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Sample records for bench scale high

  1. The hot bench scale plant Ester for the vitrification of high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannicini, R.; Strazzer, A.; Cantale, C; Donato, A.; Grossi, G.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the hot bench-scale plant ESTER for the vitrification of the high-level radioactive wastes is described, and the main results of the first radioactive campaign are reported. The ESTER plant, which is placed in the ADECO-ESSOR hot cells of the C.C.R.-EURATOM-ISPRA, has been built and is operated by the ENEA, Departement of Fuel Cycle. It began operating with real radioactive wastes about 1 year ago, solidifying a total of 12 Ci of fission products into 2,02 Kg of borosilicate glass, corresponding to 757 ml of glass. During the vitrification many samples of liquid and gaseous streams have been taken and analyzed. A radioactivity balance in the plant has been calculated, as well as a mass balance of nitrates and of the 137 Cs and 106 Ru volatized in the process

  2. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  3. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  4. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid: Bench-scale study on hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.L.W.; Ritter, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was constructed to vitrify high-level radioactive liquid waste in borosilicate glass for permanent storage. Formic acid, which serves as both an acid and a reducing agent, is used to treat the washed alkaline sludge during melter feed preparation primarily to improve the processability of the feed and to reduce mercury to its zero state for steam stripping. The high-level sludge is composed of many transition metal hydroxides. Among them, there are small quantities of platinum group metals. During the treatment of simulated sludge with formic acid, significant amounts of hydrogen were generated when the platinum group metals were included in the sludge. Apparently the noble metals in the sludge were reduced to their zero states and caused formic acid to decompose catalytically into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, usually with an induction period. The production of hydrogen gas presented the DWPF with a safety issue. Therefore, the objective of this research was to gain a fundamental understanding of what controlled the hydrogen evolution so that a practical solution to the safety issue could be obtained. A bench-scale parametric study revealed the following: increasing the amount of formic acid added to the sludge increased the hydrogen generation rate dramatically; once the catalysts were activated, the hydrogen generation rate decreased significantly with a lowering of the temperature of the sludge; the relative catalytic activities of the noble metals in the sludge decreased in the following order: rhodium > ruthenium much-gt palladium; ammonium ions were generated catalytically from the reaction between formic acid and nitrate; and when present, the noble metals caused higher upward drifts of the sludge pH

  6. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  7. Bench-scale magnetic separation of Department of Energy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegler, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    Criteria were developed for selection of candidate wastes for testing magnetic separation of uranium and/or other paramagnetic materials. A survey of Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous wastes was conducted to determine good candidates for bench-scale magnetic separation tests. Representatives of 21 DOE sites were contacted, and 11 materials were identified as potential candidates for magnetic separation. To date, seven samples have been obtained and tested for separability of uranium with a bench-scale magnetic assaying device. The samples tested have been obtained from the K-1401B and K-1401C ponds in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; from waste piles in Maywood, New Jersey; from North and South Ponds in Richland, Washington; and from magnesium fluoride drums in Fernald, Ohio. The magnetic device utilized in these tests can be used in an open-gradient mode with dry particulate or liquid-suspended materials. Uranium separation from magnesium fluoride has shown exceptionally good performance in both open- and high-gradient modes and could be an important application of the technology

  8. Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to the current project, development of the DSRP was done in a laboratory setting, using synthetic gas mixtures to simulate the regeneration off-gas and coal gas feeds. The objective of the current work is to further the development of zinc titanate fluidized-bed desulfurization (ZTFBD) and the DSRP for hot-gas cleanup by testing with actual coal gas. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Develop and test an integrated, skid-mounted, bench-scale ZTFBD/DSRP reactor system with a slipstream of actual coal gas; (2) Test the bench-scale DSRP over an extended period with a slipstream of actual coal gas to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by the trace contaminants present in coal gas (including heavy metals, chlorides, fluorides, and ammonia); (3) Expose the DSRP catalyst to actual coal gas for extended periods and then test its activity in a laboratory reactor to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by static exposure to the trace contaminants in coal gas; (4) Design and fabricate a six-fold larger-scale DSRP reactor system for future slipstream testing; (5) Further develop the fluidized-bed DSRP to handle high concentrations (up to 14 percent) of SO 2 that are likely to be encountered when pure air is used for regeneration of desulfurization sorbents; and (6) Conduct extended field testing of the 6X DSRP reactor with actual coal gas and high concentrations of SO 2 . The accomplishment of the first three objectives--testing the DSRP with actual coal gas, integration with hot-gas desulfurization, and catalyst exposure testing--was described previously (Portzer and Gangwal, 1994, 1995; Portzer et al., 1996). This paper summarizes the results of previous work and describes the current activities and plans to accomplish the remaining objectives

  9. Application of bench-scale biocalorimetry to photoautotrophic cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Patino, R.; Stockar, von U.

    2005-01-01

    Bench-scale biocalorimetry (=1 L) allows for the determination of the metabolic heat flow during bioprocesses under complete control of all process conditions for extended periods of time. It can be combined with a number of on-line and off-line measurement techniques. This combination can

  10. Study on saccharification of cellulosic wastes with bench scale test plant, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Kumakura, Minoru

    1989-05-01

    This report completed the results that were obtained on the studies of continuous saccharification of radiation pretreated chaff with a saccharification equipment unit of bench scale test plant for cellulosic wastes. The problem on the continuous saccharification in bench scale and its countermeasure were clarified. The glucose concentration obtained in the continuous saccharification was examined from the point of a scale up effect. It was found that there are not a scale up effect between flask scale (100 ml) and bench scale (50 l) and then the same concentration of glucose was obtained in both scales. It was clarified that the contamination of the process let decrease markedly the concentration of produced glucose solution and brings on a large trouble for the saccharification. The addition of 1 % ethyl acetate made it possible to prevent the contamination of the saccharification process in flask scale. However, in the case of continuous saccharification in bench scale, the addition of ethyl acetate in nitrogen gas atmosphere was necessary to prevent the contamination. It was found that the solution of 1.7 % glucose concentration was continuously produced in the continuous saccharification with the most longest period for 26 days. It was, also, suggested that the selection of a suitable retention time is necessary to attain a high glucose productivity in the continuous saccharification. (author)

  11. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird(reg s ign) sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method

  12. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing

  13. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  14. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  15. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the

  16. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoup M. Ghrair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW and Distilled Water (DW were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days. Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results.

  17. Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: Session overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, A.B.; Peyton, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    In situ bioremediation involves complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical processes and requires integration of phenomena operating at scales ranging from that of a microbial cell (10 -6 ) to that of a remediation site (10 to 1000 m). Laboratory investigations of biodegradation are usually performed at a relatively small scale, governed by convenience, cost, and expedience. However, extending the results from a laboratory-scale experimental system to the design and operation of a field-scale system introduces (1) additional mass transport mechanisms and limitations; (2) the presence of multiple phases, contants, and competing microorganisms (3) spatial geologic heterogeneities; and (4) subsurface environmental factors that may inhibit bacterial growth such as temperature, pH, nutrient, or redox conditions. Field bioremediation rates may be limited by the availability of one of the necessary constituents for biotransformation: substrate, contaminant, electron acceptor, nutrients, or microorganisms capable of degrading the target compound. The factor that limits the rate of bioremediation may not be the same in the laboratory as it is in the field, thereby leading, to development of unsuccessful remediation strategies

  18. Bench mark spectra for high-energy neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.

    1986-01-01

    To monitor radiation damage experiments, activation detectors are commonly used. The precision of the results obtained by the multiple foil analysis is largely increased by the intercalibration in bench-mark spectra. This technique is already used in dosimetry measurements for fission reactors. To produce neutron spectra similar to fusion reactor and high-energy high-intensity neutron sources (d-Li or spallation), accelerators can be used. Some possible solutions as p-Be and d-D 2 O neutron sources, useful as bench-mark spectra are described. (author)

