WorldWideScience

Sample records for bending mode vibration

  1. Research on Effective Electric-Mechanical Coupling Coefficient of Sandwich Type Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducer Using Bending Vibration Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model on electromechanical coupling coefficient and the length optimization of a bending piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer are proposed. The piezoelectric transducer consists of 8 PZT elements sandwiched between four thin electrodes, and the PZT elements are clamped by a screwed connection between fore beam and back beam. Firstly, bending vibration model of the piezoelectric transducer is built based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Secondly, the analytical model of effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is built based on the bending vibration model. Energy method and electromechanical equivalent circuit method are involved in the modelling process. To validate the analytical model, sandwich type piezoelectric transducer example in second order bending vibration mode is analysed. Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of the transducer is optimized with simplex reflection technique, and the optimized ratio of length of the transducers is obtained. Finally, experimental prototypes of the sandwich type piezoelectric transducers are fabricated. Bending vibration mode and impedance of the experimental prototypes are tested, and electromechanical coupling coefficient is obtained according to the testing results. Results show that the analytical model is in good agreement with the experimental model.

  2. Controlling coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris

    2018-05-01

    The paper discusses the possibility to control coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing by means of the monoclinic structures in the reinforcement of the plating. Decomposing the potential straining energy and kinetic energy of natural vibration modes into interacting and non-interacting parts, it became possible to introduce the two coefficients that integrally consider the effect of geometry and reinforcement structure upon the dynamic response parameters of the wing. The first of these coefficients describes the elastic coupling of the natural vibration modes, the second coefficient describes the inertial one. The paper describes the numerical studies showing how the orientation of considerably anisotropic CRP layers in the plating affects natural frequencies, loss factors, coefficients of elastic and inertial coupling for several lower tones of natural bending-twisting vibrations of the wing. Besides, for each vibration mode, partial values of the above mentioned dynamic response parameters were determined by means of the relationships for orthotropic structures where instead of "free" shearing modulus in the reinforcement plant, "pure" shearing modulus is used. Joint analysis of the obtained results has shown that each pair of bending-twisting vibration modes has its orientation angle ranges of the reinforcing layers where the inertial coupling caused by asymmetry of the cross-section profile with respect to the main axes of inertia decreases, down to the complete extinction, due to the generation of the elastic coupling in the plating material. These ranges are characterized by the two main features: 1) the difference in the natural frequencies of the investigated pair of bending-twisting vibration modes is the minimum and 2) natural frequencies of bending-twisting vibrations belong to a stretch restricted by corresponding partial natural frequencies of the investigated pair of vibration modes. This result is of practical importance

  3. Stress-anneal-induced magnetic anisotropy in highly textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al magnetostrictive strips for bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters

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    Jung Jin Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011 grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat =  λ∥ − λ⊥ of ∼280 ppm and ∼130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA. Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ∼60% to within ∼80% of λsat. The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ∼46% to ∼56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing

  4. Stress-anneal-induced magnetic anisotropy in highly textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al magnetostrictive strips for bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Jin; Na, Suok-Min; Raghunath, Ganesh; Flatau, Alison B.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011) grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat = λ∥ - λ⊥) of ˜280 ppm and ˜130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA). Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ˜60% to within ˜80% of λsat). The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ˜46% to ˜56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing/energy harvesting

  5. Local-mode vibrations of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry)

    1981-05-11

    Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H/sub 2/O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm/sup -1/ at v=1 to 0.001 cm/sup -1/ at v=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode.

  6. Local-mode vibrations of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry)

    1981-05-11

    Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H/sub 2/O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm/sup -1/ at theta=1 to 0.001 cm/sup -1/ at theta=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode.

  7. Local-mode vibrations of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H 2 O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm - 1 at v=1 to 0.001 cm - 1 at v=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode. (author)

  8. Longitudinal-bending mode micromotor using multilayer piezoelectric actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, K; Koc, B; Uchino, K

    2001-07-01

    Longitudinal-bending mode ultrasonic motors with a diameter of 3 mm were fabricated using stacked multilayer piezoelectric actuators, which were self-developed from hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic. A bending vibration was converted from a longitudinal vibration with a longitudinal-bending coupler. The motors could be bidirectionally operated by changing driving frequency. Their starting and braking torque were analyzed based on the transient velocity response. With a load of moment of inertia 2.5 x 10(-7) kgm2, the motor showed a maximum starting torque of 127.5 microNm. The braking torque proved to be a constant independent on the motor's driving conditions and was roughly equivalent to the maximum starting torque achievable with our micromotors.

  9. Research on a Novel Exciting Method for a Sandwich Transducer Operating in Longitudinal-Bending Hybrid Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel exciting method for a sandwich type piezoelectric transducer operating in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes is proposed and discussed, in which the piezoelectric elements for the excitations of the longitudinal and bending vibrations share the same axial location, but correspond to different partitions. Whole-piece type piezoelectric plates with three separated partitions are used, in which the center partitions generate the first longitudinal vibration, while the upper and lower partitions produce the second bending vibration. Detailed comparisons between the proposed exciting method and the traditional one were accomplished by finite element method (FEM calculations, which were further verified by experiments. Compared with the traditional exciting method using independent longitudinal ceramics and bending ceramics, the proposed method achieves higher electromechanical coupling factors and larger vibration amplitudes, especially for the bending vibration mode. This novel exciting method for longitudinal-bending hybrid vibrations has not changed the structural dimensions of the sandwich transducer, but markedly improves the mechanical output ability, which makes it very helpful and meaningful in designing new piezoelectric actuators operated in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes.

  10. General principles of control method of passenger car bodies bending vibration parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkov, A. N.; Samoshkin, S. L.; Korshunov, S. D.; Kobishchanov, V. V.; Antipin, D. Ya

    2018-03-01

    Weight reduction of passenger cars is a promising direction of reducing the cost of their production and increasing transportation profitability. One way to reduce the weight of passenger cars is the lightweight metal body design by means of using of high-strength aluminum alloys, low-alloy and stainless steels. However, it has been found that the limit of the lightweight metal body design is not determined by the total mode of deformation, but its flexural rigidity, as the latter influences natural frequencies of body bending vibrations. With the introduction of mandatory certification for compliance with the Customs Union technical regulations, the following index was confirmed: “first natural frequency of body bending vibrations in the vertical plane”. This is due to the fact that vibration, noise and car motion depend on this index. To define the required indexes, the principles of the control method of bending vibration parameters of passenger car bodies are proposed in this paper. This method covers all stages of car design – development of design documentation, manufacturing and testing experimental and pilot models, launching the production. The authors also developed evaluation criteria and the procedure of using the results for introduction of control method of bending vibration parameters of passenger car bodies.

  11. Bending mode flutter in a transonic linear cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govardhan, Raghuraman; Jutur, Prahallada

    2017-11-01

    Vibration related issues like flutter pose a serious challenge to aircraft engine designers. The phenomenon has gained relevance for modern engines that employ thin and long fan blade rows to satisfy the growing need for compact and powerful engines. The tip regions of such blade rows operate with transonic relative flow velocities, and are susceptible to bending mode flutter. In such cases, the flow field around individual blades of the cascade is dominated by shock motions generated by the blade motions. In the present work, a new transonic linear cascade facility with the ability to oscillate a blade at realistic reduced frequencies has been developed. The facility operates at a Mach number of 1.3, with the central blade being oscillated in heave corresponding to the bending mode of the rotor. The susceptibility of the blade to undergo flutter at different reduced frequencies is quantified by the cycle-averaged power transfer to the blade calculated using the measured unsteady load on the oscillating blade. These measurements show fluid excitation (flutter) at low reduced frequencies and fluid damping (no flutter) at higher reduced frequencies. Simultaneous measurements of the unsteady shock motions are done with high speed shadowgraphy to elucidate the differences in shock motions between the excitation and damping cases.

  12. Development of U-frame bending system for studying the vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Tan, Ting; Jiang, Hao; Cox, Thomas S.; Howard, Rob L.; Bevard, Bruce B.; Flanagan, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    A bending fatigue system developed to evaluate the response of spent nuclear fuel rods to vibration loads is presented. A U-frame testing setup is used for imposing bending loads on the fuel rod specimen. The U-frame setup consists of two rigid arms, side connecting plates to the rigid arms, and linkages to a universal testing machine. The test specimen's curvature is obtained through a three-point deflection measurement method. The tests using surrogate specimens with stainless steel cladding revealed increased flexural rigidity under unidirectional cyclic bending, significant effect of cladding-pellets bonding on the response of surrogate rods, and substantial cyclic softening in reverse bending mode. These phenomena may cast light on the expected response of a spent nuclear fuel rod. The developed U-frame system is thus verified and demonstrated to be ready for further pursuit in hot-cell tests.

  13. Development of U-frame bending system for studying the vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Tan, Ting; Jiang, Hao; Cox, Thomas S.; Howard, Rob L.; Bevard, Bruce B.; Flanagan, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A bending fatigue system developed to evaluate the response of spent nuclear fuel rods to vibration loads is presented. A U-frame testing setup is used for imposing bending loads on the fuel rod specimen. The U-frame setup consists of two rigid arms, side connecting plates to the rigid arms, and linkages to a universal testing machine. The test specimen’s curvature is obtained through a three-point deflection measurement method. The tests using surrogate specimens with stainless steel cladding revealed increased flexural rigidity under unidirectional cyclic bending, significant effect of cladding-pellets bonding on the response of surrogate rods, and substantial cyclic softening in reverse bending mode. These phenomena may cast light on the expected response of a spent nuclear fuel rod. The developed U-frame system is thus verified and demonstrated to be ready for further pursuit in hot-cell tests

  14. Algorithm for the calculation of vibration inherent frequencies bending from two-shafts transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore Jan-Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of the speed shaft transmissions at or near the natural frequency of the pulses at the resonance phenomenon leads to bending, when the amplitude of the oscillations increases sharply, causing deterioration or complete destruction thereof. To avoid system resonance operation is necessary to know the most accurate values its pulsations and taking appropriate constructive measures to avoid overlapping with disturbing frequency harmonics (operating speeds.This paper presents an algorithm for calculating the pulsation and vibration modes in bending, and based on numerical simulations performed on a real two-shafts transmission and will draw conclusions drawn diagrams.

  15. Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    A design analysis of the mixed mode bending (MMB) sandwich specimen for face–core interface fracture characterization is presented. An analysis of the competing failure modes in the foam cored sandwich specimens is performed in order to achieve face–core debond fracture prior to other failure modes...... for the chosen geometries and mixed mode loading conditions....

  16. Vibration mode and vibration shape under excitation of a three phase model transformer core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Seiji; Ishigaki, Yusuke; Omura, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    Structural vibration characteristics and vibration shapes under three-phase excitation of a archetype transformer core were investigated to consider their influences on transformer noise. Acoustic noise and vibration behavior were measured in a three-limb model transformer core. Experimental modal analysis by impact test was performed. The vibration shapes were measured by a laser scanning vibrometer at different exciting frequencies. Vibration amplitude of the core in out-of-plane direction were relatively larger than those in other two in-plane directions. It was consistent with the result that the frequency response function of the core in out-of-plane direction was larger by about 20 dB or more than those in in-plane directions. There were many vibration modes having bending deformation of limbs in out-of-plane direction. The vibration shapes of the core when excited at 50 Hz and 60 Hz were almost the same because the fundamental frequencies of the vibration were not close to the resonance frequencies. When excitation frequency was 69 Hz which was half of one of the resonance frequencies, the vibration shape changed to the one similar to the resonance vibration mode. Existence of many vibration modes in out-of-plane direction of the core was presumed to be a reason why frequency characteristics of magnetostriction and transformer noise do not coincide.

  17. The Influence of Shaft’s Bending on the Coupling Vibration of a Flexible Blade-Rotor System

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    Chao-feng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of shaft bending on the coupling vibration of rotor-blades system is nonignorable. Therefore, this paper analyzed the influence of shaft bending on the coupling vibration of rotor-blades system. The vibration mode function of shaft under elastic supporting condition was also derived to ensure accuracy of the model as well. The influence of the number of blades, the position of disk, and the support stiffness of shaft on critical speed of system was analyzed. The numerical results show that there were two categories of coupling mode shapes which belong to a set where the blade’s first two modes predominate in the system: shaft-blade (SB mode and interblade (BB mode due to the coupling between blade and shaft. The BB mode was of repeated frequencies of (Nb-2 multiplicity for number blades, and the SB mode was of repeated frequencies of (2 multiplicity for number blades. What is more, with the increase of the number of blades, natural frequency of rotor was decreasing linearly, that of BB mode was constant, and that of SB mode was increasing linearly. Natural frequency of BB mode was not affected while that of rotor and SB mode was affected (changed symmetrically with the center of shaft by the position of disk. In the end, vibration characteristics of coupling mode shapes were analyzed.

  18. A comparative study on free vibration analysis of delaminated torsion stiff and bending stiff composite shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element method to compare the effects of delamination on free vibration of graphite-epoxy bending stiff and torsion stiff composite pretwisted shallow conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting the Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. An eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. The multipoint constraint; algorithm is utilized to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The standard eigen value problem is solved by applying the QR iteration algorithm. Mode shapes for typical configurations are also depicted. Numerical results obtained are the first known non-dimensional frequencies which could serve as reference solutions for the future investigators.

  19. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  20. Natural Frequncies of Coupled Blade-Bending and Shaft-Torsional Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Al-Bedoor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the coupled shaft-torsional and blade-bending natural frequencies are investigated using a reduced order mathematical model. The system-coupled model is developed using the Lagrangian approach in conjunction with the assumed modes method to discretize the blade bending deflection. The model accounts for the blade stagger (setting angle, the system rotating speed and its induced stiffening effect. The coupled equations of motion are linearized based on the small deformation theory for the blade bending and shaft torsional deformation to enable calculation of the system natural frequencies for various combinations of system parameters. The obtained coupled eignvalue system is ready for use as a reference for comparison for larger size finite element simulations and for the use as a fast check on natural frequencies for the coupled blade bending and shaft torsional vibrations in the design and diagnostics processes. Some results on the predicted natural frequencies are graphically presented and discussed pertinent to the coupling controlling factors and their effects. In addition, the predicted coupled natural frequencies are validated using the Finite Element Commercial Package (Pro-Mechanica where good agreements are found.

  1. A square-plate ultrasonic linear motor operating in two orthogonal first bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-01-01

    A novel square-plate piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor operated in two orthogonal first bending vibration modes (B₁) is proposed. The piezoelectric vibrator of the linear motor is simply made of a single PZT ceramic plate (sizes: 15 x 15 x 2 mm) and poled in its thickness direction. The top surface electrode of the square ceramic plate was divided into four active areas along its two diagonal lines for exciting two orthogonal B₁ modes. The achieved driving force and speed from the linear motor are 1.8 N and 230 mm/s, respectively, under one pair orthogonal voltage drive of 150 V(p-p) at the resonance frequency of 92 kHz. The proposed linear motor has advantages over conventional ultrasonic linear motors, such as relatively larger driving force, very simple working mode and structure, and low fabrication cost.

  2. Low-bending loss and single-mode operation in few-mode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Wang, Hua; Chen, Ming-Yang; Wei, Jin; Cai, Zhi-Min; Li, Lu-Ming; Yang, Ji-Hai; Zhu, Yuan-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The technique of eliminating the higher-order modes in a few-mode optical fiber is proposed. The fiber is designed with a group of defect modes in the cladding. The higher-order modes in the fiber can be eliminated by bending the fiber to induce strong coupling between the defect modes and the higher-order modes. Numerical simulation shows the bending losses of the LP01 mode are lower than 1.5×10-4 dB/turn for the wavelength shorter than 1.625 μm. The proposed fiber can be bent multiple turns at small bending radius which are preferable for FTTH related applications.

  3. Rupture prediction for induction bends under opening mode bending with emphasis on strain localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuya, Masaki; Sakanoue, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the opening mode of induction bends; this mode represents the deformation outside a bend. Bending experiments on induction bends are shown and the manner of failure of these bends was investigated. Ruptures occur at the intrados of the bends, which undergo tensile stress, and accompany the local reduction of wall thickness, i.e., necking that indicates strain localization. By implementing finite element analysis (FEA), it was shown that the rupture is dominated not by the fracture criterion of material but by the initiation of strain localization that is a deformation characteristic of the material. These ruptures are due to the rapid increase of local strain after the initiation of strain localization and suddenly reach the fracture criterion. For the evaluation of the deformability of the bends, a method based on FEA that can predict the displacement at the rupture is proposed. We show that the yield surface shape and the true stress–strain relationship after uniform elongation have to be defined on the basis of the actual properties of the bend material. The von Mises yield criterion, which is commonly used in cases of elastic–plastic FEA, could not predict the rupture and overestimated the deformability. In contrast, a yield surface obtained by performing tensile tests on a biaxial specimen could predict the rupture. The prediction of the rupture was accomplished by an inverse calibration method that determined the true stress-strain relationship after uniform elongation. As an alternative to the inverse calibration, a simple extrapolation method of the true stress-strain relationship after uniform elongation which can predict the rupture is proposed. - Highlights: • A method based on FEA that can predict the displacement at the rupture is proposed. • The yield surface shape and the true stress–strain have to be defined precisely. • The von Mises yield criterion overestimated the deformability. • The ruptures are due to the

  4. Vibrational lifetimes of protein amide modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.A.; Rella, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the lifetimes of vibrational modes in proteins has been achieved with a single frequency infrared pump-probe technique using the Stanford Picosecond Free-electron Laser, These are the first direct measurements of vibrational dynamics in the polyamide structure of proteins. In this study, modes associated with the protein backbone are investigated. Results for the amide I band, which consists mainly of the stretching motion of the carbonyl unit of the amide linkage, show that relaxation from the first vibrational excited level (v=1) to the vibrational ground state (v=0) occurs within 1.5 picoseconds with apparent first order kinetics. Comparison of lifetimes for myoglobin and azurin, which have differing secondary structures, show a small but significant difference. The lifetime for the amide I band of myoglobin is 300 femtoseconds shorter than for azurin. Further measurements are in progress on other backbone vibrational modes and on the temperature dependence of the lifetimes. Comparison of vibrational dynamics for proteins with differing secondary structure and for different vibrational modes within a protein will lead to a greater understanding of energy transfer and dissipation in biological systems. In addition, these results have relevance to tissue ablation studies which have been conducted with pulsed infrared lasers. Vibrational lifetimes are necessary for calculating the rate at which the energy from absorbed infrared photons is converted to equilibrium thermal energy within the irradiated volume. The very fast vibrational lifetimes measured here indicate that mechanisms which involve direct vibrational up-pumping of the amide modes with consecutive laser pulses, leading to bond breakage or weakening, are not valid

  5. Local vibrational modes of the water dimer - Comparison of theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalescky, R.; Zou, W.; Kraka, E.; Cremer, D.

    2012-12-01

    Local and normal vibrational modes of the water dimer are calculated at the CCSD(T)/CBS level of theory. The local H-bond stretching frequency is 528 cm-1 compared to a normal mode stretching frequency of just 143 cm-1. The adiabatic connection scheme between local and normal vibrational modes reveals that the lowering is due to mass coupling, a change in the anharmonicity, and coupling with the local HOH bending modes. The local mode stretching force constant is related to the strength of the H-bond whereas the normal mode stretching force constant and frequency lead to an erroneous underestimation of the H-bond strength.

  6. On damping of screw dislocation bending vibrations in dissipative crystal: limiting cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhin, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The expression for the generalized susceptibility of the dislocation obtained earlier was used. The electronic drag mechanism of dislocations is considered. The study of small dislocation oscillations was limited. The contribution of the attenuation of low-frequency bending screw dislocation vibrations to the overall coefficient of dynamic dislocation drag in the long-wave and short-wave limits is calculated. The damping of short-wave bending screw dislocation vibrations caused by an external action of an arbitrary frequency has been investigated. The contribution of long-wave bending screw dislocation vibrations damping in the total drag coefficient at an arbitrary frequency is found.

  7. Modeling and experimental analysis of the linear ultrasonic motor with in-plane bending and longitudinal mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhijian; Hu, Hong

    2014-03-01

    A novel linear ultrasonic motor based on in-plane longitudinal and bending mode vibration is presented in this paper. The stator of the motor is composed of a metal plate and eight piezoelectric ceramic patches. There are four long holes in the plate, designed for consideration of the longitudinal and bending mode coupling. The corresponding model is developed to optimize the mechanical and electrical coupling of the stator, which causes an ellipse motion at the contact tip of the stator when the composite vibrations with longitudinal and bending are excited. Its harmonic and transient responses are simulated and inspected. A prototype based on the model is fabricated and used to conduct experiments. Results show that the amplitude of the stator's contact tips is significantly increased, which helps to amplify the driving force and speed of the motor. It is therefore feasible to implement effective linear movement using the developed prototype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical detection and mode shape imaging of vibrational modes of micro and nanomechanical resonators by dynamic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulo, A S; GarcIa-Sanchez, D; Perez-Murano, F; Bachtold, A; Black, J; Bokor, J; Esplandiu, M J; Aguasca, A

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method based on the use of higher order bending modes of the cantilever of a dynamic force microscope to characterize vibrations of micro and nanomechanical resonators at arbitrarily large resonance frequencies. Our method consists on using a particular cantilever eigenmode for standard feedback control in amplitude modulation operation while another mode is used for detecting and imaging the resonator vibration. In addition, the resonating sample device is driven at or near its resonance frequency with a signal modulated in amplitude at a frequency that matches the resonance of the cantilever eigenmode used for vibration detection. In consequence, this cantilever mode is excited with an amplitude proportional to the resonator vibration, which is detected with an external lock-in amplifier. We show two different application examples of this method. In the first one, acoustic wave vibrations of a film bulk acoustic resonator around 1.6 GHz are imaged. In the second example, bending modes of carbon nanotube resonators up to 3.1 GHz are characterized. In both cases, the method provides subnanometer-scale sensitivity and the capability of providing otherwise inaccessible information about mechanical resonance frequencies, vibration amplitude values and mode shapes

  9. TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPY AND GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF THE BENDING VIBRATIONS OF ACETYLENE 12C2D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-one 12 C 2 D 2 transitions have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region of its ν 5 -ν 4 difference band and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be ranging from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. The 12 C 2 D 2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 120-150 mTorr D 2 O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC 2 ) powder. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν 4 and ν 5 of 12 C 2 D 2 , which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12 C 2 D 2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set, which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. New frequency and intensity predictions have been made based on the obtained molecular parameters. The more precise measurements and new predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by the future high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA, which will work in the terahertz spectral region.

  10. Optimal parameters uncoupling vibration modes of oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, K. C.; Pieper, A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimization concept for an oscillator with two degrees of freedom. By using specially defined motion ratios, we control the action of springs to each degree of freedom of the oscillator. We aim at showing that, if the potential action of the springs in one period of vibration, used as the payoff function for the conservative oscillator, is maximized among all admissible parameters and motions satisfying Lagrange's equations, then the optimal motion ratios uncouple vibration modes. A similar result holds true for the dissipative oscillator having dampers. The application to optimal design of vehicle suspension is discussed.

  11. A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes was proposed in this study. The stator (or actuator) of the linear motor was made of a simple single Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramic square plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm(3)) with a circular hole (D = 6.7 mm) in the center. The geometric parameters of the stator were computed with the finite element analysis to produce in-plane bi-mode standing wave vibration. The calculated results predicted that a driving tip attached at midpoint of one edge of the stator can produce two orthogonal, approximate straight-line trajectories, which can be used to move a slider in linear motion via frictional forces in forward or reverse direction. The investigations showed that the proposed linear motor can produce a six times higher power density than that of a previously reported square plate motor.

  12. Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuying; Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device

  13. Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuying, E-mail: shuying-cao@hebut.edu.cn; Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei [Province-Ministry Joint Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Field and Electrical Apparatus Reliability, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-05-07

    A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device.

  14. Vibration and bending analyses of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic sandwich microplates resting on viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2017-08-01

    Magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical bending and free vibration analysis of a sandwich microplate using strain gradient theory is expressed in this paper. The sandwich plate is made of a core and two integrated piezo-magnetic face sheets. The structure is subjected to electric and magnetic potentials, thermal loadings, and resting on Pasternak's foundation. Electro-magnetic equations are developed by considering the variation form of Hamilton's principle. The effects of important parameters of this problem such as applied electric and magnetic potentials, direct and shear parameter of foundation, three microlength-scale parameters, and two parameters of temperature rising are investigated on the vibration and bending results of problem.

  15. Far-infrared high resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy of the ν11 bending vibrational fundamental transition of dimethylsulfoxyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Nanobashvili, Lia; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale; Sadovskií, Dmitrií A.

    2010-05-01

    We report the first successful high resolution gas phase study of the 'parallel' band of DMSO at 380 cm -1 associated with the ν11 bending vibrational mode. The spectrum was recorded with a resolution of 0.0015 cm -1 using the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron source, the IFS 125 FTIR spectrometer and a multipass cell providing an optical path of 150 m. The rotational constants and centrifugal corrections obtained from the analysis of the resolved rotational transitions reproduce the spectrum to the experimental accuracy.

  16. Modal analysis of blade bending and torsional shaft coupling by component mode synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vare, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Acoustics and Vibration Mechanics Branch of EDF's Research and Development Division is in charge of performing finite element calculations, for the study of the vibratory behaviour of nuclear components. Due to the size and the geometrical complexity of some of these components, EDF has developed sub-structure synthesis methods for modal analysis of large structures. Both Craig-Bampton's and Mac Neal's methods have been implemented in the general mechanics code of EDF: the Aster Code. Craig-Bampton sub-structure synthesis approach was used to study the coupling between blade bending and torsional shaft of a turbine generator set. Four sub-structures were defined to make the calculation: a generator, a low pressure rotor, a high pressure rotor and a blade. The results of the modal calculation, show good agreement with the experimental measurements (error < 1 %). It shows the accuracy of component mode synthesis methods. (author). 6 refs., 7 figs

  17. Coupled bending and torsional vibration of a rotor system with nonlinear friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Chunli; Cao, Guohua; Zhu, Zhencai; Rao, Zhushi; Ta, Na

    2017-01-01

    Unacceptable vibrations induced by the nonlinear friction in a rotor system seriously affect the health and reliability of the rotating ma- chinery. To find out the basic excitation mechanism and characteristics of the vibrations, a coupled bending and torsional nonlinear dynamic model of rotor system with nonlinear friction is presented. The dynamic friction characteristic is described with a Stribeck curve, which generates nonlinear friction related to relative velocity. The motion equations of unbalance rotor system are established by the Lagrangian approach. Through numerical calculation, the coupled vibration characteristics of a rotor system under nonlinear friction are well investigated. The influence of main system parameters on the behaviors of the system is discussed. The bifurcation diagrams, waterfall plots, the times series, orbit trails, phase plane portraits and Poincaré maps are obtained to analyze dynamic characteristics of the rotor system and the results reveal multiform complex nonlinear dynamic responses of rotor system under rubbing. These analysis results of the present paper can effectively provide a theoretical reference for structural design of rotor systems and be used to diagnose self- excited vibration faults in this kind of rotor systems. The present research could contribute to further understanding on the self-excited vibration and the bending and torsional coupling vibration of the rotor systems with Stribeck friction model.

  18. Coupled bending and torsional vibration of a rotor system with nonlinear friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Chunli; Cao, Guohua; Zhu, Zhencai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China); Rao, Zhushi; Ta, Na [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2017-06-15

    Unacceptable vibrations induced by the nonlinear friction in a rotor system seriously affect the health and reliability of the rotating ma- chinery. To find out the basic excitation mechanism and characteristics of the vibrations, a coupled bending and torsional nonlinear dynamic model of rotor system with nonlinear friction is presented. The dynamic friction characteristic is described with a Stribeck curve, which generates nonlinear friction related to relative velocity. The motion equations of unbalance rotor system are established by the Lagrangian approach. Through numerical calculation, the coupled vibration characteristics of a rotor system under nonlinear friction are well investigated. The influence of main system parameters on the behaviors of the system is discussed. The bifurcation diagrams, waterfall plots, the times series, orbit trails, phase plane portraits and Poincaré maps are obtained to analyze dynamic characteristics of the rotor system and the results reveal multiform complex nonlinear dynamic responses of rotor system under rubbing. These analysis results of the present paper can effectively provide a theoretical reference for structural design of rotor systems and be used to diagnose self- excited vibration faults in this kind of rotor systems. The present research could contribute to further understanding on the self-excited vibration and the bending and torsional coupling vibration of the rotor systems with Stribeck friction model.

  19. Bend-resistant large mode area fiber with novel segmented cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaoshuo; Ning, Tigang; Pei, Li; Li, Jing; Zheng, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    A novel structure of segment cladding fiber (SCF) with characteristics of bend-resistance and large-mode-area (LMA) is proposed. In this new structure, the high refractive index (RI) core is periodically surrounded by high RI fan-segmented claddings. Numerical investigations show that effective single-mode operation of the proposed fiber with mode field area of 700 μm2 can be achieved when the bending radius is 15 cm. Besides, this fiber is insensitive to the bending orientation at the ranging of [-180°, 180°]. The proposed design shows great potential in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers with compact structure.

  20. Normal modes of vibration in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgeneau, R J [Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cordes, J [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dolling, G; Woods, A D B

    1964-07-01

    The frequency-wave-vector dispersion relation, {nu}(q), for the normal vibrations of a nickel single crystal at 296{sup o}K has been measured for the [{zeta}00], [{zeta}00], [{zeta}{zeta}{zeta}], and [0{zeta}1] symmetric directions using inelastic neutron scattering. The results can be described in terms of the Born-von Karman theory of lattice dynamics with interactions out to fourth-nearest neighbors. The shapes of the dispersion curves are very similar to those of copper, the normal mode frequencies in nickel being about 1.24 times the corresponding frequencies in copper. The fourth-neighbor model was used to calculate the frequency distribution function g({nu}) and related thermodynamic properties. (author)

  1. Vibration Analysis of Cracked Composite Bending-torsion Beams for Damage Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kaihong

    2004-01-01

    An analytical model of cracked composite beams vibrating in coupled bending-torsion is developed. The beam is made of fiber-reinforced composite with fiber angles in each ply aligned in the same direction. The crack is assumed open. The local flexibility concept is implemented to model the open crack and the associated compliance matrix is derived. The crack introduces additional boundary conditions at the crack location and these effects in conjunction with those of material properties are i...

  2. Study of transport and micro-structural properties of magnesium di-boride strand under react and bend mode and bend and react mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Bano, Anees; Pradhan, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    I-V characterization of commercial multi-filamentary Magnesium Di-Boride (MgB 2 ) wire of diameter 0.83 mm were studied in cryocooler based self-field characterization system under both react and bent mode and bent and react mode for a range of temperature 6 K - 25 K. This study is of practical technical relevance where the heat treatment of the superconducting wire makes the sample less flexible for winding in magnet and in other applications. There are limited reported data, available on degradation of MgB 2 wire with bending induced strain in react and wind and wind and react method. In the present work the bending diameter were varied from 80 mm to 20 mm in the interval of 10 mm change of bending diameter and for each case critical current (Ic) of the strand is measured for the above range of temperature. An ETP copper made customized sample holder for mounting the MgB 2 strand was fabricated and is thermally anchored to the cooling stage of the cryocooler. It is seen from the experimental data that in react and bent mode the critical current degrades from 105 A to 87 A corresponding to bending diameter of 80 mm and 20 mm respectively. The corresponding bending strain was analytically estimated and compared with the simulation result. It is also observed that in react and bent mode, the degradation of the transport property of the strand is less as compared to react and bent mode. For bent and react mode in the same sample, the critical current (Ic) was measured to be ∼145 A at 15 K for bending diameter of 20 mm. Apart from studying the bending induced strain on MgB 2 strand, the tensile test of the strand at RT was carried out. The electrical characterizations of the samples were accompanied by the microstructure analyses of the bent strand to examine the bending induced degradation in the grain structure of the strand. All these experimental findings are expected to be used as input to fabricate prototype MgB 2 based magnet. (author)

  3. Bend compensated large-mode-area fibers: achieving robust single-modedness with transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, John M; Nicholson, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-12

    Fibers with symmetric bend compensated claddings are proposed, and demonstrate performance much better than conventional designs. These fibers can simultaneously achieve complete HOM suppression, negligible bend loss, and mode area >1000 square microns. The robust single-modedness of these fibers offers a path to overcoming mode instability limits on high-power amplifiers and lasers. The proposed designs achieve many of the advantages of our previous (asymmetric) bend compensation strategy in the regime of moderately large area, and are much easier to fabricate and utilize.

  4. Study of Transport and Micro-structural properties of Magnesium Di-Boride Strand under react and bend mode and bend and react mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Ananya; Kumar Das, Subrat; Bano, Anees; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-01-01

    I-V characterization of commercial multi-filamentary Magnesium Di-Boride (MgB 2 ) wire of diameter 0.83 mm were studied in Cryocooler at self-field I-V characterization system under both react and bend mode and bend and react mode for a range of temperature 6 K - 25 K. This study is of practical technical relevance where the heat treatment of the superconducting wire makes the wire less flexible for winding in magnet and in other applications. In the present work the bending diameter was varied from 40 mm to 20 mm and for each case critical current (I c ) of the strand is measured for above range of temperature. A customized sample holder is fabricated and thermally anchored with the 2 nd cold stage of Cryocooler. It is observed from the measurement that the strand is more susceptible to degradation for react and bend cases. The transport measurement of the strand was accompanied by SEM analyses of bend samples. Also the tensile strength of the raw strands and the heat treated strands were carried out at room temperature in Universal Testing Machine (UTM) to have an estimate about the limiting winding tension value during magnet fabrication. (paper)

  5. Spatial Distortion of Vibration Modes via Magnetic Correlation of Impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, F. S.; Zhong, Y.; Epp, S. W.; Foucar, L.; Trigo, M.; Chen, J.; Reis, D. A.; Wang, H. L.; Zhao, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Zhu, D.; Chollet, M.; Fritz, D. M.; Hartmann, R.; Englert, L.; Strüder, L.; Schlichting, I.; Ullrich, J.

    2018-03-01

    Long wavelength vibrational modes in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga0.91 Mn0.09 As are investigated using time resolved x-ray diffraction. At room temperature, we measure oscillations in the x-ray diffraction intensity corresponding to coherent vibrational modes with well-defined wavelengths. When the correlation of magnetic impurities sets in, we observe the transition of the lattice into a disordered state that does not support coherent modes at large wavelengths. Our measurements point toward a magnetically induced broadening of long wavelength vibrational modes in momentum space and their quasilocalization in the real space. More specifically, long wavelength vibrational modes cannot be assigned to a single wavelength but rather should be represented as a superposition of plane waves with different wavelengths. Our findings have strong implications for the phonon-related processes, especially carrier-phonon and phonon-phonon scattering, which govern the electrical conductivity and thermal management of semiconductor-based devices.

  6. Single-mode hole-assisted fiber as a bending-loss insensitive fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Tomoya; Matsui, Takashi; Fukai, Chisato; Kurashima, Toshio

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the design and characteristics of a single-mode and low bending loss HAF both numerically and experimentally. An air filling fraction S is introduced to enable us to design a HAF with desired characteristics more easily. We show that we can expect to realize a single-mode and low bending loss HAF by considering the S dependence of the bending loss α b and cutoff wavelength λ c as well as their relative index difference Δ dependence. We also show that the mode-field diameter (MFD) and chromatic dispersion characteristics of the single-mode and low bending loss HAF can be tailored by optimizing the distance between the core and the air holes. We also investigate the usefulness of the fabricated HAFs taking the directly modulated transmission and multipath interference (MPI) characteristics into consideration. We show that the designed HAF has sufficient applicability to both analog and digital transmission systems. Our results reveal that the single-mode and low bending loss HAF is beneficial in terms of developing a future fiber to the home (FTTH) network as well as for realizing flexible optical wiring.

  7. selective excitation of vibrational modes of polyatomic molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Mode-selective dynamics of triatomic molecule in the electronic ground state under continuous wave laser pulse is investigated for the discrete vibrational bound states. A non-perturbative approach has been used to analyse the vibrational couplings and dynamics of the molecule. Keywords. Polyatomic molecule ...

  8. Multi-mode vibration control of piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Takeshi; Seto, Kazuto; Iiyama, Fumiya; Sodeyama, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, dual dynamic absorbers are applied to the piping system in order to control the multiple vibration modes. ANSYS, which is one of the software based on FEM(finite element method), is used for the design of dual dynamic absorbers as well as for the determination of their optimum installing positions. The dual dynamic absorbers designed optimally for controlling the first three vibration modes perform just like a houde damper in higher frequency and have an effect on controlling higher modes. To use this advantage, three dual dynamic absorbers are installed in positions where they influence higher modes, and not only the first three modes of the piping system but also the extensive modes are controlled. Practical experimental study has also been carried out and it is shown that a dual dynamic absorber is suitable for controlling the vibration of the piping system. (author)

  9. Raman intensity and vibrational modes of armchair CNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jaewoong; Stuart, Steven J.

    2017-07-01

    Raman intensity changes and frequency patterns have been studied using the various armchair (n, n) to understand the variations of bond polarizability, in regard to changing diameters, lengths, and the number of atoms in the (n, n). The Raman intensity trends of the (n, n) are validated by those of Cn isomers. For frequency trends, similar frequency patterns and frequency inward shifts for the (n, n) are characterized. Also, VDOS trends of the (n, n) expressing Raman modes are interpreted. The decomposition of vibrational modes in the (n, n) into radial, longitudinal, and tangential mode is beneficially used to recognize the distinct characteristics of vibrational modes.

  10. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  11. Bend-insensitive single-mode photonic crystal fiber with ultralarge effective area for dual applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Alam, M. Shah

    2013-05-01

    A novel photonic crystal fiber (PCF) having circular arrangement of cladding air holes has been designed and numerically optimized to obtain a bend insensitive single mode fiber with large mode area for both wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) communication and fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) application. The bending loss of the proposed bent PCF lies in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 dB/turn or lower over 1300 to 1700 nm, and 2 × 10-4 dB/turn at the wavelength of 1550 nm for a 30-mm bend radius with a higher order mode (HOM) cut-off frequency below 1200 nm for WDM application. When the whole structure of the PCF is scaled down, a bending loss of 6.78×10-4 dB/turn at 1550 nm for a 4-mm bend radius is obtained, and the loss remains in the order of 10-4 dB/turn over the same range of wavelength with an HOM cut-off frequency below 700 nm, and makes the fiber useful for FTTH applications. Furthermore, this structure is also optimized to show a splice loss near zero for fusion-splicing to a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF).

  12. Vibration modes of a single plate with general boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phamová L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with free flexural vibration modes and natural frequencies of a thin plate with general boundary conditions — a simply supported plate connected to its surroundings with torsional springs. Vibration modes were derived on the basis of the Rajalingham, Bhat and Xistris approach. This approach was originally used for a clamped thin plate, so its adaptation was needed. The plate vibration function was usually expressed as a single partial differential equation. This partial differential equation was transformed into two ordinary differential equations that can be solved in the simpler way. Theoretical background of the computations is briefly described. Vibration modes of the supported plate with torsional springs are presented graphically and numerically for three different values of stiffness of torsional springs.

  13. Local vibrational modes of the formic acid dimer - the strength of the double hydrogen bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalescky, R.; Kraka, E.; Cremer, D.

    2013-07-01

    The 24 normal and 24 local vibrational modes of the formic acid dimer formed by two trans formic acid monomers to a ring (TT1) are analysed utilising preferentially experimental frequencies, but also CCSD(T)/CBS and ωB97X-D harmonic vibrational frequencies. The local hydrogen bond (HB) stretching frequencies are at 676 cm-1 and by this 482 and 412 cm-1 higher compared to the measured symmetric and asymmetric HB stretching frequencies at 264 and 194 cm-1. The adiabatic connection scheme between local and normal vibrational modes reveals that the lowering is due to the topology of dimer TT1, mass coupling, and avoided crossings involving the HṡṡṡOC bending modes. The HB local mode stretching force constant is related to the strength of the HB whereas the normal mode stretching force constant and frequency lead to an erroneous underestimation of the HB strength. The HB in TT1 is stabilised by electron delocalisation in the O=C-O units fostered by forming a ring via double HBs. This implies that the CO apart from the OH local stretching frequencies reflect the strength of the HB via their red or blue shifts relative to their corresponding values in trans formic acid.

  14. Investigation of the integrity of u-bend tube bundles subjected to flow-induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M. [University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Riznic, J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Maintaining the integrity of nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes in CANDU reactors is a major safety issue since they maintain the physical barrier between the primary and secondary coolants. The integrity of these tubes can be compromised due to flow-induced vibrations in the form of fatigue and fretting wear damage. Wear is a result of the tube impacting and sliding against its loose supports, and it becomes more severe as the tube/support clearance increases. The vibration is caused by fluid flow around these tubes through turbulence and fluidelastic instability mechanisms. Supports are installed to stiffen the structure and to ensure safe and stable operation. The U-bend region is the most critical part since it is subjected to high cross flow. Therefore, special attention is paid to properly supporting this region. However, in some situations, tube support plates (TSP) located on the straight part of the tube may deteriorate to the point where extremely large clearances, or even total wastage of the supports, may result. One possible cause for such a situation is corrosion and/or excessive fretting wear. This loss of TSP may affect the rate of wear in the U-bend portion of the tube due to the increased flexibility in this region. The integrity could be seriously breached as result of a potential support loss. This paper addresses the flow-induced vibrations (FIV) aspect, consequences, and suggested remedies for support degradation. This analysis will include fretting wear producing parameters, such as impact force and normal work rate. Turbulence and fluidelastic instability (FEI) are considered to be the main excitation mechanisms. The investigation is conducted through a numerical simulation of the full Ubend tube bundles including modelling the variable flow distribution, flow excitation, impact, and friction at the supports. (author)

  15. Failure modes and natural control time for distributed vibrating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The eigenstructure of the Gram matrix of frequency exponentials is used to study linear vibrating systems of hyperbolic type with distributed control. Using control norm as a practical measure of controllability and the vibrating string as a prototype, it is demonstrated that hyperbolic systems have a natural control time, even when only finitely many modes are excited. For shorter control times there are identifiable control failure modes which can be steered to zero only with very high cost in control norm. Both natural control time and the associated failure modes are constructed for linear fluids, strings, and beams, making note of the essential algorithms and Mathematica code, and displaying results graphically

  16. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  17. Infrared, diode laser spectroscopy of the Ar--N2O complex: Observation of the intermolecular bending mode in combination with the highest frequency intramolecular stretching mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.A.; Chappell, E.L.; Sharpe, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Rotationally resolved vibrational spectra consisting of a-type transitions have been observed for the low-frequency, intermolecular bending mode in combination with the highest frequency, intramolecular stretching mode of Ar--N 2 O. Analysis of the spectral data places the origin of the combination band at 2256.1 cm -1 while the origin of the intramolecular stretching fundamental is at 2223.9 cm -1 . The difference between these two origins is approximately 32.2 cm -1 and agrees well with our calculated frequency of 31.5 cm -1 for the intermolecular bending mode, which was obtained by analysis of the centrifugal distortion constants. In addition, argon--nitrous oxide exhibits an anomalously large inertial defect of 10.96 amu A 2 in the combination state. This indicates a breakdown in the assumption of separation between vibration and rotation. While much of the inertial defect in the ground state can be accounted for by including Coriolis interactions, that occurring in the combination state is only partially accounted for by a similar analysis. Small, but significant changes, are observed in both the radial and angular parameters for Ar--N 2 O when going from the ground to the combination state, indicating large amplitude motion. The combination band is approximately 200 times less intense than the high-frequency, stretching fundamental of Ar--N 2 O. In addition, over 400 new rovibrational transitions are assigned to the previously observed 1 0 1 intramolecular stretching fundamental of the complex, and the subsequent rotational analysis is found to be in close agreement with earlier studies. Data were taken on a newly built, rapid-scan, diode laser spectrometer that incorporates a 12 cmx200 μm pulsed slit-expansion nozzle

  18. Analytical model of asymmetrical Mixed-Mode Bending test of adhesively bonded GFRP joint

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel; Vassilopoulos, Anastasios P.; Shahverdi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 34 (2015), s. 237-246 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063; GA ČR GA15-09347S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : GFRP materials * Mixed-Mode bending * Fiber bridging * Analytical model Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  19. BEND-INDUCED LOSSES IN A SINGLE-MODE MICROSTRUCTURED FIBER WITH A LARGE CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Gatchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of bend-induced losses in a silica-based single-mode microstructured fiber with a core diameter ranging from 20 to 35 microns and increased relative air content in the holey cladding has been conducted. With the use of the equivalent step-index profile method in approximation of waveguide parameters of microstructured fiber (normalized frequency and normalized transverse attenuation constant the effect of bending on the spectral position of the fundamentalmode short-wavelength leakage boundary has been analyzed. Upon measurement of spectral characteristics of attenuation in the considered fibers good accordance of numerical and experimental data has been found out. It is shown that increase of the air content in the holey cladding leads to expansion of the mentioned boundary to lower wavelengths for the value from 150 to 800 nm depending on the core size and bending conditions. A single-transverse-mode propagation is achieved on fiber length of 5-10 meters due to a substantial difference in losses of fundamental and higher-order guided modes attained by bending. Optical losses in all studied samples are less than 10 dB/km at the wavelength λ = 1550 nm. The results of the study can be applied in the design of high-power laser systems having such basic requirements as a relatively large mode spot and high beam quality.

  20. Design model for bending vibrations of single-stage tunnel fan rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasyuk, AM; Kosykh, PV

    2018-03-01

    Using of one-mass model of tunnel fan rotor is justified for estimation calculation of the natural bending vibrations frequency during the design stage. It’s shown that the evaluative computation of the main axial tunnel fan at the early design stage yields the acceptable accuracy. It is shown that after completion of the design, the mass of the stepped-type shaft differs from the mass of the calculated uniform-diameter shaft no more than by 40%. Inclusion of this additional mass in the estimation calculation makes it possible to improve the calculation accuracy. The region of the dimensionless rotor design parameters at which the relative difference of frequency in the evaluative and verification calculations is not higher than 5 % is determined.

  1. Surface vibrational modes in disk-shaped resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A V; Gritsenko, D S; Mitrofanov, V P

    2014-03-01

    The natural frequencies and distributions of displacement components for the surface vibrational modes in thin isotropic elastic disks are calculated. In particular, the research is focused on even solutions for low-lying resonant vibrations with large angular wave numbers. Several families of modes are found which are interpreted as modified surface modes of an infinitely long cylinder and Lamb modes of a plate. The results of calculation are compared with the results of the experimental measurements of vibrational modes generated by means of resonant excitation in duraluminum disk with radius of ≈90 mm and thickness of 16 mm in the frequency range of 130-200 kHz. An excellent agreement between the calculated and measured frequencies is found. Measurements of the structure of the resonant peaks show splitting of some modes. About a half of the measured modes has splitting Δfsplit/fmode at the level of the order of 10(-5). The Q-factors of all modes measured in vacuum lie in the interval (2…3)×10(5). This value is typical for duraluminum mechanical resonators in the ultrasonic frequency range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrum of the OCD bending mode in methanol-D1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-03-01

    The infrared (IR) spectra corresponding to OCD bending vibration of asymmetrically deuterated methanol species CH2DOH have been recorded with a Fourier Transform Spectrometer. The spectrum shows a typical structure of a parallel a-type band. This is expected because the bending vibration mainly executed parallel to the symmetry axis The Q-branch lines are grouped closely around 896 cm-1 and the P- and R-Branches show complex structure. Nonetheless it was possible to assign a-type P- and R-branch lines up to K value of 8 and J value up to about 20 in most cases. The Q-branch lines for higher K values can be followed to about J = 15, the presence of which confirmed the assignments. The observations suggest that in the OCD bend some energy levels are highly interacted by highly excited torsional state from the ground torsional state. A full catalogue is presented along with the effective molecular parameters. An intensity anomaly was also observed in the transitions. So far it has been possible to assign only transitions between e0 ← e0 states. Plausible explanations of intensity anomaly are presented. Lastly, a number of optically pumped far infrared (FIR) laser lines have been assigned either to exact or tentative quantum states. These assignments should prove valuable for production of new FIR laser lines.

  3. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  4. Face/core debond fatigue crack growth characterization using the sandwich mixed mode bending specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Face/core fatigue crack growth in foam-cored sandwich composites is examined using the mixed mode bending (MMB) test method. The mixed mode loading at the debond crack tip is controlled by changing the load application point in the MMB test fixture. Sandwich specimens were manufactured using H45...... and H100 PVC foam cores and E-glass/polyester face sheets. All specimens were pre-cracked in order to define a sharp crack front. The static debond fracture toughness for each material configuration was measured at different mode-mixity phase angles. Fatigue tests were performed at 80% of the static...

  5. Customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiawen; Li, Shilong; Tang, J.

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic metamaterials have attractive potential in elastic wave guiding and attenuation over specific frequency ranges. The vast majority of related investigations are on transient waves. In this research we focus on stationary wave manipulation, i.e., shaping of vibration modes. Periodically arranged piezoelectric transducers shunted with inductive circuits are integrated to a beam structure to form a finite-length metamaterial beam. We demonstrate for the first time that, under a given operating frequency of interest, we can facilitate a metamaterial design such that this frequency becomes a natural frequency of the integrated system. Moreover, the vibration mode corresponding to this natural frequency can be customized and shaped to realize tailored/localized response distribution. This is fundamentally different from previous practices of utilizing geometry modification and/or feedback control to achieve mode tailoring. The metamaterial design is built upon the combinatorial effects of the bandgap feature and the effective resonant cavity feature, both attributed to the dynamic characteristics of the metamaterial beam. Analytical investigations based on unit-cell dynamics and modal analysis of the metamaterial beam are presented to reveal the underlying mechanism. Case illustrations are validated by finite element analyses. Owing to the online tunability of circuitry integrated, the proposed mode shaping technique can be online adjusted to fit specific requirements. The customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis has potential applications in vibration suppression, sensing enhancement and energy harvesting.

  6. Application of perturbation theory to the non-linear vibration analysis of a string including the bending moment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeilzadeh Khadem, S.; Rezaee, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the large amplitude and non-linear vibration of a string is considered. The initial tension, lateral vibration amplitude, diameter and the modulus of elasticity of the string have main effects on its natural frequencies. Increasing the lateral vibration amplitude makes the assumption of constant initial tension invalid. In this case, therefore, it is impossible to use the classical equation of string with small amplitude transverse motion assumption. On the other hand, by increasing the string diameter, the bending moment effect will increase dramatically, and acts as an impressive restoring moment. Considering the effects of the bending moments, the nonlinear equation governing the large amplitude transverse vibration of a string is derived. The time dependent portion of the governing equation has the from of Duff ing equation is solved using the perturbation theory. The results of the analysis are shown in appropriate graphs, and the natural frequencies of the string due to the non-linear factors are compared with the natural frequencies of the linear vibration os a string without bending moment effects

  7. Performance of composite I-beams under axial compression and bending load modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Y.A.; Ali, F.A.; Sahari, B.B.; Saad, E.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental and finite-element analyses for glass/epoxy composite I-beams have been carried out. Four, six, eight and 10 layers of woven fabric glass/epoxy composite I-beams were fabricated by a hand lay-up (molding) process. Quasi-static axial crushing and bending loading modes were used for this investigation. The load-displacement response was obtained and the energy absorption values were calculated for all the composite I-beams. Three tests were done for each composite I-beams type and each loading case for the results conformation. The second part of this study includes the elastic behavior of composite I-beams of the same dimensions and materials using finite-element analysis. The woven fabric glass/epoxy composite I-beams mechanical properties have been obtained from tensile tests. Results from this investigation show that the load required and the specific energy absorption for composite I-beams under axial compression load were higher than those for three and four point bending. On the other hand, the loads required for composite I-beams under four point bending were higher than those for three point bending, while the specific energy absorption for composite I-beams under three point bending were higher than those for four point bending. The first crushing loads difference between the experimental and finite-element results fell in the 3.6-10.92% range for axial compression tests, while fell in the 1.44-12.99% and 4.94-22.0% range for three and four point bending, respectively

  8. CO 2 laser photoacoustic spectra and vibrational modes of heroin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heroin, morphine and narcotine are very large molecules having 50, 40 and 53 atoms respectively. Moderately high resolution photoacoustic (PA) spectra have been recorded in 9.6 m and 10.6 m regions of CO2 laser. It is very difficult to assign the modes of vibrations for PA bands by comparison with conventional low ...

