. It is based on well established methods of estimating the actual evapotranspiration through surface energy fluxes, customized for better performance under the Mediterranean conditions: small parcel sizes, detailed crop pattern, and lack of necessary data. The methodology has been tested and validated on the agricultural plain of the river Strimonas (Greece using a time series of Terra MODIS and Landsat 5 TM satellite images, and used to produce a seasonal water use map at a high spatial resolution. Finally, a tool has been designed to implement the methodology with a user-friendly interface, in order to facilitate its operational use.

  17. Baseline mapping study of the Steed Pond aquifer and vadose zone beneath A/M Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.G. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the second phase of a baseline mapping project conducted for the Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) at Savannah River Site. The purpose of this second phase is to map the structure and distribution of mud (clay and silt-sized sediment) within the vadose zone beneath A/M Area. The results presented in this report will assist future characterization and remediation activities in the vadose zone and upper aquifer zones in A/M Area

  18. Low-Q structure related to partially saturated pores within the reservoir beneath The Geysers area in the northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, M.

    2011-12-01

    A large reservoir is located beneath The Geysers geothermal area, northern California. Seismic tomography revealed high-velocity (high-V) and low-Vp/Vs zones in the reservoir (Julian et al., 1996) and a decrease of Vp/Vs from 1991 to 1998 (Guasekera et al., 2003) owing to withdrawal of steam from the reservoir. I perform attenuation tomography in this region to investigate the state of vapor and liquid within the reservoir. The target region, 38.5-39.0°N and 122.5-123°W, covers The Geysers area. I use seismograms of 1,231 events whose focal mechanism are determined among 65,810 events recorded by the Northern California Earthquake Data Center from 2002 to 2008 in the target region. The band-pass filtered seismograms are analyzed for collecting the maximum amplitude data. There are 26 stations that have a three-component seismometer among 47 seismic stations. I use the P- and S-wave maximum amplitudes during the two seconds after the arrival of those waves in order to avoid coda effects. A total of 8,545 P- and 1,168 S-wave amplitude data for 949 earthquakes recorded at 47 stations are available for the analysis using the attenuation tomographic method derived from the velocity tomographic method (Matsubara et al., 2005, 2008) in which spatial velocity correlation and station corrections are introduced to the original code of Zhao et al. (1992). I use 3-D velocity structure obtained by Thurber et al. (2009). The initial Q value is set to 150, corresponding to the average Q of the northern California (Ford et al., 2010). At sea level, low-Q zones are found extending from the middle of the steam reservoir within the main greywacke to the south part of the reservoir. At a depth of 1 km below sea level, a low-Q zone is located solely in the southern part of the reservoir. However, at a depth of 2 km a low-Q zone is located beneath the northern part of the reservoir. At depths of 1 to 3 km a felsite batholith in the deeper portions of the reservoir, and it corresponds

  19. Problems of irrigated agriculture in saline groundwater areas: farmers' perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Yasin, M.; Ahmad, M.M.; Hussain, Z.; Khan, Z.; Akbar, G.

    2005-01-01

    A research study was conducted using participatory interactive dialogue in the brackish groundwater area of Mona SCARP-II, Bhalwal district Sargodha, Pakistan. The Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was conducted in thirteen villages to identify macro- and micro-level issues related to irrigated agriculture in saline groundwater areas. SCARP tube wells have been abandoned or few have been handed over to farmers' organizations. Groundwater in the Indus basin contributes around 35% to the total water available for agriculture. Water quality of 60% area of the Indus basin is marginal to brackish. Minimum land holding of cultivated land in the elected villages varied from 0.10 to 4 ha. The maximum land holding of cultivated area in selected villages varied for 6 to 50 ha. However, the average size of farm was around 4 ha. The average salt-affected area per household was 17% of the total cultivated area. The salt-affected lands in 8 villages out of 13 were barren, where mainly rice crop is grown during kharif season. About 67% farms had access to conjunctive use of water, as water from both canal and private tube wells is available. In addition, 10% farms were having tube well water only. Therefore, 77% farms are having access to the groundwater. According to the farmers' perceptions, 100% villages have fresh groundwater to a depth of 7.5 m and 62% villages had depth ranging from 15-30 m. Furthermore, in all thirteen selected villages, groundwater quality beyond 30 m depth was brackish. Laboratory analysis confirmed the farmer's perception that groundwater quality is a function of depth. About 92% farmers groups indicated that non-availability and high price of inputs was a major problem. The second major issue was related to the shortage of canal water supplies and 77% villages are facing this problem. Moreover, 31% farmers' groups of selected villages indicated that water logging and salinity are the major concerns affecting agricultural productivity. This figure is

  20. Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Ricketts

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we combine distribution data for eight major plant and animal taxa (comprising over 20,000 species with remotely sensed measures of urban and agricultural land use to assess conservation priorities among 76 terrestrial ecoregions in North America. We combine the species data into overall indices of richness and endemism. We then plot each of these indices against the percent cover of urban and agricultural land in each ecoregion, resulting in four separate comparisons. For each comparison, ecoregions that fall above the 66th quantile on both axes are identified as priorities for conservation. These analyses yield four "priority sets" of 6-16 ecoregions (8-21% of the total number where high levels of biodiversity and human land use coincide. These ecoregions tend to be concentrated in the southeastern United States, California, and, to a lesser extent, the Atlantic coast, southern Texas, and the U.S. Midwest. Importantly, several ecoregions are members of more than one priority set and two ecoregions are members of all four sets. Across all 76 ecoregions, urban cover is positively correlated with both species richness and endemism. Conservation efforts in densely populated areas therefore may be equally important (if not more so as preserving remote parks in relatively pristine regions.

  1. Weed sustainable managment in agricultral and non-agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Arcangeli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is a way to assure the availability of natural resources for future generations.Weed managementin cultivated and not cultivated areas is part of sustainable agriculture as well, and has to face three important challenges:economical (to increase income and competitiveness of farm sector, social (give rural areas opportunity of economicdevelopment and improvement of living conditions, environmental (promote good agricultural practices andpreserve habitats, biodiversity and landscape. The first two challenges involve the in-depth study of models, the economicthreshold of intervention, the management of herbicide resistance phenomena, the study and development ofnew herbicide molecules, or even modern formulations, leading to the optimization of treatments with possible reductionof distributed doses per hectare. Environmental issues must be set in the studies to assess and manage the factorsleading to phenomena of diffuse or point pollution (i.e. water volumes, soil, etc.. However, a sustainable agricultureproduction must take into account consumers’ needs and concerns, especially about food health and safety withrespect to production methods (traditional, integrated and biological. In this context, the results obtained by the developmentof more advanced active principles, the spread of public and private Integrated Production Specifications(Disciplinari di Produzione Integrata and the greater and greater commitment by the institutions in charge of monitoringthe agro-pharmaceutical residues in agro-food products, can be set. The SIRFI SIRFI (Società Italiana per laRicerca sulla Flora Infestante, thanks to the multi-disciplinarity of the structures supporting it, always takes an activepart into innovation especially aimed to the identification of tools implementing farm activity sustainability.

  2. Productivity of Premodern Agriculture in the Cucuteni-Trypillia Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme; Videiko, Mykhailo; Henderson, Kate; Shiel, Robert; Dolukhanov, Pavel; Pashkevich, Galina

    2015-07-01

    We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area. We allow for the archeologically attested contributions of domesticated and wild animal products to the diet, develop plausible estimates of the yield of ancient cereal varieties cultivated with ancient techniques, and quantify the yield dependence on the time after initial planting and on rainfall (as a climate proxy). Our conclusions involve analysis of the labor costs of various seasonal parts of the agricultural cycle of both an individual and a family with a majority of members that do not engage in productive activities that require physical fitness, such as tillage. Finally, we put our results into the context of the exploitation territory and catchment analysis, to project various subsistence strategies into the exploitation territory of a farming settlement. The simplest economic complex based on cereals and domestic and wild animal products, with fallow cropping, appears to be capable of supporting an isolated, relatively small farming settlement of 50-300 people (2-10 ha in area) even without recourse to technological improvements such as the use of manure fertilizer. Our results strongly suggest that dairy products played a significant role in the dietary and labor balance. The smaller settlements are typical of the earliest Trypillia A stage but remain predominant at the later stages. A larger

  3. Aster images for discrimination of agricultural use areas in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz L, Nidia E; Perez G Uriel

    2009-01-01

    The advance of geographical information technology has led to the placement of new sensors for earth observation. ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) is considered as a latest generation sensor. It has special characteristics that places it as an alternative for studies of vegetation cover on earth. This work is based on its spatial, spectral and radiometric features to discriminate agricultural areas in the irrigation district of USOCOELLO in Colombia. We used a level 1B image from 2006, geometrically corrected, re sampled and its radiance values transformed into reflectance values allowing us to make two compositions: original images (VNIR-SWIR) and fusion images in IHS transformation. The thematic legend was established from the classification scheme C orine Land Cover - Colombia , defining 10 representative coverage categories in the image. The maximum likelihood classifier was used in the allocation phase. In the process of verifying and quantifying the level of accuracy, it was used, as ground truth, the database of geographical area at the site in the same date that the image was taken, obtaining an estimating a global reliability of 75 % for VNIR - SWIR images; if the variability of phenological stages of crops (rice, maize and sorghum) in the area and an important space contrast in the fusion image are taken into account, the obtained Kappa index was 0,75, which means that there is a substantial degree of agreement.

  4. Sustainable development of agriculture in karst areas, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhua Song

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposed carbonate rocks aged from Sinian to Mid-Triassic Periods cover an area of 500,000 Km2 in south-west China. In karst areas with spectacular landscapes characterized by magnificent tower karst and conical karst, rare surface drainage systems and prevalent subsurface drainage systems, the environment is ecologically very fragile. The rapid increase of population, over deforested and cultivated lands, worsted the ecological system, causing a higher frequency of draught, flood and various disasters, backward economic development, low living standard of the people. In order to improve the sustainability of the agriculture the experience shows that the following operations should be adopted: (1 serious control of the population increase, emigration, extra labours and improvement of the environmental education of the local inhabitants; (2 terracing of the slopes (shi jala di as to improve the cultivated land quality, to preserve the water, soil and fertiliser and ameliorate the effective utilisation of the land; (3 development of new rural energies such as the solar energy and gas energy, and expansion of the saving-fuel stoves to reduce the load of bio-energy; (4 reforestation and bounding the hills and mountains; the ecological, economic and fuel forests model has been developed in fengcong-depression areas: the tree species with high ecological, economical and energetic characteristics, should be chosen, such as the bamboo, wild grapes, Sapium rotundifolium etc.; (5 better utilisation of the ram water and karst water resource to solve the water supply problems. The karst landscape is well developed in the 500,000 km2 carbonate terrain in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, west Hunan and south Sichuan provinces in south-west China, where 100 million habitants live (Song, 1997. The large population and its high density, serious deforestation, over-cultivation and fragile ecological system make the environmental problems very serious and about 30

  5. Garbage in the diet of carnivores in an agricultural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowiak Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human food waste is considered to be richer in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins than most natural food supplies; however, it is very well digested in scats. So, as an indication of this kind of food in the diet, we have used each indigestible, anthropogenic origin element found in faeces (e.g., glass, plastic, rubber, etc.. There are few studies discussing the importance of garbage in the diet of mammalian predators living in farmland; definitely, most focus on this issue in urban areas. We studied the contribution of garbage in the diet of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, red fox (Vulpes vulpes, marten (Martes sp., polecat (Mustela putorius, stoat (Mustela erminea, American mink (Neovison vison and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in the agricultural areas of western Poland in 2006-2010. In addition, we examined the spatial changes in the diet of red fox and polecat. The largest contribution of garbage was found in scats of raccoon dog (8.8%, red fox (4.8% and marten (4.3%. The diet of polecat, stoat and Eurasian otter contained 2.5%, 1.7% and 0.2% garbage items respectively. The most frequent item was plastic. Our analysis showed that garbage consumption by red fox and polecat was greater closer to human settlements. The results reveal a continuous gradient in the garbage consumption that corresponds with the degree of synanthropization of particular species.

  6. Efficient phosphorus management practices in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Daroub, S. H.; Alvarez, O.; Tootoonchi, M.; Capasso, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the 450,000 acres of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of South Florida, farming practices have long been mindful of phosphorus (P) management as it relates to sufficiency and efficiency of P utilization. Over two decades of P best management practices have resulted in 3001 metric-ton of P load reduction from the EAA to downstream ecosystems. During the summer, more than 50,000 acres of fallow sugarcane land is available for rice production. The net value of growing flooded rice in the EAA as a rotational crop with sugarcane far exceeds its monetary return. Soil conservation, improvement in tilth and P load reduction are only some of the benefits. With no P fertilizer applied, a two-year field trial on flooded rice showed improved outflow P concentrations by up to 40% as a result of particulate setting and plant P uptake. Harvested whole grain rice can effectively remove a significant amount of P from a rice field per growing season. In parts of the EAA where soils are sandy, the application of using locally derived organic amendments as potential P fertilizer has gained interest over the past few years. The use of local agricultural and urban organic residues as amendments in sandy soils of South Florida provide options to enhance soil properties and improve sugarcane yields, while reducing waste and harmful effects of agricultural production on the environment. A lysimeter study conducted to determine the effect of mill ash and three types of biochar (rice hulls, yard waste, horse bedding) on sugarcane yields, soil properties, and drainage water quality in sandy soils showed that mill ash and rice hull biochar increased soil TP, Mehlich 3-P (M3-P), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared to the control. TP and M3-P content remained constant after 9 months, CEC showed a significant increase over time with rich hull biochar addition. Future projects include the utilization of aquatic vegetation, such as chara and southern naiad as bio-filters in farm

  7. Organic matter and soil structure in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Alan L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This publication pertains to management of organic soils (Histosols) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). These former wetland soils are a major resource for efficient agricultural production and are important globally for their high organic matter content. Recognition of global warming has led to considerable interest in soils as a repository for carbon. Soils rich in organic matter essentially sequester or retain carbon in the profile and can contribute directly to keeping that sequestered carbon from entering the atmosphere. Identification and utilization of management practices that minimize the loss of carbon from organic soils to the atmosphere can minimize effects on global warming and increase the longevity of subsiding Histosols for agricultural use. Understanding and predicting how these muck soils will respond to current and changing land uses will help to manage soil carbon. The objectives of this document are to: a. Discuss organic soil oxidation relative to storing or releasing carbon and nitrogen b. Evaluate effects of cultivation (compare structure for sugarcane vs. uncultivated soil) Based upon the findings from the land-use comparison (sugarcane or uncultivated), organic carbon was higher with cultivation in the lower depths. There is considerable potential for minimum tillage and residue management to further enhance carbon sequestration in the sugarcane system. Carbon sequestration is improved and soil subsidence is slowed with sugarcane production, and both of these are positive outcomes. Taking action to increase or maintain carbon sequestration appears to be appropriate but may introduce some risk to farming operations. Additional management methods are needed to reduce this risk. For both the longevity of these organic soils and from a global perspective, slowing subsidence through BMP implementation makes sense. Since these BMPs also have considerable societal benefit, it remains to be seen if society will help to offset a part or all

  8. Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins; effects and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronvang, B.; Bechmann, M.; Lundekvam, H.; Behrendt, H.; Rubaek, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.; Syversen, N.; Andersen, H.E.; Hoffmann, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show the quantitative and relative importance of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural areas within European river basins and demonstrate the importance of P pathways, linking agricultural source areas to surface water at different scales. Agricultural P losses are increasingly

  9. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  10. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  11. Sustainability of agricultural production in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Factors Controlling Nitrogen Fluxes in Groundwater in Agricultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, L.; Green, C. T.; Bekins, B. A.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Predictions of effects of land use changes on water quality require identification of the relative importance of geochemical and hydrologic factors. To understand the factors controlling the transport of nitrogen in groundwater, vertical fluxes of water and solutes were estimated for 13 aquifers in agricultural areas located in California, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin. The aquifers are overlain by unsaturated zones with thicknesses ranging from 2.5 to 100 m. Precipitation ranges from 19 to 132 cm/yr and irrigation ranges from 0 to 120 cm/yr. Main crop types include corn, soybeans, forage, wheat, and cotton. A 1-dimensional mathematical model was developed to estimate vertical N transport in response to N inputs on the land surface from chemical fertilizer, manure and atmospheric deposition. Simulated vertical profiles of O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, Cl- and atmospheric age tracers were matched to observations by adjusting parameters for recharge rate, unsaturated zone travel time, N leaching ratio (defined as leaching fraction of N reaching water table of N input at land surface), Cl- leaching ratio, O2 reduction rate and denitrification rate. Results indicated that vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table were affected by both geochemical and physical factors. High vertical NO3 fluxes below the water table are associated with high N input at the land surface. Values of Cl- leaching ratios were less than 1 (0.42 to 1) likely as a result of runoff and exported harvested crops. N leaching ratios were lower (0.1 to 0.6), consistent with additional N losses such as denitrification and volatilization. The sites with high leaching ratios for both N and Cl tended to be those with high recharge rates and low ET loss, defined as the fraction of applied water lost to ET. Modeled zero-order denitrification rates in the saturated zone varied within an order of magnitude with a maximum rate of 1.6 mg

  13. Survey of market hindrances in the agricultural biogas area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesch, B.

    2002-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a survey made under 150 farmers in Switzerland concerning the promotion of agricultural biogas installations. Using the results of the survey, the authors classify the hindrances found to be standing in the way of further propagation of biogas installations in the farming sector. These include information deficits in the farming community as well as a lack of information at the local authority level, in agricultural education and amongst those institutions with interests in the local exploitation of organic wastes. The report gives details on the farms surveyed, lists the questions posed and reviews the answers given. It also draws conclusions on the degree to which the farmers are informed, through which channels the information flows and also assesses the factors mentioned that hinder the construction of biogas installations. Suggestions are made on measures that can be taken to improve the situation

  14. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  15. Agrochemical fate models applied in agricultural areas from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Yang, Jing; Andreoli, Romano; Binder, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    The misuse application of pesticides in mainly agricultural catchments can lead to severe problems for humans and environment. Especially in developing countries where there is often found overuse of agrochemicals and incipient or lack of water quality monitoring at local and regional levels, models are needed for decision making and hot spots identification. However, the complexity of the water cycle contrasts strongly with the scarce data availability, limiting the number of analysis, techniques, and models available to researchers. Therefore there is a strong need for model simplification able to appropriate model complexity and still represent the processes. We have developed a new model so-called Westpa-Pest to improve water quality management of an agricultural catchment located in the highlands of Colombia. Westpa-Pest is based on the fully distributed hydrologic model Wetspa and a fate pesticide module. We have applied a multi-criteria analysis for model selection under the conditions and data availability found in the region and compared with the new developed Westpa-Pest model. Furthermore, both models were empirically calibrated and validated. The following questions were addressed i) what are the strengths and weaknesses of the models?, ii) which are the most sensitive parameters of each model?, iii) what happens with uncertainties in soil parameters?, and iv) how sensitive are the transfer coefficients?

  16. The utilization of mesh meteorological data maps for agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueyama, H.

    2008-01-01

    Hilly and mountainous areas occupy approximately 70% of Japan, and the area of farmland in these regions is decreasing; these areas are defined as those from the outer plains to the mountains. The development of strategies for the revitalization of local agriculture in hilly and mountainous areas is therefore a significant problem in Japan. Systematic agriculture is efficient in hilly and mountainous areas, and distribution maps are effective planning tools for evaluating the meteorological conditions for individual farms in those areas where farms are small and interspersed. Public agricultural research centers in each prefecture of Japan have developed mesh meteorological data maps with some kilometers grid cell resolutions for local agriculture, and have been made many studies using mesh meteorological data maps. However, critical variations exist between estimated mesh data and actual meteorological condition within the area of each grid cell. To address this problem, methods of estimating air temperature and solar radiation on a 50 m mesh (latitude 1.5 sec x longitude 2.25 sec) were developed. While many studies with mesh meteorological data maps have been made, numbers of concrete examples of utility for agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous areas have been few. This paper presents therefore some studies for utilization facilitated of mesh meteorological data maps in hilly and mountainous areas. And furthermore, it is proposed some guides to utilize mesh meteorological data maps for the purpose of revitalizing an agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous area with concrete examples

  17. A reconstruction of global agricultural areas and land cover for the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, J.; Reick, C.; Raddatz, T.; Claussen, M.

    2008-09-01

    Humans have substantially modified the Earth's land cover, especially by transforming natural ecosystems to agricultural areas. In preindustrial times, the expansion of agriculture was probably the dominant process by which humankind altered the Earth system, but little is known about its extent, timing, and spatial pattern. This study presents an approach to reconstruct spatially explicit changes in global agricultural areas (cropland and pasture) and the resulting changes in land cover over the last millennium. The reconstruction is based on published maps of agricultural areas for the last three centuries. For earlier times, a country-based method is developed that uses population data as a proxy for agricultural activity. With this approach, the extent of cropland and pasture is consistently estimated since AD 800. The resulting reconstruction of agricultural areas is combined with a map of potential vegetation to estimate the resulting historical changes in land cover. Uncertainties associated with this approach, in particular owing to technological progress in agriculture and uncertainties in population estimates, are quantified. About 5 million km2 of natural vegetation are found to be transformed to agriculture between AD 800 and 1700, slightly more to cropland (mainly at the expense of forested area) than to pasture (mainly at the expense of natural grasslands). Historical events such as the Black Death in Europe led to considerable dynamics in land cover change on a regional scale. The reconstruction can be used with global climate and ecosystem models to assess the impact of human activities on the Earth system in preindustrial times.

  18. Risk analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought disaster in the major grain-producing areas, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zongtang Xie; Jiuping Xu; Yanfei Deng

    2016-01-01

    The analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought risk can assist in reducing regional disasters and agricultural drought losses. Because of the uncertainties and incomplete agricultural drought information, this paper employed an information diffusion technology and information matrix to identify a drought disaster risk distribution and to quantify the relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the grain production losses in China's major grain-producing areas. From the asse...

  19. The lithospheric structure beneath Ireland and surrounding areas from integrated geophysical-petrological modelling of magnetic and other geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykiev, E.; Guerri, M.; Fullea, J.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of unprecedented resolution aeromagnetic data in Ireland (Tellus project, http://www.tellus.ie/) in conjunction with new satellite magnetic data (e.g., ESÁs Swarm mission) has opened the possibility of detailed modelling of the Irish subsurface magnetic structure. A detailed knowledge of the magnetic characteristics (susceptibility, magnetite content) of the crust is relevant for a number of purposes, including geological mapping and mineral and geothermal energy prospection. In this work we model the magnetic structure of Ireland and surrounding areas using primarily aeromagnetic and satellite observations but also other geophysical data sets. To this aim we use a geophysical-petrological modelling tool (LitMod) in which key properties of rocks (i.e., density, electrical conductivity and seismic velocities) that can be inferred from geophysical data (gravity, seismic, EM) are self consistently determined based on the thermochemical conditions (using the software Perple_X). In contrast to the mantle, where thermodynamic equilibrium is prevalent, in the crust metastable conditions are dominant, i.e. rock properties may not be representative of the current, in situ, temperature and pressure conditions. Instead, the rock properties inferred from geophysical data may be reflecting the mineralogy stable at rock formation conditions. In addition, temperature plays a major role in the distribution of the long wavelength crustal magnetic anomalies. Magnetite retains its magnetic properties below its Curie temperature (585 ºC) and the depth of Curie's isotherm provides an estimate of the thickness of the magnetic crust. Hence, a precise knowledge of the crustal geotherm is required to consistently model crustal magnetic anomalies. In this work LitMod has been modified to account for metastable crustal lithology, to predict susceptibility in the areas below Curie's temperature, and to compute magnetic anomalies based on a magnetic tesseroid approach. The

  20. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS... sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowship Grants Program support...

  1. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  2. Assessment the Impact of Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA on Exports of Indonesian Agricultural Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Akhmadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigation whether Indonesian membership on ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA increased export of agriculture commodity. The panel augmented gravity model data from 33 major partner countries over the period of 2000-2014 has been applied to analyze the factors affected Indonesian agricultural exports. The overall finding showed that Indonesian agricultural exports were positively correlated with the size of economy and partner countries population, while they are negatively correlated with the appreciation of currency exchange rate and the enrollment on free trade agreement. Moreover, the Indonesian membership on AFTA does not gave significant impact and profitable on Indonesian agricultural exports.

  3. Leaching of dissolved phosphorus from tile-drained agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H E; Windolf, J; Kronvang, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated leaching of dissolved phosphorus (P) from 45 tile-drains representing animal husbandry farms in all regions of Denmark. Leaching of P via tile-drains exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity with a low concentration in the majority of tile-drains and few tile-drains (15% in our investigation) having high to very high concentration of dissolved P. The share of dissolved organic P (DOP) was high (up to 96%). Leaching of DOP has hitherto been a somewhat overlooked P loss pathway in Danish soils and the mechanisms of mobilization and transport of DOP needs more investigation. We found a high correlation between Olsen-P and water extractable P. Water extractable P is regarded as an indicator of risk of loss of dissolved P. Our findings indicate that Olsen-P, which is measured routinely in Danish agricultural soils, may be a useful proxy for the P leaching potential of soils. However, we found no straight-forward correlation between leaching potential of the top soil layer (expressed as either degree of P saturation, Olsen-P or water extractable P) and the measured concentration of dissolved P in the tile-drain. This underlines that not only the source of P but also the P loss pathway must be taken into account when evaluating the risk of P loss.

  4. WHAT ARE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS PH.D. STUDENTS LEARNING ABOUT AGRIBUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS AND SUBJECT AREAS?

    OpenAIRE

    House, Lisa; Sterns, James A.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the PowerPoint presentation given by the authors at the 2002 WCC-72 meetings, regarding what agricultural economics Ph.D students are learning about agribusiness research methods and subject areas.

  5. Development of a multimetric index based on macroinvertebrates for drainage ditch networks in agricultural areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Drainage ditches are a prominent feature of many intensively managed agricultural areas. These small, shallow, line-shaped waterbodies could harbor a rich macroinvertebrate community, resembling that of natural small lentic ecosystems. Despite their high biodiversity potential, many ditch ecosystems

  6. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E.; Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  7. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  8. Seismic imaging beneath an InSAR anomaly in eastern Washington State: Shallow faulting associated with an earthquake swarm in a low-hazard area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; Wicks, Chuck; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, a rare swarm of small, shallow earthquakes beneath the city of Spokane, Washington, caused ground shaking as well as audible booms over a five‐month period. Subsequent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data analysis revealed an area of surface uplift in the vicinity of the earthquake swarm. To investigate the potential faults that may have caused both the earthquakes and the topographic uplift, we collected ∼3  km of high‐resolution seismic‐reflection profiles to image the upper‐source region of the swarm. The two profiles reveal a complex deformational pattern within Quaternary alluvial, fluvial, and flood deposits, underlain by Tertiary basalts and basin sediments. At least 100 m of arching on a basalt surface in the upper 500 m is interpreted from both the seismic profiles and magnetic modeling. Two west‐dipping faults deform Quaternary sediments and project to the surface near the location of the Spokane fault defined from modeling of the InSAR data.

  9. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Climate change assessment for Mediterranean agricultural areas by statistical downscaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Palatella

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we produce projections of seasonal precipitation for four Mediterranean areas: Apulia region (Italy, Ebro river basin (Spain, Po valley (Italy and Antalya province (Turkey. We performed the statistical downscaling using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA in two versions: in one case Principal Component Analysis (PCA filter is applied only to predictor and in the other to both predictor and predictand. After performing a validation test, CCA after PCA filter on both predictor and predictand has been chosen. Sea level pressure (SLP is used as predictor. Downscaling has been carried out for the scenarios A2 and B2 on the basis of three GCM's: the CCCma-GCM2, the Csiro-MK2 and HadCM3. Three consecutive 30-year periods have been considered. For Summer precipitation in Apulia region we also use the 500 hPa temperature (T500 as predictor, obtaining comparable results. Results show different climate change signals in the four areas and confirm the need of an analysis that is capable of resolving internal differences within the Mediterranean region. The most robust signal is the reduction of Summer precipitation in the Ebro river basin. Other significative results are the increase of precipitation over Apulia in Summer, the reduction over the Po-valley in Spring and Autumn and the increase over the Antalya province in Summer and Autumn.

  11. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  12. Threats from urban expansion, agricultural transformation and forest loss on global conservation priority areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte; Di Minin, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Including threats in spatial conservation prioritization helps identify areas for conservation actions where biodiversity is at imminent risk of extinction. At the global level, an important limitation when identifying spatial priorities for conservation actions is the lack of information on the spatial distribution of threats. Here, we identify spatial conservation priorities under three prominent threats to biodiversity (residential and commercial development, agricultural expansion, and forest loss), which are primary drivers of habitat loss and threaten the persistence of the highest number of species in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, and for which spatial data is available. We first explore how global priority areas for the conservation of vertebrate (mammals, birds, and amphibians) species coded in the Red List as vulnerable to each threat differ spatially. We then identify spatial conservation priorities for all species vulnerable to all threats. Finally, we identify the potentially most threatened areas by overlapping the identified priority areas for conservation with maps for each threat. We repeat the same with four other well-known global conservation priority area schemes, namely Key Biodiversity Areas, Biodiversity Hotspots, the global Protected Area Network, and Wilderness Areas. We find that residential and commercial development directly threatens only about 4% of the global top 17% priority areas for species vulnerable under this threat. However, 50% of the high priority areas for species vulnerable to forest loss overlap with areas that have already experienced some forest loss. Agricultural expansion overlapped with ~20% of high priority areas. Biodiversity Hotspots had the greatest proportion of their total area under direct threat from all threats, while expansion of low intensity agriculture was found to pose an imminent threat to Wilderness Areas under future agricultural expansion. Our results

  13. Benthic algae of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Barbara C.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic algae were collected from 20 streams in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages by the U.S. Geological Survey in May and June of 1993 as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. These streams were selected to represent "benchmark" streams that were minimally affected by human activities, especially agriculture, for comparison to other streams in similar environmental settings. Streams were chosen from four relatively homogeneous units (RHU's) in agricultural areas with differing texture of surficial deposits and bedrock type.

  14. Metal speciation in agricultural soils adjacent to the Irankuh Pb-Zn mining area, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Roshani Rodsari, Parisa; Cohen, David R.; Emami, Adel; Dehghanzadeh Bafghi, Ali Akbar; Khodaian Ghegeni, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Mining activities are a significant potential source of metal contamination of soils in surrounding areas, with particular concern for metals dispersed into agricultural area in forms that are bioavailable and which may affect human health. Soils in agricultural land adjacent to Pb-Zn mining operations in the southern part of the Irankuh Mountains contain elevated concentrations for a range of metals associated with the mineralization (including Pb, Zn and As). Total and partial geochemical extraction data from a suite of 137 soil samples is used to establish mineralogical controls on ore-related trace elements and help differentiate spatial patterns that can be related to the effects of mining on the agricultural land soils from general geological and environmental controls. Whereas the patterns for Pb, Zn and As are spatially related to the mining operations they display little correlation with the distribution of secondary Fe + Mn oxyhydroxides or carbonates, suggesting dispersion as dust and in forms with limited bioavailability.

  15. Stakeholder and expert-guided scenarios for agriculture and landscape development in a groundwater proction area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Lone Søderkvist

    2011-01-01

    Nitrate and pesticide leaching led to the designation of groundwater protection zones in Denmark. The protective measures in these zones often clash with local interests in agriculture. Scenarios were used to evaluate the development of a groundwater protection zone in a farming area. Stakeholders...

  16. Ectoparasite of Tupaia glis (Scandentia: Tupaiidae from Lingai agricultural area, Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hafiz Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate ectoparasite fauna on the common tree shrew [Tupaia glis (T. glis] in Lingai agriculture area, Terengganu. Methods: The sampling was conducted once a month with five consecutive days from November 2012 to February 2013. Five mammal cage traps (60 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm and 30 rat cage traps (45 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm baited with banana, salt fish or fleshy-grilled coconut were used. One line transect was built and each trap was set up along the line transect with 5 m intervals. Ectoparasite was collected by combing host’s fur vigorously and kept in vials containing 70% ethanol. Results: Out of 23 hosts examined, 20 individuals (87% of T. glis in Lingai agricultural area were infested by three species of ticks and two species of mites. It was found that Laelaps echidninus showed higher mean intensity (5 as compared to the other ectoparasites. However, the prevalence was higher on Ixodes sp. (43.5% though its mean intensity was among the lowest (1.9 from the rest. Conclusions: This study provides useful information of ectoparasite fauna infesting T. glis in the agricultural area. It is important to have knowledge regarding what type of ectoparasite infests small animals in agricultural area, which in turn can assist responsible agencies to take precaution if epidemic outbreaks caused by tick-borne zoonotic diseases occur in the future.

  17. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Siderius, C.; Verheul, M.; Pomarius, H.

    2012-01-01

    Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain

  18. Strategies for resource management to improve agricultural productivity in Bariarpur Tal area of Bihar (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Upadhyaya, A.; Bhatnagar, P.R.; Gautam, U.S.; Singh, S.K.; Singh, S.R.

    2002-06-01

    Water logged Tal area is termed as the stretch of land having bowl shaped depressions inundated in monsoon season due to spill/overflow from rivers or runoff from upstream end. A team of Agricultural Scientists studied and suggested a suitable plan to the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for improving the agricultural productivity of 40,000 hectares land lying between Ghoraghat and Bariarpur and Prasando to Khand Bihari in Munger district of Bihar, which lies in eastern India. These lands remain inundated with water from July till January. Tal lands in Bariarpur suffer due to stagnation of water during monsoon period and delay in drainage thereafter. This is a late winter mono-cropped area with very low productivity. Though the fertility status of soil is good, the quantity and quality of produce is poor. The canal network is also not efficient and other parts face drought. It is expected that the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India will take up the action plan as per the recommendations of expert scientists' team to mitigate the sufferings and misery of the farmers and rural population of the area. The team of scientists had investigated in detail the genesis of the problem and suggested the appropriate management strategies to improve the agricultural production in this area upon the instruction of the Hon'ble Union Agricultural Minister Mr. Nitish Kumar. A reputed Journalist and dedicated Social Worker Mr. Dinesh brought the unbelievable misery of the rural population to the attention of the Agricultural Minister. The sufferings of the farmers of Bariarpur tal area thus cannot be mitigated without the implementation of recommendations suggested in the scientific report. It seems that a financial crunch is coming in the way for such implementation. Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water Resources, State Government, NGOs and Social Organizations should come forward to help the rural population otherwise the ray of hope for a better living

  19. Monitoring the Impact of Climate Change on Soil Salinity in Agricultural Areas Using Ground and Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in climatic patterns have had dramatic influence on agricultural areas worldwide, particularly in irrigated arid-zone agricultural areas subjected to recurring drought, such as California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV), or areas receiving above average rainfall for a decade or more, such as Minn...

  20. Risk analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought disaster in the major grain-producing areas, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongtang Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought risk can assist in reducing regional disasters and agricultural drought losses. Because of the uncertainties and incomplete agricultural drought information, this paper employed an information diffusion technology and information matrix to identify a drought disaster risk distribution and to quantify the relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the grain production losses in China's major grain-producing areas. From the assessment results, provincial drought disaster risk spatial distribution maps for each major grain-producing area in China were obtained. These risk patterns showed that the probability of drought fell when the annual drought-covered rate and the annual drought-affected rate increased, and that the high risk areas were located primarily in China's northern and central provinces. These results can provide the basis for the development of effective drought mitigation strategies which would be able to inform possible drought situations and allow for easier decision-making on drought resistance strategies. The fuzzy relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the drought-caused grain production losses provides vital information for the development of disaster compensation plans. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the proposed methods had superior detection stability and higher precision. We hope that by conducting such agricultural drought risk analysis, the results are able to provide the basis for the development of drought mitigation strategies to reduce future losses.

  1. Soil dioxins levels at agriculture sites and natural preserve areas of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jin-juh; Lin, Kae-Long; Chung, Jen-Chir; Liaw, Shu-Liang

    2007-08-17

    In this study, agriculture soil in Taiwan has been sampled and analyzed to determine the background level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DF) in the agricultural and nature preserve areas. Another objective is to investigate relationship between soil characteristics and air deposition in Taiwan. The results indicate that in nature preserve areas the topsoil shows an extraordinary profile of PCDD/DF compared to that in the air deposition. The PCDD/DF levels of the low-contaminated agricultural soils are compatible with those of the nature preserves soils. However, in the highly-contaminated agricultural soils, there is an abrupt jump in their concentrations, 10-100 times higher. The overall I-TEQ values of the background topsoils range from 0.101 to 15.2 ng I-TEQ/kg. Near industrial/urban areas in Taiwan the PCDD/DF are slightly higher compared to those in the low concentration group. Typically, the PCDD/DF background values found in this survey fall in the 90% confidence interval and can thus, be deemed the background levels in Taiwan. Ninety-five percent of these data are below the European and American soil standard of 10 ng I-TEQ/kg d.w. The PCDD/DF profile with one neighborhood soil sample was shown no significant difference.

  2. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Agriculture in Mountain Areas: A Willingness to Pay (WTP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mazzocchi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most evident elements of the agricultural crisis is farm abandonment in many marginal rural areas, such as mountains. Some traits of mountain agriculture such as remoteness, low productivity, extreme weather and small farm size, can limit the adaptation and the competitiveness of this branch. The analysis aims to assess the consumers’ Willingness to Pay (WTP for permanence of the upland farms and mountain pastures, by a Contingent Valuation analysis. The main results are that a WTP for the redevelopment of the pastures exists and that the personal characteristics of the sample are more influential than the opinions of the individuals on WTP. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that consumers seem to prefer an agricultural orientation of the upland farms rather than a touristic one. In the conclusion section, some policy guidelines are proposed.

  3. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-01-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  4. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  5. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  6. Ecohydrological modeling: the consideration of agricultural trees is essential in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; von Bloh, Werner; Shi, Sinan; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    In the Mediterranean region, climate and land use change are expected to impact on natural and agricultural ecosystems by warming, reduced rainfall and direct degradation of ecosystems. Human population growth and socioeconomic changes, notably on the Eastern and Southern shores, will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive ecohydrological model. Here we present here the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (LPJmL, "Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land"): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was then successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. A first application of the model indicates that, currently, agricultural trees consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Also, different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. This is very relevant since the Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 74% from climate change and population growth if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Additionally, future water scarcity might pose further challenges to the agricultural sector: Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain have a high risk of not being able to sustainably meet future irrigation water requirements in some scenarios by the end of the century (1). The importance of including agricultural trees in the ecohydrological models is also shown in the results concerning soil organic carbon (SOC). Since in former model

  7. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

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    Olga Heim

    Full Text Available Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany. Using spatial analysis (GIS, we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water. In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers. Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the

  8. Women’s Socio-economic Contribution to Agriculture and Livestock Activities in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar AYVAZOĞLU DEMİR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to define women’s contributions to agriculture and stockbreeding in central villages of Kars province where is an important stockbreeding area with its livestock existence. The data provided from the survey conducted with 210 women chosen by simple random sampling method constituted the research material. In accordance with the data obtained from the study, it was stated that women in the area spend an average of 4.5 hours a day by stock breeding. It was determined that 37.6% women prepare feed, 40% women feed the animals, 51% women clean stables, 85.2% women make cowpat and 89.5% of them milk. As a result, it is determined that employing and promoting women who play a crucial role in agriculture and livestock activities in working status, giving instructional seminars about animal production and supporting their socio-economic status are important in terms of having qualified livestock production.

  9. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

    2008-12-01

    The study area, Sacheon-Hadong area, is located in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is bounded by the South Sea and surrounded by the Seomjin River in the west. The study area utilized for agricultural work for a long time. That resulted in vulnerable situation of groundwater due to contamination by fertilizer, insecticide and other human activities. In addition, groundwater is in the risk of seawater intrusion because of the study area's location nearby the South Sea. In Sacheon and Hadong area, the EC values were higher in alluvial aquifer than bedrock aquifer. The higher EC values in the alluvial groundwater than the bedrock groundwater were influenced by agricultural activity in near-surface. Water types of two groundwaters belong to Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types due to saline-water influence. EC values are raised, becoming close to the coast. The correlation analysis showed that EC had positive relationship with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, SO42-, and Cl-, indicating mixing with seawater. In Sacheon area, nitrogen isotope ratios in the alluvial groundwater ranged between -0.40 and 12.80‰, with 0.05~2.49 mg/l of NO3-N concentration; the range of nitrogen isotopes in the bedrock groundwater was between 3.30 and 17.60‰, with 0.12~2.14 mg/l of NO3-N concentration. Nitrogen was originated from organic source in soils, manures, and domestic wastes (Mueller and Helsel, 1996; Kim and Woo, 2003). In Hadong area, the nitrogen isotopes in the alluvial groundwater ranged from -0.50 to 19.10‰, and NO3-N concentration was between 0.63 and 6.68 mg/l. And these may be originated from anthropogenic pollutants (Mueller and Helsel, 1996). In Sacheon area, average δ18O and δD in alluvial groundwater were analyzed as - 6.77‰ and -47.50‰; average isotope ratios in bedrock groundwater were -7.73‰ and - 53.46‰. In Hadong area, average δ18O and δD in the alluvial groundwater were - 7.32‰ and -49.80‰; average isotope ratios in the bedrock groundwater

  10. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban

  11. New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum

  12. Metal contamination of agricultural soils in the copper mining areas of Singhbhum shear zone in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The study was intended to investigate the heavy metal contamination in the agricultural soils of the copper mining areas in Singhbhum shear zone, India. The total concentrations of the metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICPMS). Pollution levels were assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I_geo), contamination factors (CF), pollution load index ( PLI), Nemerow index and ecological risk index (RI). The metal concentrations in the soil samples exceeded the average shale values for almost all the metals. Principal component analysis resulted in extraction of three factors explaining 82.6% of the data variability and indicated anthropogenic contribution of Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn and Pb. The EF and I_geo values indicated very high contamination with respect to Cu followed by As and Zn in the agricultural soils. The values of PLI, RI and Nemerow index, which considered the overall effect of all the studied metals on the soils, revealed that 50% of the locations were highly polluted with respect to metals. The pollution levels varied with the proximity to the copper mining and processing units. Consequently, the results advocate the necessity of periodic monitoring of the agricultural soils of the area and development of proper management strategies to reduce the metal pollution.

  13. THE PREEMPTION RIGHT REGARDING THE TRANSACTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS LOCATED OUTSIDE THE BUILT-UP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Chirică

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sale of agricultural lands located out-side the built-up areas has been recently limited through the obligation to follow the preemption procedure based on Law no. 17/2014, as subsequently amended (”Law 17”2 on the regulation measures for sale of agricultural lands located out-side the built-up areas and for the amendment of Law no. 268/2011 on the privatization of companies holding in administration public or private State owned agricultural lands and the establishment of the State Domains Agency. The preemptors are: (i the joint owners, (ii the lessees, (iii the neighboring owners, (iv Romanian State, through State Domain Agency. The preemption procedure commence with posting by the seller of its sale offer at the competent city hall and ends with the issuance of the positive/negative sale approval or, as the case may be, the conclusion of the sale agreement with one of the pre-emptors.

  14. ESTIMATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN THE ABURRA VALLEY METROPOLITAN AREA - COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deicy Catalina Guerra Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG generated by the agricultural activities carried out in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (AMVA, located in Medellin - Colombia. A TIER 1 approach of the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC was followed. Emissions of GHG from cropland, aggregate sources and non-CO2 emissions from land were estimated and analysis of the uncertainty of activity data and emission factors were made. The estimated total emission was 63.1 and 66 Gg CO2 eq for 2009 and 2011, respectively. The greatest contribution to greenhouse gases in agricultural production was the application of nitrogen to soils in the form of synthetic and organic fertilizers, which was associated with direct and indirect N2O emissions. The main sources of uncertainty were those derived from the activity data.

  15. How conflict affects land use: agricultural activity in areas seized by the Islamic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Lina; Degerald, Michael; Brandt, Martin; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Pilesjö, Petter

    2017-05-01

    Socio-economic shocks, technogenic catastrophes, and armed conflicts often have drastic impacts on local and regional food security through disruption of agricultural production and food trade, reduced investments, and deterioration of land and infrastructure. Recently, more research has focused on the effects of armed conflict on land systems, but still little is known about the processes and outcomes of such events. Here we use the case of Syria and Iraq and the seizure of land by the Islamic State (IS) since 2014 as an example of armed conflict, where we investigate the effects on agricultural land use. We apply a reproducible approach using 250 m satellite-based time-series data to quantify the areas under cultivation from 2000 to 2015. Despite a common belief about widespread land abandonment in areas under conflict, results point to multiple trajectories regarding cropland cultivation in the IS seized area: (1) expansion of cropland to formerly un-cultivated areas, (2) cropland abandonment, and (3) decrease of high-intensity cropland. Our study highlights the need to understand these diverse conflict-related and context-dependent changes to the land system.

  16. Metagenomic analysis of soil and freshwater from zoo agricultural area with organic fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghine, Aylan K.; Nielsen, Shaun; Thomas, Torsten; Carareto Alves, Lucia Maria

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities drive biogeochemical cycles in agricultural areas by decomposing organic materials and converting essential nutrients. Organic amendments improve soil quality by increasing the load of essential nutrients and enhancing the productivity. Additionally, fresh water used for irrigation can affect soil quality of agricultural soils, mainly due to the presence of microbial contaminants and pathogens. In this study, we investigated how microbial communities in irrigation water might contribute to the microbial diversity and function of soil. Whole-metagenomic sequencing approaches were used to investigate the taxonomic and the functional profiles of microbial communities present in fresh water used for irrigation, and in soil from a vegetable crop, which received fertilization with organic compost made from animal carcasses. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the most abundant genera were Polynucleobacter (~8% relative abundance) and Bacillus (~10%) in fresh water and soil from the vegetable crop, respectively. Low abundance (0.38%) of cyanobacterial groups were identified. Based on functional gene prediction, denitrification appears to be an important process in the soil community analysed here. Conversely, genes for nitrogen fixation were abundant in freshwater, indicating that the N-fixation plays a crucial role in this particular ecosystem. Moreover, pathogenicity islands, antibiotic resistance and potential virulence related genes were identified in both samples, but no toxigenic genes were detected. This study provides a better understanding of the community structure of an area under strong agricultural activity with regular irrigation and fertilization with an organic compost made from animal carcasses. Additionally, the use of a metagenomic approach to investigate fresh water quality proved to be a relevant method to evaluate its use in an agricultural ecosystem. PMID:29267397

  17. Metagenomic analysis of soil and freshwater from zoo agricultural area with organic fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylan K Meneghine

    Full Text Available Microbial communities drive biogeochemical cycles in agricultural areas by decomposing organic materials and converting essential nutrients. Organic amendments improve soil quality by increasing the load of essential nutrients and enhancing the productivity. Additionally, fresh water used for irrigation can affect soil quality of agricultural soils, mainly due to the presence of microbial contaminants and pathogens. In this study, we investigated how microbial communities in irrigation water might contribute to the microbial diversity and function of soil. Whole-metagenomic sequencing approaches were used to investigate the taxonomic and the functional profiles of microbial communities present in fresh water used for irrigation, and in soil from a vegetable crop, which received fertilization with organic compost made from animal carcasses. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the most abundant genera were Polynucleobacter (~8% relative abundance and Bacillus (~10% in fresh water and soil from the vegetable crop, respectively. Low abundance (0.38% of cyanobacterial groups were identified. Based on functional gene prediction, denitrification appears to be an important process in the soil community analysed here. Conversely, genes for nitrogen fixation were abundant in freshwater, indicating that the N-fixation plays a crucial role in this particular ecosystem. Moreover, pathogenicity islands, antibiotic resistance and potential virulence related genes were identified in both samples, but no toxigenic genes were detected. This study provides a better understanding of the community structure of an area under strong agricultural activity with regular irrigation and fertilization with an organic compost made from animal carcasses. Additionally, the use of a metagenomic approach to investigate fresh water quality proved to be a relevant method to evaluate its use in an agricultural ecosystem.