  19. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  20. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  1. A bench-scale biotreatability methodology to evaluate field bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberiyan, A.G.; MacPherson, J.R. Jr.; Moore, R.; Pruess, A.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A bench-scale biotreatability methodology was designed to assess field bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil samples. This methodology was performed successfully on soil samples from more than 40 sites. The methodology is composed of two phases, characterization and experimentation. The first phase is physical, chemical, and biological characterization of the contaminated soil sample. This phase determines soil parameters, contaminant type, presence of indigenous contaminant-degrading bacteria, and bacterial population size. The second phase, experimentation, consists of a respirometry test to measure the growth of microbes indirectly (via generation of CO 2 ) and the consumption of their food source directly (via contaminant loss). Based on a Monod kinetic analysis, the half-life of a contaminant can be calculated. Abiotic losses are accounted for based on a control test. The contaminant molecular structure is used to generate a stoichiometric equation. The stoichiometric equation yields a theoretical ratio for mg of contaminant degraded per mg of CO 2 produced. Data collected from the respirometry test are compared to theoretical values to evaluate bioremediation feasibility

  2. Bench scale demonstration and conceptual engineering for DETOXSM catalyzed wet oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslander, J.; Bell, R.; Robertson, D.; Dhooge, P.; Goldblatt, S.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and bench scale studies of the DETOX SM catalyzed wet oxidation process have been performed with the object of developing the process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. Reaction orders, apparent rates, and activation energies have been determined for a range of organic waste surrogates. Reaction intermediates and products have been analyzed. Metals' fates have been determined. Bench scale units have been designed, fabricated, and tested with solid and liquid organic waste surrogates. Results from the laboratory and bench scale studies have been used to develop conceptual designs for application of the process to hazardous and mixed wastes

  3. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na 2 CO 3 and 16 weight percent CaCO 3 . Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na 2 S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na 2 S, where it would be converted to Hg 2 S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na 2 S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury

  4. Runoff and sediment generation on bench -terraced hillsides: measurements and up-scaling of a field-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vertessy, R.A.; Ruijter, J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing, stream sediment yields from agricultural hillsides in upland West Java remain high. We studied the causes of this lack of effect by combining measurements at different spatial scales using an erosion process model. Event runoff and sediment yield from two 4-ha

  5. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory's Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, Vince

    2011-01-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing

  6. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have established TDS wastewater regulations and the US EPA has proposed a benchmark conductivity limit to reduce TDS impacts in streams near mining sites. Traditional CMW treatment effectively removes some TDS components, but is not effective in removing major salt ions due to their higher solubility. This paper describes the basic principles, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of various TDS removal technologies (adsorption, bioremediation, capacitive deionization, desalination, electro-chemical ion exchange, electrocoagulation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation, and reverse osmosis) that have at least been tested in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. Recent discussions about new regulations to include total dissolved solids TDS) limits would propel interest in the TDS removal technologies focused on coal mine water. TDS removal is not a new concept and has been developed using different technologies for a number of applications, but coal mine water has unique characteristics (depending on the site, mining process, and solid-water-oxygen interactions), which make it unlikely to have a single technology predominating over others. What are some novel technolog

  7. Simulation-based rhomboid flap skills training during medical education: comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Saad-Hossne, Rogerio; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    To assess if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of rhomboid flap skills by medical students. Sixty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed Limberg rhomboid flap skills training: didactic materials (control group 1), low-fidelity rubberized line (group 2) or ethylene-vinyl acetate (group 3) bench models; high-fidelity chicken leg skin (group 4) or pig foot skin (group 5) bench models. Pretests and posttests were applied, and Global Rating Scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence were used to evaluate all flap performances. Medical students from groups 2 to 5 showed better flap performances based on the Global Rating Scale (all P 0.05). The magnitude of the effect was considered large (>0.80) in all measurements. There was acquisition of rhomboid flap skills regardless of bench model fidelity.

  8. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  9. Design guidelines for high dimensional stability of CFRP optical bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnoyers, Nichola; Boucher, Marc-André; Goyette, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    In carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) optomechanical structures, particularly when embodying reflective optics, angular stability is critical. Angular stability or warping stability is greatly affected by moisture absorption and thermal gradients. Unfortunately, it is impossible to achieve the perfect laminate and there will always be manufacturing errors in trying to reach a quasi-iso laminate. Some errors, such as those related to the angular position of each ply and the facesheet parallelism (for a bench) can be easily monitored in order to control the stability more adequately. This paper presents warping experiments and finite-element analyses (FEA) obtained from typical optomechanical sandwich structures. Experiments were done using a thermal vacuum chamber to cycle the structures from -40°C to 50°C. Moisture desorption tests were also performed for a number of specific configurations. The selected composite material for the study is the unidirectional prepreg from Tencate M55J/TC410. M55J is a high modulus fiber and TC410 is a new-generation cyanate ester designed for dimensionally stable optical benches. In the studied cases, the main contributors were found to be: the ply angular errors, laminate in-plane parallelism (between 0° ply direction of both facesheets), fiber volume fraction tolerance and joints. Final results show that some tested configurations demonstrated good warping stability. FEA and measurements are in good agreement despite the fact that some defects or fabrication errors remain unpredictable. Design guidelines to maximize the warping stability by taking into account the main dimensional stability contributors, the bench geometry and the optical mount interface are then proposed.

  10. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater: Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Strandberg, G.W.; Morris, M.I.; Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system

  11. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater - Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T L; Palumbo, A V; Boerman, P A; Jennings, H L; Lucero, A J; Tyndall, R L; Strandberg, G W; Morris, M I [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system. (author)

  12. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  13. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  14. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otaño, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater.

  15. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otano, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1 ) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60 Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater

  16. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Peracetic Acid and Twin Oxide ™ as Disinfectants in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine is widely used as an inexpensive and potent disinfectant in the United States for drinking water. However, chlorine has the potential for forming carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, bench scale experiments were conducted at the U.S...

  17. Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Bench Scale Technology Evaluation Project (WE&RF Report LIFT6T14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350◦C ...

  18. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  19. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  20. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  1. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing

  2. Bench-scale and full-scale studies of nitric oxides reduction by gaseous fuel reburning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Xiang, J.; Sun, L.S.; Hu, S.; Zhu, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers are significant contributors to atmospheric pollution. China has specified more rigorous legal limits for NOx emissions from power plants. As a result of the need to reduce NOx emissions, cost-effective NOx reduction strategies must be explored. This paper presented detailed experimental studies on a gaseous fuel reburning process that was performed in a 36 kilowatt bench-scale down-fired furnace to define the optimal reburning operating conditions when different Chinese coals were fired in the furnace. In addition, the combustion system of a 350 megawatt full-scale boiler was retrofitted according to the experimental results. Finally, the gaseous fuel reburning was applied to the retrofitted full-scale boiler. The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the influence of the key parameters on nitric oxide (NO) reduction efficiency of the reburning process and demonstrate the gaseous fuel reburning on a 350 MWe coal-fired boiler in China. The paper described the experimental procedure with particular reference to the experimental facility and measurement; a schematic diagram of the experimental system; experimental fuels; and characteristics of coals for the reburning experiments. Results that were presented included influence of reburn zone residence time; influence of gaseous reburn fuel per cent; influence of excess air coefficient; and unburned carbon in fly ash. It was concluded that both an above 50 per cent NO reduction efficiency and low carbon loss can be obtained by the gaseous fuel reburning process under the optimal operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  3. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial soluti...