  9. Heavy atom vibrational modes and low-energy vibrational autodetachment in nitromethane anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Michael C.; Weber, J. Mathias; Baraban, Joshua H.; Matthews, Devin A.; Stanton, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We report infrared spectra of nitromethane anion, CH 3 NO 2 − , in the region 700–2150 cm −1 , obtained by Ar predissociation spectroscopy and electron detachment spectroscopy. The data are interpreted in the framework of second-order vibrational perturbation theory based on coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The modes in the spectroscopic region studied here are mainly based on vibrations involving the heavier atoms; this work complements earlier studies on nitromethane anion that focused on the CH stretching region of the spectrum. Electron detachment begins at photon energies far below the adiabatic electron affinity due to thermal population of excited vibrational states

  10. IR and SFG vibrational spectroscopy of the water bend in the bulk liquid and at the liquid-vapor interface, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Vibrational spectroscopy of the water bending mode has been investigated experimentally to study the structure of water in condensed phases. In the present work, we calculate the theoretical infrared (IR) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of the HOH bend in liquid water and at the water liquid/vapor interface using a mixed quantum/classical approach. Classical molecular dynamics simulation is performed by using a recently developed water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions and yields a better description of the water surface. Ab-initio-based transition frequency, dipole, polarizability, and intermolecular coupling maps are developed for the spectral calculations. The calculated IR and SFG spectra show good agreement with the experimental measurements. In the theoretical imaginary part of the SFG susceptibility for the water liquid/vapor interface, we find two features: a negative band centered at 1615 cm{sup −1} and a positive band centered at 1670 cm{sup −1}. We analyze this spectrum in terms of the contributions from molecules in different hydrogen-bond classes to the SFG spectral density and also compare to SFG results for the OH stretch. SFG of the water bending mode provides a complementary picture of the heterogeneous hydrogen-bond configurations at the water surface.

  11. IR and SFG vibrational spectroscopy of the water bend in the bulk liquid and at the liquid-vapor interface, respectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy of the water bending mode has been investigated experimentally to study the structure of water in condensed phases. In the present work, we calculate the theoretical infrared (IR) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of the HOH bend in liquid water and at the water liquid/vapor interface using a mixed quantum/classical approach. Classical molecular dynamics simulation is performed by using a recently developed water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions and yields a better description of the water surface. Ab-initio-based transition frequency, dipole, polarizability, and intermolecular coupling maps are developed for the spectral calculations. The calculated IR and SFG spectra show good agreement with the experimental measurements. In the theoretical imaginary part of the SFG susceptibility for the water liquid/vapor interface, we find two features: a negative band centered at 1615 cm-1 and a positive band centered at 1670 cm-1. We analyze this spectrum in terms of the contributions from molecules in different hydrogen-bond classes to the SFG spectral density and also compare to SFG results for the OH stretch. SFG of the water bending mode provides a complementary picture of the heterogeneous hydrogen-bond configurations at the water surface.

  12. Fatigue Debond Growth in Sandwich Structures Loaded in Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Static and cyclic debond growth in sandwich specimens loaded in mixed mode bending (MMB) is examined. The MMB sandwich specimens were manufactured using H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 face sheets. Static test were performed to determine...... the fracture toughness of the debonded sandwich specimens at different mixed mode loadings. The mixed mode ratio (mode I to mode II) was controlled by changing the lever arm distance of the MMB test rig. Compliance technique and visual inspection was employed to measure the crack length during fatigue. Fatigue...... tests were performed at 90% of the static fracture toughness at a loading ratio of R=0.1. Fatigue results revealed higher debond crack growth rates when the lever arm distance was increased. For some specimens, the crack propagated just below the face/core interface in the foam core and for others...

  13. Face/core interface fracture characterization of mixed mode bending sandwich specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    and PVC H45, H100 and H250 foam core materials were evaluated. A methodology to perform precracking on fracture specimens in order to achieve a sharp and representative crack front is outlined. The mixed mode loading was controlled in the mixed mode bending (MMB) test rig by changing the loading......Debonding of the core from the face sheets is a critical failure mode in sandwich structures. This paper presents an experimental study on face/core debond fracture of foam core sandwich specimens under a wide range of mixed mode loading conditions. Sandwich beams with E‐glass fibre face sheets...... application point (lever arm distance). Finite element analysis was performed to determine the mode‐mixity at the crack tip. The results showed that the face/core interface fracture toughness increased with increased mode II loading. Post failure analysis of the fractured specimens revealed that the crack...

  14. Single-mode optical fiber design with wide-band ultra low bending-loss for FTTH application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watekar, Pramod R; Ju, Seongmin; Han, Won-Taek

    2008-01-21

    We propose a new design of a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) which exhibits ultra low bend sensitivity over a wide communication band (1.3 microm to 1.65 microm). A five-cladding fiber structure has been proposed to minimize the bending loss, estimated to be as low as 4.4x10(-10) dB/turn for the bend radius of 10 mm.

  15. OM4 bend insensitive multi-mode fibers’ usefulness for MCM integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, Bartłomiej; Lisik, Zbigniew; Tosik, Grzegorz; Ciupa, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The influence of high temperature exposure on OM4 fibers’ mechanical properties. ► Researching OM4 class fibers for use in innovative Optical Multi Chip Module. ► The influence of bending at a very small radius, up to 2 mm, on MM fibers. - Abstract: For future generations of electronic systems, a severe bottleneck is expected on the interconnection level and the use of optical interconnection is considered as one of the most promising solutions in this matter. Recent progress in fiber development resulted in new generation of optical fibers that are bend insensitive. This makes them ideal for Multi Chip Module (MCM) application. This paper focuses on OM4 bend insensitive multi-mode fibers’ usefulness for MCM integration, particularly the investigation of MM fiber loss is presented, which is influenced by bend diameter and the fiber's mechanical performance under influence of high temperature (400 °C–1000 °C adequate to MCM production process).

  16. Instantaneous normal mode analysis for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from atomic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chun; Tang, Ping-Han; Wu, Ten-Ming

    2013-11-28

    By exploiting the instantaneous normal mode (INM) analysis for models of flexible molecules, we investigate intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from the atomic point of view. With two flexible SPC/E models, our investigations include three aspects about their INM spectra, which are separated into the unstable, intermolecular, bending, and stretching bands. First, the O- and H-atom contributions in the four INM bands are calculated and their stable INM spectra are compared with the power spectra of the atomic velocity autocorrelation functions. The unstable and intermolecular bands of the flexible models are also compared with those of the SPC/E model of rigid molecules. Second, we formulate the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the INMs, respectively, for the O- and H-atom and molecule. With the IPRs, the numbers of the three species participated in the INMs are estimated so that the localization characters of the INMs in each band are studied. Further, by the ratio of the IPR of the H atom to that of the O atom, we explore the number of involved OH bond per molecule participated in the INMs. Third, by classifying simulated molecules into subensembles according to the geometry of their local environments or their H-bond configurations, we examine the local-structure effects on the bending and stretching INM bands. All of our results are verified to be insensible to the definition of H-bond. Our conclusions about the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations in water are given.

  17. Vibration and bending behavior of functionally graded nanocomposite doubly-curved shallow shells reinforced by graphene nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiwen; Chen, Hongyan; Hao, Yuxin; Zhang, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Free vibration and static bending of functionally graded (FG) graphene nanoplatelet (GPL) reinforced composite doubly-curved shallow shells with three distinguished distributions are analyzed. Material properties with gradient variation in the thickness aspect are evaluated by the modified Halpin-Tsai model. Mathematical model of the simply supported doubly-curved shallow shells rests upon Hamilton Principle and a higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT). The free vibration frequencies and bending deflections are gained by taking into account Navier technique. The agreement between the obtained results and ANSYS as well as the prior results in the open literature verifies the accuracy of the theory in this article. Further, parametric studies are accomplished to highlight the significant influence of GPL distribution patterns and weight fraction, stratification number, dimensions of GPLs and shells on the mechanical behavior of the system.

  18. Optically active vibrational modes of PPV derivatives on textile substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A.T. da; Dias, I.F.L.; Santos, E.P. dos; Martins, A.A.; Duarte, J.L.; Laureto, E.; Reis, G.A. dos; Guimarães, P.S.S.; Cury, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, MEH-PPV and BDMO-PPV films were deposited by spin-coating on “dirty” textile substrates of canvas, nylon, canvas with resin, jeans and on glass and the temperature dependence of the optical properties of them was studied by photoluminescence and Raman (300 K) techniques. The temperature dependence of the energy, of the half line width at half height of the purely electronic peak, of the integrated PL intensity and of the Huang-Rhys factor, S=I (01) /I (00) , were obtained directly from the PL spectrum. For an analysis of the vibrational modes involved, Raman measurements were performed on substrates with and without polymers deposited and the results compared with those found in the literature. The films of MEH-PPV and BDMO-PPV showed optical properties similar to those films deposited on other substrates such as glass, metals, etc. It was observed an inversion of the first vibrational band in relation to the purely electronic peak with increasing temperature in the films deposited on nylon and canvas. The vibrational modes obtained by Raman were used to compose the simulation of the PL line shape of BDMO-PPV films on canvas and nylon, using a model proposed by Lin [29]. - Highlights: ► MEH-PPV and BDMO-PPV films were deposited by spin-coating on dirty textile. ► Their properties were studied by photoluminescence and Raman techniques. ► We observed inversion of first vibrational band in relation to purely electronic peak. ► Optically active vibrational modes of PPV derivatives were studied.

  19. Vocal fold contact patterns based on normal modes of vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simeon L; Titze, Ingo R

    2018-05-17

    The fluid-structure interaction and energy transfer from respiratory airflow to self-sustained vocal fold oscillation continues to be a topic of interest in vocal fold research. Vocal fold vibration is driven by pressures on the vocal fold surface, which are determined by the shape of the glottis and the contact between vocal folds. Characterization of three-dimensional glottal shapes and contact patterns can lead to increased understanding of normal and abnormal physiology of the voice, as well as to development of improved vocal fold models, but a large inventory of shapes has not been directly studied previously. This study aimed to take an initial step toward characterizing vocal fold contact patterns systematically. Vocal fold motion and contact was modeled based on normal mode vibration, as it has been shown that vocal fold vibration can be almost entirely described by only the few lowest order vibrational modes. Symmetric and asymmetric combinations of the four lowest normal modes of vibration were superimposed on left and right vocal fold medial surfaces, for each of three prephonatory glottal configurations, according to a surface wave approach. Contact patterns were generated from the interaction of modal shapes at 16 normalized phases during the vibratory cycle. Eight major contact patterns were identified and characterized by the shape of the flow channel, with the following descriptors assigned: convergent, divergent, convergent-divergent, uniform, split, merged, island, and multichannel. Each of the contact patterns and its variation are described, and future work and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Failure mode and fracture behavior evaluation of pipes with local wall thinning subjected to bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seok Hwan; Nam, Ki Woo; Kim, Seon Jin; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture behaviors of pipes with local wall thinning are very important for the integrity of nuclear power plant. In pipes of energy plants, sometimes, the local wall thinning may result from severe Erosion-Corrosion (E/C) damage. However, the effects of local wall thinning on strength and fracture behaviors of piping system were not well studied. In this paper, the monotonic bending tests were performed of full-scale carbon steel pipes with local wall thinning. A monotonic bending load was applied to straight pipe specimens by four-point loading at ambient temperature without internal pressure. From the tests, fracture behaviors and fracture strength of locally thinned pipe were manifested systematically. The observed failure modes were divided into four types; ovalization, crack initiation/growth after ovalization, local buckling and crack initiating/growth after local buckling. Also, the strength and the allowable limit of piping system with local wall thinning were evaluated

  1. Vibrational modes of deuterium in KD2PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Kohji; Agui, Akane; Tominaga, Yasunori; Nakai, Yusuke; Ikeda, Susumu.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the deuteration effect in hydrogen-bonded compounds such as KH 2 PO 4 , hydrogen and deuterium modes in KH 2 PO 4 and K(D x H 1-x ) 2 PO 4 (x = 95 %) were investigated by means of inelastic neutron-scattering measurements over a wide energy range. By comparing Raman spectra of KH 2 PO 4 and KD 2 PO 4 with neutron-scattering spectra, the vibrational modes of deuterium and those of PO 4 tetrahedrons in the energy range of 30 < ε < 150 meV have been investigated. At least two deuterium modes have been found at 87 meV and 106 meV. (author)

  2. Can Internal Conversion BE Controlled by Mode-Specific Vibrational Excitation in Polyatomic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, Alexander; Epshtein, Michael; Bar, Ilana

    2017-06-01

    Nonadiabatic processes, dominated by dynamic passage of reactive fluxes through conical intersections (CIs) are considered to be appealing means for manipulating reaction paths. One approach that is considered to be effective in controlling the course of dissociation processes is the selective excitation of vibrational modes containing a considerable component of motion. Here, we have chosen to study the predissociation of the model test molecule, methylamine and its deuterated isotopologues, excited to well-characterized quantum states on the first excited electronic state, S_{1}, by following the N-H(D) bond fission dynamics through sensitive H(D) photofragment probing. The branching ratios between slow and fast H(D) photofragments, the internal energies of their counter radical photofragments and the anisotropy parameters for fast H photofragments, confirm correlated anomalies for predissociation initiated from specific rovibronic states, reflecting the existence of a dynamic resonance in each molecule. This resonance strongly depends on the energy of the initially excited rovibronic states, the evolving vibrational mode on the repulsive S_{1} part during N-H(D) bond elongation, and the manipulated passage through the CI that leads to radicals excited with C-N-H(D) bending and preferential perpendicular bond breaking, relative to the photolyzing laser polarization, in molecules containing the NH_{2} group. The indicated resonance plays an important role in the bifurcation dynamics at the CI and can be foreseen to exist in other photoinitiated processes and to control their outcome.

  3. Theory of magnetoelectric effect in multilayer nanocomposites on a substrate: Resonant bending-mode response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Resonant bending-mode magnetoelectric (ME coefficients of magnetostrictive-piezoelectric multilayer cantilevers are calculated analytically using a model developed for arbitrary multilayers on a substrate. Without quality factor effects the ME coefficient maxima in the four-dimensional parameter space of layer numbers, layer sequences, piezoelectric volume fractions, and substrate thicknesses are found to be essentially constant for nonzero substrate thickness. Global maxima occur for bilayers without substrates. Vanishing magnetoelectric response regions result from voltage cancellation in piezoelectric layers or absence of bending-mode excitation. They are determined by the neutral plane position in the multilayer stack. With Q-factor effects dominated by viscous air damping ME coefficients strongly increase with cantilever thickness primarily due to increasing resonance frequencies. The results yield a layer specific prediction of ME coefficients, resonance frequencies, and Q-factors in arbitrary multilayers and thus distinction of linear-coupling and Q-factor effects from exchange interaction, interface, or nonlinear ME effects.

  4. An FEM-based AI approach to model parameter identification for low vibration modes of wind turbine composite rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navadeh, N.; Goroshko, I. O.; Zhuk, Y. A.; Fallah, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    An approach to construction of a beam-type simplified model of a horizontal axis wind turbine composite blade based on the finite element method is proposed. The model allows effective and accurate description of low vibration bending modes taking into account the effects of coupling between flapwise and lead-lag modes of vibration transpiring due to the non-uniform distribution of twist angle in the blade geometry along its length. The identification of model parameters is carried out on the basis of modal data obtained by more detailed finite element simulations and subsequent adoption of the 'DIRECT' optimisation algorithm. Stable identification results were obtained using absolute deviations in frequencies and in modal displacements in the objective function and additional a priori information (boundedness and monotony) on the solution properties.

  5. Nonlinear Vibration and Mode Shapes of FG Cylindrical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mahmoudkhani

    Full Text Available Abstract The nonlinear vibration and normal mode shapes of FG cylindrical shells are investigated using an efficient analytical method. The equations of motion of the shell are based on the Donnell’s non-linear shallow-shell, and the material is assumed to be gradually changed across the thickness according to the simple power law. The solution is provided by first discretizing the equations of motion using the multi-mode Galerkin’s method. The nonlinear normal mode of the system is then extracted using the invariant manifold approach and employed to decouple the discretized equations. The homotopy analysis method is finally used to determine the nonlinear frequency. Numerical results are presented for the backbone curves of FG cylindrical shells, nonlinear mode shapes and also the nonlinear invariant modal surfaces. The volume fraction index and the geometric properties of the shell are found to be effective on the type of nonlinear behavior and also the nonlinear mode shapes of the shell. The circumferential half-wave numbers of the nonlinear mode shapes are found to change with time especially in a thinner cylinder.

  6. Static bending deflection and free vibration analysis of moderate thick symmetric laminated plates using multidimensional wave digital filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Hsun

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a multidimensional wave digital filtering network for predicting static and dynamic behaviors of composite laminate based on the FSDT. The resultant network is, thus, an integrated platform that can perform not only the free vibration but also the bending deflection of moderate thick symmetric laminated plates with low plate side-to-thickness ratios (< = 20). Safeguarded by the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy stability condition with the least restriction in terms of optimization technique, the present method offers numerically high accuracy, stability and efficiency to proceed a wide range of modulus ratios for the FSDT laminated plates. Instead of using a constant shear correction factor (SCF) with a limited numerical accuracy for the bending deflection, an optimum SCF is particularly sought by looking for a minimum ratio of change in the transverse shear energy. This way, it can predict as good results in terms of accuracy for certain cases of bending deflection. Extensive simulation results carried out for the prediction of maximum bending deflection have demonstratively proven that the present method outperforms those based on the higher-order shear deformation and layerwise plate theories. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows an optimal selection of SCF can significantly increase the accuracy of FSDT-based laminates especially compared to the higher order theory disclaiming any correction. The highest accuracy of overall solution is compared to the 3D elasticity equilibrium one.

  7. Predicting plasticity with soft vibrational modes: from dislocations to glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottler, Jörg; Schoenholz, Samuel S; Liu, Andrea J

    2014-04-01

    We show that quasilocalized low-frequency modes in the vibrational spectrum can be used to construct soft spots, or regions vulnerable to rearrangement, which serve as a universal tool for the identification of flow defects in solids. We show that soft spots not only encode spatial information, via their location, but also directional information, via directors for particles within each soft spot. Single crystals with isolated dislocations exhibit low-frequency phonon modes that localize at the core, and their polarization pattern predicts the motion of atoms during elementary dislocation glide in two and three dimensions in exquisite detail. Even in polycrystals and disordered solids, we find that the directors associated with particles in soft spots are highly correlated with the direction of particle displacements in rearrangements.

  8. Modeling coupled bending, axial, and torsional vibrations of a CANDU fuel rod subjected to multiple frictional contact constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadaee, M.; Yu, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a finite element based dynamic model is presented for bending, axial, and torsional vibrations of an outer CANDU fuel element subjected to multiple unilateral frictional contact (MUFC) constraints. The Bozzak-Newmark relaxation-integration scheme is used to discretize the equations of motion in the time domain. At a time step, equations of state of the fuel element with MUFC constraints reduce to a linear complementarity problem (LCP). Results are compared with those available in the literature. Good agreement is achieved. The 2D sliding and stiction motion of a fuel element at points of contact is obtained for harmonic excitations. (author)

  9. Bending , Heating and Pressure Effects of He-Ne Laserin Single Mode Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Salim Shnan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a single mode fiber have been chosen with a refractive index (1.50 to the core, and (1.485 to the cladding, with length of (2 m. It was exposed this optical fiber to a bending with different diameters, and to a different temperatures as well as pressure due to putting different weights to study dispersion phenomenon which affects on a pulse shape that travels in optical fiber. Experimental results explain when a bending diameter for an optical fiber increases it will decrease the dispersion and pulse shape will approximate from a Gaussian shape , and the increasing in temperature will increasing  the attenuation in the pulse transfer through the optical fiber .                                                                                                 But when increasing pressure, the dispersion will increases and the pulse shape will be distorted

  10. Determination of fuel assembly vibrational modes through analysis of incore detector noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to better characterize fuel assembly vibration at Duke Power Company's Oconee Nuclear Station, incore noise data were acquired an analyzed from prompt responding detectors incorporated in the Oconee 2, Cycle 7 core. Duke Power Company began actively pursuing an inhouse Neutron Noise Analysis program for routine surveillance of reactor internals vibration in 1979. Noise data has since been acquired and analyzed for twelve cycles of operation for the three Oconee units. Duke Power's Oconee Unit 2 is a Babcock and Wilcoxs pressurized water reactor with a rate thermal power of 2568MW. For Oconee 2, Cycle 7 operation, two test assemblies, each employing a string of seven axially-spaced, prompt responding hafnium detectors, were included in the final core design. Incore detector noise data were obtained during Cycle 7 at approximately 281 and 430 effective full power days (EFPD). In addition to the incore test detector signals, noise signals from the upper and lower chambers of the four excore power range detectors were recorded to aid in the analysis. The comparison of RMS signal levels for each incore detector and the phase relationships between detector locations within two test assemblies identified the first four fuel assembly bending modes associated with fixed end conditions

  11. A Novel Vibration Mode Testing Method for Cylindrical Resonators Based on Microphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact testing is an important method for the study of the vibrating characteristic of cylindrical resonators. For the vibratory cylinder gyroscope excited by piezo-electric electrodes, mode testing of the cylindrical resonator is difficult. In this paper, a novel vibration testing method for cylindrical resonators is proposed. This method uses a MEMS microphone, which has the characteristics of small size and accurate directivity, to measure the vibration of the cylindrical resonator. A testing system was established, then the system was used to measure the vibration mode of the resonator. The experimental results show that the orientation resolution of the node of the vibration mode is better than 0.1°. This method also has the advantages of low cost and easy operation. It can be used in vibration testing and provide accurate results, which is important for the study of the vibration mode and thermal stability of vibratory cylindrical gyroscopes.

  12. Neutron scattering investigation of layer-bending modes in alkali-metal--graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabel, H.; Kamitakahara, W.A.; Nicklow, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Phonon dispersion curves for low-frequency transverse modes propagating in the basal plane have been measured in the alkali-metal--graphite intercalation compounds KC 8 , CsC 8 , KC 24 , and RbC 24 by means of neutron spectroscopy. The acoustic branches show an almost quadratic dispersion relation at small q, characteristic of strongly layered materials. The optical branches of stage-1 compounds can be classified as either graphitelike branches showing dispersion, or as almost dispersionless alkali-metal-like modes. Macroscopic shear constants C 44 and layer-bending moduli have been obtained for the intercalation compounds by analyzing the data in terms of a simple semicontinuum model. In stage-2 compounds, a dramatic softening of the shear constant by about a factor of 8 compared with pure graphite has been observed. Low-temperature results on KC 24 indicate the opening of a frequency gap near the alkali-metal Brillouin-zone boundary, possibly due to the formation of the alkali-metal superstructure

  13. Vibration modes of 3n-gaskets and other fractals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajorin, N; Chen, T; Dagan, A; Emmons, C; Hussein, M; Khalil, M; Mody, P; Steinhurst, B; Teplyaev, A [Department of Mathematics, University of Connecticut, Storrs CT 06269 (United States)

    2008-01-11

    We rigorously study eigenvalues and eigenfunctions (vibration modes) on the class of self-similar symmetric finitely ramified fractals, which include the Sierpinski gasket and other 3n-gaskets. We consider the classical Laplacian on fractals which generalizes the usual one-dimensional second derivative, is the generator of the self-similar diffusion process, and has possible applications as the quantum Hamiltonian. We develop a theoretical matrix analysis, including analysis of singularities, which allows us to compute eigenvalues, eigenfunctions and their multiplicities exactly. We support our theoretical analysis by symbolic and numerical computations. Our analysis, in particular, allows the computation of the spectral zeta function on fractals and the limiting distribution of eigenvalues (i.e., integrated density of states). We consider such examples as the level-3 Sierpinski gasket, a fractal 3-tree, and the diamond fractal.

  14. Far Infrared High Resolution Synchrotron FTIR Spectroscopy of the Low Frequency Bending Modes of Dmso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2010-06-01

    In addition to its importance for industrial and environmental studies, the monitoring of DiMethylSulfOxyde (DMSO, (CH_3)_2SO) concentrations is of considerable interest for civil protection. The existing high resolution gas phase spectroscopic data of DMSO only concerned the pure rotational transitions in the ground state. In the Far-IR domain, the low-frequency rovibrational transitions have never previously resolved. The high brightness of the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and the instrumental sensitivity provided by the multipass cell allowed to measure for the first time these transitions. 1581 A-type and C-type transitions in the ν11 band have been assigned and 25 molecular constants of Watson's s-form hamiltonian developed to degree 8 have been fitted within the experimental accuracy. The use of then synchrotron radiation has opened many possibilities for new spectroscopic studies. Together with several other recent studies, our successful measurement and analysis of DMSO convincingly demonstrates the potential of the AILES beamline for high resolution FIR spectroscopy. Thus our present work is just at the beginning of unraveling the rovibrational structure of low frequency bending and torsional vibrational states of DMSO and yielding important comprehensive structural and spectroscopic information on this molecule. L. Margules, R. A. Motienko, E. A. Alekseev, J. Demaison, J. Molec. Spectrosc., 260(23),2009 V. Typke, M. Dakkouri, J. Molec. Struct., 599(177),2001 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii, Chem. Phys. Lett., accepted for publication

  15. a Study of Vibrational Mode Coupling in 2-FLUOROETHANOL and 1,2-DIFLUOROETHANE Using High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Steven Wayne

    High resolution infrared spectroscopy was used to examine intramolecular vibrational interactions in 2 -fluoroethanol (2FE) and 1,2-difluoroethane (DFE). A high resolution infrared spectrophotometer capable of better than 10 MHz spectral resolution was designed and constructed. The excitation source consists of three lasers: an argon-ion pumped dye laser which pumps a color -center laser. The infrared beam from the color-center laser is used to excite sample molecules which are rotationally and vibrationally cooled in a supersonic molecular beam. Rovibrational excitation of the sample molecules is detected by monitoring the kinetic energy of the molecular beam with a bolometer. The high resolution infrared spectrum of 2FE was collected and analyzed over the 2977-2990 cm^ {-1}^ectral region. This region contains the asymmetric CH stretch on the fluorinated carbon. The spectrum revealed extensive perturbations in the rotational fine structure. Analysis of these perturbations has provided a quantitative measure of selective vibrational mode coupling between the C-H stretch and its many neighboring dark vibrational modes. Interestingly, excitation of the C-H stretch is known to induce a photoisomerization reaction between 2FE's Gg^' and Tt conformers. Implications of the role of mode coupling in the reaction mechanism are also addressed. Similarly, the high resolution infrared spectrum of DFE was collected and analyzed over the 2978-2996 cm ^{-1}^ectral region. This region contains the symmetric combination of asymmetric C-H stretches in DFE. Perturbations in the rotational fine structure indicate vibrational mode coupling to a single dark vibrational state. The dark state is split by approximately 19 cm^{-1} due to tunneling between two identical gauche conformers. The coupling mechanism is largely anharmonic with a minor component of B/C-plane Coriolis coupling. Effects of centrifugal distortion along the molecular A-axis are also observed. The coupled vibrational

  16. The effect of transverse shear on the face sheets failure modes of sandwich beams loaded in three points bending

    OpenAIRE

    BOUROUIS FAIROUZ; MILI FAYCAL

    2012-01-01

    Sandwich beams loaded in three points bending may fail in several ways including tension or compression failure of facings. In this paper , The effect of the transverse shear on the face yielding and face wrinkling failure modes of sandwich beams loaded in three points bending have been studied, the beams were made of various composites materials carbon/epoxy, kevlar/epoxy, glass/epoxy at sequence [+θ/-θ]3s, [0°/90°]3s. . The stresses in the face were calculated using maximum stress criterion...

  17. Giant larvaceans: biologically equivalent flapping flexible foils exhibit bending modes that enhance fluid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katija, Kakani; Sherman, Alana; Robison, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    The midwater region of the ocean (below the euphotic zone and above the benthos) is one of the largest ecosystems on our planet, yet remains one of the least explored. Little-known marine organisms that inhabit midwater have developed life strategies that contribute to their evolutionary success, and may inspire engineering solutions for societally relevant challenges. A group of midwater organisms, known as giant larvaceans (genus Bathochordaeus), beat their tails to drive food and particle-laden water through complex, mucus filtering structures to feed. Giant larvaceans, whose motion and kinematics resemble flapping flexible foils, range in size from 1 to 10 cm in length, and can be found between the surface and 400 m. Using remotely-operated vehicles and DeepPIV, an instrument that enables in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, the filtration rates and kinematics of giant larvaceans were investigated. These measurements yielded filtration rates for giant larvaceans as high as 80 L/hr, which exceeds expected filtration rates by a factor of 2 when compared with other larvacean groups. Comparing tail kinematics between Bathochordeaus and smaller larvaceans reveals differences in tail bending modes, where a hinge is present throughout the tail beat in giant larvaceans. Using laboratory PIV measurements with swimming animals and soft-bodied mechanical mimics, we reveal how these differences in tail kinematics can lead to enhanced fluid transport. This work has been supported by the Packard Foundation.

  18. Three dimensional vibration and bending analysis of carbon nanotubes embedded in elastic medium based on theory of elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shaban

    Full Text Available This paper studies free vibration and bending behavior of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs embedded on elastic medium based on three-dimensional theory of elasticity. To accounting the size effect of carbon nanotubes, non-local theory is adopted to shell model. The nonlocal parameter is incorporated into all constitutive equations in three dimensions. The surrounding medium is modeled as two-parameter elastic foundation. By using Fourier series expansion in axial and circumferential direction, the set of coupled governing equations are reduced to the ordinary differential equations in thickness direction. Then, the state-space method as an efficient and accurate method is used to solve the resulting equations analytically. Comprehensive parametric studies are carried out to show the influences of the nonlocal parameter, radial and shear elastic stiffness, thickness-to-radius ratio and radiusto-length ratio.

  19. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...... glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre bridging, eventually reaching asteady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement....

  20. Nonlinear vibration analysis of the high-efficiency compressive-mode piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengbao; Zu, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Power source is critical to achieve independent and autonomous operations of electronic mobile devices. The vibration-based energy harvesting is extensively studied recently, and recognized as a promising technology to realize inexhaustible power supply for small-scale electronics. Among various approaches, the piezoelectric energy harvesting has gained the most attention due to its high conversion efficiency and simple configurations. However, most of piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) to date are based on bending-beam structures and can only generate limited power with a narrow working bandwidth. The insufficient electric output has greatly impeded their practical applications. In this paper, we present an innovative lead zirconate titanate (PZT) energy harvester, named high-efficiency compressive-mode piezoelectric energy harvester (HC-PEH), to enhance the performance of energy harvesters. A theoretical model was developed analytically, and solved numerically to study the nonlinear characteristics of the HC-PEH. The results estimated by the developed model agree well with the experimental data from the fabricated prototype. The HC-PEH shows strong nonlinear responses, favorable working bandwidth and superior power output. Under a weak excitation of 0.3 g (g = 9.8 m/s2), a maximum power output 30 mW is generated at 22 Hz, which is about ten times better than current energy harvesters. The HC-PEH demonstrates the capability of generating enough power for most of wireless sensors.

  1. A square-plate piezoelectric linear motor operating in two orthogonal and isomorphic face-diagonal-bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Penghong; Chen, Zhijiang; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-01-01

    We report a piezoelectric linear motor made of a single Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 square-plate, which operates in two orthogonal and isomorphic face-diagonal-bending modes to produce precision linear motion. A 15 × 15 × 2 mm prototype was fabricated, and the motor generated a driving force of up to 1.8 N and a speed of 170 mm/s under an applied voltage of 100 Vpp at the resonance frequency of 136.5 kHz. The motor shows such advantages as large driving force under relatively low driving voltage, simple structure, and stable motion because of its isomorphic face-diagonal-bending mode.

  2. High resolution spectroscopy of 1,2-difluoroethane in a molecular beam: A case study of vibrational mode-coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Steven W.; Miller, C. Cameron; Philips, Laura A.

    1992-09-01

    The high resolution infrared spectrum of 1,2-difluoroethane (DFE) in a molecular beam has been obtained over the 2978-2996 cm-1 spectral region. This region corresponds to the symmetric combination of asymmetric C-H stretches in DFE. Observed rotational fine structure indicates that this C-H stretch is undergoing vibrational mode coupling to a single dark mode. The dark mode is split by approximately 19 cm-1 due to tunneling between the two identical gauche conformers. The mechanism of the coupling is largely anharmonic with a minor component of B/C plane Coriolis coupling. Effects of centrifugal distortion along the molecular A-axis are also observed. Analysis of the fine structure identifies the dark state as being composed of C-C torsion, CCF bend, and CH2 rock. Coupling between the C-H stretches and the C-C torsion is of particular interest because DFE has been observed to undergo vibrationally induced isomerization from the gauche to trans conformer upon excitation of the C-H stretch.

  3. Nonspecific DNA Binding and Bending by HUαβ: Interfaces of the Three Binding Modes Characterized by Salt Dependent Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Junseock; Shkel, Irina; Saecker, Ruth M.; Record, M. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Previous ITC and FRET studies demonstrated that Escherichia coli HUαβ binds nonspecifically to duplex DNA in three different binding modes: a tighter-binding 34 bp mode which interacts with DNA in large (>34 bp) gaps between bound proteins, reversibly bending it 140° and thereby increasing its flexibility, and two weaker, modestly cooperative small-site-size modes (10 bp, 6 bp) useful for filling gaps between bound proteins shorter than 34 bp. Here we use ITC to determine the thermodynamics of these binding modes as a function of salt concentration, and deduce that DNA in the 34 bp mode is bent around but not wrapped on the body of HU, in contrast to specific binding of IHF. Analyses of binding isotherms (8, 15, 34 bp DNA) and initial binding heats (34, 38, 160 bp DNA) reveal that all three modes have similar log-log salt concentration derivatives of the binding constants (Ski) even though their binding site sizes differ greatly; most probable values of Ski on 34 bp or larger DNA are − 7.5 ± 0.5. From the similarity of Ski values, we conclude that binding interfaces of all three modes involve the same region of the arms and saddle of HU. All modes are entropy-driven, as expected for nonspecific binding driven by the polyelectrolyte effect. The bent-DNA 34 bp mode is most endothermic, presumably because of the cost of HU-induced DNA bending, while the 6 bp mode is modestly exothermic at all salt concentrations examined. Structural models consistent with the observed Ski values are proposed. PMID:21513716

  4. Investigation of bending loss in a single-mode optical fibre

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    been studied. Twisting the optical fibre and its influence on power loss also have been investigated. ... been employed, to investigate their effects on bending loss. A simple semi-empirical .... optical correction factor [10]). This model (equation) ...

  5. Resonance Raman assignment and evidence for noncoupling of individual 2- and 4-vinyl vibrational modes in a monomeric cyanomethemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersonde, K.; Yu, N.T.; Lin, S.H.; Smith, K.M.; Parish, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the resonance Raman spectra of monomeric insect cyanomethemoglobins (CTT III and CTT IV) reconstituted with (1) protohemes IX selectively deuterated at the 4-vinyl as well as the 2,4-divinyls, (2) monovinyl-truncated hemes such as pemptoheme (2-hydrogen, 4-vinyl) and isopemptoheme (2-vinyl, 4-hydrogen), (3) symmetric hemes such as protoheme III (with 2- and 3-vinyls) and protoheme XIII (with 1- and 4-vinyls), and (4) hemes without 2- and 4-vinyls such as mesoheme IX, deuteroheme IX, 2,4-dimethyldeuteroheme IX, and 2,4-dibromodeuteroheme IX. Evidence is presented that the highly localized vinyl C = C stretching vibrations at the 2- and 4-positions of the heme in these cyanomet CTT hemoglobins are noncoupled and inequivalent; i.e., the 1631- and 1624-cm-1 lines have been assigned to 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl, respectively. The elimination of the 2-vinyl (in pemptoheme) or the 4-vinyl (in isopemptoheme) does not affect the C = C stretching frequency of the remaining vinyl. Furthermore, two low-frequency vinyl bending modes at 412 and 591 cm-1 exhibit greatly different resonance Raman intensities between 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl. The observed intensity at 412 cm-1 is primarily derived from 4-vinyl, whereas the 591-cm-1 line results exclusively from the 2-vinyl. Again, there is no significant coupling between 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl for these two bending modes

  6. Theory of magnetoelectric effect in multilayer nanocomposites on a substrate: Static bending-mode response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoelectric (ME coefficients for bending excitation in static magnetic fields and the bending response of multilayer composites with alternating magnetostrictive (MS and piezoelectric (PE layers on a substrate are investigated systematically. Theory and closed-form analytic solutions for the static magnetoelectric and the bending response coefficients are presented. Results of systematic variation of layer numbers, layer sequences, PE volume fractions, substrate thicknesses, and four different material systems (employing FeCoBSi, Terfenol-D, AlN, PZT, and Si are given for a fixed total composite thickness of 5μm. Among more than 105 structures investigated the greatest static ME coefficient of 62.3 V/cmOe is predicted for all odd layer number FeCoBSi-AlN multilayer composites on a Si substrate at vanishing substrate thickness and a PE material fraction of 38%. Varying the substrate thickness from 0μm to 20μm and the PE fraction from 0% to 100%, broad parameter regions of high ME coefficients are found for odd and large layer number nanocomposites. These regions are further enhanced to narrow maxima at vanishing substrate thickness, which correspond to structures of vanishing static bending response. For bilayers and even layer number cases broad maxima of the ME coefficient are observed at nonzero substrates and bending response. The optimal layer sequence and PE fraction depend on the material system. Bending response maxima occur at zero Si substrate thickness and nonzero PE fractions for bilayers. For multilayers nonzero Si substrates and zero PE fractions are found to be optimal. Structures of even ME layer numbers of PE-MS...Sub layer sequence display regions of vanishing bending response with large ME coefficients, i.e., produced by longitudinal excitation.

  7. Precise Ab-initio prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Clark, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    We use a combination of experimental THz time-domain spectroscopy and ab-initio density functional perturbative theory to accurately predict the terahertz vibrational spectrum of molecules in the crystalline phase. Our calculations show that distinct vibrational modes found in solid-state materials...

  8. Computation of expectation values from vibrational coupled-cluster at the two-mode coupling level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoccante, Alberto; Seidler, Peter; Christiansen, Ove

    2011-01-01

    In this work we show how the vibrational coupled-cluster method at the two-mode coupling level can be used to calculate zero-point vibrational averages of properties. A technique is presented, where any expectation value can be calculated using a single set of Lagrangian multipliers computed...

  9. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Characterization of Closely Spaced Modes and Mistuning, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are several ongoing challenges in non-contacting blade vibration and stress measurement systems that can address closely spaced modes and blade-to-blade...

  10. Sensitivity analysis of the stiffness between the frame structure and the frequency and vibration mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenyuan

    2018-03-01

    The modal parameters such as natural frequency and vibration mode of the frame structure of the layer stiffness sensitivity is inconsistent. This article focuses on the theoretical derivation of the frequency and mode of the frame structure layer stiffness of the first-order sensitivity. The numerical examples show that the frame structure of layer stiffness higher than with the first order sensitivity vibration frequency.

  11. Modeling and analysis of circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yihua; Huang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    We propose a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer and perform a theoretical analysis of the transformer. An equivalent circuit is derived from the equations of piezoelectricity and the Hamilton's principle. With this equivalent circuit, the voltage gain ratio, input impedance, and the efficiency of the circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer can be determined. The basic behavior of the transformer is shown by numerical results.

  12. Non-linear vibrational modes in biomolecules: A periodic orbits description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampanarakis, Alexandros; Farantos, Stavros C.; Daskalakis, Vangelis; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Vibrational frequency shifts in Fe IV = O species of the active site of cytochrome c oxidase are attributed to changes in the surrounding Coulomb field. Periodic orbits analysis assists to find the most anharmonic modes in model biomolecules. Highlights: ► Periodic orbits are extended to multidimensional potentials of biomolecules. ► Highly anharmonic vibrational modes and center-saddle bifurcations are detected. ► Vibrational frequencies shifts in Oxoferryl species of CcO are observed. - Abstract: The vibrational harmonic normal modes of a molecule, which are valid at energies close to an equilibrium point (a minimum, maximum or saddle of the potential energy surface), are extended by periodic orbits to high energies where anharmonicity and coupling of the degrees of freedom are significant. In this way the assignment of the spectra, and thus the extraction of dynamics in highly excited molecules, can be obtained. New vibrational modes emanating from bifurcations of periodic orbits and long living localized trajectories signal the birth and localization of new quantum states. In this article we review and further study non-linear vibrational modes for model biomolecules such as alanine dipeptide and the active site in the oxoferryl oxidation state of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. We locate periodic orbits which exhibit high anhamonicity and lead to center-saddle bifurcations. These modes are associated to an isomerization process in alanine dipeptide and to frequency shifts in the oxoferryl observed by modifying the Coulomb field around the Imidazole–Fe IV = O species.

  13. Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.

    1986-02-01

    The feasibility of calculating natural frequencies and mode shapes of major equipment in a CANDU reactor from the measurements of their response to background excitation has been studied. A review of vibration data measured at various locations in CANDU plants shows that structures responded to a combination of random and harmonic background excitation. Amplitude of measured vibration is sufficient to allow meaningful data analysis. Frequency content in the 0 to 50-Hz range, which is of interest for earthquake response, is present in some of the vibration measurements studied. Spectral techniques have been developed for determining the response function of structures from measured vibration response to background excitation. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are then evaluated graphically from the frequency function plots. The methodology has been tested on a simple cantilever beam with known natural frequencies and mode shapes. The comparison between the theoretical and the computed natural frequencies and mode shapes is good for the lower modes. However, better curve-fitting techniques will be required in future, especially for higher modes. Readily available equipment necessary for the measurement of background vibration in a CANDU plant (which is commercially available) has been identified. An experimental program has been proposed to verify the methodology developed in this study. Recommendations are also made to study methods to improve the accuracy of the mode shape and natural frequency prediction

  14. 35 Hz shape memory alloy actuator with bending-twisting mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Rodrigue, Hugo; Choi, Ik-Seong; Kang, Yeon June; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) materials are widely used as an actuating source for bending actuators due to their high power density. However, due to the slow actuation speed of SMAs, there are limitations in their range of possible applications. This paper proposes a smart soft composite (SSC) actuator capable of fast bending actuation with large deformations. To increase the actuation speed of SMA actuator, multiple thin SMA wires are used to increase the heat dissipation for faster cooling. The actuation characteristics of the actuator at different frequencies are measured with different actuator lengths and results show that resonance can be used to realize large deformations up to 35 Hz. The actuation characteristics of the actuator can be modified by changing the design of the layered reinforcement structure embedded in the actuator, thus the natural frequency and length of an actuator can be optimized for a specific actuation speed. A model is used to compare with the experimental results of actuators with different layered reinforcement structure designs. Also, a bend-twist coupled motion using an anisotropic layered reinforcement structure at a speed of 10 Hz is also realized. By increasing their range of actuation characteristics, the proposed actuator extends the range of application of SMA bending actuators. PMID:26892438

  15. 35 Hz shape memory alloy actuator with bending-twisting mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Rodrigue, Hugo; Choi, Ik-Seong; Kang, Yeon June; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) materials are widely used as an actuating source for bending actuators due to their high power density. However, due to the slow actuation speed of SMAs, there are limitations in their range of possible applications. This paper proposes a smart soft composite (SSC) actuator capable of fast bending actuation with large deformations. To increase the actuation speed of SMA actuator, multiple thin SMA wires are used to increase the heat dissipation for faster cooling. The actuation characteristics of the actuator at different frequencies are measured with different actuator lengths and results show that resonance can be used to realize large deformations up to 35 Hz. The actuation characteristics of the actuator can be modified by changing the design of the layered reinforcement structure embedded in the actuator, thus the natural frequency and length of an actuator can be optimized for a specific actuation speed. A model is used to compare with the experimental results of actuators with different layered reinforcement structure designs. Also, a bend-twist coupled motion using an anisotropic layered reinforcement structure at a speed of 10 Hz is also realized. By increasing their range of actuation characteristics, the proposed actuator extends the range of application of SMA bending actuators.

  16. Vibrational Mode-Specific Autodetachment and Coupling of CH2CN-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Justin; Mabbs, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The Cyanomethyl Anion, CH_{2}CN-, and neutral radical have been studied extensively, with several findings of autodetachment about the totally symmetric transition, as well as high resolution experiments revealing symmetrically forbidden and weak vibrational features. We report photoelectron spectra using the Velocity-Mapped Imaging Technique in 1-2 \\wn increments over a range of 13460 to 15384 \\wn that has not been previously examined. These spectra include excitation of the ground state cyanomethyl anion into the direct detachment thresholds of previously reported vibrational modes for the neutral radical. Significant variations from Franck-Condon behavior were observed in the branching ratios for resolved vibrational features for excitation in the vicinity of the thresholds involving the νb{3} and νb{5} modes. These are consistent with autodetachment from rovibrational levels of a dipole bound state acting as a resonance in the detachment continuum. The autodetachment channels involve single changes in vibrational quantum number, consistent with the vibrational propensity rule but in some cases reveal relaxation to a different vibrational mode indicating coupling between the modes and/or a breakdown of the normal mode approximation.

  17. An assumed mode method and finite element method investigation of the coupled vibration in a flexible-disk rotor system with lacing wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shui-Ting; Huang, Hong-Wu [Hunan University, Changsha (China); Chiu, Yi-Jui; Yu, Guo-Fei [Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen (China); Yang, Chia-Hao [Taipei Chengshih University of Science and Technology, Taipei (China); Jian, Sheng-Rui [I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (China)

    2017-02-15

    The Assumed mode method (AMM) and Finite element method (FEM) were used. Their results were compared to investigate the coupled shaft-torsion, disk-transverse, and blade-bending vibrations in a flexible-disk rotor system. The blades were grouped with a spring. The flexible-disk rotor system was divided into three modes of coupled vibrations: Shaft-disk-blade, disk-blade, and blade-blade. Two new modes of coupled vibrations were introduced, namely, lacing wires-blade and lacing wires-disk-blade. The patterns of change of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system were discussed. The results showed the following: first, mode shapes and natural frequencies varied, and the results of the AMM and FEM differed; second, numerical calculation results showed three influencing factors on natural frequencies, namely, the lacing wire constant, the lacing wire location, and the flexible disk; lastly, the flexible disk could affect the stability of the system as reflected in the effect of the rotational speed.

  18. Interference between vibration-to-translation and vibration-to-vibration energy transfer modes in diatomic molecules at high collision energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H.K.

    1983-01-01

    An explicit time dependent approach for simultaneous VT and VV energy transfer in diatom--diatom collisions is explored using the exponential form of ladder operators in the solution of the Schroedinger equation of motion. The collision of two hydrogen molecules is chosen to illustrate the extent of interference between VT and VV modes among various vibrational states. While vibrational energy transfer processes of nominally VT type can be treated with pure VT mode at low collision energies, the intermode coupling is found to be very important at collision energies of several hω. The occurrence of the coupling appears to be nearly universal in vibrational transitions at such energies. Exceptions to the coupling have been discussed

  19. Influence of the tip mass and position on the AFM cantilever dynamics: Coupling between bending, torsion and flexural modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari-Nezhad, F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saidi, A.R., E-mail: saidi@mail.uk.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaei-Rad, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    The effects of the geometrical asymmetric related to tip position as a concentrated mass, on the sensitivity of all three vibration modes, lateral excitation (LE), torsional resonance (TR) and vertical excitation (VE), of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) microcantilever have been analyzed. The effects of the tip mass and its position are studied to report the novel results to estimating the vibration behavior of AFM such as resonance frequency and amplitude of the microcantilever. In this way, to achieve more accurate results, the coupled motion in all three modes is considered. In particular, it is investigated that performing the coupled motion in analysis of AFM microcantilever is almost necessary. It is shown that the tip mass and its position have significant effects on vibrational responses. The results show that considering the tip mass decreases the resonance frequencies particularly on high-order modes. However, dislocating of tip position has an inverse effect that causes an increase in the resonance frequencies. In addition, it has been shown that the amplitude of the AFM microcantilever is affected by the influences of tip and its position. These effects are caused by the interaction between flexural and torsional motion due to the moment of inertia of the tip mass.

  20. Influence of the tip mass and position on the AFM cantilever dynamics: Coupling between bending, torsion and flexural modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari-Nezhad, F.; Saidi, A.R.; Ziaei-Rad, S.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the geometrical asymmetric related to tip position as a concentrated mass, on the sensitivity of all three vibration modes, lateral excitation (LE), torsional resonance (TR) and vertical excitation (VE), of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) microcantilever have been analyzed. The effects of the tip mass and its position are studied to report the novel results to estimating the vibration behavior of AFM such as resonance frequency and amplitude of the microcantilever. In this way, to achieve more accurate results, the coupled motion in all three modes is considered. In particular, it is investigated that performing the coupled motion in analysis of AFM microcantilever is almost necessary. It is shown that the tip mass and its position have significant effects on vibrational responses. The results show that considering the tip mass decreases the resonance frequencies particularly on high-order modes. However, dislocating of tip position has an inverse effect that causes an increase in the resonance frequencies. In addition, it has been shown that the amplitude of the AFM microcantilever is affected by the influences of tip and its position. These effects are caused by the interaction between flexural and torsional motion due to the moment of inertia of the tip mass.

  1. Single-molecule electronics: Cooling individual vibrational modes by the tunneling current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkebo, Jacob; Romano, Giuseppe; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C

    2016-03-21

    Electronic devices composed of single molecules constitute the ultimate limit in the continued downscaling of electronic components. A key challenge for single-molecule electronics is to control the temperature of these junctions. Controlling heating and cooling effects in individual vibrational modes can, in principle, be utilized to increase stability of single-molecule junctions under bias, to pump energy into particular vibrational modes to perform current-induced reactions, or to increase the resolution in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy by controlling the life-times of phonons in a molecule by suppressing absorption and external dissipation processes. Under bias the current and the molecule exchange energy, which typically results in heating of the molecule. However, the opposite process is also possible, where energy is extracted from the molecule by the tunneling current. Designing a molecular "heat sink" where a particular vibrational mode funnels heat out of the molecule and into the leads would be very desirable. It is even possible to imagine how the vibrational energy of the other vibrational modes could be funneled into the "cooling mode," given the right molecular design. Previous efforts to understand heating and cooling mechanisms in single molecule junctions have primarily been concerned with small models, where it is unclear which molecular systems they correspond to. In this paper, our focus is on suppressing heating and obtaining current-induced cooling in certain vibrational modes. Strategies for cooling vibrational modes in single-molecule junctions are presented, together with atomistic calculations based on those strategies. Cooling and reduced heating are observed for two different cooling schemes in calculations of atomistic single-molecule junctions.