  18. Estimating Hydrologic Fluxes, Crop Water Use, and Agricultural Land Area in China using Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tiziana; McLaughlin, Dennis B.; Hoisungwan, Piyatida

    2016-04-01

    Crop production has significantly altered the terrestrial environment by changing land use and by altering the water cycle through both co-opted rainfall and surface water withdrawals. As the world's population continues to grow and individual diets become more resource-intensive, the demand for food - and the land and water necessary to produce it - will continue to increase. High-resolution quantitative data about water availability, water use, and agricultural land use are needed to develop sustainable water and agricultural planning and policies. However, existing data covering large areas with high resolution are susceptible to errors and can be physically inconsistent. China is an example of a large area where food demand is expected to increase and a lack of data clouds the resource management dialogue. Some assert that China will have insufficient land and water resources to feed itself, posing a threat to global food security if they seek to increase food imports. Others believe resources are plentiful. Without quantitative data, it is difficult to discern if these concerns are realistic or overly dramatized. This research presents a quantitative approach using data assimilation techniques to characterize hydrologic fluxes, crop water use (defined as crop evapotranspiration), and agricultural land use at 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution and applies the methodology in China using data from around the year 2000. The approach uses the principles of water balance and of crop water requirements to assimilate existing data with a least-squares estimation technique, producing new estimates of water and land use variables that are physically consistent while minimizing differences from measured data. We argue that this technique for estimating water fluxes and agricultural land use can provide a useful basis for resource management modeling and policy, both in China and around the world.

  19. Flow and geochemistry along shallow ground-water flowpaths in an agricultural area in southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, D.A.; Thorstenson, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Water-quality and geohydrologic data were collected from 19 monitor wells and a stream in an agricultural area in southeastern Wisconsin. These sites were located along a 2,700-ft transect from a local ground-water high to the stream. The transect is approximately parallel to the horizontal direction of ground-water flow at the water table. Most of the wells were installed in unconsolidated deposits at five locations along the transect and include an upgradient well nest, a midgradient well nest, a downgradient well nest, wells in the lowland area near the stream, and wells installed in the stream bottom. The data collected from this study site were used to describe the water quality and geohydrology of the area and to explain and model the variations in water chemistry along selected ground-water flowpaths.

  20. Protected areas and agricultural expansion: Biodiversity conservation versus economic growth in the Southeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Mayra Cristina Prado de; Mello, Kaline de; Toppa, Rogério Hartung

    2017-03-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural land and urban areas plays a threat to the protected areas and the natural ecosystems conservation. The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the agricultural expansion and its impact on the landscape spatial and temporal patterns in a buffer zone of a protected area located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The land use and land cover were mapped between 1971 and 2008 and landscape metrics were calculated to provide a spatiotemporal analysis of the forest structure and the expansion of the croplands. The results showed that the landscape patterns were affected by the economic cycles. The predominant crop surrounding the protected area is sugar cane, which increased by 39% during this period, followed by citrus. This landscape change is connected to the Brazilian oil crisis in 1973. The rapid expansion of sugar cane was largely driven by Brazil's biofuel program, the "Proálcool" (pro-alcohol), a project in 1975 that mixed ethanol with gas for automotive fuel. The forest loss occurred mainly between 1971 and 1988, decreasing the forest cover from 17% in 1971 to 12.7% in 2008. Most of the forest patches are smaller than 50 ha and has low connectivity. Throughout the years, the fragments in the buffer zone have become smaller and with an elongated shape, and the park has become isolated. This forest fragmentation process and the predominance of monoculture lands in the buffer zone threaten the protected areas, and can represent a barrier for these areas to provide the effective biodiversity conservation. The measures proposed are necessary to ensure the capability of this ecosystem to sustain its original biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of heavy metals in peri-urban agricultural areas soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, S.; Ahmad, I.; Akhtar, S.

    2012-01-01

    In industry oriented peri-urban areas, the heavy metals accumulation in soils caused by industrialization has become a potential threat. The top soil sample from 48 agricultural fields were collected from a typical industry based peri-urban areas (Lahore, Faisalabad, Multan, Kasur, Islamabad, Wah Cantt.) of Punjab, Pakistan to study the accumulation and distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The aim of the study was to investigate influence of an industrialized environment on the accumulation of heavy metals in peri-urban agricultural soils. The results of the study showed that the Pb content in the soil ranged from 17.24 to 126.4 mg/kg and the highest Pb content was observed in Islamabad soil samples, and the lowest in that of Multan area. The Cd content ranged from 1.1 to 4.0 mg/kg in Lahore while the highest Cr concentration level was 210.2 mg/kg and it was observed in Kasur and lowest 30.60 in that of Multan. The Cu content ranged from 31.2 to 127.9 mg/kg (Kasur-Lahore). The highest Ni concentration (82.0 mg/kg) was observed in Lahore from the urban area and the lowest level of 12.15 mg/kg was observed in Multan. The Zn content ranged from 42.5 to 267.7 mg/kg (Faisalabad-Wah Cantt). The study concluded that the concentration level of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn) in the studied peri-urban areas was higher as compared to heavy metal content of normal Dutch soil. High automobile traffic and industrial waste both are the most likely sources of the contamination of the peri urban areas of Pakistan. (author)

  2. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  3. Monitoring of nitrates in drinking water from agricultural and residential areas of Podravina and Prigorje (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Konjačić, Miljenko; Jazbec, Anamarija

    2013-11-01

    Nitrates are the most common chemical pollutant of groundwater in agricultural and suburban areas. Croatia must comply with the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC) whose aim is to reduce water pollution by nitrates originating from agriculture and to prevent further pollution. Podravina and Prigorje are the areas with a relatively high degree of agricultural activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was, by monitoring nitrates, to determine the distribution of nitrates in two different areas, Podravina and Prigorje (Croatia), to determine sources of contamination as well as annual and seasonal trends. The nitrate concentrations were measured in 30 wells (N = 382 samples) in Prigorje and in 19 wells (N = 174 samples) in Podravina from 2002 to 2007. In Podravina, the nitrate content was 24.9 mg/l and 6% of the samples were above the maximum available value (MAV), and in Prigorje the content was 53.9 mg/l and 38% of the samples above MAV. The wells were classified as correct, occasionally incorrect and incorrect. In the group of occasionally incorrect and incorrect wells, the point sources were within 10 m of the well. There is no statistically significant difference over the years or seasons within the year, but the interaction between locations and years was significant. Nitrate concentrations' trend was not significant during the monitoring. These results are a prerequisite for the adjustment of Croatian standards to those of the EU and will contribute to the implementation of the Nitrate Directive and the Directives on Environmental Protection in Croatia and the EU.

  4. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk in an agricultural area in north Italy

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    Georgios Bartzas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a specific approach is followed, considering the Pesticide DRASTIC and Susceptibility index (SI methods and a GIS framework, to assess groundwater vulnerability in the agricultural area of Albenga, in north Italy. The results indicate “high” to “very high” vulnerability to groundwater contamination along the coastline and the middle part of the Albenga plain, for almost 49% and 56% of the total study area for Pesticide DRASTIC and SI methods, respectively. These sensitive regions depict characteristics such as shallow depth to groundwater, extensive deposits of alluvial silty clays, flat topography and intensive agricultural activities. The distribution of nitrates concentration in groundwater in the study area is slightly better correlated with the SI (0.728 compared to Pesticide DRASTIC (0.693, thus indicating that both methods are characterized by quite good accuracy. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to acknowledge statistical uncertainty in the estimation of each parameter used, assess its impact and thus identify the most critical parameters that require further investigation in the future. Depth to water is the parameter that exhibited the largest impact on the Pesticide DRASTIC vulnerability index followed by the impact of the vadose zone and topography. On the other hand, the SI method is more sensitive to the removal of the topography parameter followed by the aquifer media and the depth to water parameters.

  5. Comparison of DDT and its metabolites concentrations in cow milk from agricultural and industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuba, Jarosław; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tarasewicz, Natalia; Pilarczyk, Renata; Ligocki, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The risk of pesticidal intoxication in humans is severe, especially because of the strongly negative impact on human health. The consequences of the exposure to these substances may include cancerogenesis or endocrine abnormalities resulting for example in decreased fertility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the content of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in cow milk from two regions of Poland, varying by level of industrialization. Samples were collected from agricultural (n = 25) and industrial (n = 25) areas, and the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were evaluated by gas chromatography. Residues of DDT were detected in all the milk samples tested, mostly in the samples from the agricultural area, where a total DDT median concentration reached 0.336 μg L(-1). In the milk samples from the industrial area, the median concentration was lower, at 0.131 μg L(-1). 4,4'-DDT was the main metabolite, constituting 83% of total DDT metabolites. Although none of the samples exceeded the level above which they should be considered dangerous, the results showed that the problem of DDT had not diminished and so should be constantly monitored.

  6. Model Development of Rainwater Management for Agriculture Decision Support System in Semi Arid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunggul S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Land cultivation for agricultural purposes in semiarid area is usually carried out only once a year specifically during the rainy season. The condition is even worse since it is not without the risk of failure because of dry-spell or water-logging. To cope with this situation, the researchers developed a model of Rainwater Management for Agriculture Decision Supporting System (RMA-DSS. The objective of this RMA-DSS is to facilitate the decision making to build water infrastructure. Using this program it is hoped that sufficient water supply for specific crops with correct planting time can be guaranteed, which in turn will optimize harvest. The model consists of three parts, namely, rainfall-runoff-infiltration model, crop water requirement-irrigation-drainage model and rainwater management for agriculture model. The Models are designed using Microsoft Excel’s Macro Visual Basic and finalized with Visual Basic language program for operating spatial database of map object and non spatial database.

  7. THE CONSUMPTION OF BASIC PRODUCTION MEANS IN POLISH AGRICULTURE IN RESPECT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS

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    Wacław Jarecki

    2014-10-01

    The plant protection by pesticides is increasing in Poland and the established trend rate took into account years 2005-2011. In the period 2002-2004 statistics did not present the full range of crop protection measures authorized for sale and consumption. In contrast the consumption of qualified seeds of basic grains and seed potatoes considerably decreased in Polish agriculture. Only for triticale it was noticed that the trend rate of qualified seeds was increasing. So the farmers should be more widely informed about the advantages of the exchange of seed grain for qualified grains. It will facilitate the quicker implementation of variety progress to agricultural production and adverse changes slowdown agricultural production.

  8. Agriculture and brown coal surface mining. The example of the Rhenish brown coal mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, B.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive surface mining in the Rhenish brown coal exploitation area has led to marked changes to the environment and living conditions there. This applies particularly to agriculture, which now has to subsist with a competitor for land. The progressive sacrifice of farmland and widespread relocation compaigns are grossly interfering with the business of farming. Only in exceptional cases do farms move as part of the relocation of whole villages. New sites are often found in hamlets and group settlements. This happens in connection with farming of newly reclaimed land or recultivated land reorganised and returned in land consolidation campaigns. (orig.) [de

  9. Leaf Area Index Estimation Using Chinese GF-1 Wide Field View Data in an Agriculture Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangqin; Gu, Xingfa; Meng, Qingyan; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Xiang; Wei, Zheng; Jia, Kun; Wang, Chunmei

    2017-07-08

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation parameter that characterizes leaf density and canopy structure, and plays an important role in global change study, land surface process simulation and agriculture monitoring. The wide field view (WFV) sensor on board the Chinese GF-1 satellite can acquire multi-spectral data with decametric spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and wide coverage, which are valuable data sources for dynamic monitoring of LAI. Therefore, an automatic LAI estimation algorithm for GF-1 WFV data was developed based on the radiative transfer model and LAI estimation accuracy of the developed algorithm was assessed in an agriculture region with maize as the dominated crop type. The radiative transfer model was firstly used to simulate the physical relationship between canopy reflectance and LAI under different soil and vegetation conditions, and then the training sample dataset was formed. Then, neural networks (NNs) were used to develop the LAI estimation algorithm using the training sample dataset. Green, red and near-infrared band reflectances of GF-1 WFV data were used as the input variables of the NNs, as well as the corresponding LAI was the output variable. The validation results using field LAI measurements in the agriculture region indicated that the LAI estimation algorithm could achieve satisfactory results (such as R² = 0.818, RMSE = 0.50). In addition, the developed LAI estimation algorithm had potential to operationally generate LAI datasets using GF-1 WFV land surface reflectance data, which could provide high spatial and temporal resolution LAI data for agriculture, ecosystem and environmental management researches.

  10. A Comparison of Leaf Area Index Maps Derived from Multi-Sensor Optical Data Acquired over Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Satalino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to retrieve and compare Leaf Area Index (LAI maps from temporal series of SPOT, IKONOS and MERIS images acquired, from 2006 to 2008, over an agricultural site in Southern Italy. Results show that the root mean square error (RMSE of LAI derived from MERIS data is approximately 1 m2 m-2, slightly larger than the one obtained by using SPOT and IKONOS data. In addition, LAI retrieved from MERIS data tends to underestimate LAI retrieved from SPOT and IKONOS data, particularly at low LAI values. Nevertheless, the paper gives examples highlighting the strength of MERIS with respect to SPOT and IKONOS data in providing long and dense temporal series of LAI maps suitable to feature the temporal evolution of vegetation growth at regional scale.

  11. SOME ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT AGRICULTURAL LAND USE AREAS WITHIN THE TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES

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    Kapinos N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Land Fund in Ukraine is experiencing excessive human impact, which is reflected in its performance exceeding the allowable agricultural development and land structure imbalance. The environmental condition of land resources close to critical. Among the largest land area occupied by agricultural land (71% of which - 76% is arable land. Violation environmentally acceptable ratio of arable land, natural grasslands and forests negatively affected the sustainability of agricultural landscapes. Throughout the widespread land degradation processes, among which the most ambitious is the erosion (about 57.5% of the territory, pollution (20% of the territory, flooding (about 12% of the territory. Sustainable (balanced land is one of the key factors of sustainable nature of territorial entities and may be formed of a priority, taking into account environmental factors. In ecological optimization based on value criteria ekolohostabilizuyuchyh and anthropogenic pressures lands should necessarily provide for withdrawal of intensive land use, which in its modal properties can not ensure sustainability of land use. However, today in Ukraine within the territories of communities no project development to optimize land use on the basis of sustainable development. Accordingly, the purpose of the article was the study of certain aspects of Land Management sustainable development of agricultural land within the territories of local communities. The current structure of the land fund of Ukraine was actually formed in the Soviet period, under the influence of policies of extensive agricultural development. Violation environmentally acceptable ratio of arable land, natural grasslands and forests negatively affected the stability and condition of land, which is confirmed by relevant research. In such circumstances, balancing the land proposed to carry out in two stages - the ecological and economic. In ecological optimization criteria based on land value necessarily

  12. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rozemeijer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain a spatial image of the diverted river water propagation into a hydrologically complex polder area, the polder Quarles van Ufford in The Netherlands. We used anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd-anomaly as a tracer for river water that was diverted into the polder. A clear reduction in the river water contribution was found between very dry conditions on 5 August 2010 and very wet conditions on 22 October. Despite the large river water impact on 5 August, the diverted river water did not propagate up into the small agricultural headwater ditches. Gadolinium proved to be an effective tracer for diverted river water in a polder system. We applied our results to upgrade the interpretation of water quality monitoring data and to validate an integrated nutrient transport model.

  13. Antioxidant response of three Tillandsia species transplanted to urban, agricultural, and industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Pignata, María Luisa

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the physiological response of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris, T. recurvata L., and T. tricholepis Baker to different air pollution sources, epiphyte samples were collected from a noncontaminated area in the province of Córdoba (Argentina) and transplanted to a control site as well as three areas categorized according to the presence of agricultural, urban, and industrial (metallurgical and metal-mechanical) emission sources. A foliar damage index (FDI) was calculated with the physiological parameters chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxyconjugated dienes, sulfur (S) content, and dry weight-to-fresh weight ratio. In addition, electrical conductivity (E-cond), relative water content (RWC), dehydration kinetics (Kin-H(2)O), total phenols (T-phen), soluble proteins (S-prot), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase were determined. The parameters E-cond, FDI, SOD, RWC, and Kin-H(2)O can serve as suitable indicators of agricultural air pollution for T. tricholepis and T. capillaris, and CAT, Kin-H(2)O, and SOD can do the same for T. recurvata. In addition, MDA, T-phen, and S-prot proved to be appropriate indicators of urban pollution for T. recurvata. Moreover, FDI, E-cond, and SOD for T. recurvata and MDA for T. tricholepis, respectively, could be used to detect deleterious effects of industrial air pollution. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  14. Agricultural interventions for water saving and crop yield improvement, in a Mediterranean area - an experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morianou, Giasemi; Kourgialas, Nektarios; Psarras, George; Koubouris, George; Arampatzis, George; Karatzas, George; Pavlidou, Elisavet

    2017-04-01

    This work is a part of LIFE+ AGROCLIMAWATER project and the aim is to improve the water efficiency, increase the adaptive capacity of tree corps and save water, in a Mediterranean area, under different climatic conditions and agricultural practices. The experimental design as well as preliminary results at farm and river basin scales are presented in this work. Specifically, ten (10) pilot farms, both organic and conventional ones have been selected in the sub-basin of Platanias in western Crete - Greece. These ten pilot farms were selected representing the most typical crops in Platanias area (olive trees and citrus trees), as well as the typical soil, landscape and agricultural practices differentiation for each crop (field slope, water availability, soil type, management regime). From the ten pilot farms, eight were olive farms and the rest two citrus. This proportion correspond adequacy to the presentence of olive and citrus crops in the extended area of Platanias prefecture. Each of the ten pilot farm has been divided in two parts, the first one will be used as a control part, while the other one as the demonstration part where the interventions will be applied. The action plans for each selected farm are based on the following groups of possible interventions: a) reduction of water evaporation losses from soil surface, b) reduction of transpiration water losses through winter pruning and summer pruning, c) reduction of deep percolation water and nutrient losses, d) reduction of surface runoff, e) measures in order to maximize the efficiency of irrigation and f) rationalization of fertilizers and agrochemicals utilized. Preliminary results indicate that water saving and crop yield can be significantly improved based on the above innervations both at farm and river basin scale.

  15. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

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    C. Deasy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  16. Energy consumption across European Union farms: Efficiency in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption is a global concern, namely due to the limited availability of energy sources and the consequences in terms of gas emissions, with its implications upon greenhouse gas emissions. In the agricultural sector this question bears an additional concern, considering that it is an economic activity which is sensitive to the dimension of the costs associated with production factors. In this way, the objective of the study presented here is to analyze, the efficiency of energy consumption, for the twelve former European Union countries, at farm level, in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area, over the period 1989–2009 and for the years 2004–2012, with data available in the Farm Accountancy Data Network. On the other hand, the implications of energy consumption in farms' economic performance were analyzed, through econometric techniques (time series, panel data and generalized method of moments) and models based on the Kaldor developments. As a main conclusion, to stress the decrease in efficiency related with energy consumption by farms in the twelve former European Union countries. - Highlights: • It was analyzed the efficiency of energy consumption. • It was considered data for the twelve former European Union states at farm level. • They were evaluated the implications of energy consumption in farms performance. • The conclusions stress the decrease in efficiency of the farms energy consumption.

  17. Paraquat Exposure of Pregnant Women and Neonates in Agricultural Areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajaree Konthonbut

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess paraquat concentrations in the urine of women at 28 weeks of pregnancy, delivery and 2 months postpartum and in the meconium of neonates. In all, 79 pregnant women were recruited from three hospitals located in agricultural areas in Thailand. The subjects were interviewed about personal characteristics, agricultural activities and pesticide use patterns. Paraquat was analyzed in urine and meconium using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. The geometric mean (GSD of urinary paraquat concentrations at 28 weeks of pregnancy, delivery and 2 months postpartum were 2.04 (4.22, 2.06 (5.04 and 2.42 (5.33 ng/mL, respectively. The urinary paraquat concentrations at 28 weeks of pregnancy, delivery and 2 months postpartum between agriculturist and non-agriculturist were not significantly different (p = 0.632, p = 0.915, p = 0.57 respectively. The geometric mean (GSD of paraquat concentration in the meconium was 33.31 (4.59 ng/g. The factors predicting paraquat exposures among pregnant women and neonates included working outside, living near farmland, having family members who work on a farm, drinking well water and using herbicides or paraquat.

  18. Diversity of Wild Bees along Elevational Gradient in an Agricultural Area in Central Java, Indonesia

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    Imam Widhiono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increases in mean temperature affect the diversity and abundance of wild bees in agricultural ecosystems. Pollinator community composition is expected to change along an elevational gradient due to differences in the daily ambient temperature. This study investigated the diversity and abundance of wild bees in an agricultural area along an elevational gradient in Central Java, Indonesia. Wild bees were collected using a sweep net in 40 green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivation sampling locations at seven different elevations (8, 108, 224, 424, 644, 893, and 1017 m above sea level. Species diversity was determined using the Shannon–Wiener diversity index. We identified 932 individuals from 8 species of wild bee belonging to 3 families. The family Apidae was predominant, with 6 species, while only 1 species was found from each of Megachilidae and Halictidae. Across the study sites, diversity increased with increasing elevation (H′ = 1.4, D = 0.25, and E = 0.78 at low elevation to H′ = 2.04, D = 0.13, and E = 0.96 at high elevation, and higher numbers of species were found at middle and high elevations. Species richness and abundance increased linearly with increasing elevation, and species diversity was highest at middle elevations.

  19. Environmental analysis of the logistics of agricultural products from roof top greenhouses in Mediterranean urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyé-Mengual, Esther; Cerón-Palma, Ileana; Oliver-Solà, Jordi; Montero, Juan Ignacio; Rieradevall, Joan

    2013-01-15

    As urban populations increase so does the amount of food transported to cities worldwide, and innovative agro-urban systems are being developed to integrate agricultural production into buildings; for example, by using roof top greenhouses (RTGs). This paper aims to quantify and compare, through a life cycle assessment, the environmental impact of the current linear supply system with a RTG system by using a case study for the production of tomatoes. The main results indicate that a change from the current linear system to the RTG system could result in a reduction, per kilogram of tomatoes (the functional unit), in the range of 44.4-75.5% for the different impact categories analysed, and savings of up to 73.5% in energy requirements. These savings are associated with re-utilisation of packaging systems (55.4-85.2%), minimisation of transport requirements (7.6-15.6%) and reduction of the loss of product during transportation and retail stages (7.3-37%). The RTG may become a strategic factor in the design of low-carbon cities in Mediterranean areas. Short-term implementation in the city of Barcelona could result in savings of 66.1 tonnes of CO₂ eq. ha(-1) when considering the global warming potential, and of 71.03 t ha(-1) when considering that the transformation from woodland to agricultural land is avoided. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Radiation doses measured by TLD (thermoluminescent dosimeter) in x-ray examination, especially on the skin area beneath of which female gonads situate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S; Hiraki, M; Murakami, S; Nishikawa, N; Yagi, T [Nissei Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1977-03-01

    By means of TLD, we measured the radiation doses to the skin in the central area of the field of radiation and doses scattered outside of the radiation field, utilizing a phantom to define a suitable radiation field. Clinically, when radiography of the gall bladder and the chest was done, we measured both the radiation doses of the central skin area where radiation was done and the skin above the area of the female gonads. In radiography of the chest, the radiation doses to the skin area above the female gonads situate was under 0.1 mR. When female gonads are less than 15 cm from the margin of the radiation field of the radiation dose can be decreased by 30% if gum sheets containing lead are used to cover the skin area outside the radiation field.

  1. Bee honey as an environmental bioindicator of pesticides' occurrence in six agricultural areas of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayiannis, George; Balayiannis, Panos

    2008-10-01

    The pollution of six agricultural areas of Greece (north, central, south) by insecticides used in crop protection has been investigated utilizing, as a bioindicator, bee honey produced in those areas. Honey samples collected randomly from apiaries located in those areas were analyzed for pesticide residues with a multianalytical method, able to determine simultaneously up to 10 organophosphorous insecticides from the same honey extract. Findings concerning the acaricide coumaphos were also included, even though it is not used in crop protection. Coumaphos is used to control the mite Varroa destructor, an external parasite of the honeybee. The above areas are cultivated in large extent with citrus trees or cotton or sunflower crops, which are good forages for honeybees. The main pests of those crops are insects; hence, insecticides are used on a large scale for crop protection. The most contaminated samples originated from citrus groves; 16 out of 19 had pesticide residues: 4 samples had chlorfenvinphos (21.05%), 10 had chlorpyrifos (52.63%) and 2 had phorate (10.53%). Out of 17 samples from cotton fields, residues were found in 8, phorate in 6 (35.29%), chlorfenvinphos in 1 (5.88%), and chlorpyrifos in 1 (5.88%). Out of nine samples from fields of sunflower, four had phorate residues (44.44%). In brief, from the 50 analyzed samples, residues of chlorfenvinphos were detected in 5 samples (10%), residues of chlorpyrifos in 11 samples (22%), and residues of phorate in 12 samples (24%). Their levels ranged between 0.70 and 0.89 microg/kg. Coumaphos residues ranged from 0.10 up to 4.80 microg/kg and were derived exclusively from beehives treated with Perizin (the commercial formulation of coumaphos) for Varroa control. This study indicates that in agricultural areas with developed apiculture, useful information about the occurrence and the distribution of pesticide residues due to crop protection treatments can be derived from the analysis of randomly collected honey

  2. [A follow-up study of the elderly in agricultural and piscatorial areas of Hokkaido].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M; Goto, R; Masuoka, H; Yoshida, K; Miyake, H

    1990-02-01

    A base-line survey was performed for 3,185 persons over 40 years of age in 1984 and 1985 in agricultural and piscatorial areas of Hokkaido with regards to their dietary habits and life style. Of them, 147 persons died prior to the recent follow-up survey of 1988. As a result of a case-control study of the dead with those of the followed-up group, a more frequent intake of instant noodles was indicated as significantly increasing the risk of death, even after adjusting for the health status at the base-line survey and other confounding variables (the adjusted relative risk = 1.44 per a frequency class, p = 0.049).

  3. Analysis of wind energy potential for agriculture pump in mountain area Aceh Besar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Fuadi, Zahrul

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the potential of wind power for agricultural pump driver in Saree mountainous area of Aceh Besar is analyzed. It is found that the average usable wind speed is 6.41 m/s, which is potential to produce 893.96 Watt of electricity with the wind turbine rotor diameter of 3 m. This energy can be used to drive up to 614 Watt of water pump with static head of 20 m to irrigate 19 hectare of land, 7 hours a day. HOMER analysis indicated the lowest simulated NPC value of USD 10.028 with CoE of USD 0.717 kWh. It is also indicated that the wind has potential to produce 3452 kWh/year with lifetime of 15 years.

  4. Microbial community of high arsenic groundwater in agricultural irrigation area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina Miseq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and TOC. Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 OTUs were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing As-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high As groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate analysis and co-inertia analysis. Other geochemical

  5. Calculation of climate factors as an additional criteria to determine agriculturally less favoured areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša POGAČAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate factors that are proposed to determine agriculturally less favoured areas (LFA in Slovenia were analyzed for the period 1981–2010. Following the instructions of European Commission prepared by Joint Research Centre (JRC 30-years averages of low air temperatures criteria (the vegetation period duration and sums of effective air temperatures and aridity criteria (aridity index AI have to be calculated. Calculations were additionally done using Slovenian Environment Agency (ARSO method, which is slightly different when determining temperature thresholds. Only hilly areas are below the LFA low air temperatures threshold with the lowest located meteorological station in Rateče. According to aridity criteria no area in Slovenia is below the threshold, so meteorological water balance was also examined. Average water balance in the period 1981–2010 was in most of locations lower than in the period 1971–2000. Climate change impacts are already expressed as trend presence in time series of studied variables, so it is recommended to calculate trends and take them into account or to perform regular iterations of calculations.

  6. Do terrestrial animals avoid areas close to turbines in functioning wind farms in agricultural landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopucki, Rafał; Klich, Daniel; Gielarek, Sylwia

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of wind energy on animals have focused on avian and bat activity, habitat use, and mortality, whereas very few have been published on terrestrial, non-volant wildlife. In this paper, we studied the utilization of functioning wind farm areas by four terrestrial animals common to agricultural landscapes: European roe deer, European hare, red fox, and the common pheasant. Firstly, we expected that the studied animals do not avoid areas close to turbines and utilize the whole area of functioning wind farms with a frequency similar to the control areas. Secondly, we expected that there is no relation between the turbine proximity and the number of tracks of these animals. The study was conducted over two winter seasons using the snow-tracking method along 100 m linear transects. In total, 583 transects were recorded. Wind farm operations may affect terrestrial animals both in wind farm interiors and in a 700-m buffer zone around the edge of turbines. The reactions of animals were species specific. Herbivorous mammals (roe deer and European hare) avoided wind farm interiors and proximity to turbines. The common pheasant showed a positive reaction to wind turbine proximity. The red fox had the most neutral response to wind turbines. Although this species visited wind farm interiors less often than the control area, there was no relation between fox track density and turbine proximity. Greater weight should be given to the effects of wind farms on non-flying wildlife than at present. Investors and regulatory authorities should always consider the likely impacts of wind farms during environmental impact assessments and try to reduce these negative effects.

  7. Groundwater quality in alluvial and prolluvial areas under the influence of irrigated agriculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevik, Biljana; Boev, Blazo; Panova, Vesna Zajkova; Mitrev, Sasa

    2016-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater pollution from alluvial aquifers lying under surface agriculture activities in two geologically different areas: alluvial and prolluvial. The groundwater in investigated areas is neutral to alkaline (pH 7.05-8.45), and the major dissolved ions are bicarbonate and calcium. Groundwater samples from the alluvial area are characterized by nitrate concentration above the national maximum concentration limit (MCL) at 20.5% of samples [mean value (Me) 6.31 mg/L], arsenic concentrations greater than national MCL at 35.6% of investigated samples (Me 12.12 µg/L) and elevated concentrations of iron (Me 202.37 µg/L) and manganese (Me 355.22 µg/L) at 22.7% and 81% of investigated samples, respectively. Groundwater samples from the prolluvial area did not show significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals, but the concentration of nitrate was considerably higher (Me 65.06 mg/L). Factor analysis positively correlates As with Mn and Fe, suggesting its natural origin. Nitrate was found in positive correlation with SO 4 2- and Ni but in negative with NH 4 + , suggesting its anthropogenic origin and the relationship of these ions in the process of denitrification. The t-test analysis showed a significant difference between nitrate pollution of groundwater from alluvial and prolluvial areas. According to the chemical composition of groundwater, the process of denitrification is considered to be the main reason for the reduced presence of nitrate in the groundwater lying under alluvial deposits represented by chalk and sandstones. Denitrification in groundwater lying under prolluvial deposits represented by magmatic and metamorphic rock formations was not observed.

  8. Agricultural law and development of rural areas: food challenges, natural resources and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Ángel Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    In order to eradicate hunger in the world agricultural decisions must be made that will design a new model of agricultural production that will be more productive and will fit better in the fight against global warming. These decisions will help to regulate agricultural activities so that they help in the above mentioned fight as well. This new model of agricultural production will come together with the adoption of rural development decisions which will then be suitable for every ecosystem, ...

  9. Agricultural recovery of a formerly contaminated area: Establishment of a high-resolution quantitative protein map of mature flax seeds harvested from the remediated chernobyl area

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been an increasing tendency toward remediation of contaminated areas for agricultural purposes. The study described herein is part of a comprehensive, long-term characterization of crop plants grown in the area formerly contaminated with radioactivity. As a first step, we ...

  10. Identification of the origin of salts in an agricultural area of SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    In spite of soil salinity having been widely studied in many part of the world, origin of salinity has not been addresses in detail in some of the most productive agricultural areas of Europe (e.g. southeast of Spain). According to the European Commission, salinization affects about 1 to 3 million ha of the area of the European Union and Candidate Countries. In Europe, most of the salt-affected land surfaces are concentrated in the Mediterranean basin. In Spain, about 3% of the 3.5 million hectares of irrigated land are severely affected by salts and another 15% is at serious risk of imminent salinization. Due to the limited water resources in southeast of Spain, water with marginal quality is used for irrigation. The use of this water has led to degradation, reduction of the land's production capacity and soil salinization. The main aim of the present study was to identify the origin of the salts involved in such salinization, using classical and multivariable statistical techniques. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, ionic composition, total organic matter, equivalent calcium carbonate, cation exchange capacity and particle size distribution were determined. The Pearson correlation coefficient, r, was used to measure the relationship between two quantitative variables and principal components analysis was used to study the correlations among anions and cations and their grouping into several factors. Results indicated that the high electrical conductivity found in the study area indeed comes from poor quality irrigation water used for agriculture. Anions and cations responsible of the salinity were chlorides, sulphates, calcium, magnesium and sodium. Mismanagement of water and traditional irrigation system resulted in salt build-up in the soil

  11. Trace elements of concern affecting urban agriculture in industrialized areas: A multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boente, C; Matanzas, N; García-González, N; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Gallego, J R

    2017-09-01

    The urban and peri-urban soils used for agriculture could be contaminated by atmospheric deposition or industrial releases, thus raising concerns about the potential risk to public health. Here we propose a method to evaluate potential soil pollution based on multivariate statistics, geostatistics (kriging), a novel soil pollution index, and bioavailability assessments. This approach was tested in two districts of a highly populated and industrialized city (Gijón, Spain). The soils showed anomalous content of several trace elements, such as As and Pb (up to 80 and 585 mg kg -1 respectively). In addition, factor analyses associated these elements with anthropogenic activity, whereas other elements were attributed to natural sources. Subsequent clustering also facilitated the differentiation between the northern area studied (only limited Pb pollution found) and the southern area (pattern of coal combustion, including simultaneous anomalies of trace elements and benzo(a)pyrene). A normalized soil pollution index (SPI) was calculated by kriging, using only the elements falling above threshold levels; therefore point-source polluted zones in the northern area and diffuse contamination in the south were identified. In addition, in the six mapping units with the highest SPIs of the fifty studied, we observed low bioavailability for most of the elements that surpassed the threshold levels. However, some anomalies of Pb contents and the pollution fingerprint in the central area of the southern grid call for further site-specific studies. On the whole, the combination of a multivariate (geo) statistic approach and a bioavailability assessment allowed us to efficiently identify sources of contamination and potential risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the impact of pluriactivity on sustainable agriculture. A case study in rural areas of Beotia in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giourga, Christina; Loumou, Angeliki

    2006-06-01

    Pluriactivity of farms, or part-time farming, is a common feature of agriculture in all countries regardless of their socioeconomic system and level of development. Currently, pluriactivity is related to the values of sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study is to delineate those specific characteristics of pluriactive farms that contribute to sustainable agriculture. In rural areas of Boetia in Greece, a socioeconomic survey was carried out on 114 farms to determine the types of farming applied. The results demonstrate that pluriactivity is a stable component of the agricultural structure in the rural areas of Boetia. It is widespread in plains, but its presence is more important in mountainous and semimountainous areas. The choice of young farmers is to opt for pluriactivity. Farm size does not differ between pluriactive and full-time farms. Pluriactive and full- time farms use the same level of input and get the same output for the same type of crop. However, pluriactive farmers under the same land-productive conditions are oriented toward a more extensive farming system, managing their land with crops that need less inputs. Considering these findings, it can be claimed that pluriactivity can contribute to diminishing the demand on natural resources in favored (level and irrigated) areas, to continue agricultural production in unfavorable (mountainous and semimountainous) areas, and to help the sustenance of the rural population.

  13. Effectiveness of conservation agriculture practices on soil erosion processes in semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwari, Emmanuel; Mhaka, Luke; Gwandu, Tariro; Chipangura, Tafadzwa; Misi Manyanga, Amos; Sabastian Matsenyengwa, Nyasha; Rabesiranana, Naivo; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) in soil erosion and redistribution studies has gained popularity since the late 1980s. In Zimbabwe, soil erosion research was mostly based on conventional methods which included the use of erosion plots for quantitative measurements and erosion models for predicting soil losses. Only limited investigation to explore the possibility of using Caesium-137 (Cs-137) has been reported in the early 1990s for undisturbed and cultivated lands in Zimbabwe. In this study, the Cs-137 technique was applied to assess the impact of soil conservation practices on soil losses and to develop strategies and support effective policies that help farmers in Zimbabwe for sustainable land management. The study was carried out at the Makoholi research station 30 km north of the Masvingo region which is located 260 km south of Harare. The area is semi-arid and the study site comprises coarse loamy sands, gleyic lixisols. The conservation agriculture (CA) practices used within the area since 1988 include (i) direct seeding (DS) with mulch, (ii) CA basins with mulch, and (iii) 18 years direct seeding, left fallow for seven years and turned into conventional tillage since 2012 (DS/F/C). The Cs-137 reference inventory was established at 214 ± 16 Bq/m2. The mean inventories for DS, CA basins and DS/F/C were 195, 190 and 214 Bq/m2 respectively. Using the conversion Mass Balance Model 2 on the Cs-137 data obtained along transects for each of the practices, gross erosion rates were found to be 7.5, 7.3 and 2.6 t/ha/yr for direct seeding, CA basins and the DS/F/C while the net erosion rates were found to be 3.8, 4.6 and 0 t/ha/yr respectively. Sediment delivery ratios were 50%, 63% and 2% in the respective order. These preliminary results showed the effectiveness of DS over CA basins in erosion control. The efficiency of fallowing in controlling excessive soil loss was significant in the plot that started as DS for 18 years but left fallow for 7

  14. Impact of agricultural and industrial activities on ground water quality in Kasur area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasneem, M.A.; Latif, Z.; Butt, S.; Afzal, M.; Ali, M.; Afzal, M.; Khan, I.H.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of agricultural and industrial activities on groundwater quality. Kasur area was selected to study the influence of chemical fertilizers and tannery effluents on groundwater with the help of /sup 15/N of water nitrates. Bremner and keeney methods with certain modifications ware adopted for extraction of nitrate nitrogen in the form of ammonium ions. Ammonium concentrates were converted to nitrogen gas using potassium hypo bromide solution and analyzed on GD-150 mass spectrometer. /sup 15/N of nitrates from groundwater (n=14), pond water and Kisan urea were determined. There is a pronounced difference in the /sup 15/N values of nitrates from various sources. /sup 15/N of pond water (mixture of tannery effluents, sewerage and rainwater) was found to be +31.99% and +21.26% for the first and the second samplings respectively. /sup 15/N of Kisan urea sample was determined to be - 1.00%. The nitrate concentration of groundwater ranged from 1-171 ppm and / sup 15/N was found to be -0.40 to WHO permissible limits (45 ppm). Temporal variation was also observed but the values were still above the WHO limits. It is concluded that the major source of nitrates pollution in the Kasur area is due to chemical fertilizers and +37.10%. Out of 14 drinking water samples six have nitrate contents above biological wastes but not due to the tannery effluents. (author)

  15. Assessing and monitoring soil quality at agricultural waste disposal areas-Soil Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Kavvadias, Victor; Sarris, Apostolos; Lolos, Polykarpos; Liakopoulou, Nektaria; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris

    2014-05-01

    The necessity of elaborating indicators is one of the priorities identified by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The establishment of an indicator monitoring system for environmental purposes is dependent on the geographical scale. Some indicators such as rain seasonality or drainage density are useful over large areas, but others such as soil depth, vegetation cover type, and land ownership are only applicable locally. In order to practically enhance the sustainability of land management, research on using indicators for assessing land degradation risk must initially focus at local level because management decisions by individual land users are taken at this level. Soils that accept wastes disposal, apart from progressive degradation, may cause serious problems to the surrounding environment (humans, animals, plants, water systems, etc.), and thus, soil quality should be necessarily monitored. Therefore, quality indicators, representative of the specific waste type, should be established and monitored periodically. Since waste composition is dependent on their origin, specific indicators for each waste type should be established. Considering agricultural wastes, such a specification, however, could be difficult, since almost all agricultural wastes are characterized by increased concentrations of the same elements, namely, phosphorous, nitrogen, potassium, sulfur, etc.; contain large amounts of organic matter; and have very high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and electrical conductivity. Two LIFE projects, namely AgroStrat and PROSODOL are focused on the identification of soil indicators for the assessment of soil quality at areas where pistachio wastes and olive mill wastes are disposed, respectively. Many soil samples were collected periodically for 2 years during PROSODOL and one year during AgroStrat (this project is in progress) from waste disposal areas and analyzed for 23 parameters

  16. Hydrodynamic and hydrochemicalcharacterization of groundwater in agricultural area (case of Agafay farm-Western Haouz) Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiani, Salma; El mandour, Abdennabi; Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Khalil, Nourdine; Chehbouni, Abdelghani; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Khabba, Said; Hamaoui, Addi; Kamal, Safia

    2016-04-01

    Water resources play an important role in the socio-economic development of the Haouz plain. The agriculture and tourism are two essential components of this development. They represent more than 85% of the water consumption of the Tensift catchment. Under a semi-arid climate, according to hydric stress water used for irrigation essential for most crops, comes from pumping in groundwater from the unconfined aquifer of the Haouz. The use of groundwater for irrigation causes problems of soil degradation by the intensification of salinization processes, sodisation or alkalizing at several degrees. These situations are closely related to the natural characteristics of the environment (soil and climate) and the modalities of water management dedicated for irrigation highly affected by water quality. It is in this sense that the study was conducted in an irrigated citrus orchard drip, located in the western part of Haouz at 35 km of Marrakesh. The aim of this study is to characterize the area on hydrogeological and hydrochemical point of view, on the basis of a measurement and sampling campaign of thirty wells corresponding to June 2014. The piezometric map shows parallel flow lines oriented northwest. The aquifer recharge is ensured by lateral flow from the High Atlas and by the infiltration from surface water from Chichaoua, Assif El Mal and N'fis rivers. The low amount of flow rate recorded and measured in the vicinity of the study area at the sensing points are relative to the rise of Paleozoic substratum which reduces the recharge of the aquifer. On the hydrochemical level, groundwater quality is generally good (86% of cases). The strong mineralization is concentrated mainly in irrigated areas downstream along the flow direction of the aquifer and at the Guemassa substratum.

  17. Perched-Water Evaluation for the Deep Vadose Zone Beneath the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms Area of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Carroll, KC; Chronister, Glen B.

    2013-06-28

    Perched-water conditions have been observed in the vadose zone above a fine-grained zone that is located a few meters above the water table within the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms area. The perched water contains elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99. This perched-water zone is important to consider in evaluating the future flux of contaminated water into the groundwater. The study described in this report was conducted to examine the perched-water conditions and quantitatively evaluate 1) factors that control perching behavior, 2) contaminant flux toward groundwater, and 3) associated groundwater impact.

  18. Trace elements assessment in agricultural and desert soils of Aswan area, south Egypt: Geochemical characteristics and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mohamed Abdallah Gad; Pöllmann, Hebert

    2015-12-01

    Determination of chemical elements, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn have been performed in agricultural and desert soils and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at Aswan area. Consequently, the pollution indices, univariate and multivariate statistical methods have been applied, in order to assess the geochemical characteristics of these elements and their impact on soil environmental quality and plant, and to reach for their potential input sources. The investigation revealed that the mean and range values of all element concentrations in agricultural soil are higher than those in desert soil. Furthermore, the agricultural soil displayed various degrees of enrichment and pollution of Cd, Zn, Mo, Co, P, Ti, Pb. The geochemical pattern of integrated pollution indices gave a clear image of extreme and strong pollution in the agricultural soil stations, their poor quality with high risk to human health and considered as a tocsin for an alert. In contrast, the desert soil is the good environmental quality and safe for plant, animal and human health. Alfalfa is tolerant plant and considered as a biomarker for P and Mo in polluted agricultural soil. Four geochemical associations of analyzing elements in agricultural soil and three ones in desert soil have been generated, and their enhancements were essentially caused by various anthropogenic activities and geogenic sources. The investigation also revealed that the broad extended desert soil is fruitful and promising as cultivable lands for agricultural processes in the futures.

  19. Directions of development for areas with unfavourable conditions for agricultural production, an example of the podlaskie voivodeship (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Niewiadomski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the directions of development of rural areas, primarily agricultural areas of the Podlaskie voivodeship, which in light of current criteria has been qualified almost entirely as problem area (ONW. Results presented are culmination of research related to issues of problem areas primarily in the area of the Podlaskie voivodeship by the author of the herewith paper during last few years. In conclusion to the results of the research it can be said that the primary direction of the development of rural areas in the Podlaskie voivodeship will be modern, large-scale farms able to adjust to current conditions, in particular environmental and soil conditions. In problem areas these will be mostly farms focusing on production of cattle and milk, developing production based on very high share of grassland areas. Complementary role in relation to conventional agriculture will be fulfilled by farms developing organic farming and agro-touristic farms. More intensive development of conventional tourism in rural areas can be expected once new tourism products and services have been developed. Assessment of the current economic development parameters of the Podlaskie voivodeship does not point at the convergence with other regions and possibility of decreasing the distance between the Podlaskie voivodeship and average results for Poland in the near future. However, some positive trends in terms of convergence with other regions in Poland can be observed in agriculture, primarily due to relatively good results in production of cattle and milk.

  20. The role of agricultural and natural ecosystems in the internal dose formation in the inhabitants of a controlled area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Travnikova, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of caesium radionuclide transfer to agricultural and natural food products produced in western areas of the Bryansk region during 3 years after the Chernobyl accident and its change due to the protective measures adopted have been determined. It has been shown that the role of agricultural and natural (mushrooms, fish, berries) food products in the people's internal irradiation may be equally important both with routine diet and with the food restrictions imposed. The substitution of local food products for radiation-free ones reduced the internal irradiation dose in the adult rural inhabitants of the controlled area by 70-86% during 1.5 years. (author)

  1. Current planning of agricultural priority areas in conjunction with the recultivation of brown coal opencast mines in the Rhineland brown coal mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, S.; Sihorsch, W.; Stuermer, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the Rhineland brown coal mining area the brown coal is won by the opencast method. Brown coal mining operations entail an enchroachment on the land over large areas, and in this connection most of the areas involved were previously cultivated intensively for agricultural purposes and very highly productive. The areas in question certainly become agricultural areas again when recultivation commences, but because of the increasing obligation to comply with the present concepts of nature and landscape preservation new demands are made as regard the landscape, and these demands for the most part are to the detriment of agriculture. In the matter of recultivation the companies operating mines therefore endeavour, already in the stage of drafting final plans, to reach an agreement in particular with the most important representatives of public interests and thus also with agricultural authorities as regards the development of the landscape. The difficult nature of this co-ordinatin process is illustrated inter alia by the example of the planning and construction of mine roads and tracks, a potential development feature which has a considerable influence on the overall structure of a landscape. (orig.) [de

  2. Fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure beneath the Tengchong volcanic area inferred from receiver function and surface-wave dispersion: constraints on magma chamber distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wu, Tengfei; Hua, Yujin; Zhang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The Tengchong volcanic area is located in the southeastern margin of the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. It is one of the youngest intraplate volcano groups in mainland China. Imaging the S-wave velocity structure of the crustal and uppermost mantle beneath the Tengchong volcanic area is an important means of improving our understanding of its volcanic activity and seismicity. In this study, we analyze teleseismic data from nine broadband seismic stations in the Tengchong Earthquake Monitoring Network. We then image the crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. The results reveal widely distributed low-velocity zones. We find four possible magma chambers in the upper-to-middle crust and one in the uppermost mantle. The chamber in the uppermost mantle locates in the depth range from 55 to 70 km. The four magma chambers in the crust occur at different depths, ranging from the depth of 7 to 25 km in general. They may be the heat sources for the high geothermal activity at the surface. Based on the fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure, we propose a model for the distribution of the magma chambers.