  4. Simulation of large scale air detritiation operations by computer modeling and bench-scale experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Land, R.H.; Maroni, V.A.; Mintz, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Although some experience has been gained in the design and construction of 0.5 to 5 m 3 /s air-detritiation systems, little information is available on the performance of these systems under realistic conditions. Recently completed studies at ANL have attempted to provide some perspective on this subject. A time-dependent computer model was developed to study the effects of various reaction and soaking mechanisms that could occur in a typically-sized fusion reactor building (approximately 10 5 m 3 ) following a range of tritium releases (2 to 200 g). In parallel with the computer study, a small (approximately 50 liter) test chamber was set up to investigate cleanup characteristics under conditions which could also be simulated with the computer code. Whereas results of computer analyses indicated that only approximately 10 -3 percent of the tritium released to an ambient enclosure should be converted to tritiated water, the bench-scale experiments gave evidence of conversions to water greater than 1%. Furthermore, although the amounts (both calculated and observed) of soaked-in tritium are usually only a very small fraction of the total tritium release, the soaked tritium is significant, in that its continuous return to the enclosure extends the cleanup time beyond the predicted value in the absence of any soaking mechanisms

  5. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  6. Bench-Scale Studies with Argentine Ion Exchange Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), as well as international atomic energy commission, facilities use ion exchange materials for purification of aqueous streams in the nuclear industry. Unfortunately, the use of the ion exchange materials creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resins often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposable alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  7. Data Quality Objectives For Selecting Waste Samples For Bench-Scale Reformer Treatability Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banning, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

  8. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho

  9. Modified IRC bench-scale arc melter for waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the INEL Research Center (IRC) arc melter facility and its recent modifications. The arc melter can now be used to study volatilization of toxic and high vapor pressure metals and the effects of reducing and oxidizing (redox) states in the melt. The modifications include adding an auger feeder, a gas flow control and monitoring system, an offgas sampling and exhaust system, and a baghouse filter system, as well as improving the electrode drive, slag sampling system, temperature measurement and video monitoring and recording methods, and oxidation lance. In addition to the volatilization and redox studies, the arc melter facility has been used to produce a variety of glass/ceramic waste forms for property evaluation. Waste forms can be produced on a daily basis. Some of the melts performed are described to illustrate the melter's operating characteristics

  10. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  11. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  12. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2H(sub 2)S(yields) 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 2H(sub 2)O; Regeneration: 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 3O(sub 2)(yields) Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2SO(sub 2) The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  13. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veriansyah, Bambang [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: vaveri@kist.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jdkim@kist.re.kr; Lee, Jong-Chol [Agency for Defense Development (ADD), P.O. Box 35-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jcleeadd@hanafos.com

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG (HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  14. Rapid pyrolysis of wheat straw in a Bench-Scale circulating Fluidized-Bed downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, T. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, S.; Xie, J.; Song, W.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    The effects of acid washing treatment on the pyrolysis product distribution and product properties were investigated in a bench-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) downer reactor with wheat straw as feedstock. The acid treatment not only removes most of the inorganic species present in the biomass but also alters the distribution of the remaining organic constituents. It was found that the removal of the inorganic species increases the yield of liquid product and reduces char formation and gas yield. CO and CO{sub 2} are the dominant components in the gaseous product, accounting for over 90 %. The concentration of CO in the gaseous product increases after acid treatment, while the CO{sub 2} concentration decreases. The oxygen and water contents in the liquid product are decreased on acid treatment, leading to a relatively high heating value and viscosity. More volatiles can be found in the char derived from the acid-treated wheat straw than from the raw wheat straw. This may suggest that a longer residence time is needed for pyrolysis of the acid-treated wheat straw in order to obtain the maximal yield of volatile matter. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Continuous thermal degradation of pyrolytic oil in a bench scale CSTR reaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong Hwan; Nam, Ki Yun [Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 102 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Continuous thermal degradation of two pyrolytic oils with low (LPO) and high boiling point distribution (HPO) was conducted in a constant stirrer tank reactor (CSTR) with bench scale. Raw pyrolytic oil as a reactant was obtained from the commercial rotary kiln pyrolysis plant for municipal plastic waste. The degradation experiment was conducted by temperature programming with 10 C/min of heating rate up to 450 C and then maintained with long lapse time at 450 C. Liquid product was sampled at initial reaction time with different degradation temperatures up to 450 C and then constant interval lapse time at 450 C. The product characteristics over two pyrolytic oils were compared by using a continuous reaction system. As a reactant, heavy pyrolytic oil (HPO) showed higher boiling point distribution than that of diesel and also light pyrolytic oil (LPO) was mainly consisting of a mixture of gasoline and kerosene range components. In the continuous reaction, LPO showed higher yield of liquid product and lower residue than those of HPO. The characteristics of liquid products were influenced by the type of raw pyrolytic oil. Also, the result obtained under degradation temperature programming was described. (author)

  16. Bench-scale arc melter for R ampersand D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800 degrees C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter's ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions

  17. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  18. The HSOB GAIA: a cryogenic high stability cesic optical bench for missions requiring sub-nanometric optical stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteau, Pascal; Poupinet, Anne; Kroedel, Mathias; Sarri, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Global astrometry, very demanding in term of stability, requires extremely stable material for optical bench. CeSiC developed by ECM and Alcatel Alenia Space for mirrors and high stability structures, offers the best compromise in term of structural strength, stability and very high lightweight capability, with characteristics leading to be insensitive to thermo-elastic at cryogenic T°. The HSOB GAIA study realised by Alcatel Alenia Space under ESA contract aimed to design, develop and test a full scale representative High Stability Optical Bench in CeSiC. The bench has been equipped with SAGEIS-CSO laser metrology system MOUSE1, Michelson interferometer composed of integrated optics with a nm resolution. The HSOB bench has been submitted to an homogeneous T° step under vacuum to characterise the homothetic behaviour of its two arms. The quite negligible inter-arms differential measured with a nm range reproducibility, demonstrates that a complete 3D structure in CeSiC has the same CTE homogeneity as characterisation samples, fully in line with the GAIA need (1pm at 120K). This participates to the demonstration that CeSiC properties at cryogenic T° is fully appropriate to the manufacturing of complex highly stable optical structures. This successful study confirms ECM and Alcatel Alenia Space ability to define and manufacture monolithic lightweight highly stable optical structures, based on inner cells triangular design made only possible by the unique CeSiC manufacturing process.

  19. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unkuri, J; Rantanen, A; Manninen, J; Esala, V-P; Lassila, A

    2012-01-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm. (paper)

  20. A high frequency test bench for rapid single-flux-quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engseth, H; Intiso, S; Rafique, M R; Tolkacheva, E; Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, A

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and experimentally verified a test bench for high frequency testing of rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) circuits. This test bench uses an external tunable clock signal that is stable in amplitude, phase and frequency. The high frequency external clock reads out the clock pattern stored in a long shift register. The clock pattern is consequently shifted out at high speed and split to feed both the circuit under test and an additional shift register in the test bench for later verification at low speed. This method can be employed for reliable high speed verification of RSFQ circuit operation, with use of only low speed read-out electronics. The test bench consists of 158 Josephson junctions and the occupied area is 3300 x 660 μm 2 . It was experimentally verified up to 33 GHz with ± 21.7% margins on the global bias supply current

  1. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C.; Frank, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form

  2. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137 Cs and 226 Ra from existing waste solutions

  3. Coal flotation - bench-scale study. Flotacao de carvao estudo em escala de bancada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.R. de; Almeida, S L.M. de; Santos, A.T. dos

    1979-01-01

    Run-of-mine coal and pre-washed coal from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were characterized using washability curves and by particle size analysis after crushing. Bench-scale froth flotation tests were then conducted with the pre-washed coal. Kerosene and diesel oil were used as the collectors, and pine oil as the frother. The influence of starch (as depressor) on flotation was also studied. The effects of feed particle size, pH, collector addition, frother addition, depressor addition and flotation time were investigated. A 9.5% ash content coal could be obtained with a mass recovery of about 29%. (17 refs.)