  2. Anomalous vibrational modes in acetanilide: A F.D.S. incoherent inelastic neutron scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthes, M.; Moret, J.; Eckert, J.; Johnson, S.W.; Swanson, B.I.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the anomalous infra-red and Raman modes in acetanilide (C 6 H 5 NHCOCH 3 , or ACN), remains a subject of considerable controversy. One family of theoretical models involves Davydov-like solitons nonlinear vibrational coupling, or ''polaronic'' localized modes. An alternative interpretation of the extra-bands in terms of a Fermi resonance was proposed and recently the existence of slightly non-degenerate hydrogen atom configurations in the H-bond was suggested as an explanation for the anomalies. In this paper we report some new results on the anomalous vibrational modes in ACN that were obtained by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (INS)

  3. Generation of three-mode nonclassical vibrational states of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Truong Minh Duc

    2002-01-01

    We propose using eight lasers with appropriate orientations and conditions to generate stable trio coherent states of an ion in a three-dimensional isotropic trap. Seven lasers whose orientations are important should be detuned to the third lower sideband of the ion vibrational motion. The eighth laser whose direction is not important should be in resonance with the ionic transition

  4. Determination of the critical bending speeds of a multy-rotor shaft from the vibration signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crâştiu, I.; Nyaguly, E.; Deac, S.; Gozman-Pop, C.; Bârgău, A.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the development and validation of an impulse excitation technique to determine flexural critical speeds of a single rotor shaft and multy-rotor shaft. The experimental measurement of the vibroacoustic response is carried out by using a condenser microphone as a transducer. By the means of Modal Analysis using Finite Element Method (FEM), the natural frequencies and shape modes of one rotor and three rotor specimens are determined. The vibration responses of the specimens, in simple supported conditions, are carried out using algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). To validate the results of the modal parameters estimated using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) these are compared with experimental ones.

  5. Anomalous vibrational modes in acetanilide as studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Mariette; Eckert, Juegen; Johnson, Susanna W.; Moret, Jacques; Swanson, Basil I.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    1992-10-01

    A study of the anomalous modes in acetanilide and five deuterated derivatives by incoherent inelastic neutron scattering is reported. These data show that the dynamics of the amide and methyl groups influence each other. In addition, the anomalous temperature behaviour of the NH out-of-plane bending mode is confirmed. These observations suggest that the self-trapping mechanism in ACN may be more complex than hitherto assumed.

  6. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B.F.; Joergensen, K.; Oestergaard, R.C. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, T.K. [LM Glasfiber A/S, Lunderskov (Denmark)

    2004-03-01

    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratio between the two applied moments, the full mode mixity range from pure mode I to pure mode II can be generated for the same specimen geometry. The specimen allows stable crack growth. In case of large scale crack bridging, mixed mode cohesive laws can be obtained by a J integral based approach. As a preliminary example, fracture of adhesive joints between two glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre cross over bridging, eventually reaching a steady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement. Cohesive stresses were determined by a J integral approach. The deducted shear stress was found to be relative high ({approx} = 20 MPa) in comparison with the normal stress ({approx} = 1 MPa). (au)

  7. A Pictorial Visualization of Normal Mode Vibrations of the Fullerene (C[subscript 60]) Molecule in Terms of Vibrations of a Hollow Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Janette L.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the normal mode vibrations of a molecule is important in the analysis of vibrational spectra. However, the complicated 3D motion of large molecules can be difficult to interpret. We show how images of normal modes of the fullerene molecule C[subscript 60] can be made easier to understand by superimposing them on images of the normal…

  8. Size-dependent bending, buckling and vibration of higher-order shear deformable magneto-electro-thermo-elastic rectangular nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raheb; Ansari, Reza; Gholami, Yousef

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to propose a unified size-dependent higher-order shear deformable plate model for magneto-electro-thermo-elastic (METE) rectangular nanoplates by adopting the nonlocal elasticity theory to capture the size effect, and by utilizing a generalized shape function to consider the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia. By considering various shape functions, the proposed plate model can be reduced to the nonlocal plate model based upon the Kirchhoff, Mindlin and Reddy plate theories, as well as the parabolic, trigonometric, hyperbolic and exponential shear deformation plate theories. The governing equations of motion and corresponding boundary conditions of METE nanoplates subjected to external in-plane, transverse loads as well as magnetic, electric and thermal loadings, are obtained using Hamilton’s principle. Then, as in some case studies, the static bending, buckling, and free vibration characteristics of simply-supported METE rectangular nanoplates are investigated based upon the Navier solution approach. Numerical results are provided in order to investigate the influences of various parameters including the nondimensional nonlocal parameter, type of transverse loading, temperature change, applied voltage, and external magnetic potential on the mechanical behaviors of METE nanoplates. Furthermore, comparisons are made between the results predicted by different nonlocal plate models by utilizing the developed unified nonlocal plate model and selecting the associated shape functions. It is illustrated that by using the presented unified nonlocal plate model, the development of a nonlocal plate model based upon any existing higher-order shear deformable plate theory is a simple task.

  9. Power enhancing by reversing mode sequence in tuned mass-spring unit attached vibration energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a vibration energy harvester consisting of an auxiliary frequency-tuned mass unit and a piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting unit for enhancing output power. The proposed integrated system is so configured that its out-of-phase mode can appear at the lowest eigenfrequency unlike in the conventional system using a tuned unit. Such an arrangement makes the resulting system distinctive: enhanced output power at or near the target operating frequency and very little eigenfrequency separation, not observed in conventional eigenfrequency-tuned vibration energy harvesters. The power enhancement of the proposed system is theoretically examined with and without tip mass normalization or footprint area normalization.

  10. A nonlinear multi-mode wideband piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester using compliant orthoplanar spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Sharvari, E-mail: sharvari.dhote@mail.utoronto.ca; Zu, Jean; Zhu, Yang [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S-3G8 (Canada)

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, a nonlinear wideband multi-mode piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester (PVEH) is proposed based on a compliant orthoplanar spring (COPS), which has an advantage of providing multiple vibration modes at relatively low frequencies. The PVEH is made of a tri-leg COPS flexible structure, where three fixed-guided beams are capable of generating strong nonlinear oscillations under certain base excitation. A prototype harvester was fabricated and investigated through both finite-element analysis and experiments. The frequency response shows multiple resonance which corresponds to a hardening type of nonlinear resonance. By adding masses at different locations on the COPS structure, the first three vibration modes are brought close to each other, where the three hardening nonlinear resonances provide a wide bandwidth for the PVEH. The proposed PVEH has enhanced performance of the energy harvester in terms of a wide frequency bandwidth and a high-voltage output under base excitations.

  11. Vibrational modes of thin oblate clouds of charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for finding the eigenfunctions (normal modes) and mode frequencies of azimuthally symmetric non-neutral plasmas confined in a Penning trap whose axial thickness is much smaller than their radial size. The plasma may be approximated as a charged disk in this limit; the normal modes and frequencies can be found if the surface charge density profile σ(r) of the disk and the trap bounce frequency profile ω z (r) are known. The dependence of the eigenfunctions and equilibrium plasma shapes on nonideal components of the confining Penning trap fields is discussed. The results of the calculation are compared with the experimental data of Weimer et al. [Phys. Rev. A 49, 3842 (1994)] and it is shown that the plasma in this experiment was probably hollow and had mode displacement functions that were concentrated near the center of the plasma

  12. Sensibility to Changes of Vibrational Modes of Excited Electron: Sum Frequency Signals Versus Difference Frequency Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Anna; Liang Xianting

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a two electronic level system with vibrational modes coupled to a Brownian oscillator bath. The difference frequency generation (DFG) signals and sum frequency generation (SFG) signals are calculated. It is shown that, for the same model, the SFG signals are more sensitive than the DFG signals to the changes of the vibrational modes of the electronic two-level system. Because the SFG conversion efficiency can be improved by using the time-delay method, the findings in this paper predict that the SFG spectrum may probe the changes of the microstructure more effectively. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. Bushes of vibrational modes for Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechin, G. M.; Novikova, N. V.; Abramenko, A. A.

    2002-06-01

    Some exact solutions and multimode invariant submanifolds were found for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU)- β model by Poggi and Ruffo [Physica D 103 (1997) 251]. In the present paper we demonstrate how results of such a type can be obtained for an arbitraryN-particle chain with periodic boundary conditions with the aid of our group-theoretical approach [Physica D 117 (1998) 43] based on the concept of bushes of normal modes in mechanical systems with discrete symmetry. The integro-differential equation describing the FPU- α dynamics in the modal space is derived. The loss of stability of the bushes of modes for the FPU- α model, in particular, for the limiting case N→∞ for the dynamical regime with displacement pattern having period twice the lattice spacing ( π-mode) is studied. Our results for the FPU- α chain are compared with those by Poggi and Ruffo for the FPU- β chain.

  14. Multiple soft-mode vibrations of lead zirconate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Buixaderas, Elena; Kadlec, Christelle; Kužel, Petr; Gregora, Ivan; Kroupa, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Klíč, Antonín; Drahokoupil, Jan; Etxebarria, I.; Dec, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 19 (2014), "197601-1"-"197601-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferroelectric * soft mode * polarized spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014

  15. Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge transport in organic electronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Lovrincic, Robert; Yu, Xi; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Fonari, Alexandr; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Cahen, David

    2015-01-01

    The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge transport in organic electronic devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

  16. Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge transport in organic electronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bakulin, Artem A.

    2015-08-06

    The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge transport in organic electronic devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

  17. Tailoring vibration mode shapes using topology optimization and functionally graded material concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, Wilfredo Montealegre; Paulino, Glaucio H; Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli

    2011-01-01

    Tailoring specified vibration modes is a requirement for designing piezoelectric devices aimed at dynamic-type applications. A technique for designing the shape of specified vibration modes is the topology optimization method (TOM) which finds an optimum material distribution inside a design domain to obtain a structure that vibrates according to specified eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes. Nevertheless, when the TOM is applied to dynamic problems, the well-known grayscale or intermediate material problem arises which can invalidate the post-processing of the optimal result. Thus, a more natural way for solving dynamic problems using TOM is to allow intermediate material values. This idea leads to the functionally graded material (FGM) concept. In fact, FGMs are materials whose properties and microstructure continuously change along a specific direction. Therefore, in this paper, an approach is presented for tailoring user-defined vibration modes, by applying the TOM and FGM concepts to design functionally graded piezoelectric transducers (FGPT) and non-piezoelectric structures (functionally graded structures—FGS) in order to achieve maximum and/or minimum vibration amplitudes at certain points of the structure, by simultaneously finding the topology and material gradation function. The optimization problem is solved by using sequential linear programming. Two-dimensional results are presented to illustrate the method

  18. Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Baile, E-mail: blzhang@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2016-01-25

    We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk.

  19. Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk

  20. Natural Frequencies and Vibrating Modes for a Magnetic Planetary Gear Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic model for a magnetic planetary gear drive is proposed. Based on the model, the dynamic equations for the magnetic planetary gear drive are given. From the magnetic meshing forces and torques between the elements for the drive system, the tangent and radial magnetic meshing stiffness is obtained. Using these equations, the natural frequencies and the modes of the magnetic planetary gear drive are investigated. The sensitivity of the natural frequencies to the system parameters is discussed. Results show that the pole pair number and the air gap have obvious effects on the natural frequencies. For the planetary gear number larger than two, the vibrations of the drive system include the torsion mode of the center elements, the translation mode of the center elements, and the planet modes. For the planetary gear number equal to two, the planet mode does not occur, the crown mode and the sun gear mode occur.

  1. Phonon Transport at Crystalline Si/Ge Interfaces: The Role of Interfacial Modes of Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiz, Kiarash; Henry, Asegun

    2016-01-01

    We studied the modal contributions to heat conduction at crystalline Si and crystalline Ge interfaces and found that more than 15% of the interface conductance arises from less than 0.1% of the modes in the structure. Using the recently developed interface conductance modal analysis (ICMA) method along with a new complimentary methodology, we mapped the correlations between modes, which revealed that a small group of interfacial modes, which exist between 12–13 THz, exhibit extremely strong correlation with other modes in the system. It is found that these interfacial modes (e.g., modes with large eigen vectors for interfacial atoms) are enabled by the degree of anharmonicity near the interface, which is higher than in the bulk, and therefore allows this small group of modes to couple to all others. The analysis sheds light on the nature of localized vibrations at interfaces and can be enlightening for other investigations of localization. PMID:26979787

  2. Calculations of lattice vibrational mode lifetimes using Jazz: a Python wrapper for LAMMPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y; Wang, H; Daw, M S

    2015-01-01

    Jazz is a new python wrapper for LAMMPS [1], implemented to calculate the lifetimes of vibrational normal modes based on forces as calculated for any interatomic potential available in that package. The anharmonic character of the normal modes is analyzed via the Monte Carlo-based moments approximation as is described in Gao and Daw [2]. It is distributed as open-source software and can be downloaded from the website http://jazz.sourceforge.net/. (paper)

  3. Calculations of lattice vibrational mode lifetimes using Jazz: a Python wrapper for LAMMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Wang, H.; Daw, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Jazz is a new python wrapper for LAMMPS [1], implemented to calculate the lifetimes of vibrational normal modes based on forces as calculated for any interatomic potential available in that package. The anharmonic character of the normal modes is analyzed via the Monte Carlo-based moments approximation as is described in Gao and Daw [2]. It is distributed as open-source software and can be downloaded from the website http://jazz.sourceforge.net/.

  4. Finite element modeling of temperature load effects on the vibration of local modes in multi-cable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyssède, Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Understanding thermal effects on the vibration of local (cable-dominant) modes in multi-cable structures is a complicated task. The main difficulty lies in the modification by temperature change of cable tensions, which are then undetermined. This paper applies a finite element procedure to investigate the effects of thermal loads on the linear dynamics of prestressed self-weighted multi-cable structures. Provided that boundary conditions are carefully handled, the discretization of cables with nonlinear curved beam elements can properly represent the thermoelastic behavior of cables as well as their linearized dynamics. A three-step procedure that aims to replace applied pretension forces with displacement continuity conditions is used. Despite an increase in the computational cost related to beam rotational degrees of freedom, such an approach has several advantages. Nonlinear beam finite elements are usually available in commercial codes. The overall method follows a thermoelastic geometrically non-linear analysis and hereby includes the main sources of non-linearities in multi-cable structures. The effects of cable bending stiffness, which can be significant, are also naturally accounted for. The accuracy of the numerical approach is assessed thanks to an analytical model for the vibration of a single inclined cable under temperature change. Then, the effects of thermal loads are investigated for two cable bridges, highlighting how natural frequencies can be affected by temperature. Although counterintuitive, a reverse relative change of natural frequency may occur for certain local modes. This phenomenon can be explained by two distinct mechanisms, one related to the physics intrinsic to cables and the other related to the thermal deflection of the superstructure. Numerical results show that cables cannot be isolated from the rest of the structure and the importance of modeling the whole structure for a quantitative analysis of temperature effects on the

  5. Intermediate energy electron impact excitation of composite vibrational modes in phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A.; Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Oliveira, E. M. de; Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin,’ Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, C.P. 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Silva, G. B. da [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-05-21

    We report differential cross section results from an experimental investigation into the electron impact excitation of a number of the low-lying composite (unresolved) vibrational modes in phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The measurements were carried out at incident electron energies in the range 15–40 eV and for scattered-electron angles in the range 10–90°. The energy resolution of those measurements was typically ∼80 meV. Calculations, using the GAMESS code, were also undertaken with a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level model chemistry, in order to enable us to assign vibrational modes to the features observed in our energy loss spectra. To the best of our knowledge, the present cross sections are the first to be reported for vibrational excitation of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH molecule by electron impact.

  6. 排水管弯曲振动试验台%The Test Machine Using for Vibration and Bend of Drainpipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓杰

    2001-01-01

    a type of test machine using mechanic and electron and pressing air is introduced. It simulates the washing machine vibration and realizes the bend experiment of drainpipes. Press air is adopted for testing automatically pipes.%介绍一种机电气一体的试验台,模拟洗衣机振动,对排水管进行弯曲试验。采用气动技术,对其进行自动检测,实现水管破损自动报警。

  7. Linking structure and vibrational mode coupling using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy: A comparison of gauche and trans 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. Cameron; Stone, Stephen C.; Philips, Laura A.

    1995-01-01

    The high-resolution infrared spectrum of 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane in a molecular beam was collected over the 2975-2994 cm-1 spectral region. The spectral region of 2975-2981 cm-1 contains a symmetric C-H stretching vibrational band of the gauche conformer containing the 35Cl isotope. The spectral region of 2985-2994 cm-1 contains three vibrational bands of the trans conformer. Two of the three bands are assigned as an antisymmetric C-H stretch of each of the two different chlorine isotopes. The third band is assigned as a symmetric C-H stretch of the 35Cl isotope. The gauche conformer of 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane showed doublet patterns similar to those previously observed in 1,2-difluoroethane. The model for 1,2-difluoroethane is further refined in the present work. These refinements suggest that the coupling dark state in 1,2-difluoroethane is composed of 1 quantum C-H bend, 1 quantum C-C stretch, and 12 quanta of torsion. For 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane the dark state could not be identified due to a small data set. The trans conformer of 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane showed no evidence of mode coupling in the three vibrational bands. Including 2-fluoroethanol in this series of molecules, the extent of vibrational mode coupling did not correlate with the density of states available for coupling. Therefore, density of states alone is insufficient to explain the observed trend. A correlation was observed between the degree of intramolecular interaction and vibrational mode coupling.

  8. Sensor system for multi-point monitoring using bending loss of single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Applications of smart sensors have been extended to safety systems in the aerospace, transportation and civil engineering fields. In particular, structural health monitoring techniques using smart sensors have gradually become necessary and have been developed to prevent dangers to human life and damage to assets. Generally, smart sensors are based on electro-magnets and have several weaknesses, including electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Therefore, fiber optic sensors are an outstanding alternative to overcome the weaknesses of electro-magnetic sensors. However, they require expensive devices and complex systems. This paper proposes a new, affordable and simple sensor system that uses a single fiber to monitor pressures at multiple-points. Moreover, a prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested for a feasibility study. Based on the results of this experimental test, a relationship was carefully observed between the bend loss conditions and light-intensity. As a result, it was shown that impacts at multiple-points could be monitored.

  9. Effective representation of amide III, II, I, and A modes on local vibrational modes: Analysis of ab initio quantum calculation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Seungsoo

    2016-10-28

    The Hamiltonian matrix for the first excited vibrational states of a protein can be effectively represented by local vibrational modes constituting amide III, II, I, and A modes to simulate various vibrational spectra. Methods for obtaining the Hamiltonian matrix from ab initio quantum calculation results are discussed, where the methods consist of three steps: selection of local vibrational mode coordinates, calculation of a reduced Hessian matrix, and extraction of the Hamiltonian matrix from the Hessian matrix. We introduce several methods for each step. The methods were assessed based on the density functional theory calculation results of 24 oligopeptides with four different peptide lengths and six different secondary structures. The completeness of a Hamiltonian matrix represented in the reduced local mode space is improved by adopting a specific atom group for each amide mode and reducing the effect of ignored local modes. The calculation results are also compared to previous models using C=O stretching vibration and transition dipole couplings. We found that local electric transition dipole moments of the amide modes are mainly bound on the local peptide planes. Their direction and magnitude are well conserved except amide A modes, which show large variation. Contrary to amide I modes, the vibrational coupling constants of amide III, II, and A modes obtained by analysis of a dipeptide are not transferable to oligopeptides with the same secondary conformation because coupling constants are affected by the surrounding atomic environment.

  10. Coherent dynamics of the localized vibrational modes of hydrogen in CaF2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, J. P. R.; Rella, C. W.; Bradley, I. V.; Galbraith, I.; Pidgeon, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    We report the observation of giant quantum coherence effects in the localized modes of ionized hydrogen in synthetic fluorite. Infrared free induction decay experiments on the substitutional H+ center thew dramatic modulations at negative delay times due to interference between multiple vibrational

  11. Single mode optical fiber vibration sensor: design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis-Carranza, L. E.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Perez-Sanchez, G. G.; Sierra-Calderon, A.; Rodriguez-Novelo, J. C.

    2016-09-01

    This work deals with the design and development of an SMF28-based vibration detector including the fiber segment, the data acquisition via an NI-USB-6212 card, the data processing code in Visual Basic and the signal spectrum obtained via Fourier analysis. The set-up consists of a regulated voltage source at 2.6V, 300mA, which serves as the power source for a 980nm semiconductor laser operating at 150mW which is fiber coupled into a 20m-piece of SMF-28 fiber. Perpendicular to such fiber the perturbations ranged from 1 to 100 kHz, coming from a DC motor at 12 Volts. At the detection stage, a simple analog filter and a commercial photo diode were employed for data acquisition, before a transimpedance amplification stage reconstructed the signal into the National Instruments data acquisition card. At the output, the signals Fourier transformation allows the signal to be displayed in a personal computer. The presentation will include a full electrical and optical characterization of the device and preliminary sensing results, which could be suitable for structural health monitoring applications.

  12. Measurement of vibration mode shape by using Hilbert transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Min Sig

    2001-01-01

    This paper concerns on modal analysis of mechanical structures by using a continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. In modal analysis the Hilbert transform based approach is superior to the Fourier transform based approach because of its fine accuracy and its flexible experimental settings. In this paper the Hilbert transform based approach is extended to measure area mode shape data of a structure by simply modifying the scanning pattern ranging the entire surface of the structure. The effectiveness of this proposed method is illustrated along with results of numerical simulation for a rectangular plate

  13. Analytical modeling of mixed-Mode bending behavior of asymmetric adhesively bonded pultruded GFRP joints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčík, Martin; Shahverdi, M.; Hutař, Pavel; Vassilopoulos, Anastasios P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 147, OCT (2015), s. 228-242 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Mixed-Mode delamination * Asymmetric joint * Adhesively bonded joint * Failure criterion * Analytical prediction * GFRP Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.024, year: 2015

  14. Mode pattern of internal flow in a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun; Lim, Hee-Chang

    2015-06-04

    The objective of this study is to understand the mode pattern of the internal flow in a water droplet placed on a hydrophobic surface that periodically and vertically vibrates. As a result, a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface has a typical shape that depends on each resonance mode, and, additionally, we observed a diversified lobe size and internal flows in the water droplet. The size of each lobe at the resonance frequency was relatively greater than that at the neighboring frequencies, and the internal flow of the nth order mode was also observed in the flow visualization. In general, large symmetrical flow streams were generated along the vertical axis in each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top, and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In contrast, modes 2 and 4 generated a Y-shaped flow pattern, in which the flow moved to the node point in the lower part of the droplet, but modes 6 and 8 had similar patterns, with only a little difference. In addition, as a result of the PIV measurement, while the flow velocity of mode 4 was faster than that of model 2, those of modes 6 and 8 were almost similar.

  15. Experimental Analysis of Mast Lifting and Bending Forces on Vibration Patterns Before and After Pinion Reinstallation in an OH-58 Transmission Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Edward M.; Lewicki, David G.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Decker, Harry; Barszez, Eric; Zakrajsek, James J.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As part of a collaborative research program between NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Army Laboratory, a series of experiments is being performed in GRC's 500 HP OH-58 Transmission Test Rig facility and ARC's AH-I Cobra and OH-58c helicopters. The findings reported in this paper were drawn from Phase-I of a two-phase test-rig experiment, and are focused on the vibration response of an undamaged pinion gear operating in the transmission test rig. To simulate actual flight conditions, the transmission system was run at three torque levels, as well as two mast lifting and two mast bending levels. The test rig was also subjected to disassembly and reassembly of the main pinion housing to simulate the effect of maintenance operations. An analysis of variance based on the total power of the spectral distribution indicates the relative effect of each experimental factor, including Wong interactions with torque. Reinstallation of the main pinion assembly is shown to introduce changes in the vibration signature, suggesting the possibility of a strong effect of maintenance on HUMS design and use. Based on these results, further research will be conducted to compare these vibration responses with actual OH58c helicopter transmission vibration patterns.

  16. Vibrational mode and sound radiation of electrostatic speakers using circular and annular diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsi; Chiang, Hsin-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    This study modeled two diaphragms comprising a pair of indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent plates sandwiching a vibrating diaphragm to create circular (30 mm radius) and annular (30 mm outer and 3 mm inner radius) push-pull electrostatic speakers. We then measured the displacement amplitudes and mode shapes produced by the devices. Vibration characteristics were used to predict sound pressure levels (SPLs) using the lumped parameter method (LPM) and distributed parameter method (DPM). The two measurement results obtained using a laser system were compared to the SPLs obtained using traditional acoustic measurement (AM) from 20 Hz to 20 kHz in order to verify our predictions. When using LPM and DPM, the SPL prediction results in the first three symmetric modes were in good agreement with the AM results. Under the assumption of linear operations, the DPM and amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) techniques proved effective in determining the visualization of mode shape (0,1)-(0,3). The use of ITO plates is a practical technique for the prediction of SPL, as well as measurement of mode shapes. The four evaluation methods, i.e. LPM, DPM, ESPI and AM, present a high degree of consistency with regard to vibrational mode and sound radiation characteristics.

  17. Effect of instantaneous and continuous quenches on the density of vibrational modes in model glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Edan; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2017-08-01

    Computational studies of supercooled liquids often focus on various analyses of their "underlying inherent states"—the glassy configurations at zero temperature obtained by an infinitely fast (instantaneous) quench from equilibrium supercooled states. Similar protocols are also regularly employed in investigations of the unjamming transition at which the rigidity of decompressed soft-sphere packings is lost. Here we investigate the statistics and localization properties of low-frequency vibrational modes of glassy configurations obtained by such instantaneous quenches. We show that the density of vibrational modes grows as ωβ with β depending on the parent temperature T0 from which the glassy configurations were instantaneously quenched. For quenches from high temperature liquid states we find β ≈3 , whereas β appears to approach the previously observed value β =4 as T0 approaches the glass transition temperature. We discuss the consistency of our findings with the theoretical framework of the soft potential model, and contrast them with similar measurements performed on configurations obtained by continuous quenches at finite cooling rates. Our results suggest that any physical quench at rates sufficiently slower than the inverse vibrational time scale—including all physically realistic quenching rates of molecular or atomistic glasses—would result in a glass whose density of vibrational modes is universally characterized by β =4 .

  18. Recent Advances In Structural Vibration And Failure Mode Control In Mainland China: Theory, Experiments And Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Ou Jinping

    2008-01-01

    A number of researchers have been focused on structural vibration control in the past three decades over the world and fruit achievements have been made. This paper introduces the recent advances in structural vibration control including passive, active and semiactive control in mainland China. Additionally, the co-author extends the structural vibration control to failure mode control. The research on the failure mode control is also involved in this paper. For passive control, this paper introduces full scale tests of buckling-restrained braces conducted to investigate the performance of the dampers and the second-editor of the Code of Seismic Design for Buildings. For active control, this paper introduces the HMD system for wind-induced vibration control of the Guangzhou TV tower. For semiactive control, the smart damping devices, algorithms for semi-active control, design methods and applications of semi-active control for structures are introduced in this paper. The failure mode control for bridges is also introduced

  19. Orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes from combined experimental and theoretical sum frequency spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, Hilary M.; Chen, Shunli; Fu, Li; Upshur, Mary Alice; Rudshteyn, Benjamin; Thomson, Regan J.; Wang, Hong-Fei; Batista, Victor S.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2017-09-01

    Inferring molecular orientations from vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra is challenging in polarization combinations that result in low signal intensities, or when the local point group symmetry approximation fails. While combining experiments with density functional theory (DFT) could overcome this problem, the scope of the combined method has yet to be established. Here, we assess its feasibility of determining the distributions of molecular orientations for one monobasic ester, two epoxides and three alcohols at the vapor/fused silica interface. We find that molecular orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes cannot be determined using polarization-resolved SFG measurements alone.

  20. Estimation of the mechanical properties of the eye through the study of its vibrational modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Á Aloy

    Full Text Available Measuring the eye's mechanical properties in vivo and with minimally invasive techniques can be the key for individualized solutions to a number of eye pathologies. The development of such techniques largely relies on a computational modelling of the eyeball and, it optimally requires the synergic interplay between experimentation and numerical simulation. In Astrophysics and Geophysics the remote measurement of structural properties of the systems of their realm is performed on the basis of (helio-seismic techniques. As a biomechanical system, the eyeball possesses normal vibrational modes encompassing rich information about its structure and mechanical properties. However, the integral analysis of the eyeball vibrational modes has not been performed yet. Here we develop a new finite difference method to compute both the spheroidal and, specially, the toroidal eigenfrequencies of the human eye. Using this numerical model, we show that the vibrational eigenfrequencies of the human eye fall in the interval 100 Hz-10 MHz. We find that compressible vibrational modes may release a trace on high frequency changes of the intraocular pressure, while incompressible normal modes could be registered analyzing the scattering pattern that the motions of the vitreous humour leave on the retina. Existing contact lenses with embebed devices operating at high sampling frequency could be used to register the microfluctuations of the eyeball shape we obtain. We advance that an inverse problem to obtain the mechanical properties of a given eye (e.g., Young's modulus, Poisson ratio measuring its normal frequencies is doable. These measurements can be done using non-invasive techniques, opening very interesting perspectives to estimate the mechanical properties of eyes in vivo. Future research might relate various ocular pathologies with anomalies in measured vibrational frequencies of the eye.

  1. "Good Vibrations": A workshop on oscillations and normal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Sara; Carpineti, Marina; Giliberti, Marco; Rigon, Enrico; Stellato, Marco; Tamborini, Marina

    2016-05-01

    We describe some theatrical strategies adopted in a two hour workshop in order to show some meaningful experiments and the underlying useful ideas to describe a secondary school path on oscillations, that develops from harmonic motion to normal modes of oscillations, and makes extensive use of video analysis, data logging, slow motions and applet simulations. Theatre is an extremely useful tool to stimulate motivation starting from positive emotions. That is the reason why the theatrical approach to the presentation of physical themes has been explored by the group "Lo spettacolo della Fisica" (http://spettacolo.fisica.unimi.it) of the Physics Department of University of Milano for the last ten years (Carpineti et al., JCOM, 10 (2011) 1; Nuovo Cimento B, 121 (2006) 901) and has been inserted also in the European FP7 Project TEMI (Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated, see http://teachingmysteries.eu/en) which involves 13 different partners coming from 11 European countries, among which the Italian (Milan) group. According to the TEMI guidelines, this workshop has a written script based on emotionally engaging activities of presenting mysteries to be solved while participants have been involved in nice experiments following the developed path.

  2. The application of infrared synchrotron radiation to the study of interfacial vibrational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation provides an extremely bright broad-band source in the infrared which is ideally suited to the study of surface and interface vibrational modes in the range 50--3,000 cm -1 . Thus it covers the important range of molecule-substrate interactions, as well as overlapping with the more easily accessible near-ir region where molecular internal modes are found. Compared to standard broadband infrared sources such as globars, not only is it 1,000 times brighter, but its emittance matches the phase-space of the electrochemical cell leading to full utilization of this brightness advantage. In addition, the source is more stable even than water-cooled globars in vacuum for both short-term and long-term fluctuations. The authors summarize the properties of synchrotron radiation in the infrared, in particular pointing out the distinct differences between this and the x-ray region. They use experimental data in discussing important issues of signal to noise and address the unique problems and advantages of the synchrotron source. Thus they emphasize the important considerations necessary for developing new facilities. This analysis then leads to a discussion of phase-space matching to electrochemical cells, and to other surfaces in vacuum. Finally they show several examples of the application of infrared synchrotron radiation to surface vibrational spectroscopy. The examples are for metal crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum and include CO/Cu(100) and (111) and CO/K/Cu(100). The experiments show how the stability of the synchrotron source allows subtle changes in the background to be observed in addition to the discrete vibrational modes. These changes are due to electronic states induced by the adsorbate. In some cases the authors have seen interferences between these and the discrete vibrational modes, leading to a breakdown of the dipole selection rules, and the observation of additional modes

  3. Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, B M; Walther, M; Jepsen, P Uhd

    2002-01-01

    The far-infrared dielectric function of a wide range of organic molecules is dominated by vibrations involving a substantial fraction of the atoms forming the molecule and motion associated with intermolecular hydrogen bond vibrations. Due to their collective nature such modes are highly sensitive to the intra- and intermolecular structure and thus provide a unique fingerprint of the conformational state of the molecule and effects of its environment. We demonstrate the use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) for recording the far-infrared (0.5-4.0 THz) dielectric function of the four nucleobases and corresponding nucleosides forming the building blocks of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). We observe numerous distinct spectral features with large differences between the molecules in both frequency-dependent absorption coefficient and index of refraction. Assisted by results from density-functional calculations we interpret the origin of the observed resonances as vibrations of hydrogen bonds between the molecules

  4. Fatigue crack behaviour: comparing three-point bend test and wedge splitting test data on vibrated concrete using Paris' law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Thienpont, T.; De Corte, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 39 (2017), s. 110-117 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue crack behaviour * Tree-point bending test * Wedge splitting test * Self-compacting concrete Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  5. Resolving fine spectral features in lattice vibrational modes using femtosecond coherent spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Card

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We show resolution of fine spectral features within several Raman active vibrational modes in potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP crystal. Measurements are performed using a femtosecond time-domain coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy technique that is capable of delivering equivalent spectral resolution of 0.1 cm−1. The Raman spectra retrieved from our measurements show several spectral components corresponding to vibrations of different symmetry with distinctly different damping rates. In particular, linewidths for unassigned optical phonon mode triplet centered at around 820 cm−1 are found to be 7.5 ± 0.2 cm−1, 9.1 ± 0.3 cm−1, and 11.2 ± 0.3 cm−1. Results of our experiments will ultimately help to design an all-solid-state source for sub-optical-wavelength waveform generation that is based on stimulated Raman scattering.

  6. Chemical reactions of water molecules on Ru(0001) induced by selective excitation of vibrational modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-05-07

    Tunneling electrons in a scanning tunneling microscope were used to excite specific vibrational quantum states of adsorbed water and hydroxyl molecules on a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. The excited molecules relaxed by transfer of energy to lower energy modes, resulting in diffusion, dissociation, desorption, and surface-tip transfer processes. Diffusion of H{sub 2}O molecules could be induced by excitation of the O-H stretch vibration mode at 445 meV. Isolated molecules required excitation of one single quantum while molecules bonded to a C atom required at least two quanta. Dissociation of single H{sub 2}O molecules into H and OH required electron energies of 1 eV or higher while dissociation of OH required at least 2 eV electrons. In contrast, water molecules forming part of a cluster could be dissociated with electron energies of 0.5 eV.

  7. A pragmatic approach to including complex natural modes of vibration in aeroelastic analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available complex natural modes of vibration in aeroelastic analysis Louw van Zyl International Aerospace Symposium of South Africa 14 to 16 September, 2015 Stellenbosch, South Africa Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Problem statement..., the square of the angular frequencies in radians per second) [ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }fxKxCxM =++ &&& [ ]{ } [ ]{ } 0=+ xKxMs2 Slide 4 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Structural Dynamics (continued) • The corresponding eigenvectors are real...

  8. Atomistic theory for the damping of vibrational modes in monoatomic gold chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Mads; Brandbyge, Mads; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    We develop a computational method for evaluating the damping of vibrational modes in monatomic metallic chains suspended between bulk crystals under external strain. The damping is due to the coupling between the chain and contact modes and the phonons in the bulk substrates. The geometry of the ...... in the harmonic damping is possible even for relatively small changes in the strain. Such detailed insight is necessary for a quantitative analysis of damping in metallic atomic chains and in explaining the rich phenomenology seen in the experiments....

  9. Anomalous vibrational modes in acetanilide: a F.D.S. incoherent inelastic neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Mariette; Eckert, Juergen; Johnson, Susanna W.; Moret, Jacques; Swanson, Basil I.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    The origin of the anomalous infra-red and Raman modes in acetanilide (C6H5NHCOCH3, or ACN)(1) , remains a subject of considerable controversy. One family of theoretical models involves Davydov-like solitons (2) nonlinear vibrational coupling (3), or "polaronic" localized modes (4)(5). An alternative interpretation of the extra-bands in terms of a Fermi resonance was proposed (6) and recently the existence of slightly non-degenerate hydrogen atom configurations (7) in the H-bond was suggested as an explanation for the anomalies.

  10. Vibration Control of Flexible Mode for a Beam-Type Substrate Transport Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Hoon Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beam-type substrate transport robots are widely used to handle substrates, especially in the solar cell manufacturing process. To reduce the takt time and increase productivity, accurate position control becomes increasingly important as the size of the substrate increases. However, the vibration caused by the flexible forks in beam-type robots interferes with accurate positioning, which results in long takt times in the manufacturing process. To minimize the vibration and transport substrates on the fork as fast as possible, the trajectories should be prevented from exciting the flexible modes of the forks. For this purpose, a fifth-order polynomial trajectory generator and input shaping were incorporated into the controller of the beam-type robot in this study. The flexible modes of the forks were identified by measuring the frequency response function (FRF, and the input shaping was designed so as not to excite the flexible modes. The controller was implemented by using MATLAB/xPC Target. In this paper, the design procedure of input shaping and its effectiveness for vibration attenuation in both “no load” and “load” cases is presented.

  11. A MEMS Resonant Sensor to Measure Fluid Density and Viscosity under Flexural and Torsional Vibrating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods to calculate fluid density and viscosity using a micro-cantilever and based on the resonance principle were put forward. Their measuring mechanisms were analyzed and the theoretical equations to calculate the density and viscosity were deduced. The fluid-solid coupling simulations were completed for the micro-cantilevers with different shapes. The sensing chips with micro-cantilevers were designed based on the simulation results and fabricated using the micro electromechanical systems (MEMS technology. Finally, the MEMS resonant sensor was packaged with the sensing chip to measure the densities and viscosities of eight different fluids under the flexural and torsional vibrating modes separately. The relative errors of the measured densities from 600 kg/m3 to 900 kg/m3 and viscosities from 200 μPa·s to 1000 μPa·s were calculated and analyzed with different microcantilevers under various vibrating modes. The experimental results showed that the effects of the shape and vibrating mode of micro-cantilever on the measurement accuracies of fluid density and viscosity were analyzed in detail.

  12. Identification of surface species by vibrational normal mode analysis. A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jian; Genest, Alexander; Rösch, Notker

    2017-10-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is an important experimental tool for identifying molecular species adsorbed on a metal surface that can be used in situ. Often vibrational modes in such IR spectra of surface species are assigned and identified by comparison with vibrational spectra of related (molecular) compounds of known structure, e. g., an organometallic cluster analogue. To check the validity of this strategy, we carried out a computational study where we compared the normal modes of three C2Hx species (x = 3, 4) in two types of systems, as adsorbates on the Pt(111) surface and as ligands in an organometallic cluster compound. The results of our DFT calculations reproduce the experimental observed frequencies with deviations of at most 50 cm-1. However, the frequencies of the C2Hx species in both types of systems have to be interpreted with due caution if the coordination mode is unknown. The comparative identification strategy works satisfactorily when the coordination mode of the molecular species (ethylidyne) is similar on the surface and in the metal cluster. However, large shifts are encountered when the molecular species (vinyl) exhibits different coordination modes on both types of substrates.

  13. Mechanisms of Coupled Vibrational Relaxation and Dissociation in Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenise, Iole; Kustova, Elena

    2018-05-21

    A complete vibrational state-specific kinetic scheme describing dissociating carbon dioxide mixtures is proposed. CO 2 symmetric, bending and asymmetric vibrations and dissociation-recombination are strongly coupled through inter-mode vibrational energy transfers. Comparative study of state-resolved rate coefficients is carried out; the effect of different transitions may vary considerably with temperature. A non-equilibrium 1-D boundary layer flow typical to hypersonic planetary entry is studied in the state-to-state approach. To assess the sensitivity of fluid-dynamic variables and heat transfer to various vibrational transitions and chemical reactions, corresponding processes are successively included to the kinetic scheme. It is shown that vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in the symmetric and asymmetric modes do not alter the flow and can be neglected whereas the VT 2 exchange in the bending mode is the main channel of vibrational relaxation. Inter-mode vibrational exchanges affect the flow implicitly, through energy redistribution enhancing VT relaxation; the dominating role belongs to near-resonant transitions between symmetric and bending modes as well as between CO molecules and CO 2 asymmetric mode. Strong coupling between VT 2 relaxation and chemical reactions is emphasized. While vibrational distributions and average vibrational energy show strong dependence on the kinetic scheme, the heat flux is more sensitive to chemical reactions.

  14. Measurement of correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and particle rearrangements in quasi-two-dimensional colloidal glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, K.; Manning, M.L.; Yunker, P.J.; Ellenbroek, W.G.; Zhang, Zexin; Liu, Andrea J.; Yodh, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and rearrangements in two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of thermosensitive microgel particles, which readily permit variation of the sample packing fraction. At each packing fraction, the particle displacement covariance

  15. Determination of the Viscosity by Means of the Optical Methods Utilizing the Bend Loss of the Vibrating Fiber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Stachiv, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2011), s. 741-744 ISSN 1546-198X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR GA106/09/1573 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : viscosity determination * bend loss sensor * resonance Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.819, year: 2011 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asp/senlet/2011/00000009/00000002/art00059

  16. Nonlinear normal vibration modes in the dynamics of nonlinear elastic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhlin, Yu V; Perepelkin, N V; Klimenko, A A; Harutyunyan, E

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) are a generalization of the linear normal vibrations. By the Kauderer-Rosenberg concept in the regime of the NNM all position coordinates are single-values functions of some selected position coordinate. By the Shaw-Pierre concept, the NNM is such a regime when all generalized coordinates and velocities are univalent functions of a couple of dominant (active) phase variables. The NNMs approach is used in some applied problems. In particular, the Kauderer-Rosenberg NNMs are analyzed in the dynamics of some pendulum systems. The NNMs of forced vibrations are investigated in a rotor system with an isotropic-elastic shaft. A combination of the Shaw-Pierre NNMs and the Rauscher method is used to construct the forced NNMs and the frequency responses in the rotor dynamics.

  17. Experimental Study of Flexible Plate Vibration Control by Using Two-Loop Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Jiahui; Liu, Yuejun; Yang, Kang; Zhou, Lanwei; Chen, Guoping

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that intelligent control theory has been used in many research fields, novel modeling method (DROMM) is used for flexible rectangular active vibration control, and then the validity of new model is confirmed by comparing finite element model with new model. In this paper, taking advantage of the dynamics of flexible rectangular plate, a two-loop sliding mode (TSM) MIMO approach is introduced for designing multiple-input multiple-output continuous vibration control system, which can overcome uncertainties, disturbances or unstable dynamics. An illustrative example is given in order to show the feasibility of the method. Numerical simulations and experiment confirm the effectiveness of the proposed TSM MIMO controller.

  18. A novel signal compression method based on optimal ensemble empirical mode decomposition for bearing vibration signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Tse, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Today, remote machine condition monitoring is popular due to the continuous advancement in wireless communication. Bearing is the most frequently and easily failed component in many rotating machines. To accurately identify the type of bearing fault, large amounts of vibration data need to be collected. However, the volume of transmitted data cannot be too high because the bandwidth of wireless communication is limited. To solve this problem, the data are usually compressed before transmitting to a remote maintenance center. This paper proposes a novel signal compression method that can substantially reduce the amount of data that need to be transmitted without sacrificing the accuracy of fault identification. The proposed signal compression method is based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the vibration signal into different bands of signal components, termed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). An optimization method was designed to automatically select appropriate EEMD parameters for the analyzed signal, and in particular to select the appropriate level of the added white noise in the EEMD method. An index termed the relative root-mean-square error was used to evaluate the decomposition performances under different noise levels to find the optimal level. After applying the optimal EEMD method to a vibration signal, the IMF relating to the bearing fault can be extracted from the original vibration signal. Compressing this signal component obtains a much smaller proportion of data samples to be retained for transmission and further reconstruction. The proposed compression method were also compared with the popular wavelet compression method. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization of EEMD parameters can automatically find appropriate EEMD parameters for the analyzed signals, and the IMF-based compression method provides a higher compression ratio, while retaining the bearing defect

  19. Observation of the low frequency vibrational modes of bacteriophage M13 in water by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsen Shaw-Wei D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a technique which departs radically from conventional approaches has been proposed. This novel technique utilizes biological objects such as viruses as nano-templates for the fabrication of nanostructure elements. For example, rod-shaped viruses such as the M13 phage and tobacco mosaic virus have been successfully used as biological templates for the synthesis of semiconductor and metallic nanowires. Results and discussion Low wave number (≤ 20 cm-1 acoustic vibrations of the M13 phage have been studied using Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations based on an elastic continuum model and appropriate Raman selection rules derived from a bond polarizability model. The observed Raman mode has been shown to belong to one of the Raman-active axial torsion modes of the M13 phage protein coat. Conclusion It is expected that the detection and characterization of this low frequency vibrational mode can be used for applications in nanotechnology such as for monitoring the process of virus functionalization and self-assembly. For example, the differences in Raman spectra can be used to monitor the coating of virus with some other materials and nano-assembly process, such as attaching a carbon nanotube or quantum dots.

  20. Confinement of vibrational modes within crystalline lattices using thin amorphous layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagolini, Luigi; Mattoni, Alessandro; Lusk, Mark T

    2017-01-01

    It is possible to confine vibrational modes to a crystal by encapsulating it within thin disordered layers with the same average properties as the crystal. This is not due to an impedance mismatch between materials but, rather, to higher order moments in the distribution of density and stiffness in the disordered phase—i.e. it is a result of material substructure. The concept is elucidated in an idealized one-dimensional setting and then demonstrated for a realistic nanocrystalline geometry. This offers the prospect of specifically engineering higher order property distributions as an alternate means of managing phonons. (paper)

  1. Stretching dependence of the vibration modes of a single-molecule Pt-H-2-Pt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djukic, D.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Untiedt, C.

    2005-01-01

    isotope substitution is obtained. The stretching dependence for each of the modes allows uniquely classifying them as longitudinal or transversal modes. The interpretation of the experiment in terms of a Pt-H-2-Pt bridge is verified by density-functional theory calculations for the stability, vibrational...

  2. Resonant and kinematical enhancement of He scattering from LiF(001) surface and pseudosurface vibrational normal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, W.L.; Weare, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    One-phonon cross sections calculated from sagittally polarized vibrational normal modes account for most salient inelastic-scattering intensities seen in He-LiF(001) and measurements published by Brusdeylins, Doak, and Toennies. We have found that most inelastic intensities which cannot be attributed to potential resonances can be explained as kinematically enhanced scattering from both surface and pseudosurface bulk modes

  3. Sub-THz spectroscopic characterization of vibrational modes in artificially designed DNA monocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizov, Igor; Rahman, Masudur; Gelmont, Boris; Norton, Michael L.; Globus, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sub-THz spectroscopy is used to characterize artificially designed DNA monocrystal. • Results are obtained using a novel near field, RT, frequency domain spectrometer. • Narrow resonances of 0.1 cm −1 width in absorption spectra of crystal are observed. • Signature measured between 310 and 490 GHz is reproducible and well resolved. • Absorption pattern is explained in part by simulation results from dsDNA fragment. - Abstract: Sub-terahertz (sub-THz) vibrational spectroscopy is a new spectroscopic branch for characterizing biological macromolecules. In this work, highly resolved sub-THz resonance spectroscopy is used for characterizing engineered molecular structures, an artificially designed DNA monocrystal, built from a short DNA sequence. Using a recently developed frequency domain spectroscopic instrument operating at room temperature with high spectral and spatial resolution, we demonstrated very intense and specific spectral lines from a DNA crystal in general agreement with a computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of a short double stranded DNA fragment. The spectroscopic signature measured in the frequency range between 310 and 490 GHz is rich in well resolved and reproducible spectral features thus demonstrating the capability of THz resonance spectroscopy to be used for characterizing custom macromolecules and structures designed and implemented via nanotechnology for a wide variety of application domains. Analysis of MD simulation indicates that intense and narrow vibrational modes with atomic movements perpendicular (transverse) and parallel (longitudinal) to the long DNA axis coexist in dsDNA, with much higher contribution from longitudinal vibrations

  4. Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Zhao; Qian, Cheng; Meng-Lu, Qian

    2010-01-01

    Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions

  5. Application of empirical mode decomposition method for characterization of random vibration signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyamartana Parman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of finite measured signals is a great of importance in dynamical modeling and system identification. This paper addresses an approach for characterization of measured random vibration signals where the approach rests on a method called empirical mode decomposition (EMD. The applicability of proposed approach is tested in one numerical and experimental data from a structural system, namely spar platform. The results are three main signal components, comprising: noise embedded in the measured signal as the first component, first intrinsic mode function (IMF called as the wave frequency response (WFR as the second component and second IMF called as the low frequency response (LFR as the third component while the residue is the trend. Band-pass filter (BPF method is taken as benchmark for the results obtained from EMD method.

  6. Simulation of vibration modes of the fuel rod damaged due to the grid-to-rod fretting wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Kyeong Koo; Jang, Young Ki; Lee, Kyou Seok

    1997-01-01

    The flow-induced fuel fretting wear observed in some PWRs mainly proceeds in the grid-to-rod contact positions. The grid-to-rod fretting wear in the PWR fuel assembly depends on grid-to-rod gap size, its axial profile and flow-induced vibration. This paper describes the GRIDFORCE program which generates the axially dependent grid-to-rod gap size as a function of burnup. The axially dependent grid-to-rod gap profiles are employed to predict the fuel rod vibration mode shapes by the ANSYS code. With the help of the Paidousis empirical formula, this paper also calculates the fuel rod vibration amplitudes under various supporting conditions, which indicates that the increase of the number of unsupported mid-grids will increase the fuel rod vibration amplitude. On the other hand, the comparison of the predicted vibration mode shapes and the observed mid-grid fretting wear pattern indicates that the 1st and 6th vibration mode shapes under the supporting inactive condition at the mid-grids can simulate the observed mid-grid fretting wear profile. This paper also proposes design guidelines against the grid-to-rod fretting wear. (author). 3 refs., 8 figs

  7. Comprehensive nonlocal analysis of piezoelectric nanobeams with surface effects in bending, buckling and vibrations under magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Nejad, Salman; Boreiry, Mahya

    2018-03-01

    The bending, buckling and vibrational behavior of size-dependent piezoelectric nanobeams under thermo-magneto-mechano-electrical environment are investigated by performing a parametric study, in the presence of surface effects. The Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity and Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theories are applied in the framework of Euler–Bernoulli beam theory to obtain a new non-classical size-dependent beam model for dynamic and static analyses of piezoelectric nanobeams. In order to satisfy the surface equilibrium equations, cubic variation of stress with beam thickness is assumed for the bulk stress component which is neglected in classical beam models. Results are obtained for clamped - simply-supported (C-S) and simply-supported - simply-supported (S-S) boundary conditions using a proposed analytical solution method. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of length, surface effects, nonlocal parameter and environmental changes (temperature, magnetic field and external voltage) on deflection, critical buckling load and natural frequency for each boundary condition. Results of this study can serve as benchmarks for the design and analysis of nanostructures of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic materials.