  3. Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012–2013 volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at Campi Flegrei caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km3 of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area. PMID:26279090

  4. Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012-2013 volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, Luca; Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Ricciolino, Patrizia; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Martini, Marcello; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana

    2015-08-17

    We found the first evidence, in the last 30 years, of a renewed magmatic activity at Campi Flegrei caldera from January 2012 to June 2013. The ground deformation, observed through satellite interferometry and GPS measurements, have been interpreted as the effect of the intrusion at shallow depth (3090 ± 138 m) of 0.0042 ± 0.0002 km(3) of magma within a sill. This interrupts about 28 years of dominant hydrothermal activity and occurs in the context of an unrest phase which began in 2005 and within a more general ground uplift that goes on since 1950. This discovery has implications on the evaluation of the volcanic risk and in the volcanic surveillance of this densely populated area.

  5. Evaluation of the MODIS Albedo Product over a Heterogeneous Agricultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Franch, B.; Oltra-Carrio, R.; Vermote, E. F.; Fedele, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product (MCD43) is evaluated over a heterogeneous agricultural area in the framework of the Earth Observation: Optical Data Calibration and Information Extraction (EODIX) project campaign, which was developed in Barrax (Spain) in June 2011. In this method, two models, the RossThick-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR) (which corresponds to the MODIS BRDF algorithm) and the RossThick-Maignan-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR-HS), were tested over airborne data by processing high-resolution images acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor. During the campaign, airborne images were retrieved with different view zenith angles along the principal and orthogonal planes. Comparing the results of applying the models to the airborne data with ground measurements, we obtained a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.018 with both RTLSR and RTLSR-HS models. The evaluation of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43) was performed by comparing satellite images with AHS estimations. The results reported an RMSE of 0.04 with both models. Additionally, taking advantage of a homogeneous barley pixel, we compared in situ albedo data to satellite albedo data. In this case, the MODIS albedo estimation was (0.210 +/- 0.003), while the in situ measurement was (0.204 +/- 0.003). This result shows good agreement in regard to a homogeneous pixel.

  6. Systematic radiological survey distinguishing contaminated from non-contaminated agricultural areas in the Korma district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.; Dederichs, H.

    1999-01-01

    The results of soil measurements justify the conclusion that the population of the CIS resident in areas heavily affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident returned to normal life, neglecting or refusing to accept precautionary practice in land use or other restrictions recommended for radiological protection. One factor is the time elapsed since the accident happened, another is the succession of generations. Those who then were young children now are the mothers and fathers of the third post-accident generation, and their anyhow weak awareness of the persisting radiological danger has fallen into oblivion. This may serve as an explanation of the fact that there is an extremely strong increase in the body doses measured in children of pre-school age. Further major factors are the poor agricultural situation and the resulting nutritional problems, forcing people to increasingly live on the fruit of the forest. This is clearly reflected in the increased internal radiation doses measured, while the external doses are decreasing with continuing vertical migration of radionuclides. Increasing internal accumulation of cesium in the population as a dominant contribution to total body doses was revealed by the measuring campaign, extending to the population of villages farther off the forests. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Characterization of necrophagus entomofauna in a typical agricultural area in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calzolari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a checklist of Dipterans and Coleopterans accountable for carrion decay in the Po Valley (Italy, a contribution to the Forensic Entomology knowledge in Italy. Insects colonizing two pig carcasses in an agricultural area in Mezzani municipality (Parma, Northern Italy were sampled by pitfall traps and original Malaise-like traps, which allowed the sampling of a very relevant number of flying insects. A checklist of 57 taxa was obtained, of which 26 were considered of forensic importance. For the latter the arrival time of adult specimens on the carcasses was recorded, as an important parameter in minimum post mortem interval estimation. Dipterans (6141 specimens were the most common insects; the fastest specimens to detect and colonize the carcass belonged to the Calliphoridae family, while Fanniidae and Muscidae infested the carrion until completion of the skeletal stage. Coleopterans appeared later (308 adult specimens and 114 larvae were captured. Staphylinidae, Dermestidae, and Histeridae were the most common coleopterans sampled in this study.

  8. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer ( Emberiza citronella ), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m 2 . The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  9. Alternative agriculture as a substitute for environmental remediation. Production of poultry in radiologically contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.; Brisbin, I.L.; Kennamer, R.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Exploiting the physiological and ecological characteristics of domesticated species has seldom been considered as a means of returning radiologically contaminated areas to safe agricultural production. However, the proper choice of cultivated and domesticated species, together with appropriate husbandry practices, may allow safe production of foods, fibre and energy. As an example, factors that could permit safe production of food products for human consumption from poultry raised in contaminated areas are considered. These factors include radionuclide transfer from the environment into poultry and methods for reducing radionuclide uptake and/or decontaminating chickens to yield acceptable food products. Studies of growth and feed intake rates of chickens under intensive management and free-ranging husbandries, 137 Cs uptake by chickens exposed to contaminated sediments, potential effects of husbandry on 137 Cs concentrations and 137 Cs elimination by chickens after removal of contaminated feed are described. Data from these and other studies are combined in simulation models of the 13 '7Cs kinetics of chickens. Chicken product 137 Cs concentrations ([ 137 Cs]s) decrease with increases in body mass, apparently as a result of decreasing mass specific intake rates. Husbandries that increase contaminant intake (e.g. free-ranging rearing conditions versus brooder house production) or access to contaminated soils (e.g. scattering feed directly onto contaminated solid versus the use of feeders) increase total body [ 137 Cs]s. However, model simulations indicate that it is possible to produce safe poultry products (especially eggs) at all but unrealistically high feed contamination levels. Even when dietary 137 Cs levels produce [ 137 Cs]s in poultry products that exceed acceptable limits, the high metabolism of poultry leads to a rapid decrease in [ 137 Cs]s once the chickens are placed on uncontaminated rations. This permits the use of contaminated feed or forage for

  10. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ˜22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  11. Training of Farmers in Island Agricultural Areas: The Case of Cyclades Prefecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papavasileiou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the views of young farmers regarding the agricultural training, the training needs and content, as well as the implementation of information technology (IT) and the Internet in agricultural training. The research was conducted in the Greek islands of Cyclades. Methodology: A quantitative approach…

  12. Research Impact Assessment in Agriculture--A Review of Approaches and Impact Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißhuhn, Peter; Helming, Katharina; Ferretti, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    Research has a role to play in society's endeavour for sustainable development. This is particularly true for agricultural research, since agriculture is at the nexus between numerous sustainable development goals. Yet, generally accepted methods for linking research outcomes to sustainability impacts are missing. We conducted a review of…

  13. Seasonal changes of fertilizer impacts on agricultural drainage in a salinized area in Adana, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Akca, E.; Nakano, T.; Nagano, T.; Kapur, S.; Watanabe, T.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the impacts of fertilizer on the composition of agricultural drainage water were examined by analyzing the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotope ratio and chemical composition of drainage water samples. Samples of drainage water were taken from the main drainage canals of the Lower Seyhan Irrigation Project, at sites designated as D10, D11, and D12. Plots of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr vs. 1/Sr indicated that the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of drainage water was positively related to those of fertilizer and irrigation water. The origins of Sr in two of the end-components were fertilizer and irrigation water. The data from the end-drain in winter suggested that the origin of Sr in the third end-component was fossil seawater. Analysis of a mixing model incorporating these three end-components showed that the origins of Sr in drainage differed markedly between summer and winter. Fertilizer made the greatest contribution to Sr in drainage water both in summer and winter, contributing 38-72% of total Sr in summer and 64-87% of total Sr in winter. In summer, fertilizer contributed 72% of total Sr in drainage water in D12, 44% in D10, and 38% in D11. This result implies that fertilizer was applied excessively at the D12 site. In winter, seawater accounted for 10% of Sr in drainage water in D12, whereas it accounted for 19-27% of Sr in drainage water in D10 and D11. Therefore, at least 70% of the salt in drainage water originates from fertilizer and irrigation water. At this study site, the salt originating from seawater is replaced by that from fertilizer and irrigation water, due to intensive agricultural management. The study site is a delta that lay on the ocean subsurface at least 3000 years ago, and therefore, was originally a primary salinization area. This result suggests that anthropogenic secondary salinization progressed over time via fertilizer and irrigation applications.

  14. Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradman, Asa; Schwartz, Jackie M.; Fenster, Laura; Barr, Dana B.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide use was restricted starting in the 1970s in developed countries and the 1980s and 1990s in developing countries. Current exposure to OC pesticides – DDT, lindane (99% pure gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) – occurs on a limited basis. We measured p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, HCB, beta (β)-HCH (the most persistent isomer of technical-grade HCH) and γ-HCH in serum from 426 low-income pregnant Latina women living in an agricultural community in California. Detection frequencies were 94-100%. Median levels (ng/g-lipid) of p,p′-DDE (1,052), p,p′-DDT (13), β-HCH (37) and HCB (65) were significantly higher than U.S. population levels. Multivariate analyses of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, β-HCH and HCB indicate that time spent living outside the United States and birthplace in an area of Mexico with recent use of OC pesticides were significant predictors of exposure. Time spent living in the United States was associated with increased serum levels of p,p′-DDE and β-HCH, but the increase for each year lived in the United States was lower than for each year lived outside the United States. There was no difference between the increase of HCB levels over time spent in or outside the United States, suggesting current and thus preventable exposure routes. However, we observed no associations between serum levels of any OC compound and current intake of saturated fat or agricultural take-home exposure risk factors. Lactation history and recent weight gain were negatively associated with serum levels of some, but not all OC compounds studied. Smoking history was borderline associated with elevated HCB levels. We observed no significant associations with body mass index. Although the weight of evidence from this study indicates that most exposure occurred prior to moving to the United States, the results for HCB indicate the possibility of ongoing exposure in this country. PMID:17033681

  15. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  16. Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

  17. Phthalate esters (PAEs): Emerging organic contaminants in agricultural soils in peri-urban areas around Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Feng; Cui Kunyan; Xie Zhiyong; Wu Lina; Liu Min; Sun Guoquan; Lin Yujun; Luo Danling; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the first data on the concentrations and distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils from the peri-urban areas of Guangzhou city. Σ 16 PAEs concentrations ranged from 0.195 to 33.6 μg g -1 -dry weight (dw). Elevated levels of PAEs were recorded in the vegetable fields located next to the urban districts, and a decreasing trend exists following the distance away from the urban center. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAEs in the agricultural soils. Significant relationship (correlation coefficient R 2 = 0.85, p < 0.01, n = 40) was present between the accumulation of PAEs and total organic carbons in agricultural soils. In addition, both pH and texture of soils are found to be important factors affecting the level of PAEs. This study shows that the agricultural soils in the peri-urban area of Guangzhou city were moderately polluted by PAEs. - PAEs are determined in agricultural soils at high concentration levels, which imply a potential risk for the food chain

  18. Capture and characterization of particulate phosphorus from farm drainage waters in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T.; Daroub, S.

    2012-12-01

    The buildup of highly labile, organic, phosphorus (P)-enriched sediments in farms canals within the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) has been associated with the production of floating aquatic vegetation. During drainage events, these sediments are susceptible to transport and contribute to the overall P load. In order to evaluate the total P load exiting the farm canals, a settling tank experiment was conducted to capture the sediments during drainage events from eight farms. Drainage water was channelized through two 200L polypropylene collection tanks which allowed sediments to settle at the bottom based on its particle size. Water was carefully siphoned out of the tanks and the sediments collected for analyses. A five step P-fractionation process was used to distinguish organic (o) and inorganic (i) forms of P: KCl extractable P, NaOH extractable P, HCl extractable P, and residual P. The KCl-Pi fraction represents the labile Pi that is water soluble and exchangeable (loosely adsorbed); NaOH extractable P represents Fe- and Al- bound inorganic P (NaOH-Pi) and organic P associated with humic and fulvic acids (NaOH-Po). The HCl-Pi fraction includes Ca- and Mg- bound P, while Residue-P represents recalcitrant organic P compounds and P bound to minerals. The sediments were also used to conduct a P-flux study under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Our goal is to provide growers with vital information and insight into P loading that will help them in their efforts to reduce off-farm P loads in the EAA.

  19. The Effect of Aquatic Vegetation on Water Quality in the Everglades Agricultural Area Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, S. M.; Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Josan, M. S.; Daroub, S. H.

    2011-12-01

    The canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area contain an abundance of floating aquatic vegetation (FAV) and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). These FAV flourish in waters with high phosphorus (P) concentrations and prevent the co-precipitation of P with the limestone bedrock (CaCO3). To test the effects of FAV and SAV and the presence of sediments on water quality in the canals, a lysimeter study was set up and stocked with FAV (water lettuce) and SAV (filamentous algae). There were four treatments with four replicates Treatment one contained limerock, sediment from the canals, and FAV. Treatment two contained limerock, sediment, and SAV. Treatment three contained limerock and FAV, while treatment four had limerock and SAV. After 7 days, the buckets were drained and replaced the water with new, high P canal water. Water samples were taken at 0, 0.25, 1, 3, and 7 days after each weekly water exchange. To test water quality soluble reactive P, total P, total dissolved P, Ca, and total organic carbon were analyzed. The impact of FAV and SAV and canal sediments on water quality will be discussed. We hypothesize water lettuce treatments will initially result in a reduction in P-concentration in all species, but will only serve as a short-term sink because of their high turn-over rate and production of labile high-P sediment (floc). In addition, we hypothesize the treatments with no sediment will have more P reduction because of the availability for P to co-precipitate with CaCO3.

  20. Predisposition Factors of Students’ Choice in Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources (AFNR Courses (Luzon Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. ROMEO C. CLEMENTE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is an inquiry into the motivational, personality, and extrinsic variables as factors affecting students’ predisposition in their career choice for agriculture, fisheries and forestry. It features empirical facts generally reflective of the recent conditions of public and private Higher Education Institutions (as NUCAFs, PIAs and PIFs identified by NAFES-CHED and DA of Luzon, Philippines vis-à-vis problems and reasons of continuous decline in the subscription of Filipino students for AFNR courses. Subsumed in the notable findings for Luzon area (i.e., most enrollees and their parents are marginalized; most mothers who are mere housekeepers heavily influence children’s disposition; most professional AFNR parents and enrollees’ siblings who are now AFNR professionals poorly influence them to take the same course; scholarship grants or free tuition fee as a prime way out to finish college education; personal ideal expectation of students for the government to provide promising local employment; common social motive to participate in addressing problems on food security for the continuously increasing population; economic motive to shorter waiting time for employment; SUCs feel obliged to expand curriculum offering to non-AFNR courses to survive institutional fiscal constraints; dearth of educationally qualified faculty and administrators; campaign for the AFNR curriculum programs as effective strategy to improve enrolment rate; low passing rate in AFNR board examinations due to low participation rate, expensive requirements of review, generic contents of examination, and deficiency on the quality and quantity of facilities/equipment and library holdings in most AFNR State Colleges/Universities served as framework of reference for the formulation of proposed education policy reforms/measures and advocacy interventions designed to spur interest in AFNR courses.

  1. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  2. Endocrine disrupting potential in freshwater ecosystems near agricultural areas on Prince Edward Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, M. A

    2000-01-01

    ...% of the land is agricultural and pesticide used is some of the most intensive in Canada. One component of the study measured the effects on endocrine function in caged rainbow trout and wild brook trout...

  3. Generation of electricity and combustible gas by utilization of agricultural waste in Nara canal area water board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyo, P.; Memon, F.; Sohag, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Biomass in an important source of energy, however, it is not fully utilized in Sindh. The various types of biomass normally used for the generation of energy are extensively available in the province. These are forest debris and thinning; residue from wood products industry; agricultural waste; fast-growing trees and crops; wood and wood waste; animal manures and non-hazardous organic portion of municipal solid waste. Since agriculture is pre-dominant in Sindh, it has a large amount of agricultural waste available in most of the areas. Agriculture wastes like rice husk, wheat straw, cotton stalks, and sugarcane bagasse can be utilized to produce gas and afterwards electricity. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) has found that at most of the locations of Sindh, agricultural waste is available more than the energy requirements of that particular area. Biomass can also generate electricity (or heat) in one of the several processes, can be used in a piston driven engine, high efficiency gas turbine generator or a fuel cell to produce electricity. Biomass gasifies have gained attention for their efficiency, economy and environment-friendly. The Nara Canal Area Water Board is facing acute problem of electricity in the O and M of its drainage network and running of tube wells. The frequent breakdown and irregular supply of power is badly affecting in the management of drainage system and control of rising water-table, however, it is anticipated that the generation of electricity through biomass can address this acute problem and greatly help in controlling water logging and salinity in Sindh. (author)

  4. Measuring organic matter in Everglades wetlands and the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Alan L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Here, organic matter is a complex material that represents the long-term decay products from plants and other organisms in the soil. When organic matter is allowed to build up in a soil, the soil color at the surface usually turns a darker color, often with a red or brown hue. Typically in Florida mineral soils, organic matter content is quite low, within the range of 1 to 5%. However, in some soils that remain flooded for most of the year, organic matter can build up with time and actually become the soil. Such is the case for the organic soils, or histosols, found in southern Florida. These organic soils comprise much of the Water Conservation Areas, Everglades National Park (ENP), Big Cypress Basin, and the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). It is important to document organic matter accumulation in the Everglades to gauge the effectiveness of wetland creation and succession. For the EAA, the drained soils lose organic matter due to oxidation, so measurement of the organic matter content of these soils over the course of time indicates the oxidation potential and mineral incorporation from bedrock. Due to the wide diversity of soil types and methods of measuring soil organic matter, there is a need to devise a more universal method applicable to many types of histosols in south Florida. The intent of this publication is: 1.To describe a simple laboratory method for determining the organic matter content of the organic soils of southern Florida and demonstrate the importance of using this new procedure for improved accuracy and precision; 2.To utilize this updated laboratory procedure for field sites across Everglades wetlands and the EAA; and 3. To recommend this procedure be used by growers, state and federal agencies, and university and agency researchers dealing with the management of organic soils in southern Florida. Growers can use this improvement to organic matter measurement to keep lab testing costs low while getting a better, more quantitative

  5. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying

  6. Evaluation of agricultural ecological environment in determining the capable areas: A case study of city of Esfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Kiani Salmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of different activities in production, agriculture as well as distribution and consumption section, called as expansionist activities, largely influence the ability of the land. Production of consumable material, which is required for increasing population in various areas, and their attractions make it possible to earn more profit and it causes a significant pressure on soil and water resources and can threaten environmental pollution and human food security. A self-interested attitude on land resources has led to run short-term programs without considering the ecological capability of the land. These mentioned problems are, significantly intensified particularly in arid and semi-arid areas with severe limitations of water and soil quality and quantity. Therefore, land allocation based on ecological capability and self-purification indexes, used for land use planning, is an appropriate response to meet the deficiencies noted. This paper studies the agricultural capable lands based on land capability. The proposed study uses GIS software capabilities with application of the environmental ability evaluation model, as a holistic approach, to make sustainable development research in the region. The results indicate that suitable lands for agriculture in the whole area in different classes are widespread and with regards to dependency of more than 90 percent of people to agricultural activities, serious attention of authorities is required for providing the appropriate baseline and avoiding land use change to develop this activity.

  7. Hydrological Responses of Weather Conditions and Crop Change of Agricultural Area in the Rincon Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S.; Sheng, Z.; Abudu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic cycle of agricultural area has been changing due to the impacts of climate and land use changes (crop coverage changes) in an arid region of Rincon Valley, New Mexico. This study is to evaluate the impacts of weather condition and crop coverage change on hydrologic behavior of agricultural area in Rincon Valley (2,466km2) for agricultural watershed management using a watershed-scale hydrologic model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). The SWAT model was developed to incorporate irrigation of different crops using auto irrigation function. For the weather condition and crop coverage change evaluation, three spatial crop coverages including a normal (2008), wet (2009), and dry (2011) years were prepared using USDA crop data layer (CDL) for fourteen different crops. The SWAT model was calibrated for the period of 2001-2003 and validated for the period of 2004-2006 using daily-observed streamflow data. Scenario analysis was performed for wet and dry years based on the unique combinations of crop coverages and releases from Caballo Reservoir. The SWAT model simulated the present vertical water budget and horizontal water transfer considering irrigation practices in the Rincon Valley. Simulation results indicated the temporal and spatial variability for irrigation and non-irrigation seasons of hydrologic cycle in agricultural area in terms of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, infiltration, percolation, baseflow, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge. The water supply of the dry year could not fully cover whole irrigation period due to dry weather conditions, resulting in reduction of crop acreage. For extreme weather conditions, the temporal variation of water budget became robust, which requires careful irrigation management of the agricultural area. The results could provide guidelines for farmers to decide crop patterns in response to different weather conditions and water availability.

  8. A Delphi Approach to the Preparation of Early-Career Agricultural Educators in the Curriculum Area of Agricultural Mechanics: Fully Qualified and Highly Motivated or Status Quo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, P. Ryan; McKim, Billy R.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Research Agenda for Agricultural Education and Communication, preservice agriculture teacher education programs should "prepare and provide an abundance of fully qualified and highly motivated agricultural educators at all levels" (Osborne, 2007, 8). The lack of preparation of entry career agricultural educators…

  9. Managing the drinking water catchment areas: the French agricultural cooperatives feed back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Séverine; Aumond, Claire

    2016-06-01

    The quality of raw water is problematic in France, largely polluted by nitrates and pesticides (Mueller and Helsel, Nutrients in the nation's waters-too much of a good thing? Geological Survey (U.S.), 1996; European Environment Agency, European waters-assessment of status and pressures, 2012).This type of pollution, even though not always due to agriculture (example of the catchment of Ambleville, county 95, France where the nitrate pollution is mainly due to sewers (2012)), has been largely related to the agricultural practices (Sci Total Environ 407:6034-6043, 2009).Taking note of this observation, and instead of letting it paralyze their actions, the agricultural cooperatives decided with Agrosolutions to act directly on the field with their subscribers to change the agricultural practices impacting the water and the environment.This article shows how the French agricultural cooperatives transformed the awareness of the raw water quality problem into an opportunity for the development and implementation of more precise and responsible practices, to protect their environment. They measure in order to pilot, co-construct and build the best action plans possible according to the three pillars of environment, economy and agronomy.

  10. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  11. Nitrogen fertilisation of durum wheat: a case study in Mediterranean area during transition to conservation agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Galieni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N nutrition plays a key role for high yields and quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf. Husn; in Mediterranean environments, data regarding N fertilisation management during the transition phase to conservation agriculture (CA are limited. The aim of this work was to study the effects of N fertiliser forms and rates on yield and some quality traits of durum wheat, during the transition period to CA in Mediterranean areas; moreover, indication on the recommendable N form/rate combinations have been given. Field trials were carried out in south of Italy, during the first two years of transition to CA (from 2010 to 2012 in a durum wheat-based rotation. Following a split-plot design arranged on a randomised complete blocks with three replications, two N forms (main plots - urea and calcium nitrate - and four N rates (sub-plots - 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha–1 - plus an un-fertilised Control, were compared. The following parameters were analysed: grain yield, N-input efficiency, grains protein concentration (GPC, total gluten, gluten fractions and minerals concentration in kernels. Calcium nitrate gave the highest yield (4.48 t ha–1, as predicted by the quadratic model, at 146 kg N ha–1, on average. This was particularly noticeable in 2012, when the distribution of rainfall and temperatures regimes as well as residues’ status could have favoured such N-form. These results were confirmed by the observed higher values of all indices describing N-input efficiency. High GPC values (14.8% were predicted at slightly higher N-rates (173 kg N ha–1, averaging both N forms. In particular, gluten proteins and glutenin/gliadin ratio accrued as the N doses increased, reaching the highest values at 150 kg N ha–1, also positively affecting the quality of durum wheat flour. Iron and zinc concentrations were noticeably increased (38% and 37% on average by N supply, probably due to the enhanced water use efficiency under

  12. Kinds and meaning of preferential credits for development of agriculture and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mickiewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the paper was of preferential credits granted in two periods, that means after Poland’s accession to the European Union (2004-2006 and in the period after introduction of new legal regulations (2007-2010. The institution responsible for realisation of preferential credits was Agency of Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture which delegated its rights to banks. The credit policy in first period of our functioning in the European Union relied on gradual ending old legal regulations, not compliant with EU standards and undertaking activities in adaptation of Polish agriculture to standards obeyed in EU-15 Member States. Directions of preferential credits granting were changed in 2007. There were introduced 7 credit lines which aim was improvement of production efficiency, better use of production base in agricultural farms and acceleration of agrarian changes. The biggest beneficiaries of structural pensions were young farmers and farmers who wanted to increase the size of their farms.

  13. Values of soil-plant transfer factor of 226Ra and 228Ra: agricultural areas versus areas of high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Maria Angelica; Lauria, Dejanira; Perez, Daniel Vidal; Schuch, Luiz Alexandre; Zago, Ari

    2000-01-01

    In this work, soil to plant transfer factor of 226 Ra and 228 Ra obtained in areas of traditional agricultural practices varied as a function of the considered cultivated species but little variation was observed as a function of the soil type. Beans and soybeans presented more important absorption than cereals (corn, rice and wheat). In our work legumes (bean and soybean) presented transfer factors up to one order of magnitude higher than average values for regions where natural radioactivity is high. On the other hand, the results for cereals did not presented such clear differences. It can be concluded that cultural inputs of 226 Ra and 228 Ra are occurring in agricultural areas, but few species can concentrate it. The transfer factor values obtained in this work for 226 Ra and 228 Ra can be applied in risk assessment models. (author)

  14. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to

  15. Agriculture Extension Service Delivery in a Semi-Arid Rural Area in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 4 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. A Review of Effectiveness of Vegetative Buffers on Sediment Trapping in Agricultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been growing recognition of the importance of riparian buffers between agricultural fields and waterbodies. Riparian buffers play an important role in mitigating the impacts of land use activities on water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, eval...

  17. Study on High energy efficiency photovoltaic facility agricultural system in tropical area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhiwu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic facility agriculture is developing rapidly in recent years, but there are many problems brought out, even in some important demonstration projects, due to the lack of standards. In order to solve some of these problems, we set up a photovoltaic facilities agricultural system in Guilinyang University City, Haikou, China and make an in-depth study on the photovoltaic facility agricultural system and its related problems. In this paper we disclose some of the experimental results. We plant corianders under two kinds of solar cell panels and general double glass assembly already sold on the market. Experiments showed that the square format cell panels are much better than row type, and the next one is general double glass assembly sold on the market, the last is the case without any shelter. 30 days after planting, the height of coriander plants are 50mm, 30mm, 23mm and 20mm correspondingly. The two typical solar cell panels have gaps between cells, and can save much more energy and improve power generation efficiency, we arrange the panels at optimum tilted angle, and design the system as open structure to save more energy. The photovoltaic facilities agricultural system we set up in Guilinyang University City can achieve much high solar energy efficiency than others and has broad application prospects.

  18. Wet nitrogen deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ouping; Zhang, Shirong; Deng, Liangji; Zhang, Chunlong; Fei, Jianbo

    2018-03-01

    Understanding of the spatial and temporal variation of the flux of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for assessment of its impact on ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the variability of N deposition across urban-intensive agricultural-rural transects. A continuous 2-year observational study (from January 2015 to December 2016) was conducted to determine wet N deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China. Significantly spatial and temporal variations were found in the research area. Along the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect, the TN and NH 4 + -N deposition first increased and then decreased, and the NO 3 - -N and dissolved organic N (DON) deposition decreased continuously. Wet N deposition was mainly affected by the districts of agro-facilities, roads and build up lands. Wet NH 4 + -N deposition had non-seasonal emission sources including industrial emissions and urban excretory wastes in urban districts and seasonal emission sources such as fertilizer and manure volatilization in the other districts. However, wet NO 3 - -N deposition had seasonal emission sources such as industrial emissions and fireworks in urban district and non-seasonal emission sources such as transportation in the other districts. Deposition of DON was likely to have had similar sources to NO 3 - -N deposition in rural district, and high-temperature-dependent sources in urban and intensive agricultural districts. Considering the annual wet TN deposition in the intensive agricultural district was about 11.1% of the annual N fertilizer input, N fertilizer rates of crops should be reduced in this region to avoid the excessive application, and the risk of N emissions to the environment.

  19. Aspects of Agricultural Landscape as a Cultural Asset in Metropolitan Areas: Case Study for Bucharest City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Typical for the last decades economical and social processes at metropolitan level induce new models of spatial organization characterized by extensive urban development. These extensive processes configure various components of the cultural landscape in different ways. Such development modifies the rural, agricultural and industrial landscapes and generates new landscape typologies modeled by interaction between urban and rural space. Diverse approaches of urban development have modified the territorial structure and also the way in which the territory visually and dynamically responds to external factors by transforming the main cultural features. In such a context, preservation of common agricultural landscape as a part of cultural landscape is becoming an important issue for the local development policies

  20. Great Recession and paradigm shift – towards sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Szydło

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Great Recession is another proof that the current paradigm of economic growth should be changed. It ought to be applied to all sectors, including agriculture. The farming sector was strongly affected by substantial price increases of some products. It was especially painful for poorer consumers in developing and Third World countries, while its benefits were channelled mainly to big farmers and speculators in developed economies. Common Agricultural Policy could not avert this turbulence. The implementa-tion of the concept of sustainable development is a possible solution of this problem as its approach is more holistic and humanistic. However, the implementation of adequate reforms is very slow. It is a sign that leading US and EU policymakers attempt to stay within the limits of current model of growth.However, the second wave of price hikes may prove to be more lasting, which would further deepen income inequality.

  1. National Governance Approach for Agriculture Land in Natura 2000 Areas. Evidence from Plovdiv District, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Yanka KAZAKOVA-MATEVA

    2018-01-01

    The designation and implementation of Natura 2000 sites faced many challenges across most of the member states in the EC. Some related to consultation and involvement of stakeholders, funding the conservation objectives and providing compensation to land owners, farmers and foresters for restrictions on their land use. The national governments adopted different approaches to address these issues. The aim of the paper is to assess the governance approach for agricultural land in Natura 2000 in...

  2. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. [Characteristics of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Soils and Products in Areas of Zhongshan City, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wu, Shan; Liang, Jin-ming; Liang, Wen-li; Chen, Gui-xian; Li, Yong-jun; Yang, Guo-yi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate and assess the pollution level of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in farm soils and products from typical agricultural fields in areas of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, South China, 65 topsoil and 37 agricultural product samples were collected and contents of 6 PAEs compounds that classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants were determined by the GC-FID. The results indicated that total contents of the PAEs (∑ PAEs) in soils ranged from 0. 14 to 1. 14 mg x kg(-1), and the mean value was 0.43 mg x kg(-1), with the detected ratio of 100%. Various concentrations of PAEs differed in three land-use types were ordered by vegetable soil > orchard soil > paddy soil. Comparing with six U.S. EPA priority pollutants of PAEs, the contents of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) in soils exceeded the control limits of PAEs in the American soil by 93.85% and 27.69% respectively, but the rest four PAEs compounds were lower than the control limits. Generally, the pollution level of soils contaminated by PAEs in agricultural fields of Zhongshan City was relatively low. The contents of 3 PAEs in agricultural products ranged from 0.15 to 3.15 mg x kg(-1) with the average of 1.12 mg x kg(-1), which was lower than the suggested standards in USA and Europe and with low health risk. Meanwhile, ∑ PAEs concentrations in vegetables were higher than those both in rice and fruits. DBP and DEHP were the main components of PAEs both in agricultural soils and products, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. ∑ PAEs and DBP contents in various agricultural products-soils had a significantly positive correlation, with Pearson coefficients (r) in vegetables-vegetable soils were 0.81 (P = 0.000), 0.75 (P = 0.000), and corresponding r among rice-paddy soil and fruits-fruit soils were 0.74 (P = 0.036), 0.65 (P = 0.041) and 0.66 (P = 0.029), 0.78 (P = 0.045), respectively. Although there existed a

  4. Monitoring the Impact of Climate Change on Soil Salinity in Agricultural Areas Using Ground and Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, D. L.; Scudiero, E.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in climatic patterns have had dramatic influence on agricultural areas worldwide, particularly in irrigated arid-zone agricultural areas subjected to recurring drought, such as California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), or areas receiving above average rainfall for a decade or more, such as Minnesota's Red River Valley (RRV). Climate change has impacted water availability with an under or over abundance, which subsequently has impacted soil salinity levels in the root zone primarily from the upward movement of salts from shallow water tables. Inventorying and monitoring the impact of climate change on soil salinity is crucial to evaluate the extent of the problem, to recognize trends, and to formulate state-wide and field-scale irrigation, drainage, and crop management strategies that will sustain the agricultural productivity of the SJV and RRV. Over the past 3 decades, Corwin and colleagues at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory have developed proximal sensor (i.e., electrical resistivity and electromagnetic induction) and remote imagery (i.e., MODIS and Landsat 7) methodologies for assessing soil salinity at multiple scales: field (0.5 ha to 3 km2), landscape (3 to 10 km2), and regional (10 to 105 km2) scales. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of these scale-dependent salinity assessment technologies. Case studies for SJV and RRV are presented to demonstrate at multiple scales the utility of these approaches in assessing soil salinity changes due to management-induced changes and to changes in climate patterns, and in providing site-specific irrigation management information for salinity control. Decision makers in state and federal agencies, irrigation and drainage district managers, soil and water resource managers, producers, agriculture consultants, extension specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of this information.

  5. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice...

  6. Ground-water quality in agricultural areas, Anoka Sand Plain Aquifer, east-central Minnesota, 1984-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the Anoka Sand Plain aquifer was studied as part of the multiscale Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) study by collecting water samples from shallow wells during August through November 1990. The sampling was conducted to: (1) aid in selection of the MSEA research area; (2) facilitate comparison of results at the MSEA research area to the regional scale; and (3) evaluate changes in ground-water quality in the Anoka Sand Plain aquifer since a previous study during 1984 through 1987. Samples were collected from 34 wells screened in the upper 6 meters of the surficial aquifer and located in cultivated agricultural areas. Water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and presence or absence of triazine herbicides were determined at all sites and samples from selected wells were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, major cations and anions, nutrients, and selected herbicides and herbicide metabolites. The results of the study indicate that the water-quality of some shallow ground water in areas of predominantly agricultural land use has been affected by applications of nitrogen fertilizers and the herbicide atrazine.

  7. Osteomyelitis beneath pressure sores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, B.; Hawes, S.; Musher, D.M.; Klima, M.; Young, E.J.; Pircher, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight pressure sores were evaluated prospectively. Osteomyelitis was reported histologically in nine of 28 bones and pressure-related changes were reported in 14 bones. Roentgenograms suggested the presence of osteomyelitis in four instances of histologically proved osteomyelitis. Technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans were highly sensitive, showing increased uptake in all cases of osteomyelitis; however, increased uptake also occurred commonly in uninfected bones due to pressure-related changes or other noninfectious causes. Cultures of bone biopsy samples usually disclosed anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacilli, or both. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis must be considered if a pressure sore does not respond to local therapy. If the technetium Tc 99m medronate uptake is increased in the involved area, or roentgenographic findings are abnormal, the diagnosis can only be made with certainty by histologic examination of bone. Antibacterial treatment should be selected based on the results of bone culture

  8. The Measurement of Relevance Amount of Documents That By Using of Google cross-language retrieval About Agriculture Subject Area are Retrieved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved. For this purpose, by using Persian journals articles that have had English abstracts, Persian phrases and subject terms with their English equivalent were extracted. In three class us, thirty number of phrases and subject terms of agriculture area were extracted: First class, subject phrases that only in agriculture are used; Secondary, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too; Third class, agriculture subject terms that out of this field are considered as public term. Then by these phrases and terms, documents were searched, and relevance amount of search results are investigated. Results of study showed that google cross-language retrieval tools for two classes of phrases and terms, in cross-language retrieval of relevance document about agriculture subject area, aren`t succeed: one class, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too. other class, agriculture subject terms that out of agriculture field are considered as public term. Google cross-language retrieval tools about subject phrase and terms that only in agriculture field are used, are performance rather desirable than other two class of phrase and terms

  9. Do Riparian Buffers Protect Stream Invertebrate Communities in South American Atlantic Forest Agricultural Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L.; Marrochi, N.; Bonetto, C.; Liess, M.; Buss, D. F.; Vieira da Silva, C.; Chiu, M.-C.; Resh, V. H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence and relative importance of insecticides and other agricultural stressors in determining variability in invertebrate communities in small streams in intensive soy-production regions of Brazil and Paraguay. In Paraguay we sampled 17 sites on tributaries of the Pirapó River in the state of Itapúa and in Brazil we sampled 18 sites on tributaries of the San Francisco River in the state of Paraná. The riparian buffer zones generally contained native Atlantic forest remnants and/or introduced tree species at various stages of growth. In Brazil the stream buffer width was negatively correlated with sediment insecticide concentrations and buffer width was found to have moderate importance in mitigating effects on some sensitive taxa such as mayflies. However, in both regions insecticides had low relative importance in explaining variability in invertebrate communities, while various habitat parameters were more important. In Brazil, the percent coverage of soft depositional sediment in streams was the most important agriculture-related explanatory variable, and the overall stream-habitat score was the most important variable in Paraguay streams. Paraguay and Brazil both have laws requiring forested riparian buffers. The ample forested riparian buffer zones typical of streams in these regions are likely to have mitigated the effects of pesticides on stream invertebrate communities. This study provides evidence that riparian buffer regulations in the Atlantic Forest region are protecting stream ecosystems from pesticides and other agricultural stressors. Further studies are needed to determine the minimum buffer widths necessary to achieve optimal protection.

  10. Management of agricultural area in preindustrial economies. The case of olive orchards in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Infante Amate

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades it has been developed a specialized literature on the study of particular features of preindustrial agricultures. This paper, in base to such research line, analyzes the case of olive orchards in southern Spain, which today represent the largest tree concentration in Europe, right in the previous moment to its great expansion (mid 18th Century. We seek to understand the geography of its spreading, its low expansion before industrialization and the why only few territories on Andalusia appeared like premature focus of specialization.

  11. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an agricultural settlement, endemic area for leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Brilhante

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis has several species of Leishmania as agents, and a wide variety of wild and domestic animals as hosts and different species of phlebotomines as vectors. A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a dog coming from an agricultural settlement is described. This is the first report of parasitism in a dog by Le. (Viannia braziliensis in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Attention is called to the importance of including this protozoonosis in the differential diagnosis of dermopathies in dogs as also the need to assess the importance of the domestic dog as a possible reservoir of Le. braziliensis.

  12. A Feasibility Study on Hydrate-Based Technology for Transporting CO2 from Industrial to Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Matsuo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change caused by global warming has become a serious issue in recent years. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the above system to quantitatively supply CO2 or CO2 hydrate from industrial to agricultural areas. In this analysis, several transportation methods, namely, truck, hydrate tank lorry, and pipeline, were considered. According to this analysis, the total CO2 supply costs including transportation ranged from 15 to 25 yen/kg-CO2 when the transportation distance was 50 km or less. The cost of the hydrate-based method increased with the transport distance in contrast to the liquefied CO2 approach. However, the technology of supplying CO2 hydrate had merit by using a local cooling technique for cooling specific parts of agricultural products.

  13. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation's irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western's wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western's power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage

  14. Regression models for estimating concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine in shallow groundwater in agricultural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Stone, Wesley W.; Wolock, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Tobit regression models were developed to predict the summed concentration of atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] and its degradate deethylatrazine [6-chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5,-triazine-2,4-diamine] (DEA) in shallow groundwater underlying agricultural settings across the conterminous United States. The models were developed from atrazine and DEA concentrations in samples from 1298 wells and explanatory variables that represent the source of atrazine and various aspects of the transport and fate of atrazine and DEA in the subsurface. One advantage of these newly developed models over previous national regression models is that they predict concentrations (rather than detection frequency), which can be compared with water quality benchmarks. Model results indicate that variability in the concentration of atrazine residues (atrazine plus DEA) in groundwater underlying agricultural areas is more strongly controlled by the history of atrazine use in relation to the timing of recharge (groundwater age) than by processes that control the dispersion, adsorption, or degradation of these compounds in the saturated zone. Current (1990s) atrazine use was found to be a weak explanatory variable, perhaps because it does not represent the use of atrazine at the time of recharge of the sampled groundwater and because the likelihood that these compounds will reach the water table is affected by other factors operating within the unsaturated zone, such as soil characteristics, artificial drainage, and water movement. Results show that only about 5% of agricultural areas have greater than a 10% probability of exceeding the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 3.0 μg L-1. These models are not developed for regulatory purposes but rather can be used to (i) identify areas of potential concern, (ii) provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of atrazine residues in deeper potential drinking water supplies, and (iii) set priorities

  15. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  16. Soil respiration and carbon loss relationship with temperature and land use conversion in freeze-thaw agricultural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Lai, Xuehui; Li, Xia; Liu, Heying; Lin, Chunye; Hao, Fanghua

    2015-11-15

    Soil respiration (Rs) was hypothesized to have a special response pattern to soil temperature and land use conversion in the freeze-thaw area. The Rs differences of eight types of land use conversions during agricultural development were observed and the impacts of Rs on soil organic carbon (SOC) loss were assessed. The land use conversions during last three decades were categorized into eight types, and the 141 SOC sampling sites were grouped by conversion type. The typical soil sampling sites were subsequently selected for monitoring of soil temperature and Rs of each land use conversion types. The Rs correlations with temperature at difference depths and different conversion types were identified with statistical analysis. The empirical mean error model and the biophysical theoretical model with Arrhenius equation about the Rs sensitivity to temperature were both analyzed and shared the similar patterns. The temperature dependence of soil respiration (Q10) analysis further demonstrated that the averaged value of eight types of land use in this freeze-thaw agricultural area ranged from 1.15 to 1.73, which was lower than the other cold areas. The temperature dependence analysis demonstrated that the Rs in the top layer of natural land covers was more sensitive to temperature and experienced a large vertical difference. The natural land covers exhibited smaller Rs and the farmlands had the bigger value due to tillage practices. The positive relationships between SOC loss and Rs were identified, which demonstrated that Rs was the key chain for SOC loss during land use conversion. The spatial-vertical distributions of SOC concentration with the 1.5-km grid sampling showed that the more SOC loss in the farmland, which was coincided with the higher Rs in farmlands. The analysis of Rs dynamics provided an innovative explanation for SOC loss in the freeze-thaw agricultural area. The analysis of Rs dynamics provided an innovative explanation for SOC loss in the freeze

  17. Urban planning and agriculture. Methodology for assessing rooftop greenhouse potential of non-residential areas using airborne sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Ana; Alamús, Ramón; Pipia, Luca; Ruiz, Antonio; Corbera, Jordi; Cuerva, Eva; Rieradevall, Joan; Josa, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    The integration of rooftop greenhouses (RTGs) in urban buildings is a practice that is becoming increasingly important in the world for their contribution to food security and sustainable development. However, the supply of tools and procedures to facilitate their implementation at the city scale is limited and laborious. This work aims to develop a specific and automated methodology for identifying the feasibility of implementation of rooftop greenhouses in non-residential urban areas, using airborne sensors. The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) data and the Leica ALS50-II and TASI-600 sensors allow for the identification of some building roof parameters (area, slope, materials, and solar radiation) to determine the potential for constructing a RTG. This development represents an improvement in time and accuracy with respect to previous methodology, where all the relevant information must be acquired manually. The methodology has been applied and validated in a case study corresponding to a non-residential urban area in the industrial municipality of Rubí, Barcelona (Spain). Based on this practical application, an area of 36,312m 2 out of a total area of 1,243,540m 2 of roofs with ideal characteristics for the construction of RTGs was identified. This area can produce approximately 600tons of tomatoes per year, which represents the average yearly consumption for about 50% of Rubí total population. The use of this methodology also facilitates the decision making process in urban agriculture, allowing a quick identification of optimal surfaces for the future implementation of urban agriculture in housing. It also opens new avenues for the use of airborne technology in environmental topics in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of PAEs contaminants in water sources for agriculture, industrial and residential areas from local city district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qidan; Chen, Qixian; Wu, Fei; Liao, Jia; Zhao, Xi

    2018-02-01

    The technology of DEHP and DBP detection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed and applied in analysis of local water sources from agriculture, industrial and residential areas. Under the optimized sample pretreatment and detection conditions, DEHP and DBP were well separated and detected in 4 mins. The detection limit of DBP was 0.002 mg/L and DEHP was 0.006 mg/L, and it meets the Chinese National Standard limitations for drinking water quality. The linear correlation coefficient of DBP and DEHP standard calibration curves was 0.9998 and 0.9995. The linear range of DBP was 0.020 mg/L ∼20.0 mg/L, with the standard deviation of 0.560% ∼5.07%, and the linear range of DEHP was 0.060 mg/L ∼15.0 mg/L, with the standard deviation of 0.546% ∼5.74%. Ten water samples from Jinwan district of Zhuhai in Guangdong province of China were analyzed. However, the PAEs amounts found in the water sources from industrial areas were higher than the agriculture and residential areas, industries grow incredibly fast in the district in recently years and more attention should be paid to the increasing risks of water sources pollution.

  19. Shallow groundwater quality and associated non-cancer health risk in agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Sun, Zhanxue; Maier, Sofya; Drebot, Valeriia; Gao, Bai

    2018-03-24

    Owing to their accessibility, shallow groundwater is an essential source of drinking water in rural areas while usually being used without control by authorities. At the same time, this type of water resource is one of the most vulnerable to pollution, especially in regions with extensive agricultural activity. These factors increase the probability of adverse health effects in the population as a result of the consumption of shallow groundwater. In the present research, shallow groundwater quality in the agricultural areas of Poyang Lake basin was assessed according to world and national standards for drinking water quality. To evaluate non-cancer health risk from drinking groundwater, the hazard quotient from exposure to individual chemicals and hazard index from exposure to multiple chemicals were applied. It was found that, in shallow groundwater, the concentrations of 11 components (NO 3 - , NH 4 + , Fe, Mn, As, Al, rare NO 2 - , Se, Hg, Tl and Pb) exceed the limits referenced in the standards for drinking water. According to the health risk assessment, only five components (NO 3 - , Fe, As, rare NO 2 - and Mn) likely provoke non-cancer effects. The attempt to evaluate the spatial distribution of human health risk from exposure to multiple chemicals shows that the most vulnerable area is associated with territory characterised by low altitude where reducing or near-neutral conditions are formed (lower reaches of Xiushui and Ganjiang Rivers). The largest health risk is associated with the immune system and adverse dermal effects.

  20. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  1. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  2. Hierarchical eco-restoration: A systematical approach to removal of COD and dissolved nutrients from an intensive agricultural area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yonghong, E-mail: yhwu@issas.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 Beijing East Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate Schools, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu Zhengyi [Graduate Schools, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang Linzhang, E-mail: lzyang@issas.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 Beijing East Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2010-10-15

    A systematical approach based on hierarchical eco-restoration system for the simultaneous removal of COD and dissolved nutrients was proposed and applied in a complex residential-cropland area in Kunming, China from August 2006 to August 2008, where the self-purifying capacity of the agricultural ecosystem had been lost. The system includes four main parts: (1) fertilizer management and agricultural structure optimization, (2) nutrients reuse, (3) wastewater treatment, and (4) catchment restoration. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies were 90% for COD, 93% for ammonia, 94% for nitrate and 71% for total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) when the hierarchical eco-restoration agricultural system was in a relatively steady-state condition. The emergence of 14 species of macrophytes and 4 species of zoobenthos indicated that the growth conditions for the plankton were improved. The results demonstrated that this promising and environmentally benign hierarchical eco-restoration system could decrease the output of nutrients and reduce downstream eutrophication risk. - A systematical approach based on hierarchical eco-restoration system has proven highly effective for simultaneously removing COD and dissolved nutrients, decreasing the output of nutrients, and reducing the eutrophic risk of downstream surface waters.