  4. Electrokinetic soil decontamination - summary of results of various studies in laboratory, bench-scale and field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschan, B.; Wutzler, R.; Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In electroremediation, contaminants are removed form soil and groundwater by the action of an electric potential applied across electrodes embedded in the contaminated medium. Driving the remediation are the electrokinetic phenomena of electro-osmosis, ion migration and electrophoresis. Other common physicochemical phenomena that are also present are diffusion, chemical reactions, hydrolysis (change of pH-value), ion exchange, complexation and others. The complex interactions between all these phenomena determine the processes. Important process parameters are transition rates, bulk liquid velocity, {zeta}-potential (Helmholtz-Smoluchowski-equation) and others. Some parameters are determined at laboratory-, bench- and field scale. (orig.)

  5. Bench- and field-scale evaluation of chromium and cadmium extraction by electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gent, David B.; Bricka, R. Mark; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Larson, Steven L.; Fabian, Gene; Granade, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The results of bench-scale laboratory tests and in situ, pilot-scale demonstration of electrokinetic extraction of chromium and cadmium from contaminated soil are presented. The laboratory tests were conducted using 10 cm long samples under current density of 5 A/m 2 for 1200 h. Tests were conducted with and without citric acid amendment at the cathode. The results showed that citric acid improved extraction, especially in the sections near the cathode. However, processing was not enough to result in complete cleanup. The field demo was conducted at the Naval Air Weapon Station (NAWS), Point Mugu, California. Three cathodes were centered between six anodes. The anode-cathode spacing was 4.45 m (15 ft). Constant voltage of 60 V (∼13 V/m) was applied for 20 days and then was reduced to 45 V (10 V/m) for 6 months. Citric acid was used to maintain the cathode pH at 4. After 6 months of treatment, 78% of the soil volume has been cleared of chromium or treated to below natural background levels. The results also indicated that 70% of the soil between the electrodes had been cleared of cadmium contamination. A comparison between the bench-scale and field demo showed that the field process was more effective than the lab tests. This indicated that small sample size will induce a negative effect on the efficiency of the process due to an increased impact of the boundaries on the overall process

  6. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  7. In situ remediation of hexavalent chromium with pyrite fines : bench scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathum, S.; Wong, W.P.; Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    An in situ remediation technique for chromium contaminated soil with pyrite fines was presented. Past industrial activities and lack of disposal facilities have contributed to a serious problem dealing with chromium, which cannot be eliminated from the environment because it is an element. Both bench-scale and laboratory testing was conducted to confirm the efficiency of the proposed process which successfully converted Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in soil and water. Cr(III) is less toxic and immobile in the environment compared to Cr(VI) which moves freely in the soil matrix, posing a risk to the groundwater quality. pH in the range of 2.0 to 7.6 has no effect on the reactivity of pyrite towards Cr(VI). The optimization of the bench-scale treatment resulted in a large volume of chromium waste, mostly from the control experiments and column hydrology testing. These waste streams were treated according to municipal guidelines before disposal to the environment. Samples of chromium waste before and after treatment were analyzed. Cr (VI) was completely mineralized to below guideline levels. It was determined that several conditions, including contact time between pyrite and Cr(VI), are crucial for complete mineralization of Cr(VI). 13 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  8. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McCloskey, Pat [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ananthasayanam, Balajee [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Lee, Julia [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wroczynski, Ron [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Stewart, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McNally, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rownaghi, Ali [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lu, Liu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goizueta, Roberto [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  9. Experience gained in bench scale and pilot scale fluidised bed processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available of titanium dioxide. Expertise in the design and commissioning of industrial-scale plants has led to the supply (through licensees) of a biomass sludge incinerator/boiler generating 26t/h steam, a 20 MW high-sulphur pitch incinerator and a 12 MW fluidised bed...

  10. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator.

  11. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled...

  12. Runoff and sediment generation on bench-terraced hillsides: measurements and up-scaling of a field-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Vertessy, R. A.; Ruijter, J.

    2005-05-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing, stream sediment yields from agricultural hillsides in upland West Java remain high. We studied the causes of this lack of effect by combining measurements at different spatial scales using an erosion process model. Event runoff and sediment yield from two 4-ha terraced hillside subcatchments were measured and field surveys of land use, bench-terrace geometry and storage of sediment in the drainage network were conducted for two consecutive years. Runoff was 3.0-3.9% of rainfall and sediment yield was 11-30 t ha-1 yr-1 for different years, subcatchments and calculation techniques. Sediment storage changes in the subcatchment drainage network were less than 2 t ha-1, whereas an additional 0.3-1.5 t ha-1 was stored in the gully between the subcatchment flumes and the main stream. This suggests mean annual sediment delivery ratios of 86-125%, or 80-104% if this additional storage is included. The Terrace Erosion and Sediment Transport (TEST) model developed and validated for the studied environment was parameterized using erosion plot studies, land use surveys and digital terrain analysis to simulate runoff and sediment generation on the terraced hillsides. This resulted in over-estimates of runoff and under-estimates of runoff sediment concentration. Relatively poor model performance was attributed to sample bias in the six erosion plots used for model calibration and unaccounted covariance between important terrain attributes such as slope, infiltration capacity, soil conservation works and vegetation cover.

  13. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  14. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  15. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract

  16. A long-term bench-scale investigation of permanganate consumption by aquifer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuyuan; Thomson, Neil R

    2009-11-20

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) applications using permanganate involve the injection or release of permanganate into the subsurface to destroy various target contaminants. Naturally occurring reduced components associated with aquifer materials can exert a significant oxidant demand thereby reducing the amount of permanganate available for the destruction of contaminants as well as reducing the overall rate of oxidation. Quantification of this natural oxidant demand (NOD) is a requirement for site-specific assessment and the design of cost-effective oxidant delivery systems. To further our understanding of the interaction between permanganate and aquifer materials, aerobic and anaerobic aquifer materials from eight representative sites throughout North America were tested in a series of systematic bench-scale experiments. Various permanganate to aquifer solids mass loading ratios at different initial permanganate concentrations in well-mixed batch reactors were monitored for >300 days. All NOD temporal profiles demonstrated an initial fast consumption rate followed by a persistent slower consumption rate. The data generated show that the mass loading ratio, the initial permanganate concentration, and the nature and quantity of reduced aquifer material species are the main factors controlling permanganate consumption rates. A higher initial permanganate concentration or a larger mass loading ratio produced a larger fast NOD consumption rate and generated a corresponding higher maximum NOD value. Hence, both the NOD temporal profile and the maximum NOD are not single-valued but are heavily dependent on the experimental conditions. Predictive relationships were developed to estimate the maximum NOD and the NOD at 7 days based on aquifer material properties. The concentration of manganese oxides deposited on the aquifer solids was highly correlated with the mass of permanganate consumed suggesting that passivation of NOD reaction sites occurred due to the formation

  17. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

  18. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing AB14 Pigment by Electrooxidation in both Pilot and Bench Scale Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Basiri parsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation process was used for the degradation of Acid Brown 14 in both bench and pilot scale reactors. The bench scale one with a working volume of 0.5 L was equipped with platinum plate used as the anode and stainless steel (SS-304 plates as the cathode. The pilot scale reactor had a volume of 9 L and was equipped with SS-304 plates used as both the anode and the cathode. Experiments were run using these reactors to investigate the two parameters of energy consumption and anode efficiency. The bench scale reactor was capable of removing 92% and 36% of the dye and COD, respectively, after 18 min of operation. The pilot scale reactor, however, was capable of removing 87% and 59% of the dye and the COD content, respectively, after 60 min of operation. The kinetic study of both the bench and pilot reactors for dye and COD removals showed that both processes followed a zero order kinetic.