  8. Effects of phase and coupling between the vibrational modes on selective excitation in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Vishesha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Malinovskaya, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has been a major tool of investigation of biological structures as it contains the vibrational signature of molecules. A quantum control method based on chirped pulse adiabatic passage was recently proposed for selective excitation of a predetermined vibrational mode in CARS microscopy [Malinovskaya and Malinovsky, Opt. Lett. 32, 707 (2007)]. The method utilizes the chirp sign variation at the peak pulse amplitude and gives a robust adiabatic excitation of the desired vibrational mode. Using this method, we investigate the impact of coupling between vibrational modes in molecules on controllability of excitation of the CARS signal. We analyze two models of two coupled two-level systems (TLSs) having slightly different transitional frequencies. The first model, featuring degenerate ground states of the TLSs, gives robust adiabatic excitation and maximum coherence in the resonant TLS for positive value of the chirp. In the second model, implying nondegenerate ground states in the TLSs, a population distribution is observed in both TLSs, resulting in a lack of selectivity of excitation and low coherence. It is shown that the relative phase and coupling between the TLSs play an important role in optimizing coherence in the desired vibrational mode and suppressing unwanted transitions in CARS microscopy.

  9. Coupling analysis of energy conversion in multi-mode vibration structural control using a synchronized switch damping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Hongli; Qiu, Jinhao; Xia, Pinqi; Inman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Modal coupling is an important issue in the analysis and control of structural systems with multi-degrees of freedom (MDOF). In this paper, modal coupling induced by energy conversion in the structural control of an MDOF system using a synchronized switch damping method is investigated theoretically and validated numerically. In the analysis, it is supposed that the voltage on the piezoelectric actuator is switched at the displacement extrema of a given mode. Two types of coupling in energy conversion are considered. The first is whether the switching action based on one mode induces energy conversion of the other modes. The second is whether the vibration of one mode affects the energy conversion of the other modes. The results indicate that the modal coupling in energy conversion is very complicated. In most cases the switching action based on one mode does induce energy conversion of another mode, but the efficiency depends on the frequency ratio of the two modes. The vibration of one mode affects the energy conversion of another mode only when the frequency ratio of the two modes takes some special values. Discussions are also given on the potential application of the theoretical results in the design of an energy harvesting device. (paper)

  10. Development of an innovative device for ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Hu, Linhua

    2015-07-01

    An innovative ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting (UEVC) device with 1st resonant mode of longitudinal vibration and 3rd resonant mode of bending vibration was proposed in this paper, which can deliver higher output power compared to previous UEVC devices. Using finite element method (FEM), resonance frequencies of the longitudinal and bending vibrations were tuned to be as close as possible in order to excite these two vibrations using two-phase driving voltages at a single frequency, while wave nodes of the longitudinal and bending vibrations were also adjusted to be as coincident as possible for mounting the device at a single fixed point. Based on the simulation analysis results a prototype device was fabricated, then its vibration characteristics were evaluated by an impedance analyzer and a laser displacement sensor. With two-phase sinusoidal driving voltages both of 480 V(p-p) at an ultrasonic frequency of 20.1 kHz, the developed prototype device achieved an elliptical vibration with a longitudinal amplitude of 8.9 μm and a bending amplitude of 11.3 μm. The performance of the developed UEVC device is assessed by the cutting tests of hardened steel using single crystal diamond tools. Experimental results indicate that compared to ordinary cutting process, the tool wear is reduced significantly by using the proposed device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vibration energy harvesting based on integrated piezoelectric components operating in different modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhui; Jong, Januar; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2010-01-01

    To increase the vibration energy-harvesting capability of the piezoelectric generator based on a cantilever beam, we have proposed a piezoelectric generator that not only uses the strain change of piezoelectric components bonded on a cantilever beam, but also employs the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam to hit piezoelectric components located on the 2 sides of weights. A prototype of the piezoelectric generator has been fabricated and its characteristics have been measured and analyzed. The experimental results show that the piezoelectric components operating in the hit mode can substantially enhance the energy harvesting of the piezoelectric generator on a cantilever beam. Two methods are used and compared in the management of rectified output voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components. In one of them, the DC voltages from rectifiers are connected in series, and then the total DC voltage is applied to a capacitor. In another connection, the DC voltage from each group is applied to different capacitors. It is found that 22.3% of the harvested energy is wasted due to the series connection. The total output electric energy of our piezoelectric generator at nonresonance could be up to 43 nJ for one vibration excitation applied by spring, with initial vibration amplitude (0-p) of 18 mm and frequency of 18.5 Hz, when the rectified voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components are connected to their individual capacitors. In addition, the motion and impact of the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam are theoretically analyzed, which well explains the experimental phenomena and suggests the measures to improve the generator.

  12. Ultrafast fragmentation dynamics of triply charged carbon dioxide: Vibrational-mode-dependent molecular bond breakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, HongJiang; Wang, Enliang; Dong, WenXiu; Gong, Maomao; Shen, Zhenjie; Tang, Yaguo; Shan, Xu; Chen, Xiangjun

    2018-05-01

    The a b i n i t i o molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using an atom-centered density matrix propagation method have been carried out to investigate the fragmentation of the ground-state triply charged carbon dioxide, CO23 +→C+ + Oa+ + Ob+ . Ten thousands of trajectories have been simulated. By analyzing the momentum correlation of the final fragments, it is demonstrated that the sequential fragmentation dominates in the three-body dissociation, consistent with our experimental observations which were performed by electron collision at impact energy of 1500 eV. Furthermore, the MD simulations allow us to have detailed insight into the ultrafast evolution of the molecular bond breakage at a very early stage, within several tens of femtoseconds, and the result shows that the initial nuclear vibrational mode plays a decisive role in switching the dissociation pathways.

  13. Anharmonic vibrational modes of chemisorbed H on the Rh(001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, D.R.; Feibelman, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The potential for H atoms in the vicinity of the fourfold hollow chemisorption site on the Rh(001) surface at monolayer coverage is calculated using local-density-functional theory, and the linear-augmented-plane-wave method. The potential is found to contain important anharmonic components, one that couples parallel and perpendicular motion, and another producing azimuthal anisotropy. Variational solutions are found for the ground and low-lying excited states of H and D in this potential. The fundamental asymmetric- and symmetric-stretch H vibrational excitations are found to have energies of 67 and 92 meV. The latter agrees with recent experimental results, and higher-lying experimental modes are interpreted as mixed excitations. Comparisons are made with spring-constant models, calculated potentials for H on Ni and Pd(001), and theories of Bloch states for H on Ni

  14. Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.

    1986-10-01

    Background vibration in a CANDU plant can be used to determine the dynamic characteristics of major items of equipment, such as calandria, the fuelling machines and the primary heat transport pumps. These dynamic characteristics can then be used to verify the seismic response of the equipment which, at present, is based on theoretical models only. The feasibility and basic theory of this new approach (which uses accelerations measured at several points on a structure and does not require knowledge of the source of excitation) was established in Phase I of the study. This report is based on Phase II in which the methods of analysis developed in Phase I were improved and verified experimentally. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm was incorporated and an interactive curve fitting technique was developed to obtain the dynamic characteristics in the form of natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. The method is now available for use at a CANDU plant

  15. Quantum-Chemical Calculation and Visualization of the Vibrational Modes of Graphene in Different Points of the Brillouin Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedieva, Tetiana; Gubanov, Victor; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Pidhirnyi, Denys

    2015-12-01

    Different notations of graphene irreducible representations and optical modes could be found in the literature. The goals of this paper are to identify the correspondence between available notations, to calculate the optical modes of graphene in different points of the Brillouin zone, and to compare them with experimental data obtained by Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. The mechanism of the resonance enhancement of vibration modes of the molecules adsorbed on graphene in CARS experiments is proposed. The possibility of appearance of the discrete breathing modes is discussed.

  16. Adaptive Robust Sliding Mode Vibration Control of a Flexible Beam Using Piezoceramic Sensor and Actuator: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo Lin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of an adaptive robust sliding mode control scheme based on the Lyapunov’s direct method for active vibration control of a flexible beam using PZT (lead zirconate titanate sensor and actuator. PZT, a type of piezoceramic material, has the advantages of high reliability, high bandwidth, and solid state actuation and is adopted here in forms of surface-bond patches for vibration control. Two adaptive robust sliding mode controllers for vibration suppression are designed: one uses a discontinuous bang-bang robust compensator and the other uses a smooth compensator with a hyperbolic tangent function. Both controllers guarantee asymptotic stability, as proved by the Lyapunov’s direct method. Experimental results verified the effectiveness and the robustness of both adaptive sliding mode controllers. However, from the experimental results, the bang-bang robust compensator causes small-magnitude chattering because of the discontinuous switching actions. With the smooth compensator, vibration is quickly suppressed and no chattering is induced. Furthermore, the robustness of the controllers is successfully demonstrated with ensured effectiveness in vibration control when masses are added to the flexible beam.

  17. Mixed-mode stress intensity factors for kink cracks with finite kink length loaded in tension and bending: application to dentin and enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Fett, Theo; Rizzi, Gabriele; Habelitz, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-05-01

    Fracture toughness resistance curves describe a material's resistance against crack propagation. These curves are often used to characterize biomaterials like bone, nacre or dentin as these materials commonly exhibit a pronounced increase in fracture toughness with crack extension due to co-acting mechanisms such as crack bridging, crack deflection and microcracking. The knowledge of appropriate stress intensity factors which depend on the sample and crack geometry is essential for determining these curves. For the dental biomaterials enamel and dentin it was observed that, under bending and tensile loading, crack propagation occurs under certain constant angles to the initial notch direction during testing procedures used for fracture resistance curve determination. For this special crack geometry (a kink crack of finite length in a finite body) appropriate geometric function solutions are missing. Hence, we present in this study new mixed-mode stress intensity factors for kink cracks with finite kink length within samples of finite dimensions for two loading cases (tension and bending) which were derived from a combination of mixed-mode stress intensity factors of kink cracks with infinitely small kinks and of slant cracks. These results were further applied to determine the fracture resistance curves of enamel and dentin by testing single edge notched bending (SENB) specimens. It was found that kink cracks with finite kink length exhibit identical stress fields to slant cracks as soon as the kink length exceeds 0.15 times the initial straight crack or notch length. The use of stress intensity factor solutions for infinitely small kink cracks for the determination of dentin fracture resistance curves (as was done by other researchers) leads to an overestimation of dentin's fracture resistance of up to 30%. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vibrational modes and strain in GaN/AlN quantum dot stacks: dependence on spacer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresneda, J.; Cros, A.; Llorens, J.M.; Garcia-Cristobal, A.; Cantarero, A. [Institut de Ciencia del Materials, Universitat de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Amstatt, B.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Daudin, B. [CEA-CNRS Group, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, DRFMC/SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2007-06-15

    We have investigated the influence of spacer thickness on the vibrational and strain characteristics of GaN/AlN quantum dot multilayers (QD). The Raman shift corresponding to the E{sub 2h} vibrational mode related to the QDs has been analyzed for AlN thicknesses ranging from 4.4 nm to 13 nm, while the amount of GaN deposited in each layer remained constant from sample to sample. It is shown that there is a rapid blue shift of the GaN vibrational mode with spacer thickness when its value is smaller than 7 nm while it remains almost constant for thicker spacers. A rapid increase of the Raman line-width in the thicker samples is also observed. The experimental behavior is discussed in comparison with the results of a theoretical model for the strain in the QDs. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Multi-mode electro-mechanical vibrations of a microtubule: In silico demonstration of electric pulse moving along a microtubule

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, Daniel; Cifra, Michal; Kučera, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 24 (2014), s. 243702 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Biophysical mechanism * Collective vibration mode * Electro-mechanical Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  20. VCD Robustness of the Amide-I and Amide-II Vibrational Modes of Small Peptide Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góbi, Sándor; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2015-09-01

    The rotational strengths and the robustness values of amide-I and amide-II vibrational modes of For(AA)n NHMe (where AA is Val, Asn, Asp, or Cys, n = 1-5 for Val and Asn; n = 1 for Asp and Cys) model peptides with α-helix and β-sheet backbone conformations were computed by density functional methods. The robustness results verify empirical rules drawn from experiments and from computed rotational strengths linking amide-I and amide-II patterns in the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of peptides with their backbone structures. For peptides with at least three residues (n ≥ 3) these characteristic patterns from coupled amide vibrational modes have robust signatures. For shorter peptide models many vibrational modes are nonrobust, and the robust modes can be dependent on the residues or on their side chain conformations in addition to backbone conformations. These robust VCD bands, however, provide information for the detailed structural analysis of these smaller systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Simultaneous spectral and temporal analyses of kinetic energies in nonequilibrium systems: theory and application to vibrational relaxation of O-D stretch mode of HOD in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jonggu; Lim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-05-28

    A time series of kinetic energies (KE) from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation contains fundamental information on system dynamics. It can also be analyzed in the frequency domain through Fourier transformation (FT) of velocity correlation functions, providing energy content of different spectral regions. By limiting the FT time span, we have previously shown that spectral resolution of KE evolution is possible in the nonequilibrium situations [Jeon and Cho, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 135, 214504]. In this paper, we refine the method by employing the concept of instantaneous power spectra, extending it to reflect an instantaneous time-correlation of velocities with those in the future as well as with those in the past, and present a new method to obtain the instantaneous spectral density of KE (iKESD). This approach enables the simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution of KE with unlimited time precision. We discuss the formal and novel properties of the new iKESD approaches and how to optimize computational methods and determine parameters for practical applications. The method is specifically applied to the nonequilibrium MD simulation of vibrational relaxation of the OD stretch mode in a hydrated HOD molecule by employing a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential. We directly compare the computational results with the OD band population relaxation time profiles extracted from the IR pump-probe measurements for 5% HOD in water. The calculated iKESD yields the OD bond relaxation time scale ∼30% larger than the experimental value, and this decay is largely frequency-independent if the classical anharmonicity is accounted for. From the integrated iKESD over intra- and intermolecular bands, the major energy transfer pathways were found to involve the HOD bending mode in the subps range, then the internal modes of the solvent until 5 ps after excitation, and eventually the solvent intermolecular modes. Also, strong hydrogen

  2. Chains of benzenes with lithium-atom adsorption: Vibrations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Yenni P.; Stegmann, Thomas; Klein, Douglas J.; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    We study effects of different configurations of adsorbates on the vibrational modes as well as symmetries of polyacenes and poly-p-phenylenes focusing on lithium atom adsorption. We found that the spectra of the vibrational modes distinguish the different configurations. For more regular adsorption schemes the lowest states are bending and torsion modes of the skeleton, which are essentially followed by the adsorbate. On poly-p-phenylenes we found that lithium adsorption reduces and often eli...

  3. Vibrational Surface Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Probes Confined Surface-Phonon Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Lourenço-Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two reports [Krivanek et al. Nature (London 514, 209 (2014NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature13870, Lagos et al. Nature (London 543, 529 (2017NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature21699] have demonstrated the amazing possibility to probe vibrational excitations from nanoparticles with a spatial resolution much smaller than the corresponding free-space phonon wavelength using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS. While Lagos et al. evidenced a strong spatial and spectral modulation of the EELS signal over a nanoparticle, Krivanek et al. did not. Here, we show that discrepancies among different EELS experiments as well as their relation to optical near- and far-field optical experiments [Dai et al. Science 343, 1125 (2014SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1246833] can be understood by introducing the concept of confined bright and dark surface phonon modes, whose density of states is probed by EELS. Such a concise formalism is the vibrational counterpart of the broadly used formalism for localized surface plasmons [Ouyang and Isaacson Philos. Mag. B 60, 481 (1989PMABDJ1364-281210.1080/13642818908205921, García de Abajo and Aizpurua Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997PRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.56.15873, García de Abajo and Kociak Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 106804 (2008PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.106804, Boudarham and Kociak Phys. Rev. B 85, 245447 (2012PRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.85.245447]; it makes it straightforward to predict or interpret phenomena already known for localized surface plasmons such as environment-related energy shifts or the possibility of 3D mapping of the related surface charge densities [Collins et al. ACS Photonics 2, 1628 (2015APCHD52330-402210.1021/acsphotonics.5b00421].

  4. Measurement of correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and particle rearrangements in quasi-two-dimensional colloidal glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Manning, M L; Yunker, Peter J; Ellenbroek, Wouter G; Zhang, Zexin; Liu, Andrea J; Yodh, A G

    2011-09-02

    We investigate correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and rearrangements in two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of thermosensitive microgel particles, which readily permit variation of the sample packing fraction. At each packing fraction, the particle displacement covariance matrix is measured and used to extract the vibrational spectrum of the "shadow" colloidal glass (i.e., the particle network with the same geometry and interactions as the sample colloid but absent damping). Rearrangements are induced by successive, small reductions in the packing fraction. The experimental results suggest that low-frequency quasilocalized phonon modes in colloidal glasses, i.e., modes that present low energy barriers for system rearrangements, are spatially correlated with rearrangements in this thermal system.

  5. Quantum chemical study of agonist-receptor vibrational interactions for activation of the glutamate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, M; Odai, K; Sugimoto, T; Ito, E

    2001-06-01

    To understand the mechanism of activation of a receptor by its agonist, the excitation and relaxation processes of the vibrational states of the receptor should be examined. As a first approach to this problem, we calculated the normal vibrational modes of agonists (glutamate and kainate) and an antagonist (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: CNQX) of the glutamate receptor, and then investigated the vibrational interactions between kainate and the binding site of glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 by use of a semiempirical molecular orbital method (MOPAC2000-PM3). We found that two local vibrational modes of kainate, which were also observed in glutamate but not in CNQX, interacted through hydrogen bonds with the vibrational modes of GluR2: (i) the bending vibration of the amine group of kainate, interacting with the stretching vibration of the carboxyl group of Glu705 of GluR2, and (ii) the symmetric stretching vibration of the carboxyl group of kainate, interacting with the bending vibration of the guanidinium group of Arg485. We also found collective modes with low frequency at the binding site of GluR2 in the kainate-bound state. The vibrational energy supplied by an agonist may flow from the high-frequency local modes to the low-frequency collective modes in a receptor, resulting in receptor activation.

  6. Influence of bending mode on the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium archwires and correlation to differential scanning calorimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchli, Lorenz M; Keller, Heidi; Senn, Christiane; Wichelhaus, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires are used with bonded appliances for initial leveling. However, precise bending of these archwires is difficult and can lead to changes within the crystal structure of the alloy, thus changing the mechanical properties unpredictably. The aim of this study was to evaluate different bending methods in relation to the subsequent mechanical characteristics of the alloy. The mechanical behaviors of 3 archwires (Copper NiTi 35°C [Ormco, Glendora, Calif], Neo Sentalloy F 80 [GAC International, Bohemia, NY], and Titanol Low Force [Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany]) were investigated after heat-treatment in a dental furnace at 550-650°C, treatment with an electrical current (Memory-Maker, Forestadent), and cold forming. In addition, the change in A(f) temperature was registered by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Heat-treatment in the dental furnace as well as with the Memory-Maker led to widely varying force levels for each product. Cold forming resulted in similar or slightly reduced force levels when compared to the original state of the wires. A(f) temperatures were in general inversely proportional to force levels. Archwire shape can be modified by using either chair-side technique (Memory-Maker, cold forming) because the superelastic behavior of the archwires is not strongly affected. However it is important to know the specific changes in force levels induced for each individual archwire with heat-treatment. Cold forming resulted in more predictable forces for all products tested. Therefore, cold forming is recommended as a chair-side technique for the shaping of NiTi archwires. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. USE OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION AS A MODE OF WARMING UP BEFORE COUNTER MOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Artero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV has been suggested to be particularly effective on the stretch-shortening cycle-based movements, such as the counter movement jump (CMJ test (Issurin, 2005. Nevertheless, the literature on short-term vibration exposure and lower limb explosive performance (measured by CMJ test is contradictory. Either transient improvements (Bosco et al., 2000; Cochrane and Stannard, 2005; Torvinen et al., 2002a or no effects (Torvinen et al., 2002b; Rittweger et al., 2003; Cormie et al., 2006 have been reported after a single WBV exposure ranging from 30 s to 10 min. The present study aimed at better characterizing the use of a single short bout of WBV as a mode of warming up before a CMJ test.A total of 114 university students (37 men, 77 women, aged 19.6 ± 2.0 years signed an informed consent form and volunteered to participate in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Review Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects of our center. Participants were asked to come to the laboratory in three occasions three days apart. First visit: familiarization session aiming to learn the CMJ technique and to experience the vibration stimulus. Second visit: the participants performed three consecutive CMJ with one min rest interval. No significant differences were observed among the jumps, and the highest score was retained. Third visit: the participants were exposed to a single short bout of WBV and immediately after they performed three CMJ with one min rest interval.An infrared contact timing platform (ERGO JUMP Plus - BOSCO SYSTEM, Byomedic, S.C.P., Barcelona, Spain was used to measure "flight" time (t during the vertical jump (accuracy 0.001 s. Maximum height achieved by the body centre of gravity (h was then estimated, i.e. h = g · t2 / 8, where g = 9.81 m/s2. In all occasions, the participants were instructed to abstain from strenuous exercise for the preceding 24 hours.Whole-body vibration was carried out on an oscillating

  8. New vibrational mode of the acoustic type in Nd(Pr)2 Cu O4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fil', D.V.; Kolobov, I.G.; Fil', V.D.; Barilo, S.N.; Zhigunov, D.I.

    1995-01-01

    Sound velocities along main symmetry directions as well as their angle dependences in (100),(110)-type planes are measured in Nd(Pr) 2 Cu O 4 . Anomalies in the angle dependences are found, which are interpreted as a result of the interaction of elastic vibrations with an additional plane mode of the acoustic type. According to the proposed interpretation, the bare spectrum of the additional mode is two-dimensional, and the origin of the mode is connected with the electron degrees of freedom in the Cu O 2 -planes. A phenomenological model for description of acoustic mode spectra in the investigated systems is proposed. On the basis of the anion model of HTSC, a possible microscopic scenario of the appearance of the additional mode is analyzed. In the framework of the phenomenological model, the Debye temperatures are computed, which are in agreement with the specific heat data. The values of the components of the elastic moduli tensor are given

  9. Spatially resolved localized vibrational mode spectroscopy of carbon in liquid encapsulated Czochralski grown gallium arsenide wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, Waifan.

    1988-04-01

    Substitutional carbon on an arsenic lattice site is the shallowest and one of the most dominant acceptors in semi-insulating Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs. However, the role of this acceptor in determining the well known ''W'' shape spatial variation of neutral EL2 concentration along the diameter of a LEC wafer is not known. In this thesis, we attempt to clarify the issue of the carbon acceptor's effect on this ''W'' shaped variation by measuring spatial profiles of this acceptor along the radius of three different as-grown LEC GaAs wafers. With localized vibrational mode absorption spectroscopy, we find that the profile of the carbon acceptor is relatively constant along the radius of each wafer. Average values of concentration are 8 x 10E15 cm -3 , 1.1 x 10E15 cm -3 , and 2.2 x 10E15 cm -3 , respectively. In addition, these carbon acceptor LVM measurements indicate that a residual donor with concentration comparable to carbon exists in these wafers and it is a good candidate for the observed neutral EL2 concentration variation. 22 refs., 39 figs

  10. Theory of the normal modes of vibrations in the lanthanide type crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Roberto; Soto-Bubert, Andres

    2008-11-01

    For the lanthanide type crystals, a vast and rich, though incomplete amount of experimental data has been accumulated, from linear and non linear optics, during the last decades. The main goal of the current research work is to report a new methodology and strategy to put forward a more representative approach to account for the normal modes of vibrations for a complex N-body system. For illustrative purposes, the chloride lanthanide type crystals Cs2NaLnCl6 have been chosen and we develop new convergence tests as well as a criterion to deal with the details of the F-matrix (potential energy matrix). A novel and useful concept of natural potential energy distributions (NPED) is introduced and examined throughout the course of this work. The diagonal and non diagonal contributions to these NPED-values, are evaluated for a series of these crystals explicitly. Our model is based upon a total of seventy two internal coordinates and ninety eight internal Hooke type force constants. An optimization mathematical procedure is applied with reference to the series of chloride lanthanide crystals and it is shown that the strategy and model adopted is sound from both a chemical and a physical viewpoints. We can argue that the current model is able to accommodate a number of interactions and to provide us with a very useful physical insight. The limitations and advantages of the current model and the most likely sources for improvements are discussed in detail.

  11. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed

  12. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States); Ge, Nien-Hui, E-mail: nhge@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.

  13. A high-quality factor of 267 000 micromechanical silicon resonator utilizing TED-free torsional vibration mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Naito, Y.; Onishi, K.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2012-12-01

    In industrial applications of a micromechanical silicon resonator as a physical sensor, a high-quality factor Q and a low-temperature coefficient of Q (TCQ) are required for high sensitivity in a wide temperature range. Although the newly developed thin film encapsulation technique enables a beam to operate with low viscous damping in a vacuum cavity, the Q of a flexural vibration mode is limited by thermo-elastic damping (TED). We proposed a torsional beam resonator which features both a high Q and a low TCQ because theoretically the torsional vibration mode does not suffer from TED. From experiments, Q of 267 000 and TCQ of 1.4 for the 20 MHz torsional vibration mode were observed which were superior to those of the flexural mode. The pressure of the residual gas in the cavity of only 20 pl volume, which is one of the energy loss factors limiting the Q, was successfully estimated to be 1-14 Pa. Finally, the possibilities of improving the Q and the difference of the measured TCQ from a theoretical value were discussed.

  14. A rotary piezoelectric actuator using longitudinal and bending hybrid transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A rotary piezoelectric actuator using bolt-clamped type transducer with double driving feet is proposed in this study. The first-order longitudinal and fourth-order bending vibration modes are superimposed in the actuator to produce elliptical movements on the driving tips. Longitudinal PZT and bending PZT are clamped between the exponential shape horns and the flange by bolts. The vibration shape changes of the actuator are presented to give a clear explanation of its working principle. Several structural parameters of the exponential shape horn are selected and adjusted to accomplish the tuning process of the longitudinal and bending resonance frequencies. The input impedance and vibration characteristics are calculated by using FEM method; the gained results verify the feasibility of the proposed actuator. After the fabrication of a prototype, its vibration characteristics are measured by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer; the tested results are in good agreement with the FEM calculated results. The mechanical output performance experiments state that the prototype achieves a maximum speed of 129 r/min and a maximum torque of 1.5 Nm.

  15. A Study of Bending Mode Algorithm of Adaptive Front-Lighting System Based on Driver Preview Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhai Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of adaptive front-lighting system is to improve the lighting condition of the road ahead and driving safety at night. The current system seldom considers characteristics of the driver’s preview behavior and eye movement. To solve this problem, an AFS algorithm modeling a driver’s preview behavior was proposed. According to the vehicle’s state, the driver’s manipulating input, and the vehicle’s future state change which resulted from the driver’s input, a dynamic predictive algorithm of the vehicle’s future track was established based on an optimal preview acceleration model. Then, an experiment on the change rule of the driver’s preview distance with different speeds and different road curvatures was implemented with the eye tracker and the calibration method of the driver’s preview time was established. On the basis of these above theories and experiments, the preview time was introduced to help predict the vehicle’s future track and an AFS algorithm modeling the driver’s preview behavior was built. Finally, a simulation analysis of the AFS algorithm was carried out. By analyzing the change process of the headlamp’s lighting region while bend turning which was controlled by the algorithm, its control effect was verified to be precise.

  16. Segmentation of a Vibro-Shock Cantilever-Type Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Operating in Higher Transverse Vibration Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Zizys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric transduction mechanism is a common vibration-to-electric energy harvesting approach. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are typically mounted on a vibrating host structure, whereby alternating voltage output is generated by a dynamic strain field. A design target in this case is to match the natural frequency of the harvester to the ambient excitation frequency for the device to operate in resonance mode, thus significantly increasing vibration amplitudes and, as a result, energy output. Other fundamental vibration modes have strain nodes, where the dynamic strain field changes sign in the direction of the cantilever length. The paper reports on a dimensionless numerical transient analysis of a cantilever of a constant cross-section and an optimally-shaped cantilever with the objective to accurately predict the position of a strain node. Total effective strain produced by both cantilevers segmented at the strain node is calculated via transient analysis and compared to the strain output produced by the cantilevers segmented at strain nodes obtained from modal analysis, demonstrating a 7% increase in energy output. Theoretical results were experimentally verified by using open-circuit voltage values measured for the cantilevers segmented at optimal and suboptimal segmentation lines.

  17. Direct assignment of molecular vibrations via normal mode analysis of the neutron dynamic pair distribution function technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry-Petit, A. M.; Sheckelton, J. P.; McQueen, T. M.; Rebola, A. F.; Fennie, C. J.; Mourigal, M.; Valentine, M.; Drichko, N.

    2015-01-01

    For over a century, vibrational spectroscopy has enhanced the study of materials. Yet, assignment of particular molecular motions to vibrational excitations has relied on indirect methods. Here, we demonstrate that applying group theoretical methods to the dynamic pair distribution function analysis of neutron scattering data provides direct access to the individual atomic displacements responsible for these excitations. Applied to the molecule-based frustrated magnet with a potential magnetic valence-bond state, LiZn 2 Mo 3 O 8 , this approach allows direct assignment of the constrained rotational mode of Mo 3 O 13 clusters and internal modes of MoO 6 polyhedra. We anticipate that coupling this well known data analysis technique with dynamic pair distribution function analysis will have broad application in connecting structural dynamics to physical properties in a wide range of molecular and solid state systems

  18. Superconducting electron tunneling as detection method for low frequency resonant vibration modes of interstitials in fcc lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of crystal defects on the phonon spectra was studied for fcc lead using superconducting tunneling spectroscopy. The theory predicts low frequency modes for the vibrational states of interstitials in (100) dumbbell configuration. Low temperature irradiation of superconducting point contacts with fast ions (point contact thickness small compared to the average ion range) showed radiation-induced structures in the low-energy part of the Eliashberg function for lead. These resonant modes are reduced by annealing at 18.5 K; they are attributed to small interstitial clusters. The radiation-induced structures are completely removed by room temperature annealing. (orig.)

  19. Simultaneous measurements of global vibrational spectra and dephasing times of molecular vibrational modes by broadband time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jun; Yu Ling-Yao; Liu Xing; Wan Hui; Lin Zi-Yang; Niu Han-Ben

    2011-01-01

    In broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy with supercontinuum (SC), the simultaneously detectable spectral coverage is limited by the spectral continuity and the simultaneity of various spectral components of SC in an enough bandwidth. By numerical simulations, the optimal experimental conditions for improving the SC are obtained. The broadband time-resolved CARS spectrography based on the SC with required temporal and spectral distributions is realised. The global molecular vibrational spectrum with well suppressed nonresonant background noise can be obtained in a single measurement. At the same time, the measurements of dephasing times of various molecular vibrational modes can be conveniently achieved from intensities of a sequence of time-resolved CARS signals. It will be more helpful to provide a complete picture of molecular vibrations, and to exhibit a potential to understand not only both the solvent dynamics and the solute-solvent interactions, but also the mechanisms of chemical reactions in the fields of biology, chemistry and material science. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Nonlinear generation of non-acoustic modes by low-frequency sound in a vibrationally relaxing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelomova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Two dynamic equations referring to a weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive flow of a gas in which molecular vibrational relaxation takes place, are derived. The first one governs an excess temperature associated with the thermal mode, and the second one describes variations in vibrational energy. Both quantities refer to non-wave types of gas motion. These variations are caused by the nonlinear transfer of acoustic energy into thermal mode and internal vibrational degrees of freedom of a relaxing gas. The final dynamic equations are instantaneous; they include a quadratic nonlinear acoustic source, reflecting the nonlinear character of interaction of low-frequency acoustic and non-acoustic motions of the fluid. All types of sound, periodic or aperiodic, may serve as an acoustic source of both phenomena. The low-frequency sound is considered in this study. Some conclusions about temporal behavior of non-acoustic modes caused by periodic and aperiodic sound are made. Under certain conditions, acoustic cooling takes place instead of heating. (author)

  1. Hybrid PD and effective multi-mode positive position feedback control for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Jun-qiang; Wei, Yan-ding; Yang, Yi-ling; Xie, Feng-ran

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid control strategy for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator is presented in this paper. It consists of a proportional derivative controller to realize motion control, and an effective multi-mode positive position feedback (EMPPF) controller to suppress the multi-mode vibration. Rather than treat each mode equally as the standard multi-mode PPF, the essence of the EMPPF is that control forces of different modes are applied according to the mode parameters of the respective modes, so the vibration modes with less vibration energy receive fewer control forces. Stability conditions for the close loop system are established through stability analysis. Optimal parameters of the EMPPF controller are obtained using the method of root locus analysis. The performance of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. Experimental results show that the first two vibration modes of the manipulator are effectively suppressed. The setting time of the setup descends approximately 55%, reaching 3.12 s from 5.67 s. (paper)

  2. Hybrid PD and effective multi-mode positive position feedback control for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jun-qiang; Wei, Yan-ding; Yang, Yi-ling; Xie, Feng-ran

    2015-03-01

    A hybrid control strategy for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator is presented in this paper. It consists of a proportional derivative controller to realize motion control, and an effective multi-mode positive position feedback (EMPPF) controller to suppress the multi-mode vibration. Rather than treat each mode equally as the standard multi-mode PPF, the essence of the EMPPF is that control forces of different modes are applied according to the mode parameters of the respective modes, so the vibration modes with less vibration energy receive fewer control forces. Stability conditions for the close loop system are established through stability analysis. Optimal parameters of the EMPPF controller are obtained using the method of root locus analysis. The performance of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. Experimental results show that the first two vibration modes of the manipulator are effectively suppressed. The setting time of the setup descends approximately 55%, reaching 3.12 s from 5.67 s.

  3. Studies of interstellar vibrationally-excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziurys, L.M.; Snell, R.L.; Erickson, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    Several molecules thus far have been detected in the ISM in vibrationally-excited states, including H 2 , SiO, HC 3 N, and CH 3 CN. In order for vibrational-excitation to occur, these species must be present in unusually hot and dense gas and/or where strong infrared radiation is present. In order to do a more thorough investigation of vibrational excitation in the interstellar medium (ISM), studies were done of several mm-wave transitions originating in excited vibrational modes of HCN, an abundant interstellar molecule. Vibrationally-excited HCN was recently detected toward Orion-KL and IRC+10216, using a 12 meter antenna. The J=3-2 rotational transitions were detected in the molecule's lowest vibrational state, the bending mode, which is split into two separate levels, due to l-type doubling. This bending mode lies 1025K above ground state, with an Einstein A coefficient of 3.6/s. The J=3-2 line mode of HCN, which lies 2050K above ground state, was also observed toward IRC+10216, and subsequently in Orion-KL. Further measurements of vibrationally-excited HCN were done using a 14 meter telescope, which include the observations of the (0,1,0) and (0,2,0) modes towards Orion-KL, via their J=3-2 transitions at 265-267 GHz. The spectrum of the J=3-2 line in Orion taken with the 14 meter telescope, is shown, along with a map, which indicates that emission from vibrationally-excited HCN arises from a region probably smaller than the 14 meter telescope's 20 arcsec beam

  4. Bending force constant of gamma-ray irradiated NaNO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwun, S.I.; Allavena, M.

    1976-01-01

    The origin of the new peak appearing near the ν 2 i.r. absorption band of the NO 2 - group in γ-ray irradiated NaNO 2 ferroelectric crystal is explained by using a model which assumes that some of the Na + ions are displaced from their original sites after irradiation, perturbing the vibrational motion of NO 2 - . In this framework, the bending force constant of the perturbed NO 2 - group is calculated using a modified version of the CNDO/2 method, which can take into account the environmental effects on the local crystal site considered. The values of the bending force constant of virginal and irradiated NaNO 2 obtained are 1.19 md/A and 1.27 md/A respectively. The vibrational bending mode of the perturbed NO 2 - groups seems responsible for the additional i.r. absorption band observed experimentally at 835 cm -1 . (author)

  5. Electrical Characteristics of the Contour-Vibration-Mode Piezoelectric Transformer with Ring/Dot Electrode Area Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Juhyun; Yoon, Kwanghee; Lee, Yongwoo; Suh, Sungjae; Kim, Jongsun; Yoo, Chungsik

    2000-05-01

    Contour-vibration-mode Pb(Sb1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 [PSN-PZT] piezoelectric transformers with different ring/dot electrode area ratios were fabricated to the size of 27.5× 27.5× 2.5 mm3 by cold isostatic pressing. The electrical properties and characteristic temperature rises caused by the vibration were measured at various load resistances. Efficiencies above 90% with load resistance were obtained from all the transformers. The voltage step-up ratio appeared to be proportional to the dot electrode area. A 14 W fluorescent lamp, T5, was successfully driven by all of the fabricated transformers. The transformer with ring/dot electrode area ratio of 4.85 exhibited the best properties in terms of output power, efficiency and characteristic temperature rise, 14.88 W, 98% and 5°C, respectively.

  6. THE ν8 BENDING MODE OF DIACETYLENE: FROM LABORATORY SPECTROSCOPY TO THE DETECTION OF 13C ISOTOPOLOGUES IN TITAN'S ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, A.; Benilan, Y.; Fayt, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    The strong ν 8 band of diacetylene at 627.9 cm -1 has been investigated to improve the spectroscopic line data used to model the observations, particularly in Titan's atmosphere by Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Spectra have first been recorded in the laboratory at 0.5 and 0.1 cm -1 resolution and temperature as low as 193 K. Previous analysis and line lists present in the GEISA database appeared to be insufficient to model the measured spectra in terms of intensity and hot band features. To improve the situation and in order to be able to take into account all rovibrational transitions with a non-negligible intensity, a global analysis of C 4 H 2 has been carried out to improve the description of the energy levels up to E v = 1900 cm -1 . The result is a new extensive line list which enables us to model very precisely the temperature variation as well as the numerous hot band features observed in the laboratory spectra. One additional feature, observed at 622.3 cm -1 , was assigned to the ν 6 mode of a 13 C isotopologue of diacetylene. The ν 8 bands of both 13 C isotopomers were also identified in the 0.1 cm -1 resolution spectrum. Finally, a 13 C/C 4 H 2 line list was added to the model for comparison with the observed spectra of Titan. We obtain a clear detection of 13 C monosubstituted diacetylene at 622.3 cm -1 and 627.5 cm -1 (blended ν 8 bands), deriving a mean 12 C/ 13 C isotopic ratio of 90 ± 8. This value agrees with the terrestrial (89.4, inorganic standard) and giant planet values (88 ± 7), but is only marginally consistent with the bulk carbon value in Titan's atmosphere, measured in CH 4 by Huygens GCMS to be 82 ± 1, indicating that isotopic fractionation during chemical processing may be occurring, as suggested for ethane formation.

  7. Various vibration modes in a silicon ring resonator driven by p–n diode actuators formed in the lateral direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Takafumi; Asahi, Yoichi; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Furutsuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenichiro

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we describe p–n diode actuators that are formed in the lateral direction on resonators. Because previously reported p–n diode actuators, which were driven by a force parallel to the electrostatic force induced in a p–n diode, were fabricated in the perpendicular direction to the surface, the fabrication process to satisfy the requirement of realizing a p–n junction set in the middle of the plate thickness has been difficult. The resonators in this work are driven by p–n diodes formed in the lateral direction, making the process easy. We have fabricated a silicon ring resonator that has in-plane vibration using p–n–p and n–p–n diode actuators formed in the lateral direction. First, we consider a space charge model that can sufficiently accurately describe the force induced in p–n diode actuators and compare it with the capacitance model used in most computer simulations. Then, we show that multiplying the vibration amplitude calculated by computer simulation by the modification coefficient of 4/3 provides the vibration amplitude in the p–n diode actuators. Good agreement of the theory with experimental results of the in-plane vibration measured for silicon ring resonators is obtained. The computer simulation is very useful for evaluating various vibration modes in resonators driven by the p–n diode actuators. The small amplitude of the p–n diode actuator measured in this work is expected to increase greatly with increased doping of the actuator.

  8. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2013-08-01

    We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester Cdbnd O and diazo Ndbnd N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single Cdbnd O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.

  9. Ultrasensitive Broadband Probing of Molecular Vibrational Modes with Multifrequency Optical Antennas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aouani, H.; Šípová, Hana; Rahmani, M.; Navarro-Cia, M.; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Homola, Jiří; Hong, M.; Maier, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2013), s. 669-675 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11102 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : plasmonic * nanoantenna * vibrational spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 12.033, year: 2013

  10. A Novel Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using First Bending Hybrid Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel rotary piezoelectric motor using bending transducers in this work. Three transducers are used to drive a disk-shaped rotor together by the elliptical movements of their driving tips; these motions are produced by the hybrid of two first bending vibration modes. The proposed piezoelectric transducer has a simple structure as it only contains an aluminum alloy beam and four pieces of PZT plates. Symmetrical structure is the only necessary condition in the design process as it will ensure the resonance frequencies of the two orthogonal first bending modes are equal. Transducers with first bending resonance frequency of about 53 kHz were fabricated and assembled into a rotary motor. The proposed motor exhibits good performance on speed and torque control. Under a working frequency of 53.2 kHz, the maximum no-load speed and the maximum torque of the prototype are tested to be 53.3 rpm and of 27 mN·m.

  11. Bending localization of nitrous oxide under anharmonicity and Fermi coupling: the dynamical potential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Wu Guo-Zhen; Fang Chao

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the vibrational nonlinear dynamics of nitrous oxide with Fermi coupling between the symmetric stretching and bending coordinates by classical dynamical potential approach. This is a global approach in the sense that the overall dynamics is evidenced by the classical nonlinear variables such as the fixed points and the focus are on a set of levels instead of individual ones. The dynamics of nitrous oxide is demonstrated to be not so much dependent on the excitation energy. Moreover, the localized bending mode is shown to be ubiquitous in all the energy range studied

  12. Revealing silent vibration modes of nanomaterials by detecting anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering with femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianhua; Chen, Lei; Dai, Qiaofeng; Lan, Sheng; Tie, Shaolong

    2016-01-21

    We proposed a scheme in which normal Raman scattering is coupled with hyper-Raman scattering for generating a strong anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering in nanomaterials by using femtosecond laser pulses. The proposal was experimentally demonstrated by using a single-layer MoS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate, a 17 nm-thick MoS2 on an Au/SiO2 substrate and a 9 nm-thick MoS2 on a SiO2-SnO2/Ag/SiO2 substrate which were confirmed to be highly efficient for second harmonic generation. A strong anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering was also observed in other nanomaterials possessing large second-order susceptibilities, such as silicon quantum dots self-assembled into "coffee" rings and tubular Cu-doped ZnO nanorods. In all the cases, many Raman inactive vibration modes were clearly revealed in the anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering. Apart from the strong anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering, Stokes hyper-Raman scattering with small Raman shifts was detected during the ablation process of thick MoS2 layers. It was also observed by slightly defocusing the excitation light. The detection of anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering may serve as a new technique for studying the Raman inactive vibration modes in nanomaterials.

  13. Dissociation pathways of a single dimethyl disulfide on Cu(111): Reaction induced by simultaneous excitation of two vibrational modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motobayashi, Kenta, E-mail: kmotobayashi@cat.hokudai.ac.jp [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Kim, Yousoo [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Arafune, Ryuichi [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Ohara, Michiaki; Ueba, Hiromu; Kawai, Maki, E-mail: maki@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-05-21

    We present a novel reaction mechanism for a single adsorbed molecule that proceeds via simultaneous excitation of two different vibrational modes excited by inelastic tunneling electrons from a scanning tunneling microscope. Specifically, we analyze the dissociation of a single dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, (CH{sub 3}S){sub 2}) molecule on Cu(111) by using a versatile theoretical method, which permits us to simulate reaction rates as a function of sample bias voltage. The reaction is induced by the excitation of C-H stretch and S-S stretch modes by a two-electron process at low positive bias voltages. However, at increased voltages, the dissociation becomes a single-electron process that excites a combination mode of these stretches, where excitation of the C-H stretch is the energy source and excitation of the S-S stretch mode enhances the anharmonic coupling rate. A much smaller dissociation yield (few orders of magnitude) at negative bias voltages is understood in terms of the projected density of states of a single DMDS on Cu(111), which reflects resonant excitation through the molecular orbitals.

  14. Fermi resonance effects on the vibration modes of hydrogen-passivated boron in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, G.D.; Fowler, W.B.; Deleo, G.G.; Stavola, M.; Kozuch, D.M.; Pearton, S.J.; Lopata, J.

    1990-01-01

    10 B - 11 B isotope shifts have been reported recently for the vibrational frequencies of hydrogen (H) and its isotope deuterium (D) in the H-B complex in silicon. The D- 10 B-D 11 B shift was found to be anomalously large. The authors show that this effect finds a natural explanation in a phenomenon called Fermi resonance, arising from a weak anharmonic coupling between the second harmonic of the transverse B vibration and the longitudinal D vibration. The authors present a simple classical explanation of the effect in terms of a parametric oscillator, or a child pumping a swing. They outline a simple quantum mechanical treatment that provides a satisfactory quantitative explanation of the results. The author's calculations also predict infrared absorption at the boron second harmonic frequencies. These are observed for both 10 B and 11 B with intensities and polarization as predicted, providing direct confirmation of the interpretation. The Pankove Si-H-B model, therefore, remains intact

  15. Automatic vibration mode selection and excitation; combining modal filtering with autoresonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Solomon; Bucher, Izhak

    2018-02-01

    Autoresonance is a well-known nonlinear feedback method used for automatically exciting a system at its natural frequency. Though highly effective in exciting single degree of freedom systems, in its simplest form it lacks a mechanism for choosing the mode of excitation when more than one is present. In this case a single mode will be automatically excited, but this mode cannot be chosen or changed. In this paper a new method for automatically exciting a general second-order system at any desired natural frequency using Autoresonance is proposed. The article begins by deriving a concise expression for the frequency of the limit cycle induced by an Autoresonance feedback loop enclosed on the system. The expression is based on modal decomposition, and provides valuable insight into the behavior of a system controlled in this way. With this expression, a method for selecting and exciting a desired mode naturally follows by combining Autoresonance with Modal Filtering. By taking various linear combinations of the sensor signals, by orthogonality one can "filter out" all the unwanted modes effectively. The desired mode's natural frequency is then automatically reflected in the limit cycle. In experiment the technique has proven extremely robust, even if the amplitude of the desired mode is significantly smaller than the others and the modal filters are greatly inaccurate.

  16. Franck-Condon fingerprinting of vibration-tunneling spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Eduardo; Sundaradevan, Praveen; Gruebele, Martin

    2013-08-15

    We introduce Franck-Condon fingerprinting as a method for assigning complex vibration-tunneling spectra. The B̃ state of thiophosgene (SCCl2) serves as our prototype. Despite several attempts, assignment of its excitation spectrum has proved difficult because of near-degenerate vibrational frequencies, Fermi resonance between the C-Cl stretching mode and the Cl-C-Cl bending mode, and large tunneling splittings due to the out-of-plane umbrella mode. Hence, the spectrum has never been fitted to an effective Hamiltonian. Our assignment approach replaces precise frequency information with intensity information, eliminating the need for double resonance spectroscopy or combination differences, neither of which have yielded a full assignment thus far. The dispersed fluorescence spectrum of each unknown vibration-tunneling state images its character onto known vibrational progressions in the ground state. By using this Franck-Condon fingerprint, we were able to determine the predominant character of several vibration-tunneling states and assign them; in other cases, the fingerprinting revealed that the states are strongly mixed and cannot be characterized with a simple normal mode assignment. The assigned transitions from vibration-tunneling wave functions that were not too strongly mixed could be fitted within measurement uncertainty by an effective vibration-tunneling Hamiltonian. A fit of all observed vibration-tunneling states will require a full resonance-tunneling Hamiltonian.

  17. Vibrational dynamics of adsorbed CO2: Separability of the CO2 asymmetric stretching mode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bludský, Ota; Nachtigall, Petr; Špirko, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 6 (2011), s. 669-682 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GAP208/11/0436; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10032 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT-II(LH)-CH022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adsorption of CO2 * vibrational dynamics * DFT calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  18. Does quantum mechanics select out regularity and local mode behaviour in nonlinearly coupled vibrational systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, E.; Brickmann, J.

    1990-01-01

    A two dimensional strongly nonharmonic vibrational system with nonlinear intermode coupling is studied both classically and quantum mechanically. The system was chosen such that there is a low lying transition (in energy) from a region where almost all trajectories move regularly to a region where chaotic dynamics strongly dominates. The corresponding quantum system is far away from the semiclassical limit. The eigenfunctions are calculated with high precision according to a linear variational scheme using conveniently chosen basis functions. It is the aim of this paper to check whether the prediction from semiclassical theory, namely that the measure of classically chaotic trajectories in phase space approaches the measure of irregular states in corresponding energy ranges, holds when the system is not close to the classical limit. It is also the aim to identify individual eigenfunctions with respect to regularity and to differentiate between local and normal vibrational states. It is found that there are quantitative and also qualitative differences between the quantum results and the semiclassical predictions. (orig./HK)

  19. Vibrational modes of isolated substitution impurities in twelve compounds AN B8-N with the blende structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumelle, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    We have studied a particular point defect, the isolated substitution in twelve compounds CuCl, CuBr, CuI, ZnTe, CdTe, ZnS, ZnSe, GaAs, GaP, InSb, InP and GaSb. The model of the perfect lattice is a rigid ion model with eleven parameters. Infrared localized vibrational modes of impurities are observed in a series of samples. By comparison of these experimental results with the calculated values it is possible to determine the perturbation for each particular case. A relation obtained between a force constant of the perfect crystal and the force constant of the impurity suggests that no change is introduced by the isoelectronic impurities. (author) [fr

  20. Spectral intensities in cubic systems. I. Progressions based upon parity vibrational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, R.; Vasquez, S.O.; Meruane, T.; Poblete, V.; Pozo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The well-resolved emission and absorption spectra of centrosymmetric coordination compounds of the transition metal ions have been used widely to provide the experimental data against which to test theoretical models of vibronic intensities. With reference to the 2 E g → 4 A 2g luminescence transition, at a perfect octahedral site in Cs 2 SiF 6 , over than one hundred vibronic lines are observed with line widths of a few wavenumber spread over some 3000 cm -1 . This paper reports a through examination of both the electronic and vibrational factors, which influences the observed vibronic intensities of the various assigned and identified lines in the spectra of the MnF 6 2- complex ion in the Cs 2 SiF 6 cubic lattice. The origin and nature of higher order vibronic interactions are analysed on the basis of a symmetrized vibronic crystal field-ligand polarization model. (Author)

  1. Vibrational Mode-Specific Reaction of Methane on a Nickel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Rainer D.; Maroni, Plinio; Papageorgopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Dang, Tung T.; Schmid, Mathieu P.; Rizzo, Thomas R.

    2003-10-01

    The dissociation of methane on a nickel catalyst is a key step in steam reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production. Despite substantial effort in both experiment and theory, there is still no atomic-scale description of this important gas-surface reaction. We report quantum state-resolved studies, using pulsed laser and molecular beam techniques, of vibrationally excited methane reacting on the nickel (100) surface. For doubly deuterated methane (CD2H2), we observed that the reaction probability with two quanta of excitation in one C-H bond was greater (by as much as a factor of 5) than with one quantum in each of two C-H bonds. These results clearly exclude the possibility of statistical models correctly describing the mechanism of this process and attest to the importance of full-dimensional calculations of the reaction dynamics.