  3. Hierarchical eco-restoration: A systematical approach to removal of COD and dissolved nutrients from an intensive agricultural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yonghong; Hu Zhengyi; Yang Linzhang

    2010-01-01

    A systematical approach based on hierarchical eco-restoration system for the simultaneous removal of COD and dissolved nutrients was proposed and applied in a complex residential-cropland area in Kunming, China from August 2006 to August 2008, where the self-purifying capacity of the agricultural ecosystem had been lost. The system includes four main parts: (1) fertilizer management and agricultural structure optimization, (2) nutrients reuse, (3) wastewater treatment, and (4) catchment restoration. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies were 90% for COD, 93% for ammonia, 94% for nitrate and 71% for total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) when the hierarchical eco-restoration agricultural system was in a relatively steady-state condition. The emergence of 14 species of macrophytes and 4 species of zoobenthos indicated that the growth conditions for the plankton were improved. The results demonstrated that this promising and environmentally benign hierarchical eco-restoration system could decrease the output of nutrients and reduce downstream eutrophication risk. - A systematical approach based on hierarchical eco-restoration system has proven highly effective for simultaneously removing COD and dissolved nutrients, decreasing the output of nutrients, and reducing the eutrophic risk of downstream surface waters.

  4. COSMO-SkyMed sensor constellation and GPS data to study the source responsible of ground deformation beneath the urban area of Naples (Southern Italy) in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi

    2016-04-01

    that the most likely value for the viscosity is between 103-104 Pa•s and that to justify the observed deformation pattern it is required that the reservoir should have contained at least 1010 kg of liquid magma before 2012. The injection rate has two main peaks on September and December 2012, and a smaller one on March 2013. The first two peaks have a value of about 400 kg/s and duration of 3-4 months. The total amount of injected magma is of about 8.2•1010 kg. The magma viscosity value is compatible with that of the most common magmas erupted in the past 40 ky: phonolites. The first injection peak is associated with a seismic swarm, located beneath the town of Pozzuoli. The swarm consisted in about 200 earthquakes (maximum magnitude 1.8) occurring within an interval of about 1.5 hours. The hypocenters were located outside the area usually affected by microearthquakes in the previous years. Our finite element structural mechanical modeling shows that the inferred source caused a marked increase in the maximum shear stress along the rim of the sill. In fact, hypocenters were located very close to the northern edge of the growing magmatic reservoir. Our findings suggest a key to interpret the caldera unrest that, started about 60 years ago, has led to a maximum uplift in the area of more than 3 m. Consequently, the observed uplift phenomenon could be interpreted in terms of injection of limited magma batches feeding the growth of a shallow magmatic reservoir. Similar mechanisms have been inferred for other calderas, where the repeated emplacement of magmatic sills has been recognized having an important role in the evolution of the volcano. Accordingly, the observation of short evolution of volcanic precursory phenomena as well as the development of innovative real-time analysis techniques should be taken into account for an effective surveillance of the Campi Flegrei caldera. This work has been supported by MED-SUV project (European Union's Seventh Programme for

  5. Interactions of water with energy and materials in urban areas and agriculture. IWRM. Integrated water resources management. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steusloff, Hartwig (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The current rationale, range and significance of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) are subject to increasing dimensionality, such as systemic conflicts between water users, increasing regulatory influences, and the growing energy requirements for providing the appropriate water resources. The competition between urban and agricultural consumers for water is dealt with as are regulatory, technological and socio-economic aspects of IWRM. The conference proceedings of IWRM Karlsruhe 2012 impart knowledge and relate practical experience in three key areas of IWRM: 1. Challenges for Future Cities and Efficient Agricultural Production Satisfying the growing demand for fresh water for a growing population as well as for agriculture bears the risk of aggravating the conflict between economic and ecological needs. Providing a reliable and secure supply of water for our future cities requires appropriate technical infrastructure systems coupled with environmentally optimized management. In this context it is essential to have greater awareness of the relationship of water and energy and of the overall water usage including the re-use of water 2. Competing Water Uses Water must be shared between domestic/municipal, industrial, agricultural, and hydropower users as well as between regions. This competition is intensified by the vulnerability of supply and sanitation systems to increasing climate extremes and to terrorism. 3. Regulatory and Policy Framework Using water is associated with a great number of externalities. For this reason a proper legislative and regulatory framework is prerequisite for proper management of the water supply, sewerage and storm-water services as well as water usage, all of which are essential for public health, economic development and environmental protection.

  6. Study of plutonium and americium contamination in agricultural area, radiological impact caused by consumption of vegetables of this area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, Assuncion; Aragon, Antonio; Cruz, Berta de la; Gutierrez, Jose

    2001-01-01

    The transuranide concentration has been studied for 30 years in vegetable production, crops in wide extensions and in private-owned farms, all of them situated within the Pu-contaminated area of Palomares due to an air accident in 1966. Based on these studies, a preliminary estimation of the radiological risk caused by the consumption of these products by the inhabitants was possible. The results show that most of the fruits present a surface contamination, which disappears or is significantly reduced when they are washed. The contamination present in edible parts of the vegetables, as well as the contamination of other products included in the diet, has facilitated the estimation of the effective dose for ingestion and the committed effective dose for 50 years for the inhabitants. The main conclusions are: those plants, whose cultivation period is less than a year, present a low level of contamination; the green parts of the plants have a higher contamination than the fruits; the Pu soil to plant transfer factor is very low. In general, those plants that have remained in the contaminated land for several years present a high contamination level; the ingestion of products from Palomares does not represent an important risk for the population, even in the case that the products were totally consumed by a critical group.( author)

  7. Assessment of the soil water content temporal variations in an agricultural area of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Paz-González, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The direct and continuous assessment of the temporal variation on soil water content is of paramount importance for agricultural practices and, in particular, for the management of water resources. Soil water content is affected by many factors such as topography, particle size, clay and organic matter contents, and tillage systems. There are several techniques to measure or estimate soil water content. Among them, Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) stands out. It is based on measuring the dielectrical constant of the soil environment. This technique allows to describe water dynamics in time and space, to determine the main patterns of soil moisture, the water uptake by roots, the evapotranspiration and the drainage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the daily variation of soil water content in the root-influenced zone in plots devoted to maize and grassland as a function of the soil water volumetric content. The studied site is located in an experimental field of the Centre for Agricultural Research (CIAM) in Mabegondo located in the province of A Coruña, Spain (43°14'N, 8°15'W; 91 masl). The study was carried out from June 2008 to September 2009 in a field devoted to maize (Zea mays, L.) and another field devoted to grassland. The soil of these sites is silt-clay textured. Long-term mean annual temperature and rainfall figures are 13.3 °C and 1288 mm, respectively. During the study period, maize crop was subjected to conventional agricultural practices. A weekly evaluation of the phenological stage of the crop was performed. An EnviroSCAN FDR equipment, comprising six capacitance sensors, was installed in the studied sites following the manufacturer's recommendations, thus assuring a proper contact between the probe and the soil. Soil water content in the root-influenced zone (40 cm depth in grassland and 60 cm depth in maize were considered) was hourly monitored in 20 cm ranges (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm) using FDR. Evaluations were

  8. Hydrogeology and potential effects of changes in water use, Carson Desert agricultural area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Johnson, Ann K.; Welch, Alan H.

    1996-01-01

    Operating Criteria and Procedures for Newlands Project irrigation and Public Law 101-618 could result in reductions in surface water used for agriculture in the Carson Desert, potentially affecting ground-water supplies from shallow, intermediate, and basalt aquifers. A near-surface zone could exist at the top of the shallow aquifer near the center and eastern parts of the basin where underlying clay beds inhibit vertical flow and could limit the effects of changes in water use. In the basalt aquifer, water levels have declined about 10 feet from pre-pumping levels, and chloride and arsenic concentrations have increased. Conceptual models of the basin suggest that changes in water use in the western part of the basin would probably affect recharge to the shallow, intermediate, and basalt aquifers. Lining canals and removing land from production could cause water-level declines greater than 10 feet in the shallow aquifer up to 2 miles from lined canals. Removing land from production could cause water levels to decline from 4 to 17 feet, depending on the distribution of specific yield in the basin and the amount of water presently applied to irrigated fields. Where wells pump from a near-surface zone of the shallow aquifer, water level declines might not greatly affect pumping wells where the thickness of the zone is greatest, but could cause wells to go dry where the zone is thin.

  9. Increased atmospheric ammonia over the world's major agricultural areas detected from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Wei, Z.; Strow, L. L.; Wang, Y.; Liang, Q.

    2017-03-01

    This study provides evidence of substantial increases in atmospheric ammonia (NH3) concentrations (14 year) over several of the worlds major agricultural regions, using recently available retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The main sources of atmospheric NH3 are farming and animal husbandry involving reactive nitrogen ultimately derived from fertilizer use; rates of emission are also sensitive to climate change. Significant increasing trends are seen over the U.S. (2.61% yr-1), the European Union (EU) (1.83% yr-1), and China (2.27% yr-1). Over the EU, the trend results from decreased scavenging by acid aerosols. Over the U.S., the increase results from a combination of decreased chemical loss and increased soil temperatures. Over China, decreased chemical loss, increasing temperatures, and increased fertilizer use all play a role. Over South Asia, increased NH3 emissions are masked by increased SO2 and NOx emissions, leading to increased aerosol loading and adverse health effects.

  10. THE CHARACTERIZATION AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL IN THE VEGETABLE AND THE ANIMAL AREA IN FOUR COUNTIES FROM TRANSILVANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. JURCO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study I present some comparative element concerning agricultural potentialin some counties from Transilvania (Alba, Bistrita Nasaud, Cluj and Mures. Thiselements makes repport to the total agricol surface and the categoryes of agricolground (APF on groups of fertilisation, bread structure, the totale and queenefective of cattle (buffalo and cattle milk. Total surface which was in research isby 2444505 ha from which 1464890 ha are agricol surfaces which represent59.73% from the total surface. Analysed in what looks the categories lot of APF,arable, pastures and hay fields, the surface is placed somewhere to 1366612 hafrom which 600059 ha arable, 483958 ha pastures and 282795 ha hay fields, withweight from total of 43.91%, the pastures with 35.41% respectively 20.69% for thesurfaces of hay fields. . The totals effectives from the 4 involved counties are of333891 heads from which 61.77% quene, that is 206252 heads. From the totalequene efffective, cows represents 95.05% and buffalo milk 4.95%.

  11. Improving agricultural commodity supply-chain to promote economic activities in rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padjung, R.

    2018-05-01

    Long supply chain of agricultural commodities has become concern to governments particularly in large countries such as Indonesia as it causes high price disparity between farm-gate and retailer. Policies to overcome such problem are usually by shortening the chain, by which farmers sell the products directly to retailers. Using an action research in AEDEF (Aceh Economic Development Financing Facilities) Program, conducted in the province of Nangro Aceh Darussalam (NAD) Indonesia, the paper shows that shortening the commodity supply chain is not the best solution to such problem, as it causes loss of jobs in the villages. High price disparity between farm-gate and retailer is not necessary brought about by long supply-chain but by the efficiency of the chain instead. Efficiency of the chain can be improved by creating enabling business environment such that every actors and players work in a fair manner. This can be achieved by transparency in price and quality grade. With development achieved in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), having a good and reliable flow of such information is not difficult. In addition to information flow, the availability and quality of infrastructure to support flow of goods from farm-gate to end-user is of reasonably important.

  12. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE AMOUNTS OF SINGLE AREA PAYMENT SCHEME IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Teszbir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the causes of regional variation in the direct payments. The publication data has been used from ARiMR, publications which spans the time included the amount of subsidies paid throughout the post-accession period. Both at national and regional level, the total amount of payments increased from year to year, average 10%, which was connected to the principle phasing in. The amount of aid received by individual regions and individual farms varied widely, which had a direct relationship with the agrarian structure and the average total area of farms in these areas. The bigger number of small farms, as well as the smaller average total surface area of a single voivodeship, the lower sum of the payments.

  13. An optimized field coverage planning approach for navigation of agricultural robots in fields involving obstacle areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibahim; Bochtis, D.; Sørensen, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    -field obstacle areas, the headland paths generation for the field and each obstacle area, the implementation of a genetic algorithm to optimize the sequence that the field robot vehicle will follow to visit the blocks, and an algorithmically generation of the task sequences derived from the farmer practices......Technological advances combined with the demand of cost efficiency and environmental considerations lead farmers to review their practices towards the adoption of new managerial approaches including enhanced automation. The application of field robots is one of the most promising advances among....... This approach has proven that it is possible to capture the practices of farmers and embed these practices in an algorithmic description providing a complete field area coverage plan in a form prepared for execution by the navigation system of a field robot....

  14. Land Use Change and Agricultural Land Fragmentation due to Anthropogenic Activities in an Hot Spot Area: A Case Study for Thrace Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altürk, Bahadır; Konukcu, Fatih

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural lands that supply food, energy and ecosystem services for human life have been lost due to anthropogenic activities such as construction of roads, urban and industry areas. The significant reasons for the increase of artificial surfaces were poorly planned economic decisions by the government and internal migration due to this poorly planning. Unplanned urban sprawl also give rise to land fragmentation. Fragmentation of agricultural land affects both the agricultural production capacity and rural sustainable employment. In this study: i) Land use changes between 1990-2014 period were assessed using remotely sensed data and ii) Spatial and temporal agricultural land fragmentation were investigated using landscape pattern indice (effective mesh size), Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA) and Entropy method for 25 years period. The selected"hot spot" study area is located on east Thrace region of Turkey, being the service and industrial development zone where agricultural activities, water resources and natural habitat have been damaged due to rapid urban and industrial development for about 25 years. The results showed that agricultural lands decreased 6.44%, urban areas increased 111.68% and industry areas increased 251.19% during this 25 years period. Additionally, fragmentation analyses demonstrated that core agricultural areas sharply decreased and relative fragmentation (effective mesh size) increased from 50.68% to 56.77% during 1990 and 2014.

  15. Fog in a marginal agricultural area surrounded by montane Andean cloud forest during El Niño climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, G.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate temporal variations of water inputs, rainfall and fog (cloud water), and its contribution to the water balance in a marginal agricultural area of potato surrounded by tropical montane cloud forest in Colombia. Fog in the air boundary layer was estimated using a cylindrical fog collector. Liquid water content of fog events were evaluated before and during natural climate event of El Niño. Our study shows the temporal variation of these two water inputs in both daily and monthly cycles on Boyacá at 2900 m a.s.l. Rainfall was the most frequently observed atmospheric phenomenon, being present on average 62% of the days per year, whereas fog was 45% of the time. Reflected on the lower frequency, annual amount of fog was 11% of precipitation. However during the anomalous dry climate of El Niño, total amount of rainfall was negligible and the few fog events were the only water source for plant growth. Estimated water crop requirements were higher than the water inputs. The survival of the crops was explained by meteorological conditions during dew and fog events. High relative humidity might have eased the plant’s water stress by decreasing transpiration and temperature in leaves and soil, affecting the water balance and the heat exchange between the atmosphere-land interfaces in the marginal agricultural areas during exceptional dry climate.

  16. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS 2 ), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg -1 , respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  17. Freshwater quality of a stream in agricultural area where organic compost from animal and vegetable wastes is used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Saran

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Organic compost from biomass residues constitutes a viable alternative for partial or total replacement of mineral fertilizers for growing vegetables. This study evaluated the effects of compost on the water quality of a stream used mainly for irrigation of agricultural crops cultivated in nearby soil that has been treated with organic compost produced by carcasses, animal and vegetable waste for the last ten years. We sampled water biannually for two years, 2013 and 2014, from five locations along the stream. Physical variables and some chemical variables were analyzed. We also analyzed the total number of coliforms (Escherichia coli. Bacterial populations were compared by carbon substrate consumption. Total phosphorus contents in the samples from 2014 exceeded 0.1 mg L-1. The concentrations of other chemical species analyzed and the results for the physical variables were in accordance with the expected values compared with national and international water quality standards. The environment showed differential carbon source consumption and a high diversity of microorganisms, but our results did not show any evidence that the applied compost is changing the microbial population or its metabolic activity. This study shows that the use of the organic compost in agricultural areas seen does not negatively influence the quality of surface water in the study area. These results are important because the process of composting animal and vegetable waste and the use of compost obtained can be an alternative sustainable for adequate destination of these wastes.

  18. 8034 agriculture extension service delivery in a semi-arid rural area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dela dovie

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... RURAL AREA IN SOUTH AFRICA: THE CASE STUDY OF THORNDALE ... Social Network for Environment & Development, P. O. Box CT 3441, Cantonments,. Accra ... the Savannah biome of the Bushbuckridge region in the Limpopo Province, South ...... Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: World Neighbors: 1985.

  19. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Drought severity in intensive agricultural areas by means of the EDI index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházková, Petra; Chuchma, Filip; Středa, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of drought severity development in the Czech Republic for the period 1971-2015 by the means of the Effective Drought Index (EDI). Annual values of the EDI index were determined using the method of effective precipitation for 14 localities spread throughout the Czech Republic (Central Europe). The seven categories were created according to obtained index values for the drought conditions determination for years during the period 1971-2015 through the percentile method. The annual index values were compared with acquired 2nd, 15th, 45th, 55th, 85th and 98th percentiles. Both the years with precipitation unfavourable conditions: 1972, 1973, 1984, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993 and 2015 and the years with precipitation favourable conditions: 1977, 1987, 1995, 2001, 2002 and 2010 were determined. Precipitation conditions in the growing season from 61st to 180th day of the year were also analysed. This evaluation was conducted during the period 1971-2015 through the ten-day index values which were compared with acquired 2nd, 15th, 45th, 55th, 85th and 98th percentiles. Dry growing seasons occurred in 1973, 1974, 1976 and 1993. Wet growing seasons occurred in 1987, 2006 and 2010. Trend analysis of annual index values was performed through the Mann-Kendall test. Highly statistically significant increasing linear trends (P < 0.01) were found for four localities (Uherský Ostroh, Vysoká, Znojmo-Oblekovice and Žatec); statistically significant increasing trends (P < 0.05) were found for three localities (Brno-Chrlice, Lednice and Lípa). Based on the extrapolation of the trend, a slightly higher effective precipitation can be expected during the year in a substantial part of the country. However, these findings do not necessarily mean an optimal supply of agricultural land with water. Precipitation exhibits considerable unevenness of distribution through time. Given the increasing evapotranspiration demands of the environment their

  1. CREDIT RATIONING OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Nuryartono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The agricultural sector provides the highest contribution to economic development in the Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. On average, the share of agriculture in the Product Domestic Regional Bruto (GRDP is more than 40% (2003. However, poverty is a widespread problem found in this area, as indicated by almost 46% of the total household are categorized as poor and most of them are farmers. Smallholders and poor farmers may perpetually be trapped in poverty due to lack of finance needed to undertake productive investment. This is indicated by lower rate of advance agricultural technology adoption, which results the productivity of some agricultural products in this area is lower compared to the national average.This paper addresses the question of whether greater access of financial services increase agricultural production. Specific research question addressed are as follow: (1 How many household have access to formal credit markets? (2 How many households are credit constrained? (3 What factors influence that households are credit constrained? (4 How does credit rationing influences agricultural production?As many studies have shown, many rural households lack access to either formal or informal credit institutions. In the rural areas of Central Sulawesi Province, particularly in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park only 21.5% of the household have access to formal credits. The results also show that under certain conditions, only 18.1% of the households are not

  2. Assessment of Ecosystem Services in a Semi-arid Agriculture-dominant Area: Framework and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, R.; Chen, Y.; Maltos, R.; Sivakumaran, K.; Aguilar, A.; Harmon, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    California's Central Valley (CV) water crisis has increased in severity due to a prolonged drought. The drought is directly contributing to the overexploitation of groundwater, along with deficiency in agricultural, recreational and aesthetic water services. The population of the CV, home to about 6.5 million people, is projected to be 12 million by 2040. Balancing water demand between municipal use, agricultural supply, and other ecosystem services, will be challenging for this region in perpetuity. In the heart of CV lies the San Joaquin River (SJR) where Friant Dam is the main low-elevation reservoir regulating water release. The Friant Dam's reservoir fulfills agricultural, municipal and industrial water needs through the Friant-Kern and Madera canals, as well as through the mainstem SJR. The SJR restoration project (SJRRP) is a recent development that is imposing additional demands on water releases in order to restore sustainable aquatic habitat for Chinook salmon and other species on the mainstem below the Friant Dam. The Chinook require adequate flow to moderate river temperature, particularly during hot summer and fall months. Temperatures on CV rivers exhibit strong diurnal and seasonal patterns, and can rise to harmful levels when flows are inadequate. In this study, we developed a framework that allows for assessing the effectiveness and implied costs of ecosystem services provided by a restored SJR in a semi-arid agriculture-dominant area. This is done by explicitly linking economics-based farmers' model with a reduced-form hydrological model that is loosely coupled to a physical-based stream-temperature model, specifically CE-QUAL-W2. The farmers' model is based on positive mathematical program approach calibrated with twenty proxy crops for year 2005. The river-hydrology is simulated by a vector autoregression model that incorporates daily flow variability. We study the mandated release policies by the SJR restoration project, along with hypothetical

  3. Sustainable management of agriculture activity on areas with soil vulnerability to compaction trough a developed decision support system (DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Fantinato, Luciano; Rasera, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    One of the main environmental effects of agriculture is the negative impacts on areas with soil vulnerability to compaction and undersurface water derived from inputs and treatment distributions. A solution may represented from the "Precision Farming". Precision Farming refers to a management concept focusing on (near-real time) observation, measurement and responses to inter- and intra-variability in crops, fields and animals. Potential benefits may include increasing crop yields and animal performance, cost and labour reduction and optimisation of process inputs, all of which would increase profitability. At the same time, Precision Farming should increase work safety and reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture and farming practices, thus contributing to the sustainability of agricultural production. The concept has been made possible by the rapid development of ICT-based sensor technologies and procedures along with dedicated software that, in the case of arable farming, provides the link between spatially-distributed variables and appropriate farming practices such as tillage, seeding, fertilisation, herbicide and pesticide application, and harvesting. Much progress has been made in terms of technical solutions, but major steps are still required for the introduction of this approach over the common agricultural practices. There are currently a large number of sensors capable of collecting data for various applications (e.g. Index of vegetation vigor, soil moisture, Digital Elevation Models, meteorology, etc.). The resulting large volumes of data need to be standardised, processed and integrated using metadata analysis of spatial information, to generate useful input for decision-support systems. In this context, a user-friendly IT applications has been developed, for organizing and processing large volumes of data from different types of remote sensing and meteorological sensors, and for integrating these data into user-friendly farm management support

  4. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco; Privitera, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: → Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. → NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). → NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. → Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). → By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  5. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Martinico, Francesco, E-mail: fmartinico@dau.unict.it [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Privitera, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: > Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. > NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). > NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. > Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). > By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  6. P-wave velocity structure beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Kim, K.; Jin, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the tree-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula using teleseismic P waves. The data came from the seven land stations of the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA) campaigned during 1997-1999, a permanent IRIS/GSN station (PMSA), and 3 seismic stations installed at scientific bases, Esperanza (ESPZ), Jubany (JUBA), and King Sejong (KSJ), in South Shetland Islands. All of the seismic stations are located in coast area, and the signal to noise ratios (SNR) are very low. The P-wave model was inverted from 95 earthquakes resulting in 347 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals. The inverted model shows a strong low velocity anmaly beneath the Bransfield Strait, and a fast anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands. The low velocity anomaly beneath the Bransfield might be due to a back arc extension, and the fast velocity anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands could indicates the cold subducted slab.

  7. Dynamic factor modeling of ground and surface water levels in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, A.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.

    2006-02-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the interaction between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component for fine-tuning the process. The Frog Pond is an intensively instrumented agricultural 2023 ha area adjacent to ENP. The interactions among 21 multivariate daily time series (ground and surface water elevations, rainfall and evapotranspiration) available from this area were studied by means of dynamic factor analysis, a novel technique in the field of hydrology. This method is designed to determine latent or background effects governing variability or fluctuations in non-stationary time series. Water levels in 16 wells and two drainage ditch locations inside the area were selected as response variables, and canal levels and net recharge as explanatory variables. Elevations in the two canals delimiting the Frog Pond area were found to be the main factors explaining the response variables. This influence of canal elevations on water levels inside the area was complementary and inversely related to the distance between the observation point and each canal. Rainfall events do not affect daily water levels significantly but are responsible for instantaneous or localized groundwater responses that in some cases can be directly associated with the risk of flooding. This close coupling between surface and groundwater levels, that corroborates that found by other authors using different methods, could hinder on-going environmental restoration efforts in the area by bypassing the function of wetlands and other surface features. An empirical model with a reduced set of parameters was successfully developed and validated in the area by interpolating the results from the dynamic factor analysis across the spatial domain (coefficient of efficiency across the domain: 0.66-0.99). Although

  8. Hierarchical Bayes Small Area Estimation under a Unit Level Model with Applications in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageena Nazir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To studied Bayesian aspect of small area estimation using Unit level model. In this paper we proposed and evaluated new prior distribution for the ratio of variance components in unit level model rather than uniform prior. To approximate the posterior moments of small area means, Laplace approximation method is applied. This choice of prior avoids the extreme skewness, usually present in the posterior distribution of variance components. This property leads to more accurate Laplace approximation. We apply the proposed model to the analysis of horticultural data and results from the model are compared with frequestist approach and with Bayesian model of uniform prior in terms of average relative bias, average squared relative bias and average absolute bias. The numerical results obtained highlighted the superiority of using the proposed prior over the uniform prior. Thus Bayes estimators (with new prior of small area means have good frequentist properties such as MSE and ARB as compared to other traditional methods viz., Direct, Synthetic and Composite estimators.

  9. Drought trends based on the VCI and its correlation with climate factors in the agricultural areas of China from 1982 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaojin; Liang, Liang; Shen, Qiu; Sun, Qin; Zhang, Lianpeng; Liu, Zhixiao; Zhao, Shuhe; Qin, Zhihao

    2016-11-01

    Drought is a type of natural disaster that has the most significant impacts on agriculture. Regional drought monitoring based on remote sensing has become popular due to the development of remote sensing technology. In this study, vegetation condition index (VCI) data recorded from 1982 to 2010 in agricultural areas of China were obtained from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data, and the temporal and spatial variations in each drought were analyzed. The relationships between drought and climate factors were also analyzed. The results showed that from 1982 to 2010, the agricultural areas that experienced frequent and severe droughts were mainly concentrated in the northwestern areas and Huang-Huai Plain. Moreover, the VCI increased in the majority of agricultural areas, indicating that the drought frequency decreased over time, and the decreasing trend in the southern region was more notable than that in the northern region. A correlation analysis showed that temperature and wind velocity were the main factors that influenced drought in the agricultural areas of China. From a regional perspective, excluding precipitation, the climate factors had various effects on drought in different regions. However, the correlation between the VCI and precipitation was low, possibly due to the widespread use of artificial irrigation technology, which reduces the reliance of agricultural areas on precipitation.

  10. Cost analysis of gully restoration in agricultural areas in Andalusia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación; Mora, Jose; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    Cost optimization of soil conservation measures is essential in the agricultural sector where the farmers return of investment is usually small, and there is a high degree of uncertainty about yield. The main aims of this study are: 1) to assess the cost of check dams and revegetation measures for a wide range of situations on gully networks of Andalusia and 2) provide an estimation of the adequate budget requirements for the gully restoration at farms included in the public Incentive Program for Gully Control (IPGC) supported by the Junta de Andalucia (Spain). Firstly, a study was conducted to design the structures adapted to a wide variety of gully conditions (slope, width, height, unitary discharge) in the region of Andalusia, and check dam materials (concrete and gabions) taking into account conventional engineering stability criteria, recommendations in technical literature (Gómez et al., 2011) and principles of energy dissipation maximization (Castillo, 2012). In addition, the cost of the conservation measures was estimated by using current market prices of local resources (for interventions with farmers own means) and national construction prices list (if the works were hired to an external company). The cost of the interventions was expressed as a multivariate function of the gully characteristic by means of regression analysis to facilitate its use for budget estimation purposes. Finally, these equations were applied to the farms included in the IPGC database to provide an estimation of the adequate budget required for a successful implementation of this initiative, as well as to propose unitary indexes (i.e. cost per gully meter in the longitudinal profile or per square meter in plan view) that could serve as useful criteria for this, or future programs, to allocate resources to individual farms based on specific characteristics of the gully erosion problems they suffer. References Castillo, C. 2012. Metodología de medida de la erosión por cárcavas y

  11. Introduction and domestication of woody plants for sustainable agriculture in desert areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Soloway, Elaine; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2014-05-01

    plantation in arid conditions. 5) Balanites aegyptiaca is potentially a good biomass crop and good feed for grazers as goats. We illuminated differences related to drought tolerance between two distinct ecotypes. Attempts to develope sustainable agriculture based on local species will save resources (water, fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides), keep endangered plant species and enhance vegetation reestablishment.

  12. Smart ultrasonic flowmeter used for the operation support of water resource management in the agricultural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmostafa, Ziani; Mustapha, Bennouna; Boissier, Raymond

    2008-10-01

    networks. This new generation of devices is used in agricultural field (irrigation monitoring), based on transit-time principle with single-path or multi-path scheme. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  13. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  14. Resistivity-Chemistry Integrated Approaches for Investigating Groundwater Salinity of Water Supply and Agricultural Activity at Island Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, M. F. T.; Masirin, M. I. M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Azman, M. A. A.; Madun, A.

    2018-04-01

    Groundwater suitability for water supply and agriculture in an island coastal area may easily be influenced by seawater intrusion. The aim of this study was to investigate seawater intrusion to the suitability of the groundwater for water supply and oil palm cultivation on Carey Island in Malaysia. This is the first study that used integrated method of geo-electrical resistivity and hydrogeochemical methods to investigate seawater intrusion to the suitability of groundwater for water supply and oil palm cultivation at two different surface elevation and land cover. The relationship between earth resistivity, total dissolved solids and earth conductivity was derived with water type classifications and crop suitability classification according to salinity, used to identify water types and also oil palm tolerance to salinity. Results from the contour resistivity and conductivity maps showed that the area facing severe coastal erosion (east area) exhibited unsuitable groundwater condition for water supply and oil palm at the unconfined aquifer thickness of 7.8 m and 14.1 m, respectively. Comparing to the area that are still intact with mangrove (west area), at the same depth, groundwater condition exhibits suitable usage for both socioeconomic activities. Different characteristics of surface elevation and land cover are paramount factors influencing saltwater distribution at the west and east area. By the end of the twenty-first century there will no longer be suitable water for supply and oil palm plantation based on the local sea-level rise prediction and Ghyben–Herzberg assumption (sharp interface), focusing on the severe erosion area of the study site.

  15. Projecting water resources changes in potential large-scale agricultural investment areas of the Kafue River Basin in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Trainor, A. M.; Baker, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change impacts regional water availability through the spatial and temporal redistribution of available water resources. This study focuses on understanding possible response of water resources to climate change in regions where potentials for large-scale agricultural investments are planned in the upper and middle Kafue River Basin in Zambia. We used historical and projected precipitation and temperature to assess changes in water yield, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. Some of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model outputs for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios project a temperature warming range from 1.8 - 5.7 °C over the region from 2020 to 2095. Precipitation projection patterns vary monthly but tend toward drier dry seasons with a slight increase in precipitation during the rainy season as compared to the historical time series. The best five calibrated parameter sets generated for the historical record (1965 - 2005) were applied for two future periods, 2020 - 2060 and 2055 - 2095, to project water yield change. Simulations projected that the 90th percentile water yield would be exceeded across most of the study area by up to 800% under the medium-low (RCP4.5) CO2 emission scenario, whereas the high (RCP8.5) CO2 emission scenario resulted in a more spatially varied pattern mixed with increasing (up to 500%) and decreasing (up to -54%) trends. The 10th percentile water yield indicated spatially varied pattern across the basin, increasing by as much as 500% though decreasing in some areas by 66%, with the greatest decreases during the dry season under RCP8.5. Overall, available water resources in the study area are projected to trend toward increased floods (i.e. water yields far exceeding 90th percentile) as well as increasing drought (i.e. water yield far below 10th percentile) vulnerability. Because surface water is a primary source for agriculture

  16. Caesium-137 behaviour in small agricultural catchments on the area of the Chernobyl contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnikova, E.V.; Stukin, E.D.; Golosov, V.N.; Ivanova, N.N.; Panin, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in soils of the basin of the Gusinaya Lapka dry river, situated in the Eastern region, 550 km from the reactor, has been investigated. In this area the 137 Cs contamination levels range between 250 and 502 kBq.m -2 . In the accumulation zones, at the bottom of the valley, the sediment deposits over the last ten years represent a layer of not more than 10 cm. On arable lands, the erosion processes are limited and no perceptible redistribution of 137 Cs could be observed, except at the transition between ploughed lands on the inter-rivers and meadows on the Balka slopes. This study demonstrates the potential use of the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident for the quantification of the soil erosion process. (author)

  17. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Vanzyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Polarimetric signatures from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert show systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright 'spokes', which seems to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripple on the relatively vegetationless fields. A Late Pleistocene/Holocene sand bar deposit, which can be identified in the radar images, is probably responsible for the failure of three fields to match the age sequence patterns in roughness and peak shift.

  18. Soil physical indicators of management systems in traditional agricultural areas under manure application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rauber

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies of the successive application of manure as fertilizer and its combined effect with long-term soil management systems are important to the identification of the interdependence of physical attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the physical properties of a Rhodic Kandiudox under management systems employing successive applications of pig slurry and poultry litter, and select physical indicators that distinguish these systems using canonical discriminant analysis (CDA. The systems consisting of treatments including land use, management and the application time of organic fertilizers are described as follows: silage maize under no-tillage (NT-M7 years; silage maize under conventional tillage (CT-M20 years; annual pasture with chisel plowing (CP-P3 years; annual pasture with chisel plowing (CP-P15 years; perennial pasture without tillage (NT-PP20 years; and no-tillage yerba mate (NT-YM20 years and were compared with native forest (NF and native pasture (NP. Soil samples were collected from the layers at the following depths: 0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.20 m, and were analyzed for bulk density, porosity, aggregation, flocculation, penetration resistance, water availability and total clay content. Canonical discriminant analysis was an important tool in the study of physical indicators of soil quality. Organic fertilization, along with soil management, influences soil structure and its porosity. Total porosity was the most important physical property in the distinction of areas with management systems and application times of manure for the 0.0-0.05 and 0.10-0.20 m layers. Soil aeration and micropores differentiated areas in the 0.05-0.10 m layer. Animal trampling and machinery traffic were the main factors inducing compaction of this clayey soil.

  19. A landscape project for the coexistence of agriculture and nature: a proposal for the coastal area of a Natura 2000 site in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Riguccio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many rural coastal Mediterranean areas suffer from great anthropomorphic pressure. This is due to intensive agriculture, and construction for residential, tourism and industrial uses. The present work investigates the idea of using a landscape project in the Gulf of Gela in South Sicily to recover the dunes and the area behind them. The method used is based on the literature and will evaluate and interpret the dynamics of the landscape, so as to draw up a landscape plan, which can be used to help sustain the assets of the area, in a way, which is compatible with conserving nature. This method was tested in the LIFE11-Leopoldia project, funded by the European Union. The results of the study form part of the landscape project. This project is aimed at connecting the different productive zones in the area, protecting the natural environments and the rural historical patrimony, through combining the modern road networks with the older slower, historic infrastructure. Three different levels of landscape management are proposed: total protection (the dunes, high-level protection (the area behind the dunes where traditional agriculture is practised, buffer areas and ecological connecting areas, medium levels of protection (sustainable agriculture, green connections and ecological corridors. The key aims of the project are as follows: transversality - repairing the agricultural fabric and the relationship between the land and the sea; sustainability - recovering the environmental system and traditional activities; flexibility - agriculture with only minor environmental impact.

  20. Regional-scale Predictions of Agricultural N Losses in an Area with a High Livestock Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Grignani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of the N losses in territories characterised by intensive animal stocking is of primary importance. The development of simulation models coupled to a GIS, or of simple environmental indicators, is strategic to suggest the best specific management practices. The aims of this work were: a to couple a GIS to a simulation model in order to predict N losses; b to estimate leaching and gaseous N losses from a territory with intensive livestock farming; c to derive a simplified empirical metamodel from the model output that could be used to rank the relative importance of the variables which influence N losses and to extend the results to homogeneous situations. The work was carried out in a 7773 ha area in the Western Po plain in Italy. This area was chosen because it is characterised by intensive animal husbandry and might soon be included in the nitrate vulnerable zones. The high N load, the shallow water table and the coarse type of sub-soil sediments contribute to the vulnerability to N leaching. A CropSyst simulation model was coupled to a GIS, to account for the soil surface N budget. A linear multiple regression approach was used to describe the influence of a series of independent variables on the N leaching, the N gaseous losses (including volatilisation and denitrification and on the sum of the two. Despite the fact that the available GIS was very detailed, a great deal of information necessary to run the model was lacking. Further soil measurements concerning soil hydrology, soil nitrate content and water table depth proved very valuable to integrate the data contained in the GIS in order to produce reliable input for the model. The results showed that the soils influence both the quantity and the pathways of the N losses to a great extent. The ratio between the N losses and the N supplied varied between 20 and 38%. The metamodel shows that manure input always played the most important role in determining the N losses

  1. Regional-scale Predictions of Agricultural N Losses in an Area with a High Livestock Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Sacco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of the N losses in territories characterised by intensive animal stocking is of primary importance. The development of simulation models coupled to a GIS, or of simple environmental indicators, is strategic to suggest the best specific management practices. The aims of this work were: a to couple a GIS to a simulation model in order to predict N losses; b to estimate leaching and gaseous N losses from a territory with intensive livestock farming; c to derive a simplified empirical metamodel from the model output that could be used to rank the relative importance of the variables which influence N losses and to extend the results to homogeneous situations. The work was carried out in a 7773 ha area in the Western Po plain in Italy. This area was chosen because it is characterised by intensive animal husbandry and might soon be included in the nitrate vulnerable zones. The high N load, the shallow water table and the coarse type of sub-soil sediments contribute to the vulnerability to N leaching. A CropSyst simulation model was coupled to a GIS, to account for the soil surface N budget. A linear multiple regression approach was used to describe the influence of a series of independent variables on the N leaching, the N gaseous losses (including volatilisation and denitrification and on the sum of the two. Despite the fact that the available GIS was very detailed, a great deal of information necessary to run the model was lacking. Further soil measurements concerning soil hydrology, soil nitrate content and water table depth proved very valuable to integrate the data contained in the GIS in order to produce reliable input for the model. The results showed that the soils influence both the quantity and the pathways of the N losses to a great extent. The ratio between the N losses and the N supplied varied between 20 and 38%. The metamodel shows that manure input always played the most important role in determining the N losses

  2. Measuring, understanding and implementing (or at least trying) soil and water conservation in agricultural areas in Mediterranean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Burguet, María; Castillo, Carlos; de Luna, Elena; Guzmán, Gema; Lora, Ángel; Lorite, Ignacio; Mora, José; Pérez, Rafael; Soriano, María A.; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding soil erosion processes is the first step for designing and implementing effective soil conservation strategies. In agricultural areas, spatially in arid and semiarid conditions, water conservation is interlinked with soil conservation, and usually need to be addressed simultaneously to achieve success in their use by farmers. This is so for different reasons, but usually because some reduction in runoff is required to prevent soil erosion or to the need to design soil conservation systems that do maintain a favourable water balance for the crop to prevent yield reductions. The team presenting this communication works around both issues in Southern Spain, interconnecting several lines of research with the final objective of contribute to reverse some severe issues relating soil conservation in agricultural areas, mostly on tree crops (olives and vineyards). One of these lines is long-term experiments measuring, runoff and sediment losses at plot and small catchment scale. In these experiments we test the effect of different soil management alternatives on soil and water conservation. We also measured the evolution of soil properties and, in some cases, the evolution of soil moisture as well as nutrient and carbon losses with runoff and sediment. We also tests in these experiments new cover crops, from species better adapted to the rainfall regime of the region to mixes with several species to increase biodiversity. We complement these studies with surveys of soil properties in commercial farms. I some of these farms we follow the introduction by farmers of the cover crop strategies previously developed in our experimental fields. These data are invaluable to elaborate, calibrate and validate different runoff generation, water balance, and water erosion models and hillslope and small catchment scale. This allows us to elaborate regional analysis of the effect of different strategies to soil and water conservation in olive growing areas, and to refine

  3. Mapping of soil erosion and redistribution on two agricultural areas in Czech Republic by using of magnetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicka, Ales; Stejskalova, Sarka; Grison, Hana; Petrovsky, Eduard; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is one of the major concerns in sustainability of agricultural systems in different areas. Therefore there is a need to develop suitable innovative indirect methods of soil survey. One of this methods is based on well established differentiation in magnetic signature with depth in soil profile. Magnetic method can be applied in the field as well as in the laboratory on collected soil samples. The aim of this study is to evaluate suitability of magnetic method to assess soil degradation and construct maps of cumulative soil loss due to erosion at two morphologically diverse areas with different soil types. Dominant soil unit in the first locality (Brumovice) is chernozem, which is gradually degraded on slopes to regosols. In the second site (Vidim), the dominant soil unit is luvisol, gradualy transformed to regosol due to erosion. Field measurements of magnetic susceptibility were carried out on regular grid, resulting in 101 data points in Brumovice and 65 in Vidim locality. Mass specific magnetic susceptibility χ and its frequency dependence χFD was used to estimate the significance of SP ferrimagnetic particles of pedogenic origin in top soil horizons. Strong correlation was found between the volume magnetic susceptibility (field measurement) and mass- specific magnetic susceptibility measured in the laboratory (Kapicka et al 2013). Values of magnetic susceptibility are spatially distributed depending on terrain position. Higher values were measured at the flat parts (where the original topsoil horizon remained). The lowest values magnetic susceptibility were obtained on the steep valley sides. Here the original topsoil was eroded and mixed by tillage with the soil substrate (loess). Positive correlation between the organic carbon content and volume magnetic susceptibility (R2= 0.89) was found for chernozem area. The differences between the values of susceptibility in the undisturbed soil profile and the magnetic signal after uniform mixing of the

  4. Impact of rising groundwater on sustainable irrigated agriculture in the command area of gadeji minor, sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, G.S.

    2017-01-01

    A study has been conducted in the command area of Gadeji minor, Sindh, Pakistan to compute the amount of net groundwater recharge and its effect on sustainable irrigated agriculture. In this connection, Water budget equation was used and three groundwater recharging components along with one discharging component were computed for both Rabi and Kharif crop seasons for the period (2001-2013). Data shows that groundwater is rising at rapid rate during the Kharif season. The percolation rate through cropped fields is the major recharge component; accounting for 81% in the total mean recharge of 8.42 million m3, moreover the rice area is the major contributor to net groundwater recharge during Kharif season. The contributions of canal seepage and rainfall are estimated to be 16 and 04% respectively for the above period. However, during the Rabi season groundwater is rising at low rate where canal seepage is the major recharging component with an average contribution of 48% in the total mean recharge of 2.32 million m3, the contribution of deep percolation from cropped fields is estimated to be 47% as compared to the rainfall of only 05%. Survey shows non-functionality of most of the tubewells, groundwater withdrawal is not sufficient to fully offset groundwater recharge which has increased water table and caused waterlogging and soil salinity in more than 40% of agricultural land. To overcome this rising water table problem, it is recommended: to change existing cropping pattern (i.e. minimize or no cultivation of rice crop), lining of minor and all its watercourses, adopt salt tolerant crops and increase groundwater withdrawals by operating tube-wells on emergency basis. (author)

  5. Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijumba, J N; Mosha, F W; Lindsay, S W

    2002-03-01

    Malaria vector Anopheles and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were monitored for 12 months during 1994-95 in villages of Lower Moshi irrigation area (37 degrees 20' E, 3 degrees 21' S; approximately 700 m a.s.l.) south of Mount Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania. Adult mosquito populations were sampled fortnightly by five methods: human bait collection indoors (18.00-06.00 hours) and outdoors (18.00-24.00 hours); from daytime resting-sites indoors and outdoors; by CDC light-traps over sleepers. Anopheles densities and rates of survival, anthropophily and malaria infection were compared between three villages representing different agro-ecosystems: irrigated sugarcane plantation; smallholder rice irrigation scheme, and savannah with subsistence crops. Respective study villages were Mvuleni (population 2200), Chekereni (population 3200) and Kisangasangeni (population approximately/= 1000), at least 7 km apart. Anopheles arabiensis Patton was found to be the principal malaria vector throughout the study area, with An. funestus Giles sensu lato of secondary importance in the sugarcane and savannah villages. Irrigated sugarcane cultivation resulted in water pooling, but this did not produce more vectors. Anopheles arabiensis densities averaged four-fold higher in the ricefield village, although their human blood-index was significantly less (48%) than in the sugarcane (68%) or savannah (66%) villages, despite similar proportions of humans and cows (ratio 1:1.1-1.4) as the main hosts at all sites. Parous rates, duration of the gonotrophic cycle and survival rates of An. arabiensis were similar in villages of all three agro-ecosystems. The potential risk of malaria, based on measurements of vectorial capacity of An. arabiensis and An.funestus combined, was four-fold higher in the ricefield village than in the sugarcane or savannah villages nearby. However, the more realistic estimate of malaria risk, based on entomological inoculation rates, indicated that exposure to

  6. Diet of paca (Cuniculus paca using indirect methods in an agricultural area in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zucaratto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent that feeds on fruits according to their availability. This study describes the consumption of fruit by paca in an area of shaded cultivation of cocoa in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The study was carried out by the search for tracks left by these animals, such as marks of incisors found in fruits, in order to recognize the fruits consumed. We recorded 12 species consumed by the pacas, belonging to 10 families and 10 genera. The list included six native species and six exotic species. Some fruits were eaten as a whole, while others had their exocarp or seeds discarded. The indirect methods showed suitability to characterize the diet of this species, and they could complement conventional research methods such as direct sighting and analyses of stomachal or fecal contents. The occurrence of pacas in the agricultural area shows the plasticity of their diet and the possibility of conserving populations of this species in disturbed areas outside nature reserves.

  7. Deriving soil function maps to assess related ecosystem services using imaging spectroscopy in the Lyss agricultural area, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diek, Sanne; de Jong, Rogier; Braun, Daniela; Böhler, Jonas; Schaepman, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Soils play an important role in the benefits offered by ecosystems services. In densely populated Switzerland soils are a scarce resource, with high pressure on services ranging from urban expansion to over-utilization. Key change drivers include erosion, soil degradation, land management change and (chemical) pollution, which should be taken into consideration. Therefore there is an emerging need for an integrated, sustainable and efficient system assessing the management of soil and land as a resource. The use of remote sensing can offer spatio-temporal and quantitative information of extended areas. In particular imaging spectroscopy has shown to perfectly complement existing sampling schemes as secondary information for digital soil mapping. Although only the upper-most layer of soil interacts with light when using reflectance spectroscopy, it still can offer valuable information that can be utilized by farmers and decision makers. Fully processed airborne imaging spectrometer data from APEX as well as land cover classification for the agricultural area in Lyss were available. Based on several spectral analysis methods we derived multiple soil properties, including soil organic matter, soil texture, and mineralogy; complemented by vegetation parameters, including leaf area index, chlorophyll content, pigment distribution, and water content. The surface variables were retrieved using a combination of index-based and physically-based retrievals. Soil properties in partly to fully vegetated areas were interpolated using regression kriging based methods. This allowed the continuous assessment of potential soil functions as well as non-contiguous maps of abundances of combined soil and vegetation parameters. Based on a simple regression model we could make a rough estimate of ecosystem services. This provided the opportunity to look at the differences between the interpolated soil function maps and the non-contiguous (but combined) vegetation and soil function maps

  8. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  9. Late dry season habitat use of common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae in neotropical lower montane agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Vaughan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Three Didelphis marsupialis were radio tracked during late dry season (23 February-26 April, 1983 in agricultural area at 1500 m elevation in Central Valley, Costa Rica. All animals were nocturnally active, significantly more so between 2100-0300 h. Fifty diurnal den site locations were found, 96% inside tree cavities in living fence rows or abandoned squirrel nests in windbreaks. Two females occupied 3.4 and 3.1 ha 95% home ranges, moving an average 890 and 686 m nightly respectively. The male occupied a 5.6 ha 95% home range for 42 days overlapping 90% of females' home ranges. Over the next 15 days, he moved 1020 m south, establishing three temporary home ranges. During nocturnal movements, windbreaks and living fence rows were used in higher proportion than available, while pasture, roads and cultivated lands were used less then available within 100% home ranges. Abandoned coffee and spruce plantations, fruit orchards and overgrown pastures were used in equal proportions to availability in 100% home ranges. Opossum conservation techniques in coffee growing areas include promoting spruce windbreaks, living fence rows, and garbage dumps.