  19. Bench-scale demonstration of treatment technologies for contaminated sediments in Sydney Tar Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Punt, M.; Wong, B.; Weimer, L.; Tsangaris, A.; Brown, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to determine the capabilities of selected commercially available technologies for treating contaminated sediments from the South Pond of Sydney Tar Ponds. This study was conducted under the umbrella of a technology demonstration program aimed at evaluating technologies to be used in the remediation of such sediments. The following approach was proposed by SAIC Canada for the treatment of the sediments: (1) solvent extraction for the removal of organic contaminants, (2) acid/chelant leaching for the removal of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, and (3) plasma hearth process for the destruction of toxic streams resulting from the first two processes. Solvent extraction followed by plasma treatment proved effective for removing and destroying organic contaminants. The removal of metals did not achieve the expected results through leaching. An approach was proposed for treating those sediments based on the results of the study. The approach differed depending on the level of organic content. An assessment of associated process costs for both a pilot-scale field demonstration and a full-scale treatment was provided. 11 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Bench scale studies: Ozonation as a potential treatment for waters contaminated with hydrocarbons or dioxins and furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaal, W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the bench scale studies was to examine the destruction efficiency and efficacy of ozone on chemicals of concern (COC's) commonly found in contaminated ground water and rhenoformer wash water. The ground water used in these tests contained aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits. The rhenoformer wash water used in these tests contained a variety of dioxins (including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and furans. Summaries are presented of the bench scale studies by describing the COCs, methodologies, test reactors, observations, and results. The summaries also detail which applications hold promise with respect to ozonation and which ones do not. Bench test results for the experiments in which aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits where the COCs were relatively successful. Concentrations for the COCs ranging from 300 to 3,400 micrograms per liter (microg/L) were brought below levels specified for storm sewer discharge per the National Priority Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permit requirements. Bench test results for the experiments in which dioxins and furans were the COCs were less promising and revealed that additional processes would have to be used in conjunction with ozonation to bring the concentration of COCs within the targeted ranges. It was realized, however, that the effectiveness and efficacy of ozonation were diminished by the presence of particulates, to which some of the dioxin and furan compounds adhered

  1. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  2. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  3. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated

  4. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Conversion of Wastewater Solids to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of hydrothermal treatment for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids. Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. Biocrude yields ranged from 25-37%. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating of biocrude resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to crude oil. CHG product gas methane yields on a carbon basis ranged from 47-64%. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below engine limits. The HTL-CHG process resulted in a chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of > 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%.

  5. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  6. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that 137 Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of 137 Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions

  7. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  8. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

  9. Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

    2007-07-31

    The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

  10. Tests of the Daimler D-IVa Engine at a High Altitude Test Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, W G

    1920-01-01

    Reports of tests of a Daimler IVa engine at the test-bench at Friedrichshafen, show that the decrease of power of that engine, at high altitudes, was established, and that the manner of its working when air is supplied at a certain pressure was explained. These tests were preparatory to the installation of compressors in giant aircraft for the purpose of maintaining constant power at high altitudes.

  11. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  12. Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Myers, R.L.; Rappe, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of 137 Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including 90 Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na 2 O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in 90 Sr

  13. Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane [Aspen Aerogels, Northborough, MA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The primary objective of this project was scaling up and evaluating a novel Amine Functionalized Aerogel (AFA) sorbent in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. The project team (Aspen Aerogels, University of Akron, ADA-ES, and Longtail Consulting) has carried out numerous tests and optimization studies to demonstrate the CO2 capture performance of the AFA sorbent in all its forms: powder, pellet, and bead. The CO2 capture target performance of the AFA sorbent (all forms) were set at > 12 wt.% and > 6 wt.% for total and working CO2 capacity, respectively (@ 40 °C adsorption / 100 – 120 °C desorption). The optimized AFA powders outperformed the performance targets by more than 30%, for the total CO2 capacity (14 - 20 wt.%), and an average of 10 % more for working CO2 capacity (6.6 – 7.0 wt.%, and could be as high as 9.6 wt. % when desorbed at 120 °C). The University of Akron developed binder formulations, pellet production methods, and post treatment technology for increased resistance to attrition and flue gas contaminants. In pellet form the AFA total CO2 capacity was ~ 12 wt.% (over 85% capacity retention of that of the powder), and there was less than 13% degradation in CO2 capture capacity after 20 cycles in the presence of 40 ppm SO2. ADA-ES assessed the performance of the AFA powder, pellet, and bead by analyzing sorption isotherms, water uptake analysis, cycling stability, jet cup attrition and crush tests. At bench scale, the hydrodynamic and heat transfer properties of the AFA sorbent pellet in fluidized bed conditions were evaluated at Particulate Solid Research, Inc. (PSRI). After the process design requirements were completed, by Longtail Consulting LLC, a techno-economic analysis was achieved using guidance from The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) report. This report provides the necessary framework to estimate costs for a temperature swing post

  14. High league bench players and starters: differences in group interactions, group cohesion, role acceptance and self-confidence in football teams

    OpenAIRE

    Simonenkova Irina Petrovna

    2015-01-01

    Main staff players differ from bench players in their perceptions and demonstrate different responses. This research compares the situation of bench players with the situation of starters in high league Latvian football teams.

  15. Bench-scale studies of reactor-based treatment of fuel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truax, D.D.; Britto, R.; Sherrard, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Biological treatment of hazardous wastes from accidental spills or underground storage tank leaks has generated interest in bioremediation as a natural, economical mechanism for site decontamination. Because of drawbacks of batch systems, and the successful use of continuous flow treatment of wastewater for several decades, it was felt that continuous treatment of such soils would be a feasible alternative treatment technique. Therefore, bench-scale bioreactor treatability studies were conducted and used contaminated soil made in the laboratory using No. 2 diesel fuel and sand. Contamination levels studied were from 1,335--6,675 mg (TPH) as derived from No. 2 fuel oil per kg sand. Variation in mean cell age was obtained between reactors, with sufficient nutrients and oxygen made available to ensure the fuel oil organics were the only limit to microbial growth. A theoretical biokinetic model was formulated based on Monod's theory of limiting substrate and continuous cultures. Biokinetic constants and removal efficiencies were evaluated. The off-gases, CO 2 , and volatile hydrocarbons were monitored for mass balance analysis of the process. The solids retention times for evaluating final TPH concentration of 100 mg/kg were also calculated. Removal efficiencies of up to 91% were attained at a loading of 1,335 mg TPH/kg wet sand, operated at a biological solid retention time (BSRT) of 60 days. Experiments also showed that TPH desorption and volatilization were not rate-limiting in the overall removal process. Sand-to-moisture ratios in excess of 3:1 were also shown to retard TPH removal rates very little. However, biokinetic constants were found to vary over a range of values. This was particularly true at varying diesel loading levels. Nevertheless, significant removal efficiency (up to 86%) was noted at the highest loading level tested, 6,675 mg TPH/kg wet sand