  2. H infinity controller design to a rigid-flexible satellite with two vibration modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, A G; De Souza, L C G

    2015-01-01

    The satellite attitude control system (ACS) design becomes more complex when the satellite structure has components like, flexible solar panels, antennas and mechanical manipulators. These flexible structures can interact with the satellite rigid parts during translational and/or rotational manoeuvre damaging the ACS pointing accuracy. Although, a well-designed controller can suppress such disturbances quickly, the controller error pointing may be limited by the minimum time necessary to suppress such disturbances thus affecting the satellite attitude acquisition. This paper deals with the rigid-flexible satellite ACS design using the H infinity method. The rigid-flexible satellite is represented by a beam connected to a central rigid hub at one end and free at the other one. The equations of motions are obtained considering small flexible deformations and the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis. The results of the simulations have shown that the H-infinity controller was able to control the rigid motion and suppress the vibrations. (paper)

  3. Effect of cobratoxin binding on the normal mode vibration within acetylcholine binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaccini, Edward J; Lindahl, Erik; Sixma, Titia; Trudell, James R

    2008-04-01

    Recent crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) have revealed surprisingly small structural alterations upon ligand binding. Here we investigate the extent to which ligand binding may affect receptor dynamics. AChBP is a homologue of the extracellular component of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). We have previously used an elastic network normal-mode analysis to propose a gating mechanism for the LGICs and to suggest the effects of various ligands on such motions. However, the difficulties with elastic network methods lie in their inability to account for the modest effects of a small ligand or mutation on ion channel motion. Here, we report the successful application of an elastic network normal mode technique to measure the effects of large ligand binding on receptor dynamics. The present calculations demonstrate a clear alteration in the native symmetric motions of a protein due to the presence of large protein cobratoxin ligands. In particular, normal-mode analysis revealed that cobratoxin binding to this protein significantly dampened the axially symmetric motion of the AChBP that may be associated with channel gating in the full nAChR. The results suggest that alterations in receptor dynamics could be a general feature of ligand binding.

  4. Influence of the vibration source location on the modes of jet disintegration in the priller and on monodispersity of the finished product

    OpenAIRE

    Skydanenko, Maksym; Kononenko, Mykola; Kurdes, Yuliia

    2017-01-01

    Influence of the vibration source location on the modes of liquid jets disintegration and obtaining monodisperse droplets and granules of the finished product is theoretically grounded and experimentally confirmed. The experiment was conducted on an experimental stand of industrial granulation equipment.

  5. Structural Characteristics of Rotate Vector Reducer Free Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For RV reducer widely used in robots, vibration significantly affects its performance. A lumped parameter model is developed to investigate free vibration characteristics without and with gyroscopic effects. The dynamic model considers key factors affecting vibration such as involute and cycloid gear mesh stiffness, crankshaft bending stiffness, and bearing stiffness. For both nongyroscopic and gyroscopic systems, free vibrations are examined and compared with each other. Results reveal the specific structure of vibration modes for both systems, which results from symmetry structure of RV reducer. According to vibration of the central components, vibration modes of two systems can be classified into three types, rotational, translational, and planetary component modes. Different from nongyroscopic system, the eigenvalues with gyroscopic effects are complex-valued and speed-dependent. The eigenvalue for a range of carrier speeds is obtained by numerical simulation. Divergence and flutter instability is observed at speeds adjacent to critical speeds. Furthermore, the work studies effects of key factors, which include crankshaft eccentricity and the number of pins, on eigenvalues. Finally, experiment is performed to verify the effectiveness of the dynamic model. The research of this paper is helpful for the analysis on free vibration and dynamic design of RV reducer.

  6. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma and bacteria: understanding the mode of action using vibrational microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartaschew, Konstantin; Mischo, Meike; Bründermann, Erik; Havenith, Martina; Baldus, Sabrina; Awakowicz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma show promising antimicrobial effects, however the detailed biochemical mechanism of the bacterial inactivation is still unknown. We investigated, for the first time, plasma-treated Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria with Raman and infrared microspectroscopy. A dielectric barrier discharge was used as a plasma source. We were able to detect several plasma-induced chemical modifications, which suggest a pronounced oxidative effect on the cell envelope, cellular proteins and nucleotides as well as a generation of organic nitrates in the treated bacteria. Vibrational microspectroscopy is used as a comprehensive and a powerful tool for the analysis of plasma interactions with whole organisms such as bacteria. Analysis of reaction kinetics of chemical modifications allow a time-dependent insight into the plasma-mediated impact. Investigating possible synergistic effects between the plasma-produced components, our observations strongly indicate that the detected plasma-mediated chemical alterations can be mainly explained by the particle effect of the generated reactive species. By changing the polarity of the applied voltage pulse, and hence the propagation mechanisms of streamers, no significant effect on the spectral results could be detected. This method allows the analysis of the individual impact of each plasma constituent for particular chemical modifications. Our approach shows great potential to contribute to a better understanding of plasma-cell interactions. (paper)

  7. Vibrational Mode-Specific Reaction of Methane with a Nickel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Rainer

    2004-03-01

    The dissociation of methane on a nickel catalyst is a key step in steam reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production. Despite substantial effort in both experiment and theory, there is still no atomic scale description of this important gas-surface reaction. To elucidate its dynamics, we have performed quantum state resolved studies of vibrationally excited methane reacting on the Ni(100) surface using pulsed laser and molecular beam techniques. We observed up to a factor of 5 greater reaction probability for methane-d2 with two quanta of excitation in one C-H bond versus a nearly isoenergetic state with one quanta in each of two C-H bonds. The observed reactivities point to a transition state structure which has one of the C-H bonds significantly elongated. Our results also clearly exclude the possibility of statistical models correctly describing the mechanism of this process and emphasize the importance of full-dimensional calculations of the reaction dynamics.

  8. Spectral intensities in cubic systems. I. Progressions based upon parity vibrational modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, R.; Vasquez, S.O. [Department of Basic Chemistry, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Chile. Tupper 2069, Casilla 2777, Santiago, Chile (Chile); Meruane, T. [Department of Chemistry, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educacion. Av. J.P. Alessandri 774, Casilla 147, C. Santiago, Chile (Chile); Poblete, V. [Department of Nuclear Materials, Lo Aguirre, Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear. Amunategui 95, Casilla 188-D, Santiago, Chile (Chile); Pozo, J. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingenieria. Universidad Diego Portales. Casilla 298-V, Santiago, Chile (Chile)

    1998-12-01

    The well-resolved emission and absorption spectra of centrosymmetric coordination compounds of the transition metal ions have been used widely to provide the experimental data against which to test theoretical models of vibronic intensities. With reference to the {sup 2} E{sub g} {yields} {sup 4} A{sub 2g} luminescence transition, at a perfect octahedral site in Cs{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}, over than one hundred vibronic lines are observed with line widths of a few wavenumber spread over some 3000 cm{sup -1}. This paper reports a through examination of both the electronic and vibrational factors, which influences the observed vibronic intensities of the various assigned and identified lines in the spectra of the MnF{sub 6} {sup 2-} complex ion in the Cs{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} cubic lattice. The origin and nature of higher order vibronic interactions are analysed on the basis of a symmetrized vibronic crystal field-ligand polarization model. (Author)

  9. Study of vibrational modes and specific heat of wurtzite phase of BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Daljit, E-mail: daljit.jt@gmail.com; Sinha, M. M. [Department of Physics, SLIET, Longowal (India)

    2016-05-06

    In these days of nanotechnology the materials like BN is of utmost importance as in hexagonal phase it is among hardest materials. The phonon mode study of the materials is most important factor to find structural and thermodynamcal properties. To study the phonons de launey angular force (DAF) constant model is best suited as it involves many particle interactions. Therefore in this presentation we have studied the lattice dynamical properties and specific heat of BN in wurtzite phase using DAF model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with existing results.

  10. Study of vibrational modes and specific heat of wurtzite phase of BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Daljit; Sinha, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    In these days of nanotechnology the materials like BN is of utmost importance as in hexagonal phase it is among hardest materials. The phonon mode study of the materials is most important factor to find structural and thermodynamcal properties. To study the phonons de launey angular force (DAF) constant model is best suited as it involves many particle interactions. Therefore in this presentation we have studied the lattice dynamical properties and specific heat of BN in wurtzite phase using DAF model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with existing results.

  11. Chains of benzenes with lithium-atom adsorption: Vibrations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Yenni P.; Stegmann, Thomas; Klein, Douglas J.; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2017-09-01

    We study effects of different configurations of adsorbates on the vibrational modes as well as symmetries of polyacenes and poly-p-phenylenes focusing on lithium atom adsorption. We found that the spectra of the vibrational modes distinguish the different configurations. For more regular adsorption schemes the lowest states are bending and torsion modes of the skeleton, which are essentially followed by the adsorbate. On poly-p-phenylenes we found that lithium adsorption reduces and often eliminates the torsion between rings thus increasing symmetry. There is spontaneous symmetry breaking in poly-p-phenylenes due to double adsorption of lithium atoms on alternating rings.

  12. Control of input delayed pneumatic vibration isolation table using adaptive fuzzy sliding mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Khazaee

    Full Text Available AbstractPneumatic isolators are promising candidates for increasing the quality of accurate instruments. For this purpose, higher performance of such isolators is a prerequisite. In particular, the time-delay due to the air transmission is an inherent issue with pneumatic systems, which needs to be overcome using modern control methods. In this paper an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed to improve the performance of a pneumatic isolator in the low frequency range, i.e., where the passive techniques have obvious shortcomings. The main idea is to combine the adaptive fuzzy controller with adaptive predictor as a new time delay control technique. The adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control and the adaptive fuzzy predictor help to circumvent the input delay and nonlinearities in such isolators. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the closed-loop system stability is guaranteed under certain conditions. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method, compared with other existing time -delay control methods.

  13. Blind identification of full-field vibration modes from video measurements with phase-based video motion magnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Dorn, Charles; Mancini, Tyler; Talken, Zachary; Kenyon, Garrett; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2017-02-01

    user supervision and calibration. First a multi-scale image processing method is applied on the frames of the video of a vibrating structure to extract the local pixel phases that encode local structural vibration, establishing a full-field spatiotemporal motion matrix. Then a high-spatial dimensional, yet low-modal-dimensional, over-complete model is used to represent the extracted full-field motion matrix using modal superposition, which is physically connected and manipulated by a family of unsupervised learning models and techniques, respectively. Thus, the proposed method is able to blindly extract modal frequencies, damping ratios, and full-field (as many points as the pixel number of the video frame) mode shapes from line of sight video measurements of the structure. The method is validated by laboratory experiments on a bench-scale building structure and a cantilever beam. Its ability for output (video measurements)-only identification and visualization of the weakly-excited mode is demonstrated and several issues with its implementation are discussed.

  14. Vibrational modes of hydraulic fractures: Inference of fracture geometry from resonant frequencies and attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, Bradley P.; Dunham, Eric M.

    2015-02-01

    Oscillatory seismic signals arising from resonant vibrations of hydraulic fractures are observed in many geologic systems, including volcanoes, glaciers and ice sheets, and hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. To better quantify the physical dimensions of fluid-filled cracks and properties of the fluids within them, we study wave motion along a thin hydraulic fracture waveguide. We present a linearized analysis, valid at wavelengths greater than the fracture aperture, that accounts for quasi-static elastic deformation of the fracture walls, as well as fluid viscosity, inertia, and compressibility. In the long-wavelength limit, anomalously dispersed guided waves known as crack or Krauklis waves propagate with restoring force from fracture wall elasticity. At shorter wavelengths, the waves become sound waves within the fluid channel. Wave attenuation in our model is due to fluid viscosity, rather than seismic radiation from crack tips or fracture wall roughness. We characterize viscous damping at both low frequencies, where the flow is always fully developed, and at high frequencies, where the flow has a nearly constant velocity profile away from viscous boundary layers near the fracture walls. Most observable seismic signals from resonating fractures likely arise in the boundary layer crack wave limit, where fluid-solid coupling is pronounced and attenuation is minimal. We present a method to estimate the aperture and length of a resonating hydraulic fracture using both the seismically observed quality factor and characteristic frequency. Finally, we develop scaling relations between seismic moment and characteristic frequency that might be useful when interpreting the statistics of hydraulic fracture events.

  15. Fluidelastic instability of a tube bundle preferentially flexible in the flow direction to simulate u-bend in-plane vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.; Violette, R.; Mureithi, N.

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the available data about fluidelastic instability of heat exchanger tube bundles concerns tubes that are axisymetrically flexible. In those cases, the instability is found to be mostly in the direction transverse to the flow. Thus, the direction parallel to the flow has raised less concern in terms of bundle stability. However, the flat bar supports used in steam generators for preventing U-tubes vibration may not be as effective in the in-plane direction as in the out-of-plane direction. The possibility that fluidelastic instability can develop in the flow direction must then be assessed. In the present work, tests were done to study the fluidelastic instability of a cluster of seven tubes much more flexible in the flow direction than in the lift direction. The array configuration is rotated triangular with a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.5. The array was subjected to two-phase (air-water) cross flow. Well-defined fluidelastic instabilities were observed albeit at somewhat higher flow velocities than for axisymetrically flexible tubes. This so far unknown phenomenon may be of concern if some supports become ineffective in the in-plane direction. (author)

  16. Vibrational mode frequencies of silica species in SiO2-H2O liquids and glasses from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekermann, Georg; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Schmidt, Christian; Jahn, Sandro

    2012-04-21

    Vibrational spectroscopy techniques are commonly used to probe the atomic-scale structure of silica species in aqueous solution and hydrous silica glasses. However, unequivocal assignment of individual spectroscopic features to specific vibrational modes is challenging. In this contribution, we establish a connection between experimentally observed vibrational bands and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) of silica species in solution and in hydrous silica glass. Using the mode-projection approach, we decompose the vibrations of silica species into subspectra resulting from several fundamental structural subunits: The SiO(4) tetrahedron of symmetry T(d), the bridging oxygen (BO) Si-O-Si of symmetry C(2v), the geminal oxygen O-Si-O of symmetry C(2v), the individual Si-OH stretching, and the specific ethane-like symmetric stretching contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer. This allows us to study relevant vibrations of these subunits in any degree of polymerization, from the Q(0) monomer up to the fully polymerized Q(4) tetrahedra. Demonstrating the potential of this approach for supplementing the interpretation of experimental spectra, we compare the calculated frequencies to those extracted from experimental Raman spectra of hydrous silica glasses and silica species in aqueous solution. We discuss observed features such as the double-peaked contribution of the Q(2) tetrahedral symmetric stretch, the individual Si-OH stretching vibrations, the origin of the experimentally observed band at 970 cm(-1) and the ethane-like vibrational contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer at 870 cm(-1).

  17. Impact of acoustic airflow on intrasinus drug deposition: New insights into the vibrating mode and the optimal acoustic frequency to enhance the delivery of nebulized antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Merhie, Amira El; Navarro, Laurent; Prévôt, Nathalie; Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the impact of vibrating acoustic airflow, the high frequency (f≥100 Hz) and the low frequency (f≤45 Hz) sound waves, on the enhancement of intrasinus drug deposition. (81m)Kr-gas ventilation study was performed in a plastinated human cast with and without the addition of vibrating acoustic airflow. Similarly, intrasinus drug deposition in a nasal replica using gentamicin as a marker was studied with and without the superposition of different modes of acoustic airflow. Ventilation experiments demonstrate that no sinus ventilation was observed without acoustic airflow although sinus ventilation occurred whatever the modes of acoustic airflow applied. Intrasinus drug deposition experiments showed that the high frequency acoustic airflow led to 4-fold increase in gentamicin deposition into the left maxillary sinus and to 2-fold deposition increase into the right maxillary sinus. Besides, the low frequency acoustic airflow demonstrated a significant increase of 4-fold and 2-fold in the right and left maxillary sinuses, respectively. We demonstrated the benefit of different modes of vibrating acoustic airflow for maxillary sinus ventilation and intrasinus drug deposition. The degree of gentamicin deposition varies as a function of frequency of the vibrating acoustic airflow and the geometry of the ostia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Blind identification of full-field vibration modes of output-only structures from uniformly-sampled, possibly temporally-aliased (sub-Nyquist), video measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Dorn, Charles; Mancini, Tyler; Talken, Zachary; Nagarajaiah, Satish; Kenyon, Garrett; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2017-03-01

    Enhancing the spatial and temporal resolution of vibration measurements and modal analysis could significantly benefit dynamic modelling, analysis, and health monitoring of structures. For example, spatially high-density mode shapes are critical for accurate vibration-based damage localization. In experimental or operational modal analysis, higher (frequency) modes, which may be outside the frequency range of the measurement, contain local structural features that can improve damage localization as well as the construction and updating of the modal-based dynamic model of the structure. In general, the resolution of vibration measurements can be increased by enhanced hardware. Traditional vibration measurement sensors such as accelerometers have high-frequency sampling capacity; however, they are discrete point-wise sensors only providing sparse, low spatial sensing resolution measurements, while dense deployment to achieve high spatial resolution is expensive and results in the mass-loading effect and modification of structure's surface. Non-contact measurement methods such as scanning laser vibrometers provide high spatial and temporal resolution sensing capacity; however, they make measurements sequentially that requires considerable acquisition time. As an alternative non-contact method, digital video cameras are relatively low-cost, agile, and provide high spatial resolution, simultaneous, measurements. Combined with vision based algorithms (e.g., image correlation or template matching, optical flow, etc.), video camera based measurements have been successfully used for experimental and operational vibration measurement and subsequent modal analysis. However, the sampling frequency of most affordable digital cameras is limited to 30-60 Hz, while high-speed cameras for higher frequency vibration measurements are extremely costly. This work develops a computational algorithm capable of performing vibration measurement at a uniform sampling frequency lower than

  19. Coordenadas cartesianas moleculares a partir da geometria dos modos normais de vibração Molecular cartesian coordinates from vibrational normal modes geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Borges

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple method to obtain molecular Cartesian coordinates as a function of vibrational normal modes is presented in this work. The method does not require the definition of special matrices, like the F and G of Wilson, neither of group theory. The Eckart's conditions together with the diagonalization of kinetic and potential energy are the only required expressions. This makes the present approach appropriate to be used as a preliminary study for more advanced concepts concerning vibrational analysis. Examples are given for diatomic and triatomic molecules.

  20. 'Good Vibrations': A workshop on oscillations and normal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, Sara R.; Carpineti, Marina; Giliberti, Marco; Stellato, Marco; Rigon, Enrico; Tamborini, Marina

    2015-01-01

    We describe some theatrical strategies adopted in a two hour workshop in order to show some meaningful experiments and the underlying useful ideas to describe a secondary school path on oscillations, that develops from harmonic motion to normal modes of oscillations, and makes extensive use of video analysis, data logging, slow motions and applet simulations. Theatre is an extremely useful tool to stimulate motivation starting from positive emotions. That is the reason why the theatrical approach to the presentation of physical themes has been explored by the group 'Lo spettacolo della Fisica' (http://spettacolo.fisica.unimi.it) of the Physics Department of University of Milano for the last ten years (Carpineti et al., JCOM, 10 (2011) 1; Nuovo Cimento B, 121 (2006) 901) and has been inserted also in the European FP7 Project TEMI (Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated, see http://teachingmysteries.eu/en) which involves 13 different partners coming from 11 European countries, among which the Italian (Milan) group. According to the TEMI guidelines, this workshop has a written script based on emotionally engaging activities of presenting mysteries to be solved while participants have been involved in nice experiments following the developed path.

  1. A second, low-frequency mode of vibration in the intact mammalian cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashkin, Andrei N; Russell, Ian J

    2003-03-01

    The mammalian cochlea is a structure comprising a number of components connected by elastic elements. A mechanical system of this kind is expected to have multiple normal modes of oscillation and associated resonances. The guinea pig cochlear mechanics was probed using distortion components generated in the cochlea close to the place of overlap between two tones presented simultaneously. Otoacoustic emissions at frequencies of the distortion components were recorded in the ear canal. The phase behavior of the emissions reveals the presence of a nonlinear resonance at a frequency about a half octave below that of the high-frequency primary tone. The location of the resonance is level dependent and the resonance shifts to lower frequencies with increasing stimulus intensity. This resonance is thought to be associated with the tectorial membrane. The resonance tends to minimize input to the cochlear receptor cells at frequencies below the high-frequency primary and increases the dynamic load to the stereocilia of the receptor cells at the primary frequency when the tectorial membrane and reticular lamina move in counterphase.

  2. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  3. Research on the equivalent circuit model of a circular flexural-vibration-research on the equivalent circuit model of a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer with moderate thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yihua; Huang, Wenjin; Wang, Qinglei; Su, Xujian

    2013-07-01

    The equivalent circuit model of a piezoelectric transformer is useful in designing and optimizing the related driving circuits. Based on previous work, an equivalent circuit model for a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer with moderate thickness is proposed and validated by finite element analysis. The input impedance, voltage gain, and efficiency of the transformer are determined through computation. The basic behaviors of the transformer are shown by numerical results.

  4. Structural resonance and mode of flutter of hummingbird tail feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher J; Elias, Damian O; Girard, Madeline B; Prum, Richard O

    2013-09-15

    Feathers can produce sound by fluttering in airflow. This flutter is hypothesized to be aeroelastic, arising from the coupling of aerodynamic forces to one or more of the feather's intrinsic structural resonance frequencies. We investigated how mode of flutter varied among a sample of hummingbird tail feathers tested in a wind tunnel. Feather vibration was measured directly at ~100 points across the surface of the feather with a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV), as a function of airspeed, Uair. Most feathers exhibited multiple discrete modes of flutter, which we classified into types including tip, trailing vane and torsional modes. Vibratory behavior within a given mode was usually stable, but changes in independent variables such as airspeed or orientation sometimes caused feathers to abruptly 'jump' from one mode to another. We measured structural resonance frequencies and mode shapes directly by measuring the free response of 64 feathers stimulated with a shaker and recorded with the SLDV. As predicted by the aeroelastic flutter hypothesis, the mode shape (spatial distribution) of flutter corresponded to a bending or torsional structural resonance frequency of the feather. However, the match between structural resonance mode and flutter mode was better for tip or torsional mode shapes, and poorer for trailing vane modes. Often, the 3rd bending structural harmonic matched the expressed mode of flutter, rather than the fundamental. We conclude that flutter occurs when airflow excites one or more structural resonance frequencies of a feather, most akin to a vibrating violin string.

  5. Evaluation of coupling terms between intra- and intermolecular vibrations in coarse-grained normal-mode analysis: Does a stronger acid make a stiffer hydrogen bond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houjou, Hirohiko

    2011-10-01

    Using theory of harmonic normal-mode vibration analysis, we developed a procedure for evaluating the anisotropic stiffness of intermolecular forces. Our scheme for coarse-graining of molecular motions is modified so as to account for intramolecular vibrations in addition to relative translational/rotational displacement. We applied this new analytical scheme to four carboxylic acid dimers, for which coupling between intra- and intermolecular vibrations is crucial for determining the apparent stiffness of the intermolecular double hydrogen bond. The apparent stiffness constant was analyzed on the basis of a conjunct spring model, which defines contributions from true intermolecular stiffness and molecular internal stiffness. Consequently, the true intermolecular stiffness was in the range of 43-48 N m-1 for all carboxylic acids studied, regardless of the molecules' acidity. We concluded that the difference in the apparent stiffness can be attributed to differences in the internal stiffness of the respective molecules.

  6. A new method for evaluating the conformations and normal modes of macromolecule vibrations with a reduced force field. 2. Application to nonplanar distorted metal porphyrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, E.; Beck, M.; Lipski, R.J.; Dreybrodt, W.; Medforth, C.J.; Smith, K.M.; Schweitzer-Stenner, R.

    1999-11-11

    The authors have developed a novel method for molecular mechanics calculations and normal-mode analysis. It is based on symmetry of local units that constitutes the given molecule. Compared with general valence force field calculations, the number of free parameters is reduced by 40--80% in the procedure. It was found to reproduce very well the vibrational frequencies and mode compositions of aromatic compounds and porphyrins, as shown by comparison with DFT calculations. A slightly altered force field obtained from Ni(II) porphin was then used to calculate the structure and the normal modes of several meso-substituted Ni(II) porphyrins which are known to be subject to significant ruffling and/or saddling distortions. This method satisfactorily reproduces their nonplanar structure and Raman band frequencies in the natural abundance and isotopic derivative spectra. The polarization properties of bands from out-of-plane modes are in accordance with the predicted nonplanar distortions. Moreover, some of the modes below 800 cm{sup {minus}1} which appear intense in the Raman spectra contain considerable contributions from both in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations, so that the conventional mode assignments become questionable. The authors also demonstrate that the intensity and polarization of some low-frequency Raman bands can be used as a (quantitative) marker to elucidate type and magnitude of out-of-plane distortions. These were recently shown to affect heme groups of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and, in particular, of cytochrome c.

  7. Molecular Structures, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Normal-Mode Analysis of M(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) Dimetallatetraynes. Observation of Strongly Mixed Metal-Metal and Metal-Ligand Vibrational Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kevin D.; Miskowski, Vincent M.; Vance, Michael A.; Dallinger, Richard F.; Wang, Louis C.; Geib, Steven J.; Hopkins, Michael D.

    1998-12-28

    The nature of the skeletal vibrational modes of complexes of the type M(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) (M = Mo, W; R = H, Me, Bu(t)(), SiMe(3)) has been deduced. Metrical data from X-ray crystallographic studies of Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) (R = Me, Bu(t)(), SiMe(3)) and W(2)(C&tbd1;CMe)(4)(PMe(3))(4) reveal that the core bond distances and angles are within normal ranges and do not differ in a statistically significant way as a function of the alkynyl substituent, indicating that their associated force constants should be similarly invariant among these compounds. The crystal structures of Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CSiMe(3))(4)(PMe(3))(4) and Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CBu(t)())(4)(PMe(3))(4) are complicated by 3-fold disorder of the Mo(2) unit within apparently ordered ligand arrays. Resonance-Raman spectra ((1)(delta-->delta) excitation, THF solution) of Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CSiMe(3))(4)(PMe(3))(4) and its isotopomers (PMe(3)-d(9), C&tbd1;CSiMe(3)-d(9), (13)C&tbd1;(13)CSiMe(3)) exhibit resonance-enhanced bands due to a(1)-symmetry fundamentals (nu(a) = 362, nu(b) = 397, nu(c) = 254 cm(-)(1) for the natural-abundance complex) and their overtones and combinations. The frequencies and relative intensities of the fundamentals are highly sensitive to isotopic substitution of the C&tbd1;CSiMe(3) ligands, but are insensitive to deuteration of the PMe(3) ligands. Nonresonance-Raman spectra (FT-Raman, 1064 nm excitation, crystalline samples) for the Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CSiMe(3))(4)(PMe(3))(4) compounds and for Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) (R = H, D, Me, Bu(t)(), SiMe(3)) and W(2)(C&tbd1;CMe)(4)(PMe(3))(4) exhibit nu(a), nu(b), and nu(c) and numerous bands due to alkynyl- and phosphine-localized modes, the latter of which are assigned by comparisons to FT-Raman spectra of Mo(2)X(4)L(4) (X = Cl, Br, I; L = PMe(3), PMe(3)-d(9))(4) and Mo(2)Cl(4)(AsMe(3))(4). Valence force-field normal-coordinate calculations on the model compound Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CH)(4)P(4), using core force constants transferred from a calculation

  8. Effects of large bending deflections on blade flutter limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallesoee, Bjarne Skovmose; Hartvig Hansen, Morten

    2008-04-15

    The coupling of bending and torsion due to large blade bending are assumed to have some effects of the flutter limits of wind turbines. In the present report, the aeroelastic blade model suggested by Kallesoee, which is similar to a second order model, is used to investigate the aeroelastic stability limits of the RWT blade with and without the effects of the large blade deflection. The investigation shows no significant change of the flutter limit on the rotor speed due to the blade deflection,whereas the first edgewise bending mode becomes negatively damped due to the coupling with blade torsion which causes a change of the effective direction of blade vibration. These observations are confirmed by nonlinear aeroelastic simulations using HAWC2. This work is part of the UpWind project funded by the European Commission under the contract number SES6-CT-2005-019945 which is gratefully acknowledged. This report is the deliverable D2.3 of the UpWind project. (au)

  9. Vibrational normal modes of diazo-dimedone: A comparative study by Fourier infrared/Raman spectroscopies and conformational analysis by MM/QM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez Soto, C. A.; Ramos, J. M.; Rianelli, R. S.; de Souza, M. C. B. V.; Ferreira, V. F.

    2007-07-01

    The 2-diazo-5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione ( 3) was synthesized and the FT-IR/Raman spectra were measured with the purpose of obtain a full assignment of the vibrational modes. Singular aspects concerning the -C dbnd N dbnd N oscillator are discussed in view of two strong bands observed in the region of 2300-2100 cm -1 in both, Infrared and Raman spectra. The density functional theory (DFT) was used to obtain the geometrical structure and for assisting in the vibrational assignment joint to the traditional normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The observed wavenumbers at 2145 (IR), 2144(R) are assigned as the coupled ν(N dbnd N) + ν(C dbnd N) vibrational mode with higher participation of the N dbnd N stretching. A 2188 cm -1 (IR) and at 2186 cm -1 (R) can be assigned as a overtone of one of ν(CC) normal mode or to a combination band of the fundamentals δ(CCH) found at 1169 cm -1 and the δ (CC dbnd N) found at 1017 cm -1 enhanced by Fermi resonance.

  10. Vibrational characteristics and wear of fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmugar, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel rod wear, due to vibration, is a continuing concern in the design of liquid-cooled reactors. In my report, the methodology and models that are used to predict fuel rod vibrational response and vibratory wear, in a light water reactor environment, are discussed. This methodology is being followed at present in the design of Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel. Fuel rod vibrations are expressed as the normal bending modes, and sources of rod vibration are examined with special emphasis on flow-induced mechanisms in the stable flow region. In a typical Westinghouse PWR fuel assembly design, each fuel rod is supported at multiple locations along the rod axis by a square-shaped 'grid cell'. For a fuel rod /grid support system, the development of small oscillatory motions, due to fluid flow at the rod/grid interface, results in material wear. A theoretical wear mode is developed using the Archard Theory of Adhesive Wear as the basis. Without question certainty, fretting wear becomes a serious problem if it progresses to the stage where the fuel cladding is penetrated and fuel is exposed to the coolant. Westinghouse fuel is designed to minimize fretting wear by limiting the relative motion between the fuel rod and its supports. The wear producing motion between the fuel rod and its supports occurs when the vibration amplitude exceeds the slippage threshold amplitude

  11. Vibrational Spectroscopy of the CCl[subscript 4] v[subscript 1] Mode: Theoretical Prediction of Isotopic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, James D.; Wetterer, Anna M.; Cochran, Rea M.; Valente, Edward J.; Mayer, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique, yet it is often missing from the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum. Tetrachloromethane (CCl[subscript 4]) is the ideal molecule for an introductory vibrational spectroscopy experiment and the symmetric stretch vibration contains fine structure due to isotopic variations…

  12. New Method to Study the Vibrational Modes of Biomolecules in the Terahertz Range Based on a Single-Stage Raman Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanoor, Basanth S; Ronen, Maria; Oren, Ziv; Gerber, Doron; Tischler, Yaakov R

    2017-03-31

    The low-frequency vibrational (LFV) modes of biomolecules reflect specific intramolecular and intermolecular thermally induced fluctuations that are driven by external perturbations, such as ligand binding, protein interaction, electron transfer, and enzymatic activity. Large efforts have been invested over the years to develop methods to access the LFV modes due to their importance in the studies of the mechanisms and biological functions of biomolecules. Here, we present a method to measure the LFV modes of biomolecules based on Raman spectroscopy that combines volume holographic filters with a single-stage spectrometer, to obtain high signal-to-noise-ratio spectra in short acquisition times. We show that this method enables LFV mode characterization of biomolecules even in a hydrated environment. The measured spectra exhibit distinct features originating from intra- and/or intermolecular collective motion and lattice modes. The observed modes are highly sensitive to the overall structure, size, long-range order, and configuration of the molecules, as well as to their environment. Thus, the LFV Raman spectrum acts as a fingerprint of the molecular structure and conformational state of a biomolecule. The comprehensive method we present here is widely applicable, thus enabling high-throughput study of LFV modes of biomolecules.

  13. Multi-Mode Vibration Suppression in MIMO Systems by Extending the Zero Placement Input Shaping Technique: Applications to a 3-DOF Piezoelectric Tube Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Al Hamidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric tube actuators are extensively used in scanning probe microscopes to provide dynamic scanning motions in open-loop operations. Furthermore, they are employed as micropositioners due to their high bandwidth, high resolution and ease of excitation. However, these piezoelectric micropositioners exhibit badly damped vibrations that occur when the input excites the dynamic response, which tends to degrade positioning accuracy and performance. This paper deals with vibrations’ feedforward control of a multi-degrees of freedom (DOF piezoelectric micropositioner in order to damp the vibrations in the direct axes and to reduce the cross-couplings. The novelty in this paper relative to the existing vibrations feedforward controls is the simplicity in design approach, the minimal number of shaper impulses for each input required to damp all modes of vibration at each output, and the account for the strong cross-couplings which only occur in multi-DOF cases. A generalization to a multiple degrees of freedom actuator is first proposed. Then simulation runs on a 3-DOF piezoelectric tube micropositioner have been effectuated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Finally, experimental tests were carried out to validate and to confirm the predicted simulation.

  14. The effects of an inserted linear carbon chain on the vibration of a carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z L; Guo, X M; Ru, C Q

    2007-01-01

    An elastic string-elastic shell model is developed to study the coupled vibration of a carbon nanowire made of a linear carbon chain (C-chain) inserted inside a carbon nanotube (CNT). It is shown that the vibration of the inserted C-chain is coupled with vibration of the CNT only for vibration modes with circumferential wavenumber n = 1. In other cases, such as axisymmetric modes (n = 0) or higher-order vibration modes with n≥2, total resultant van der Waals (vdW) force acting on the C-chain due to the innermost tube always vanishes, and therefore vibration of the CNT does not cause vibration of the inserted C-chain, although the existence of the C-chain does have an effect on the vibration of the CNT through the chain-CNT vdW forces acting on the innermost tube. The present model predicts that non-coaxial vibration between the C-chain and the innermost tube does not occur due to negligible bending rigidity of the C-chain. In addition, it is found that the C-chain has most significant effect on the lowest frequency associated with the radial vibration mode for circumferential wavenumber 2 (n = 2). In particular, the effect of the C-chain on the axisymmetric radial breathing frequencies (n = 0) predicted by the present model is found to be in reasonable agreement with known experimental and modeling results available in the literature. The present work offers systematic modeling results on the effects of an inserted C-chain on the vibration of CNTs

  15. Damping of wind turbine tower vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Pedersen, Mikkel Melters

    Damping of wind turbine vibrations by supplemental dampers is a key ingredient for the continuous use of monopiles as support for offshore wind turbines. The present thesis consists of an extended summary with four parts and appended papers [P1-P4] concerning novel strategies for damping of tower...... dominated vibrations.The first part of the thesis presents the theoretical framework for implementation of supplemental dampers in wind turbines. It is demonstrated that the feasibility of installing dampers at the bottom of the tower is significantly increased when placing passive or semiactive dampers...... in a stroke amplifying brace, which amplifies the displacement across the damper and thus reduces the desired level of damper force. For optimal damping of the two lowest tower modes, a novel toggle-brace concept for amplifying the bending deformation of the tower is presented. Numerical examples illustrate...

  16. Simulation of vibrational energy transfer in two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of amide I and amide II modes in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, Robbert; Dijkstra, Arend G.; Jansen, Thomas La Cour; Knoester, Jasper

    2008-01-01

    Population transfer between vibrational eigenstates is important for many phenomena in chemistry. In solution, this transfer is induced by fluctuations in molecular conformation as well as in the surrounding solvent. We develop a joint electrostatic density functional theory map that allows us to

  17. Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamyan, V.M., E-mail: vadamyan@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Bondarev, V.N., E-mail: bondvic@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Zavalniuk, V.V., E-mail: vzavalnyuk@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Department of Fundamental Sciences, Odessa Military Academy, 10 Fontanska Road, Odessa 65009 (Ukraine)

    2016-11-11

    Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.

  18. Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, V.M.; Bondarev, V.N.; Zavalniuk, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.

  19. Vibration characteristics analysis for HANARO fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung

    2001-06-01

    For investigating the vibration characteristics of HANARO fuel assembly, the finite element models of the in-air fuel assemblies and flow tubes were developed. By calculating the hydrodynamic mass and distributing it on the in-air models, the in-water models of the flow tubes and the fuel assemblies were developed. Then, modal analysis of the developed models was carried out. The analysis results show that the fundamental vibration modes of the in-air 18-element and 36-element fuel assemblies are lateral bending modes and its corresponding natural frequencies are 26.4Hz and 27.7Hz, respectively. The fundamental natural frequency of the in-water 18-element and 36-element fuel assemblies were obtained as 16.1Hz and 16.5Hz. For the verification of the developed finite element models, modal analysis results were compared with those obtained from the modal test. These results demonstrate that the natural frequencies of lower order modes obtained from finite element analysis agree well with those of the modal test and the estimation of the hydrodynamic mass is appropriate. It is expected that the analysis results will be applied as a basic data for the operation and management of the HANARO. In addition, when it is necessary to improve the design of the fuel assembly, the developed finite element models will be utilized as a base model for the vibration characteristic analysis of the modified fuel assembly

  20. A New Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller with a Disturbance Estimator for Robust Vibration Control of a Semi-Active Vehicle Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Keun Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC to improve control performances in the presence of uncertainties related to model errors and external disturbance (UAD. As a first step, an adaptive control law is designed using Lyapunov stability analysis. The control law can update control parameters of the FSMC with a disturbance estimator (DE in which the closed-loop stability and finite-time convergence of tracking error are guaranteed. A solution for estimating the compensative quantity of the impact of UAD on a control system and a set of solutions are then presented in order to avoid the singular cases of the fuzzy-based function approximation, increase convergence ability, and reduce the calculating cost. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified through the investigation of vibration control performances of a semi-active vehicle suspension system featuring a magnetorheological damper (MRD. It is shown that the proposed controller can provide better control ability of vibration control with lower consumed power compared with two existing fuzzy sliding mode controllers.

  1. Closed-form plastic collapse loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2006-01-01

    Based on three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit, collapse and instability load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide plastic collapse loads (using the twice-elastic-slope method) and instability loads. For the bending mode, both closing bending and opening bending are considered, and a wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and collapse load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and bending are proposed

  2. Experimental investigation of torsional vibration isolation using Magneto Rheological Elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Shenoy K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating systems suffer from lateral and torsional vibrations which have detrimental effect on the roto-dynamic performance. Many available technologies such as vibration isolators and vibration absorbers deal with the torsional vibrations to a certain extent, however passive isolators and absorbers find less application when the input conditions are dynamic. The present work discusses use of a smart material called as Magneto Rheological Elastomer (MRE, whose properties can be changed based on magnetic field input, as a potential isolator for torsional vibrations under dynamic loading conditions. Carbonyl Iron Particles (CIP of average size 5 μm were mixed with RTV Silicone rubber to form the MRE. The effect of magnetic field on the system parameters was comprehended under impulse loading conditions using a custom built in-house system. Series arrangement of accelerometers were used to differentiate between the torsional and the bending modes of vibration of the system. Impact hammer tests were carried out on the torsional system to study its response, in the presence and absence of magnetic field. The tests revealed a shift in torsional frequency in the presence of magnetic field which elucidates the ability of MRE to work as a potential vibration isolator for torsional systems.

  3. Communication: Reactivity borrowing in the mode selective chemistry of H + CHD3 → H2 + CD3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Roman; Manthe, Uwe

    2017-12-01

    Quantum state-resolved reaction probabilities for the H + CHD3 → H2 + CD3 reaction are calculated by accurate full-dimensional quantum dynamics calculations using the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach and the quantum transition state concept. Reaction probabilities of various ro-vibrational states of the CHD3 reactant are investigated for vanishing total angular momentum. While the reactivity of the different vibrational states of CHD3 mostly follows intuitive patterns, an unusually large reaction probability is found for CHD3 molecules triply excited in the CD3 umbrella-bending vibration. This surprising reactivity can be explained by a Fermi resonance-type mixing of the single CH-stretch excited and the triple CD3 umbrella-bend excited vibrational states of CHD3. These findings show that resonant energy transfer can significantly affect the mode-selective chemistry of CHD3 and result in counter-intuitive reactivity patterns.

  4. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

  5. Modeling of surface stress effects on bending behavior of nanowires: Incremental deformation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, F.; Huang, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    The surface stress effects on bending behavior of nanowires have recently attracted a lot of attention. In this letter, the incremental deformation theory is first applied to study the surface stress effects upon the bending behavior of the nanowires. Different from other linear continuum approaches, the local geometrical nonlinearity of the Lagrangian strain is considered, therefore, the contribution of the surface stresses is naturally derived by applying the Hamilton's principle, and influence of the surface stresses along all surfaces of the nanowires is captured. It is first shown that the surface stresses along all surfaces have contribution not only on the effective Young's modulus of the nanowires but also on the loading term in the governing equation. The predictions of the effective Young's modulus and the resonance shift of the nanowires from the current method are compared with those from the experimental measurement and other existing approaches. The difference with other models is discussed. Finally, based on the current theory, the resonant shift predictions by using both the modified Euler-Bernoulli beam and the modified Timoshenko beam theories of the nanowires are investigated and compared. It is noticed that the higher vibration modes are less sensitive to the surface stresses than the lower vibration modes.

  6. Recovering Intrinsic Fragmental Vibrations Using the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yunwen; Tian, Chuan; Verma, Niraj; Zou, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi

    2018-05-08

    Normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized over the molecular system, which makes it difficult to assign certain vibrations to specific fragments or functional groups. We introduce a new approach, the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis (GSVA), to extract the intrinsic fragmental vibrations of any fragment/subsystem from the whole system via the evaluation of the corresponding effective Hessian matrix. The retention of the curvature information with regard to the potential energy surface for the effective Hessian matrix endows our approach with a concrete physical basis and enables the normal vibrational modes of different molecular systems to be legitimately comparable. Furthermore, the intrinsic fragmental vibrations act as a new link between the Konkoli-Cremer local vibrational modes and the normal vibrational modes.

  7. Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)

  8. Bend me, shape me

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Japanese team has found a way to bend and shape silicon substrates by growing a thin layer of diamond on top. The technique has been proposed as an alternative to mechanical bending, which is currently used to make reflective lenses for X-ray systems and particle physics systems (2 paragraphs).

  9. Occipital bending in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.

  10. Evaluation of a silicon 5 MHz p–n diode actuator with a laterally vibrating extensional mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Fumito; Baba, Kazuki; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Furutsuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenichiro

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe p–n diode actuators that are laterally driven by the force induced in a depletion layer. The previously reported p–n diode actuators have been vertically driven. Because the resonant frequency depends on the thickness of the vibrating plate, the integration of resonators with different frequencies on a chip has been difficult. The resonators in this work are driven laterally by using length-extensional vibration. We have developed a compact model based on an analytical expression, in which p–n diode actuators are driven by the forces induced by the spread of the depletion layer. The deflection generated by the p–n diode actuators was proportional to the ratio of the depletion layer width to the resonator thickness as well as the position of the p–n junction. Good agreement of experimental results with the theory was confirmed by comparing the measured values for silicon p–n diode rectangular-plate actuators fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The displacement amplitude of the actuators was proportional to the DC bias, while the resonant frequency was independent of the DC bias. The latter characteristic is very different from that of widely used electrostatic actuators. Although the amplitude of the actuator measured in this work was very small, it is expected that the amplitude will increase greatly by increasing the doping of the p–n diode actuators.

  11. Lattice dynamics and vibration modes frequencies for substitutional impurities in InP, GaP and ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevyver, Michel; Plumelle, Pierre.

    1977-01-01

    The model used is a rigid-ion model with an effective ionic charge including general interactions for nearest and next nearest neighbours and long range Coulomb interactions. It provides a good fit with available neutron data and with infrared absorption results for InP. In this model, no hypothesis is made a priori on the interatomic forces and the eleven parameters given by the model are used. A mathematical model which employs a Green's function technique in the mass defect and the nearest neighbour force constant defect approximation is used to calculate the lattice dynamics of the imperfect crystal. The frequencies of the local modes, the gap modes and the band modes, are given for isolated substitutional impurities. The same calculation is achieved for GaP and ZnS and the results are compared with infrared data [fr

  12. Nanomechanical microcantilever operated in vibration modes with use of RNA aptamer as receptor molecules for label-free detection of HCV helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyo Seon; Lee, Sang-Myung; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Park, Jung Ho; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Tae Song

    2007-11-30

    We report the nanomechanical microcantilevers operated in vibration modes (oscillation) with use of RNA aptamers as receptor molecules for label-free detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase. The nanomechanical detection principle is that the ligand-receptor binding on the microcantilever surface induces the dynamic response change of microcantilevers. We implemented the label-free detection of HCV helicase in the low concentration as much as 100 pg/ml from measuring the dynamic response change of microcantilevers. Moreover, from the recent studies showing that the ligand-receptor binding generates the surface stress on the microcantilever, we estimate the surface stress, on the oscillating microcantilevers, induced by ligand-receptor binding, i.e. binding between HCV helicase and RNA aptamer. In this article, it is suggested that the oscillating microcantilevers with use of RNA aptamers as receptor molecules may enable one to implement the sensitive label-free detection of very small amount of small-scale proteins.

  13. In situ doping of catalyst-free InAs nanowires with Si: Growth, polytypism, and local vibrational modes of Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimakis, Emmanouil; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Huang, Chang-Ning; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Davydok, Anton; Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Festkörperphysik, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 57072 Siegen (Germany)

    2013-09-30

    Growth and structural aspects of the in situ doping of InAs nanowires with Si have been investigated. The nanowires were grown catalyst-free on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The supply of Si influenced the growth kinetics, affecting the nanowire dimensions, but not the degree of structural polytypism, which was always pronounced. As determined by Raman spectroscopy, Si was incorporated as substitutional impurity exclusively on In sites, which makes it a donor. Previously unknown Si-related Raman peaks at 355 and 360 cm{sup −1} were identified, based on their symmetry properties in polarization-dependent measurements, as the two local vibrational modes of an isolated Si impurity on In site along and perpendicular, respectively, to the c-axis of the wurtzite InAs crystal.

  14. Vibrational Spectra And Potential Energy Distributions of Normal Modes of N,N'-Etilenbis(P-Toluen sulfonamide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyar, S.

    2008-01-01

    N-substituted sulfonamides are well known for their diuretic, antidiabetic, antibacterial and antifungal, anticancer e.g., and are widely used in the therapy of patients. These important bioactive properties are strongly affected by the special features of -CH 2 -SO 2 -NR-linker and intramolecular motion Thus, the studies of energetic and spatial properties on N-substituted sulfonamides are of great importance to improve our understanding of their biological activities and enhance abilities to predict new drugs. Density Functional Theory B3LYP /6-31G(d,p) level has been applied to obtain the vibrational force field for the most stable conformation of N,N'-etilenbis(p-toluensulfonamit)(ptsen)having sulfonamide moiety. The results of these calculation have been compared with spectroscopic data to verify accuracy of calculation and applicability of the DFT approach to ptsen. Additionally, complete normal coordinate analyses with quantum mechanical scaling (SQM) were performed to derive the potential energy distributions (PE)

  15. Numerical Determination of Natural Frequencies and Modes of the Vibrations of a Thick-Walled Cylindrical Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, A. Ya.; Borisenko, M. Yu.; Boichuk, E. V.; Prigoda, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a thick-walled cylindrical shell are determined numerically using the finite-element method implemented with licensed FEMAR software. The natural frequencies and modes are compared with those obtained earlier experimentally by the method of stroboscopic holographic interferometry. Frequency coefficients demonstrating how the natural frequency depends on the physical and mechanical parameters of the material are determined.

  16. Vibrational transitions in hydrogen bonded bimolecular complexes – A local mode perturbation theory approach to transition frequencies and intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackeprang, Kasper; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum

    2017-01-01

    The local mode perturbation theory (LMPT) model was developed to improve the description of hydrogen bonded XH-stretching transitions, where X is typically O or N. We present a modified version of the LMPT model to extend its application from hydrated bimolecular complexes to hydrogen bonded...

  17. NEW REACTOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF NON LINEAR VIBRATIONS OF DOUBLY CURVED SHALLOW SHELL UNDER A THERMAL GRADIENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study concerns with the effects of material orthotropy,curvature, shear ratio and circumferential modulus under the influence of a temperature distribution throughout the shell structure. Here analysis is restricted to the study of nonlinear vibration of a doubly curved shell structure considering the periodic response of a simple bending mode due to curtailment of pages. Solutions of the problems with suitable illustrations are also presented

  18. Vibrational relaxation of a triatomic molecular impurity: D2O in vitreous As2S3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rella, C.W.; Schwettman, H.A.; Engholm, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the relaxation of the D 2 O stretch mode in vitreous As 2 S 3 are presented. Because the bending mode of the molecule offers an intra-molecular decay channel for the stretch mode, the decay scheme of the D 2 O molecule is more complex than that of diatomic molecules. The asymmetric stretch mode of D 2 O has a frequency of 2680 cm -1 . To study the relaxation of this mode we applied a pump-probe technique, using intense psec; pulses of the Stanford Free Electron Laser. Due to the small cross-section of the vibrational mode, successful efforts were made to improve the signal to noise ratio by using a laser stabilization system and a tightly focused beam to increase the intensity, by averaging the signal with a kHz repetition rate and by using samples with an optimized D 2 O concentration. A rapid relaxation rate on the order of 5 x 10 9 sec -1 at low temperature is found that increases with temperature. Recalling that the bending mode of the D 2 O molecule has a frequency of 1170 cm -1 , one would expect a decay in a third order process, involving two quanta of the bending mode plus a vibrational host quanta with a frequency of 340 cm -1 , which coincides with a fundamental frequency of the pyramidal building blocks of the glassy As 2 S 3 host. Instead, we find from the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate that the D 2 O stretching mode relaxes in a higher order process. This indicates that the relaxation dynamics of small molecules is more complex than generally assumed

  19. O modelo AM1 na previsão de frequências vibracionais The vibration frequencies predicted by the AM1 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Silva Ramos

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyse vibrational frequencies of 168 compounds with the AM1 model concerning its experimentally observed gaseous frequencies. Stretching of CH, NH, OH and CO bonds, its related bending frequencies, and the CC frame movements are the studied vibrations. The results show problems with the AM1 vibrational splittings. Often symmetric stretching frequencies, like in CH3, CH2 and NH3, appear switched with the corresponding antisymmetrical ones. Among the studied vibrations many stretchings are overestimated, while bendings oscillate around experimental values. Fluorine stretchings, NN, OO, CH, double and triples CC bonds and cyclic hydrocarbon breathing modes are always overestimated while torsions, umbrella modes and OH/SH stretching are, in average, underestimated. Graphical analysis show that compounds with the lowest molecular masses are the ones with the largest difference to the experimental values. From our results it is not possible to fit confortably the calculated frequencies by a simple linear relationship of the type, n(obs=a*n(AM1. Better aggreement is obtained when different curves are adjusted for the stretching and bending modes, and when a complete linear function is used. Among our studies the best obtained statistical results are for CH, NH and OH. The conclusions obtained in this work will improve the AM1 calculated frequencies leading to accurate results for these properties.

  20. Escape time, relaxation, and sticky states of a softened Henon-Heiles model: Low-frequency vibrational mode effects and glass relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2018-04-01

    Here we study the relaxation of a chain consisting of three masses joined by nonlinear springs and periodic conditions when the stiffness is weakened. This system, when expressed in their normal coordinates, yields a softened Henon-Heiles system. By reducing the stiffness of one low-frequency vibrational mode, a faster relaxation is enabled. This is due to a reduction of the energy barrier heights along the softened normal mode as well as for a widening of the opening channels of the energy landscape in configurational space. The relaxation is for the most part exponential, and can be explained by a simple flux equation. Yet, for some initial conditions the relaxation follows as a power law, and in many cases there is a regime change from exponential to power-law decay. We pinpoint the initial conditions for the power-law decay, finding two regions of sticky states. For such states, quasiperiodic orbits are found since almost for all components of the initial momentum orientation, the system is trapped inside two pockets of configurational space. The softened Henon-Heiles model presented here is intended as the simplest model in order to understand the interplay of rigidity, nonlinear interactions and relaxation for nonequilibrium systems such as glass-forming melts or soft matter. Our softened system can be applied to model β relaxation in glasses and suggest that local reorientational jumps can have an exponential and a nonexponential contribution for relaxation, the latter due to asymmetric molecules sticking in cages for certain orientations.