  10. A study on PCB, PCDD/PCDF industrial contamination in an urban/agricultural area. Part I - Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrio-Baldassarri, L.; Alivernini, S.; Battistelli, C.L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (IT)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanita is involved in a study on the impact of existing and past industrial activities as possible sources of contamination on the surrounding environment. The study will focus on an industrial plant inside Brescia, a city in the north-west of Italy, where, from 1938 to 1984, 150 tons of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced. In 1994, 1996 and 1998 three monitoring programs, preliminary to the construction of a municipal waste incinerator near the industrial plant, were carried out. High PCBs levels in soils were observed, namely 3000-6000 fold higher than the limits (0,001mg/Kg) allowed by the 1999 Italian law, in an agricultural area where several small farms are located; the farmers have been consuming for a long time food, such as milk and meat, produced in their own farms. This study has different aims: confirming and enriching previous data; helping determining the contamination source; measuring the contamination of the animals living in the area or fed with contaminated forage; evaluate the exposure of the farmers as compared to general population. Moreover, this study is interested in studying the PCB and PCDD/PCDF transfer from soils to humans across the food chain.

  11. Anthropogenic impact on diffuse trace metal accumulation in river sediments from agricultural reclamation areas with geochemical and isotopic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei, E-mail: wei@itc.nl; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of anthropogenic impact can help assess the diffuse trace metal accumulation in the agricultural environment. In this study, both river sediments and background soils were collected from a case study area in Northeast China and analyzed for total concentrations of six trace metals, four major elements and three lead isotopes. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni have accumulated in the river sediments after about 40 years of agricultural development, with average concentrations 1.23–1.71 times higher than local soil background values. Among them Ni, Cr and Cu were of special concern and they may pose adverse biological effects. By calculating enrichment factor (EF), it was found that the trace metal accumulation was still mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. For Pb, geochemical and isotopic approaches gave very similar anthropogenic contributions. Principal component analysis (PCA) further suggested that the anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni inputs were mostly related to the regional atmospheric deposition of industrial emissions and gasoline combustion, which had a strong affinity for iron oxides in the sediments. Concerning Cd, however, it mainly originated from local fertilizer applications and was controlled by sediment carbonates. - Graphical abstract: The trace metal accumulation was mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition, while fertilizer application was the main anthropogenic source of Cd. - Highlights: • Trace metals have accumulated in the Naolihe sediments. • Natural weathering was still a major contributor to metal accumulation. • Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition. • Local fertilizer application was the main

  12. Exposure assessment of organochlorine pesticides, arsenic, and lead in children from the major agricultural areas in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Balderas-Cortés, José J; Yañez-Estrada, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Coronado, Maria L; Cuevas-Robles, Alberto; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6-12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17-9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies.

  13. Agricultural producers’ groups in the Czech Republic: introductory review and discussion of the problem area economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vavřina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Each company is surrounded by the micro- and macro-environment affecting also its economic performance. These factors are not only individual accounting entries, but also analytical inputs as the internal company processes, management of costs or short-term financial decisions and specifically in the case of agriculture within the EU also the public subsidy schemes implemented through the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Groups of agricultural producers are created as a response to current market dynamics and the opportunity for each agricultural enterprise regardless the size. In this paper, the basis for agricultural cooperation is provided, traditional economic performance measures are presented and their applicability on the sample of agricultural producers’ groups and wholesale entities is empirically verified. Wholesale entities are analysed by its business activity and performance features to consider whether they are suitable peer group for comparing economic performance of examined agricultural producers’ group. Since the economic performance of agricultural producers’ groups directly affects the economic performance of all participating entities, and vice versa, their economic performance measurement may involve specific constraints. According to the structure and characteristics of agricultural producers’ groups may be inferred that whilst the common performance measurement techniques are applicable on the majority of companies, agricultural producers’ groups represent specific entities and therefore need adjusted performance measurement approach.

  14. Coupling of Bayesian Networks with GIS for wildfire risk assessment on natural and agricultural areas of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Anke; Papakosta, Panagiota; Straub, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires cause severe damages to ecosystems, socio-economic assets, and human lives in the Mediterranean. To facilitate coping with wildfire risks, an understanding of the factors influencing wildfire occurrence and behavior (e.g. human activity, weather conditions, topography, fuel loads) and their interaction is of importance, as is the implementation of this knowledge in improved wildfire hazard and risk prediction systems. In this project, a probabilistic wildfire risk prediction model is developed, with integrated fire occurrence and fire propagation probability and potential impact prediction on natural and cultivated areas. Bayesian Networks (BNs) are used to facilitate the probabilistic modeling. The final BN model is a spatial-temporal prediction system at the meso scale (1 km2 spatial and 1 day temporal resolution). The modeled consequences account for potential restoration costs and production losses referred to forests, agriculture, and (semi-) natural areas. BNs and a geographic information system (GIS) are coupled within this project to support a semi-automated BN model parameter learning and the spatial-temporal risk prediction. The coupling also enables the visualization of prediction results by means of daily maps. The BN parameters are learnt for Cyprus with data from 2006-2009. Data from 2010 is used as validation data set. A special focus is put on the performance evaluation of the BN for fire occurrence, which is modeled as binary classifier and thus, could be validated by means of Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves. With the final best models, AUC values of more than 70% for validation could be achieved, which indicates potential for reliable prediction performance via BN. Maps of selected days in 2010 are shown to illustrate final prediction results. The resulting system can be easily expanded to predict additional expected damages in the mesoscale (e.g. building and infrastructure damages). The system can support planning of

  15. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Pesticides in ground water in selected agricultural land-use areas and hydrogeologic settings in Pennsylvania, 2003-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Connie A.; Breen, Kevin J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Clune, John W.

    2009-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) as part of the Pennsylvania Pesticides and Ground Water Strategy (PPGWS). Monitoring data and extensive quality-assurance data on the occurrence of pesticides in ground water during 2003–07 are presented and evaluated; decreases in the land area used for agriculture and corresponding changes in the use of pesticides also are documented. In the Pennsylvania ground waters assessed since 2003, concentrations of pesticides did not exceed any maximum contaminant or health advisory levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; PPGWS actions are invoked by the PDA at fractions of these levels and were needed only in areas designated by the PDA for special ground-water protection. Previous investigations through 1998 of pesticides in Pennsylvania ground water identified land use, as a surrogate for pesticide use, and rock type of the aquifer combined with physiography as key hydrogeologic setting variables for understanding aquifer vulnerability to contamination and the common occurrence of atrazine and metolachlor in ground water. Of 20 major hydrogeologic settings in a framework established in 1999 for pesticide monitoring in Pennsylvania, 9 were identified as priorities for data collection in order to change the monitoring status from "inadequate" to "adequate" for the PPGWS. Agricultural and forested land-use areas are decreasing because of urban and suburban growth. In the nine hydrogeologic settings evaluated using 1992 and 2001 data, decreases of up to 12 percent for agricultural land and 10 percent for forested land corresponded to increases of up to 11 percent for urban land. Changes in agricultural pesticide use were computed from crop data. For example, from 1996 to 2004–05, atrazine use declined by about 15 percent to 1,314,000 lb/yr (pounds per year) and metolachlor use increased by about 20 percent to 895

  17. Determination of arsenic in agricultural products, animal products and drinking water of rural areas of Bijar and Gharve, Kurdestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pirsaheb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and food contamination with toxic element arsenic is one of the important issues that are threatening public health and other creatures. In this study, a total sample of 983 consisting agricultural and animal products as well as water samples was analyzed for arsenic contamination. According to the results, the highest concentration of arsenic (1.737 mg/l was found in the piped water of Aliabad. Moreover, the highest level of arsenic contamination was detected in wheat obtained from Giklo and Gondak (0.14 mg/kg. Accordingly, highest arsenic level in barley, peas and lentils, was estimated in the samples of Gondak (0.11 mg/kg, Giklo (mg/kg 0.013 and Ghojagh (0.017 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the highest mean concentration of arsenic in meat and milk samples was found in Ghojagh (0.167 mg/kg and Gondak (0.0129 mg/l. The results revealed that the contamination level of arsenic in all crops, meat and milk samples were lower than the maximum acceptable limit adopted in many other countries. However, the concentration of arsenic in water samples was 174 times higher than the acceptable limit (0.01 mg/l determined by the Iranian National Standard. Therefore, it is necessary to perform comprehensive studies on contaminations of water sources in this area.

  18. Agricultural aspects of the radiation situation in the areas contaminated by the southern Urals and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    Being different in nature, the accidents in the Southern Urals and at Chernobyl gave rise to radiation situations with own specific features, affecting, in particular, agricultural activities in the contaminated area. The main specific features of the Chernobyl accident were the vast scale of contamination, the large contamination gradients even at considerable distances from the accident site, the heterogeneity of radioactive fallout distribution at micro-level, the inconsistent nature of changes in soil contamination levels, and separation of the radionuclides from the fallout. In spite of the fundamental differences in the chemical character of the types of radioactive fallout, the radionuclides of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were in both cases readily available for assimilation by plant root systems. In both the Southern Urals and the Ukraine the coefficients of radionuclide build-up in soils with identical agrochemical properties fall within the observation accuracy limits. As a result of the Chernobyl accident, light soils of soddy-podzolic composition were subjected to the greatest contamination, their radionuclide build-up coefficients being 8-15 times higher than those of the chernozem soils in the Southern Urals. An abnormally high level of radiocaesium accumulation was observed in meadow grasses, which explains the leading role of milk contamination in the radiation situation on private holdings. (author)

  19. Pharmaceutical compounds in shallow groundwater in non-agricultural areas of Minnesota: study design, methods, and data, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, completed a study on the occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds and other contaminants of emerging concern in shallow groundwater in non-agricultural areas of Minnesota during 2013. This report describes the study design and methods for the study on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern, and presents the data collected on pharmaceutical compounds. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for 110 pharmaceutical compounds using research method 9017. Samples from 21 of 45 wells had detectable concentrations of at least one of the 110 compounds analyzed. One sample contained detectable concentrations of nine compounds, which was the most detected in a single sample. Fewer than five compounds were detected in most samples. Among all samples, 27 of the 110 compounds were detected in groundwater from at least one well. Desmethyldiltiazem and nicotine were the most frequently detected compounds, each detected in 5 of 46 environmental samples (one well was sampled twice so a total of 46 environmental samples were collected from 45 wells). Caffeine had the highest detectable concentration of all the compounds at 2,060 nanograms per liter.

  20. Evaluation of the United States Department of Agriculture Northeast Area-Wide Tick Control Project by Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Brandon; George, John E.; Pound, J. Mathews; Miller, J. Allen; Daniels, Thomas J.; Falco, Richard C.; Stafford, Kirby C.; Schulze, Terry L.; Mather, Thomas N.; Carroll, John F.; Fish, Durland

    2009-01-01

    Abstract As part of the Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP), meta-analyses were performed using pooled data on the extent of tick-vector control achieved through seven concurrent studies, conducted within five states, using U.S. Department of Agriculture “4-Poster” devices to deliver targeted-acaricide to white-tailed deer. Although reductions in the abundance of all life-stages of Ixodes scapularis were the measured outcomes, this study focused on metrics associated with I. scapularis nymphal tick densities as this measure has consistently proven to directly correlate with human risk of acquiring Lyme disease. Since independent tick sampling schemes were undertaken at each of the five environmentally distinct study locations, a meta-analytic approach permitted estimation of a single true control-effect size for each treatment year of the NEATCP. The control-effect is expressed as the annual percent I. scapularis nymphal control most consistent with meta-analysis data for each treatment year. Our meta-analyses indicate that by the sixth treatment year, the NEATCP effectively reduced the relative density of I. scapularis nymphs by 71% on the 5.14 km2 treatment sites, corresponding to a 71% lower relative entomologic risk index for acquiring Lyme disease. PMID:19650737

  1. Developing a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based model for predicting water table depth in agricultural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ye, Ming; Yang, Jinzhong

    2018-06-01

    Predicting water table depth over the long-term in agricultural areas presents great challenges because these areas have complex and heterogeneous hydrogeological characteristics, boundary conditions, and human activities; also, nonlinear interactions occur among these factors. Therefore, a new time series model based on Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), was developed in this study as an alternative to computationally expensive physical models. The proposed model is composed of an LSTM layer with another fully connected layer on top of it, with a dropout method applied in the first LSTM layer. In this study, the proposed model was applied and evaluated in five sub-areas of Hetao Irrigation District in arid northwestern China using data of 14 years (2000-2013). The proposed model uses monthly water diversion, evaporation, precipitation, temperature, and time as input data to predict water table depth. A simple but effective standardization method was employed to pre-process data to ensure data on the same scale. 14 years of data are separated into two sets: training set (2000-2011) and validation set (2012-2013) in the experiment. As expected, the proposed model achieves higher R2 scores (0.789-0.952) in water table depth prediction, when compared with the results of traditional feed-forward neural network (FFNN), which only reaches relatively low R2 scores (0.004-0.495), proving that the proposed model can preserve and learn previous information well. Furthermore, the validity of the dropout method and the proposed model's architecture are discussed. Through experimentation, the results show that the dropout method can prevent overfitting significantly. In addition, comparisons between the R2 scores of the proposed model and Double-LSTM model (R2 scores range from 0.170 to 0.864), further prove that the proposed model's architecture is reasonable and can contribute to a strong learning ability on time series data. Thus, one can conclude that the proposed model can

  2. Allometric Models to Predict Aboveground Woody Biomass of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. in Short Rotation Coppice in Previous Mining and Agricultural Areas in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Carl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Black locust is a drought-resistant tree species with high biomass productivity during juvenility; it is able to thrive on wastelands, such as former brown coal fields and dry agricultural areas. However, research conducted on this species in such areas is limited. This paper aims to provide a basis for predicting tree woody biomass for black locust based on tree, competition, and site variables at 14 sites in northeast Germany that were previously utilized for mining or agriculture. The study areas, which are located in an area covering 320 km × 280 km, are characterized by a variety of climatic and soil conditions. Influential variables, including tree parameters, competition, and climatic parameters were considered. Allometric biomass models were employed. The findings show that the most important parameters are tree and competition variables. Different former land utilizations, such as mining or agriculture, as well as growth by cores or stumps, significantly influenced aboveground woody biomass production. The new biomass models developed as part of this study can be applied to calculate woody biomass production and carbon sequestration of Robinia pseudoacacia L. in short rotation coppices in previous mining and agricultural areas.

  3. Introduction to the JEEG Agricultural Geophysics Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Barry J.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Near-surface geophysical methods have become increasingly important tools in applied agricultural practices and studies. The great advantage of geophysical methods is their potential rapidity, low cost, and spatial continuity when compared to more traditional methods of assessing agricultural land, such as sample collection and laboratory analysis. Agricultural geophysics investigations commonly focus on obtaining information within the soil profile, which generally does not extend much beyond 2 meters beneath the ground surface. Although the depth of interest oftentimes is rather shallow, the area covered by an agricultural geophysics survey can vary widely in scale, from experimental plots (10 s to 100 s of square meters), to farm fields (10 s to 100 s of hectares), up to the size of watersheds (10 s to 100 s of square kilometers). To date, three predominant methods—resistivity, electromagnetic induction (EMI), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR)—have been used to obtain surface-based geophysical measurements within agricultural settings. However, a recent conference on agricultural geophysics (Bouyoucos Conference on Agricultural Geophysics, September 8–10, 2009, Albuquerque, New Mexico; www.ag-geophysics.org) illustrated that other geophysical methods are being applied or developed. These include airborne electromagnetic induction, magnetometry, seismic, and self-potential methods. Agricultural geophysical studies are also being linked to ground water studies that utilize deeper penetrating geophysical methods than normally used.

  4. Tall tower landscape scale N2O flux measurements in a Danish agricultural and urban, coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Lequy, Émeline; Loubet, Benjamin; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2015-04-01

    eastern coastline of the Roskilde fjord on the Danish island Zealand. The tower is surrounded by the fjord, by agricultural area, forests and, in the South by the urban area of the City of Roskilde. The City of Roskilde operates a waste incinerator and a waste water treatment plant, which drains treated waste water into the fjord. The level of the measured flux values was generally relatively low. Based on the clear definition of the lag time between N2O concentrations and the vertical wind speed, fluxes were measureable over larger periods. The fluxes showed clear directional relationships indicating their large spatial and temporal variability in the landscape. Footprint calculations were performed to attribute source areas to the measured fluxes ...(Kormann and Meixner, 2001; Neftel et al., 2008). The footprint of the flux measurement included areas between 200 m and several kilometres distance from the tower. A preliminary approach was developed to generate monthly maps of N2O fluxes around the tower. Here we present the results from the first seven months of flux measurements. Based on these results we discuss the potential and the limitations of tall tower eddy covariance measurements to estimate maps of N2O fluxes and the integral value of the landscape N2O flux. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by the EU-FP7 InGOS project. We thank Ebba Dellwik (Technical University of Denmark) for providing sonic anemometer data. References: Kormann, R. and Meixner, F.X., 2001. An Analytical Footprint Model For Non-Neutral Stratification. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 99(2): 207-224. Neftel, A., Spirig, C. and Ammann, C., 2008. Application and test of a simple tool for operational footprint evaluations. Environmental Pollution, 152(3): 644-652.

  5. Natural radioactivity measurements in agricultural soil, fertilizer and crops in some specific areas of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif, Shaikh Abdul; Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Molla, Nurul Islam; Nassef, Mohamed Hamed [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering

    2014-09-01

    High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma-ray spectrometry with 500 cc Marinelli beaker geometry was used for radioactivity measurement in some specific areas of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The detection limits of {sup 210}Pb, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in soil, fertilizers, and vegetables lie mostly below 1 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra in local phosphate fertilizers were measured in the range of 236.8-879.0 Bq/kg and 101.5-297.0 Bq/kg, respectively. The respective activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra measured in one charge of German phosphate fertilizer are in the range of 552.7-790.0 Bq/kg and 280.6-317.0 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations of {sup 232}Th are assessed to have maximum values up to 2.24 Bq/kg in locally manufactured phosphate fertilizers. Local urea exhibited concentration level (Bq/kg) of {sup 210}Pb, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K below the detection limit. Mean values of activity concentrations of {sup 238}U in agricultural soil of Wadi Fatima, Taif, Hada Al-Sham, Madina City and Abyar Al-MashiMadina are 21.7 ± 3.24, 38.2 ± 4.1, 17.6 ± 2.1, 34.3 ± 3.5 and 32.7 ± 2.4 Bq/kg, respectively. The respective mean of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in those areas are 12.16 ± 1.16, 20.2 ± 1.33, 11.21 ± 0.4, 21.4 ± 1.7 and 21.0 ± 1.22 Bq/kg. The specific activity of {sup 232}Th in the respective areas has been measured as 12.6 ± 1.3, 25.3 ± 0.8, 11.5 ± 0.9, 20.4 ± 2.4 and 20.0 ± 1.2 Bq/kg. Activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the vegetable samples are mostly found in the range of 0.37 Bq/kg to 37.8 Bq/kg. The {sup 40}K specific activity lies in the range of 44.4-196 Bq/kg. The calculated absorbed dose rates in the representative locations are 24.07-53.28 nGy/h. (orig.)

  6. Benefits of agricultural technology innovation capacity to peasant farmers in rural poor areas: The case of DBN-Group, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Agri Eneji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available DaBeiNong (DBN Technology Group Co Ltd is a private enterprise, at the cutting edge of the agricultural high-tech industry in China. It has developed its innovative capabilities through Research and Development (R&D activities, skilled R&D personnel, new products, services, processes and markets. This study contributes to knowledge by identifying and constructing a model of the enterprise innovation capacity; the inputs and outputs of innovation in DBN and 9 other agricultural high-tech enterprises in China. We analyzed the enterprise technology innovation capacity and offered recommendations. Two sets of questionnaires were used; for the peasant farmers, and for the agricultural enterprises. We used the rank factors on an ordinal scale and simple percentages. We used econometric model to analyze seven factors of agricultural enterprise innovation capacity. The results show that R&D is strategic to Agricultural Enterprise Innovation Capacity (AETIC. However, the benefits to the peasant farmers need to be further intensified, and stepped up from its present average level. We found that enterprises with higher capital and larger sales have more R&D investment than those with smaller sales. Promoting agricultural research and rural development is crucial to pro-poor growth, given the potential for smallholder agriculture to rapidly absorb and adopt innovations.

  7. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an

  8. An Examination of Important Competencies Necessary for Vocational Agriculture in Selected Senior Secondary Students in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onanuga, Peter Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses the relationship existing between some specified competencies important to vocational agriculture and preparation for occupation between male and female students in senior secondary schools in Ijebu-North Local Government Area, Nigeria. It adopted the classical design for change experiment (i.e. before and after measures) with…

  9. Determinants of Agricultural Diversification in a Hotspot Area: Evidence from Colonist and Indigenous Communities in the Sumaco Biosphere Reserve, Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolier Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With data from a household survey covering migrant settlers and indigenous (Kichwa communities in the Sumaco Biosphere Reserve (SBR, this study analyses the drivers of agricultural diversification/specialisation, focusing on the role of ethnicity and the livelihood strategies (LS they follow. Data were collected using the Poverty and Environment Network methodology of the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR-PEN. In order to establish the drivers of agricultural diversification, the number of crops and the Shannon index of crops areas were used as the dependent variables in ordinary least square (OLS models, while a multinomial logit model (MLM was used to assess a household’s degree of diversification. The results of the OLS regression provides evidence supporting the notion that households, with Livestock-based and Wage-based livelihood strategies (LS are less diversified and more specialized than households with Crop-based LS. Ethnicity has a positive and significant effect on agricultural diversification, with Kichwa farms more diversified than those of their migrant colonist counterparts. The results of the multinomial logit model (MLM show that large Kichwa households, with Crop-based and Forest-based LS are more likely to adopt a highly diversified agricultural strategy. Based on these findings, we recommend a redirection of agricultural incentives, towards the adoption of diversified agricultural systems, as a strategy to promote more sustainable production systems in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

  10. Conversion of traditional agricultural land to built-up areas. Land use/cover changes in the municipality of Valencia (1956-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valera Lozano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand the land use-cover dynamics from the mid- 1950s to 2012 in the municipality of Valencia, eastern Spain. The study area is a very interesting example of the many land use and land cover changes in the landscape of Mediterranean alluvial plains. The analysis was based on photo interpretation of aerial photographs (1956, 1984, 2006 and 2012 and GIS based methodology. At a detailed scale (1:10,000, results show that there has been a highly dynamic process produced by the extent of land developed as urban area. In 1956 11,112 hectares were occupied by agricultural land and natural areas. During fifty five years, the sealed surface was 2,396 hectares. In 2012 the built-up extent was around 33% of the studied area. In the municipality of Valencia much of the land converted to urban use was once highly productive agricultural land.

  11. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (Córdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the

  12. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Guseva, Natalia; Sun, Zhanxue; Bychinsky, Valeriy; Boeckx, Pascal; Gao, Bai

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen contamination of natural water is a typical problem for various territories throughout the world. One of the regions exposed to nitrogen pollution is located in the Poyang Lake basin. As a result of agricultural activity and dense population, the shallow groundwater of this area is characterised by a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, primarily NO3-, with the concentration varying from 0.1 mg/L to 206 mg/L. Locally, high ammonium content occurs in the shallow groundwater with low reduction potential Eh ( 100 mV. To identify sources of nitrogen species and the factors that determine their behaviour, the dual stable isotope approach (δ15N and δ18О) and physical-chemical modelling were applied. Actual data were collected by sampling shallow groundwater from domestic water supply wells around the lake. The δ18О values from - 4.1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance. The enrichment of nitrate with the 15N isotope indicates that manure and domestic sewage are the principal sources of nitrogen compounds. Inorganic nitrogen speciation and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the high stability of nitrate in the studied groundwater. Computer simulation and field observations indicate the reducing conditions formed under joint effects of anthropogenic factors and appropriate natural conditions, such as the low-level topography in which decreased water exchange rate can occur. The simulation also demonstrates the growth in pH of the groundwater as a consequence of fertilisation, which, in turn, conduced to the clay mineral formation at lower concentrations of aqueous clay-forming components than the ones under the natural conditions.

  13. Influence of particulates on phosphorus loading exported from farm drainage during a storm event in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of particulates on P loading captured during a single storm event. The Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida comprises 280,000 hectares of organic soil farmland artificially drained by ditches, canals and pumps. Phosphorus (P)-enriched suspended particulates in canals are susceptible to transport and can contribute significantly to the overall P loads in drainage water. A settling tank experiment was conducted to capture particulates during tropical storm Isaac in 2012 from three farms approximately 2.4 to 3.6 km2 in size. Farm canal discharge water was collected in a series of two 200 liter settling tanks over a seven-day drainage period, during tropical storm Isaac. Water from the settling tanks was siphoned through Imhoff settling cones, where the particulates were allowed to settle and collected for P-fractionation analyses, and compared to intact sediment cores collected from the bottom of the canals. The discharged particulates contained higher organic matter content (OM), total P, and labile P fractions compared to the canal bottom sediments. Based on the equilibrium P concentrations, surface sediments behave as a source of P to the water column. A seven-day continuous drainage event exported 4.7 to 11.1 metric tons of suspended solids per farm, corresponding to 32 to 63 kg of particulate P being lost to downstream ecosystems. Drainage associated to a single seven-day storm event exported up to 61% of the total annual farm P load. It is evident from this study that short-term, high-intensity storm events can skew annual P loads due to the export of significantly higher particulate matter from farm canals. Exported particulates rich in P can provide a supplemental source of nutrients if captured and replenished back into the farmlands, as a sustainable farming practice.

  14. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Guseva, Natalia; Sun, Zhanxue; Bychinsky, Valeriy; Boeckx, Pascal; Gao, Bai

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen contamination of natural water is a typical problem for various territories throughout the world. One of the regions exposed to nitrogen pollution is located in the Poyang Lake basin. As a result of agricultural activity and dense population, the shallow groundwater of this area is characterised by a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, primarily NO 3 - , with the concentration varying from 0.1mg/L to 206mg/L. Locally, high ammonium content occurs in the shallow groundwater with low reduction potential Eh (shallow groundwater of the Poyang Lake basin has Eh>100mV. To identify sources of nitrogen species and the factors that determine their behaviour, the dual stable isotope approach (δ 15 N and δ 18 О) and physical-chemical modelling were applied. Actual data were collected by sampling shallow groundwater from domestic water supply wells around the lake. The δ 18 О values from -4.1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance. The enrichment of nitrate with the 15 N isotope indicates that manure and domestic sewage are the principal sources of nitrogen compounds. Inorganic nitrogen speciation and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the high stability of nitrate in the studied groundwater. Computer simulation and field observations indicate the reducing conditions formed under joint effects of anthropogenic factors and appropriate natural conditions, such as the low-level topography in which decreased water exchange rate can occur. The simulation also demonstrates the growth in pH of the groundwater as a consequence of fertilisation, which, in turn, conduced to the clay mineral formation at lower concentrations of aqueous clay-forming components than the ones under the natural conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mapping magnetic lineaments and subsurface basement beneath ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    studied the basement structures beneath parts of the Lower Benue Trough (LBT). Anudu et .... order vertical derivatives can be calculated respectively using the relations below: 145. ( ) ... minerals as in the case of the FVD-RTP-TMI (Figure 6).

  16. Elastic and Anelastic Structure Beneath Eurasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekstrom, Goran

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this work has been to map the variations of elastic mantle properties beneath Eurasia over horizontal length scales of approximately 1000-1500 kilometers and vertial length...

  17. Mapping for the management of diffuse pollution risks related to agricultural plant protection practices: case of the Etang de l'Or catchment area in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mghirbi, Oussama; Bord, Jean-Paul; Le Grusse, Philippe; Mandart, Elisabeth; Fabre, Jacques

    2018-03-08

    Faced with health, environmental, and socio-economic issues related to the heavy use of pesticides, diffuse phytosanitary pollution becomes a major concern shared by all the field actors. These actors, namely the farmers and territorial managers, have expressed the need to implement decision support tools for the territorial management of diffuse pollution resulting from the plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet these steadily increasing requests, a cartographic analysis approach was implemented based on GIS which allows the spatialization of the diffuse pollution impacts related to plant protection practices on the Etang de l'Or catchment area in the South of France. Risk mapping represents a support-decision tool that enables the different field actors to identify and locate vulnerable areas, so as to determine action plans and agri-environmental measures depending on the context of the natural environment. This work shows that mapping is helpful for managing risks related to the use of pesticides in agriculture by employing indicators of pressure (TFI) and risk on the applicator's health (IRSA) and on the environment (IRTE). These indicators were designed to assess the impact of plant protection practices at various spatial scales (field, farm, etc.). The cartographic analysis of risks related to plant protection practices shows that diffuse pollution is unequally located in the North (known for its abundant garrigues and vineyards) and in the South of the Etang de l'Or catchment area (the Mauguio-Lunel agricultural plain known for its diversified cropping systems). This spatial inequity is essentially related to land use and agricultural production system. Indeed, the agricultural lands cover about 60% of the total catchment area. Consequently, this cartographic analysis helps the territorial actors with the implementation of strategies for managing risks of diffuse pollution related to pesticides use in agriculture, based on environmental and

  18. Detection of erosion events using 10Be profiles: Example of the impact of agriculture on soil erosion in the Chesapeake Bay area (U.S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Brown, L.; Pavich, M.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1986-01-01

    10 Be concentration, total carbon and grain-size were measured in cores collected in undisturbed estuarine sediments of three tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. These cores were previously studied by Davis and Brush for pollen content, age and sedimentation rate. In this work, we compare the results obtained for these various analyses. In the cores, we observed two increases in 10 Be concentration concomitant with two major changes in the pollen composition of the sediments. These two pollen changes each correspond to well-dated agricultural horizons reflecting different stages in the introduction of European farming techniques. In the Chesapeake Bay area, the agricultural development, associated with forest clearing, appears to have triggered the erosion, transport, and sedimentation into the river mouths of large quantities of 10 Be-rich soils. This phenomenon explains the observed rise in the sedimentation rate associated with increases in agricultural land-use. (orig.)

  19. Dynamics of 137Cs concentration in agricultural products in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Sanzharova, N.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of 137 Cs concentration in the main types of agricultural products obtained in regions of Russia contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in 1986, have been analysed. The rate of decline of 137 Cs contamination in agricultural products during the period under study (1987-1992) was not uniform. Reductions of the 137 Cs content of produce was most rapid during the early years after the accident, as a consequence of the intensive application of countermeasures at that time. Half-life periods for 137 Cs content in milk (the basic dose-forming product) and the decrease in products for areas in Russia subjected to the most intensive contamination amounted to 1.6 to 4.8 years, depending on the scale of countermeasures carried out. Half-life periods of decrease of 137 Cs content in other types of agricultural products (grain, potato) were within the range of 2 to 7 years. Based on the comparison of the dynamics of 137 Cs levels in agricultural products of the regions where the countermeasures scales differed, the contribution of countermeasures and of natural biogeochemical processes to the decrease of 137 Cs contamination levels of the main types of agricultural products that determine the dose from internal irradiation of local population has been estimated. (author)

  20. Linking river nutrient concentrations to land use and rainfall in a paddy agriculture-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; She, Dongli; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use and land-use changes on river nutrient concentrations are not well understood, especially in the watersheds of developing countries that have a mixed land use of rice paddy fields and developing urban surfaces. Here, we present a three-year study of a paddy agricultural-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China. The annual anthropogenic nitrogen (N) input from the agricultural region to the urban region was high, yet the results showed that the monthly nutrient concentrations in the river were low in the rainy seasons. The nutrient concentrations decreased continuously as the river water passed through the traditional agriculture region (TAR; paddy rice and wheat rotation) and increased substantially in the city region (CR). The traditional agricultural reference region exported most of the nutrient loads at high flows (>1mmd(-1)), the intensified agricultural region (IAR, aquaculture and poultry farming) exported most of the nutrient loads at moderate flows (between 0.5 and 1mmd(-1)), and the CR reference area exported most of the nutrient loads under low to moderate flows. We developed a statistical model to link variations in the nutrient concentrations to the proportion of land-use types and rainfall. The statistical results showed that impervious surfaces, which we interpret as a proxy for urban activities including sewage disposal, were the most important drivers of nutrient concentrations, whereas water surfaces accounted for a substantial proportion of the nutrient sinks. Therefore, to efficiently reduce water pollution, sewage from urban areas must be addressed as a priority, although wetland restoration could also achieve substantial pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Combined impacts of land use and soil property changes on soil erosion in a mollisol area under long-term agricultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Wu, Yuyang; Hao, Zengchao; Zhang, Qi; Bu, Qingwei; Gao, Xiang

    2018-02-01

    Soil erosion exhibits special characteristics in the process of agricultural development. Understanding the combined impacts of land use and soil property changes on soil erosion, especially in the area under long-term agricultural cultivations, is vital to watershed agricultural and soil management. This study investigated the temporal-spatial patterns of the soil erosion based on a modified version of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and conducted a soil erosion contribution analysis. The land use data were interpreted from Landsat series images, and soil properties were obtained from field sampling, laboratory tests and SPAW (Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Water) model calculations. Over a long period of agricultural development, the average erosion modulus decreased from 187.7tkm -2 a -1 in 1979 to 158.4tkm -2 a -1 in 2014. The land use types were transformed mainly in the reclamation of paddy fields and the shrinking of wetlands on a large scale. Most of the soils were converted to loam from silty or clay loam and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (K s ) of most soil types decreased by 1.11% to 43.6%. The rapidly increasing area of 49.8km 2 of paddy fields together with the moderate decrease of 14.0km 2 of forests, as well as K s values explained 87.4% of the total variance in soil erosion. Although changes in soil physical and water characteristics indicated that soil erosion loads should have become higher, the upsurge in paddy fields played an important role in mitigating soil erosion in this study area. These results demonstrated that land use changes had more significant impacts than soil property changes on soil erosion. This study suggested that rational measures should be taken to extend paddy fields and control the dry land farming. These findings will benefit watershed agricultural targeting and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of agricultural practice on trace metals in soils and vegetation in the water conservation area along the East River (Dongjiang River), South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang, Renxiu [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-08-01

    Dongjiang (East River) is the key resource of potable water for the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Although industrial activities are limited in the water conservation area along this river, agriculture is very intensive. The present study evaluated trace metals in four soils under different cultivation. The total concentrations of trace metals decreased in the order orchard soil > vegetable soil > paddy soil > natural soil, reflecting decreasing inputs of agrochemicals to soils. Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio in the above-ground tissues of plant was significantly lower than their corresponding soils. In combination with the low transfer factor of Pb from soil to plant shoots, atmospheric deposition is probably a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves. Regular monitoring on the soil quality in this area is recommended for the safety of water resource and agricultural products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil Cd exceeded the upper limit of Chinese standard for agricultural soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Agricultural soil had higher concentrations of metals and lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb in above-ground tissues of plant was more anthropogenic than soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atmospheric deposition may be a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves.

  3. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Methodological approaches to analysis of agricultural countermeasures on radioactive contaminated areas: Estimation of effectiveness and comparison of different alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Alexakhin, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Methodological aspects of countermeasure analysis in the long-term period after a nuclear accident are discussed for agriculture countermeasures for illustrative purposes. The estimates of effectiveness fbr specific countermeasures as well as methods of justified action levels assessments...... and comparison of different alternatives (countermeasures) based on the use of several criteria are considered....

  5. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses - evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape Province, South Africa - AEASA Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The presentation starts with a look at the variety of uses of agricultural lands and the transition towards a multifunctional rural environment. A study to determine the extent of alternative land use transactions in WC, and to collect info...

  6. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  7. Long-term agricultural land-cover change and potential for cropland expansion in the former Virgin Lands area of Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Roland; Prishchepov, Alexander; Müller, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    of Northern Kazakhstan. Further, we assessed the potential of currently idle cropland for re-cultivation. We reconstructed the cropland extent before and after the Virgin Lands Campaign using archival maps, and we mapped the agricultural land cover in the late Soviet and post-Soviet period using multi...... until 1990, as well as cropland contraction after 1990, occurred mainly in areas that were less favorable for agriculture. Cropland re-cultivation after 2000 was occurring on lands with relatively favorable agro-environmental conditions in comparison to remaining idle croplands, albeit with much lower...... agro-environmental endowment compared to stable croplands from 1990 to 2010. In sum, we found that cropland production potentials of the currently uncultivated areas are much lower than commonly believed, and further cropland expansion is only possible at the expense of marginal lands. Our results...

  8. Fresh water production from municipal waste water with RO membrane technology and its application for agriculture and industry in arid area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, F

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of the 21st century is the global water shortage. Therefore it is difficult to increase the quantity of conventional water resources such as surface water and groundwater for agriculture and industry in arid area. Technical advancement in water treatment membrane technology including RO membrane has been remarkable especially in recent years. As the pore size of RO membrane is less than one nanometer, it is possible to produce the fresh water, which satisfies the drinking water quality standards, with utilizing RO membrane. In this report a new fresh water resource from municipal waste water is studied to apply to the plant factory which is the water saving type agriculture and industry in arid area

  9. Ancient Continental Lithosphere Dislocated Beneath Ocean Basins Along the Mid-Lithosphere Discontinuity: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhensheng; Kusky, Timothy M.; Capitanio, Fabio A.

    2017-09-01

    The documented occurrence of ancient continental cratonic roots beneath several oceanic basins remains poorly explained by the plate tectonic paradigm. These roots are found beneath some ocean-continent boundaries, on the trailing sides of some continents, extending for hundreds of kilometers or farther into oceanic basins. We postulate that these cratonic roots were left behind during plate motion, by differential shearing along the seismically imaged mid-lithosphere discontinuity (MLD), and then emplaced beneath the ocean-continent boundary. Here we use numerical models of cratons with realistic crustal rheologies drifting at observed plate velocities to support the idea that the mid-lithosphere weak layer fostered the decoupling and offset of the African continent's buoyant cratonic root, which was left behind during Meso-Cenozoic continental drift and emplaced beneath the Atlantic Ocean. We show that in some cratonic areas, the MLD plays a similar role as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary for accommodating lateral plate tectonic displacements.

  10. Using a Choice Experiment to Assess the Multiple Values of Land in Agricultural Uses in a Peri-urban Area: An Application to Edmonton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haoluan; Swallow, Brent M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Alberta Capital Region (the City of Edmonton and 23 surrounding cities, towns, villages and municipal districts) has experienced rapid population growth, economic development, and conversion of agricultural land into alternative land uses. As a result, some of the province’s most productive farmland has been converted into residential and industrial development. Between 2000 and 2012, growth rates for population and developed areas in Alberta Capital Region are app...

  11. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  12. Imaging Canary Island hotspot material beneath the lithosphere of Morocco and southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Butcher, Amber J.; Thomas, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean has developed into its present day tectonic configuration as a result of complex interactions between late stage subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, continental collision of Africa and Eurasia, and the Canary Island mantle plume. This study utilizes S receiver functions (SRFs) from over 360 broadband seismic stations to seismically image the lithosphere and uppermost mantle from southern Spain through Morocco and the Canary Islands. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ∼65 km beneath the Atlas Mountains and the active volcanic islands to over ∼210 km beneath the cratonic lithosphere in southern Morocco. The common conversion point (CCP) volume of the SRFs indicates that thinned lithosphere extends from beneath the Canary Islands offshore southwestern Morocco, to beneath the continental lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains, and then thickens abruptly at the West African craton. Beneath thin lithosphere between the Canary hot spot and southern Spain, including below the Atlas Mountains and the Alboran Sea, there are distinct pockets of low velocity material, as inferred from high amplitude positive, sub-lithospheric conversions in the SRFs. These regions of low seismic velocity at the base of the lithosphere extend beneath the areas of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism, which has been linked to a Canary hotspot source via geochemical signatures. However, we find that this volume of low velocity material is discontinuous along strike and occurs only in areas of recent volcanism and where asthenospheric mantle flow is identified with shear wave splitting analyses. We propose that the low velocity structure beneath the lithosphere is material flowing sub-horizontally northeastwards beneath Morocco from the tilted Canary Island plume, and the small, localized volcanoes are the result of small-scale upwellings from this material.

  13. International bioenergymarkets - the effects of biofuelpolicies on agriculture and arable area; Kansainvaelinen bioenergiakauppa. Biopolttoainetavoitteiden vaikutukset maatalouteen ja viljelyalan kaeyttoeoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintamaeki, H.; Aro-Heinilae, E.

    2012-11-01

    The worldwide production of biofuels has increased continuously in this millennium. The biofuels have been seen as a means to prevent the climate change, to reduce the dependence of the fossil oil resources and to promote the development of the rural areas. The encouraging factor has been official promotion measures which have operated and have provided the necessary conditions for the growth of both the demand and the supply. The rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The main purpose of this report was to examine and quantify as to what extent the biofuels production may alter the long-term outlook for agriculture and of the cultivation land. The subject of the examination was liquid biofuels that have been meant for traffic use. In the report several scenarios where examined after Fischer (2009) research results for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050. The scenario based quantitative results to be obtained from the study of Fischer are based on the AEZ and WFS models. The models comprise among others demographic and socio-economic factors, the dynamics of production and consumption and the dynamics of the international trade. It is supposed that the demand for liquid biofuels for transportation use is increasing 150 per cent by the year 2030 from the level of 2010. It is anticipated that the demand is increasing everywhere in the world, especially in the developing countries, when the United States and Europe remain the biggest consumers of biofuels. Even though the majority of the biofuels will be produced and spent locally in the future, it is anticipated that their international trade is increasing significantly. The methods of the expansion of the biofuel production are state subsidies, the enlarged objectives of the use of biofuels and the compulsory mixing ratios. The growth of the production of the first generation biofuels which

  14. Agriculture applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas O, G.; Obando D, R.; Alvarez F, A.

    1989-01-01

    Since its beginnings, the Agricultural Area had a selected research team involved in the development of different agricultural techniques. Currently, there are two main branches engaged in the solution of agricultural problems: Soil fertility and induced mutations. Soil fertility: Within this branch, studies on soil nutrients and availability of water and light resources, have been made by using isotope methods. In the near future studies on nitrogen and potassium content in potato, rice and wheat plantations will be held. Induced mutations: The main objective of this team is to obtain through radioinduced mutations, as well as in vitro growth, improved rice and other cereal seeds to be used under hostile environmental conditions. The further goal will be to develop new genotypes straight from the mutants or by utilization of this material as breeding materials in interchange programs

  15. Bird communities as indicators of the impact of changes in agriculture in the Mar Menor catchment area (Murcia, SE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinos, P.; Robledano, F.; Jimenez, M. V.; Zapata Perez, V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean coastal landscapes have suffered significant changes along the last decades due to agricultural intensification and tourism, that have altered the hydrological regime of wetland, as ha occurred in the Mar Menor (Southeast Spain). Such alterations and the consequent changes in nutrient flows are threatening the conservation of these wetlands. We analyze the effects of these ecosystems changes on the bird assemblages, focusing on two especially sensitive communities: water birds and steppe passerines. (Author) 2 refs.

  16. Disaggregation of MODIS surface temperature over an agricultural area using a time series of Formosat-2 images

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin, O.; Duchemin, Benoit; Hagolle, O.; Jacob, Frédéric; Coudert, B.; Chehbouni, Abdelghani; Dedieu, G.; Garatuza, J.; Kerr, Yann

    2010-01-01

    No of Pages 13; International audience; The temporal frequency of the thermal data provided by current spaceborne high-resolution imagery systems is inadequate for agricultural applications. As an alternative to the lack of high-resolution observations, kilometric thermal data can be disaggregated using a green (photosynthetically active) vegetation index e.g. NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) collected at high resolution. Nevertheless, this approach is only valid in the condition...

  17. Assessment of metals pollution on agricultural soil surrounding a lead-zinc mining area in the Karst region of Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolan; Li, Zhongyi; Yang, Weiwei; Pan, Liping; Gu, Minghua; Lee, DoKyoung

    2013-06-01

    Soil samples were collected on farmland in a lead-zinc mining area in the Karst region of Guangxi, China. The contamination of the soil by eight metals (Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni) was determined. Among all these metals, Cd is the most serious pollutant in this area. Zn, Hg as well asPb can also be measured at high levels, which may affect the crop production. All other metals contributed marginally to the overall soil contamination. Besides the evaluation of single metals, the Nemerow synthetic index indicated that the soil is not suitable for agricultural use.

  18. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Agricultural Sciences including Animal Production, Fisheries, Agronomy, Processing and Agricultural Mechanization. Related ...

  19. Using Very High Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery to Estimate Agricultural Production: A comparison of food insecure and secure growing areas in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Husak, G. J.; Bogle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Determining the amount of food produced in a food insecure, isolated, subsistence farming community can be used to help identify households or communities who may be in need of additional food resources. Measuring annual food production in developing countries, much less at a sub-national level, is complicated by lack of data. It can be difficult and costly to access all of the farming households engaged in subsistence farming. However, recent research has focused on the use of remotely sensed data to aid in the estimation of area under cultivation and because food production is the measure of yield (production per hectare) multiplied by area (number of hectares), we can use the area measure to reduce uncertainty in food production estimates. One strategy for estimating cultivated area relies on a fairly time intensive manual interpretation of very high resolution data. Due to the availability of very high resolution data it is possible to construct estimates of cultivated area, even in communities where fields are small. While this strategy has been used to effectively estimate cultivated area in a timely manner, questions remain about the spatial and temporal generalizability of this approach. The purpose of this paper is to produce and compare estimates of cultivated area in two very different agricultural areas of Kenya, a highly food insecure country in East Africa, during two different agricultural seasons. The areas selected represent two different livelihood zones: a marginal growing area where poor farmers rely on inconsistent rainfall and a lush growing area near the mountainous region of the middle-West area of the country where rainfall is consistent and therefore more suited to cultivation. The overarching goal is to determine the effectiveness of very high resolution remotely sensed imagery in calculating estimates of cultivated area in areas where food production strategies are different. Additionally the results of this research will explore the

  20. Comparative assessment of soil contamination by lead and heavy metals in riparian and agricultural areas (southern Québec, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Laurent, Diane; Hähni, Marlies; St-Laurent, Julien; Baril, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C(10)-C(50)), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots) have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout) and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg(-1) (As), 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg(-1) (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg(-1) (Pb). These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg(-1)) in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg(-1) (SD 17.5). Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites) range between 12 and 22 mg kg(-1), and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage) to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail.

  1. Comparative Assessment of Soil Contamination by Lead and Heavy Metals in Riparian and Agricultural Areas (Southern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Baril

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg−1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg−1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg−1 (Pb. These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg−1 in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg−1 (SD 17.5. Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites range between 12 and 22 mg kg−1, and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail.