  16. Bioleaching of heavy metals from soil using fungal-organic acids : bench scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathum, S.J.; Ousmanova, D.; Somers, A.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Division]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    The ability of fungi to solubilize metals from solid materials may present new opportunities in environmental remediation. This paper presented details of a bench scale experiment that evaluated the leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using in situ fungal-generated organic acids. Rice was used as the growing media for organic acid production by A. foetidus. The cultivated fungus was placed on large pieces of potato-dextrose agar (PDA) plates and suspended in 5 L of sterilized water. The cooked rice was inoculated by pouring the 5 L spore suspension over the rice layer. Soil was obtained from a soil pile impacted with heavy metals at a private industrial site and augmented with Pb-contaminated soil. A polyethylene tub was used with a drain pipe leading to a leachate vessel. Crushed stone was spread over the bottom of the tub to assist leachate drainage. Approximately 45 kg of the contaminated soil was spread evenly over the stone layer to a depth of 10 cm. The concentrated spore suspension was sprinkled over the rice. Each week the leachate collection vessel was removed from the bioleaching system and the fine soil particles were allowed to settle. A control was run using the contaminated soil and solid substrate without fungus. Growth of A. foetidus was observed in both control experiment and test experiment after a period of 35 days. The pH of the leachate was measured as the fungal growth progressed. The process was assessed using ICP Mass Spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy, which showed that approximately 65 g of heavy metals were mobilized from 45 kg of soil, and that the biological leaching process resulted in greater mobilization of heavy metals relative to the control experiment. It was concluded that organic acids generated by A. foetidus were capable of leaching heavy metals from the soil. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  17. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Connolly, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m 3 at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m 2 /s to 6.6 x 10-7 m 2 /s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed

  18. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  19. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    system efficiency. High voltage batteries may be advantageous for future medium voltage DC-grids as well. In all cases, high availability and reliability is indispensable. Investigations on the operating behavior of such systems are needed. For this purpose, a test bench for high voltage storage systems...... was built to analyze these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench was developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench for analyzing high voltage batteries with about...... 4,300 volts including all components, the safety requirements with the resultant safety circuit and the aim of the investigations to be performed with the test bench....

  20. Bench-Scale Evaluation of the Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Wastewater Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2017-10-03

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge (11.9 wt% solids), secondary sludge (9.7 wt% solids), and post-digester sludge (also referred to as digested solids) (16.0 wt% solids). Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. A comprehensive analysis of all feed and effluent phases was also performed. Total mass and carbon balances closed to within ± 15% in all but one case. Biocrude yields from HTL tests were 37%, 25%, and 34% for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. The biocrude yields accounted for 59%, 39%, and 49% of the carbon in the feed for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to that seen with biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating (i.e., upgrading) of the biocrude produced from primary sludge and digested solids resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to petroleum crude oil. CHG product gas consisted primarily of methane, with methane yields (relative to CHG input) on a carbon basis of 47%, 61%, and 64% for aqueous feeds that were the output of HTL tests with primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids, respectively. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below the detection limit and well below fuel input composition limits set by several engine manufacturers. Relative to that of the sludge feeds, the HTL-CHG process resulted in a reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of greater than 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%. The test results, as a whole, support

  1. Comparison of glassy slag waste forms produced in laboratory crucibles and in a bench-scale plasma furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Brown, N.R.; Gong, M.; Whitworth, C.; Filius, K.; Battleson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Vitrification is currently the best demonstrated available technology for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. An innovative vitrification approach known as minimum additive waste stabilization (MAWS) is being developed. Both homogeneous glass and glassy slags have been used in implementing MAWS. Glassy slags (vitro-ceramics) are glass-crystal composites, and they are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix. Glassy slags with compositions developed in crucible melts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were successfully produced in a bench-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace (PCF) by MSE, Inc. Detailed examinations of these materials showed that the crucible melts and the PCF produced similar glass and crystalline phases. The two sets of glassy slags exhibited similar chemical durability in terms of normalized releases of their major components. The slags produced in the PCF furnace using metals were usually less oxidized, although this had no effect on the corrosion behavior of the major components of the slags. However, the normalized release rate of cerium was initially lower for the PCF slags. This difference diminished with time as the redox sates of the metal oxides in slags began to be controlled by exposure to air in the tests. Thus, the deference in cerium release due to the differences in slag redox state may be transitory. The cerium solubility is a complex function of redox state and solution pH and Eh

  2. PNNL Report on the Development of Bench-scale CFD Simulations for Gas Absorption across a Wetted Wall Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Whyatt, Greg A.; Marcy, Peter; Gattiker, J. R.; Sun, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This report is prepared for the demonstration of hierarchical prediction of carbon capture efficiency of a solvent-based absorption column. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is first developed to simulate the core phenomena of solvent-based carbon capture, i.e., the CO2 physical absorption and chemical reaction, on a simplified geometry of wetted wall column (WWC) at bench scale. Aqueous solutions of ethanolamine (MEA) are commonly selected as a CO2 stream scrubbing liquid. CO2 is captured by both physical and chemical absorption using highly CO2 soluble and reactive solvent, MEA, during the scrubbing process. In order to provide confidence bound on the computational predictions of this complex engineering system, a hierarchical calibration and validation framework is proposed. The overall goal of this effort is to provide a mechanism-based predictive framework with confidence bound for overall mass transfer coefficient of the wetted wall column (WWC) with statistical analyses of the corresponding WWC experiments with increasing physical complexity.

  3. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming: bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb2O5 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Machado, N.R.C.; Schmal, M.; Cantao, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    As an alternative route for hydrogen production, ethanol reforming was studied in a bench-scale unit using a 5%Cu/Nb 2 O 5 catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-Ray Diffraction analysis has shown that this catalyst contains copper oxide in an amorphous form, or in particles smaller than 20 nm, while the Nb 2 O 5 is highly crystalline. Analysis of the calcinated catalyst by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy revealed that 35% of total copper was on the surface as Cu I (55%) or Cu II (45%). The catalyst presented a low surface area (35 m 2 /g), mainly from meso and macropores, as textural analysis revealed. Temperature Programmed Reduction showed a two-step reduction of Cu II to Cu, at 245 o C and 306 o C. It was also observed the reduction of 6% of Nb 2 O 5 . The reaction unit consisted of an integral reactor with 16 g of catalyst pellets, approximately 3 mm x 5 mm in size. Reaction temperature and feed rate were varied to optimize hydrogen production, with CO 2 as the main byproduct. Reagents (water and ethanol) in stoichiometric proportion were fed into an electric pre-heater and vaporized. An increase on reaction temperature from 300 o C to 400 o C has led to an increase in mean conversion from 17% to 35%. Ethene and ethyl ether were also detected as minor byproducts. (author)

  5. Loading Intensity Prediction by Velocity and the OMNI-RES 0-10 Scale in Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naclerio, Fernando; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2017-02-01

    Naclerio, F and Larumbe-Zabala, E. Loading intensity prediction by velocity and the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale in bench press. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 323-329, 2017-This study examined the possibility of using movement velocity and the perceived exertion as indicators of relative load in the bench press (BP) exercise. A total of 308 young, healthy, resistance trained athletes (242 men and 66 women) performed a progressive strength test up to the one repetition maximum for the individual determination of the full load-velocity and load-exertion relationships. Longitudinal regression models were used to predict the relative load from the average velocity (AV) and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scales (OMNI-RES 0-10 scale), considering sets as the time-related variable. Load associated with the AV and the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale value expressed after performing a set of 1-3 repetitions were used to construct 2 adjusted predictive equations: Relative load = 107.75 - 62.97 × average velocity; and Relative load = 29.03 + 7.26 × OMNI-RES 0-10 scale value. The 2 models were capable of estimating the relative load with an accuracy of 84 and 93%, respectively. These findings confirm the ability of the 2 calculated regression models, using load-velocity and load-exertion from the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale, to accurately predict strength performance in BP.