  1. Natural Frequencies Evaluation on Partially Damaged Building using Ambient Vibration Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, A. F.; Zainal Abidin, M. H.; Daud, M. E.; Noh, M. S. Md; Madun, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Matarul, J.; Mokhatar, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    Severe damages observed on the school blocks, roads, retaining walls and drainage within the compound of SMK Kundasang Sabah possibly due to the ground movements triggered by the Ranau earthquake in 1991. Ambient vibration measurements were carried on the remaining demolished 3-storey building which partially damaged in order to measure the predominant building frequencies using tri-axial 1 Hz seismometer sensors. Popular methods of Horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) and Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) were used to compute the ambient vibration wave fields of each building axes (Transverse or North-South (NS), Longitudinal or East-West (EW) and vertical) into Fourier spectra. Two main modes of translation and torsion were observed from the peaks frequencies obtained at 2.99 to 3.10 Hz (1st mode), 4.85 Hz (2nd mode) and 5.63 to 5.85 Hz (3rd mode). The building experiencing translation modes of bending and shear in the NS and EW directions. It could be seen when the amplitudes tends to increase when the floor are increased. Meanwhile, the torsional bending mode is expected to occur when the deformation amplitudes are found to be increasing horizontally, when moving into partially structural damaged section located on the East wing of building.

  2. Vibrational spectroscopy of the borate mineral kotoite Mg₃(BO₃)₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

    2013-02-15

    Vibrational spectroscopy has been used to assess the structure of kotoite a borate mineral of magnesium which is isostructural with jimboite. The mineral is orthorhombic with point group: 2/m 2/m 2/m. The mineral has the potential as a new memory insulator material. The mineral has been characterised by a combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum is dominated by a very intense band at 835 cm(-1), assigned to the symmetric stretching mode of tetrahedral boron. Raman bands at 919, 985 and 1015 cm(-1) are attributed to the antisymmetric stretching modes of tetrahedral boron. Kotoite is strictly an hydrous borate mineral. An intense Raman band observed at 3559 cm(-1) is attributed to the stretching vibration of hydroxyl units, more likely to be associated with the borate mineral hydroxyborate. The lack of observation of water bending modes proves the absence of water in the kotoite structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.

  4. A comprehensive model for in-plane and out-of-plane vibration of CANDU fuel endplate rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.D., E-mail: syu@ryerson.ca; Fadaee, M.

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Proposed an effective method for modelling bending and torsional vibration of CANDU fuel endplate rings. • Applied successfully the thick plate theory to curved structural members by accounting for the transverse shear effect. • The proposed method is computationally more efficient compared to the 3D finite element. - Abstract: In this paper, a comprehensive vibration model is developed for analysing in-plane and out-of-plane vibration of CANDU fuel endplate rings by taking into consideration the effects of in-plane extension in the circumferential and radial directions, shear, and rotatory inertia. The model is based on Reddy’s thick plate theory and the nine-node isoparametric Lagrangian plate finite elements. Natural frequencies of various modes of vibration of circular rings obtained using the proposed method are compared with 3D finite element results, experimental data and results available in the literature. Excellent agreement was achieved.

  5. A point-wise fiber Bragg grating displacement sensing system and its application for active vibration suppression of a smart cantilever beam subjected to multiple impact loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching; Liao, Heng-Tseng

    2012-01-01

    In this work, active vibration suppression of a smart cantilever beam subjected to disturbances from multiple impact loadings is investigated with a point-wise fiber Bragg grating (FBG) displacement sensing system. An FBG demodulator is employed in the proposed fiber sensing system to dynamically demodulate the responses obtained by the FBG displacement sensor with high sensitivity. To investigate the ability of the proposed FBG displacement sensor as a feedback sensor, velocity feedback control and delay control are employed to suppress the vibrations of the first three bending modes of the smart cantilever beam. To improve the control performance for the first bending mode when the cantilever beam is subjected to an impact loading, we improve the conventional velocity feedback controller by tuning the control gain online with the aid of information from a higher vibration mode. Finally, active control of vibrations induced by multiple impact loadings due to a plastic ball is performed with the improved velocity feedback control. The experimental results show that active vibration control of smart structures subjected to disturbances such as impact loadings can be achieved by employing the proposed FBG sensing system to feed back out-of-plane point-wise displacement responses with high sensitivity. (paper)

  6. Analyzing the Effect of Capillary Force on Vibrational Performance of the Cantilever of an Atomic Force Microscope in Tapping Mode with Double Piezoelectric Layers in an Air Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahavandi, Amir; Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of forces exerted on the cantilever probe tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). These forces vary according to the separation distance between the probe tip and the surface of the sample being examined. Hence, at a distance away from the surface (farther than d(on)), these forces have an attractive nature and are of Van der Waals type, and when the probe tip is situated in the range of a₀≤ d(ts) ≤ d(on), the capillary force is added to the Van der Waals force. At a distance of d(ts) ≤ a₀, the Van der Waals and capillary forces remain constant at intermolecular distances, and the contact repulsive force repels the probe tip from the surface of sample. The capillary force emerges due to the contact of thin water films with a thickness of h(c) which have accumulated on the sample and probe. Under environmental conditions a layer of water or hydrocarbon often forms between the probe tip and sample. The capillary meniscus can grow until the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation. For each of the above forces, different models are presented. The smoothness or roughness of the surfaces and the geometry of the cantilever tip have a significant effect on the modeling of forces applied on the probe tip. Van der Waals and the repulsive forces are considered to be the same in all the simulations, and only the capillary force is altered in order to evaluate the role of this force in the AFM-based modeling. Therefore, in view of the remarkable advantages of the piezoelectric microcantilever and also the extensive applications of the tapping mode, we investigate vibrational motion of the piezoelectric microcantilever in the tapping mode. The cantilever mentioned is entirely covered by two piezoelectric layers that carry out both the actuation of the probe tip and the measuringof its position.

  7. VIBRATION CONTROL OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-PLY FRP PLATES USING PZT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials are extensively employed in the field of structures for condition monitoring, smart control and testing applications. The piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. The coupling effects between the mechanical and electric properties of piezoelectric materials have drawn significant attention for their potential applications. In the present work, an analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and a concept is developed for an approximate dynamic model to the vibration response of the simply supported orthotropic rectangular plates excited by a piezoelectric patch of variable rectangular geometry and location. A time harmonic electric voltages with the same magnitude and opposite sign are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators, which results in the bending moment on the plate. The main objective of the work is to obtain an analytical solution for the vibration amplitude of composite plate predicted from plate theory. The results demonstrate that the vibration modes can be selectively excited and the geometry of the PZTactuator shape remarkably affects the distribution of the response among modes. Thus according to the desired degree shape control it is possible to tailor the shape, size and properly designed control algorithm of the actuator to either excite or suppress particular modes.

  8. Determination of acoustic vibration in watermelon by finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourain, Jamal; Ying, Yibin B.; Wang, Jianping; Rao, Xiuqin

    2004-11-01

    The analysis of the vibration responses of a fruit is suggested to measure firmness non-destructively. A wooden ball excited the fruits and the response signals were captured using an accelerometer sensor. The method has been well studied and understood on ellipsoidal shaped fruit (watermelon). In this work, using the finite element simulations, the applicability of the method on watermelon was investigated. The firmness index is dependent on the mass, density, and natural frequency of the lowest spherical modes (under free boundary conditions). This developed index extends the firmness estimation for fruits or vegetables from a spherical to an ellipsoidal shape. The mode of Finite element analysis (FEA) of watermelon was generated based on measured geometry, and it can be served as a theoretical reference for predicting the modal characteristics as a function of design parameters such as material, geometrical, and physical properties. It was found that there were four types of mode shapes. The 1st one was first-type longitudinal mode, the 2nd one was the second-type longitudinal mode, the 3rd one was breathing mode or pure compression mode, and the fourth was flexural or torsional mode shape. As suggested in many references, the First-type spherical vibration mode or oblate-Prolate for watermelon is the lowest bending modes, it's most likely related to fruit firmness. Comparisons of finite element and experimental modal parameters show that both results were agreed in mode shape as well as natural frequencies. In order to measure the vibration signal of the mode, excitation and sensors should be placed on the watermelon surface far away from the nodal lines. The excitation and the response sensors should be in accordance with vibration directions. The correlations between the natural frequency and firmness was 0.856, natural frequency and Young's modulus was 0.800, and the natural frequency and stiffness factor (SF) was 0.862. The stiffness factor (SF) is adequate

  9. Occipital bending in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Rodney; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (males mean age = 40.29 ± 10.23 years, females mean age = 42.47 ± 14.25 years) and found the prevalence to be three times higher among patients with major depressive disorder (18/51, 35.3%) when compared with control subjects (6/48, 12.5%). The results suggest that occipital bending is more common among patients with major depressive disorder than healthy subjects, and that occipital asymmetry and occipital bending are separate phenomena. Incomplete neural pruning may lead to the cranial space available for brain growth being restricted, or ventricular enlargement may exacerbate the natural occipital curvature patterns, subsequently causing the brain to become squashed and forced to 'wrap' around the other occipital lobe. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, they provide an impetus for further research into the relevance of occipital bending in major depression disorder. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang

    2013-07-20

    We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone.

  11. Dynamic Bending and Torsion Stiffness Derivation from Modal Curvatures and Torsion Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAECK, J.; DE ROECK, G.

    1999-08-01

    In order to maintain the reliability of civil engineering structures, considerable effort is currently spent on developing a non-destructive vibration testing method for monitoring the structural integrity of constructions. The technique must be able to observe damage, secondly to localize the damage; and finally to give an idea of the severity of the damage. Within the framework of relating changes of measured modal parameters to changes in the integrity of the structure, it is important to be able to determine the dynamic stiffness in each section of the structure from measured modal characteristics.A damaged structure results in a dynamic stiffness reduction of the cracked sections. The dynamic stiffnesses provide directly an indication of the extension of the cracked zones in the structure. The dynamic stiffness reduction can also be associated with a degree of cracking in a particular zone.In an experimental programme, a concrete beam of 6 m length is subjected to an increasing static load to produce cracks. After each static perload, the beam is tested dynamically in a free-free set-up. The change in modal parameters is then related to damage in the beam.The technique that will be presented in the paper to predict the damage location and intensity is a direct stiffness derivation from measured modal displacement derivatives. Using the bending modes, the dynamic bending stiffness can be derived from modal curvatures. Using the torsional modes, the dynamic torsion stiffness can be derived from modal torsion rates.

  12. Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.

  13. H3+: Ab initio calculation of the vibration spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, G.D.; Porter, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    The vibration spectrum of H 3 + is calculated from the representation of a previously reported [J. Chem Phys. 60, 4251 (1974)] ab initio potential-energy surface in a fifth degree Simons--Parr--Finlan (SPF) expansion. Morse- and harmonic-oscillator basis functions are used to describe the motions of the three oscillators and the Harris--Engerholm--Gwinn quadrature technique is used to obtain matrix elements of the Hamiltonian in the basis of vibrational configurations. Our variational method is thus analogous to configuration--interaction calculations for electronic states. The ground state is found to have a zero-point energy of 4345 cm -1 and a vibrationally averaged geometry of R 1 =R 2 =0.91396 A, theta=60.0012degree, where theta is the angle between the two equivalent bonds. The transition frequencies for the E and A 1 fundamentals are nu-bar/sub E/=2516 cm -1 and nu-bar/sub A/=3185 cm -1 and those for the corresponding first overtones of the bending mode are 2nu-bar/sub E/=5004 +- 4 cm -1 and 2nu-bar/sub A/=4799 cm -1 . The first overtone of the breathing mode is 6264 cm -1 . The first-excited A 1 vibration state is metastable with a dipole--radiation lifetime of 3 sec. Transition frequencies, Einstein coefficients, and lifetimes are reported for a total of 21 transitions. Analysis of results for Dunham number and normal-coordinate expansions in comparison with those for SPF expansion show the latter to be superior for ab initio vibrational calculations. A scheme for possible direct measurement of the fundamental A 1 and E vibrational bands is suggested

  14. Active Piezoelectric Vibration Control of Subscale Composite Fan Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Min, James B.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program, researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are investigating new technologies supporting the development of lighter, quieter, and more efficient fans for turbomachinery applications. High performance fan blades designed to achieve such goals will be subjected to higher levels of aerodynamic excitations which could lead to more serious and complex vibration problems. Piezoelectric materials have been proposed as a means of decreasing engine blade vibration either through a passive damping scheme, or as part of an active vibration control system. For polymer matrix fiber composite blades, the piezoelectric elements could be embedded within the blade material, protecting the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris. To investigate this idea, spin testing was performed on two General Electric Aviation (GE) subscale composite fan blades in the NASA GRC Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. The first bending mode (1B) was targeted for vibration control. Because these subscale blades are very thin, the piezoelectric material was surface-mounted on the blades. Three thin piezoelectric patches were applied to each blade two actuator patches and one small sensor patch. These flexible macro-fiber-composite patches were placed in a location of high resonant strain for the 1B mode. The blades were tested up to 5000 rpm, with patches used as sensors, as excitation for the blade, and as part of open- and closed-loop vibration control. Results show that with a single actuator patch, active vibration control causes the damping ratio to increase from a baseline of 0.3% critical damping to about 1.0% damping at 0 RPM. As the rotor speed approaches 5000 RPM, the actively controlled blade damping ratio decreases to about 0.5% damping. This occurs primarily because of centrifugal blade stiffening, and can be observed by the decrease in the generalized electromechanical coupling with rotor speed.

  15. Influence of Suspended Equipment on the Carbody Vertical Vibration Behaviour of High-Speed Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The equipment mounted on the carbody chassis of the railway vehicles is a critical component of the vehicle in terms of ride comfort. The reason for that is their large mass, able to visibly influence the vibrations mode of the carbody. The paper examines the influence of the equipment upon the mode of vertical vibrations of the carbody in the high-speed vehicles, reached on the basis of the frequency response functions of the acceleration in three carbody reference points - at the centre and above the bogies. These functions are derived from the numerical simulations developed on a rigid-flexible coupled model, with seven degrees of freedom. As a rule, the results herein prove the influence of the equipment mounting mode (rigid or elastic, along with the speed regime, upon the level of vibrations in the carbody reference points, at the resonance frequency of the symmetrical bending mode. Similarly, it is also demonstrated how the equipment mass and the damping degree of the suspension system affect the level of the vibrations in the carbody.

  16. Influence of Electron Molecule Resonant Vibrational Collisions over the Symmetric Mode and Direct Excitation-Dissociation Cross Sections of CO2 on the Electron Energy Distribution Function and Dissociation Mechanisms in Cold Pure CO2 Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L D; Colonna, G; Laporta, V; Celiberto, R; D'Ammando, G; Laricchiuta, A; Capitelli, M

    2016-05-05

    A new set of electron-vibrational (e-V) processes linking the first 10 vibrational levels of the symmetric mode of CO2 is derived by using a decoupled vibrational model and inserted in the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (eedf). The new eedf and dissociation rates are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding ones obtained by using the e-V cross sections reported in the database of Hake and Phelps (H-P). Large differences are, on the contrary, found when the experimental dissociation cross sections of Cosby and Helm are inserted in the Boltzman equation. Comparison of the corresponding rates with those obtained by using the low-energy threshold energy, reported in the H-P database, shows differences up to orders of magnitude, which decrease with the increasing of the reduced electric field. In all cases, we show the importance of superelastic vibrational collisions in affecting eedf and dissociation rates either in the direct electron impact mechanism or in the pure vibrational mechanism.

  17. Isotopic and chemical dilution effects on the vibrational relaxation rate of some totally symmetric motions of liquid acetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, E.; Morresi, A.; Paliani, G.; Cataliotti, R.S.; Giorgini, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The vibrational dephasing of the ν 1 (C-H, C-D stretching) and ν 3 (C-H, C-D bending) symmetric motions of liquid acetonitrile in its light and fully deuterated forms has been studied in the frame of the vibrational time correlation functions obtained as Fourier transforms of the isotropic Raman spectral distributions and interpreted within the Kubo theory. In addition, the experimental isotropic profiles have been analysed within the bandshape approach formulated by analytical Fourier transformation of the Kubo vibrational time correlation functions in order to derive the relaxation parameters in the frequency domain. The effects of the isotopic (CH 3 CN/CD 3 CN and vice versa) and chemical (CCl 4 ) dilution on the bandshapes and on the vibrational relaxation parameters have been studied. It was observed that the decay rate of ν 1 mode is insensitive to the isotopic dilution but varies appreciably with chemical (CCl 4 ) dilution. The vibrational dephasing of ν 3 mode is qualitatively, but not quantitatively, affected in the same way by chemical dilution and shows a slower modulation regime than that exhibited by the stretching mode. Unlikely from the latter, the ν 3 mode results are slightly affected by the isotopic dilution. Phase relaxation mechanisms of these two motions of acetonitrile in the liquid state are proposed on the basis of these data, and a comparison is made with the results earlier published. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Structure-dependent vibrational dynamics of Mg(BH 4 ) 2 polymorphs probed with neutron vibrational spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrievska, Mirjana; White, James L.; Zhou, Wei; Stavila, Vitalie; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Udovic, Terrence J.

    2016-01-01

    The structure-dependent vibrational properties of different Mg(BH4)2 polymorphs (..alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.., and ..delta.. phases) were investigated with a combination of neutron vibrational spectroscopy (NVS) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, with emphasis placed on the effects of the local structure and orientation of the BH4- anions. DFT simulations closely match the neutron vibrational spectra. The main bands in the low-energy region (20-80 meV) are associated with the BH4- librational modes. The features in the intermediate energy region (80-120 meV) are attributed to overtones and combination bands arising from the lower-energy modes. The features in the high-energy region (120-200 meV) correspond to the BH4- symmetric and asymmetric bending vibrations, of which four peaks located at 140, 142, 160, and 172 meV are especially intense. There are noticeable intensity distribution variations in the vibrational bands for different polymorphs. This is explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of BH4- anions within various structures. An example of the possible identification of products after the hydrogenation of MgB2, using NVS measurements, is presented. These results provide fundamental insights of benefit to researchers currently studying these promising hydrogen-storage materials.

  19. Anharmonic vibrational spectroscopic investigation of malonaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alparone, A.; Millefiori, S.

    2003-01-01

    Anharmonic IR spectra of H-bonded and non-H-bonded conformers of malonaldehyde (MA) and its isotopomers MA-D 6 D 8 and MA-D 7 D 9 have been computed by the Vibrational-Self-Consistent-Field (VSCF) and the correlation-corrected-VSCF (CC-VSCF) techniques using ab initio MP2/6-31G*(+p) potential energies. The agreement between the experimental and calculated frequencies is significantly improved to within 2-3%. Anharmonic contributions are substantial especially for νOH of the H-bonded form, by reducing the harmonic value by more than 500 cm -1 . The effect is less important in the non-H-bonded form. The νOH stretching mode is strongly coupled with the ν 3 mode (essentially νCH 7 ) and with the in-plane and out-of-plane OH bending deformations. H-bond formation and deuteration batochromically shift νOH by an amount which is influenced by the anharmonic terms, the major contribution arising from coupling between modes. The comparison with the νOH mode of some other H-bonded systems suggests that anharmonic correction follows H-bonding strength

  20. Isotopic effects in vibrational relaxation dynamics of H on a Si(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakline, F.; Lorenz, U.; Melani, G.; Paramonov, G. K.; Saalfrank, P.

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper [U. Lorenz and P. Saalfrank, Chem. Phys. 482, 69 (2017)], we proposed a robust scheme to set up a system-bath model Hamiltonian, describing the coupling of adsorbate vibrations (system) to surface phonons (bath), from first principles. The method is based on an embedded cluster approach, using orthogonal coordinates for system and bath modes, and an anharmonic phononic expansion of the system-bath interaction up to second order. In this contribution, we use this model Hamiltonian to calculate vibrational relaxation rates of H-Si and D-Si bending modes, coupled to a fully H(D)-covered Si(100)-( 2 × 1 ) surface, at zero temperature. The D-Si bending mode has an anharmonic frequency lying inside the bath frequency spectrum, whereas the H-Si bending mode frequency is outside the bath Debye band. Therefore, in the present calculations, we only take into account one-phonon system-bath couplings for the D-Si system and both one- and two-phonon interaction terms in the case of H-Si. The computation of vibrational lifetimes is performed with two different approaches, namely, Fermi's golden rule, and a generalized Bixon-Jortner model built in a restricted vibrational space of the adsorbate-surface zeroth-order Hamiltonian. For D-Si, the Bixon-Jortner Hamiltonian can be solved by exact diagonalization, serving as a benchmark, whereas for H-Si, an iterative scheme based on the recursive residue generation method is applied, with excellent convergence properties. We found that the lifetimes obtained with perturbation theory, albeit having almost the same order of magnitude—a few hundred fs for D-Si and a couple of ps for H-Si—, are strongly dependent on the discretized numerical representation of the bath spectral density. On the other hand, the Bixon-Jortner model is free of such numerical deficiencies, therefore providing better estimates of vibrational relaxation rates, at a very low computational cost. The results obtained with this model clearly show

  1. AA, bending magnet, BLG

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipole (bending magnets; BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The BLG had a steel length of 4.70 m, a good field width of 0.24 m, and a weight of about 70 t. Jean-Claude Brunet inspects the lower half of a BLG. For the BST magnets see 7811105 and 8006036.

  2. Whole-body vibration as a mode of dyspnoea free physical activity: a community-based proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Trentham; Joseph, Corey; Welsh, Liam; Naughton, Geraldine; Lorenzen, Christian

    2013-11-11

    The potential of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of dyspnoea free physical activity for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown among community-based settings. Furthermore, the acute effects of WBV on people with COPD have not been profiled in community-based settings. The aim of this community-based proof-of-concept trial was to describe acute effects of WBV by profiling subjective and objective responses to physical activity. Seventeen community-dwelling older adults with COPD were recruited to participate in two sessions; WBV and sham WBV (SWBV). Each session consisted of five one-minute bouts interspersed with five one-minute passive rest periods. The gravitational force was ~2.5 g for WBV and ~0.0 g for SWBV. Reliability of baseline dyspnoea, heart rate, and oxygen saturation was first established and then profiled for both sessions. Acute responses to both WBV and SWBV were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance and repeated contrasts. Small changes in dyspnoea and oxygen saturation lacked subjective and clinical meaningfulness. One session of WBV and SWBV significantly increased heart rate (p ≤ 0.02), although there was no difference among WBV and SWBV (p = 0.67). This community-based proof-of-concept trial showed that a session of WBV can be completed with the absence of dyspnoea for people with COPD. Furthermore, there were no meaningful differences among WBV and SWBV for heart rate and oxygen saturation. There is scope for long-term community-based intervention research using WBV given the known effects of WBV on peripheral muscle function and functional independence.

  3. Global bending quantum number and the absence of monodromy in the HCN-CNH molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efstathiou, K; Joyeux, M; Sadovskií, D. A.

    We introduce and analyze a model system based on a deformation of a spherical pendulum that can be used to reproduce large amplitude bending vibrations of flexible triatomic molecules with two stable linear equilibria. On the basis of our model and the recent vibrational potential [ J. Chem. Phys.

  4. A free vibration of beams carrying a concentrated mass under distributed axial forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Ken-ichi; Nagaya, Kosuke; Takeda, Sadahiko; Arai, Noriyuki.

    1988-01-01

    The free bending vibrations of beams with a concentrated mass subjected to axial forces caused by axial acceleration are analyzed by the Galerkin method, introducing the mode shape functions which are the sum of the products of the finite power series and the trigonometrical function. This analytical method makes it easy to construct the equations of motion in each boundary condition only by exchanging the coefficients of the finite power series. Numerical calculations are carried out under four sets of boundary conditions combined with simply supported and clamped edges. The natural frequencies and the corresponding modes of vibration are determined under both various locations of the concentrated mass and axial forces. it is found that the transverse inertia force and the axial force, due to the concentrated mass, have significant effects on the change of the natural frequencies for beams. Furthermore the distinction of boundary conditions gives predominant influence to the variation of natural frequencies. (author)

  5. Impact self-excited vibrations of linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V. Ph.

    2010-08-01

    Impact self-exciting vibration modes in a linear motor of a monorail car are studied. Existence and stability conditions of self-exciting vibrations are found. Ways of avoiding the vibrations are discussed.

  6. Vibrational modes of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra, M.; Naddaf, M.

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of theoretical and experimental investigations, the origin of room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from porous silicon is found to related to chemical complexes constituted the surface, in particular, SiHx, SiOx and SiOH groups. Ab initio atomic and molecular electronic structure calculations on select siloxane compounds were used for imitation of infrared (IR) spectra of porous silicon. These are compared to the IR spectra of porous silicon recorded by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In contrast to linear siloxane, the suggested circular siloxane terminated with linear siloxane structure is found to well-imitate the experimental spectra. These results are augmented with EDX (energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) measurements, which showed that the increase of SiOx content in porous silicon due to rapid oxidation process results in considerable decrease in PL peak intensity and a blue shift in the peak position. (author)

  7. The Effect of a Vibration Absorber on the Damping Properties of Alpine Skis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schwanitz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coupled bending-torsion vibrations at the shovel are a severe problem when running an alpine ski at high velocities on hard or icy slopes. Thus, a major goal for ski manufacturers is to dampen vibrations through a proper multi-material design and/or additional absorbers. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a particular vibration absorber on a commercial slalom ski through a series of laboratory tests as well as a subjective field evaluation. Therefore, two identical pairs of ski were used and the absorber was deactivated on one pair. Laboratory tests revealed reductions of 5% to 49% of bending vibrations on skis with activated absorber. Subjective evaluation by 6 subjects suggested minor differences in the mean of the evaluated criteria turnablity, edge grip, steering behavior and stability towards a better performance of the skis with activated absorber. Subjects were able to identify the absorber mode with a success rate of 61.1%.

  8. An analytical method for free vibration analysis of Timoshenko beam theory applied to cracked nanobeams using a nonlocal elasticity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torabi, K.; Nafar Dastgerdi, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the free transverse vibration of cracked nanobeams modeled after Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory and Timoshenko beam theory. The cracked beam is modeled as two segments connected by a rotational spring located at the cracked section. This model promotes discontinuities in rotational displacement due to bending which is proportional to bending moment transmitted by the cracked section. The governing equations of cracked nanobeams with two symmetric and asymmetric boundary conditions are derived; then these equations are solved analytically based on concerning basic standard trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. Besides, the frequency parameters and the vibration modes of cracked nanobeams for variant crack positions, crack ratio, and small scale effect parameters are calculated. The vibration solutions obtained provide a better representation of the vibration behavior of short, stubby, micro/nanobeams where the effects of small scale, transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are significant. - Highlights: ► The free vibration analysis of cracked nanobeams is investigated. ► This study is based on the theory of nonlocal elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory. ► The small scale effect parameter greatly affects the value of natural frequencies. ► Crack reduces the natural frequencies, causes a discontinuity in the cracked section.

  9. An analytical method for free vibration analysis of Timoshenko beam theory applied to cracked nanobeams using a nonlocal elasticity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabi, K., E-mail: kvntrb@KashanU.ac.ir; Nafar Dastgerdi, J., E-mail: J.nafardastgerdi@me.iut.ac.ir

    2012-08-31

    This paper is concerned with the free transverse vibration of cracked nanobeams modeled after Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory and Timoshenko beam theory. The cracked beam is modeled as two segments connected by a rotational spring located at the cracked section. This model promotes discontinuities in rotational displacement due to bending which is proportional to bending moment transmitted by the cracked section. The governing equations of cracked nanobeams with two symmetric and asymmetric boundary conditions are derived; then these equations are solved analytically based on concerning basic standard trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. Besides, the frequency parameters and the vibration modes of cracked nanobeams for variant crack positions, crack ratio, and small scale effect parameters are calculated. The vibration solutions obtained provide a better representation of the vibration behavior of short, stubby, micro/nanobeams where the effects of small scale, transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are significant. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The free vibration analysis of cracked nanobeams is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is based on the theory of nonlocal elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The small scale effect parameter greatly affects the value of natural frequencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crack reduces the natural frequencies, causes a discontinuity in the cracked section.

  10. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  11. Effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, vibrational analysis and molecular structure of 4-chlorobenzothioamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çırak, Çağrı; Sert, Yusuf; Ucun, Fatih

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of 4-chlorobenzothioamide were investigated. The FT-IR (400-4000 cm-1) and μ-Raman spectra (100-4000 cm-1) of 4-chlorobenzothioamide in the solid phase were recorded. The geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles), vibrational frequencies, Infrared and Raman intensities of the title molecule in the ground state were calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for the first time. The optimized geometric parameters and the theoretical vibrational frequencies were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and with the results found in the literature. The vibrational frequencies were assigned based on the potential energy distribution using the VEDA 4 program. The dimeric form of 4-chlorobenzothioamide was also simulated to evaluate the effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the vibrational frequencies. It was observed that the Nsbnd H stretching modes shifted to lower frequencies, while the in-plane and out-of-plane bending modes shifted to higher frequencies due to the intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯S hydrogen bond. Also, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and diagrams were presented.

  12. Effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, vibrational analysis and molecular structure of a biomolecule: 5-Hydroxymethyluracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çırak, Çağrı; Sert, Yusuf; Ucun, Fatih

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of 5-hydroxymethyluracil were investigated. The FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) spectrum of the molecule in the solid phase was recorded. The geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles), vibrational frequencies, Infrared intensities of the title molecule in the ground state were calculated using density functional B3LYP and M06-2X methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for the first time. The optimized geometric parameters and theoretical vibrational frequencies were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with the results found in the literature. The vibrational frequencies were assigned based on the potential energy distribution using the VEDA 4 program. The dimeric form of 5-hydroxymethyluracil molecule was also simulated to evaluate the effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on its vibrational frequencies. It was observed that the Nsbnd H stretching modes shifted to lower frequencies, while its in-plane and out-of-plane bending modes shifted to higher frequencies due to the intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond. Also, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and diagrams were presented.

  13. Vibrations of a molecule in an external force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Norio; Peronio, Angelo; Paulsson, Magnus; Arai, Toyoko; Giessibl, Franz J

    2018-05-01

    The oscillation frequencies of a molecule on a surface are determined by the mass distribution in the molecule and the restoring forces that occur when the molecule bends. The restoring force originates from the atomic-scale interaction within the molecule and with the surface, which plays an essential role in the dynamics and reactivity of the molecule. In 1998, a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy with inelastic tunneling spectroscopy revealed the vibrational frequencies of single molecules adsorbed on a surface. However, the probe tip itself exerts forces on the molecule, changing its oscillation frequencies. Here, we combine atomic force microscopy with inelastic tunneling spectroscopy and measure the influence of the forces exerted by the tip on the lateral vibrational modes of a carbon monoxide molecule on a copper surface. Comparing the experimental data to a mechanical model of the vibrating molecule shows that the bonds within the molecule and with the surface are weakened by the proximity of the tip. This combination of techniques can be applied to analyze complex molecular vibrations and the mechanics of forming and loosening chemical bonds, as well as to study the mechanics of bond breaking in chemical reactions and atomic manipulation.

  14. Vibration insensitive interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerd, James; Brock, Neal; Hayes, John; Kimbrough, Brad; North-Morris, Michael; Wyant, James C.

    2017-11-01

    The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence. An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements. There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques: 1) Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array (PhaseCam) and 2) Micropolarizer phase-shifting array. The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described.

  15. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  16. AGS superconducting bending magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.; McInturff, A.D.; Dahl, P.F.; Abbatiello, F.; Aggus, J.; Bamberger, J.; Brown, D.; Damm, R.; Kassner, D.; Lasky, C.; Schlafke, A.

    1976-01-01

    Four large aperture superconducting bending magnets are being built for use in the experimental beams at the AGS. Each of these magnets is 2.5 m long and has a room temperature aperture of 20 cm. The magnets are similar in design to the dipoles being developed for ISABELLE and employ a low temperature iron core. Results are presented on the ''training'' behavior of the magnets and a comparison will be made with the smaller aperture versions of this design. The magnet field measurements include end fields and leakage fields as well as the harmonic components of the straight section of the magnet

  17. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  18. Physical and numerical investigation of the flow induced vibration of the hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Wang, G. Y.; Huang, B.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the flow induced vibration of a flexible hydrofoil in cavitating flows via combined experimental and numerical studies. The experiments are presented for the modified NACA66 hydrofoil made of POM Polyacetate in the closed-loop cavitation tunnel at Beijing Institute of Technology. The high-speed camera and the single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer are applied to analyze the transient flow structures and the corresponding structural vibration characteristics. The hybrid coupled fluid structure interaction model is conducted to couple the incompressible and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver with a simplified two-degree-of-freedom structural model. The k-ω SST turbulence model with the turbulence viscosity correction and the Zwart cavitation model are introduced to the present simulations. The results showed that with the decreasing of the cavitation number, the cavitating flows display incipient cavitation, sheet cavitation, cloud cavitation and supercavitation. The vibration magnitude increases dramatically for the cloud cavitation and decline for the supercavitation. The cloud cavitation development strongly affects the vibration response, which is corresponding to the periodically developing and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavity. The main frequency of the vibration amplitude is accordance with the cavity shedding frequency and other two frequencies of the vibration amplitude are corresponding to the natural frequencies of the bending and twisting modes.

  19. System Detects Vibrational Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.

  20. Bend testing for miniature disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Hamilton, M.L.; Wire, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A bend test was developed to obtain ductility measurements on a large number of alloy variants being irradiated in the form of miniature disks. Experimental results were shown to be in agreement with a theoretical analysis of the bend configuration. Disk specimens fabricated from the unstrained grip ends of previously tested tensile specimens were used for calibration purposes; bend ductilities and tensile ductilities were in good agreement. The criterion for estimating ductility was judged acceptable for screening purposes

  1. Molecular Mechanics of the α-Actinin Rod Domain: Bending, Torsional, and Extensional Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golji, Javad; Collins, Robert; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2009-01-01

    α-Actinin is an actin crosslinking molecule that can serve as a scaffold and maintain dynamic actin filament networks. As a crosslinker in the stressed cytoskeleton, α-actinin can retain conformation, function, and strength. α-Actinin has an actin binding domain and a calmodulin homology domain separated by a long rod domain. Using molecular dynamics and normal mode analysis, we suggest that the α-actinin rod domain has flexible terminal regions which can twist and extend under mechanical stress, yet has a highly rigid interior region stabilized by aromatic packing within each spectrin repeat, by electrostatic interactions between the spectrin repeats, and by strong salt bridges between its two anti-parallel monomers. By exploring the natural vibrations of the α-actinin rod domain and by conducting bending molecular dynamics simulations we also predict that bending of the rod domain is possible with minimal force. We introduce computational methods for analyzing the torsional strain of molecules using rotating constraints. Molecular dynamics extension of the α-actinin rod is also performed, demonstrating transduction of the unfolding forces across salt bridges to the associated monomer of the α-actinin rod domain. PMID:19436721

  2. A Low Frequency FBG Accelerometer with Symmetrical Bended Spring Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fufei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal in magnitude but opposite in direction when exciting vibrations exist, leading to doubling the wavelength shift of the FBG. The mechanics model and a numerical method are presented in this paper, with which the influence of the structural parameters on the sensitivity and the eigenfrequency are discussed. The test results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is more than 1000 pm/g when the frequency is within the 0.7–20 Hz range.

  3. Nonlinear mathematical modeling of vibrating motion of nanomechanical cantilever active probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghaderi

    Full Text Available Nonlinear vibration response of nanomechanical cantilever (NMC active probes in atomic force microscope (AFM application has been studied in the amplitude mode. Piezoelectric layer is placed piecewise and as an actuator on NMC. Continuous beam model has been chosen for analysis with regard to the geometric discontinuities of piezoelectric layer attachment and NMC's cross section. The force between the tip and the sample surface is modeled using Leonard-Jones potential. Assuming that cantilever is inclined to the sample surface, the effect of nonlinear force on NMC is considered as a shearing force and the concentrated bending moment is regarded at the end. Nonlinear frequency response of NMC is obtained close to the sample surface using the dynamic modeling. It is then become clear that the distance and angle of NMC, the probe length, and the geometric dimensions of piezoelectric layer can affect frequency response bending of the curve.

  4. Vibration and flutter of mistuned bladed-disk assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model for investigating vibration and flutter of mistuned bladed disk assemblies is presented. This model accounts for elastic, inertial and aerodynamic coupling between bending and torsional motions of each individual blade, elastic and inertial couplings between the blades and the disk, and aerodynamic coupling among the blades. The disk was modeled as a circular plate with constant thickness and each blade was represented by a twisted, slender, straight, nonuniform, elastic beam with a symmetric cross section. The elastic axis, inertia axis, and the tension axis were taken to be noncoincident and the structural warping of the section was explicitly considered. The blade aerodynamic loading in the subsonic and supersonic flow regimes was obtained from two-dimensional unsteady, cascade theories. All the possible standing wave modes of the disk and traveling wave modes of the blades were included. The equations of motion were derived by using the energy method in conjunction with the assumed mode shapes for the disk and the blades. Continuities of displacement and slope at the blade-disk junction were maintained. The equations were solved to investigate the effects of blade-disk coupling and blade frequency mistuning on vibration and flutter. Results showed that the flexibility of practical disks such as those used for current generation turbofans did not have a significant influence on either the tuned or mistuned flutter characteristics. However, the disk flexibility may have a strong influence on some of the system frequencies and on forced response.

  5. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-04-10

    We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.

  6. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, P.-Y.; Bagci, Hakan; Enoch, S.; Guenneau, S.; Alù , A.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.

  7. A novel L-shaped linear ultrasonic motor operating in a single resonance mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiaoniu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a large thrust linear ultrasonic motor using an L-shaped stator is described. The stator is constructed by two mutually perpendicular rectangular plate vibrators, one of which is mounted in parallel with the slider to make the motor structure to be more compact. The symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the stator based on the first order bending vibration of two vibrators are adopted, in which each resonance mode is assigned to drive the slider in one direction. The placement of piezoelectric ceramics in a stator could be determined by finite element analysis, and the influence of slots in the head block on the vibration amplitudes of driving foot was studied as well. Three types of prototypes (non-slotted, dual-slot, and single-slot) were fabricated and experimentally investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the prototype with one slot exhibited the best mechanical output performance. The maximum loads under the excitation of symmetric mode and antisymmetric mode were 65 and 90 N, respectively.

  8. Investigation of the Processing Parameters Impact on the Flexural Tool Vibrations While Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an approach to analyze a dynamic stability of the drilling process in terms of tool flexibility. The proposed technique takes into consideration a regenerative effect leading to time delay in the dynamic system. This regenerative delay is the main source of arising dynamically unstable machining conditions. The paper describes a principle of emerging self-vibrations while cutting. It mentions the undesirable nature of transverse bending selfvibrations of tool, which cause a decreasing quality of the processed hole surface.The suggested approach consists in building a diagram of the drilling process stability for a tool model allowing only its flexural vibrations. The feature of the study is to describe tool dynamics using a finite element model based on the quadratic approximation of displacements for tool dynamics modeling. The assumption of an axial symmetry of drill geometry was discarded. The reduced model of tool was built taking into account two eigenvectors corresponding to tool bending. This model contains 2 degrees of freedom (DOF, which are, essentially, rotations of a drill tip. The technology of rigid multi-point constraints was used to connect those DOFs with solid finite element nodes. The system of delayed differential equations describing the reduced tool model dynamics was derived to estimate a dynamic stability of the drilling process. The Floquet theory is applied to build a stability diagram as a maximum multiplicator value versus a drill rotation rate. The presented diagram allows us to draw a conclusion that in the wide range of rotation frequencies transverse bending self- vibrations can be excited. The results obtained and the calculation technique may be used to choose the operation modes free from undesirable flexural self-vibrations of tool.The reported study was supported by RFBR within the framework of the research project ” mol_a”№ 14-08-31603 “Development of methods and algorithms for

  9. Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Study on Elbow Vibration Transmission Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-shan, Dai; Zhen-hai, Zhang; Shi-jian, Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Pipeline system vibration is one of the significant factors leading to the vibration and noise of vessel. Elbow is widely used in the pipeline system. However, the researches about vibration of elbow are little, and there is no systematic study. In this research, we firstly analysed the relationship between elbow vibration transmission characteristics and bending radius by ABAQUS finite element simulation. Then, we conducted the further vibration test to observe the vibration transmission characteristics of different elbows which have the same diameter and different bending radius under different flow velocity. The results of simulation calculation and experiment both showed that the vibration acceleration levels of the pipeline system decreased with the increase of bending radius of the elbow, which was beneficial to reduce the transmission of vibration in the pipeline system. The results could be used as reference for further studies and designs for the low noise installation of pipeline system.

  10. Enhanced Transmissions Through Three-dimensional Cascade Sharp Waveguide Bends Using C-slit Diaphragms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Hu, Bowei; Zhang, Aofang; Gao, Dongxing; Wang, Hui; Shi, Ayuan; Lei, Zhenya; Yang, Pei

    2017-03-21

    Transmission properties through sharp rectangular waveguide bends are investigated to determine the cut-off bending angles of the wave propagation. We show that a simple metallic diaphragm at the bending corner with properly devised sub-wavelength defect apertures of C-slits would be readily to turn on the transmissions with scarce reflections of the propagating modes, while preserving the integrity of the transmitting fields soon after the bends. In particularly, our design also demonstrates the capability of eliminating all the unwanted cavity resonant transmissions that exist in the three-dimensional cascade sharp waveguide bends, and solely let the desired signals travel along the whole passage of the waveguide. The present approach, using C-slit diaphragms to support the sharp bending behaviors of the guided waves with greatly enhanced transmissions, would be especially effective in constructing novel waveguides and pave the way for the development of more compact and miniaturized electromagnetic systems that exploit these waveguide bends.

  11. High Frequency Vibration Based Fatigue Testing of Developmental Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holycross, Casey M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; George, Tommy J.; Tamirisakandala, Seshacharyulu; Russ, Stephan M.

    Many fatigue test methods have been previously developed to rapidly evaluate fatigue behavior. This increased test speed can come at some expense, since these methods may require non-standard specimen geometry or increased facility and equipment capability. One such method, developed by George et al, involves a base-excited plate specimen driven into a high frequency bending resonant mode. This resonant mode is of sufficient frequency (typically 1200 to 1700 Hertz) to accumulate 107 cycles in a few hours. One of the main limitations of this test method is that fatigue cracking is almost certainly guaranteed to be surface initiated at regions of high stress. This brings into question the validity of the fatigue test results, as compared to more traditional uniaxial, smooth-bar testing, since high stresses are subjecting only a small volume to fatigue damage. This limitation also brings into question the suitability of this method to screen developmental alloys, should their initiation life be governed by subsurface flaws. However, if applicable, the rapid generation of fatigue data using this method would facilitate faster design iterations, identifying more quickly, material and manufacturing process deficiencies. The developmental alloy used in this study was a powder metallurgy boron-modified Ti-6Al-4V, a new alloy currently being considered for gas turbine engine fan blades. Plate specimens were subjected to fully reversed bending fatigue. Results are compared with existing data from commercially available Ti-6Al-4V using both vibration based and more traditional fatigue test methods.

  12. Neural adaptive control for vibration suppression in composite fin-tip of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S; Kannan, N; Sundararajan, N; Saratchandran, P

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we present a neural adaptive control scheme for active vibration suppression of a composite aircraft fin tip. The mathematical model of a composite aircraft fin tip is derived using the finite element approach. The finite element model is updated experimentally to reflect the natural frequencies and mode shapes very accurately. Piezo-electric actuators and sensors are placed at optimal locations such that the vibration suppression is a maximum. Model-reference direct adaptive neural network control scheme is proposed to force the vibration level within the minimum acceptable limit. In this scheme, Gaussian neural network with linear filters is used to approximate the inverse dynamics of the system and the parameters of the neural controller are estimated using Lyapunov based update law. In order to reduce the computational burden, which is critical for real-time applications, the number of hidden neurons is also estimated in the proposed scheme. The global asymptotic stability of the overall system is ensured using the principles of Lyapunov approach. Simulation studies are carried-out using sinusoidal force functions of varying frequency. Experimental results show that the proposed neural adaptive control scheme is capable of providing significant vibration suppression in the multiple bending modes of interest. The performance of the proposed scheme is better than the H(infinity) control scheme.

  13. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    at the University of Southern Denmark, it reports on fundamental formulas and makes uses of graphical representation to promote understanding. Thanks to the emphasis put on analytical methods and numerical results, the book is meant to make students and engineers familiar with all fundamental equations...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  14. Vibrations of a connecting system of curved bars, in-plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Asakura, Akira.

    1979-01-01

    Piping systems were simulated with the combined bars with many kinds of curved and straight shapes. The system consists of straight bars and a circular arc bar, an elliptic arc bar and a catenary curved bar. The inplane vibration of a complicated bar system of any shape, which is indicated by two-dimensional center line, was analyzed strictly and simply, utilizing Lagrangean equation. The theoretical and analytical equations of vibration were derived, such as Lagrangean equation, Euler's equation, and those for bending moment, shearing force, tangential force, deformation, inclination, amplitude frequency, etc. The calculations were conducted on the U-shaped bars, namely the elliptic arc bar connected to straight bars and the catenary bar connected to straight bars, with the boundary condition of fixed ends. The analytical in-plane vibrating characteristics including natural frequency and vibration mode are shown. In the relating experiment, the frequency was measured with the U-shaped test pieces, changing the parameters of the length ratio of elliptic arc and straight part. Both ends were fixed. The test result showed that the vibration characteristics were consistent with the analytical result comparatively. This method is advantageous especially for complicated piping systems. The material and the cross section of bars were not varied in this analysis as the analytical condition. (Nakai, Y.)

  15. Picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Minoru; Shiomitsu, Eiji; Odai, Kei; Sugimoto, Tohru; Suzuki, Hideo; Ito, Etsuro

    2004-02-01

    Conformational changes of proteins are dominated by the excitation and relaxation processes of their vibrational states. To elucidate the mechanism of receptor activation, the conformation dynamics of receptors must be analyzed in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation. In this study, we chose the bending vibrational mode of the guanidinium group of Arg485 of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 based on our previous studies, and we investigated picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor caused by the vibrational excitation of Arg485 via molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational excitation energy in Arg485 in the ligand-binding site initially flowed into Lys730, and then into the J-helix at the subunit interface of the ligand-binding domain. Consequently, the atomic displacement in the subunit interface around an intersubunit hydrogen bond was evoked in about 3 ps. This atomic displacement may perturb the subunit packing of the receptor, triggering receptor activation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Flow Instabilities and Main Steam Line Vibrations in a Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksson, Mats; Westin, Johan; Granhall, Tord; Andersson, Lars; Bjerke, Lars-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Severe vibrational problems occurred in the main steam system of a PWR nuclear power plant, about 18 months after a steam generator replacement had been carried out. The magnitude of the vibrations reached levels at which the operators had to reduce power in order to stay within the operating limits imposed by the nuclear inspectorate. To solve the problem the following analyses methods were employed: - Testing the influence on vibration level from different modes of plant operation; - Analyses of plant measurement data; - Calculations of: hydraulic behaviour of the system, structural dynamic behaviour of the system, flow at the steam generator outlet. Scale model testing of the steam generator outlet region. Hydraulic flow disturbances in the main steam system were measured using pressure and strain gauges, which made it possible to track individual pressure pulses propagating through the main steam system. Analyses showed that the pressure pulses causing the vibration originated from the vicinity of the steam generator outlet. By using computer codes for network fluid flow analyses the pressure pulses found in the measurement traces could be generated in calculations. Careful studies of the flow at the steam generator outlet region, using model testing in a 1:3 scale model as well as transient 3D CFD calculations, gave clear indications that flow separation occurred at the steam generator outlet nozzle and at the first bend. Finally, by substituting the outlet nozzle for a different design with a multi-port nozzle, the steam line vibration problem has been solved. (authors)

  17. Detection of interstellar vibrationally excited HCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziurys, L.M.; Turner, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    Vibrationally excited HCN has been observed for the first time in the interstellar medium. The J = 3-2 rotational transitions of the l-doubled (0,1/sup 1d/,1c, 0) bending mode of HCN have been detected toward Orion-KL and IRC +10216. In Orion, the overall column density in the (0,1,0) mode, which exclusively samples the ''hot core,'' is 1.7-10 16 cm -2 and can be understood in terms of the ''doughnut'' model for Orion. The ground-state HCN column density implied by the excited-state observations is 2.3 x 10 18 cm -2 in the hot core, at least one order of magnitude greater than the column densities derived for HCN in its spike and plateau/doughnut components. Radiative excitation by 14 μm flux from IRc2 accounts for the (0,1,0) population provided the hot core is approx.6-7 x 10 16 cm distant from IRc2, in agreement with the ''cavity'' model for KL. Toward IRC +10216 we have detected J = 3-2 transitions of both (0,1/sup 1c/,/sup 1d/,0) and (0,2 0 ,0) excited states. The spectral profiles have been modeled to yield abundances and excitation conditions throughout the expanding envelope

  18. Torsion-rotation structure and quasi-symmetric-rotor behaviour for the CH3SH asymmetric CH3-bending and C-H stretching bands of E parentage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong; Guislain, B. G.; Reid, E. M.; Twagirayezu, S.; Perry, D. S.; Dawadi, M. B.; Thapaliya, B. P.; Billinghurst, B. E.

    2018-01-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform spectra of the asymmetric methyl-bending and methyl-stretching bands of CH3SH have been recorded employing synchrotron radiation at the FIR beamline of the Canadian Light Source. Analysis of the torsion-rotation structure and relative intensities has revealed the novel feature that for both bend and stretch the in-plane and out-of-plane modes behave much like a Coriolis-coupled l-doublet pair originating from degenerate E modes of a symmetric top. As the axial angular momentum K increases, the energies of the coupled "l = ±1" modes diverge linearly, with effective Coriolis ζ constants typical for symmetric tops. For the methyl-stretching states, separated at K = 0 by only about 1 cm-1, the assigned sub-bands follow a symmetric top Δ(K - l) = 0 selection rule, with only ΔK = -1 transitions observed to the upper l = -1 in-plane A‧ component and only ΔK = +1 transitions to the lower l = +1 out-of-plane A″ component. The K = 0 separation of the CH3-bending states is larger at 9.1 cm-1 with the l-ordering reversed. Here, both ΔK = +1 and ΔK = -1 transitions are seen for each l-component but with a large difference in relative intensity. Term values for the excited state levels have been fitted to J(J + 1) power-series expansions to obtain substate origins. These have then been fitted to a Fourier model to characterize the torsion-K-rotation energy patterns. For both pairs of vibrational states, the torsional energies display the customary oscillatory behaviour as a function of K and have inverted torsional splittings relative to the ground state. The spectra show numerous perturbations, indicating local resonances with the underlying bath of high torsional levels and vibrational combination and overtone states. The overall structure of the two pairs of bands represents a new regime in which the vibrational energy separations, torsional splittings and shifts due to molecular asymmetry are all of the same order, creating a

  19. Extraction of the mode shapes of a segmented ship model with a hydroelastic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooil Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mode shapes of a segmented hull model towed in a model basin were predicted using both the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD and cross random decrement technique. The proper orthogonal decomposition, which is also known as Karhunen-Loeve decomposition, is an emerging technology as a useful signal processing technique in structural dynamics. The technique is based on the fact that the eigenvectors of a spatial coherence matrix become the mode shapes of the system under free and randomly excited forced vibration conditions. Taking advantage of the sim-plicity of POD, efforts have been made to reveal the mode shapes of vibrating flexible hull under random wave ex-citation. First, the segmented hull model of a 400 K ore carrier with 3 flexible connections was towed in a model basin under different sea states and the time histories of the vertical bending moment at three different locations were meas-ured. The measured response time histories were processed using the proper orthogonal decomposition, eventually to obtain both the first and second vertical vibration modes of the flexible hull. A comparison of the obtained mode shapes with those obtained using the cross random decrement technique showed excellent correspondence between the two results.