  2. MIRCA2000—Global monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000: A new high-resolution data set for agricultural and hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; DöLl, Petra

    2010-03-01

    To support global-scale assessments that are sensitive to agricultural land use, we developed the global data set of monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRCA2000). With a spatial resolution of 5 arc min (about 9.2 km at the equator), MIRCA2000 provides both irrigated and rainfed crop areas of 26 crop classes for each month of the year. The data set covers all major food crops as well as cotton. Other crops are grouped into categories (perennial, annual, and fodder grasses). It represents multicropping systems and maximizes consistency with census-based national and subnational statistics. According to MIRCA2000, 25% of the global harvested areas are irrigated, with a cropping intensity (including fallow land) of 1.12, as compared to 0.84 for the sum of rainfed and irrigated harvested crops. For the dominant crops (rice (1.7 million km2 harvested area), wheat (2.1 million km2), and maize (1.5 million km2)), roughly 60%, 30%, and 20% of the harvested areas are irrigated, respectively, and half of the citrus, sugar cane, and cotton areas. While wheat and maize are the crops with the largest rainfed harvested areas (1.5 million km2 and 1.2 million km2, respectively), rice is clearly the crop with the largest irrigated harvested area (1.0 million km2), followed by wheat (0.7 million km2) and maize (0.3 million km2). Using MIRCA2000, 33% of global crop production and 44% of total cereal production were determined to come from irrigated agriculture.

  3. REXPO: A catchment model designed to understand and simulate the loss dynamics of plant protection products and biocides from agricultural and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, I. K.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Stamm, C.

    2016-02-01

    During rain events, biocides and plant protection products are transported from agricultural fields but also from urban sources to surface waters. Originally designed to be biologically active, these compounds may harm organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Although several models allow either urban or agricultural storm events to be predicted, only few combine these two sources, and none of them include biocide losses from building envelopes. This study therefore aims to develop a model designed to predict water and substance flows from urban and agricultural sources to surface waters. We developed a model based on physical principles for water percolation and substance flow including micro- (also called matrix-) and macropore-flows for the agricultural areas together with a model representing sources, sewer systems and a wastewater treatment plant for urban areas. In a second step, the combined model was applied to a catchment where an extensive field study had been conducted. The modelled and measured discharge and compound results corresponded reasonably well in terms of quantity and dynamics. The total cumulative discharge was only slightly lower than the total measured discharge (factor 0.94). The total modelled losses of the agriculturally used herbicide atrazine were slightly lower (∼25%) than the measured losses when the soil pore water distribution coefficient (describing the partition between soil particles and pore water) (Kd) was kept constant and slightly higher if it was increased with time. The modelled urban losses of diuron from facades were within a factor of three with respect to the measured values. The results highlighted the change in importance of the flow components during a rain event from urban sources during the most intensive rain period towards agricultural ones over a prolonged time period. Applications to two other catchments, one neighbouring and one on another continent showed that the model can be applied using site specific data for

  4. Sustainability of natural attenuation of nitrate in agricultural aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of nitrate in groundwater in agricultural areas, coinciding with increased use of chemical and organic fertilizers, have raised concern because of risks to environmental and human health. At some sites, these problems are mitigated by natural attenuation of nitrate as a result of microbially mediated reactions. Results from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program show that reactions of dissolved nitrate with solid aquifer minerals and organic carbon help lower nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath agricultural fields. However, increased fluxes of nitrate cause ongoing depletion of the finite pool of solid reactants. Consumption of the solid reactants diminishes the capacity of the aquifer to remove nitrate, calling into question the long-term sustainability of these natural attenuation processes.

  5. Reclaimed water as a main resource to enhance the adaptive capacity to climate change in semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural areas using Earth Observation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia Rico, Ana; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Matieu, Pierre-Philippe; Hernandez Sancho, Francesc; Loarte, Edwin

    Lack of water is being a big problem in semi-arid areas to make agricultural profits. Most of Mediterranean countries like Spain, Italy, Greece or Cyprus and other countries like Morocco, the Arab United Emirates, South-American countries or China are starting to reuse wastewater as adaptation to climate change water scarcity. Drought areas are nowadays increasing, thus making fertile areas unproductive. For this reason, the European trend is to work on reusing wastewater as a solution to water scarcity in agriculture. Moreover, since population is growing fast, wastewater production is increasing as well as drinkable water demand, thus making reclaimed water as the water guarantee for irrigation and better agricultural management. This work represents a preliminary initiative to check, analyse and monitor the land by using remote sensing techniques to identify and determine the potential lands that used to be productive in the past, are now abandoned, and we want to recuperate to obtain socio-economic benefits. On top of this, this initiative will clearly enhance the adaption capacity of rural/agricultural lands to climate change. Alternatively to reclaimed water, greenhouses, desalination plants or transboarding water do not really eliminate the problem but only offer a temporary solution, make spending plenty of money and always provoking irreversible damages to the environment. The pilot area to first develop this research is the Valencia and Murcia Autonomous Communities located in the Spanish Mediterranean Coastline. An added value of this work will be to develop a methodology transferable to other potential countries with similar climatic characteristics and difficulties for irrigation, by using remote sensing methods and techniques. The remote sensing products obtained provide full information about the current state of the potential lands to grow crops. Potential areas are then being selected to carry out a socio-economic analysis leading to: (i

  6. Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development

    2009-01-01

    Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in susta...

  7. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  8. [Integrated approach to the promotion of health and safety in agriculture: a pilot study in the Cremona area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmi, A M; Bottazzi, R; Dolara, D; Longo, S; Boldori, L; Bertoletti, M; Boglioli, V; Cauzzi, D; Mastroiorio, S; Pizzacani, R; Valcarenghi, M; Cirla, P E

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural sector in Cremona country is made up of many small farms and this makes it difficult to realease the principles of health and safety at work. In this experience an innovative platform for information and training, in which the agricoltural trade unions are privileged partner of public institutions in the road map for continuous improvement, has been tested. In a first phase, the availability of expert technicians to check the consistency of the application of safety standards has been offered by the trade associations free of charge to 100 farms. The critical points and problems were identified using specific checklists and a custom proposal to solve them was proposed. In a second phase, farms participating in the project have been officially inspected by the local public health authority. The comparison between the data collected in the two phases allowed to ascertain a good effectiveness and efficiency of the preventive intervention plan experienced.

  9. Change of the natural radiation exposure due to agriculture and industrial activities in a high natural radioactivity area from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Amaral, E.C. da.

    1992-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais State one of the biggest alkaline intrusions in the world. This study has shown the expected value for the mean annual radiation exposure due to the agricultural activities ranges from 6 up to 14 mSv/a depending on the age and living habits of the population group. The inhalation exposure of radon, thoron and their progenies represents the largest radiological health hazard (70-90%); this is followed by the external gamma irradiation from soil (10-25%). Ingestion of natural radionuclides with local food is only of minor radiological consequence. It was found that the lethal cancer risk might increase by 4% for a person born at the plateau, living and working there for the rest of her life. For the remote population the consumption the consumption of food products exported from the plateau leads to an expected value for the collective dose of 19 man Sv/a. This corresponding nominally to the small calculated number of 1 additional case of cancer per year. Therefore the main radiation impact of the agricultural activities are not the increased concentrations of natural radionuclides in food products but the fact that they are produced there with human labor and thus increasing the radiation exposure to a large number of farm workers and their families that move for occupational reasons to that region. The radiation exposure due to the mining and milling activities is, in spite of the significant increase of radionuclide activity concentrations in river waters, only of the order of 0.3 mSv/a. However as a recognized industrial source the ICRP dose limitation system has to be applied. Under this aspect the exposure calculated here, 0.3 mSv/a, should be considered as acceptable. (author). 93 refs, 16 figs, 58 tabs

  10. Identifying, monitoring and implementing "sustainable" agricultural practices for smallholder farmers over large geographic areas in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and weather parameters, GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings), farmer surveys and diary data; and discuss our key conclusions based on our approach and the analysis of the collected data which was enabled by use of a commercially available comprehensive agricultural data collection software.

  11. Marginality Phenomena and New Uses on the Agricultural Land. Diachronic and Spatial Analyses of the Molise Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Cialdea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of land use in the Molise Region. The attention is focused on the changes that occurred primarily on the rural area of the coastal area in this Region.  The presence of urban centers of limited dimension, both for the demographic performance and for the dimensional order, is the main characteristic of this area. The historic part of rural tradition, at the same time, no longer emerges as a primary component of the regional landscape. This trend is particularly evident in the coastal zone, which is analyzed in this work not only in the range of areas that directly bordering the Adriatic Sea, but also in its pre-coastal zone, which remains imprinted on a matrix rural, but suffering from marginalization phenomena

  12. Transfer factor of caesium-137 in natural and agricultural grass ecosystems in the area of Plavsk radioactive spot, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A.; Machaeva, Ekaterina N. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyaev, Vladimir R. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Root uptake and translocation of ¹³⁷Cs from soil to plant is the key for estimation of general ecological situation and land use on radioactive contaminated territories. There are numerous researches concerning the relationship between the level of the radionuclide presence in soils and its accumulation in vegetation that usually describes as transfer factor (TF) for ¹³⁷Cs (the ratio of the specific ¹³⁷Cs activity in the plant tissue and the soil). But in most cases only edible organs or above-ground parts of plants are taken into account in evaluating TF. It is reasonable from the standpoint of practical use, but does not provide accurate information in the study of ¹³⁷Cs biogeochemical cycle features. The study of the ¹³⁷Cs root uptake from the radioactive contaminated chernozem soil and its distribution between above-ground and below-ground fractions of grass vegetation was conducted in the natural conditions on the territory of Plavsk radioactive spot (Tula region, Russia)~25 years after Chernobyl accident. The main crops of field rotation in this landscape (wheat, barley, potatoes, rape, maize) which occupy watersheds and slopes with arable chernozems contaminated at a level 460-670 Bq/kg (170-220 kBq/m²) and natural grassland ecosystems which occupy lower parts of slopes and flood plains with dry and wet meadows contaminated at a level 620-710 Bq/kg (210-250 kBq/m²) were examined. Total accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs in vegetation strongly depends on the level of soil radioactive contamination (correlation coefficient 0.87). So specific ¹³⁷Cs activity in vegetation of meadows (103-160 Bq/kg) in general more than one in agricultural crops (9-92 Bq/kg). Other reason may be the predominance of perennial herbs in natural meadows whereas agricultural systems contain annual crops. The values of ¹³⁷Cs TF in the studied ecosystems vary within a relatively narrow range: from 0.01 (rape) to 0.20 (wet meadow), that confirms the discrimination of

  13. Intake of 238U and 232Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Gothankar, S.; Iongwai, P.S.; Kharbuli, B.; War, S.A.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 232 Th, 238 U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of 238 U and 232 Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6–15.5 and 2.0–5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of 238 U and 232 Th were 2.0 μg d −1 (25 mBq d −1 ) and 3.4 μg d −1 (14 mBq d −1 ) is comparable with reported range 0.5–5.0 μg d −1 and 0.15–3.5 μg d −1 respectively for the Asian population. - Highlights: ► 232 Th, 238 U were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). ► Study area located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition. ► Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. ► The estimated daily intake of 232 Th and 238 U in high rainfall area was found to be 3.4 and 2.0 μg respectively.

  14. Crustal Structure beneath Alaska from Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, A.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal structure in Alaska has not been well resolved due to the remote nature of much of the state. The USArray Transportable Array (TA), which is operating in Alaska and northwestern Canada, significantly increases the coverage of broadband seismic stations in the region and allows for a more comprehensive study of the crust. We have analyzed P-receiver functions from earthquake data recorded by 76 stations of the TA and AK networks. Both common conversion point (CCP) and H-K methods are used to estimate the mean crustal thickness. The results from the CCP stacking method show that the Denali fault marks a sharp transition from thick crust in the south to thin crust in the north. The thickest crust up to 52 km is located in the St. Elias Range, which has been formed by oblique collision between the Yakutat microplate and North America. A thick crust of 48 km is also observed beneath the eastern Alaska Range. These observations suggest that high topography in Alaska is largely compensated by the thick crust root. The Moho depth ranges from 28 km to 35 km beneath the northern lowlands and increases to 40-45 km under the Books Range. The preliminary crustal thickness from the H-K method generally agrees with that from the CCP stacking with thicker crust beneath high mountain ranges and thinner crust beneath lowlands and basins. However, the offshore part is not well constrained due to the limited coverage of stations. The mean Vp/Vs ratio is around 1.7 in the Yukon-Tanana terrane and central-northern Alaska. The ratio is about 1.9 in central and southern Alaska with higher values at the Alaska Range, Wrangell Mountains, and St. Elias Range. Further data analyses are needed for obtaining more details of the crustal structure in Alaska to decipher the origin and development of different tectonic terranes.

  15. Integrated modeling of agricultural scenarios (IMAS) to support pesticide action plans: the case of the Coulonge drinking water catchment area (SW France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, Françoise; Leccia-Phelpin, Odile; Lescot, Jean-Marie; Minette, Sébastien; Miralles, André; Barberis, Delphine; Scordia, Charlotte; Kuentz-Simonet, Vanessa; Tonneau, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Non-point source pollution is a cause of major concern within the European Union. This is reflected in increasing public and political focus on a more sustainable use of pesticides, as well as a reduction in diffuse pollution. Climate change will likely to lead to an even more intensive use of pesticides in the future, affecting agriculture in many ways. At the same time, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and associated EU policies called for a "good" ecological and chemical status to be achieved for water bodies by the end of 2015, currently delayed to 2021-2027 due to a lack of efficiency in policies and timescale of resilience for hydrosystems, especially groundwater systems. Water managers need appropriate and user-friendly tools to design agro-environmental policies. These tools should help them to evaluate the potential impacts of mitigation measures on water resources, more clearly define protected areas, and more efficiently distribute financial incentives to farmers who agree to implement alternative practices. At present, a number of reports point out that water managers do not use appropriate information from monitoring or models to make decisions and set environmental action plans. In this paper, we propose an integrated and collaborative approach to analyzing changes in land use, farming systems, and practices and to assess their effects on agricultural pressure and pesticide transfers to waters. The integrated modeling of agricultural scenario (IMAS) framework draws on a range of data and expert knowledge available within areas where a pesticide action plan can be defined to restore the water quality, French "Grenelle law" catchment areas, French Water Development and Management Plan areas, etc. A so-called "reference scenario" represents the actual soil occupation and pesticide-spraying practices used in both conventional and organic farming. A number of alternative scenarios are then defined in cooperation with stakeholders, including socio

  16. Agricultural Economic Development In The Conservation Area And The Buffer Zone Of The National Park West End Banten Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Forest ecosystem as a whole form of landscape biological resources dominated by trees in their natural forms with the environment that one can not be separated have many benefits for human life either directly or indirectly. Forest is a unique and complex ecosystem also has the economic potential value in it if utilized properly. Indonesia has a Natural Resources SDA were abundant but on the other hand the economic level of the people is still low. It is certainly in the spotlight especially that forest communities are on average less capable in economic terms. In various regions in Indonesia forest use that is not merely become agro-industry has actually been ogled as a way to make forest that is specifically intended to be developed and maintained for the purpose of tourism or the new tour. Data Director General of PHPA Forest Conservation and Nature Protection until year 98 has been designated a conservation area as much as 374 units with an area of 21.3 million hectares consists of 16.8 million hectares of land and 4.5 million hectares in the waters. Vast natural spaces altogether 5.9 million hectares were reached broad nature conservation area of 15.4 million hectares. Target conservation area on the mainland can reach 10 or about 20 million hectares. The waters are still expected for the target area of 10 million hectares.

  17. Impact of Brick Kilns’ Emission on Soil Quality of Agriculture Fields in the Vicinity of Selected Bhaktapur Area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Bisht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate soil quality and impact of brick kiln on different physicochemical parameters of soils of agricultural field, located in the vicinity of Bhaktapur, Nepal. The study was carried out by determining the physicochemical characteristics of soil, soil fertility, and heavy metal contamination of soil. During the entire study period, water absorptivity of soil ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mg/L, pH varies from 5.885 to 7.64, and organic carbon content and organic matter varied from 0.277 to 0.93%, from 0.477% to 1.603%, respectively. Nutrient content, that is, sulfate and nitrate concentration, in the soil ranged from 0.829 to 3.764 mol/L and from 0.984 to 29.99 mol/L, respectively. The findings revealed that concentrations of heavy metals (chromium and lead were within permissible limit, although the levels were higher in soil at 50 m and decrease farther from brick kiln. However, the physical parameters and nutrient content were deficient in soil at 50 m while increasing gradually at distances of 100 m and 150 m. The variation of result obtained for physical parameters supports the fact that quality of soil in terms of heavy metal content and nutrient content was directly proportional to the distance from the kiln; that is, the quality of soil increased with increasing distance.

  18. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho compared with other supposed causal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxim, L [Institut des Sciences de la Communication, CNRS UPS 3088, 27 Rue Damesme, 75013 Paris (France); Van der Sluijs, J P, E-mail: laura.maxim@iscc.cnrs.f, E-mail: J.P.vanderSluijs@uu.n [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

  19. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai, Pham Manh; Sebesvari, Zita; Minh, Tu Binh; Viet, Pham Hung; Renaud, Fabrice G.

    2011-01-01

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: → Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. → Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. → Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. → Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. → Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  20. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho compared with other supposed causal factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxim, L; Van der Sluijs, J P

    2010-01-01

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

  1. Soil Moisture Estimation over Vegetated Agricultural Areas: Tigris Basin, Turkey from Radarsat-2 Data by Polarimetric Decomposition Models and a Generalized Regression Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Siraç Özerdem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining the soil moisture in agricultural fields is a significant parameter to use irrigation systems efficiently. In contrast to standard soil moisture measurements, good results might be acquired in a shorter time over large areas by remote sensing tools. In order to estimate the soil moisture over vegetated agricultural areas, a relationship between Radarsat-2 data and measured ground soil moistures was established by polarimetric decomposition models and a generalized regression neural network (GRNN. The experiments were executed over two agricultural sites on the Tigris Basin, Turkey. The study consists of four phases. In the first stage, Radarsat-2 data were acquired on different dates and in situ measurements were implemented simultaneously. In the second phase, the Radarsat-2 data were pre-processed and the GPS coordinates of the soil sample points were imported to this data. Then the standard sigma backscattering coefficients with the Freeman–Durden and H/A/α polarimetric decomposition models were employed for feature extraction and a feature vector with four sigma backscattering coefficients (σhh, σhv, σvh, and σvv and six polarimetric decomposition parameters (entropy, anisotropy, alpha angle, volume scattering, odd bounce, and double bounce were generated for each pattern. In the last stage, GRNN was used to estimate the regional soil moisture with the aid of feature vectors. The results indicated that radar is a strong remote sensing tool for soil moisture estimation, with mean absolute errors around 2.31 vol %, 2.11 vol %, and 2.10 vol % for Datasets 1–3, respectively; and 2.46 vol %, 2.70 vol %, 7.09 vol %, and 5.70 vol % on Datasets 1 & 2, 2 & 3, 1 & 3, and 1 & 2 & 3, respectively.

  2. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyessar Turdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively. The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y. Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults was higher than acceptable (10−6 and lower than priority risk levels (10−4 (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B. For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4.

  3. Techno-Economic and dynamic analysis of low velocity wind turbines for rural electrification in agricultural area of Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipirodjanapong, Sumate; Namboonruang, Weerapol

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the analysis of potential wind speed of electrical power generating using for agriculture in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. The total area is 1,900 square kilometers. First of all, the agriculture electrical load (AEL) data was investigated from all farming districts in Ratchaburi. Subsequently, the load data was analyzed and classified by the load power and energy consumption at individual district. The wind turbine generator (WTG) at capacity rate of 200w, 500w, 1,000w, and 2,000w were adopted to implement for the AEL in each area at wind speed range of 3 to 6 m/s. This paper shows the approach based on the wind speed at individual district to determine the capacity of WTG using the capacitor factor (CF) and the cost of energy (COE) in baht per unit under different WTG value rates. Ten locations for wind station installations are practical investigated. Results show that for instance, the Damnoen Sa-duak (DN-04) one of WTG candidate site is identically significant for economic investment of installing rated WTG. The results of COE are important to determine whether a wind site is good or not.

  4. Residues and Eco-risk Evaluation of Organochlorine Pesticides in Agricultural Soils from Typical Vegetable Produce Areas of Hainan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Dong-ming

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine current levels of organochlorine pesticides(OCPsand assess their sources, ecological risk in agricultural soils from typical vegetable produce areas of Hainan Province, 33 soil samples were collected and detected by the GC method. The results showed that OCPs were found in 90.9%of the collected soil samples and ranged from Not Dedected(NDto 17.37 ng·g-1, with a mean of 2.30 ng·g-1. The DDTs、HCHs、endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate were found over 54%in the collected soil samples. Also, the DDTs were the main compo-nents, and their contribution to the residues of OCPs was over 54.6%. Analysis of the sources of contamination showed that HCHs in the area were mainly derived from lindane. DDTs, which were suspected to have recent application to 18.2%soil, were derived mainly from technical DDTs or dicofol containing DDT impurities. Comparing with various studies and the‘National Environmental Quality Standard for Soils of Chi-na’(GB 15618-1995, OCP pollutions were generally slight in present study, and the ecological risk of HCHs and DDTs residue in agricul-tural soils of Hainan Province was lower.

  5. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  6. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of rice field banks and restored habitats in an agricultural area of the Po Plain (Lombardy, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, Nicola; Cardarelli, Elisa; Bogliani, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    An entomological investigation was carried out in an agricultural area, mainly rice fields, of the Po river plain, located in the municipalities of Lacchiarella (MI) and Giussago (PV) (Lombardy, Italy). In 2009 and 2010, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were sampled along rice field banks and in restored habitats, by means of pitfall traps. The area appeared as species-rich, compared to other anthropogenic habitats in the Po river pain. Most of the collected Carabids were species with a wide distribution in the Paleartic region, eurytopic and common in European agroecosystems. The assemblages were dominated by small-medium, macropterous species, with summer larvae. No endemic species were found. Species with southern distribution, rarely found north of the Po river, were also sampled. Amaralittorea is recorded for the first time in Italy.

  7. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae of rice field banks and restored habitats in an agricultural area of the Po Plain (Lombardy, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pilon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An entomological investigation was carried out in an agricultural area, mainly rice fields, of the Po river plain, located in the municipalities of Lacchiarella (MI and Giussago (PV (Lombardy, Italy. In 2009 and 2010, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae were sampled along rice field banks and in restored habitats, by means of pitfall traps. The area appeared as species-rich, compared to other anthropogenic habitats in the Po river pain. Most of the collected Carabids were species with a wide distribution in the Paleartic region, eurytopic and common in European agroecosystems. The assemblages were dominated by small-medium, macropterous species, with summer larvae. No endemic species were found. Species with southern distribution, rarely found north of the Po river, were also sampled. Amara littorea is recorded for the first time in Italy.

  8. Values of soil-plant transfer factor of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra: agricultural areas versus areas of high natural radioactivity; Valores de fator de transferencia solo-planta do {sup 226}Ra e {sup 228}Ra: areas agricolas versus areas de radioatividade natural elevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Maria Angelica; Lauria, Dejanira [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel Vidal [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos; Schuch, Luiz Alexandre [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Zago, Ari [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2000-07-01

    In this work, soil to plant transfer factor of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra obtained in areas of traditional agricultural practices varied as a function of the considered cultivated species but little variation was observed as a function of the soil type. Beans and soybeans presented more important absorption than cereals (corn, rice and wheat). In our work legumes (bean and soybean) presented transfer factors up to one order of magnitude higher than average values for regions where natural radioactivity is high. On the other hand, the results for cereals did not presented such clear differences. It can be concluded that cultural inputs of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra are occurring in agricultural areas, but few species can concentrate it. The transfer factor values obtained in this work for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra can be applied in risk assessment models. (author)

  9. Phosphorus fractions in an agricultural chronosequence under tillage regimes in the Cerrado area in Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Fernandes Guareschi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the amount and quantity of soil organic matter (SOM, as well as the use of phosphorus-based fertilizers in the superficial soil layer in areas under tillage regimes (TR, may affect phosphorus (P dynamics in the soil. Therefore, the aims of the present work were as follows: to evaluate the inorganic and organic fractions of P and its lability levels (labile, moderately labile, and moderately resistant in a Distroferric Red Latosol under tillage regimes (TR 3, 15, and 20 years after implementation, and to compare them with those of areas of native Cerrado and pastures. We also focus on analyzing the correlations of the P fractions in these areas with other soil attributes, such as total carbon and nitrogen levels, light organic matter (LOM, chemical and physical granulometric fractions of the SOM, maximum phosphate adsorption capacity (MPAC, and the remaining phosphorus (Prem. In each of these areas, samples were collected from the 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m soil layers. An entirely randomized experimental design was used. After TR implementation, the constant use of phosphorus-based fertilizers as well as the incremental addition of SOM resulted in an increase in the levels of labile, moderate labile, and moderately resistant organic and inorganic P, with a tendency for total P accumulation to be mostly in the inorganic, moderately labile form. The native Cerrado soil presented high levels of labile and moderately labile inorganic P. Pasture areas presented the lowest levels of labile organic and inorganic P, as well as moderately labile and moderately resistant organic P. By principal component analysis (PCA, it was possible to observe alterations in all soil attributes and P levels of the fractions analyzed.

  10. Standards for Quality Programs in Agricultural Occupations in the Secondary Schools and Area Vocational Centers of Illinois. Phase II. A Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    The purpose of this project was to prepare materials to be used in the review and evaluation of an agricultural occupations program. Based on standards validated by Illinois agricultural occupations teachers, a standards workbook was developed that included standards specific to agricultural production, agricultural sales and service, agricultural…

  11. Agricultural Land Use in Ahlat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin ELMASTAŞ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.

  12. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  13. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert - Can polarimetric SAR detect desertification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Radar backscatter from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert shows systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright spokes, which seem to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripples on the relatively vegetationless fields.

  14. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses – evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, LL

    2009-09-30

    Full Text Available to spend on other activities (Healy & Short, 1978:185; Parris, 2004:197; Maybery et al., 2005:59; Holmes, 2006:142-144). Increased incomes around the world have led to a change in tastes and societal values, where people have become more environmentally... al., 2003:22). Rural areas with open space, close to natural amenities with aesthetic or recreational appeal has become an attractive alternative for people who want to escape from overpopulated cities with congested traffic, or as a place to cash...

  15. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Agricultural Soil-Maize System of a Gold Mining Area in Pingdu City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Lu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals pollution in agricultural soils easily occur in the gold mining area and thereby negatively impact ecosystem and human health. Therefore, this study selected the soil-maize system in the typical gold mining area of Pingdu City as the case study. The ecological risk of heavy metals in farmland soil was evaluated using geo -accumulation index method and Nemero index method. Human health risk was evaluated using target hazard quotients(THQmethod. The results showed that the potential ecological risk of the four heavy metals in agricultural soils had an order of Cd > Zn > Pb > Cr, which potentially induced mediate risk and/or above. Thereinto, the potential ecological risk of Cd was extremely heavy. The integrated pollution risk levels of the four heavy metals were all light and/or above. Thereinto, the integrated pollution risk levels of the four heavy metals in the half of the sampling sites potentially were medium and/or above. The potential health risk of a heavy metal(Cd, Zn, Pb or Crwas low to residents in the studied area when they ate maize and their products. However, there was a certain level of the integrated potential health risk, considering the total hazard index of 2.99×10-3 for adults and 7.13×10-3 for children. Cd contributed the most to the integrated potential health risk, with a contribution of 60.30%. The integrated potential health risk of the four heavy metals was greater to children than adults.

  16. S-wave attenuation structure beneath the northern Izu-Bonin arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Obana, Koichiro; Kodaira, Shuichi

    2016-04-01

    To understand temperature structure or magma distribution in the crust and uppermost mantle, it is essential to know their attenuation structure. This study estimated the 3-D S-wave attenuation structure in the crust and uppermost mantle at the northern Izu-Bonin arc, taking into account the apparent attenuation due to multiple forward scattering. In the uppermost mantle, two areas of high seismic attenuation (high Q -1) imaged beneath the volcanic front were mostly colocated with low-velocity anomalies. This coincidence suggests that these high- Q -1 areas in low-velocity zones are the most likely candidates for high-temperature regions beneath volcanoes. The distribution of random inhomogeneities indicated the presence of three anomalies beneath the volcanic front: Two were in high- Q -1 areas but the third was in a moderate- Q -1 area, indicating a low correlation between random inhomogeneities and Q -1. All three anomalies of random inhomogeneities were rich in short-wavelength spectra. The most probable interpretation of such spectra is the presence of volcanic rock, which would be related to accumulated magma intrusion during episodes of volcanic activity. Therefore, the different distributions of Q -1 and random inhomogeneities imply that the positions of hot regions in the uppermost mantle beneath this arc have changed temporally; therefore, they may provide important constraints on the evolutionary processes of arc crust and volcanoes.

  17. The upper mantle beneath the Gulf of California from surface wave dispersion. Geologica Ultraiectina (299)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is a study on upper mantle shear velocity structure beneath the Gulf of California. Surface wave interstation dispersion data were measured in the Gulf of California area and vicinity to obtain a 3-D shear velocity structure of the upper mantle. This work has particular significance for

  18. The crustal structure beneath The Netherlands derived from ambient seismic noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yudistira, Tedi; Paulssen, Hanneke; Trampert, Jeannot

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive 3-D model of the crust beneath The Netherlands. To obtain this model, we designed the NARS-Netherlands project, a dense deployment of broadband stations in the area. Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion was measured from ambient noise

  19. Sustainability of Smallholder Agriculture in Semi-Arid Areas under Land Set-aside Programs: A Case Study from China’s Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qirui Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes agricultural sustainability in the context of land degradation, rural poverty and social inequality, taking China’s Loess Hills as an example. The analysis attempts to understand the multi-dimensionality of sustainability at the farm level and its relationship with physical-socio-economic-infrastructural-technological framework conditions in the context of the land set-aside program viz. the Grain for Green Project (GGP. We developed composite indices of sustainability and its environmental, economic and social dimensions using a principal component analysis (PCA-based weighting scheme. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the estimated sustainability indicators and the variables representing framework conditions of knowledge, demographics, resource endowment and production techniques. The stated analysis was conducted on a dataset collected by means of household surveys in 2014 in valleys and flood plain areas in Yanhe Township. Findings reveal hidden correlations among the indicators of environmental, economic, and social pillars of sustainability. The ratio of land under the conservation program to actual farmland emerged as a key determinant of overall agricultural sustainability and its social dimension, which reaches the maximum when the ratio is around 0.56 and 0.64, respectively. The results also show that there is need to balance off-farm and on-farm income diversification as well as highlight the role of women in ensuring the sustainability of farming households. The core achievement of the article is the definition of the thresholds for the land set-aside program and the identification of major determinants of agricultural sustainability in the rural Chinese context in particular and in rural farming communities in general.

  20. Study on the 90Sr absorption by agricultural plants grown in soil from Daya Bay and Qinshan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Hou Lanxin; Xu Shiming

    1991-03-01

    The soil around the Qinshan and Daya Bay nuclear power plants were used in this study. The 90 Sr was spread into the soil by irrigation. The amount of 90 Sr spread were 0.037, 0.37, 3.7 and 370 Bq per gram soil respectively. After being treated, the soil were employed to grow rice, wheat, rape, bean, asparagus lettuce, tomato and peas. The harvested plants were divided into seeds, stems and leaves, husks and roots to measure their radioactivity separately. The results showed that the amount of 90 Sr absorbed by the plants was directly proportional to the 90 Sr content in the soil. The absorbed 90 Sr was mainly distributed in the stems and leaves. The seeds absorbed the least amount of 90 Sr compared with the other portions. The old leaves absorbed greater 90 Sr than the buds. The accumulated 90 Sr per unit dry weight of all plants grown in the soil from Daya Bay area was greater than in the soil from Qinshan area. More than 80% of total 90 Sr was distributed in the top layer from 0 to 4 cm. The concentration factors of various plants were also given

  1. Evaluating the Least Cost Selection of Agricultural Management Practices in the Five Mile Creek area of Fort Cobb Watershed, Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulzadeh Gharibdousti, S.; Stoecker, A.; Storm, D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main causes of water quality impairment in the United States is human induced Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution through intensive agriculture. The Fort Cobb Reservoir (FCR) watershed located in west-central Oklahoma, United States is a rural agricultural catchment with known issues of NPS pollution including suspended solids, siltation, nutrients, and pesticides. Recently, several Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been implemented in the watershed (such as no-tillage and cropland to grassland conversion) to improve water quality. The objective in this study is to estimate the most cost effective selection and placement of BMPs on farmlands to mitigate soil erosion and the delivery of sediment and nutrient loads to the FCR from Five Mile Creek (FMC) area of the FCR watershed. We employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to develop the hydrological model of the study area. The watershed was delineated using the 10 m National Elevation Dataset and divided into 43 sub-basins with an average area of 8 km2. Through a combination of Soil Survey Geographic Database- SSURGO soil data, the US Department of Agriculture crop layer and the slope information, the watershed was further divided into 15,217 hydrologic response units (HRUs). The historical climate pattern in the watershed was represented by two different weather stations. The model was calibrated for the 1991 - 2000 period and validated over the 2001 - 2010 period against the monthly USGS observations of streamflow and suspended sediment concentration recorded at the watershed outlet. Model parametrization resulted in satisfactory values for the R2 (0.64, 0.35) and NS (0.61, 0.34) in calibration period and an excellent model performance (R2 = 0.79, 0.38; NS = 0.75, 0.43) in validation period for streamflow and sediment concentration respectively. We have selected 20 BMPs to estimate their efficacy in terms of water, sediment, and crop yields. Linear Programming (LP) was used to determine the

  2. Analysis of groundwater flow beneath ice sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, G. S.; Zatsepin, S.; Maillot, B. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2001-03-01

    The large-scale pattern of subglacial groundwater flow beneath European ice sheets was analysed in a previous report. It was based on a two-dimensional flowline model. In this report, the analysis is extended to three dimensions by exploring the interactions between groundwater and tunnel flow. A theory is developed which suggests that the large-scale geometry of the hydraulic system beneath an ice sheet is a coupled, self-organising system. In this system the pressure distribution along tunnels is a function of discharge derived from basal meltwater delivered to tunnels by groundwater flow, and the pressure along tunnels itself sets the base pressure which determines the geometry of catchments and flow towards the tunnel. The large-scale geometry of tunnel distribution is a product of the pattern of basal meltwater production and the transmissive properties of the bed. The tunnel discharge from the ice margin of the glacier, its seasonal fluctuation and the sedimentary characteristics of eskers are largely determined by the discharge of surface meltwater which penetrates to the bed in the terminal zone. The theory explains many of the characteristics of esker systems and can account for tunnel valleys. It is concluded that the large-scale hydraulic regime beneath ice sheets is largely a consequence of groundwater/tunnel flow interactions and that it is essential similar to non-glacial hydraulic regimes. Experimental data from an Icelandic glacier, which demonstrates measured relationships between subglacial tunnel flow and groundwater flow during the transition from summer to winter seasons for a modern glacier, and which support the general conclusions of the theory is summarised in an appendix.

  3. Analysis of groundwater flow beneath ice sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, G. S.; Zatsepin, S.; Maillot, B.

    2001-03-01

    The large-scale pattern of subglacial groundwater flow beneath European ice sheets was analysed in a previous report. It was based on a two-dimensional flowline model. In this report, the analysis is extended to three dimensions by exploring the interactions between groundwater and tunnel flow. A theory is developed which suggests that the large-scale geometry of the hydraulic system beneath an ice sheet is a coupled, self-organising system. In this system the pressure distribution along tunnels is a function of discharge derived from basal meltwater delivered to tunnels by groundwater flow, and the pressure along tunnels itself sets the base pressure which determines the geometry of catchments and flow towards the tunnel. The large-scale geometry of tunnel distribution is a product of the pattern of basal meltwater production and the transmissive properties of the bed. The tunnel discharge from the ice margin of the glacier, its seasonal fluctuation and the sedimentary characteristics of eskers are largely determined by the discharge of surface meltwater which penetrates to the bed in the terminal zone. The theory explains many of the characteristics of esker systems and can account for tunnel valleys. It is concluded that the large-scale hydraulic regime beneath ice sheets is largely a consequence of groundwater/tunnel flow interactions and that it is essential similar to non-glacial hydraulic regimes. Experimental data from an Icelandic glacier, which demonstrates measured relationships between subglacial tunnel flow and groundwater flow during the transition from summer to winter seasons for a modern glacier, and which support the general conclusions of the theory is summarised in an appendix

  4. Soil Extracellular Enzymes from Brazilian Cerrado as Quality Bioindicators in Agricultural Areas in Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leciana de Menezes Sousa Zago

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of native Cerrado areas for the implementation of crops alters the physicochemical properties and biochemistry of soil. In this study we sought to understand the effect of seasonality and management used for planting sugarcane on the activity of hydrolases and oxidoreductases. Cerrado native soil samples and soil converted to sugarcane crops under different management underwent physical-chemical assessment, biological and biochemistry. The implementation of monocultures in Brazilian Cerrado caused reductions in the amount of organic matter and organic carbon in relation to the native vegetation, which in turn reflected in decreased biological activity in the soil. Thus, it was found that hydrolases and oxidoreductases are sensitive to the caused variations in drought and rain events, and in the vegetation cover and management used for the implementation of sugarcane. Therefore soil hydrolases and oxidoreductases can be used as quality bioindicators in the Cerrado soils of Goiás.

  5. [Impacts of land use change on ecosystem services in the agricultural area of North China Plain: A case study of Shangqiu City, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya Ru; Wang, Cong; Yan, Li Jiao

    2018-05-01

    Under the rapid urbanization, quantitatively assessing the impacts of land use and cover change (LUCC) on ecosystem service is of great significance for regional ecological environment construction. Based on the land use maps of Shangqiu City (as the typical agricultural area of North China Plain) in the year of 1990, 2005 and 2015, the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use and ecosystem service were analyzed, and the impacts of LUCC on ecosystem services was quantified with the impact assessment model. The results showed that, from 1990 to 2015, farmland and construction land area, which covered more than 95% of the total area of the research area, changed the most in quantity as -104.38 and 201.59 km 2 respectively, while forestland, grassland and water area changed the most by 79.3%, -73.7% and -24.2%, respectively. The total value of ecosystem service continuously decreased by 1.005 billion yuan, among which the value of hydrolo-gical regulation service suffered the most. The value of ecosystem service (ESV) presented an increasing trend in the west and a decreasing trend in the east. Extending from the center of the city to the outside, the value of ecosystem services was "high-low-high" in the east to west direction. The rate of farmland and water area contributed more than 95% to the total ecosystem service value, which had the greatest impact. The main drivers for the changes of land use and ESV in Shangqiu were population pressure, economic growth, regional policy, and urban planning. In the urban and rural development planning of Shangqiu City, more attention should be paid to the protection of na-tural resources and rational adjustment of the land use structure to realize sustainable development based on the harmony of economy, society and environment.

  6. Historical Changes in the Land Use Connected with Appropriation of Agricultural Land – Case Study of Cadastral Areas Dolní Věstonice and Modřice (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szturc Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue of agricultural soil sealing in the Dolní Věstonice and Modřice cadastres (South Moravian Region. Available data and map resources were used for this purpose (historical and up-to-date. Data was processed using manual digitalisation which helped to generate the needed map output. The decrease in area of agricultural land is analysed in individual periods starting in the year 1824 (source of data stable cadastre - the first half of the 19th century until the present, and the sealing of different types of plots and soil kinds is assessed according to Evaluated Soil-Ecological Units (ESEU. In most cases, agricultural land sealing is associated with municipal expansion. To compare future development, potential (forthcoming agricultural land sealing proposed within the valid landscape plans was also explored. Likewise, the overall price of sealed plots in both locations was calculated. The results show that there was a significant change in the use of both model territories between 1824 and the present. In Modřice, the area of the built-up area was changed from 16 ha (1824 to 409 ha (2016. The area of the site has expanded from 90% to agricultural land. The most significant change in this area is the development of builtup areas on agricultural land. In the model territory of Dolní Věstonice, the area of the built-up area increased from 16 ha (1824 to 48 ha (2016. The area of the site has expanded from 70% to agricultural land. Due to the construction of water reservoirs “Nové Mlýny”, the area of water bodies increased by 569 ha (during the period 1824- 2016. The water reservoirs occupy 65% of the cadastral area of Dolní Věstonice. The most significant change in landscape is the increase in water areas in Dolní Věstonice. Should this trend persist, an extensive reduction in agricultural soil and ensuing problems associated with sustainable agriculture, potentially also deficient food resources must be

  7. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  8. Altered Immune Response of the Rice Frog Fejervarya limnocharis Living in Agricultural Area with Intensive Herbicide Utilization at Nan Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattapan Jantawongsri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate and paraquat have been intensively used in Nan Province for a long time. Prior observations indicated that herbicide contamination and adverse health effects were found on the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis living in paddy fields at Nan Province. Contamination of herbicides may influence disease emergence by acting directly or indirectly upon the immune system of amphibian or by causing disruptions in homeostasis, it is thus interesting to investigate potential effects of herbicide contamination in Nan Province on immune responses of the rice frog living in agricultural areas. Frogs were caught from a paddy field with no history of herbicide utilization (reference site and a paddy field with intensive herbicide utilization (contaminated site during 2010-2011. After dissection, frog livers were fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin, processed by paraffin method and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Number of melanomacrophage and melanomacrophage center (MMC were counted under a light microscope and used as markers of non-specific immune response. It was found that there was no significant sex-related difference in these numbers. However, there were significant seasonal differences in these numbers in both reference and contaminated site frogs, suggesting that seasonal difference in herbicide usage tend to affect frog's immune system in agricultural areas. Furthermore, numbers of melanomacrophage and MMC in early wet, late wet and early dry periods were markedly higher in the contaminated site frogs compared to those of the reference site frogs. The observation on amphibian's immune response to environmental contaminants could indicate the impacts of herbicide utilization on other vertebrates, as well as its role in amphibian declines.

  9. Mapping Daily Evapotranspiration based on Spatiotemporal Fusion of ASTER and MODIS Images over Irrigated Agricultural Areas in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; LI, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of daily evapotranspiration (ET) is crucial for allocating and managing water resources in irrigated agricultural areas in arid regions. In this study, continuous daily ET at a 90-m spatial resolution was estimated using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) by fusing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images with high temporal resolution and Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) images with high spatial resolution. The spatiotemporal characteristics of these sensors were obtained using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The performance of this approach was validated over a heterogeneous oasis-desert region covered by cropland, residential, woodland, water, Gobi desert, sandy desert, desert steppe, and wetland areas using in situ observations from automatic meteorological systems (AMS) and eddy covariance (EC) systems in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China. The error introduced during the data fusion process based on STARFM is within an acceptable range for predicted LST at a 90-m spatial resolution. The surface energy fluxes estimated using SEBS based on predicted remotely sensed data that combined the spatiotemporal characteristics of MODIS and ASTER agree well with the surface energy fluxes observed using EC systems for all land cover types, especially for vegetated area with MAP values range from 9% to 15%, which are less than the uncertainty (18%) of the observed in this study area. Time series of daily ET modelled from SEBS were compared to that modelled from PT-JPL (one of Satellite-based Priestley-Taylor ET model) and observations from EC systems. SEBS performed generally better than PT-JPL for vegetated area, especially irrigated cropland with bias, RMSE, and MAP values of 0.29 mm/d, 0.75 mm/d, 13% at maize site, -0.33 mm/d, 0.81 mm/d, and 14% at vegetable sites.

  10. Factors Affecting Adoption of Agroforestry Farming System as a Mean for Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment Conservation in Arid Areas of Northern Kordofan State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer, Siddig El Tayeb

    2008-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas represent about 60 percent of Sudan total area. One of the main environmental problems in the arid and semi-arid areas is diffraction's which reduces the natural potential of the already fragile ecosystems and renders rural people vulnerable to food shortages, the vagaries of weather and natural disasters. Deforestation which is considered one of the most critical environmental problems facing the world is one of the main causes of diffraction's. Between the years 1990 and 2005 Sudan lost about 8.8 millions hectares of forests, which represents 11%, of its forests mainly because of subsistence activities such as overgrazing, trees cutting and expansion of traditional agriculture. One of the areas that are very much affected by diffraction's is Northern Kordofan State. To rescue the situation the government of Sudan, with assistance from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and some donors, implemented a project that aimed primarily at restocking Acacia Senegal trees in Northern Kordofan State. This study is intended to explore the factors that caused differential rate of farmers' adoption rate of the Acacia Senegal based agroforestry farming system. The study data was collected from a clustered random sample of 300 farmers, through face to face interviews using a questionnaire that was pre-tested and validated. Frequency distribution and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. It has been found that farmers' adoption of agroforestry farming system in Northern Kordofan state was significantly affected by the farmers' level of formal education, contact with extension agents, level of environmental awareness, cosmopoliteness, total area of owned land and extent of social participation. (author)

  11. Evidence that agricultural use of pesticides selects pyrethroid resistance within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from cotton growing areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristide Sawdetuo Hien

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown the role of agriculture in the selection and spread of resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides. However, no study has directly demonstrated the presence of insecticides in breeding sources as a source of selection for this resistance. It is in this context that we investigated the presence of pesticide residues in breeding habitats and their formal involvement in vector resistance to insecticides in areas of West Africa with intensive farming. This study was carried out from June to November 2013 in Dano, southwest Burkina Faso in areas of conventional (CC and biological cotton (BC growing. Water and sediment samples collected from breeding sites located near BC and CC fields were submitted for chromatographic analysis to research and titrate the residual insecticide content found there. Larvae were also collected in these breeding sites and used in toxicity tests to compare their mortality to those of the susceptible strain, Anopheles gambiae Kisumu. All tested mosquitoes (living and dead were analyzed by PCR for species identification and characterization of resistance genes. The toxicity analysis of water from breeding sites showed significantly lower mortality rates in breeding site water from biological cotton (WBC growing sites compared to that from conventional cotton (WCC sites respective to both An. gambiae Kisumu (WBC: 80.75% vs WCC: 92.75% and a wild-type strain (49.75% vs 66.5%. The allele frequencies L1014F, L1014S kdr, and G116S ace -1R mutations conferring resistance, respectively, to pyrethroids and carbamates / organophosphates were 0.95, 0.4 and 0.12. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were identified in the water samples taken in October/November from mosquitoes breeding in the CC growing area. The concentrations obtained were respectively 0.0147ug/L and 1.49 ug/L to deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Our results provided evidence by direct analysis (biological and chromatographic tests

  12. Receiver Function Imaging of Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities Beneath Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Haider Hassan Faraj

    Subduction of tectonic plates is one of the most important tectonic processes, yet many aspects of subduction zone geodynamics remain unsolved and poorly understood, such as the depth extent of the subducted slab and its geometry. The Alaska subduction zone, which is associated with the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North America plate, has a complex tectonic setting and carries a series of subduction episodes, and represents an excellent target to study such plate tectonic processes. Previous seismological studies in Alaska have proposed different depth estimations and geometry for the subducted slab. The Mantle transition zone discontinuities of the 410km and the 660 km provide independent constraints on the depth extent of the subducted slabs. We conducted a receiver function study to map the topography of the 410 km and the 660 km discontinuities beneath Alaska and its adjacent areas by taking advantage of the teleseismic data from the new USArray deployment in Alaska and northwestern Canada. Stacking over 75,000 high-quality radial receiver functions recorded in Alaska with more than 40 years of recording period, the topographies of the 410 km and 660 km are mapped. The depths of both d410 and d660 show systematic spatial variations, the mean depth of d410 and d660 are within 6 km and 6 km from the global average, respectively. The mean MTZ thickness of the entire study area is within -2 km from the global average of 250 km, suggesting normal MTZ conditions on average. Central and south-central Alaska are characterized by a larger than normal MTZ thickness, suggesting that the subducting Pacific slab is thermally interacted with the MTZ. This study shows that lateral upper mantle velocity variations contribute the bulk of the observed apparent undulations of the MTZ discontinuities.