  6. Bench-scale production of liquid fuel from woody biomass via gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Liu, Yanyong; Matsunaga, Kotetsu; Miyazawa, Tomohisa; Hirata, Satoshi; Sakanishi, Kinya [Biomass Technology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Suehiro 2-2-2, Hiro, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The bench-scale production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel was achieved from woody biomass via gasification. The daily production capacity of the biomass-to-liquid (BTL) plant used in this study was 7.8 L of hydrocarbon liquid from 48 kg of woody biomass (on a dry basis), corresponding to 0.05 barrels. The BTL process involved the following steps: oxygen-enriched air gasification of the woody biomass, wet and dry gas cleaning, gas compression, carbon dioxide removal, and the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reaction. In the gasification step, oxygen-enriched air gasification was carried out using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier. The content of oxygen, which acts as the gasifying agent, was increased from 21.0 to 56.7 vol%; maximum values of the conversion to gas on a carbon basis and cold gas efficiency-approximately 96 C-mol% and 87.8%, respectively-were obtained at an oxygen content of around 30 vol%. With the increased oxygen content, the concentrations of CO, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} increased from 22.8 to 36.5 vol%, from 16.8 to 28.1 vol%, and from 9.8 to 14.8 vol%, respectively, while that of N{sub 2} decreased from 48.8 to 16.0 vol%. The feed gas for the FT synthesis reaction was obtained by passing the product gas from the gasification step through a scrubber, carbon dioxide removal tower, and desulfurization tower; its composition was 30.8 vol% CO, 25.2 vol% H{sub 2}, 0.9 vol% CO{sub 2}, 2.5 vol% CH{sub 4}, 40.6 vol% N{sub 2}, < 5 ppb H{sub 2}S, and < 5 ppb COS. The hydrocarbon fuel was synthesized in a slurry bed reactor using hexadecane as the solvent and a Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. For hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths of more than 5 carbon atoms (collectively referred to as C{sub 5+}) in the liquid fuel, a selectivity of 87.5% was obtained along with a chain growth probability of 0.84 under the following conditions: 4 MPa, 280 to 340 C, and a ratio of catalyst weight to feed gas rate (W/F) of 9.3 g.h/mol. (author)

  7. Soluble Microbial Product Characterization of Biofilm Formation in Bench-Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Mines, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The biological process known as activated sludge (AS) in conjunction with membrane separation technology for the treatment of wastewater has been employed for over four decades. While, membrane biological reactors (MBR) are now widely employed, the phenomenon of membrane fouling is still the most significant factor leading to performance decline of MBRs. Although much research has been done on the subject of MBR fouling over the past two decades, many questions remain unanswered, and consensus within the scientific community is rare. However, research has led to one system parameter generally being regarded as a contributor to membrane fouling, extracellular polymeric compounds (EPS). EPS, and more specifically, the soluble fraction of EPS known as soluble microbial products (SMP), must be further investigated in order to better understand membrane fouling. The biological activity and performance of the MBR is affected by myriad operational parameters, which in turn affects the SMP generated. A commonly varied operational parameter is, depending on the specific treatment needs of a MBR, the sludge retention time (SRT). This study aims to characterize the SMP in three bench-scale MBRs as the SRT is gradually lowered. By studying how the SMP change as the operation of the system is altered, greater understanding of how SMP are related to fouling can be achieved. At the onset of the study, a steady state was established in the system with a SRT of 20 days. Upon stabilization of a 20 day SRT, the system was gradually transitioned to a five and a half day SRT, in stepwise adjustments. Initially, both the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and the SMP concentrations were at relatively low values, indicating the presence of minimal amounts of biofilm on the membrane surfaces. As the system was altered and more activated sludge was wasted from the reactors, the SRT inherently decreased. As the lower SRT was transitioned and established, the data from TMP measurements, as well

  8. Application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the influence of fluid dynamics on desulfurization in Bench scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, N.L.; Reimert, R. [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Bereich Gas, Erdoel und Kohle, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.) (Germany); Hardy, E.H. [Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.) (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    The influence of fluid dynamics on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions of a diesel oil in bench-scale reactors was evaluated. The porosities and liquid saturations of catalyst beds were quantified by using the MRI technique. The gas-liquid systems used in the experiments were nitrogen diesel and hydrogen diesel. An apparatus was especially constructed, allowing in situ measurements of gas and liquid distributions in packed beds at elevated pressure and temperature up to 20 bar and 200 C, respectively. The reactor itself had a length of 500 mm and an internal diameter of 19 mm. The packed beds used in this MRI study consisted of: (1) 2 mm diameter nonporous spherical glass beads and (2) 1.3 mm diameter porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trilobes having the same size as the original trilobe catalyst used in HDS bench-scale experiments. The superficial gas and liquid velocities were set within the range of trickle flow, e.g., u{sub 0G} = 20-500 mm/s and u{sub 0L} = 0.1-6 mm/s. In parallel with the MRI experiments, the hydrodesulfurization of a gas oil was investigated in a bench-scale plant. Its reactor had the same dimensions of the trickle-bed column used in the MRI experiments and was filled with original trilobe catalyst. These catalytic experiments were carried out at a wide range of operating conditions (p = 30-80 bar, T = 300-380 C, LHSV = 1-4 h{sup -1}). The results of both fluid dynamic and catalytic reaction experiments were then combined for developing a simulation model to predict the HDS performance by accounting for fluid dynamic nonidealities. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  10. Treatment of waste gas containing low concentration of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a bench-scale biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B S; Mudliar, S N; Deshmukh, S C; Banerjee, S; Pandey, R A

    2010-04-01

    Biological treatment of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was investigated in a bench-scale biofilter, packed with compost along with wood chips, and enriched with DMS degrading microorganism Bacillus sphaericus. The biofilter could remove 62-74% of the inlet DMS, at an optimum loading of 0.484 g/m(3)/h with optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 384 s and an average moisture range of 65-70%. The biodegradative products of DMS were sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphate. Evaluation of microbiological status of the biofilter indicated the presence of other bacterial cultures viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium, besides B. sphaericus. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

  12. Predicting the Maximum Dynamic Strength in Bench Press: The High Precision of the Bar Velocity Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Kobal, Ronaldo; Moraes, José E; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, César C; Pereira, Lucas A; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2017-04-01

    Loturco, I, Kobal, R, Moraes, JE, Kitamura, K, Cal Abad, CC, Pereira, LA, and Nakamura, FY. Predicting the maximum dynamic strength in bench press: the high precision of the bar velocity approach. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1127-1131, 2017-The aim of this study was to determine the force-velocity relationship and test the possibility of determining the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in "free weight" and Smith machine bench presses. Thirty-six male top-level athletes from 3 different sports were submitted to a standardized 1RM bench press assessment (free weight or Smith machine, in randomized order), following standard procedures encompassing lifts performed at 40-100% of 1RM. The mean propulsive velocity (MPV) was measured in all attempts. A linear regression was performed to establish the relationships between bar velocities and 1RM percentages. The actual and predicted 1RM for each exercise were compared using a paired t-test. Although the Smith machine 1RM was higher (10% difference) than the free weight 1RM, in both cases the actual and predicted values did not differ. In addition, the linear relationship between MPV and percentage of 1RM (coefficient of determination ≥95%) allow determination of training intensity based on the bar velocity. The linear relationships between the MPVs and the relative percentages of 1RM throughout the entire range of loads enable coaches to use the MPV to accurately monitor their athletes on a daily basis and accurately determine their actual 1RM without the need to perform standard maximum dynamic strength assessments.

  13. Long Rest Interval Promotes Durable Testosterone Responses in High-Intensity Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudese, Estevão; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; Vingren, Jakob L; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Baffi, Matheus; Miranda, Humberto

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of rest period duration (1 vs. 3 minute between sets) on acute hormone responses to a high-intensity and equal volume bench press workout. Ten resistance-trained men (25.2 ± 5.6 years; 78.2 ± 5.7 kg; 176.7 ± 5.4 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.3 ± 0.1 kg per kilogram of body mass) performed 2 bench press workouts separated by 1 week. Each workout consisted of 5 sets of 3 repetitions performed at 85% of 1 repetition maximum, with either 1- or 3-minute rest between sets. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), cortisol (C), testosterone/cortisol ratio (TT/C), and growth hormone (GH) were measured at preworkout (PRE), and immediately (T0), 15 minutes (T15), and 30 minutes (T30) postworkout. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded before and after each set. For TT, both rest lengths enhanced all postexercise verifications (T0, T15, and T30) compared with PRE, with 1 minute showing decreases on T15 and T30 compared with T0. For FT, both 1- and 3-minute rest protocols triggered augmentations on distinct postexercise moments (T0 and T15 for 1 minute; T15 and T30 for 3-minute) compared with PRE. The C values did not change throughout any postexercise verification for either rests. The TT/C ratio was significantly elevated for both rests in all postexercise moments compared with PRE. Finally, GH values did not change for both rest lengths. In conclusion, although both short and long rest periods enhanced acute testosterone values, the longer rest promoted a long-lasting elevation for both TT and FT.