  20. In-Plane Vibrations of Circular Curved Beams with a Transverse Open Crack

    OpenAIRE

    Öz, H. R.; Daş, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the in plane vibrations of cracked circular curved beams is investigated. The beam is an Euler-Bernoulli beam. Only bending and extension effects are included. The curvature is in a single plane. In plane vibrations is analyzed using FEM. In the analysis, elongation, bending and rotary inertia effects are included. Four degrees of freedom for in-plane vibrations is assumed. Natural frequencies of the beam with a crack in different locations and depths are calculated using FEM. ...

  1. An Equivalent Circuit of Longitudinal Vibration for a Piezoelectric Structure with Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Li, Chaodong; Fan, Pingqing

    2018-03-22

    Equivalent circuits of piezoelectric structures such as bimorphs and unimorphs conventionally focus on the bending vibration modes. However, the longitudinal vibration modes are rarely considered even though they also play a remarkable role in piezoelectric devices. Losses, especially elastic loss in the metal substrate, are also generally neglected, which leads to discrepancies compared with experiments. In this paper, a novel equivalent circuit with four kinds of losses is proposed for a beamlike piezoelectric structure under the longitudinal vibration mode. This structure consists of a slender beam as the metal substrate, and a piezoelectric patch which covers a partial length of the beam. In this approach, first, complex numbers are used to deal with four kinds of losses-elastic loss in the metal substrate, and piezoelectric, dielectric, and elastic losses in the piezoelectric patch. Next in this approach, based on Mason's model, a new equivalent circuit is developed. Using MATLAB, impedance curves of this structure are simulated by the equivalent circuit method. Experiments are conducted and good agreements are revealed between experiments and equivalent circuit results. It is indicated that the introduction of four losses in an equivalent circuit can increase the result accuracy considerably.

  2. Vibration mixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1983-01-01

    The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.

  3. Vibration analysis of gas turbine blade using FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.J.; Chohan, G.Y.; Khusnood, S.; Khan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In a typical turbo-machine, there is a stator row of blades, which guide the gases onto a rotor row of blades, to extract the mechanical power from the machine. A typical rotor blade was sees upstream disturbance from the stator row and as it rotates, receive a corresponding number of increasing and decreasing lift and moment forces alternating periodically, depending on the number of stator blades/nozzles/guide vanes. Thus all the blades in a turbo-machine receiver their major periodic excitation at a frequency equal to nozzle passing frequency. Since these forces are periodic, one has to consider several number of these harmonics in determining whether resonance takes place, when one of these harmonics coincides with any of the natural frequencies of the blades. Turbine blades have a variety of natural modes of vibration, predominantly as blade alone but also in combination with flexing of the disc rim. These mode occur at characteristic frequencies, which are determined by the distribution of mass and stiffness (in bending or torsion), resulting from the variable thickness over the blade area. Since the advent of steam turbines and their application in various sectors of industry, it is a common experience that a blade failure is a major cause of breakdown in these machines. Blade failures due to fatigue are predominantly vibration related. The dynamic loads on the blading can arise from many sources, the predominant being the source of the operation principles on which the machine is designed. This work deals with vibration analysis of a gas turbine blade using a finite element package ANSYS. Determined the natural frequencies and mode shapes for a turbine blade and a rectangular blade. Results have been validated experimentally using a rectangular blade. ANSYS results have also been compared against published results. (author)

  4. Reaction Coordinate Leading to H2 Production in [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Identified by Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Birrell, James A; Pham, Cindy C; Mishra, Nakul; Wang, Hongxin; Sommer, Constanze; Reijerse, Edward; Richers, Casseday P; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cramer, Stephen P

    2017-11-22

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that reversibly reduce protons to molecular hydrogen at exceptionally high rates. We have characterized the catalytically competent hydride state (H hyd ) in the [FeFe]-hydrogenases from both Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans using 57 Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and density functional theory (DFT). H/D exchange identified two Fe-H bending modes originating from the binuclear iron cofactor. DFT calculations show that these spectral features result from an iron-bound terminal hydride, and the Fe-H vibrational frequencies being highly dependent on interactions between the amine base of the catalytic cofactor with both hydride and the conserved cysteine terminating the proton transfer chain to the active site. The results indicate that H hyd is the catalytic state one step prior to H 2 formation. The observed vibrational spectrum, therefore, provides mechanistic insight into the reaction coordinate for H 2 bond formation by [FeFe]-hydrogenases.

  5. Application of comparative vibrational spectroscopic and mechanistic studies in analysis of fisetin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Marković, Zoran S; Milenković, Dejan; Jeremić, Svetlana

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses experimental and theoretical research in fisetin (2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroxychromen-4-one) structure by means of experimental IR and Raman spectroscopies and mechanistic calculations. Density Functional Theory calculations, with M05-2X functional and the 6-311+G (2df, p) basis set implemented in the Gaussian 09 package, are performed with the aim to support molecular structure, vibrational bands' positions and their intensities. Potential energy distribution (PED) values and the description of the largest vibrational contributions to the normal modes are calculated. The most intense bands appear in the 1650-1500 cm(-1) wavenumber region. This region involves a combination of the CO, C2C3 and C-C stretching vibrational modes. Most of the bands in the 1500-1000 cm(-1) range involve C-C stretching, O-C stretching and in-plane C-C-H, C-O-H, C-C-O and C-C-C bending vibrations of the rings. The region below 1000 cm(-1) is characteristic to the combination of in plane C-C-C-H, H-C-C-H, C-C-C-C, C-C-O-C and out of plane O-C-C-C, C-C-O-C, C-C-C-C torsional modes. The Raman spectra of baicalein and quercetin were used for qualitative comparison with fisetin spectrum and verification of band assignments. The applied detailed vibrational spectral analysis and the assignments of the bands, proposed on the basis of fundamentals, reproduced the experimental results with high degree of accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of comparative vibrational spectroscopic and mechanistic studies in analysis of fisetin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M.; Marković, Zoran S.; Milenković, Dejan; Jeremić, Svetlana

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses experimental and theoretical research in fisetin (2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroxychromen-4-one) structure by means of experimental IR and Raman spectroscopies and mechanistic calculations. Density Functional Theory calculations, with M05-2X functional and the 6-311+G (2df, p) basis set implemented in the Gaussian 09 package, are performed with the aim to support molecular structure, vibrational bands' positions and their intensities. Potential energy distribution (PED) values and the description of the largest vibrational contributions to the normal modes are calculated. The most intense bands appear in the 1650-1500 cm -1 wavenumber region. This region involves a combination of the C dbnd O, C2 dbnd C3 and C-C stretching vibrational modes. Most of the bands in the 1500-1000 cm -1 range involve C-C stretching, O-C stretching and in-plane C-C-H, C-O-H, C-C-O and C-C-C bending vibrations of the rings. The region below 1000 cm -1 is characteristic to the combination of in plane C-C-C-H, H-C-C-H, C-C-C-C, C-C-O-C and out of plane O-C-C-C, C-C-O-C, C-C-C-C torsional modes. The Raman spectra of baicalein and quercetin were used for qualitative comparison with fisetin spectrum and verification of band assignments. The applied detailed vibrational spectral analysis and the assignments of the bands, proposed on the basis of fundamentals, reproduced the experimental results with high degree of accuracy.

  7. Vibrational, NMR and quantum chemical investigations of acetoacetanilde, 2-chloroacetoacetanilide and 2-methylacetoacetanilide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Kalaivani, M; Senthilkumari, S; Mohan, S

    2013-11-01

    The vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compounds acetoacetanilide (AAA), 2-chloroacetoacetanilide (2CAAA) and 2-methylacetoacetanilide (2MAAA) have been performed. Density functional theory studies have been carried out with B3LYP method utilising 6-311++G(**) and cc-pVTZ basis sets to determine structural, thermodynamic and vibrational characteristics of the compounds and also to understand the influence of chloro and methyl groups on the characteristic frequencies of amide (CONH) group. Intramolecular hydrogen bond exists in acetoacetanilide and o-substituted acetoacetanilide molecules and the N⋯O distance is found to be around 2.7Å. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecules were determined and the same have been calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals have been determined. In AAA, 2CAAA and 2MAAA molecules, the nN→πCO(∗) interaction between the nitrogen lone pair and the amide CO antibonding orbital gives strong stabilization of 64.75, 62.84 and 64.18kJmol(-1), respectively. The blue shift in amide-II band of 2MAAA is observed by 45-50cm(-1) than that of AAA. The steric effect of ortho methyl group significantly operating on the NH bond properties. The amide-III, the CN stretching mode of methyl and chloro substituted acetoacetanilide compounds are not affected by the substitution while the amide-V band, the NH out of plane bending mode of 2-chloroacetoacetanilide compound is shifted to a higher frequency than that of AAA. The substituent chlorine plays significantly and the blue shift in o-substituted compounds than the parent in the amide-V vibration is observed. The amide-VI, CO out of plane bending modes of 2MAAA and 2CAAA are significantly raised than that of AAA. A blue shift of amide-VI, CO out of plane bending modes of 2MAAA and 2CAAA than AAA is observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. The effect of load-controlled bending load on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Yoon, Min Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated bending load effect on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows. • Burst tests were conducted on real-scale elbow specimens with local wall thinning. • The tests were performed under combined pressure and load-controlled bending. • Load-controlled bending reduced the failure pressure of wall-thinned elbows. • Bending load effect was significant for opening-mode and intrados wall-thinning case. - Abstract: In this research, burst tests were conducted on real-scale elbow specimens, each with an artificial local wall-thinning defect, under combined internal pressure and constant in-plane bending load, as well as under simple internal pressure, to evaluate the effect of load-controlled bending load on the failure pressure of locally wall-thinned pipe elbows. Ninety-degree, 65A Schedule 80 elbows, with wall-thinning defects in the intrados and extrados, were used as specimens. The bending loads were in-plane opening- and closing-mode bending, applied in load-control mode. The results clearly indicated that a load-controlled in-plane bending load reduced the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows, in contrast to observations previously made under displacement-controlled bending conditions. The effect of the bending load was more significant for opening-mode than for closing-mode bending, regardless of the wall-thinning location in the elbow. Also, the effect was greater when the wall-thinning defect was located in the intrados region of the elbow, rather than the extrados region. Existing models that have been proposed to evaluate the failure of wall-thinned elbows under simple internal pressure conservatively predicted the failure pressure of elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and load-controlled bending load

  9. A New Kind of Bend Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new kind of bend sensor is introduced.It can be used to detect the bend angle of an object or inclination between two objects.It has characteristics of small size, lightweight, high reliability, fine flexibility and plasticity.When this bend sensor is used with a proper converting circuit, it can implement dynamic measuring the bend angle of an object conveniently.The application of the bend sensor in dataglove is also described.

  10. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  11. The creep bending of short radius pipe bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, John

    1975-01-01

    In existing and proposed liquid metal fast breeder reactor design the pipework has considerable importance. Parts of the LMFBR include thin walled short radius bends which are expected to operate in the creep regime. In linear elasticity it is known that the assumption of long radius bends is not too severe as far as the flexibility characteristics are concerned although some modifications are necessary for accurate determination of the stresses. No data exists for nonlinear creep. Current work is aimed at elucidating the effect of the various assumptions common to linear elastic theory in so far as they affect the creep characteristics of bends on systems. Herein an energy based analysis using a simple n power constitutive law for stationary creep is employed to derive basic design data for flexibilities and stresses which will be necessary before complete systems can be assessed for creep. The analysis shows on comparison with the long radius work that the assumption of R>r is not much more restrictive in creep than for linear elasticity. Flexibilities for short radius bends appear to be well approximated by the long radius values. Thus the attractive reference stress information already derived may be used directly to find deformations without a complete knowledge of the constitutive relationship. However, stresses are somewhat different. Fortunately the maximum deviation occurs at relatively low levels of stress, the peak stresses being in fair agreement. When n=1 the present results reduce essentially to those obtained from existing linear elastic theory

  12. Alleviation of Buffet-Induced Vibration Using Piezoelectric Actuators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgenstern, Shawn D

    2006-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to determine the most critical natural modes of vibration for the F-16 ventral fin and design piezoelectric actuators capable of reducing buffet-induced ventral fin vibration...

  13. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  14. Analysis of vibration characteristics of a prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge using strong motion observation data. Jishin kansoku ni motozuku PC shachokyo no shindo tokusei no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inatomi, T. (Port and Harbour Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan)); Takeda, T.; Obi, N.; Yamanobe, S. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-31

    Records of seismic observation were analyzed for the purpose of proving the validity of antiseismic design for a prestressed concrete (PC) cable-stayed bridge. This bridge is a three span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge of 498 m in bridge length, and is constructed on alluvial soft ground. The seismometer used is a servo type accelerometer. The observed frequency and mode of seismic vibration are in good agreement with those in the analysis and hence the validity of modelling of the structure in designing was confirmed. It was also confirmed that the bending vibration and torsional vibration of the main girder are separated as designed. However, some points such as a large difference in the observed vibration and analysed vibration in the mode accompanying rotation of the base are listed as problems to be solved in antiseismic design. In order to investigate the attenuation constant of the upper structure, a seismic wave response analysis was performed and its results were compared with observed ones. When the attenuation constant is assumed to be 2%, agreement of data between analysis and observation is good, and it is considered that the attenuation constant of the upper structure only without the effects of attenuation of energy escape from the base and crack generation in concrete was about 2% in the observed earthquake (maximum acceleration on the ground: 51 Gal). 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. High speed bending of 2nd level interconnects on printed circuit boards for automotive electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Ubachs, R.; Wiel, H.J. van de; Waal, A. van der; Veer, J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Standard drop tests for portable electronics are not representative for the qualification of automotive electronics. High-frequency vibrations are more dominant than abrupt shocks during normal operation. In this work a high speed board bending (HSB) method is developed to mimic the constant cyclic

  16. Metamaterials, from electromagnetic waves to water waves, bending waves and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, G.

    2015-08-04

    We will review our recent work on metamaterials for different types of waves. Transposition of transform optics to water waves and bending waves on plates will be considered with potential applications of cloaking to water waves protection and anti-vibrating systems.

  17. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  18. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life

  19. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  20. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-01-15

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy and intramolecular energy transfer in isocyanic acid (HNCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, M.J.; Berghout, H.L.; Woods, E. III; Crim, F.F.

    1999-01-01

    Room temperature photoacoustic spectra in the region of the first through the fourth overtones (2ν 1 to 5ν 1 ) and free-jet action spectra of the second through the fourth overtones (3ν 1 to 5ν 1 ) of the N - H stretching vibration permit analysis of the vibrational and rotational structure of HNCO. The analysis identifies the strong intramolecular couplings that control the early stages of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and gives the interaction matrix elements between the zero-order N - H stretching states and the other zero-order states with which they interact. The experimentally determined couplings and zero-order state separations are consistent with ab initio calculations of East, Johnson, and Allen [J. Chem. Phys. 98, 1299 (1993)], and comparison with the calculation identifies the coupled states and likely interactions. The states most strongly coupled to the pure N - H stretching zero-order states are ones with a quantum of N - H stretching excitation (ν 1 ) replaced by different combinations of N - C - O asymmetric or symmetric stretching excitation (ν 2 or ν 3 ) and trans-bending excitation (ν 4 ). The two strongest couplings of the nν 1 state are to the states (n-1)ν 1 +ν 2 +ν 4 and (n-1)ν 1 +ν 3 +2ν 4 , and sequential couplings through a series of low order resonances potentially play a role. The analysis shows that if the pure N - H stretch zero-order state were excited, energy would initially flow out of that mode into the strongly coupled mode in 100 fs to 700 fs, depending on the level of initial excitation. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  2. PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2011-12-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of

  3. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  4. Vibrational Spectral Studies of Gemfibrozil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitta, T. Asenath; Balendiran, G. K.; James, C.

    2008-11-01

    The Fourier Transform Raman and infrared spectra of the crystallized drug molecule 5-(2,5-Dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid (Gemfibrozil) have been recorded and analyzed. Quantum chemical computational methods have been employed using Gaussian 03 software package based on Hartree Fock method for theoretically modeling the grown molecule. The optimized geometry and vibrational frequencies have been predicted. Observed vibrational modes have been assigned with the aid of normal coordinate analysis.

  5. Experimental Determination of Bending Resonances of Millimeter Size PVF2 Cantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Thompson

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The polymer piezoelectric polvinylidene fluoride has found widespread use in sensors and actuators. The bending mode of piezoelectricity offers very high sensitivities and low mechanical input impedance, but has not been studied in as much detail for sensor applications. We report the dynamic electromechanical properties of millimeter size cantilevers made from electroded films of PVF2. All devices tested had a single polymer layer. Several resonances are found below 1 kHz and the experimentally observed resonance frequency dependence on cantilever thickness and length are seen to agree well with published models which take the properties of the electrodes into account. It is found that bending resonances are also modulated by the width of the cantilever. Therefore, though the length and thickness control the resonance frequency most strongly, the actual realized value can be fine-tuned by changing cantilever width and the electrode material and its thickness. Further, all resonances display high piezoelectric coupling coefficients (keff, ranging between 0.2 - 0.35. The data presented here will be extremely useful in the design of sensors and actuators for a number of applications, since the combination of millimeter size scales and high piezoelectric sensitivities in the low audio range can be realized with this marriage of polymeric materials and cantilever geometries. Such an array of sensors can be used in cochlear implant applications, and when integrated with a resonance interrogation circuit can be used for the detection of low frequency vibrations of large structures. If appropriate mass/elasticity sensitive layers are coated on the electrodes, such a sensor can be used for the detection of a wide range of chemicals and biochemicals.

  6. True Tapping Mode Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy with Bent Glass Fiber Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A; Yasinskii, V M; Filimonenko, D S; Rostova, E; Dietler, G; Sekatskii, S K

    2018-01-01

    In scanning near-field optical microscopy, the most popular probes are made of sharpened glass fiber attached to a quartz tuning fork (TF) and exploiting the shear force-based feedback. The use of tapping mode feedback could be preferable. Such an approach can be realized, for example, using bent fiber probes. Detailed analysis of fiber vibration modes shows that realization of truly tapping mode of the probe dithering requires an extreme caution. In case of using the second resonance mode, probes vibrate mostly in shear force mode unless the bending radius is rather small (ca. 0.3 mm) and the probe's tip is short. Otherwise, the shear force character of the dithering persists. Probes having these characteristics were prepared by irradiation of a tapered etched glass fiber with a CW CO 2 laser. These probes were attached to the TF in double resonance conditions which enables achieving significant quality factor (4000-6000) of the TF + probe system (Cherkun et al., 2006). We also show that, to achieve a truly tapping character, dithering, short, and not exceeding 3 mm lengths of a freestanding part of bent fiber probe beam should also be used in the case of nonresonant excitation.

  7. True Tapping Mode Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy with Bent Glass Fiber Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Smirnov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In scanning near-field optical microscopy, the most popular probes are made of sharpened glass fiber attached to a quartz tuning fork (TF and exploiting the shear force-based feedback. The use of tapping mode feedback could be preferable. Such an approach can be realized, for example, using bent fiber probes. Detailed analysis of fiber vibration modes shows that realization of truly tapping mode of the probe dithering requires an extreme caution. In case of using the second resonance mode, probes vibrate mostly in shear force mode unless the bending radius is rather small (ca. 0.3 mm and the probe’s tip is short. Otherwise, the shear force character of the dithering persists. Probes having these characteristics were prepared by irradiation of a tapered etched glass fiber with a CW CO2 laser. These probes were attached to the TF in double resonance conditions which enables achieving significant quality factor (4000–6000 of the TF + probe system (Cherkun et al., 2006. We also show that, to achieve a truly tapping character, dithering, short, and not exceeding 3 mm lengths of a freestanding part of bent fiber probe beam should also be used in the case of nonresonant excitation.

  8. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In   this   paper   we   describe   a   field   study   conducted   with   a   wearable   vibration   belt   where   we   test   to   determine   the   vibration   intensity   sensitivity   ranges   on   a   large   diverse   group   of   participants   with   evenly   distributed  ages  and...

  9. Ambient Vibration and Earthquake-Data Analyses of a 62-STORY Building Using System Identification and Seismic Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Fletcher, J. B.; Ulusoy, H. S.; Baker, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    A 62-story residential tower in San Francisco—the tallest all-residential building in California—was recently instrumented by the USGS's National Strong Motion Project in collaboration with the Strong Motion Instrumentation Program of the California Geological Survey to monitor the motion of a tall building built with specifically engineered features (including buckling-restrained braces, outrigger columns and a tuned liquid damper) to reduce its sway from seismic and wind loads. This 641-ft tower has been outfitted with 72 uni-axial accelerometers, spanning through 26 different levels of the building. For damage detection and localization through structural health monitoring, we use local micro-earthquake and ambient monitoring (background noises) to define linear-elastic (undamaged) dynamic properties of the superstructure including its modal parameters (fundamental frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping values) and shear-wave propagation profile and wave attenuation inside the building, which need to be determined in advance of strong shaking. In order to estimate the baseline modal parameters, we applied a frequency domain decomposition method. Using this method, the first three bending modes in the reference east-west direction, the first two bending modes in the reference north-south direction, and the first two torsional modes were identified. The shear-wave propagation and wave attenuation inside the building were computed using deconvolution interferometry. The data used for analyses are from ambient vibrations having 20 minutes duration, and earthquake data from a local M4.5 event located just north east of Geyserville, California. We show that application of deconvolution interferometry to data recorded inside a building is a powerful technique for monitoring structural parameters, such as velocities of traveling waves, frequencies of normal modes, and intrinsic attenuation (i.e., damping). The simplicity and similarity of the deconvolved

  10. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy applied to [Fe(OEP)(NO)]: the vibrational assignments of five-coordinate ferrous heme-nitrosyls and implications for electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Nicolai; Galinato, Mary Grace I; Paulat, Florian; Richter-Addo, George B; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Xu, Nan; Zhao, Jiyong

    2010-05-03

    This study presents Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS) data on the five-coordinate (5C) ferrous heme-nitrosyl complex [Fe(OEP)(NO)] (1, OEP(2-) = octaethylporphyrinato dianion) and the corresponding (15)N(18)O labeled complex. The obtained spectra identify two isotope sensitive features at 522 and 388 cm(-1), which shift to 508 and 381 cm(-1), respectively, upon isotope labeling. These features are assigned to the Fe-NO stretch nu(Fe-NO) and the in-plane Fe-N-O bending mode delta(ip)(Fe-N-O), the latter has been unambiguously assigned for the first time for 1. The obtained NRVS data were simulated using our quantum chemistry centered normal coordinate analysis (QCC-NCA). Since complex 1 can potentially exist in 12 different conformations involving the FeNO and peripheral ethyl orientations, extended density functional theory (DFT) calculations and QCC-NCA simulations were performed to determine how these conformations affect the NRVS properties of [Fe(OEP)NO]. These results show that the properties and force constants of the FeNO unit are hardly affected by the conformational changes involving the ethyl substituents. On the other hand, the NRVS-active porphyrin-based vibrations around 340-360, 300-320, and 250-270 cm(-1) are sensitive to the conformational changes. The spectroscopic changes observed in these regions are due to selective mechanical couplings of one component of E(u)-type (in ideal D(4h) symmetry) porphyrin-based vibrations with the in-plane Fe-N-O bending mode. This leads to the observed variations in Fe(OEP) core mode energies and NRVS intensities without affecting the properties of the FeNO unit. The QCC-NCA simulated NRVS spectra of 1 show excellent agreement with experiment, and indicate that conformer F is likely present in the samples of this complex investigated here. The observed porphyrin-based vibrations in the NRVS spectra of 1 are also assigned based on the QCC-NCA results. The obtained force constants of the Fe-NO and N

  11. Pipeline Bending Strain Measurement and Compensation Technology Based on Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines may lead to instability of the pipeline and failure of materials, which seriously deteriorates the transportation security of oil and gas. To locate the position of the bending strain for maintenance, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU is usually adopted in a Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG. The attitude data of the IMU is usually acquired to calculate the bending strain in the pipe. However, because of the vibrations in the pipeline and other system noises, the resulting bending strain calculations may be incorrect. To improve the measurement precision, a method, based on wavelet neural network, was proposed. To test the proposed method experimentally, a PIG with the proposed method is used to detect a straight pipeline. It can be obtained that the proposed method has a better repeatability and convergence than the original method. Furthermore, the new method is more accurate than the original method and the accuracy of bending strain is raised by about 23% compared to original method. This paper provides a novel method for precisely inspecting bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines and lays a foundation for improving the precision of inspection of bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines.

  12. MIT miniaturized disk bend test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Other mechanical properties can also be obtained using the MDBT approach. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly. 11 figures

  13. Vibrational tug-of-war: The pKA dependence of the broad vibrational features of strongly hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoozen, Brian L.; Petersen, Poul B.

    2018-04-01

    Medium and strong hydrogen bonds give rise to broad vibrational features frequently spanning several hundred wavenumbers and oftentimes exhibiting unusual substructures. These broad vibrational features can be modeled from first principles, in a reduced dimensional calculation, that adiabatically separates low-frequency modes, which modulate the hydrogen bond length, from high-frequency OH stretch and bend modes that contribute to the vibrational structure. Previously this method was used to investigate the origin of an unusual vibrational feature frequently found in the spectra of dimers between carboxylic acids and nitrogen-containing aromatic bases that spans over 900 cm-1 and contains two broad peaks. It was found that the width of this feature largely originates from low-frequency modes modulating the hydrogen bond length and that the structure results from Fermi resonance interactions. In this report, we examine how these features change with the relative acid and base strength of the components as reflected by their aqueous pKA values. Dimers with large pKA differences are found to have features that can extend to frequencies below 1000 cm-1. The relationships between mean OH/NH frequency, aqueous pKA, and O-N distance are examined in order to obtain a more rigorous understanding of the origin and shape of the vibrational features. The mean OH/NH frequencies are found to correlate well with O-N distances. The lowest OH stretch frequencies are found in dimer geometries with O-N distances between 2.5 and 2.6 Å. At larger O-N distances, the hydrogen bonding interaction is not as strong, resulting in higher OH stretch frequencies. When the O-N distance is smaller than 2.5 Å, the limited space between the O and N determines the OH stretch frequency, which gives rise to frequencies that decrease with O-N distances. These two effects place a lower limit on the OH stretch frequency which is calculated to be near 700 cm-1. Understanding how the vibrational features

  14. Axisymmetric vibrations of thick shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells of revolution are used for chemical plants, nuclear power plants, aircrafts, structures and so on, and the elucidation of their free vibration is important for the design. In this study, the axisymmetric vibration of a barrel-shaped shell was analyzed by the modified thick shell theory. The Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined, and from its stopping condition, the vibration equations and the boundary conditions were derived. The vibration equations were analyzed strictly by using the series solution. Moreover, the basic equations for the strain of a shell and others were based on those of Love. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. By comparing the results of this study with the results by thin shell theory, the effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency and vibration mode were clarified. The theoretical analysis and the numerical calculation are described. The effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency became larger in the higher order vibration. The vibration mode did not much change in both theories. (Kako, I.)

  15. Determination of vibrational parameters of methanol from matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Part 1 - Spectral analysis in the domain 11 000-200 cm{sup -1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perchard, J.P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interactions et Reactivite, UMR 7075, Case 49, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)], E-mail: jpp@spmol.jussieu.fr; Romain, F. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interactions et Reactivite, UMR 7075, Case 49, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Bouteiller, Y. [Universite Paris-Nord, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, UMR 7538, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2008-01-22

    Infrared spectra of three isotopic species of methanol ({sup 12}CH{sub 3}{sup 16}OH, {sup 13}CH{sub 3}{sup 16}OH, {sup 12}CH{sub 3}{sup 18}OH) trapped in neon and nitrogen matrices have been recorded between 11 000 and 200 cm{sup -1}. Their analysis is based on the isotopic effects which slightly modify the frequencies without significantly changing the nature of vibrations nor the band intensities. From the assignment of most of the two quanta transitions 45 out of the 78 anharmonicity coefficients have been deduced. The value of some of them has been confirmed by the identification of three quanta transitions mainly involving the OH stretching mode. The problem of vibrational resonances between methyl bending and stretching modes has been tackled by performing complementary experiments: use of other isotopic species (CH{sub 3}OD, CH{sub 2}DOH) and acquisition of Raman spectra in the gas phase.

  16. Bend measurement using an etched fiber incorporating a fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang; Jiang, Yajun; Jiang, Wei

    2013-01-15

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based bend measurement method using an etched fiber is proposed that utilizes the coupling of the core mode to the cladding and radiation modes at the bending region. An etching region of 99 µm diameter that serves as bend sensing head is achieved at 10 mm upstream the FBG through processing in 40% hydrofluoric acid, while the FBG acts as a narrowband reflector to enhance the sensitivity. The power variation curves are obtained for a wide range of bend angles, but the performance is limited due to the presence of the loss peaks. The sensing response is improved by immersing the etching region in a refractive index matching gel. The results are analyzed by using curve fitting formulas and are in good agreement. A large dynamic range of -27° to +27° and sensitivity of 0.43 dBm/deg is achieved, which can be enhanced by reducing the etched diameter.

  17. A novel in-plane mode rotary ultrasonic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiaolong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic motors have the merits of high ratio of torque to volume, high positioning precision, intrinsic holding torque, etc., compared to the conventional electromagnetic motors. There have been several potential applications for this type of motor in aerospace exploration, but bearings and bonding mechanism of the piezoelectric ring in the motors limit the performance of them in the space operation conditions. It is known that the Langevin type transducer has excellent energy efficiency and reliability. Hence using the Langevin type transducer in ultrasonic motors may improve the reliability of piezoelectric motors for space applications. In this study, a novel in-plane mode rotary ultrasonic motor is designed, fabricated, and characterized. The proposed motor operates in in-plane vibration mode which is excited by four Langevin-type bending vibrators separately placed around a ring-shaped stator. Two tapered rotors are assembled to the inner ring of the stator and clamped together by a screw nut. In order to make the motor more stable and convenient to fix, a thin cylindrical support is placed under the stator ring. Due to its no-bearing structure and Langevin transducer excitation, the prototype ultrasonic motor may operate well in aeronautic and astronautic environments.

  18. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite--(Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-15

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm(-1) assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO4(2-) units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm(-1) are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν1PO4(3-) symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν3PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vibrational properties of water molecules adsorbed in different zeolitic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crupi, V; Longo, F; Majolino, D; Venuti, V

    2006-01-01

    The perturbation of water 'sorbed' in samples of zeolites of different structural type, genesis, and cation composition (K-, Na-, Mg- and Ca-rich zeolites), namely the CHA framework of a synthetic K-chabazite, the LTA framework of synthetic Na-A and Mg50-A zeolites, and the NAT framework of a natural scolecite, has been studied by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, in the -10 to +80 o C temperature range. The aim was to show how differences in the chemical composition and/or in the topology of the zeolite framework and, in particular, the possibility for the guest water molecules to develop guest-guest and/or host-guest interactions, lead to substantial differences in their vibrational dynamical properties. The spectra, collected in the O-H stretching and H 2 O bending mode regions, are complex, with multiple bands being observed. As far as water in the CHA and LTA frameworks is concerned, whose behaviour is governed by the balance of water-water, water-framework and water-extra-framework cations interactions, the assignment of the resolved components of the O-H stretching band has been discussed by fitting the band shapes into individual components attributed to H 2 O molecules engaged in different degrees of hydrogen bonding. A detailed quantitative picture of the connectivity pattern of water, as a function of temperature and according to the chemical and topological properties of the environment, is furnished. The H 2 O bending vibrational bands give additional information that perfectly agrees with the results obtained from the analysis of the O-H stretching spectral region. In the case of scolecite, a small-pored zeolite where water-water interactions are eliminated, the increased complexity observed in the infrared spectra in the O-H stretching and H 2 O bending regions was explained as due to the hydrogen bonding between the water molecules and the network, and also with the extra-framework cation. Furthermore, these observations have been correlated with the different

  20. Mode-selective chemistry on metal surfaces: The dissociative chemisorption of CH{sub 4} on Pt(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Han; Jackson, Bret, E-mail: jackson@chem.umass.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2016-05-14

    A quantum approach based on an expansion in vibrationally adiabatic eigenstates is used to explore CH{sub 4} dissociation on Pt(111). Computed sticking probabilities for molecules in the ground, 1v{sub 3} and 2v{sub 3}, states are in very good agreement with the available experimental data, reproducing the variation in reactivity with collision energy and vibrational state. As was found in similar studies on Ni(100) and Ni(111), exciting the 1v{sub 1} symmetric stretch of CH{sub 4} is more effective at promoting the dissociative chemisorption of CH{sub 4} than exciting the 1v{sub 3} antisymmetric stretch. This behavior is explained in terms of symmetry, mode-softening, and nonadiabatic transitions between vibrationally adiabatic states. We find that the efficacies of the bending modes for promoting reaction are reasonably large, and similar to the 1v{sub 3} state. The vibrational efficacies for promoting reaction on Ni(111) are larger than for reaction on Pt(111), due to the larger nonadiabatic couplings. Our computed sticking probabilities are in good agreement with results from recent ab initio molecular dynamics and reactive force field studies.

  1. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...

  2. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We elucid...

  3. Predicting footbridge vibrations using a probability-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Vibrations in footbridges may be problematic as excessive vibrations may occur as a result of actions of pedestrians. Design-stage predictions of levels of footbridge vibration to the action of a pedestrian are useful and have been employed for many years based on a deterministic approach to mode...

  4. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  5. The travail of River Bend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article looks at the attempts by Gulf States Utilities to get the River Bend Nuclear Plant into its rate base. The review begins with the initial filing of rate cases in Texas and Louisiana in 1986 and continues through many court cases and appeals all the way to the Texas Supreme Court. The preferred and preference shareholders now nominally control the company through election of 10 of 15 members of the company's board of directors. This case is used as an argument for deregulation in favor of competition

  6. A review of literature for the structural assessment of mitred bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of literature available for the structural assessment of all types of mitred pipe bends. Compared with smooth bends, the volume of literature available for mitres is less extensive and its scope is not as wide. Historically, this reflects a reduced application level, as well as a less demanding range of applications, such as non-high temperature use. There is also the issue that an analysis of a mitred bend is complicated by discontinuity stresses, as well as those due to cross-section ovalisation. This fact delayed the development of non-linear analysis of mitred bends. Nevertheless, there is now a substantial body of work on mitred bends. This review tabulates and characterises all publications to date in chronological order. The details of experimental specimens are highlighted, with a view to these perhaps providing useful verification data for any future finite element analysis for example. Issues of particular interest to pipework designers are discussed, including the effects of combinations of loading, out-of-circularity, tangent pipe length and flanges. Failure characteristics and loads are discussed where relevant. Topics for further research are also noted. For example, comprehensive design curves do not exist for the elastic and plastic behaviour of all mitre types, over a practical range of geometry and loading parameters. Similarly, there is still scope for further work on the effect of combined loading, end effects and out-of-circularity. Limit, collapse and burst loads are not yet available across the entire spectrum of bends and loading parameters either. Creep and optimisation represent virgin territory as far as mitred bends are concerned and given that unforeseen vibration is a common source of high-cycle fatigue failure in pipework, there must also be scope for vibration-induced fatigue studies

  7. Genetic algorithm based active vibration control for a moving flexible smart beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Shi, Ming-li; Wang, Bin; Xie, Zhuo-wei

    2012-05-01

    A rod cylinder based pneumatic driving scheme is proposed to suppress the vibration of a flexible smart beam. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is employed to control the motion of the cylinder's piston rod for simultaneous positioning and vibration suppression. Firstly, the system dynamics model is derived using Hamilton principle. Its standard state-space representation is obtained for characteristic analysis, controller design, and simulation. Secondly, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize and tune the control gain parameters adaptively based on the specific performance index. Numerical simulations are performed on the pneumatic driving elastic beam system, using the established model and controller with tuned gains by GA optimization process. Finally, an experimental setup for the flexible beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder is constructed. Experiments for suppressing vibrations of the flexible beam are conducted. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pneumatic drive scheme and the adopted control algorithms are feasible. The large amplitude vibration of the first bending mode can be suppressed effectively.

  8. Field vibration test of a long-span cable-stayed bridge by large exciters. Daishinpuku kashin ni yoru chodai shachokyo no jikkyo shindo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okauchi, I. (Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering); Miyata, T. (Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sasaki, N. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Tatsumi, M.

    1992-10-15

    Long-span cable-stayed bridge requires indispensably discussions on safety against gale and earthquake, and correct assessment on its inherent vibration characteristics at the design stage is critical. However, theoretical assessment on structural decay is difficult, hence it is desirable to make measurement and verification upon its completion. This paper reports the result of measurements and considerations on a three-span continuous steel cable-stayed bridge with a length of 790 m (185 m + 420 m + 185 m) spanning between Hitsuishi Island and Iwakuro Island in the Kojima-Sakaide route of the Honshu-Shikoku connecting bridge. Large shaking machines were used to give girders vibrations with large amplitudes (10 cm at maximum), and high-accuracy measurements were made. The measurements verified the reasonability of the dynamic design for the bridge. The measured value of the logarithmic decay rate [delta] as the major experimental data presented that bending vibration is large as a whole, with torsional vibration somewhat smaller, and all the design values were on safety side. Confirmation was made on amplitude dependence of the decay rate, the inherent modes of low-order vibrations, and coupled behaviors among the girders, cables, and towers. 16 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Vibrating minds

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  10. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  11. SEM, EDS and vibrational spectroscopic study of dawsonite NaAl(CO3)(OH)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Sampaio, Ney Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Fernando A. N.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we have studied the mineral dawsonite by using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with EDS and vibrational spectroscopy. Single crystals show an acicular habitus forming aggregates with a rosette shape. The chemical analysis shows a phase composed of C, Al, and Na. Two distinct Raman bands at 1091 and 1068 cm-1 are assigned to the CO32- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Multiple bands are observed in both the Raman and infrared spectra in the antisymmetric stretching and bending regions showing that the symmetry of the carbonate anion is reduced and in all probability the carbonate anions are not equivalent in the dawsonite structure. Multiple OH deformation vibrations centred upon 950 cm-1 in both the Raman and infrared spectra show that the OH units in the dawsonite structure are non-equivalent. Raman bands observed at 3250, 3283 and 3295 cm-1 are assigned to OH stretching vibrations. The position of these bands indicates strong hydrogen bonding of the OH units in the dawsonite structure. The formation of the mineral dawsonite has the potential to offer a mechanism for the geosequestration of greenhouse gases.

  12. Density functional theory and Raman spectroscopy applied to structure and vibrational mode analysis of 1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro- benzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide and its aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Metin; Dede, Özge; Akins, Daniel L

    2011-02-14

    We have measured electronic and Raman scattering spectra of 1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-benzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide (TTBC) in various environments, and we have calculated the ground state geometric and spectroscopic properties of the TTBC cation in the gas and solution phases (e.g., bond distances, bond angles, charge distributions, and Raman vibrational frequencies) using density functional theory. Our structure calculations have shown that the ground state equilibrium structure of a cis-conformer lies ∼200 cm(-1) above that of a trans-conformer and both conformers have C(2) symmetry. Calculated electronic transitions indicate that the difference between the first transitions of the two conformers is about 130 cm(-1). Raman spectral assignments of monomeric- and aggregated-TTBC cations have been aided by density functional calculations at the same level of the theory. Vibrational mode analyses of the calculated Raman spectra reveal that the observed Raman bands above 700 cm(-1) are mainly associated with the in-plane deformation of the benzimidazolo moieties, while bands below 700 cm(-1) are associated with out-of-plane deformations of the benzimidazolo moieties. We have also found that for the nonresonance excited experimental Raman spectrum of aggregated-TTBC cation, the Raman bands in the higher-frequency region are enhanced compared with those in the nonresonance spectrum of the monomeric cation. For the experimental Raman spectrum of the aggregate under resonance excitation, however, we find new Raman features below 600 cm(-1), in addition to a significantly enhanced Raman peak at 671 cm(-1) that are associated with out-of-plane distortions. Also, time-dependent density functional theory calculations suggest that the experimentally observed electronic transition at ∼515 nm (i.e., 2.41 eV) in the absorption spectrum of the monomeric-TTBC cation predominantly results from the π → π∗ transition. Calculations are further interpreted

  13. Understanding the influence of low-frequency vibrations on the hydrogen bonds of acetic acid and acetamide dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Christopher; Menon, Omkaran; Majumdar, D; Roszak, Szczepan; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2017-09-20

    Low-frequency vibrations coupled to high-frequency modes are known to influence the hydrogen bond strengths in a weakly interacting dimer. In this context, various acetic acid and acetamide dimers were analyzed using Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT)-based approaches with explicit anharmonicity corrections. The computed low-frequency fundamentals as well as the high-frequency modes, which were found to be related to hydrogen bonding (OH/NH stretching modes), were analyzed and their computed intensities were correlated with their hydrogen-bond strengths/binding energies. There are similarities in the nature of eight low-frequency fundamentals of these two dimers, and the in-plane bending and stretch-bend fundamentals of the different dimers of these two species (in this low-frequency region) have specific roles in their relative stability order. The computed linear correlations were further verified against the results from coupled cluster calculations including triple excitation (CCSD(T)), Gaussian-G4 (G4), Gaussian-G2-MP2 (G2MP2) and complete basis set (CBS-QB3) methods of high accuracy energy calculations. As a consequence of such linear correlations, an additive property of local fragment energies (responsible for hydrogen bonding) was found to be a valid approximation to predict the binding energies of such dimers and the idea was found to be extendable to the other homologues of these acids/amides.

  14. [Structure analysis of disease-related proteins using vibrational spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Hirotsugu

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of the structure and properties of identified pathogenic proteins are important for elucidating the molecular basis of diseases and in drug discovery research. Vibrational spectroscopy has advantages over other techniques in terms of sensitivity of detection of structural changes. Spectral analysis, however, is complicated because the spectrum involves a substantial amount of information. This article includes examples of structural analysis of disease-related proteins using vibrational spectroscopy in combination with additional techniques that facilitate data acquisition and analysis. Residue-specific conformation analysis of an amyloid fibril was conducted using IR absorption spectroscopy in combination with (13)C-isotope labeling, linear dichroism measurement, and analysis of amide I band features. We reveal a pH-dependent property of the interacting segment of an amyloidogenic protein, β2-microglobulin, which causes dialysis-related amyloidosis. We also reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying pH-dependent sugar-binding activity of human galectin-1, which is involved in cell adhesion, using spectroscopic techniques including UV resonance Raman spectroscopy. The decreased activity at acidic pH was attributed to a conformational change in the sugar-binding pocket caused by protonation of His52 (pKa 6.3) and the cation-π interaction between Trp68 and the protonated His44 (pKa 5.7). In addition, we show that the peak positions of the Raman bands of the C4=C5 stretching mode at approximately 1600 cm(-1) and the Nπ-C2-Nτ bending mode at approximately 1405 cm(-1) serve as markers of the His side-chain structure. The Raman signal was enhanced 12 fold using a vertical flow apparatus.

  15. Experimental results of active control on a large structure to suppress vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Three design methods, Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR), H-infinity, and mu-synthesis, are used to obtain compensators for suppressing the vibrations of a 10-bay vertical truss structure, a component typical of what may be used to build a large space structure. For the design process the plant dynamic characteristics of the structure were determined experimentally using an identification method. The resulting compensators were implemented on a digital computer and tested for their ability to suppress the first bending mode response of the 10-bay vertical truss. Time histories of the measured motion are presented, and modal damping obtained during the experiments are compared with analytical predictions. The advantages and disadvantages of using the various design methods are discussed.

  16. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  17. Respiratory monitoring system based on fiber optic macro bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Widyakinanti, Astari; Dhia, Arika; Gumelar, Muhammad Raditya; Widianto, Arif; Randy, Muhammad; Soedibyo, Harry

    2018-02-01

    We proposed a respiratory monitoring system for living activities in human body based on fiber optic macro-bending for laboratory scale. The respiration sensor consists of a single-mode optical fiber and operating on a wavelength at around 1550 nm. The fiber optic was integrated into an elastic fabric placed on the chest and stomach of the monitored human subject. Deformations of the flexible textile involving deformations of the fiber optic bending curvature, which was proportional to the chest and stomach expansion. The deformation of the fiber was detected using photodetector and processed using microcontroller PIC18F14K50. The results showed that this system able to display various respiration pattern and rate for sleeping, and after walking and running activities in real time.

  18. All-fiber intensity bend sensor based on photonic crystal fiber with asymmetric air-hole structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnicki, Dawid; Szostkiewicz, Lukasz; Szymanski, Michal O.; Ostrowski, Lukasz; Holdynski, Zbigniew; Lipinski, Stanislaw; Murawski, Michal; Wojcik, Grzegorz; Makara, Mariusz; Poturaj, Krzysztof; Mergo, Pawel; Napierala, Marek; Nasilowski, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring the geometry of an moving element is a crucial task for example in robotics. The robots equipped with fiber bend sensor integrated in their arms can be a promising solution for medicine, physiotherapy and also for application in computer games. We report an all-fiber intensity bend sensor, which is based on microstructured multicore optical fiber. It allows to perform a measurement of the bending radius as well as the bending orientation. The reported solution has a special airhole structure which makes the sensor only bend-sensitive. Our solution is an intensity based sensor, which measures power transmitted along the fiber, influenced by bend. The sensor is based on a multicore fiber with the special air-hole structure that allows detection of bending orientation in range of 360°. Each core in the multicore fiber is sensitive to bend in specified direction. The principle behind sensor operation is to differentiate the confinement loss of fundamental mode propagating in each core. Thanks to received power differences one can distinguish not only bend direction but also its amplitude. Multicore fiber is designed to utilize most common light sources that operate at 1.55 μm thus ensuring high stability of operation. The sensitivity of the proposed solution is equal 29,4 dB/cm and the accuracy of bend direction for the fiber end point is up to 5 degrees for 15 cm fiber length. Such sensitivity allows to perform end point detection with millimeter precision.

  19. The Utilization of Low Frequency Raman Spectra of Gases for the Study of Molecules with Large Amplitude Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James R. Durig; Sarah Xiao-hua Zhou; Joshua Klaassen; Arindam Ganguly

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of the Raman spectra of the low frequency bending mode for three quasi-linear molecules, disiloxane, (SiH3)2 O; methylisocyanate, CH3NCO; and dimethy lisocyanate, (CH3)2SiHNCO for observing the low frequency anharmonic bending vibration is demonstrated which is superior to the corresponding far infrared spectra. From the observed frequencies from the Raman spectra the potential function governing the heavy atom motion to linearity has been obtained from which the barrier has been determined. These experimental values are compared to the ab ini-tio predicted values. Also low frequency Raman spectra of the ring puckering vibration of chlorocy-clobutane, c-C4H7Cl, bromocyclobutane, c-C4H7Br, and aminocyclobutane, c-C4H7NH2, have been utilized to obtain the potential function governing the ring inversion for these molecules. The deter-mined barriers to planarity are compared to those obtained from MP2 (full) ab initio and density functional theory B3LYP calculations by utilizing a variety of basis sets. For all of these studies it is shown that the Raman spectra are superior to the infrared spectra for determining the frequencies of the excited state transitions.

  20. Large Deformation Dynamic Bending of Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 30 deg or 15 deg off-axis plies occured in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.

  1. Vibration analysis of a hydro generator for different operating regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haţiegan, C.; Pădureanu, I.; Jurcu, M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Hamat, C. O.; Chioncel, C. P.; Trocaru, S.; Vasile, O.; Bădescu, O.; Micliuc, D.; (Filip Nedeloni, L.; Băra, A.; (Barboni Haţiegan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Based on experimental measurements, this paper presents the vibration analysis of a hydro generator that equips a Kaplan hydraulic turbine of a Hydropower plant in Romania. This analysis means vibrations measurement to different operating regimes of the hydro generator respectively before installing it and into operation, namely putting off load mode (unexcited and excited) respectively putting on load mode. By comparing, through the experimental results obtained before and after the operation of hydro aggregates are observed vibrations improvements.

  2. Improved assignments of the vibrational fundamental modes of ortho -, meta -, and para -xylene using gas- and liquid-phase infrared and Raman spectra combined with ab initio calculations: Quantitative gas-phase infrared spectra for detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmaier, Rodica; Scharko, Nicole K.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Nguyen, Kiet T.; Williams, Stephen D.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2017-07-25

    Xylenes contain a blend of the ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers, and all are abundant contaminants in the ground, surface waters, and air. To better characterize xylene and to better enable its detection, we report high quality quantitative vapor-phase infrared spectra of all three isomers over the 540-6500 cm-1 range. All fundamental vibrational modes are assigned based on these vapor-phase infrared spectra, liquid-phase infrared and Raman spectra, along with density functional theory (DFT), ab initio MP2 and high energy-accuracy compound theoretical model (W1BD) calculations. Both MP2 and DFT predict a single conformer with C2v symmetry for ortho-xylene, and two conformers each for meta- and para-xylene, depending on the preferred orientations of the methyl groups. For meta-xylene the two conformers have Cs and C2 symmetry, and for para-xylene these conformers have C2v or C2h symmetry. Since the relative population of the two conformers is approximately 50% for both isomers and predicted frequencies and intensities are very similar for each conformer, we made an arbitrary choice to discuss the Cs conformer for meta-xylene and the C2v conformer for para-xylene. We report integrated band intensities for all isomers. Using the quantitative infrared data, we determine the global warming potential values of each isomer and discuss potential bands for atmospheric monitoring.

  3. A Numerical Study of the Spring-Back Phenomenon in Bending with a Rebar Bending Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hwan Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the rebar bending methodology started to change from field processing to utilizing rebar bending machines at plant sites prior to transport to the construction locations. Computerized control of rebar plant bending machines provides more accurate and faster bending of rebars than the low quality inefficient field processing alternative. The bending process involves plastic deformation of rebars, where bending stress beyond the yield point of the material is applied. When the bending stress is removed, spring back is caused by the elastic restoring stress. Therefore, an accurate numerical analysis of the spring-back process is required to reduce the bending process errors. The most sensitive factors affecting the spring-back process are the bending radius, the bending angle, the diameter of the rebar, the friction coefficient, and the yielding strength of material. In this paper, we suggest a numerical modeling method using these factors. The finite element modeling of the dynamic mechanical behavior of the material during bending is performed using a commercial dynamic analysis program “DAFUL.” We use the least squares approach to derive the spring-back deflection as a function of the rebar bending parameters.