  13. The Use of LiDAR Elevation Data and Satellite Imagery to Locate Critical Source Areas to Diffuse Pollution in Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Thériault, Georges; Beaudin, Isabelle; Rodrigue, Jean-François; Denault, Jean-Thomas; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    In Quebec / Canada, water quality improvement in rural areas greatly depends on the reduction of diffuse pollution. Indeed, point source pollution has been reduced significantly in Canada in recent years by creating circumscribed pits for manure and removing animals from stream. Diffuse pollution differs from point source pollution because it is spread over large areas. In agricultural areas, sediment loss by soil and riverbank erosion along with loss of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.) and pesticides from fields represent the main source of non-point source pollution. The factor mainly responsible for diffuse pollution in agricultural areas is surface runoff occurring in poorly drained areas in fields. The presence of these poorly drained areas is also one of the most limiting factors in crop productivity. Thus, a reconciliation of objectives at the farm (financial concern for farmers) and off-farm concerns (environmental concern) is possible. In short, drainage, runoff, erosion, water quality and crop production are all interconnected issues that need to be tackled together. Two complementary data sources are mainly used in the diagnosis of drainage, surface runoff and erosion : elevation data and multispectral satellite images. In this study of two watersheds located in Québec (Canada), LiDAR elevation data and satellite imagery (QuickBird, Spot and Landsat) were acquired. The studied territories have been partitioned in hydrologic response units (HRUs) according to sub-basins, soils, elevation (topographic index) and land use. These HRUs are afterwards used in a P index software (P-Edit) that calculates the quantities of sediments and phosphorus exported from each HRUs. These exports of sediments and phosphorus are validated with hydrometric and water quality data obtain in two sub-basins and are also compared to soil brightness index derived from multispectral images. This index is sensitive to soil moisture and thus highlights areas where the soil is

  14. Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an

  15. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heejung [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Kaown, Dugin, E-mail: dugin1@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Lee, Jin-Yong [Department of Geology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200–701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Yunjung [Planning and Management Group, Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 339-007 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Kun [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    } and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. - Highlights: • Dual isotope analyses identified contaminant sources. • Aquifer contamination was affected by land use. • Microbial community in groundwater reflects land use. • Approach is promising for managing water quality in agricultural areas.

  16. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heejung; Kaown, Dugin; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Jin-Yong; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-01-01

    An integrated study based on hydrogeochemical, microbiological and dual isotopic approaches for nitrate and sulfate was conducted to elucidate sources and biogeochemical reactions governing groundwater contaminants in different seasons and under different land use in a basin of Korea. The land use in the study area is comprised of forests (58.0%), vegetable fields (27.6%), rice paddy fields (11.4%) and others (3.0%). The concentrations of NO 3 –N and SO 4 2− in groundwater in vegetable fields were highest with 4.2–15.2 mg L −1 and 1.6–19.7 mg L −1 respectively, whereas under paddy fields NO 3 –N concentrations ranged from 0 to 10.7 mg L −1 and sulfate concentrations were ~ 15 mg L −1 . Groundwater with high NO 3 –N concentrations of > 10 mg L −1 had δ 15 N–NO 3 − values ranging from 5.2 to 5.9‰ and δ 18 O values of nitrate between 2.7 and 4.6‰ suggesting that the nitrate was mineralized from soil organic matter that was amended by fertilizer additions. Elevated concentrations of SO 4 2− with δ 34 S–SO 4 2− values between 1 and 6‰ in aquifers in vegetable fields indicated that a mixture of sulfate from atmospheric deposition, mineralization of soil organic matter and from synthetic fertilizers is the source of groundwater sulfate. Elevated δ 18 O–NO 3 − and δ 18 O–SO 4 2− values in samples collected from the paddy fields indicated that denitrification and bacterial sulfate reduction are actively occurring removing sulfate and nitrate from the groundwater. This was supported by high occurrences of denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria in groundwater of the paddy fields as evidenced by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis. This study shows that dual isotope techniques combined with microbial data can be a powerful tool for identification of sources and microbial processes affecting NO 3 − and SO 4 2− in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. - Highlights: • Dual isotope analyses identified

  17. Melt zones beneath five volcanic complexes in California: an assessment of shallow magma occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Flexser, S.

    1984-12-01

    Recent geological and geophysical data for five magma-hydrothermal systems were studied for the purpose of developing estimates for the depth, volume and location of magma beneath each area. The areas studied were: (1) Salton Trough, (2) The Geysers-Clear Lake, (3) Long Valley caldera, (4) Coso volcanic field, and (5) Medicine Lake volcano, all located in California and all selected on the basis of recent volcanic activity and published indications of crustal melt zones. 23 figs.

  18. Spatial and seasonal variations of pesticide contamination in agricultural soils and crops sample from an intensive horticulture area of Hohhot, North-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujin; He, Jiang; Yao, Yiping; Hou, Dekun; Jiang, Cai; Zhang, Xinxin; Di, Caixia; Otgonbayar, Khureldavaa

    2013-08-01

    The spatial variability and temporal trend in concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), in soils and agricultural corps were investigated on an intensive horticulture area in Hohhot, North-West China, from 2008 to 2011. The most frequently found and abundant pesticides were the metabolites of DDT (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD). Total DDT concentrations ranged from ND (not detectable) to 507.41 ng/g and were higher than the concentration of total HCHs measured for the range of 4.84-281.44 ng/g. There were significantly positive correlations between the ∑DDT and ∑HCH concentrations (r (2)>0.74) in soils, but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of OCPs in soils and clay content while a relatively strong correlation was found between total OCP concentrations and total organic carbon (TOC). β-HCH was the main isomer of HCHs, and was detected in all samples; the maximum proportion of β-HCH compared to ∑HCHs (mean value 54%) was found, suggesting its persistence. The α/γ-HCH ratio was between 0.89 and 5.39, which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in N1, N3 and N9 were found, reflecting the fresh input of DDTs, while the relatively high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicated the agricultural application of dicofol. Ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) in soils do not indicate recent inputs of DDT into Hohhot farmland soil environment. Seasonal variations of OCPs featured higher concentrations in autumn and lower concentrations in spring. This was likely associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization and application of dicofol in late spring.

  19. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  20. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city L’agriculture urbaine dans la métropole de Mexico Agricultura urbana en el área metropolitana de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Losada

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production systems: the suburban, which uses the “chinampa” to produce mainly vegetable and flowers; and the periurban system, which has two sub-systems, the “terraces” producing nopal-vegetable and maize and the “Valleys” producing tuna (fruit and amaranth. The wastes of other systems (straw  and manure are used in these places. The production systems combine pre-hispanic and modern tools, such as the tractor and coa. The products of these sites are sold in tourist areas of ecological importance. These technologies are reproducible, socially inclusive and environmentally friendly, but government support is needed.developing countries, recycling, sub-urban, peri-urban, Opuntia, chinampaMexico et le reste du Mexique n’échappent pas aux inégalités sociales et économiques induites par le modèle économique qui prédomine actuellement dans le monde entier. L’agriculture est une activité traditionnelle au Mexique. Ce processus de production urbain présente des caractéristiques particulières : prédominance de petits lopins de terre, utilisation limitée de l’espace et utilisation de matériaux et de déchets organiques recyclés. La population engagée dans l’agriculture est hétérogène et comprend des femmes et des enfants. Deux systèmes de production cohabitent : le système suburbain qui utilise les « chinampa » pour produire essentiellement des légumes et des fleurs ; et le système périurbain qui comprend deux sous-systèmes : les

  1. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation of land protected with the Rural Legacy program. The Rural Legacy Area protects farmland, forests and Civil War sites, within view of the Washington Monument State Park,, Published in 2008, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset current as of 2008. Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation...

  2. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  3. Dryland soil hydrological processes and their impacts on the nitrogen balance in a soil-maize system of a freeze-thawing agricultural area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ouyang

    Full Text Available Understanding the fates of soil hydrological processes and nitrogen (N is essential for optimizing the water and N in a dryland crop system with the goal of obtaining a maximum yield. Few investigations have addressed the dynamics of dryland N and its association with the soil hydrological process in a freeze-thawing agricultural area. With the daily monitoring of soil water content and acquisition rates at 15, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths, the soil hydrological process with the influence of rainfall was identified. The temporal-vertical soil water storage analysis indicated the local albic soil texture provided a stable soil water condition for maize growth with the rainfall as the only water source. Soil storage water averages at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm were observed to be 490.2, 593.8, and 358 m3 ha-1, respectively, during the growing season. The evapo-transpiration (ET, rainfall, and water loss analysis demonstrated that these factors increased in same temporal pattern and provided necessary water conditions for maize growth in a short period. The dry weight and N concentration of maize organs (root, leaf, stem, tassel, and grain demonstrated the N accumulation increased to a peak in the maturity period and that grain had the most N. The maximum N accumulative rate reached about 500 mg m-2d-1 in leaves and grain. Over the entire growing season, the soil nitrate N decreased by amounts ranging from 48.9 kg N ha-1 to 65.3 kg N ha-1 over the 90 cm profile and the loss of ammonia-N ranged from 9.79 to 12.69 kg N ha-1. With soil water loss and N balance calculation, the N usage efficiency (NUE over the 0-90 cm soil profile was 43%. The soil hydrological process due to special soil texture and the temporal features of rainfall determined the maize growth in the freeze-thawing agricultural area.

  4. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  5. Agricultural intensification : saving space for wildlife?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, F.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: agricultural frontier; smallholder; intensification; semi-arid area; wildlife; conservation agriculture; cotton; Zimbabwe.

    Increasing agricultural production and preventing further losses in biodiversity are both legitimate objectives, but they compete strongly in the

  6. Crustal thickness and Vp/Vs beneath the southeastern United States: Constraints from receiver function stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    To provide new constraints on crustal structure and evolution models beneath a collage of tectonic provinces in the southeastern United States, a total of 10,753 teleseismic receiver functions recorded by 125 USArray and other seismic stations are used to compute crustal thickness and Vp/Vs values. The resulting crustal thicknesses range from 25 km at the coast to 51 km beneath the peak of the southern Appalachians with an average of 36.2 km ± 5.5 km. The resulting crustal thicknesses correlate well with surface elevation and Bouguer gravity anomalies. Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the crustal thicknesses show a clear eastward thinning with a magnitude of 10 km, from about 40 km beneath the western margin to 30 km beneath the coast. The Vp/Vs values for the entire study area range from 1.71 to 1.90 with a mean value of 1.80 ± 0.04. The mean Vp/Vs value is 1.82±0.035 in the southern Appalachian Mountain. The slightly larger than normal crustal Vp/Vs for this area might be the result of significant erosion of the felsic upper crust over the past 300 million years. Alternatively, it could also suggest the existence of pervasive magmatic intrusion into the Appalachian crust. The Vp/Vs measurements in the Atlantic Coastal Plain increase toward the east, ranging from 1.75 to 1.82, probably indicating a gradual increase of mafic magmatic intrusion into thinner crust during the development of the passive continental margin.

  7. Mantle transition zone structure beneath the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. A.; Helffrich, G. R.; Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Eaton, D. W.; Snyder, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Shield is underlain by one of the deepest and most laterally extensive continental roots on the planet. Seismological constraints on the mantle structure beneath the region are presently lacking due to the paucity of stations in this remote area. Presented here is a receiver function study on transition zone structure using data from recently deployed seismic networks from the Hudson Bay region. High resolution images based on high signal-to-noise ratio data show clear arrivals from the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities, revealing remarkably little variation in transition zone structure. Transition zone thickness is close to the global average (averaging 245 km across the study area), and any deviations in Pds arrival time from reference Earth models can be readily explained by upper-mantle velocity structure. The 520 km discontinuity is not a ubiquitous feature, and is only weakly observed in localised areas. These results imply that the Laurentian root is likely confined to the upper-mantle and if any mantle downwelling exists, possibly explaining the existence of Hudson Bay, it is also confined to the upper 400 km. Any thermal perturbations at transition zone depths associated with the existence of the root, whether they be cold downwellings or elevated temperatures due to the insulating effect of the root, are thus either non-existent or below the resolution of the study.

  8. Agricultural Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bičanić, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses three different approaches to agricultural overpopulation: from the consumption side, from the production side and from the aspect of immobility of agricultural population. In the first approach agrarian overpopulation is defined from the consumption point of viewas the number of people living from agriculture that can live from aggregate agricultural income at a certain standard of consumption. In this connection the problem of measuring total agricultu...

  9. Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion contamination for a river passing through an agricultural and urban area in Higashi Hiroshima City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaonga, Chikumbusko Chiziwa; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2015-06-15

    A study was conducted on the pesticides Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion in Kurose River water, Higashi Hiroshima, Japan for a period of one year to assess the contribution of agriculture and urban activities on pesticide pollution of the river. Samples were analysed by a reverse phase HPLC system. The maximum pesticide concentrations were; 4620 ng/L, 50 ng/L and 370 ng/L for Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion, respectively. While Diuron and Fenitrothion were detected at all sites, Irgarol 1051 was only present at Izumi, a high density urban and industrial area which also registered the highest concentrations of the pesticides. The pattern showed by Diuron and Fenitrothion was linked to farming activities. Also, Diuron and Fenitrothion concentration correlated with pesticide utilization data for Hiroshima Prefecture. Irgarol 1051 showed a different pattern to that of Diuron and Fenitrothion and its source was attributed to paint. It was noted that 78% and 42% of water samples at Izumi sampling site exceeded the European Union (EU) guidelines for Diuron and Fenitrothion, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María L; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Vianna, María F; Scorsetti, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1cm(2) pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast milk intake and mother to infant pesticide transfer measured by deuterium oxide dilution in agricultural and urban areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Aldana-Madrid, Maria Lourdes; Alvarez-Hernandez, Gerardo; Antunez-Roman, Lesley Evelyn; Rodriguez-Olibarria, Guillermo; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E

    2017-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have increased pesticide use in urban areas (UA) and agricultural areas (AA) in Mexico. Breast milk can be contaminated by pesticide exposure. The objective of the study was to measure breast milk intake by deuterium oxide dilution as well as organochlorine and pyrethroid transfer from mother to infant in AA and UA of Sonora, Mexico. Human milk intake was determined by the 'dose-to-mother' technique using deuterium oxide (D 2 O) dilution. Mothers' body composition was also assessed by this technique and the intercept method. Pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin and cyhalothrin) and organochlorine pesticide residues (p,p'- DDT, p,p'- DDE, p,p'- DDD) in breast milk samples were measured by gas chromatography. Sixty-two lactating women and their infants participated in the study, 32 lived in the UA and 30 lived in the AA. Breast milk intake was approximately 100 mL higher in the AA than in the UA 799 ± 193 and 707 ± 201 mL/day, respectively (p pesticides studied surpassed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in milk for humans according to EPA and FAO/WHO. In conclusion, breast milk intake was higher in the AA compared to the UA. The p,p'- DDT and cypermethrin levels in breast milk were higher in the UA compared to the AA. Since pesticide levels in human milk did not exceed the ADI, breastfeeding is still a safe practice and should be encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of informal irrigation practices on soil drainage condition, soil pollution and land suitability for agriculture in El Saf area of El Giza Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan E.M. El Azab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area was selected in El Saf District of El Giza Governorate in Egypt, covering 21461.4 ha of Nile sediments and their outskirts of alluvial higher and lower terraces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of informal irrigation practices on drainage deterioration, soil pollution and land suitability for agricultural use using the satellite LDCM data 2013. From the lower alluvial terraces (partly cultivated using wastewater, the drainage flows westward via descending slopes resulting in land deterioration in both the alluvial lower terraces and alluvial plain of River Nile. The drainage conditions are excessively drained soils in the alluvial upper terraces within soils of Typic Haplocalcids, sandy skeletal, but in the lower terraces it partly occurred within soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal. Moderately well drained soils occurred in soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy in the alluvial lower terraces, while in the alluvial plain of Nile sediments are Sodic Haplotorrerts, fine. Poorly drained soils in the lower alluvial terraces have soils of Typic Epiaquents, sandy associated with Sodic Psammaquents and Aquic Haplocalcids, coarse loamy, while in the alluvial plain of River Nile the soils are Halic Epiaquerts, fine. Very poorly drained soils (submerged areas are scattered spots in both the lower alluvial terraces and the alluvial plain. In the alluvial plain of River Nile, 1967.1 ha become not suitable for the traditional cultivated crops, while in the alluvial terraces 3251.0 ha are not suitable for the proposed cultivation of Jojoba plants. Heavy metals of Cadmium (Cd, Cobalt (Co, Lead (Pb and Nickel (Ni were added to the soil surface and sub-surface in the irrigated areas by wastewater in the lower alluvial terraces (moderately well drained soils, but Cd and Co exceeded the standards of permissible total concentrations in these soils. The same metals were added to soil sub-surface layers in the alluvial plain

  13. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  14. Carbon Dynamics of Reclaimed Coal Mine Soil under Agricultural Use: A Chronosequence Study in the Dongtan Mining Area, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Qu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays an essential role in the early stages of pedogenisis and ecological restoration in reclaimed mine soils. Dynamic changes in the SOC content are essential for assessing the quality of reclaimed mine soils and the effect of ecological restoration. To objectively assess the carbon dynamics of reclaimed soils, we selected the surface (0–20 cm soil of farmland under agricultural use (soybean–wheat rotation from a reclamation chronosequence (R4: 4 years of reclamation, R7: 7 years of reclamation, R10: 10 years of reclamation and R13: 13 years of reclamation in the Dongtan Mining Area, Shandong Province, China. The adjacent normal, unaffected farmland was used as a control (CK. The results showed that the SOC content gradually increased with the reclamation age until it reached 7.98 g·kg−1 for R13, which accounted for 76% of that of the CK. However, the total carbon contents of the reclaimed soils did not significantly differ from and even appeared higher than that of the CK. This is mainly because the inorganic carbon contents of the reclaimed soils ranged from 2.98 to 12.61 g·kg−1, all of which were significantly higher than the 0.87 g·kg−1 obtained for the CK. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC content and the microbial quotient significantly increased with the reclamation age of the soil, and both parameters were markedly higher for R13 than for the CK. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC content and its ratio to the SOC were significantly higher for R4–R13 than for the CK and DOC/SOC gradually decreased with the reclamation age. Both the reclamation age and the temperature had positive effects on the soil basal respiration (SBR. The SBR rate constantly increased with the reclamation age and was markedly higher at 25 °C than at 15 °C. The temperature sensitivity (Q10 of the SBR showed a clearly decreasing trend for the reclamation chronosequence, but its value remained higher for R13 than for the CK (2

  15. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatnika, Jajat [Earth Science Study Program, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Insitute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Wandono [Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  16. Thermal classification of lithospheric discontinuities beneath USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steven M.; Dueker, Ken; Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-12-01

    Broadband seismic data from the United States were processed into Ps and Sp receiver function image volumes for the purpose of constraining negative velocity gradients (NVG) at depths between the Moho and 200 km. Moho depth picks from the two independent datasets are in good agreement, however, large discrepancies in NVG picks occur and are attributed to free-surface multiples which obscure deep NVG arrivals in the Ps data. From the Sp data, shallow NVG are found west of the Rockies and in the central US while deep and sporadic NVG are observed beneath the Great Plains and northern Rockies. To aid the interpretation of the observed NVG arrivals, the mantle thermal field is estimated by mapping surface wave tomography velocities to temperature assuming an anelastic olivine model. The distribution of temperature versus NVG depth is bi-modal and displays two distinct thermal populations that are interpreted to represent both the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and mid-lithosphere discontinuities (MLD). LAB arrivals occur in the western US at 60-85 km and 1200-1400 °C depth suggesting that they manifest partial melt near the base of the thermal plate. MLD arrivals primarily occur at 70-110 km depth and 700-900 °C and we hypothesize that these arrivals are caused by a low-velocity metasomatic layer containing phlogopite resulting from magma crystallization products that accumulate within long-lived thick lithosphere.

  17. Channelization of plumes beneath ice shelves

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, M.  C.; Hewitt, I. J.; Wells, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We study a simplified model of ice-ocean interaction beneath a floating ice shelf, and investigate the possibility for channels to form in the ice shelf base due to spatial variations in conditions at the grounding line. The model combines an extensional thin-film description of viscous ice flow in the shelf, with melting at its base driven by a turbulent ocean plume. Small transverse perturbations to the one-dimensional steady state are considered, driven either by ice thickness or subglacial discharge variations across the grounding line. Either forcing leads to the growth of channels downstream, with melting driven by locally enhanced ocean velocities, and thus heat transfer. Narrow channels are smoothed out due to turbulent mixing in the ocean plume, leading to a preferred wavelength for channel growth. In the absence of perturbations at the grounding line, linear stability analysis suggests that the one-dimensional state is stable to initial perturbations, chiefly due to the background ice advection.

  18. Channelization of plumes beneath ice shelves

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, M. C.

    2015-11-11

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We study a simplified model of ice-ocean interaction beneath a floating ice shelf, and investigate the possibility for channels to form in the ice shelf base due to spatial variations in conditions at the grounding line. The model combines an extensional thin-film description of viscous ice flow in the shelf, with melting at its base driven by a turbulent ocean plume. Small transverse perturbations to the one-dimensional steady state are considered, driven either by ice thickness or subglacial discharge variations across the grounding line. Either forcing leads to the growth of channels downstream, with melting driven by locally enhanced ocean velocities, and thus heat transfer. Narrow channels are smoothed out due to turbulent mixing in the ocean plume, leading to a preferred wavelength for channel growth. In the absence of perturbations at the grounding line, linear stability analysis suggests that the one-dimensional state is stable to initial perturbations, chiefly due to the background ice advection.

  19. Turbulence beneath finite amplitude water waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beya, J.F. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Oceanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valparaiso (Chile); The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peirson, W.L. [The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Banner, M.L. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Babanin and Haus (J Phys Oceanogr 39:2675-2679, 2009) recently presented evidence of near-surface turbulence generated below steep non-breaking deep-water waves. They proposed a threshold wave parameter a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 3,000 for the spontaneous occurrence of turbulence beneath surface waves. This is in contrast to conventional understanding that irrotational wave theories provide a good approximation of non-wind-forced wave behaviour as validated by classical experiments. Many laboratory wave experiments were carried out in the early 1960s (e.g. Wiegel 1964). In those experiments, no evidence of turbulence was reported, and steep waves behaved as predicted by the high-order irrotational wave theories within the accuracy of the theories and experimental techniques at the time. This contribution describes flow visualisation experiments for steep non-breaking waves using conventional dye techniques in the wave boundary layer extending above the wave trough level. The measurements showed no evidence of turbulent mixing up to a value of a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 7,000 at which breaking commenced in these experiments. These present findings are in accord with the conventional understandings of wave behaviour. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear wastes beneath the deep sea floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Hollister, C.D.

    1974-01-01

    Projections of energy demands for the year 2000 show that nuclear power will likely be one of our energy sources. But the benefits of nuclear power must be balanced against the drawbacks of its by-product: high-level wastes. While it may become possible to completely destroy or eliminate these wastes, it is at least equally possible that we may have to dispose of them on earth in such a way as to assure their isolation from man for periods of the order of a million years. Undersea regions in the middle of tectonic plates and in the approximate center of major current gyres offer some conceptual promise for waste disposal because of their geologic stability and comparatively low organic productivity. The advantages of this concept and the types of detailed information needed for its accurate assessment are discussed. The technical feasibility of permanent disposal beneath the deep sea floor cannot be accurately assessed with present knowledge, and there is a need for a thorough study of the types and rates of processes that affect this part of the earth's surface. Basic oceanographic research aimed at understanding these processes is yielding answers that apply to this societal need. (U.S.)

  1. Structure of the Crust Beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokam, Alain-Pierre K.; Tabod, Charles T.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Jordi Julia; Wiens, Douglas A.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2009-09-01

    The joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions was carried out to investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle structures beneath Cameroon. This was achieved using data from 32 broadband seismic stations installed for 2 years across Cameroon. The Moho depth estimates reveal that the Precambrian crust is variable across the country and shows some significant differences compared to other similar geologic units in East and South Africa. These differences suggest that the setting of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the eastward extension of the Benue Trough have modified the crust of the Panafrican mobile belt in Cameroon by thinning beneath the Rift area and CVL. The velocity models obtained from the joint inversion show at most stations, a layer with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s, indicating the presence of a mafic component in the lower crust, predominant beneath the Congo Craton. The lack of this layer at stations within the Panafrican mobile belt may partly explain the crustal thinning observed beneath the CVL and rift area. The significant presence of this layer beneath the Craton, results from the 2100 Ma magmatic events at the origin of the emplacement of swarms of mafic dykes in the region. The CVL stations are underlain by a crust of 35 km on average except near Mt-Cameroon where it is about 25 km. The crustal thinning observed beneath Mt. Cameroon supported by the observed positive gravity anomalies here, suggests the presence of dense astenospheric material within the lithosphere. Shear wave velocities are found to be slower in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the CVL than the nearby tectonic terrains, suggesting that the origin of the line may be an entirely mantle process through the edge-flow convection process. (author)

  2. Discussion about decision support systems using continuous multi-criteria methods for planning in areas with hydro-basins, agriculture and forests, from examples in Argentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.; Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    The authors were involved last years in projects considering diverse decision problems on the use of some regions in Argentine, and also related to rivers or rural services in them. They used sets of multi-criteria decision methods, first discrete when the problem included few distinct alternatives, such as e.g. forestry, traditional or intensive agriculture. For attributes they were different effects, classified then in environmental, economic and social criteria. Extending to other gentler areas, such as at South of the Province of Córdoba, Arg., they have balanced more delicately effects of continuous levels of actions, with a combination of Goal Programming linked methods, and they adopted compromises to have precise solutions. That has shown, and in part open, a line of research, as the setting of such models require various kinds of definitions and valuations, including optimizations, goals with penalties in deviations and restrictions. That can be in diverse detail level and horizon, in presence of various technical and human horizons, and that can influence politics of use of terrain and production that will require public and private agents. The research will consider consideration of use and conservation of soils, human systems and agro productions, and hence models for optimization, preferably in such Goal Programming ways. That will require considering various systems of models, first in theory to be reliable, and then in different areas to evaluate the quality of conclusions, and maybe that successively if results are found advantageous. The Bayesian ways will be considered, but they would require a prospective of sets of precise future states of nature or markets with elicited probabilities, which are neither evident nor decisive for the moment, as changes may occur in years but will be very unexpected or uncertain. The results will be lines of models to aid to establish policies of use of territories, by public agencies setting frames for private

  3. Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater Beneath an Occupied Building at the Young-Rainey STAR Center, Pinellas, FL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Joe [Navarro Research and Engineering; Surovchak, Scott [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Legacy Management; Tabor, Charles [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater contamination, consisting of two dissolved-phase plumes originating from chlorinated solvent source areas, in the southeastern portion of the Young- Rainey Star Center (also known as the Pinellas County, Florida, Site) in Largo, Florida, has migrated beyond the property boundary, beneath the roadways, and beneath adjacent properties to the south and east. Groundwater contamination will persist as long as the onsite contaminant source remains. The origin of the contamination appears to be multiple long-term point sources beneath Building 100, a 4.5 ha (11 acre) building that housed manufacturing facilities during US DOE operations at the site. The site is now owned by Pinellas County, and most of the space inside the building is leased to private companies, so DOE chose not to conduct characterization or remediation through the floor of the building, instead choosing to conduct all work from outside the building. Injection of emulsified soybean oil and a microbial culture has been used at other areas of the site to accelerate naturally occurring bacterial processes that degrade groundwater contaminants to harmless compounds, and that same approach was chosen for this task. The technical approach consisted of installing horizontal wells from outside the building footprint, extending through and around the identified subsurface treatment areas, and terminating beneath the building. Two 107 m (350 ft) long wells, two 122 m (400 ft) long wells, and four 137 m (450 ft) long wells have been installed to intersect the inferred source areas and confirmed contaminant plumes beneath the building. DOE then injected emulsified vegetable oil and a microbial culture into the horizontal wells at each of several target areas beneath the building where the highest groundwater contaminant concentrations have been detected. The target areas are the northwest corner of the building between the old drum storage pad locations and monitoring well PIN12-S35B, the vicinity of

  4. 232Th/238U in a uranium mobility estimate in an agricultural area in the municipality of Pedra-Pernambuco - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues; Oliveira, Jose Valdez Monterazo de; Bispo, Rodrigo Cesar Bezerra; Silva, Cleomacio Miguel da; Rocha, Edilson Accioly

    2011-01-01

    The mobility of the radionuclides in soil depends primarily on the physic-chemical parameters. The uranium is easily oxidized in aqueous environment, which allows its characterization with higher mobility. The Thorium is practically insoluble, mainly if the environment has organic matter and sulfates. The geochemical characteristics of the rocks, associated with the weather and metamorphism produce alterations in the concentration diagrams of the natural radionuclides in different types of soil. The ratio 232 Th/ 238 U has been used as an indicator of oxidizing and reducing conditions. Th/U less than 2 suggests that the uranium is in its concentrated form abundantly when compared to the thorium. In reducing conditions, the value Th/U higher than 7 indicates a removal of the uranium. In this work it was possible to analyze the agricultural soil in the municipality of Pedra, Pernambuco, Brazil where there are uranium anomaly and thorium in rocky outcrops. Sixty-two samples of the horizon C soil were collected, in an area of 2 km 2 , where the main uranium occurrences are located. The analyses were done by High-Resolution Gamma-Spectroscopy. In the analyses the secular equilibrium was assumed and the 238 U and the 232 Th specific activities were used to estimate the oxidizing and reducing conditions defining the uranium mobility in the soil. The obtained findings show that the ratio Th/U varied from 0.3 to 13.4, with average of 4.6. The biggest 238 U fraction was fix (80.3%), with low mobility; the smallest fraction concentrated (6.6%) and a lixiviated intermediate fraction (13.1%). (author)

  5. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsasuluk, Pokkate; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Most local people in the agricultural areas of Hua-ruea sub-district, Ubon Ratchathani province (Thailand), generally consume shallow groundwater from farm wells. This study aimed to assess the health risk related to heavy metal contamination in that groundwater. Samples were randomly collected from 12 wells twice in each of the rainy and the dry seasons and were analyzed by inductive coupled plasma spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of detected metals in each well and the overall mean were below the acceptable groundwater standard limits for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn, but Pb levels were higher in four wells with an overall average Pb concentration of 16.66 ± 18.52 μg/l. Exposure questionnaires, completed by face-to-face interviews with 100 local people who drink groundwater from farm wells, were used to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard indices (HIs). The HQs for non-carcinogenic risk for As, Cu, Zn and Pb, with a range of 0.004-2.901, 0.053-54.818, 0.003-6.399 and 0.007-26.80, respectively, and the HI values (range from 0.10 to 88.21) exceeded acceptable limits in 58 % of the wells. The HI results were higher than one for groundwater wells located in intensively cultivated chili fields. The highest cancer risk found was 2.6 × 10(-6) for As in well no. 11. This study suggested that people living in warmer climates are more susceptible to and at greater risk of groundwater contamination because of their increased daily drinking water intake. This may lead to an increased number of cases of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health defects among local people exposed to heavy metals by drinking the groundwater.

  6. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  7. Radiation technology in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy through its research, development and deployment activities in nuclear science and technology, has been contributing towards enhancing the production of agricultural commodities and their preservation. Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to induce genetic variability in crop plants to develop improved varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate and persistence of pesticides, to study fertilizer use efficiency and plant micronutrient uptake and also to preserve agricultural produce. Use of radiation and radioisotopes in agriculture which is often referred to as nuclear agriculture is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit and BARC has contributed significantly in this area. 41 new crop varieties developed at BARC have been released and Gazette notified by the MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation and are popular among the farming community and grown through out the country

  8. Improving productivity in agriculture. One of the five key areas to sustainable development where progress is possible with the resources and technologies at our disposal today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Despite progress made since the 1996 World Food Summit that set the goal of halving the number of undernourished people by the 2015, serious food insecurity persists in many parts of the world. Although more food is being produced worldwide than ever before, some 800 million people are still chronically malnourished. Improving agricultural productivity is a driving force for both economic and social development. When agriculture falters, income sources are lost, social ties are disrupted, and, as a result, societies become more mobile. Up-to-date technologies, improved plant and animal stock, and better soil and water management practices not only combat food insecurity, they are also important to achieving sustainable agriculture practices essential to maintaining an appropriate balance between conservation and use of all the resources required to grow crops and raise livestock. Through its programme in Food and Agriculture operated with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance capacities at national and international levels for identifying and alleviating constraints to sustainable food security by facilitating development and adoption of nuclear and related biotechnologies. With an annual budget of nearly $10 million, this programme helps Member States to improve productivity in agriculture, particularly through better water and soil management practices, efficient crop nutrition, and control of insect pests

  9. Imaging voids beneath bridge bent using electrical resistivity tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Five electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles and borehole control were acquired beneath two bridges on the bank of the : Gasconade River in order to determine extension of the underground water-filled openings in rock encountered during a dr...

  10. Agricultural utilisation and potential suitability of the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area (south-western Slovakia landscape in relation to the habitat requirements of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemko Martin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of land use in an agricultural landscape significantly affects biodiversity also in protected areas. This can be observed in the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area in relation to the occurrence of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the landscape structure and suitability of agrotechnical procedures for the habitat demands of this species in the course of the period from 2004 until 2017. The utilisation was assessed on the basis of four landscape elements representation in 1949 and 2017. The next step was analysis of landscape patches. The aim was to quantify the diversity and the spatial structure of the landscape mosaic using Shannon’s Diversity Index and Evenness Index as well as Simpson’s Diversity Index and Evenness Index and spatial pattern analysis in the Fragstats software programme. Assessment of crop suitability was carried out according to the following criteria: representation of positive/negative agricultural crops, diversity of crops in crop rotation, and (non-observance of crop rotation. It was found that the agricultural landscape use did not change significantly. The study area has been used as an intensively-farmed agricultural landscape for a long time. The landscape elements have remained almost identical, with dominance of arable land. Differences emerged in the analysis of the micropatches, which are represented by natural hedgerows consisting of various species of trees, shrubs and grasses. The results show a decrease in the diversity of patches and changes in the structure of the landscape patches, which may be important in terms of the preservation of the habitat of fauna which form an important part of the F vespertinus diet. On the basis of the evaluation of the suitability of agricultural crop growing, we found that there were some areas showing negative values in all the criteria, and thus they require changes in the crop rotation focusing

  11. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  12. Three-Dimensional Seismic Tomography Beneath Tangshan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. C.; Keranen, K. M.; Keller, G.; Qu, G.; Harder, S. H.

    2010-12-01

    The 1976 earthquake in Tangshan, China ranks as the deadliest earthquake in modern times. Though the exact number of casualties remains disputed, it is widely accepted that at least a quarter of a million people died. The high casualty level is surprising since the earthquake was not unusually large (Mw 7.5). Amplification of ground motion by thick sediment fill in the basin underlying the city is a likely cause for the extensive destruction. However, the extent of the unconsolidated material and the broader subsurface geology beneath Tangshan and surrounding areas needs to be better-constrained to properly model predicted ground motion and mitigate the hazards of future earthquakes. From a broader perspective, the Tangshan area is at the northern edge of the Bohai Bay basin province that has experienced both Cenozoic extension and related strike-slip tectonism. In January 2010, our group conducted a three-dimensional seismic investigation centered on the city of Tangshan. In an area of approximately 40 km x 60 km, we deployed 500 REFTEK 125A (“Texan”) recorders at 500 m spacing. A number of different sources, 20 altogether, were recorded during the two-day listening window, which include our large shots, smaller explosive shots from a co-spatial reflection survey, blasts from nearby quarries, and a small (Mearthquake. Our preliminary analyses suggest that the sediment fill is, on average, less than 1 km thick. Sediment fill is thinner to the north, as evidenced by outcropping bedrock, and thickens to the south. Sediment seismic velocity is about 1.8 km/s. Upper crustal velocities are 5.2 to 6.6 km/s, and increase to 7.0 km/s at mid-crustal depths.

  13. Fossil plume head beneath the Arabian lithosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    1992-12-01

    Phanerozoic alkali basalts from Israel, which have erupted over the past 200 Ma, have isotopic compositions similar to PREMA ("prevalent mantle") with narrow ranges of initial ɛ Nd(T) = +3.9-+5.9; 87Sr/ 86Sr(T)= 0.70292-0.70334; 206Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 18.88-19.99; 207Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 15.58-15.70; and 208Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 38.42-39.57. Their Nb/U(43 ± 9) and Ce/Pb(26 ± 6) ratios are identical to those of normal oceanic basalts, demonstrating that the basalts are essentially free of crustal contamination. Overall, the basalts are chemically and isotopically indistinguishable from many ordinary plume basalts, but no plume track can be identified. We propose that these and other, similar, magmas from the Arabian plate originated from a "fossilized" head of a mantle plume, which was unable to penetrate the continental lithosphere and was therefore trapped and stored beneath it. The plume head was emplaced some time between the late Proterozoic crust formation and the initiation of the Phanerozoic magmatic cycles. Basalts from rift environments in other continental localities show similar geochemistry to that of the Arabian basalts and their sources may also represent fossil plume heads trapped below the continents. We suggest that plume heads are, in general, characterized by the PREMA isotopic mantle signature, because the original plume sources (which may have HIMU or EM-type composition) have been diluted by overlying mantle material, which has been entrained by the plume heads during ascent. On the Arabian plate, rifting and thinning of the lithosphere caused partial melting of the stored plume, which led to periodic volcanism. In the late Cenozoic, the lithosphere broke up and the Red Sea opened. N-MORB tholeiites are now erupting in the central trough of the Red Sea, where the lithosphere has moved apart and the fossil plume has been exhausted, whereas E-MORBs are erupting in the northern and southern troughs, still tapping the plume reservoir. Fossil plumes, which are

  14. Seismic characterization of a `compound tectonic wedge` beneath the Rocky Mountain foreland basin, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D. C.; Sukaramongkol, C.; Spratt, D. A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-06-01

    The detailed internal geometry of a `compound tectonic wedge` beneath an eastward-dipping homocline in the Sundre area of southern Alberta was described. Data for the description was obtained by interpreting reflection seismic data. The wedge has been driven into the foreland succession beneath the gently dipping upper detachment which occurs within coal horizons of the Upper Brazeau Group. Shape of the upper detachment near its toe indicates that rocks in its hanging wall were decoupled from strain associated with forward emplacement of the wedge. Folding of the upper detachment occurs in the hinterland region of the wedge, with a new upper detachment developing above the fold. Emplacement of the wedge is suspected to be the result of excess pore fluid pressure, although proof of this happening awaits quantification of the mechanical model. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds

  16. Using urine as a biomarker in human exposure risk associated with arsenic and other heavy metals contaminating drinking groundwater in intensively agricultural areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsasuluk, Pokkate; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Urine used as a biomarker was collected and compared between two groups of participants: (1) a groundwater-drinking group and (2) a non-groundwater-drinking group in intensively agricultural areas in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. The statistical relationship with the metal concentration in shallow groundwater wells was established with urine data. According to the groundwater data, the health risk assessment results for four metals appeared to be higher for participants who drank groundwater than for the other group. The carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of arsenic (As) were found in 25.86 and 31.03% of participants, respectively. For lead (Pb), 13.79% of the participants had a non-carcinogenic risk. Moreover, 30 of the 58 participants in the groundwater-drinking group had As urine higher than the standard, and 26, 2 and 9 of the 58 participants had above-standard levels for cadmium (Cd), Pb and mercury (Hg) in urine, respectively. Both the risk assessment and biomarker level of groundwater-drinking participants were higher than in the other group. The results showed an average drinking rate of approximately 4.21 ± 2.73 L/day, which is twice as high as the standard. Interestingly, the As levels in the groundwater correlated with those in the urine of the groundwater-drinking participants, but not in the non-groundwater-drinking participants, as well as with the As-related cancer and non-carcinogenic risks. The hazard index (HI) of the 100 participants ranged from 0.00 to 25.86, with an average of 1.51 ± 3.63 higher than the acceptable level, revealing that 28 people appeared to have non-carcinogenic risk levels (24 and 4 people for groundwater-drinking participants and non-groundwater-drinking participants, respectively). Finally, the associated factors of heavy metals in urine were the drinking water source, body weight, smoking, sex and use of personal protective equipment.

  17. Agricultura orgânica em áreas urbanas e periurbanas com base na agroecologia Challenges of organic agriculture in urban and suburban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria de Aquino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A agricultura orgânica com base na agroecologia é o mote tecnológico adequado à realidade dos agroecossistemas urbanos. Este artigo ressalta a necessidade de se desenvolver tecnologias e insumos específicos. A partir de experiências com agricultura urbana em diferentes países em desenvolvimento, evidencia-se a necessidade de se buscar capacidades locais e apoio do poder público, especialmente nas iniciativas da sociedade organizada e mobilizada para a produção agrícola urbana.This article presents organic agriculture, based on agroecology, as the appropriate technology for the urban agro-ecosystem. It also points out the need for appropriate technologies and amendments development. Looking at experiences with urban agriculture in development countries, it shows the need for local capacity development and a search for the public sector support, specially of organized groups mobilized for urban agriculture production.

  18. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bujin

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear technique is a powerful scientific tool in agricultural research, an area with fruitful achievements in China. Nuclear technique application in agriculture based on the development of related science and technology is of a high technical area, and also a meaningful aspect of non-electrical power application of nuclear technique. Nuclear Agricultural Sciences is an important component of agricultural science and technology, and has been made a lot of significant achievements, which has made remarkable contribution to the development in economy, society and ecology of China. This article reviews the achievements and present situation of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China briefly. For promoting its development, the author strongly suggests that Chinese government bodies should put more attention to the study on the application of nuclear technique in agriculture to make further more contributions to Chinese society and agriculture. (authors)

  19. Side-to-side 3D coverage path planning approach for agricultural robots to minimize skip/overlap areas between swaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibrahim; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Osen, O. L.

    2016-01-01

    Automated path planning is important for the automation and optimization of field operations. It can provide the waypoints required for guidance, navigation and control of agricultural robots and autonomous tractors throughout the execution of these field operations. In agriculture, field...... operations are usually repeated in the same field and from year to year as well, therefore, it should be carried out in a manner that minimizes environmental impact and cost taking into account the topographic land features. Current 3D terrain field coverage path planning algorithms are simply 2D coverage...

  20. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  1. Determination of the Basin Structure Beneath European Side of Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cengiz Cinku, Mulla; Thomas, Michael; Lamontagne, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    Istanbul (near North Anatolian Fault Zone:NAFZ, Turkey) is located in northern part of Sea of Marmara, an area that has been influenced by possible Marmara Earthquakes. The general geology of Istanbul divided into two stratigraphic unit such as sedimentary (from Oligocene to Quaternary Deposits) and bedrock (Paleozoic and Eocene). The bedrock units consists of sand stone, clay stone to Paleozoic age and limestone to Eocene age and sedimentary unit consist of sand, clay, mil and gravel from Oligocene to Quaternary age. Earthquake disaster mitigation studies divided into two important phases, too. Firstly, earthquake, soil and engineering structure problems identify for investigation area, later on strategic emergency plan can prepare for these problems. Soil amplification play important role the disaster mitigation and the site effect analysis and basin structure is also a key parameter for determining of site effect. Some geophysical, geological and geotechnical measurements are requeired to defined this relationship. Istanbul Megacity has been waiting possible Marmara Earthquake and their related results. In order to defined to possible damage potential related to site effect, gravity measurements carried out for determining to geological structure, basin geometry and faults in Istanbul. Gravity data were collected at 640 sites by using a Scientrex CG-5 Autogravity meter Standard corrections applied to the gravity data include those for instrumental drift, Earth tides and latitude, and the free-air and Bouguer corrections. The corrected gravity data were imported into a Geosoft database to create a grid and map of the Bouguer gravity anomaly (grid cell size of 200 m). As a previously results, we determined some lineminants, faults and basins beneath Istanbul City. Especially, orientation of faults were NW-SE direction and some basin structures determined on between Buyukcekmece and Kucukcekmece Lake.

  2. The structure of agricultural employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Łabędzki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study the analysis of agricultural employees structure on the basis of data from 120 agricultural farms in Kąty Wrocławskie has been conducted. The research confirmed, that agricultural people maximum of time spend on work in their own farms. The maximum annual time of work begins at the end of last five years of working age. The men work relatively less, in agricultural farms in the case of small area farms. While the women, if better educated and in mobile working age work more. Then the biggest engagement of work outside agricultural farm concerns persons at age of 25 to 44.

  3. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  4. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Humans live in constant interaction with nature. That is part and parcel of being a biological creature on this planet. On one hand, humans exploit the available resources to survive, and at the same time, humans are deeply dependent on the continued capacity of nature to sustain their lives......, about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...

  5. Predicting scour beneath subsea pipelines from existing small free span depths under steady currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Y. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An equation was developed to predict current-induced scour beneath subsea pipelines in areas with small span depths, S. Current equations for scour prediction are only applicable to partially buried pipelines. The existence of small span depths (i.e. S/D < 0.3 are of concern because the capacity for scour is higher at smaller span depths. Furthermore, it is impractical to perform rectification works, such as installing grout bags, under a pipeline with a small S/D. Full-scale two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach and the Shear stress transport k–ω turbulence model. To predict the occurrence of scour, the computed maximum bed shear stress beneath the pipe was converted to the dimensionless Shields parameter, and compared with the critical Shields parameter based on the mean sediment grain size. The numerical setup was verified, and a good agreement was found between model-scale CFD data and experimental data. Field data were obtained to determine the mean grain size, far field current velocity and to measure the span depths along the surveyed pipe length. A trend line equation was fitted to the full-scale CFD data, whereby the maximum Shields parameter beneath the pipe can be calculated based on the undisturbed Shields parameter and S/D.

  6. Crustal thickness and Moho sharpness beneath the Midcontinent rift from receiver functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moikwathai Moidaki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mesoproterozoic Midcontinent rift (MCR in the central US is an approximately 2000 km long, 100 km wide structure from Kansas to Michigan. During the 20-40 million years of rifting, a thick (up to 20 km layer of basaltic lava was deposited in the rift valleys. Quantifying the effects of the rifting and associated volcanic eruptions on the structure and composition of the crust and mantle beneath the MCR is important for the understanding of the evolution of continental lithosphere. In this study we measure the crustal thickness (H, and the sharpness of the Moho (R at about 24 portable and permanent stations in Iowa, Kansas, and South Dakota by stacking Pto- S converted waves (PmS and their multiples (PPmS and PSmS. Under the assumption that the crustal mean velocity in the study area is the same as the IASP91 earth model, we find a significantly thickened crust beneath the MCR of about 53 km. The crustal Vp/Vs ratios increases from about 1.80 off rift to as large as 1.95 within the rift, which corresponds to an increase of Poisson’s ratio from 0.28 to 0.32, suggesting a more mafic crust beneath the MCR. The R measurements are spatially variable and are relatively small in the vicinity of the MCR, indicating the disturbance of the original sharp Moho by the rifting and magmatic intrusion and volcanic eruption.

  7. Impact of modern agriculture on environment-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S.K.; Behl, R.K.; Tauro, P.; Joshi, U.N.

    1995-11-01

    The present volume titled Impact of Modern Agriculture on Environment is the outcome of the Proceedings of the Indo-German Conference on Impact of Modern Agriculture on Environment, a seminar organized by Haryana Agricultural University in 1993 and deals with certain areas of the environmental aspects of agriculture including its radiological impacts. Paper relevant to INIS is indexed separately

  8. Crustal Thickness Beneath Libya and the Origin of Partial Melt Beneath AS Sawda Volcanic Province From Receiver Function Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemnifi, Awad A.; Elshaafi, Abdelsalam; Browning, John; Aouad, Nassib S.; El Ebaidi, Saad K.; Liu, Kelly K.; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates crustal thickness and properties within the Libyan region. Results obtained from 15 seismic stations belonging to the Libyan Center for Remote Sensing and Space Science are reported, in addition to 3 seismic stations publically available, using receiver functions. The results show crustal thicknesses ranging from 24 km to 36 km (with uncertainties ranging between ±0.10 km and ±0.90 km). More specifically, crustal thickness ranges from 32 km to 36 km in the southern portion of the Libyan territory then becomes thinner, between 24 km and 30 km, in the coastal areas of Libya and thinnest, between 24 km and 28 km, in the Sirt Basin. The observed high Vp/Vs value of 1.91 at one station located at the AS Sawda Volcanic Province in central Libya indicates the presence of either partial melt or an abnormally warm area. This finding suggests that magma reservoirs beneath the Libyan territory may still be partially molten and active, thereby posing significant earthquake and volcanic risks. The hypothesis of an active magma source is further demonstrated though the presence of asthenospheric upwelling and extension of the Sirt Basin. This study provides a new calculation of unconsolidated sediment layers by using the arrival time of the P to S converted phases. The results show sediments thicknesses of 0.4 km to 3.7 km, with the Vp/Vs values ranging from 2.2 to 4.8. The variations in crustal thickness throughout the region are correlated with surface elevation and Bouguer gravity anomalies, which suggest that they are isostatically compensated.

  9. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  10. Throughfall and its spatial variability beneath xerophytic shrub canopies within water-limited arid desert ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-feng; Wang, Xin-ping; Hu, Rui; Pan, Yan-xia

    2016-08-01

    Throughfall is known to be a critical component of the hydrological and biogeochemical cycles of forested ecosystems with inherently temporal and spatial variability. Yet little is understood concerning the throughfall variability of shrubs and the associated controlling factors in arid desert ecosystems. Here we systematically investigated the variability of throughfall of two morphological distinct xerophytic shrubs (Caragana korshinskii and Artemisia ordosica) within a re-vegetated arid desert ecosystem, and evaluated the effects of shrub structure and rainfall characteristics on throughfall based on heavily gauged throughfall measurements at the event scale. We found that morphological differences were not sufficient to generate significant difference (P < 0.05) in throughfall between two studied shrub species under the same rainfall and meteorological conditions in our study area, with a throughfall percentage of 69.7% for C. korshinskii and 64.3% for A. ordosica. We also observed a highly variable patchy pattern of throughfall beneath individual shrub canopies, but the spatial patterns appeared to be stable among rainfall events based on time stability analysis. Throughfall linearly increased with the increasing distance from the shrub base for both shrubs, and radial direction beneath shrub canopies had a pronounced impact on throughfall. Throughfall variability, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) of throughfall, tended to decline with the increase in rainfall amount, intensity and duration, and stabilized passing a certain threshold. Our findings highlight the great variability of throughfall beneath the canopies of xerophytic shrubs and the time stability of throughfall pattern among rainfall events. The spatially heterogeneous and temporally stable throughfall is expected to generate a dynamic patchy distribution of soil moisture beneath shrub canopies within arid desert ecosystems.

  11. Composicion y variabilidad espacialdel banco de semillas de malezas en un area agricolade azul (Argentina Composition and spatial variation of a weed seed bank on an agricultural area in Azul, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Requesens

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available No Distrito Azul, zona central da província de Buenos Aires (Argentina, encontram-se ambientes de planície na parte norte e ambientes serranos na parte sul. Esta última, constituí-se numa área predominantemente agrícola, onde a cultura de trigo, principal atividade agrícola, se alterna com culturas de verão como milho, girassol e soja. Com o objetivo de caracterizar globalmente o banco de sementes da área agrícola, foram analisados o conteúdo de sementes, a composição de espécies, a distribuição e variabilidade espacial das espécies que o compõem. A informação básica foi obtida aplicando-se a técnica da emergência em amostras de solo correspondentes a 20 locais alinhados numa faixa de 14 km. A densidade de sementes nos locais de amostragem variou entre 1.173 e 44.000 sem/m2. Na totalidade, foram detectadas 33 espécies. Digitaria sanguinalis foi claramente a espécie dominante, aportando com quase 43 % do banco, seguida de Polygonum aviculare com um aporte de 15 %. As duas espécies, juntamente com Anagallis arvensis e Setaria viridis completam70 % do banco de sementes. A composição específica completa-se com um grupo de 29 espécies, os quais contribuem, cada um delas, com menos de 5%. A distribuição espacial das espécies ao longo da faixa estudada mostrou um grau de agregação variável, sendo encontrada uma correlação positiva significativa entre o tamanho do banco e a relação variância/média. Demonstrou-se, assim, que as espécies mais abundantes em média, apresentaram grande variabilidade espacial. Nelas, foram observados diferentes padrões de distribuição espacial.Azul, in the center of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina, includes flat environments in the north and hill environments in the south. Last constitutes a predominantly agricultural area where the wheat crop, principal activity, alternates with summer crops as corn, sunflower and soybean. The objetive of the present paper is to

  12. Site characterization techniques used in restoration of agricultural areas on the territory of the Russian Federation contaminated after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Sanzharova, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    The experience gained in the aftermath after the heavy radiation accidents shows the need for improvement in site characterisation techniques and methodology in order to provide a link between site characterisation and the selection of restoration strategies. This paper gives an overview of the site characterisation techniques used in restoration of contaminated agricultural lands on the territory of the Russian Federation. The approach used for site characterisation and selection of restoration strategies is described. The main site specific factors influencing the choice of restoration options are identified. Data on the efficiency of major restoration measures used for the remediation of agricultural lands after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Kyshtym accidents are given. A description of the decision support system FORCON, designed to simplify the selection of restoration options, is presented. (author)

  13. Revegetation of lignite mining areas for sustainable agricultural use - research results and current information needs; Rekultivierung von Braunkohlebergbauflaechen fuer eine nachhaltige landwirtschaftliche Nutzung - Bisherige Forschungsergebnisse und aktueller Forschungsbedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubold-Rosar, M. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Bergbaufolgelandschaften e.V., Finsterwalde (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The author explains the reasons and motives for agricultural reclamation which is still necessary in the mining districts of 'the New Laender'. Reclamation has to be aimed at the general objectives of a sustainable land use. The procedures of reclamation have to consider the special site conditions on the dumps. First of all they serve for the development of soil fertility. Proceeding from the research on agricultural reclamation carried out before 1990 the need of research at the beginning of the BMBF priority programme 'Rehabilitation and reclamation of landscapes after lignite mining in the New Laender' and the gained knowledge are given dealing with the topics: use and amelioration of cohesive mine soils, cultivation of alternative crops and pasture usage in post mining landscapes as well as application of soil improvers out of organic waste materials. Finally current deficits of knowledge are pointed out. (orig.)

  14. Case of study of groundwater pollution in a critical area of the southern-Friuli exposed to agricultural and landfill pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, G.; Siviero, P.; Barbieri, P.; Piselli, S.; Reisenhofer, E.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater of the Southern-Friuli displays high levels of agricultural pollutants, such as nitrates and triazinic herbicides not only in the surficial layers, but also in the deeper ones, below 150 m. Some wells of the district of Gonars was monitored. The examined waters, used for irrigation but also for drinkable use, are exposed to environmental risk due to both agricultural practices and presence of many waste disposal sites. Heavy metals, nitrates and triazinic herbicides were measured in samples taken at four wells in three periods having different rain conditions. It was found that the groundwater quality is affected mainly by agricultural practices: nitrates and triazines are present at levels very near as well as superior to the maximum concentration allowable by Italian law. These agricultural contaminants have similar levels at all sampled sites: no difference ws detected between dry periods and rain ones. Heavy metal contents are negligible in all cases; this fact suggests that ion-exchange, sorbing and complexing properties of the soils hinder the way of the metal leachates towards underlying groundwater. Zinc constitutes an exception; it is found at levels near or superior to the maximum allowable concentration (CMA), and the highest contents are observed in rain periods; different sites display different zinc levels, suggesting that this metal could have various point sources. Nitrates fertilisers were found in all sites at similar levels, very near to CMA (50 mg/L). Triazines are specific herbicides for corn growing, highly diffused here: their use in recent years is forbidden by Italian law, but the presence in groundwater of parent triazines and metabolites is a persistent problem of this are. The Italian law indicates a CMA of 0.10 μ/L for the sum of atrazine and desethylatrazine, but it was found that desethylatrazine by itself exceeds largely CMA in all sites [it

  15. REMARKS TO THE CURRENT DISCUSSION ABOUT BIOENERGY –BIOENERGY FOR THE PUBLIC AND/ OR FOR THE AGRICULTURAL OR RURAL AREAS ONLY ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ruckenbauer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An energy system that is based on the use of renewable energy resources must be service –oriented and should be able to cover the varying energy demands. Moreover it must be flexible and cost effective by using on optimal mix of predominantly renewable energy sources. Agriculture will play an important role in the future if an optimal mix between food/feed production and energy plant production could be found. The present examples in the world to gain agricultural land for energy plants on the expenses of forests is going into the wrong direction. The cost intensive investments at present performed in Europe for biofuel and bioenergy production will certainly influence prices for crops and biomass supply. In this paper, strategies are questioned and discussed if the goals of the EU-commission to replace substantial parts of the fossile energy demands by bioenergy supply is feasible and can be realistic. As an example for a national agricultural situation, Austria, as am member of the PBBA, has elaborated a study about the timely development how much of the arable land can be utilized in the period between 2005 and 2020 for various bioenergy sources .The results demonstrate that, at the maximum , agriculture can only supply about 22 % of the total arable land for additional bioenergy as biofuel and biogas without interfering the national self food/feed supply and the protection of the sensible environment and emission situation. Finally, recent University research studies are presented about new processes to achieve a better and more efficient use of cereal and maize straw for biogas production already performed in the present 358 local biogas plants in Austria.

  16. La agricultura urbana en la ciudad de Cienfuegos: ejes estratégicos en pos de la sostenibilidad agrícola. Urban agriculture in the city of Cienfuegos: strategic areas towards agricultural sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Asunción Moreno Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento progresivo de la ciudad de Cienfuegos, su población y el incremento del número de fuentes de contaminación atmosférica, que afectan cada vez más la salud de la población, revelan la necesidad de perfeccionar el Ordenamiento Territorial y Urbano, así como las políticas de manejo territorial que contribuyan a su sostenibilidad. Por ello, es objetivo de la investigación caracterizar la agricultura urbana que se realiza en la ciudad de Cienfuegos y determinar los ejes estratégicos, para la realización ulterior de su plan de ordenamiento territorial y urbano. La transformación de la agricultura urbana demanda de un proceso de ordenamiento territorial y urbano del sector que permita el mejor aprovechamiento de los recursos y el manejo sostenible. Para la determinación de los ejes estratégicos se procedió con métodos participativos a elaborar la visión de futuro deseada para la agricultura urbana, con la elaboración de la matriz DAFO, que representa una técnica pertinente para el análisis estratégico y la formulación del problema y la solución. La identificación y caracterización de variables y análisis espacial mediante un Sistema de Información Geográfica, permitieron determinar los impactos positivos y negativos en su entorno urbanístico, ambiental, económico y social, enunciando los ejes estratégicos para el ordenamiento urbano. El artículo presente da cuenta de esa experiencia. The progressive growth of the city of Cienfuegos, its population and increase of the number of sources of air pollution, affecting increasingly health of the population, reveal the need for improve the land use and urban and policies land management that contribute to sustainability. Therefore, it is research objective to characterize urban agriculture that held in the city of Cienfuegos and determine the strategic axes, for the further implementation of its plan of land use and urban. The transformation of urban agriculture

  17. Comparison between agricultural and urban ground-water quality in the Mobile River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2003-01-01

    . Samples from 8 of the agricultural wells and all 30 urban wells were age dated using analyses of chlorofluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, and dissolved gases. Ground water sampled from the agricultural wells ranged in age from about 14 to 34 years, with a median age of about 18.5 years. Ground water sampled from the urban wells ranged in age from about 1 to 45 years, with a median age of about 12 years. The ages estimated for the ground water are consistent with the geology and hydrology of the study area and the design of the wells. All of the agricultural and urban wells sampled for this study produce water from the shallow aquifer that overlies and recharges the Black Warrior River aquifer, or from the uppermost unit of the Black Warrior River aquifer. The wells are located in the same physiographic setting, have similar depths, and the water collected from the wells had a similar range in age. Statistically significant differences in ground-water quality beneath the agricultural and urban areas can reasonably be attributed to the effects of land use. Ground water from the agricultural wells typically had acidic pH values and low specific conductance and alkalinity values. The water contained few dissolved solids, and typically had small concentrations of ions. Some of the agricultural ground-water contained concentrations of ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, phosphorus, orthophosphate, and dissolved organic carbon in concentrations that exceeded those typically found in ground water. Pesticides were detected in ground water collected from 25 of the 29 agricultural wells. Nineteen different pesticide compounds were detected a total of 83 times. Herbicides were the most frequently detected class of pesticides. The greatest concentration of any pesticide was an estimated value of 1.4 microgram per liter of fluometuron. The Wilcoxan rank sum test was used to determine statistically significant differences in water quality between the agricultural and urba

  18. Morphological Indicators of a Mascon Beneath Ceres's Largest Crater, Kerwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, M. T.; Ermakov, A. I.; Raymond, C. A.; Williams, D. A.; Bowling, T. J.; Preusker, F.; Park, R. S.; Marchi, S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Fu, R. R.; Russell, C. T.

    2018-02-01

    Gravity data of Ceres returned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dawn spacecraft is consistent with a lower density crust of variable thickness overlying a higher density mantle. Crustal thickness variations can affect the long-term, postimpact modification of impact craters on Ceres. Here we show that the unusual morphology of the 280 km diameter crater Kerwan may result from viscous relaxation in an outer layer that thins substantially beneath the crater floor. We propose that such a structure is consistent with either impact-induced uplift of the high-density mantle beneath the crater or from volatile loss during the impact event. In either case, the subsurface structure inferred from the crater morphology is superisostatic, and the mass excess would result in a positive Bouguer anomaly beneath the crater, consistent with the highest-degree gravity data from Dawn. Ceres joins the Moon, Mars, and Mercury in having basin-associated gravity anomalies, although their origin may differ substantially.

  19. Modeling the local biodiversity impacts of agricultural water use: case study of a wetland in the coastal arid area of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Bartl, Karin; Pfister, Stephan; Jiménez Vílchez, Ricardo; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-05-01

    Global water use is dominated by agriculture and has considerable influence on people's livelihood and ecosystems, especially in semiarid and arid regions. Methods to address the impacts of water withdrawal and consumption on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems within life cycle assessment are still sparse and very generic. Regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for a groundwater-fed wetland at the arid coast of Peru are developed for groundwater and surface water withdrawal and consumption in order to address the spatial dependency of water use related impacts. Several agricultural scenarios for 2020 were developed in a workshop with local stakeholders and used for calculating total biodiversity impacts. In contrast to assumptions used in top-down approaches (e.g., Pfister et al. Environ. Sci Technol. 2009, 43, 4098 ), irrigation with surface water leads in this specific region to benefits for the groundwater-fed wetland, due to additional groundwater recharge from surplus irrigation water. However, irrigation with groundwater leads to ecological damage to the wetland. The CFs derived from the different scenarios are similar and can thus be used as general CFs for this region, helping local decision-makers to plan future agricultural development, including irrigation technologies, crop choices, and protection of the wetland. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  20. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Toro-Mujica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms of social and environmental impacts, as well as their implications for climate change.

  1. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro-Mujica, P.M.; Aguilar, C.; Vera, R.; Barba, C.; Rivas, J.; García-Martínez, A.

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms. (Author)

  2. Mohorovicic discontinuity depth analysis beneath North Patagonian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Dacal, M. L.; Tocho, C.; Aragón, E.

    2013-05-01

    The North Patagonian Massif is a 100000 km2, sub-rectangular plateau that stands out 500 to 700 m higher in altitude than the surrounding topography. The creation of this plateau took place during the Oligocene through a sudden uplift without noticeable internal deformation. This quite different mechanical response between the massif and the surrounding back arc, the short time in which this process took place and a regional negative Bouguer anomaly in the massif area, raise the question about the isostatic compensation state of the previously mentioned massif. In the present work, a comparison between different results about the depth of the Mohorovicic discontinuity beneath the North Patagonian Massif and a later analysis is made. It has the objective to analyze the crustal thickness in the area to contribute in the determination of the isostatic balance and the better understanding of the Cenozoic evolution of the mentioned area. The comparison is made between four models; two of these were created with seismic information (Feng et al., 2006 and Bassin et al., 2000), another model with gravity information (Barzaghi et al., 2011) and the last one with a combination of both techniques (Tassara y Etchaurren, 2011). The latter was the result of the adaptation to the work area of a three-dimensional density model made with some additional information, mainly seismic, that constrain the surfaces. The work of restriction and adaptation of this model, the later analysis and comparison with the other three models and the combination of both seismic models to cover the lack of resolution in some areas, is presented here. According the different models, the crustal thickness of the study zone would be between 36 and 45 Km. and thicker than the surrounding areas. These results talk us about a crust thicker than normal and that could behave as a rigid and independent block. Moreover, it can be observed that there are noticeable differences between gravimetric and seismic

  3. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  4. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  5. Isotopes and radiations in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the spectacular advances in agriculture in developing nations have stimulated wide interest both in basic as well as adaptive research and in harnessing all the tools that science can offer for progress of agriculture. The nuclear tools are relevant in this respect and also offer particular promise in some areas. Ionising radiations and isotopes have immense applications in agriculture. Both radioisotopes and stable isotopes are being used

  6. Trade-offs of European agricultural abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Emma H.; Verburg, Peter H.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is a policy challenge, especially for areas with unfavorable conditions for agriculture and remote and mountainous areas. Agricultural abandonment is an important land use process in many world regions and one of the dominant land use change processes in Europe.

  7. GROUND WATER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREA, CASE STUDY FROM MACHANG-MALAYSIA (Penilaian Air Tanah di Daerah Pertanian, Studi Kasus di Machang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Islami

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study area is located in Machang, North Kelantan - Malaysia. The North Kelantan plain is covered with Quaternary sediments overlying granite bedrock. The drainage system is dendritic with the main river flowing into the South China Sea. Hydrogeochemical method was used to study groundwater of shallow aquifer characters within the area. Based on water samples analysis collected from the study area, it can be deduced that the cations and anions concentration are good for domestic use except in the southern region which the nitrate concentration is higher (more than 20 mg/l compared to the northern region (relatively zero. The areas that possibly possess nitrate-contaminated groundwater have been mapped along with groundwater flow patterns. The southern and middle part of the study area has an east to west groundwater flow pattern, making it impossible for contaminated water from the southern region to enter the northern area, despite in the northern area has lower elevation. ABSTRAK Lokasi area studi adalah berada di Machang, Kelantan Utara – Malaysia. Dataran tanah wilayah Kelantan Utara dilapisi oleh batuan Sedimen Kuarter yang mana batuan granit sebagai batuan dasar. Sistem pengairan adalah berbentuk jaringan dendritik dengan sungai utama mengalir ke Laut Cina Selatan. Metoda hydrogeochemical digunakan untuk mempelajari karakter air tanah dari akuifer dangkal untuk keseluruhan area studi. Berdasarkan pada analisa air yang diperoleh dari area studi, dapat disimpulkan bahwa konsentrasi kation dan anion baik digunakan untuk kehidupan sehari hari kecuali air tanah di area sebelah selatan yang mana kandungan nitratnya tinggi (lebih dari 20 mg/l dibandingkan di area sebelah utara (hampir tidak ada kandungan nitrat. Area yang memungkinkan memiliki konsentrasi nitrat pada air tanah dipetakan dengan kombinasi pola aliran air tanah. Pola aliran air tanah di area belahan selatan dan bagian tengah adalah dari timur ke barat yang mana tidak

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  9. CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE AREA OF THE ŚLĄSKIE AND CIĘŻKOWICKIE FOOTHILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Józefowska; Anna Miechówka; Michał Gąsiorek; Paweł Zadrożny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state of contamination with zinc, lead, and cadmium in selected soils of the Śląskie and Ciężkowickie Foothills and to determine the impact of the type of agricultural use and selected physico-chemical properties of soils on heavy metal content. The test soils were characterized by natural content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in most cases. Only one type of soil located on Śląskie Foothills developed increased levels of Cd (1.1 mg · kg-1). The conte...

  10. Determinants of changes in agriculture and rural areas in the Piła sub-region in the light of factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Czyżewski

    2017-07-01

    of road and social infrastructure in municipalities in the Piła sub-region and it explained 9.15% of the communality. These factors were induced by natural conditions, farm production constraints, the level of entrepreneurship, the situation on the labour market, which contributed to the development of sub-urbanization and the development of road and social infrastructure, as well as their derivatives, such as income levels, development of the building industry and early school education. Agriculture destimulated the development of municipalities in the Piła sub-region during the period under study.

  11. Buckling instabilities of subducted lithosphere beneath the transition zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Stutzmann, E.; Ren, Y.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2007-01-01

    A sheet of viscous fluid poured onto a surface buckles periodically to generate a pile of regular folds. Recent tomographic images beneath subduction zones, together with quantitative fluid mechanical scaling laws, suggest that a similar instability can occur when slabs of subducted oceanic

  12. Living and Working Beneath the Sea – Next Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowiński Lech

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea of living beneath the sea is very new if compared with millennia of shipping activity. In fact, ocean surface was considered mainly as medium suitable for transport of persons and goods as well as aggression and robbery. More practical attempts to live “on” the water surface are limited to well protected internal waters.

  13. IMPACT OF ROAD TRANSPORT ON AGRICULTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-09

    Mar 9, 2012 ... transport has both positive and negative impact on agricultural development in the study area. However ... Keywords: Rural Development, Marketing, Transportation, Agricultural .... motorcycle and public transport (lorries, pick-.

  14. Soil physics and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado Neto, Durval; Reichardt, K.; Sparovek, G.

    2004-01-01

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  15. Sub-crustal seismic activity beneath Klyuchevskoy Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. J.; Droznina, S.; Levin, V. L.; Senyukov, S.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic activity is extremely vigorous beneath the Klyuchevskoy Volcanic Group (KVG). The unique aspect is the distribution in depth. In addition to upper-crustal seismicity, earthquakes take place at depths in excess of 20 km. Similar observations are known in other volcanic regions, however the KVG is unique in both the number of earthquakes and that they occur continuously. Most other instances of deep seismicity beneath volcanoes appear to be episodic or transient. Digital recording of seismic signals started at the KVG in early 2000s.The dense local network reliably locates earthquakes as small as ML~1. We selected records of 20 earthquakes located at depths over 20 km. Selection was based on the quality of the routine locations and the visual clarity of the records. Arrivals of P and S waves were re-picked, and hypocentral parameters re-established. Newl locations fell within the ranges outlined by historical seismicity, confirming the existence of two distinct seismically active regions. A shallower zone is at ~20 km depth, and all hypocenters are to the northeast of KVG, in a region between KVG and Shiveluch volcano. A deeper zone is at ~30 km, and all hypocenters cluster directly beneath the edifice of the Kyuchevskoy volcano. Examination of individual records shows that earthquakes in both zones are tectonic, with well-defined P and S waves - another distinction of the deep seismicity beneath KVG. While the upper seismic zone is unquestionably within the crust, the provenance of the deeper earthquakes is enigmatic. The crustal structure beneath KVG is highly complex, with no agreed-upon definition of the crust-mantle boundary. Rather, a range of values, from under 30 to over 40 km, exists in the literature. Similarly, a range of velocity structures has been reported. Teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) provide a way to position the earthquakes with respect to the crust-mantle boundary. We compare the differential travel times of S and P waves from deep

  16. Petrological Constraints on Melt Generation Beneath the Asal Rift (Djibouti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzuti, P.; Humler, E.; Manighetti, I.; Gaudemer, Y.; Bézos, A.

    2010-12-01

    The temporal evolution of the mantle melting processes in the Asal Rift is evaluated from the chemical composition of 95 lava flows sampled along 10 km of the rift axis and 8 km off-axis (that is for the last 650 ky). The major element composition and the trace element ratios of aphyric basalts across the Asal Rift show a symmetric pattern relative to the rift axis and preserved a clear signal of mantle melting depth variations. FeO, Fe8.0, Sm/YbN and Zr/Y increase, whereas SiO2 and Lu/HfN decrease from the rift axis to the rift shoulders. These variations are qualitatively consistent with a shallower melting beneath the rift axis than off-axis and the data show that the melting regime is inconsistent with a passive upwelling model. In order to quantify the depth range and extent of melting, we invert Na8.0 and Fe8.0 contents of basalts based on a pure active upwelling model. Beneath the rift axis, melting paths are shallow, from 60 to 30 km. These melting paths are consistent with adiabatic melting in normal-temperature asthenosphere, beneath an extensively thinned mantle lithosphere. In contrast, melting on the rift shoulders occurred beneath a thick mantle lithosphere and required mantle solidus temperature 180°C hotter than normal (melting paths from 110 to 75 km). The calculated rate of lithospheric thinning is high (6.0 cm yr-1) and could explain the survival of a metastable garnet within the mantle at depth shallower than 90 km beneath the modern Asal Rift.

  17. Uranium potential in outcropping Permian basins in France and their extensions beneath mesozoic and tertiary cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, B.

    1990-01-01

    About a third of metropolitan France's uranium production is from Permian deposits located in the Lodeve and, to a lesser extent, Bourbon-l'Archambault basins. Of the Autun, west Vanoise, St-Affrique, Rodez, Brive and Var basins investigated in this study, only those of Rodez and Var have been shown to contain significant deposits. Some of the basins contain potentially interesting targets, often removed from the areas of known mineral occurrences, that have never been investigated. Geophysical exploration and drilling have shown that the Permian extends over a vast area beneath the cover of the large Mesozoic and Tertiary basins. However zones within reach of mineral exploration, ie. those less than 500 m deep, are only found in a few areas. To reach the distant targets down-dip in the outcropping basins or beneath the Mesozoic and Tertiary cover, a detailed study of the basin must be undertaken beforehand. To define and locate targets that are obviously more costly to investigate, direct methods of investigation need to be used such as drilling and geochemistry, and indirect methods such as remote sensing, geophysics and well-logging [fr

  18. The structure of agricultural employees

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk Łabędzki

    2009-01-01

    In the study the analysis of agricultural employees structure on the basis of data from 120 agricultural farms in Kąty Wrocławskie has been conducted. The research confirmed, that agricultural people maximum of time spend on work in their own farms. The maximum annual time of work begins at the end of last five years of working age. The men work relatively less, in agricultural farms in the case of small area farms. While the women, if better educated and in mobile working age work more. Then...

  19. Crustal structure beneath Beijing and its surrounding regions derived from gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenliang; Zhang, Jingfa; Lu, Xiaocui; Lu, Jing

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we use gravity data to study fine crustal structure and seismogenic environment beneath Beijing and its surrounding regions. Multi-scale wavelet analysis method is applied to separating gravity fields. Logarithmic power spectrum method is also used to calculate depth of gravity field source. The results show that the crustal structure is very complicated beneath Beijing and its surrounding areas. The crustal density exhibits laterally inhomogeneous. There are three large scale tectonic zones in North China, i.e., WNW-striking Zhangjiakou-Bohai tectonic zone (ZBTZ), NE-striking Taihang piedmont tectonic zone (TPTZ) and Cangxian tectonic zone (CTZ). ZBTZ and TPTZ intersect with each other beneath Beijing area and both of them cut through the lithosphere. The upper and middle crusts consist of many small-scale faults, uplifts and depressions. In the lower crust, these small-scale tectonic units disappear gradually, and they are replaced by large-scale tectonic units. In surrounding regions of Beijing, ZBTZ intersects with several other NE-striking tectonic units, such as Cangxian uplift, Jizhong depression and Shanxi Graben System (SGS). In west of Taihangshan uplift, gravity anomalies in upper and middle crusts are correlated with geological and topographic features on the surface. Compared with the crust, the structure is comparatively simple in uppermost mantle. Earthquakes mainly occurred in upper and middle crusts, especially in transitional regions between high gravity anomaly and low gravity anomaly. Occurrence of large earthquakes may be related to the upwelling of upper mantle and asthenosphere heat flow materials, such as Sanhe earthquake ( M S8.0) and Tangshan earthquake ( M S7.8).

  20. Magnetotelluric investigations of the lithosphere beneath the central Rae craton, mainland Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Jessica E.; Skulski, Thomas; Craven, James A.; Jones, Alan G.; Snyder, David B.; Kiyan, Duygu

    2014-03-01

    New magnetotelluric soundings at 64 locations throughout the central Rae craton on mainland Nunavut constrain 2-D resistivity models of the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath three regional transects. Responses determined from colocated broadband and long-period magnetotelluric recording instruments enabled resistivity imaging to depths of > 300 km. Strike analysis and distortion decomposition on all data reveal a regional trend of 45-53°, but locally the geoelectric strike angle varies laterally and with depth. The 2-D models reveal a resistive upper crust to depths of 15-35 km that is underlain by a conductive layer that appears to be discontinuous at or near major mapped geological boundaries. Surface projections of the conductive layer coincide with areas of high grade, Archean metasedimentary rocks. Tectonic burial of these rocks and thickening of the crust occurred during the Paleoproterozoic Arrowsmith (2.3 Ga) and Trans-Hudson orogenies (1.85 Ga). Overall, the uppermost mantle of the Rae craton shows resistivity values that range from 3000 Ω m in the northeast (beneath Baffin Island and the Melville Peninsula) to 10,000 Ω m beneath the central Rae craton, to >50,000 Ω m in the south near the Hearne Domain. Near-vertical zones of reduced resistivity are identified within the uppermost mantle lithosphere that may be related to areas affected by mantle melt or metasomatism associated with emplacement of Hudsonian granites. A regional decrease in resistivities to values of 500 Ω m at depths of 180-220 km, increasing to 300 km near the southern margin of the Rae craton, is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

  1. Fate of effluent-borne contaminants beneath septic tank drainfields overlying a Karst aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G; Griffin, Dale W; McMahon, Peter B; Harden, Harmon S; Wade, Edgar; Hicks, Richard W; Chanton, Jeffrey P

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality effects from septic tanks were investigated in the Woodville Karst Plain, an area that contains numerous sinkholes and a thin veneer of sands and clays overlying the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Concerns have emerged about elevated nitrate concentrations in the UFA, which is the source of water supply in this area of northern Florida. At three sites during dry and wet periods in 2007-2008, water samples were collected from the septic tank, shallow and deep lysimeters, and drainfield and background wells in the UFA and analyzed for multiple chemical indicators including nutrients, nitrate isotopes, organic wastewater compounds (OWCs), pharmaceutical compounds, and microbiological indicators (bacteria and viruses). Median NO3-N concentration in groundwater beneath the septic tank drainfields was 20 mg L(-1) (8.0-26 mg L(-1)). After adjusting for dilution, about 25 to 40% N loss (from denitrification, ammonium sorption, and ammonia volatilization) occurs as septic tank effluent moves through the unsaturated zone to the water table. Nitrogen loading rates to groundwater were highly variable at each site (3.9-12 kg N yr(-1)), as were N and chloride depth profiles in the unsaturated zone. Most OWCs and pharmaceutical compounds were highly attenuated beneath the drainfields; however, five Cs (caffeine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, phenol, galaxolide, and tris(dichloroisotopropyl)phosphate) and two pharmaceutical compounds (acetaminophen and sulfamethoxazole) were detected in groundwater samples. Indicator bacteria and human enteric viruses were detected in septic tank effluent samples but only intermittently in soil water and groundwater. Contaminant movement to groundwater beneath each septic tank system also was related to water use and differences in lithology at each site.

  2. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  3. Determination of Sediment Profile for 210Pb, Pb, U and Th from Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Due to Soil Erosion from Highland Agriculture Area, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaini Hamzah; Seh D. Riduan; Ahmad Saat

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Cameron Highlands act as a catchments to accumulate all eroded soil carried by the run off flow through Bertam River, the main river that passes through the highland agriculture area. All suspended solid that carried out by the river contain various kind of hazard potential to the environment. U, Th and Pb are the potential hazard elements carried out by water and accumulate at the dam. Approach: Five sampling point were selected where five 30cm core...

  4. Contribution to fauna of invertebrates of sink holes within the agricultural landscape of the Moravian Karst Protected Area. Part one: Carabidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Horáková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The epigeic fauna in the sink holes was studied using formaldehyde ground traps at 14-day intervals from April to October in 2002 and 2003. A total of 5 transects of traps have been installed within 5 selected areas of the northern part of the Moravian Karst. Areas within the district of Vilémovice, Lažánky and Ostrov near Macocha villages have been studied in particular. Sink holes have been selected on the basis of how they are probably influenced by human activities (types such as regularly mown sink holes within a thoroughly exploited field – 1, sink holes partially or totally overgrown by shrubs – 3 and 2, sink holes with fully developed trees – 4, sink holes within an intensely exploited meadow – 5.It was the aim of this study to determine the species composition of individual areas, numbers of individual species, differences among areas characterised by synoecological characteristics such as the dominance, Shannon-Wieneręs index of species diversity, equitability, Jaccardęs index of similarity and to try to express the degree of anthropogenic influence. Similarity of individual areas has also been evaluated by means of the cluster analysis (on the basis of the Jaccardęs index.Eudominant species were Abax parallelepipedus, Anchomenus dorsalis, Carabus ullrichi, Microlestes maurus, Poecilus cupreus and Pterostichus melanarius. Species such as Aptinus bombarda, Licinus depressus, Molops elatus and Syntomus obscuroguttatus were the most important ones. The highest and lowest values of the index of species diversity were found in the area No. 4, and 1 and 2, respectively. Equitability was the highest and the lowest in the area No. 4 and 1, respectively. According to the Jaccardęs index, areas No. 2 and 3, and No. 1 and 4 were the most and least similar ones, respectively. A total of 53.3%, 45.6% and 1.1% of species could, be classified as belonging to the group E, A and R, respectively. The group E represents eurytopic species

  5. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  6. Electrical structure beneath the Hangai Dome, Mongolia, from magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Matthew; Käufl, Johannes; Becken, Michael; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Demberel, Sodnomsambuu; Sukhbaatar, Usnikh; Batmagnai, Erdenechimeg; Tserendug, Shoovdor; Nasan, Ochir

    2017-04-01

    The Hangai Dome in west-central Mongolia is an unusual high-elevation intra-continental plateau located far from tectonic plate boundaries and characterized by dispersed, low-volume, basaltic volcanism. This region is an ideal natural laboratory for studying intra-continental orogenic and magmatic processes resulting from crust-mantle interactions. The processes responsible for developing the Hangai Dome remain unexplained, due in part to a lack of high resolution geophysical data over the area. Here we present newly acquired broadband (0.008 - 3,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data from a large-scale ( 200 x 450 km) and high resolution (site spacing > 5 km) survey across the Hangai Dome. A total of 125 sites were collected and include full MT sites and telluric-only sites where inter-station transfer functions were computed. The MT data are used to generate an electrical resistivity model of the crust and upper mantle below the Hangai Dome. The model shows that the lower crust ( 30 - 50 km; below the brittle-ductile transition zone) beneath the Hangai Dome contains anomalous discrete pockets of low-resistivity ( 30 ohm-m) material that indicate the presence of local accumulations of fluids and/or low-percent partial melts. These anomalous regions appear to be spatially associated with the surface expressions of past volcanism, hydrothermal activity, and an increase in heat flow. They also correlate with observed crustal low-density and low-velocity anomalies. However they are in contrast to some geochemical and petrological studies which show long-lived crustal melt storage is impossible below the Hangai due to limited crustal assimilation and crustal contamination, arguing for a single parent-source at mantle depths. The upper mantle ( 6%) at this location. The results are consistent with modern geochemical and geophysical data, which show a thin lithosphere below the Hangai region. Furthermore the results agree with geodynamic models that require a low-heat flux

  7. Cathodic protection beneath thick external coating on flexible pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festy, Dominique; Choqueuse, Dominique; Leflour, Denise; Lepage, Vincent [Ifremer - Centre de Brest, BP 70 29280 Plouzane (France); Condat, Carol Taravel; Desamais, Nicolas [Technip- FLEXIFRANCE - PED/PEC - Rue Jean Hure, 76580 Le Trait (France); Tribollet, Bernard [UPR 15 du CNRS, Laboratoire LISE, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    Flexible offshore pipelines possess an external polymer sheath to protect the structure against seawater. In case of an accidental damage of the outer sheath, the annulus of the flexible pipe is flooded with seawater. Far from the damage, corrosion and/or corrosion fatigue of armour steel wires in the annulus occur in a strictly deaerated environment; this has been studied for a few years. At the damage location, the steel wires are in direct contact with renewed seawater. In order to protect them against corrosion, a cathodic protection is applied using sacrificial anodes located at the end fittings. The goal of this work is to evaluate the extent of the cathodic protection as well as the electrolyte oxygen concentration beneath the coating around the damage, to know whether or not there is a non protected area with enough oxygen where corrosion and corrosion fatigue can occur. The experimental work was performed with a model cell (2000 x 200 mm{sup 2}), composed of a mild steel plate and a PMMA coat (transparent poly-methyl-methacrylate). The thickness of the gap between the steel plate and the PMMA coat was 0.5 mm. The potential and current density were monitored all along the cell (70 sensors). The oxygen concentration was also recorded. The experiments were performed with natural sea water, and cathodic protection was applied in a reservoir at one extremity of the cell. Another reservoir at the other cell extremity enabled carbon dioxide bubbling to simulate pipeline annular conditions. PROCOR software was used to simulate potential and current density within the gap and a mathematical model was developed to model oxygen concentration evolution. Both model and experimental results show that the extent of the cathodic protection is much greater than that of oxygen. Oxygen depletion is very quick within the gap when seawater fills it and the oxygen concentration is close to zero a few milli-metres from the gap opening. On the other hand, the cathodic protection

  8. Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities Beneath the Central and Southern East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Miller, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses the Automated Generalized Seismological Data Function (AGSDF) method to develop a model of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the central and southern portions of the East African Rift System (EARS). These phase velocity models at periods of 20-100s lend insight into the lithospheric structures associated with surficial rifting and volcanism, as well as basement structures that pre-date and affect the course of rifting. A large dataset of >700 earthquakes is used, comprised of Mw=6.0+ events that occurred between the years 1995 and 2016. These events were recorded by a composite array of 176 stations from twelve non-contemporaneous seismic networks, each with a distinctive array geometry and station spacing. Several first-order features are resolved in this phase velocity model, confirming findings from previous studies. (1) Low velocities are observed in isolated regions along the Western Rift Branch and across the Eastern Rift Branch, corresponding to areas of active volcanism. (2) Two linear low velocity zones are imaged trending southeast and southwest from the Eastern Rift Branch in Tanzania, corresponding with areas of seismic activity and indicating possible incipient rifting. (3) High velocity regions are observed beneath both the Tanzania Craton and the Bangweulu Block. Furthermore, this model indicates several new findings. (1) High velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend to longer periods than those found beneath the Tanzania Craton, perhaps indicating that rifting processes have not altered the Bangweulu Block as extensively as the Tanzania Craton. (2) At long periods, the fast velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend eastwards beyond the surficial boundaries, to and possibly across the Malawi Rift. This may suggest the presence of older, thick blocks of lithosphere in regions where they are not exposed at the surface. (3) Finally, while the findings of this study correspond well with previous studies in regions of overlapping

  9. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  10. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N.; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  11. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesta Bortey-Sam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava and Musa paradisiaca (plantain around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption.

  12. CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE AREA OF THE ŚLĄSKIE AND CIĘŻKOWICKIE FOOTHILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Józefowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state of contamination with zinc, lead, and cadmium in selected soils of the Śląskie and Ciężkowickie Foothills and to determine the impact of the type of agricultural use and selected physico-chemical properties of soils on heavy metal content. The test soils were characterized by natural content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in most cases. Only one type of soil located on Śląskie Foothills developed increased levels of Cd (1.1 mg · kg-1. The content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in the surface layer (0-30 cm was higher in the soils of Śląskie Foothills than in soils of Ciężkowickie Foothills. The bedrocks from which the soils of these two mesoregions are formed differed significantly only in the content of zinc (it was higher in the soils of Śląskie Foothills. The content of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the surface layer of soil depends on its texture and organic carbon and total nitrogen content. There was also a positive correlation between the content of Pb and Cd and hydrolytic acidity and between the content of Zn and Ca and CEC. Different types of land uses did not influence the content of the metals.

  13. Remote Sensing Application to Land Use Classification in a Rapidly Changing Agricultural/Urban Area: City of Virginia Beach, Virginia. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenyo, V. A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing data on computer-compatible tapes of LANDSAT 1 multispectral scanner imager were analyzed to generate a land use map of the City of Virginia Beach. All four bands were used in both the supervised and unsupervised approaches with the LAYSYS software system. Color IR imagery of a U-2 flight of the same area was also digitized and two sample areas were analyzed via the unsupervised approach. The relationships between the mapped land use and the soils of the area were investigated. A land use land cover map at a scale of 1:24,000 was obtained from the supervised analysis of LANDSAT 1 data. It was concluded that machine analysis of remote sensing data to produce land use maps was feasible; that the LAYSYS software system was usable for this purpose; and that the machine analysis was capable of extracting detailed information from the relatively small scale LANDSAT data in a much shorter time without compromising accuracy.

  14. Deformation in D″ Beneath North America From Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, A. J.; Wookey, J.; Kendall, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The lowermost few hundred kilometres of the Earth's mantle—known as D″—form the boundary between it and the core below, control the Earth's convective system, and are the site of probable large thermochemical heterogeneity. Seismic observations of D″ show a strong heterogeneity in seismic wave velocity and significant seismic anisotropy (the variation of wave speed with direction) are present in many parts of the region. On the basis of continuous regions of fast shear velocity (VS) anomalies in global models, it is also proposed as the resting place of subducted slabs, notably the Farallon beneath North America. A phase change of MgSiO3-perovskite (pv) to a post-perovskite (ppv) structure at near-core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions is a compelling mechanism to explain the seismic features of D″. An outstanding question is how this and other mineral phases may deform to produce anisotropy, with different mechanisms possible. With knowledge either of mantle flow or which slip system is responsible for causing deformation, we can potentially determine the other with observations of the resulting seismic anisotropy. We investigate the dynamics at the CMB beneath North America using differential shear wave splitting in S and ScS phases from earthquakes of magnitude MW>5.5 in South and Central America, Hawaii the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise. They are detected on ~500 stations in North America, giving ~700 measurements of anisotropy in D″. We achieve this by correcting for anisotropy in the upper mantle (UM) beneath both the source and receiver. The measurements cover three regions beneath western USA, the Yucatan peninsula and Florida. In each case, two different, crossing ray paths are used, so that the style of anisotropy can be constrained—a single azimuth cannot distinguish differing cases. Our results showing ~1% anisotropy dependent on azimuth are not consistent with transverse isotropy with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) anywhere. The

  15. Thermally driven gas flow beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amter, S.; Lu, Ning; Ross, B.

    1991-01-01

    A coupled thermopneumatic model is developed for simulating heat transfer, rock-gas flow and carbon-14 travel time beneath Yucca Mountain, NV. The aim of this work is to understand the coupling of heat transfer and gas flow. Heat transfer in and near the potential repository region depends on several factors, including the geothermal gradient, climate, and local sources of heat such as radioactive wastes. Our numerical study shows that small temperature changes at the surface can change both the temperature field and the gas flow pattern beneath Yucca Mountain. A lateral temperature difference of 1 K is sufficient to create convection cells hundreds of meters in size. Differences in relative humidities between gas inside the mountain and air outside the mountain also significantly affect the gas flow field. 6 refs., 7 figs

  16. Evidence for early hunters beneath the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, John M; Meadows, Guy A

    2009-06-23

    Scholars have hypothesized that the poorly understood and rarely encountered archaeological sites from the terminal Paleoindian and Archaic periods associated with the Lake Stanley low water stage (10,000-7,500 BP) are lost beneath the modern Great Lakes. Acoustic and video survey on the Alpena-Amberley ridge, a feature that would have been a dry land corridor crossing the Lake Huron basin during this time period, reveals the presence of a series of stone features that match, in form and location, structures used for caribou hunting in both prehistoric and ethnographic times. These results present evidence for early hunters on the Alpena-Amberley corridor, and raise the possibility that intact settlements and ancient landscapes are preserved beneath Lake Huron.

  17. Nature and extent of lava-flow aquifers beneath Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Pahute Mesa, which has been identified in the FFACO as consisting of the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units. Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a regional model that will be used to predict a contaminant boundary for these Corrective Action Units. Hydrogeologic maps have been prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted at Pahute Mesa. Much of the groundwater flow beneath Pahute Mesa occurs within lava-flow aquifers. An understanding of the distribution and hydraulic character of these important hydrogeologic units is necessary to accurately model groundwater flow beneath Pahute Mesa. This report summarizes the results of a study by Bechtel Nevada geologists to better define the hydrogeology of lava-flow aquifers at Pahute Mesa. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) aid in the development of the hydrostratigraphic framework for Pahute Mesa, and (2) provide information on the distribution and hydraulic character of lava-flow aquifers beneath Pahute Mesa for more accurate computer modeling of the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  18. The extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Collier, J. S.; Rümpker, G.

    2013-11-01

    The granitic islands of the Seychelles Plateau have long been recognised to overlie continental crust, isolated from Madagascar and India during the formation of the Indian Ocean. However, to date the extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles region remains unknown. This is particularly true beneath the Mascarene Basin between the Seychelles Plateau and Madagascar and beneath the Amirante Arc. Constraining the size and shape of the Seychelles continental fragment is needed for accurate plate reconstructions of the breakup of Gondwana and has implications for the processes of continental breakup in general. Here we present new estimates of crustal thickness and VP/VS from H-κ stacking of receiver functions from a year long deployment of seismic stations across the Seychelles covering the topographic plateau, the Amirante Ridge and the northern Mascarene Basin. These results, combined with gravity modelling of historical ship track data, confirm that continental crust is present beneath the Seychelles Plateau. This is ˜30-33 km thick, but with a relatively high velocity lower crustal layer. This layer thins southwards from ˜10 km to ˜1 km over a distance of ˜50 km, which is consistent with the Seychelles being at the edge of the Deccan plume prior to its separation from India. In contrast, the majority of the Seychelles Islands away from the topographic plateau show no direct evidence for continental crust. The exception to this is the island of Desroche on the northern Amirante Ridge, where thicker low density crust, consistent with a block of continental material is present. We suggest that the northern Amirantes are likely continental in nature and that small fragments of continental material are a common feature of plume affected continental breakup.

  19. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-05-01

    The 3-D subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a 3-D velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19 935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  20. Morphological indicators of a mascon beneath Ceres' largest crater, Kerwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael T.; Ermakov, Anton; Raymond, Carol A.; Williams, David A.; Bowling, Tim J.; Preusker, F.; Park, Ryan S.; Marchi, Simone; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Fu, R.R.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    Gravity data of Ceres returned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dawn spacecraft is consistent with a lower density crust of variable thickness overlying a higher density mantle. Crustal thickness variations can affect the long‐term, postimpact modification of impact craters on Ceres. Here we show that the unusual morphology of the 280 km diameter crater Kerwan may result from viscous relaxation in an outer layer that thins substantially beneath the crater floor. We propose that such a structure is consistent with either impact‐induced uplift of the high‐density mantle beneath the crater or from volatile loss during the impact event. In either case, the subsurface structure inferred from the crater morphology is superisostatic, and the mass excess would result in a positive Bouguer anomaly beneath the crater, consistent with the highest‐degree gravity data from Dawn. Ceres joins the Moon, Mars, and Mercury in having basin‐associated gravity anomalies, although their origin may differ substantially.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR), a biannual journal, is an official publication of Agricultural Volunteers of Nigeria (AgVON). The journal considers articles from the following areas: Agriculture, Home Economics/Food science, forestry, wildlife and fisheries, environment and waste management, economics, ...

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