  4. CHARACTERIZATIONS ON BENDING EFFECT ON CUSTOMIZED SPLITTERS USING VARIOUS RADII OF ELLIPTICAL-SHAPED BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. SUPIAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Macro-bending effect unto polymer optical fiber (POF based splitters study is done to analyse the performance and characterizations using several bending radii of geometrical blocks that hold a customized prepared polymer fiber splitter. A pair of etched fibers with similar core diameters are attached to the ellipse-shaped blocks built using matching refractive index material where the blocks were built with various bending radii. The tapered fibers were lapped closely with some forces exerted upon them in order to stimulate the splitting of modes between the two fibers. This study is done by experimental set-up where each of the splitter ports is connected with optical power meter to measure the power output while pressure is exerted. Characterization is executed in order to investigate and analyse which bending radius gives the most optimize splitting ratio with considerable low loss for the particular splitter prepared. As for normal force of 0.3 lbF, the optimum splitting ratio with low loss is specified having bending radius, Rc, of 13 mm whilst for external force of 3.0 lbF, bending radius is found to be 19 mm. Small bending radius stimulates the radiation of rays into the second fiber while larger Rc gives longer coupling length that optimize the splitting ratios. Efficiencies between simulated values and experimental values are also analysed.

  5. Intermodal resonance of vibrating suspended cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear free vibrations of a single suspended cable, or a coupled system of suspended cables, may be classified as gravity modes (no tension variations to leading order) and elasto-gravity modes (tension and vertical displacement equally important). It was found earlier [12] that the

  6. Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...

  7. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  8. Characterization of Direct Piezoelectric Properties for Vibration Energy Harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Takeshi; Miyabuchi, Hiroki; Ashida, Atsushi; Fujimura, Norifumi [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Murakami, Syuichi, E-mail: tyoshi@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Technology Research Institute of Osaka Prefecture, 2-7-1 Ayumino, Izumi, Osaka, 594-1157 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Direct piezoelectric effect of Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films was investigated to discuss the application of ferroelectric films to vibration energy harvesting. From the model of the piezoelectric vibration energy harvester, it was found that the figure of merit (FOM) is proportional of the square of the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e{sub 31,f}. The e{sub 31,f} coefficient of PZT films were measured by substrate bending method. Furthermore, it was found that the e{sub 31,f} coefficient increases with increasing strain, which is favourable for the vibration energy harvesting.

  9. Mass and stiffness calibration of nanowires using thermally driven vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiracofe, D R; Raman, A; Yazdanpanah, M M

    2011-01-01

    Cantilevered or suspended nanowires show promise for force or mass sensing applications due to their small mass, high force sensitivity and high frequency bandwidth. To use these as quantitative sensors, their bending stiffness or mass must be calibrated experimentally, often using thermally driven vibration. However, this can be difficult because nanowires are slightly asymmetric, which results in two spatially orthogonal bending eigenmodes with closely spaced frequencies. This asymmetry presents problems for traditional stiffness calibration methods, which equate the measured thermal vibration spectrum near a resonance to that of a single eigenmode. Moreover, the principal axes may be arbitrarily rotated with respect to the measurement direction. In this work, the authors propose a method for calibrating the bending stiffness and mass of such nanowires' eigenmodes using a single measurement taken at an arbitrary orientation with respect to the principal axes.

  10. Axisymmetric vibrations of thin shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Norio; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin

    1983-01-01

    The problem of free vibration of axisymmetric shells of revolution is important in connection with the design of pressure vessels, chemical equipment, aircrafts, structures and so on. In this study, the axisymmetrical vibration of a thin shell of revolution having a constant curvature in meridian direction was analyzed by thin shell theory. First, the Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined by the primary approximate theory of Love, and the vibration equations and boundary conditions were derived from its stopping condition. The vibration equations were strictly analyzed by using the series solution. The basic equations for the strain and strain energy of a shell were based on those of Novozhilov. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. The theory and the numerical calculation ore described. Especially in the frequency curves, the waving phenomena were observed frequently, which were not seen in non-axisymmetric vibration, accordingly also the vibration mode changed in complex state on the frequency curves of same order. The numerical calculation was carried out in the large computer center in Tohoku University. (Kako, I.)

  11. Plastic loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuk Hee; Kim, Yun Jae; Park, Chi Yong; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2007-01-01

    Based on three-Dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit and TES(Twice- Elastic-Slope) loads for pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic.perfectly-plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide TES plastic loads. A wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and TES plastic load solutions for pipe bends under out-of-plane bending are proposed

  12. In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)

  13. Spectroscopy of vibrationally hot molecules: Hydrogen cyanide and acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    An efficient formula for calculating nuclear spin statistical weights is presented. New experimental methods to distinguish electric and magnetic multipole transitions are proposed and used to prove that the formaldehyde A - X 0-0 transition is a magnetic dipole transition. HIgh resolution vacuum ultraviolet studies of the A → X fluorescence excitation spectrum of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have: (i) determined that only the (0,1,0) vibrational level of the HCN A-state has a sufficiently long fluorescence lifetime to be suitable for Stimulated Emission Pumping (SEP) studies; and (ii) measured the electric dipole moment of the A-state. Several transitions in the hydrogen cyanide A → X SEP spectrum are shown to be due to the axis-switching mechanism. From a Franck-Condon plot of the intensities and a comparison between sums of predicted rotational constants and sums of observed rotational constants, all of the remaining transitions in the SEP spectrum can be securly assigned. Two weak resonances; a 2:3 CH:CN stretch Fermi resonance and a 6:2 bend:CN stretch resonance appear in the SEP spectrum. Excitation of the CH stretching vibration is predicted and shown to be entirely absent, apart from resonances, in the HCN SEP spectrum. A → X SEP spectra of acetylene (HCCH) near E VIB = 7,000 cm -1 display a wealth of strong and fully assignable anharmonic resonances and forbidden rotational transitions. It is proved that Darling-Dennison resonance between the cis and trans bending vibrations is the crucial first step in a series of anharmonic resonances which can transfer nearly all the vibrational energy out of the initial CC stretch/trans-bend excitation at high vibrational energy. Secondary steps in the vibrational energy flow are vibrational-l-resonance and the '2345' Fermi resonance. For short times, the vibrational energy redistribution obeys very restrictive rules

  14. Electrostatic bending response of a charged helix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetaki, A. V.; Stockhofe, J.; Schmelcher, P.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the electrostatic bending response of a chain of charged particles confined on a finite helical filament. We analyze how the energy difference Δ E between the bent and the unbent helical chain scales with the length of the helical segment and the radius of curvature and identify features that are not captured by the standard notion of the bending rigidity, normally used as a measure of bending tendency in the linear response regime. Using Δ E to characterize the bending response of the helical chain we identify two regimes with qualitatively different bending behaviors for the ground state configuration: the regime of small and the regime of large radius-to-pitch ratio, respectively. Within the former regime, Δ E changes smoothly with the variation of the system parameters. Of particular interest are its oscillations with the number of charged particles encountered for commensurate fillings which yield length-dependent oscillations in the preferred bending direction of the helical chain. We show that the origin of these oscillations is the nonuniformity of the charge distribution caused by the long-range character of the Coulomb interactions and the finite length of the helix. In the second regime of large values of the radius-to-pitch ratio, sudden changes in the ground state structure of the charges occur as the system parameters vary, leading to complex and discontinuous variations in the ground state bending response Δ E .

  15. Dynamic elastic-plastic behaviour of a frame including coupled bending and torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messmer, S.; Sayir, M.

    1989-01-01

    The full time response of a space frame under impact loading perpendicular to the frame plane is discussed. Theoretical solutions and experimental results are presented and compared. A space frame clamped at its two ends is loaded by a 0.22 lead bullet that hits a mass in the middle of the transversal beam of the frame. The loading time is about 40 to 60 μs and the resulting linear momentum of the impact in the experiment is 0.5 to 1 N s. The time response of this frame can be divided in four phases where different physical effects are dominant: (a) The loading phase where elastic wave motion dominates the time response. Because of the high impact forces, plastic deformation occurs in the vicinity of the mass and must be included in a theoretical model. The influence of reflections at the corners on the time response is shown in theory and experiment. (b) The evolution phase. Within this phase, a plastic collapse mechanism develops. Most of this phase is dominated by elastic deformation but local plastic deformations beside the mass are also present. Because many reflections at corners, clamps and the mass occur within this phase, a modal analysis method is used to predict time histories. (c) The plastic phase with plastic zones at the clamps. The phase sets in after the bending wave reaches the clamps. It is characterized by plastic deformation near the clamps and elastic deformation of the other parts of the frame. We used a modal analysis including plastic 'modes' to get accurate results. (d) The elastic vibration phase

  16. Bending-Twisting Motions and Main Interactions in Nucleoplasmin Nuclear Import.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tadeu Geraldo

    Full Text Available Alpha solenoid proteins play a key role in regulating the classical nuclear import pathway, recognizing a target protein and transporting it into the nucleus. Importin-α (Impα is the solenoid responsible for cargo protein recognition, and it has been extensively studied by X-ray crystallography to understand the binding specificity. To comprehend the main motions of Impα and to extend the information about the critical interactions during carrier-cargo recognition, we surveyed different conformational states based on molecular dynamics (MD and normal mode (NM analyses. Our model of study was a crystallographic structure of Impα complexed with the classical nuclear localization sequence (cNLS from nucleoplasmin (Npl, which was submitted to multiple 100 ns of MD simulations. Representative conformations were selected for calculating the 87 lowest frequencies NMs of vibration, and a displacement approach was applied along each NM. Based on geometric criteria, using the radius of curvature and inter-repeat angles as the reference metrics, the main motions of Impα were described. Moreover, we determined the salt bridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions in the Impα-NplNLS interface. Our results show the bending and twisting motions participating in the recognition of nuclear proteins, allowing the accommodation and adjustment of a classical bipartite NLS sequence. The essential contacts for the nuclear import were also described and were mostly in agreement with previous studies, suggesting that the residues in the cNLS linker region establish important contacts with Impα adjusting the cNLS backbone. The MD simulations combined with NM analysis can be applied to the Impα-NLS system to help understand interactions between Impα and cNLSs and the analysis of non-classic NLSs.

  17. Active vibration reduction by optimally placed sensors and actuators with application to stiffened plates by beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daraji, A H; Hale, J M

    2014-01-01

    This study concerns new investigation of active vibration reduction of a stiffened plate bonded with discrete sensor/actuator pairs located optimally using genetic algorithms based on a developed finite element modeling. An isotropic plate element stiffened by a number of beam elements on its edges and having a piezoelectric sensor and actuator pair bonded to its surfaces is modeled using the finite element method and Hamilton’s principle, taking into account the effects of piezoelectric mass, stiffness and electromechanical coupling. The modeling is based on the first order shear deformation theory taking into account the effects of bending, membrane and shear deformation for the plate, the stiffening beam and the piezoelectric patches. A Matlab finite element program has been built for the stiffened plate model and verified with ANSYS and also experimentally. Optimal placement of ten piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs and optimal feedback gain for active vibration reduction are investigated for a plate stiffened by two beams arranged in the form of a cross. The genetic algorithm was set up for optimization of sensor/actuator placement and feedback gain based on the minimization of the optimal linear quadratic index as an objective function to suppress the first six modes of vibration. Comparison study is presented for active vibration reduction of a square cantilever plate stiffened by crossed beams with two sensor/actuator configurations: firstly, ten piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs are located in optimal positions; secondly, a piezoelectric layer of single sensor/actuator pair covering the whole of the stiffened plate as a SISO system. (paper)

  18. Compact broadband polarization beam splitter using a symmetric directional coupler with sinusoidal bends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yun, Han; Wang, Yun; Lu, Zeqin; Chrostowski, Lukas; Jaeger, Nicolas A F

    2017-01-15

    We design and demonstrate a compact broadband polarization beam splitter (PBS) using a symmetric directional coupler with sinusoidal bends on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The sinusoidal bends in our PBS suppress the power exchange between two parallel symmetric strip waveguides for the transverse-electric (TE) mode, while allowing for the maximum power transfer to the adjacent waveguide for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode. Our PBS has a nominal coupler length of 8.55 μm, and it has an average extinction ratio (ER) of 12.0 dB for the TE mode, an average ER of 20.1 dB for the TM mode, an average polarization isolation (PI) of 20.6 dB for the through port, and an average PI of 11.5 dB for the cross port, all over a bandwidth of 100 nm.

  19. Simulation Study on Train-Induced Vibration Control of a Long-Span Steel Truss Girder Bridge by Tuned Mass Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Train-induced vibration of steel truss bridges is one of the key issues in bridge engineering. This paper talks about the application of tuned mass damper (TMD on the vibration control of a steel truss bridge subjected to dynamic train loads. The Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (NYRB is taken as the research object and a recorded typical train load is included in this study. With dynamic finite element (FE method, the real-time dynamic responses of NYRB are analyzed based on a simplified train-bridge time-varying system. Thereinto, two cases including single train moving at one side and two trains moving oppositely are specifically investigated. According to the dynamic characteristics and dynamic responses of NYRB, the fourth vertical bending mode is selected as the control target and the parameter sensitivity analysis on vibration control efficiency with TMD is conducted. Using the first-order optimization method, the optimal parameters of TMD are then acquired with the control efficiency of TMD, the static displacement of Midspan, expenditure of TMDs, and manufacture difficulty of the damper considered. Results obtained in this study can provide references for the vibration control of steel truss bridges.

  20. Numerical-analytic implementation of the higher-order canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory for the interpretation of medium-sized molecule vibrational spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V; Isayeva, Elena V; Stepanov, Nikolay F

    2012-04-12

    Anharmonic vibrational states of semirigid polyatomic molecules are often studied using the second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2). For efficient higher-order analysis, an approach based on the canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory (CVPT), the Watson Hamiltonian and operators of creation and annihilation of vibrational quanta is employed. This method allows analysis of the convergence of perturbation theory and solves a number of theoretical problems of VPT2, e.g., yields anharmonic constants y(ijk), z(ijkl), and allows the reliable evaluation of vibrational IR and Raman anharmonic intensities in the presence of resonances. Darling-Dennison and higher-order resonance coupling coefficients can be reliably evaluated as well. The method is illustrated on classic molecules: water and formaldehyde. A number of theoretical conclusions results, including the necessity of using sextic force field in the fourth order (CVPT4) and the nearly vanishing CVPT4 contributions for bending and wagging modes. The coefficients of perturbative Dunham-type Hamiltonians in high-orders of CVPT are found to conform to the rules of equality at different orders as earlier proven analytically for diatomic molecules. The method can serve as a good substitution of the more traditional VPT2.

  1. Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A shell structure of glass combines a highly effective structural principle with a material of optimal permeability to light. A facetted shell structure has a piecewise plane geometry, and together the facets form an approximation to a curved surface. A distributed load on a plane-based facetted...... structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions...

  2. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  3. Analytic description of the frictionally engaged in-plane bending process incremental swivel bending (ISB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohn, Peter; Engel, Bernd; Groth, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    Kinematic forming processes shape geometries by the process parameters to achieve a more universal process utilizations regarding geometric configurations. The kinematic forming process Incremental Swivel Bending (ISB) bends sheet metal strips or profiles in plane. The sequence for bending an arc increment is composed of the steps clamping, bending, force release and feed. The bending moment is frictionally engaged by two clamping units in a laterally adjustable bending pivot. A minimum clamping force hindering the material from slipping through the clamping units is a crucial criterion to achieve a well-defined incremental arc. Therefore, an analytic description of a singular bent increment is developed in this paper. The bending moment is calculated by the uniaxial stress distribution over the profiles' width depending on the bending pivot's position. By a Coulomb' based friction model, necessary clamping force is described in dependence of friction, offset, dimensions of the clamping tools and strip thickness as well as material parameters. Boundaries for the uniaxial stress calculation are given in dependence of friction, tools' dimensions and strip thickness. The results indicate that changing the bending pivot to an eccentric position significantly affects the process' bending moment and, hence, clamping force, which is given in dependence of yield stress and hardening exponent. FE simulations validate the model with satisfactory accordance.

  4. Investigation of Effectiveness of Some Vibration-Based Techniques in Early Detection of Real-Time Fatigue Failure in Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ozturk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bending fatigue crack is a dangerous and insidious mode of failure in gears. As it produces no debris in its early stages, it gives little warning during its progression, and usually results in either immediate loss of serviceability or greatly reduced power transmitting capacity. This paper presents the applications of vibration-based techniques (i.e. conventional time and frequency domain analysis, cepstrum, and continuous wavelet transform to real gear vibrations in the early detection, diagnosis and advancement monitoring of a real tooth fatigue crack and compares their detection and diagnostic capabilities on the basis of experimental results. Gear fatigue damage is achieved under heavy-loading conditions and the gearbox is allowed to run until the gears suffer badly from complete tooth breakage. It has been found that the initiation and progression of fatigue crack cannot be easily detected by conventional time and frequency domain approaches until the fault is significantly developed. On the contrary, the wavelet transform is quite sensitive to any change in gear vibration and reveals fault features earlier than other methods considered.

  5. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  6. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-08

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  7. [Study on crystal growth and vibrational spectra of Yb(x) : KY(1-x) (WO4)2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-He; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Jie; Zeng, Fan-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Zhang, Xue-Jian

    2008-02-01

    Yb(x) : KY(1-x)W (x = 0.05)and KYbW crystals were grown by TSSG method. Both of the structure and spectral properties were compared. The condition for the crystal growth is: the rotation rate 10-15 r x min(-1), the pulling speed 1-2 d(-1), the growing period 10-15 d, cooling growing speed 0.05-0.1 degrees C x h(-1), and the cooling speed 20 degrees C x h(-1). X-ray powder diffraction analysis was performed for the crystal powder. They belong to beta-KYW structure with low thermal phase. The cell parameters of the two crystals were calculated, and they are respectively a1 = 1.063 nm, b1 = 1.034 nm, c1 = 0.755 nm, beta1 = 130.75 degrees, Z1 = 4 and a2 = 1.061 nm, b2 = 1.029 nm, c2 = 0.749 nm, beta2 = 130.65 degrees and Z2 = 4. The infrared spectrum and Raman spectrum of crystal were measured. The sample of Yb(x) : KY(1-x) W (x = 0.05) had stronger infrared absorption peaks at 925, 891, 840, 777 and 749 cm(-1), which were caused by stretching vibration. The sample of KYW had stronger infrared absorption peaks at 484 and 437 cm(-1) caused by bending vibration. The vibration modes were analysed and vibrational frequencies of vibratory activity was assigned. The two crystals had strong Raman activity. The vibration of WOOW and WOW exists from 200 to 1000 cm(-1).

  8. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  9. Big Bend National Park: Acoustical Monitoring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    During the summer of 2010 (September October 2010), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Big Bend National Park (BIBE) at four sites deployed for approximately 30 days each. The baseline data collected during this period will he...

  10. Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Oxyanionic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabel'nikov, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    The vibrational and thermal properties of dolomite and alkali chlorates and perchlorates were studied in the gradient approximation of density functional theory using the method of a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). Long-wave vibration frequencies, IR and Raman spectra, and mode Gruneisen parameters were calculated. Equation-of-state parameters, thermodynamic potentials, entropy, heat capacity, and thermal expansion coefficient were also determined. The thermal expansion coefficient of dolomite was established to be much lower than for chlorates and perchlorates. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity at T > 200 K was shown to be generally governed by intramolecular vibrations.

  11. Study on Effects of Different Replacement Rate on Bending Behavior of Big Recycled Aggregate Self Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Tiantian; Gao, Shuai; Jiang, Lin; Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Yalin

    2018-03-01

    Big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete is a new type of recycled concrete, which has the advantages of low hydration heat and green environmental protection, but its bending behavior can be affected by different replacement rate. Therefor, in this paper, the research status of big Recycled aggregate self compacting concrete was systematically introduced, and the effect of different replacement rate of big recycled aggregate on failure mode, crack distribution and bending strength of the beam were studied through the bending behavior test of 4 big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete beams. The results show that: The crack distribution of the beam can be affected by the replacement rate; The failure modes of big recycled aggregate beams are the same as those of ordinary concrete; The plane section assumption is applicable to the big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete beam; The higher the replacement rate, the lower the bending strength of big recycled aggregate self compacting concrete beams.

  12. Ductile failure of pipes with defects under combined pressure and bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlaston, B.J.L.; Harrison, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    The main part of the experimental programme was carried out on 3.5'' diam. pipes with a wall thickness of 0.064''. Various lengths of defect were assessed but only two depths, 0.044'' and 0.060''. Some full penetration defect tests were carried out under bending loading. The defects were 0.012'' wide and nominally flat bottomed. The tensile properties of the pipes were determined by taking specimens from each of the tubes. The pipes were exposed to pressure only test, bending only test and combined bending and pressure test. The results are given in tables. The observations led to the postulation of a design rule relating to the effect of defect in pipes under combined internal pressure and bending. It applies only to ductile situations in which the mode of failure is by a collapse mechanism: If the failure of a pipe containing an axial defect occurs by plastic collapse then provided the bending moment does not exceed half that for collapse due to bending alone, it will have a negligible effect on the failure pressure. (J.B.)

  13. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  14. Correlating the vibrational spectra of structurally related molecules: A spectroscopic measure of similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yunwen; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi

    2018-03-05

    Using catastrophe theory and the concept of a mutation path, an algorithm is developed that leads to the direct correlation of the normal vibrational modes of two structurally related molecules. The mutation path is defined by weighted incremental changes in mass and geometry of the molecules in question, which are successively applied to mutate a molecule into a structurally related molecule and thus continuously converting their normal vibrational spectra from one into the other. Correlation diagrams are generated that accurately relate the normal vibrational modes to each other by utilizing mode-mode overlap criteria and resolving allowed and avoided crossings of vibrational eigenstates. The limitations of normal mode correlation, however, foster the correlation of local vibrational modes, which offer a novel vibrational measure of similarity. It will be shown how this will open new avenues for chemical studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.

  16. Lattice vibration spectra. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.

    1977-01-01

    The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)

  17. Tilted Bragg grating multipoint sensor based on wavelength-gated cladding-modes coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caucheteur, Christophe; Mégret, Patrice; Cusano, Andrea

    2009-07-10

    In recent years, tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) have been demonstrated to be a promising technological platform for sensing applications such as the measurement of axial strain, bending, vibration, and refractive index. However, complex spectral measurements combined with the difficulty of using TFBGs in a quasi-distributed sensors network limit the practical exploitation of this assessed technology. To address this issue, we propose a hybrid configuration involving uniform and TFBGs working in reflection, which makes the demodulation technique easier and allows multipoint sensing. This configuration provides a narrowband reflection signal that is modulated by the wavelength selective losses associated with some TFBG's cladding-modes resonances. We report here the operating principle of the proposed device. An experimental validation is presented for refractive-index sensing purposes.

  18. Generation of interior cavity noise due to window vibration excited by turbulent flows past a generic side-view mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hua-Dong; Davidson, Lars

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the interior noise caused by turbulent flows past a generic side-view mirror. A rectangular glass window is placed downstream of the mirror. The window vibration is excited by the surface pressure fluctuations and emits the interior noise in a cuboid cavity. The turbulent flows are simulated using a compressible large eddy simulation method. The window vibration and interior noise are predicted with a finite element method. The wavenumber-frequency spectra of the surface pressure fluctuations are analyzed. The spectra are identified with some new features that cannot be explained by the Chase model for turbulent boundary layers. The spectra contain a minor hydrodynamic domain in addition to the hydrodynamic domain caused by the main convection of the turbulent boundary layer. The minor domain results from the local convection of the recirculating flow. These domains are formed in bent elliptic shapes. The spanwise expansion of the wake is found causing the bending. Based on the wavenumber-frequency relationships in the spectra, the surface pressure fluctuations are decomposed into hydrodynamic and acoustic components. The acoustic component is more efficient in the generation of the interior noise than the hydrodynamic component. However, the hydrodynamic component is still dominant at low frequencies below approximately 250 Hz since it has low transmission losses near the hydrodynamic critical frequency of the window. The structural modes of the window determine the low-frequency interior tonal noise. The combination of the mode shapes of the window and cavity greatly affects the magnitude distribution of the interior noise.

  19. Tensile and bending fatigue of the adhesive interface to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Renan; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Braem, Marc; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatigue limits of the dentin-composite interfaces established either with an etch-and-rinse or an one-step self-etch adhesive systems under tensile and bending configurations. Flat specimens (1.2 mm×5 mm×35 mm) were prepared using a plexiglass mold where dentin sections from human third molars were bonded to a resin composite, exhibiting the interface centrally located. Syntac Classic and G-Bond were used as adhesives and applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. The fluorochrome Rhodamine B was added to the adhesives to allow for fractographic evaluation. Tensile strength was measured in an universal testing machine and the bending strength (n=15) in a Flex machine (Flex, University of Antwerp, Belgium), respectively. Tensile (TFL) and bending fatigue limits (BFL) (n=25) were determined under wet conditions for 10(4) cycles following a staircase approach. Interface morphology and fracture mechanisms were observed using light, confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using three-way ANOVA (mod LSD test, pTensile and bending characteristic strengths at 63.2% failure probability for Syntac were 23.8 MPa and 71.5 MPa, and 24.7 MPa and 72.3 MPa for G-Bond, respectively. Regarding the applied methods, no significant differences were detected between adhesives. However, fatigue limits for G-Bond (TFL=5.9 MPa; BFL=36.2 MPa) were significantly reduced when compared to Syntac (TFL=12.6 MPa; BFL=49.7 MPa). Fracture modes of Syntac were generally of adhesive nature, between the adhesive resin and dentin, while G-Bond showed fracture planes involving the adhesive-dentin interface and the adhesive resin. Cyclic loading under tensile and bending configurations led to a significant strength degradation, with a more pronounced fatigue limit decrease for G-Bond. The greater decrease in fracture strength was observed in the tensile configuration. Copyright © 2010 Academy of

  20. Prediction of absolute infrared intensities for the fundamental vibrations of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Absolute infrared intensities are predicted for the vibrational bands of gas-phase H2O2 by the use of a hydrogen atomic polar tensor transferred from the hydroxyl hydrogen atom of CH3OH. These predicted intensities are compared with intensities predicted by the use of a hydrogen atomic polar tensor transferred from H2O. The predicted relative intensities agree well with published spectra of gas-phase H2O2, and the predicted absolute intensities are expected to be accurate to within at least a factor of two. Among the vibrational degrees of freedom, the antisymmetric O-H bending mode nu(6) is found to be the strongest with a calculated intensity of 60.5 km/mole. The torsional band, a consequence of hindered rotation, is found to be the most intense fundamental with a predicted intensity of 120 km/mole. These results are compared with the recent absolute intensity determinations for the nu(6) band.

  1. Elastic stability and vibration of toroidal magnets for fusion reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, F.C.; Swanson, C.

    1975-09-01

    The vibration and elastic stability of a set of discrete superconducting toroidal field magnets arranged to form a ''bumpy'' torus is examined. The mutual destabilizing magnetic forces between magnet pairs are calculated using a numerical differential inductance technique. It is shown that the mutual attractive magnetic forces can produce elastic buckling of the entire toroidal set. The vibration modes of the set are also found as functions of the coil current. The response of the set of magnets to an earthquake type motion of the toroidal base is calculated. The calculations have been incorporated in a computer code which accompanies the report. Measurements are made of the lateral stiffness of a flexible, planar, superconducting coil between two rigid coils in series. These tests show a dramatic decrease in the natural bending frequency with subsequent elastic instability or ''buckling'' at a critical value of the current in the coils. These observations support a magnetoelastic analysis which shows that proposed designs, of toroidal field coils for Tokamak fusion reactors, have insufficient lateral support for mechanical stability of the magnets

  2. Vibrational spectrum, ab initio calculations, conformational stabilities and assignment of fundamentals of 1,2-dibromopropane

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Arthur J.; Stidham, Howard D.

    2009-10-01

    The mid and far infrared and the Raman spectrum of 1,2-dibromopropane is reported in solid, liquid and gas. Several bands reported by earlier workers are not present in the spectrum of the purified material. Ab initio calculations of optimized geometry, energy, dipole moment, molar volume, vibrational spectrum and normal coordinate calculation were performed using the density functional B3LYP/6-311++g(3df,2pd), and the results used to assist a complete assignment of the 81 fundamental modes of vibrations of the three conformers of 1,2-dibromopropane. Relative energies found conformer A the lowest with G and G' at 815.6 and 871.4 cm -1 higher. The temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum of the liquid was investigated in the CCC bending region and the relative energies determined. It was found that the G' and G conformers lie 236 ± 11 and 327 ±11 cm -1, respectively above the A conformer, leading to the room temperature composition of the liquid as A, 65 ± 1; G', 21 ± 1; G, 14 ± 1%. It is apparent that the calculated highest energy conformer G' is stabilized more than the G conformer in the liquid. The G' conformer has the lowest molar volume effectively changing the interaction distance between conformers in the liquid, and enhancing the effect of its dipole moment.

  3. Localized Surface Plasmons in Vibrating Graphene Nanodisks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Weihua; Li, Bo-Hong; Stassen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    in graphene disks have the additional benefit to be highly tunable via electrical stimulation. Mechanical vibrations create structural deformations in ways where the excitation of localized surface plasmons can be strongly modulated. We show that the spectral shift in such a scenario is determined...... by a complex interplay between the symmetry and shape of the modal vibrations and the plasmonic mode pattern. Tuning confined modes of light in graphene via acoustic excitations, paves new avenues in shaping the sensitivity of plasmonic detectors, and in the enhancement of the interaction with optical emitters...

  4. Estimates of plastic loads for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a method to estimate plastic loads (defined by twice-elastic-slope) for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment, based on detailed 3-D FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Because closing bending moment is always lower than opening bending moment, the combination of in-plane closing bending and out-of-plane bending moment becomes the most significant case. Due to conservatism of each bending moments, the resultant moment provided by ASME B and PV code is unduly conservative. However, the concept of the resultant moment is still valid. In this paper, FE results show that the accurate solutions of bending moments provide better estimates of plastic loads of pipe bend under combined in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending moment

  5. VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF TURBINE BASED ON FLUID-STRUCTURE COUPLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Demin; LIU Xiaobing

    2008-01-01

    The vibration of a Francis turbine is analyzed with the additional quality matrix method based on fluid-structure coupling (FSC). Firstly, the vibration frequency and mode of blade and runner in air and water are calculated. Secondly, the influences to runner frequency domain by large flow, small flow and design flow working conditions are compared. Finally the influences to runner modes by centrifugal forces under three rotating speeds of 400 r/min, 500 r/min and 600 r/min are compared. The centrifugal force and small flow working condition have greatly influence on the vibration of small runner. With the increase of centrifugal force, the vibration frequency of the runner is sharply increased. Some order frequencies are even close to the runner natural frequency in the air. Because the low frequency vibration will severely damage the stability of the turbine, low frequency vibration of units should be avoided as soon as possible.

  6. Vibration of machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo

    2001-09-01

    This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.

  7. Laser Covariance Vibrometry for Unsymmetrical Mode Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobold, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    Simulated cross - spectral covariance (CSC) from optical return from simulated surface vibration indicates CW phase modulation may be an appropriate phenomenology for adequate classification of vehicles by structural mode...

  8. Reliability of non-heated tube bends of boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaj, N.V.; Akhremenko, V.L.; Zamotaev, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    Bend failures are described for non-heated boiler tubes of 12Kh1MF and 20 steels. Methods of reliability evaluations are presented which permit revealing and replacing the bends with inadequate resources. Influences of operation conditions on bend durability is shown as well as the factors which are dominating at bend failures

  9. Optimization design of high power ultrasonic circular ring radiator in coupled vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Lin, Shuyu; Hu, Wenxu

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new high power ultrasonic (HPU) radiator, which consists of a transducer, an ultrasonic horn, and a metal circular ring. Both the transducer and horn in longitudinal vibrations are used to drive a metal circular ring in a radial-axial coupled vibration. This coupled vibration cannot only generate ultrasound in both the radial and axial directions, but also focus the ultrasound inside the circular ring. Except for the radial-axial coupled vibration mode, the third longitudinal harmonic vibration mode with relative large vibration amplitude is also detected, which can be used as another operation mode. Overall, the HPU with these two vibration modes should have good potential to be applied in liquid processing, such as sonochemistry, ultrasonic cleaning, and Chinese herbal medicine extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fuid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors.- Inertial effects from the fluid are not correctly evaluated especially in the case of bended or of non-uniform section pipes. Fluid boundary conditions are simply ignored. - In many practical problems fluid compressibility cannot be negelcted, even in the low frequencies domain which corresponds to efficient excitation by turbulent sources of the flow. This paper presents a method to take into account these efects, by solving a coupled mechanical acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A./D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. (Auth.)

  11. Study of core support barrel vibration monitoring using ex-core neutron noise analysis and fuzzy logic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Christian

    2015-03-01

    A distinct pattern of phase differences was observed for each of the vibration models. The developed fuzzy logic module demonstrated successful recognition of the vibration frequencies, modes, orders, directions, and phase differences within 0.4 ms for the beam and shell mode vibrations.

  12. Vibration-type particle separation device with piezoceramic vibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Doi, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    During hemanalysis, it is necessary to separate blood cells from whole blood. Many blood separation methods, for example, centrifugation and filtering, are in practical use. However, the use of these methods involves problems from the perspectives of processing speed and processing volume. We develop new types of blood separation devices that use piezo-ceramic vibrators. The first device uses a capillary. One end of the capillary is fixed to the device frame, and the other is fixed to a piezo-ceramic vibrator. The vibrator transmits bending waves to the capillary. This device can process only a small amount of solution; therefore, it is not suitable for hemanalysis. In order to solve this problem, we developed a second device; this device has a pair of thin glass plates with a small gap as a substitute for the capillary used in the first device. These devices are based on the fact that particles heavier than water move toward transverse velocity antinodes while those lighter than water move toward velocity nodes. In this report, we demonstrate the highspeed separation of silica microbeads and 50-vol% glycerol water by using these devices. The first device can separate the abovementioned solution within 3 min while the second can separate it within 1 min. Both devices are driven by a rectangular wave of 15 to 20 Vpp. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that red blood cells are separated from diluted whole blood using the first device within approximately 1 min. These devices have transparency, so they can compose as the analysis system with the chemical analyzer easily.

  13. Bending and tensile deformation of metallic nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Matthew T; Leach, Austin M; Gall, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Using molecular statics simulations and the embedded atom method, a technique for bending silver nanowires and calculating Young's modulus via continuum mechanics has been developed. The measured Young's modulus values extracted from bending simulations were compared with modulus values calculated from uniaxial tension simulations for a range of nanowire sizes, orientations and geometries. Depending on axial orientation, the nanowires exhibit stiffening or softening under tension and bending as size decreases. Bending simulations typically result in a greater variation of Young's modulus values with nanowire size compared with tensile deformation, which indicates a loading-method-dependent size effect on elastic properties at sub-5 nm wire diameters. Since the axial stress is maximized at the lateral surfaces in bending, the loading-method-dependent size effect is postulated to be primarily a result of differences in nanowire surface and core elastic modulus. The divergence of Young's modulus from the bulk modulus in these simulations occurs at sizes below the range in which experiments have demonstrated a size scale effect on elastic properties of metallic nanowires. This difference indicates that other factors beyond native metallic surface properties play a role in experimentally observed nanowire elastic modulus size effects

  14. Hand-Arm vibration assessment among tiller operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    2013-08-01

    Result: Results of the present study indicated that in all measured situations, exposure to hand arm vibration was higher than the standard limit suggested by Iranian occupational health committee and there was risk of vibration-induced disorders. The maximum exposure to vibration is in plowing ground. Exposure to hand arm vibration in three modes of plowing, transmission and natural, were respectively 16.95, 14.16 and 8.65 meters per second squared. Additionally, in all situations, vibration exposure was highest in the X-axis in comparison with Z- and Y-axes. .Conclusion: This study emphasizes on the need to provide intervention and controlling and managing strategies in order to eliminate or reduce vibration transmitted from tiller to operators hand and arm and also prevent to serious problems including neurovascular disorders, discomfort and white finger syndrome. Meanwhile, more studies are necessary to identify the sources of vibration on different models of tiller.

  15. Bending the law: tidal bending and its effects on ice viscosity and flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, S.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2017-12-01

    Many ice shelves are subject to strong ocean tides and, in order to accommodate this vertical motion, the ice must bend within the grounding zone. This tidal bending generates large stresses within the ice, changing its effective viscosity. For a confined ice shelf, this is particularly relevant because the tidal bending stresses occur along the sidewalls, which play an important role in the overall flow regime of the ice shelf. Hence, tidal bending stresses will affect both the mean and time-varying components of ice shelf flow. GPS measurements reveal strong variations in horizontal ice shelf velocities at a variety of tidal frequencies. We show, using full-Stokes viscoelastic modelling, that inclusion of tidal bending within the model accounts for much of the observed tidal modulation of horizontal ice shelf flow. Furthermore, our model shows that in the absence of a vertical tidal forcing, the mean flow of the ice shelf is reduced considerably.

  16. Strength measurement of optical fibers by bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srubshchik, Leonid S.

    1999-01-01

    A two-point bending technique has been used not only to measure the breaking stress of optical fiber but also to predict its static and dynamic fatigue. The present theory of this test is based on elastica theory of rod. However, within the limits of elastica theory the tensile and shear stresses cannot be determined. In this paper we study dynamic and static problems for optical fiber in the two- point bending test on the base of geometrically exact theory in which rod can suffer flexure, extension, and shear. We obtain the governing partial differential equations taking into account the fact that the lateral motion of the fiber is restrained by the presence of flat parallel plates. We develop the computational methods for solving the initial and equilibrium free-boundary nonlinear planar problems. We derive the formulas for predicting of the tensile strength from strength in the bending and calculate one example.

  17. [Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S

    2003-12-01

    Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.

  18. Tubular bending and pull-out forces in high-curvature well bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dareing, D.W.; Ahlers, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is concerned with drag forces developed on tubulars in high-curvature well bores typically found in drainhole and horizontal drilling. The dog-leg severity of these types of boreholes are considerably higher than those typically found in conventional directional drilling. The objective of the study was to determine the significance of bending stiffness on drag forces in the pull-out mode. The method of analysis treats the tubular as a multi-spanned curved beam under tension and solves for radial displacements, slope, shear and bending moment over each span. Calculations show that bending stiffness is a minor factor provided there are no locally severe dog legs superimposed in the high-curvature well bore

  19. Magnetic field of longitudinal gradient bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Masamitsu; Böge, Michael; Ehrlichman, Michael; Streun, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    The longitudinal gradient bend is an effective method for reducing the natural emittance in light sources. It is, however, not a common element. We have analyzed its magnetic field and derived a set of formulae. Based on the derivation, we discuss how to model the longitudinal gradient bend in accelerator codes that are used for designing electron storage rings. Strengths of multipole components can also be evaluated from the formulae, and we investigate the impact of higher order multipole components in a very low emittance lattice.

  20. Slice through an LHC bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Slice through an LHC superconducting dipole (bending) magnet. The slice includes a cut through the magnet wiring (niobium titanium), the beampipe and the steel magnet yokes. Particle beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have the same energy as a high-speed train, squeezed ready for collision into a space narrower than a human hair. Huge forces are needed to control them. Dipole magnets (2 poles) are used to bend the paths of the protons around the 27 km ring. Quadrupole magnets (4 poles) focus the proton beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams’ paths cross. There are 1232 15m long dipole magnets in the LHC.

  1. Bending energy of buckled edge dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Raz

    2017-12-01

    The study of elastic membranes carrying topological defects has a longstanding history, going back at least to the 1950s. When allowed to buckle in three-dimensional space, membranes with defects can totally relieve their in-plane strain, remaining with a bending energy, whose rigidity modulus is small compared to the stretching modulus. In this paper we study membranes with a single edge dislocation. We prove that the minimum bending energy associated with strain-free configurations diverges logarithmically with the size of the system.

  2. Mode damping in a commensurate monolayer solid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, Ludwig Walter; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1997-01-01

    with an elastic-continuum theory of the response of modes of either parallel or perpendicular polarization for a spherical adsorbate on a hexagonal substrate. The results are applied to the discussion of computer simulations and inelastic atomic-scattering experiments for adsorbates on graphite. The extreme...... of substrate modes with strong anomalous dispersion, and enables a semiquantitative account of observed avoided crossings of the adlayer perpendicular vibration mode and the substrate Rayleigh mode....

  3. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  4. Vibrational and electronic spectroscopic studies of melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Abbas, J. M.; Dogra, Sukh Dev; Sachdeva, Ritika; Rai, Bimal; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya; Sathe, Vasant; Saini, G. S. S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of melatonin recorded with 488 and 632.8 nm excitations in 3600-2700 and 1700-70 cm-1 regions. Further, we optimized molecular structure of the three conformers of melatonin within density functional theory calculations. Vibrational frequencies of all three conformers have also been calculated. Observed vibrational bands have been assigned to different vibrational motions of the molecules on the basis of potential energy distribution calculations and calculated vibrational frequencies. Observed band positions match well with the calculated values after scaling except Nsbnd H stretching mode frequencies. It is found that the observed and calculated frequencies mismatch of Nsbnd H stretching is due to intermolecular interactions between melatonin molecules.

  5. Proposal of failure criterion applicable to finite element analysis results for wall-thinned pipes under bending load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshii, Toshiyuki, E-mail: meshii@u-fukui.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui (Japan); Ito, Yoshiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Limit bending load (LBL) of wall-thinned pipe by large strain FEA was considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Net section yield load had sufficient margin to LBL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LBL for collapse was the load when volume with nominal thickness yielded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LBL for cracking was the load when flawed section stress exceeded tensile strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Failure criterion considering above was named Domain Collapse Criterion. - Abstract: In this work, a failure criterion applicable to large strain Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results was proposed in order to predict both the fracture mode (collapse or cracking) and the limit bending load of wall-thinned straight pipes. This work was motivated from the recent experimental results of ; that is, fracture mode is not always collapse, and the fracture mode affects the limit bending load. The key finding in comparing their test results and a detailed large strain FEA results was that the Mises stress distribution at the limit bending load of a flawed cylinder was similar to that of a flawless cylinder; specifically, in case of collapse, the Mises stress exceeded the true yield stress of a material for the whole 'volume' of a cylinder with a nominal wall thickness. Based on this finding, a failure criterion applicable to large strain FEA results of wall-thinned straight pipes under a bending load that can predict both fracture mode and limit bending load was proposed and was named the Domain Collapse Criterion (DCC). DCC predicts the limit bending load as the lower value of either the M{sub c}{sup FEA}, which is the load at which the Mises stress exceeds the true yield strength of a straight pipe for the whole 'volume' with a nominal wall thickness (fracture mode: collapse), or the M{sub c}{sup FEAb}, which is the load at which the Mises stress in a section of the flaw ligament exceeds the true tensile stress

  6. Parameters design of the dielectric elastomer spring-roll bending actuator (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrong; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers are novel soft smart material that could deform sustainably when subjected to external electric field. That makes dielectric elastomers promising materials for actuators. In this paper, a spring-roll actuator that would bend when a high voltage is applied was fabricated based on dielectric elastomer. Using such actuators as active parts, the flexible grippers and inchworm-inspired crawling robots were manufactured, which demonstrated some examples of applications in soft robotics. To guide the parameters design of dielectric elastomer based spring-roll bending actuators, the theoretical model of such actuators was established based on thermodynamic theories. The initial deformation and electrical induced bending angle of actuators were formulated. The failure of actuators was also analyzed considering some typical failure modes like electromechanical instability, electrical breakdown, loss of tension and maximum tolerant stretch. Thus the allowable region of actuators was determined. Then the bending angle-voltage relations and failure voltages of actuators with different parameters, including stretches of the dielectric elastomer film, number of active layers, and dimensions of spring, were investigated. The influences of each parameter on the actuator performances were discussed, providing meaningful guidance to the optical design of the spring-roll bending actuators.

  7. Natural vibration experimental analysis of Novovoronezhskaya NPP main building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoubkov, D.; Isaikin, A.; Shablinsky, G.; Lopanchuk, A.; Nefedov, S.

    2005-01-01

    1. Natural vibration frequencies are main characteristics of buildings and structures which allow to give integral estimation of their in-service state. Even relatively small changes of these frequencies as compared to the initially registered values point to serious defects of building structures. In this paper we analyzed natural vibration frequencies and natural modes of the main building (MB) of Novovoronezhskaya NPP operating nuclear unit with WWER-440 type reactor. The MB consists of a reactor compartment (RC), a machine room (MR) and an electric device (ED) unit positioned in between. 2. Natural vibration frequencies and natural modes of the MB were determined experimentally by analyzing its microvibrations caused by operation of basic equipment (turbines, pumps, etc.). Microvibrations of the main building were measured at 12 points. At each point measurements were carried out along two or three mutually perpendicular vibration directions. Spectral analysis of vibration records has been conducted. Identification of natural vibration frequencies was carried out on the basis of the spectral peaks and plotted vibration modes (taking into account operating frequencies of the basic equipment of the power generating unit). On the basis of the measurement results three transverse modes and corresponding natural vibration frequencies of the MB, one longitudinal mode and corresponding natural vibration frequency of the MB and two natural frequencies of vertical vibrations of RC and MR floor trusses (1st and 2nd symmetric forms) were determined. Dynamic characteristics of the main building of NV NPP resulting from full scale researches are supposed to be used as one of building structure stability criteria. (authors)

  8. Tilting mode in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Barnes, D.C.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.; Shestakov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Field Reversed Configurations (FRCs) experimentally have exhibited remarkable stability on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) timescale, despite numerous MHD calculations showing FRCs to be unstable. It is easy to believe that local modes are stabilized by finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, but more puzzling is the apparent stability of FRCs against global modes, where one would expect FLR effects to be less important. In this paper we study the tilting mode, which MHD has shown to be a rapidly growing global mode. The tilting mode in FRCs is driven by the pressure gradient, and magnetic compression and field line bending are the stabilizing forces. A schematic of the evolution of the tilting mode is shown. The tilting mode is considered dangerous, because it would lead to rapid tearing across the separatrix. Unlike spheromaks, the tilting mode in FRCs has a separatrix that is fixed in space, so that the mode is strictly internal

  9. Portable vibration exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.

  10. Combined mode I-mode II fracture of 12-mol%-ceria-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikare, V.; Choi, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    The mode I, mode II, and combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of ceria-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Ce-TZP) ceramic was studied. The single-edge-precracked-beam (SEPB) samples were fractured using the asymmetric four-point-bend geometry. The ratio of mode I to mode II loading was varied by varying the degree of asymmetry in the four-point-bend geometry. The minimum strain energy density theory best described the mixed-mode fracture behavior of Ce-TZP with the mode I fracture toughness, K IC = 8.2 ± 0.6 MPa·m 1/2 , and the mode II fracture toughness, K IIC = 8.6 ± 1.3 MPa·m 1/2

  11. The Effect of First-Order Bending Resonance of Wheelset at High Speed on Wheel-Rail Contact Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuoqiao Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order bending deformation of wheelset is considered in the modeling vehicle/track coupling dynamic system to investigate its effect on wheel/rail contact behavior. In considering the effect of the first-order bending resonance on the rolling contact of wheel/rail, a new wheel/rail contact model is derived in detail in the modeling vehicle/track coupling dynamic system, in which the many intermediate coordinate systems and complex coordinate system transformations are used. The bending mode shape and its corresponding frequency of the wheelset are obtained through the modal analysis by using commercial software ANSYS. The modal superposition method is used to solve the differential equations of wheelset motion considering its flexible deformation due to the first-order bending resonance. In order to verify the present model and clarify the influence of the first-order bending deformation of wheelset on wheel/track contact behavior, a harmonic track irregularity with a fixed wavelength and a white-noise roughness are, respectively used as the excitations in the two models of vehicle-rail coupling dynamic system, one considers the effect of wheelset bending deformation, and the other does not. The numerical results indicate that the wheelset first-order bending deformation has an influence on wheel/rail rolling contact behavior and is easily excited under wheel/rail roughness excitation.

  12. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  13. Electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and vibrationally mediated photodissociation of V+(OCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citir, Murat; Altinay, Gokhan; Metz, Ricardo B

    2006-04-20

    Electronic spectra of gas-phase V+(OCO) are measured in the near-infrared from 6050 to 7420 cm(-1) and in the visible from 15,500 to 16,560 cm(-1), using photofragment spectroscopy. The near-IR band is complex, with a 107 cm(-1) progression in the metal-ligand stretch. The visible band shows clearly resolved vibrational progressions in the metal-ligand stretch and rock, and in the OCO bend, as observed by Brucat and co-workers. A vibrational hot band gives the metal-ligand stretch frequency in the ground electronic state nu3'' = 210 cm(-1). The OCO antisymmetric stretch frequency in the ground electronic state (nu1'') is measured by using vibrationally mediated photodissociation. An IR laser vibrationally excites ions to nu1'' = 1. Vibrationally excited ions selectively dissociate following absorption of a second, visible photon at the nu1' = 1 CO2, due to interaction with the metal. Larger blue shifts observed for complexes with fewer ligands agree with trends seen for larger V+(OCO)n clusters.

  14. Coupling between shear and bending in the analysis of beam problems: Planar case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Ahmed A.; Patel, Mohil

    2018-04-01

    The interpretation of invariants, such as curvatures which uniquely define the bending and twist of space curves and surfaces, is fundamental in the formulation of the beam and plate elastic forces. Accurate representations of curve and surface invariants, which enter into the definition of the strain energy equations, is particularly important in the case of large displacement analysis. This paper discusses this important subject in view of the fact that shear and bending are independent modes of deformation and do not have kinematic coupling; this is despite the fact that kinetic coupling may exist. The paper shows, using simple examples, that shear without bending and bending without shear at an arbitrary point and along a certain direction are scenarios that higher-order finite elements (FE) can represent with a degree of accuracy that depends on the order of interpolation and/or mesh size. The FE representation of these two kinematically uncoupled modes of deformation is evaluated in order to examine the effect of the order of the polynomial interpolation on the accuracy of representing these two independent modes. It is also shown in this paper that not all the curvature vectors contribute to bending deformation. In view of the conclusions drawn from the analysis of simple beam problems, the material curvature used in several previous investigations is evaluated both analytically and numerically. The problems associated with the material curvature matrix, obtained using the rotation of the beam cross-section, and the fundamental differences between this material curvature matrix and the Serret-Frenet curvature matrix are discussed.

  15. Comparison of different nail bending apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianen, H.P.C.A.; Schot, F.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    A research to develope a registrated testmethod to define the allowable bending moment of a nail was started in spring of this year. A request for a registrated testmethod is caused by the final project of ir. H.P.C.A. Vianen ‘s study. The consequence of developing new codes in The Netherlands and

  16. Amplification caused by gravitational bending of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.

    1985-01-01

    Gravitational bending of light may not only lead to multiple imaging (gravitational lens effect), but also affects the apparent luminosity of a source. It is shown here that a mass distribution near the line-of-sight to any source always increases the observable flux relative to the case in which the deflector is absent

  17. Interdisciplinary Invitations: Exploring Gee's Bend Quilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David

    2012-01-01

    Engaging with the quilts of Gee's Bend offers a rich opportunity for students in grades four through eight to develop appreciation for pattern, rhythm, and innovation while learning about history, entrepreneurship, and political activism. By easily accessing print, film, and Internet resources teachers can include these vibrant quilts and…

  18. Demonstration model of LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    To save iron and raise the flux density, the LEP bending magnet laminations were separated by spacers and the space between the laminations was filled with concrete. This is a demonstration model, part of it with the spaced laminations only, the other part filled with concrete.

  19. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  20. Systematisk løbende refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler en model kaldet systematisk løbende refleksion, der repræsenterer en procedure til overvejelse og genovervejelse af de vurderingskriterier, man lægger til grund for evaluering af et udviklingsprojekt. Pointen er at justere udviklingsprojektet ind i en ønsket retning. Formålet m...