  14. Effect of temperature downshifts on a bench-scale hybrid A/O system: Process performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hexi; Li, Xiangkun; Chu, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effect of temperature downshifts on process performance and bacterial community dynamics was investigated in a bench-scale hybrid A/O system treating real domestic wastewater. Results showed that the average COD removal in this system reached 90.5%, 89.1% and 90.3% for Run 1 (25 °C), Run 2 (15 °C) and Run 3 (10 °C), respectively, and variations in temperature barely affected the effluent COD concentration. The average removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N were 98.4%, 97.8%, 95.7%, and that of TN were 77.1%, 61.8%, 72% at 25 °C, 15 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Although the hybrid system was subjected to low temperature, this process effectively removed NH4(+)-N and TN even at 10 °C with the average effluent concentrations of 2.4 mg/L and 14.3 mg/L, respectively. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that when the operation temperature decreased from 25 °C to 10 °C, the richness and diversity indexes of the system decreased in the sludge samples, while underwent an increase in the biofilm samples. Furthermore, the major heterotrophic bacteria consisted of Lewinella, Lutimonas, Chitinophaga and Fluviicola at 10 °C, which could be central to effective COD removal at low temperature. Additionally, Azospira, one denitrifying-related genus increased from 0.4% to 4.45% in the biofilm samples, with a stable TN removal in response to temperature downshifts. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira increased significantly in the biofilm samples, implying that the attached biofilm contributed to more nitrification at low temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of 226Ra from tailings pond effluents and stabilization of uranium mine tailings. Bench and pilot scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtke, N.W.; Averill, D.; Bryant, D.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Schmidt, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Increased world demand for uranium has resulted in recent expansion of Canadian uranium mining operations. Problems have been identified with the discharge of radionuclides such as 226 Ra from tailings pond effluents and with the stabilization of mine tailings. At Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) two projects were undertaken in cooperation with the Canadian Uranium Mining Industry and other federal government agencies to address these problems. The first project reports on the progress of bench and pilot scale process simulations for the development of a data base for the design of a full scale mechanical physical/chemical 226 Ra removal waste treatment system with an effluent target level of 10 pCi 226 Ra total per litre. The second project addresses problems of the leachability of radionuclides and the stabilization of both uranium mine tailings and BaRaSO 4 sediments from the treatment of acid seepages

  16. The use of bench- and field-scale data for design of an in situ carbon tetrachloride bioremediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyton, B.M.; Truex, M.J.; Skeen, R.S.

    1995-04-01

    A suite of simulation models were developed as a design tool in support of an in situ bioremediation demonstration at the Hanford site in Washington state. The design tool, calibrated with field - and bench-scale data, was used to answer four field-scale system design questions: (1) What are the important reaction processes and kinetics? (2) How will biomass distribute in the aquifer in response to injected substrate? (3) What well configuration best ensures proper nutrient transport and process control? (4) What operating and monitoring strategy should be used to confirm effective remediation? This paper does not describe the design tool itself, but describes how the design tool was used to optimize field site design parameters such as well spacing, hydraulic control, contaminant destruction, and nutrient injection strategies

  17. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  18. Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lail, Marty

    2017-09-12

    The project aimed to advance RTI’s non-aqueous amine solvent technology by improving the solvent to reduce volatility, demonstrating long-term continuous operation at lab- (0.5 liters solvent) and bench-scale (~120 liters solvent), showing low reboiler heat duty measured during bench-scale testing, evaluating degradation products, building a rate-based process model, and evaluating the techno-economic performance of the process. The project team (RTI, SINTEF, Linde Engineering) and the technology performed well in each area of advancement. The modifications incorporated throughout the project enabled the attainment of target absorber and regenerator conditions for the process. Reboiler duties below 2,000 kJt/kg CO2 were observed in a bench-scale test unit operated at RTI.

  19. The effect of recovery time on strength performance following a high-intensity bench press workout in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Burke, Jeanmarie R

    2010-06-01

    To determine the effects of training sessions, involving high-resistance, low-repetition bench press exercise, on strength recovery patterns, as a function of gender and training background. The subjects were 12 athletes (6 males and 6 females) and age-matched college students of both genders (4 males and 4 females). The subjects completed a 3-wk resistance training program involving a bench press exercise, 3 d/wk, to become familiar with the testing procedure. After the completion of the resistance training program, the subjects, on three consecutive weeks, participated in two testing sessions per week, baseline session and recovery session. During the testing sessions, subjects performed five sets of the bench press exercise at 50% to 100% of perceived five repetition maximum (5-RM). Following the weekly baseline sessions, subjects rested during a 4-, 24-, or 48-h recovery period. Strength measurements were estimates of one repetition maximum (1-RM), using equivalent percentages for the number of repetitions completed by the subject at the perceived 5-RM effort of the bench press exercise. The full-factorial ANOVA model revealed a Gender by Recovery Period by Testing Session interaction effect, F(2, 32) = 10.65; P bench press exercises, using different recovery times of 48 h for males and 4 h for females may optimize strength development as a function of gender.

  20. Bench-scale studies on capture of mercury on mineral non-carbon based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wendt, Jost O.L. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    A new high-temperature, mineral non-carbon based dispersed sorbent derived from paper recycling products has been shown to capture mercury at high temperatures in excess of 600 C. The sorbent is consisted of kaolinite/calcite/lime mixtures. Experiments have been conducted on chemi-sorption of elemental mercury in air on a packed bed. The sorption occurs at temperatures between 600 and 1,100 C and requires activation of the minerals contained within the sorbents. Mercury capture is dominated by temperature and capture on sorbents over long time scales. The capture shows a maximum effectiveness at 1,000 C and increases monotonically with temperature. The presence of oxygen is also the required. Freshly activated sorbent is the most effective, and deactivation of sorbents occurs at high temperatures with long pre-exposure times. This activation is suspected to involve a solid-solid reaction between intimately mixed calcium oxide and silica that are both contained within the sorbent. Deactivation occurs at temperatures higher than 1,000 C, and this is due to melting of the substrate and pore closure. The situation in packed beds is complicated because the bed also shrinks, thus allowing channeling and by-passing, and consequent ambiguities in determining sorbent saturation. Sorbent A had significantly greater capacity for mercury sorption than did Sorbent B, for all temperatures and exposure time examined. The effect of SiO{sub 2} on poor Sorbent B is much larger than sorbent A.

  1. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ravi [Innosepra Limited Liability Company, Middlesex, NJ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  2. Results with a bench scale downdraft biomass gasifier for agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Energy Institute, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel; Yinesor, Guzide [Marmara University-Goztepe Campus, Faculty of Engineering - Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34722 Kuyubasi Kadikoy Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    A small scale fixed bed downdraft gasifier system to be fed with agricultural and forestry residues has been designed and constructed. The downdraft gasifier has four consecutive reaction zones from the top to the bottom, namely drying, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction zones. Both the biomass fuel and the gases move in the same direction. A throat has been incorporated into the design to achieve gasification with lower tar production. The experimental system consists of the downdraft gasifier and the gas cleaning unit made up by a cyclone, a scrubber and a filter box. A pilot burner is utilized for initial ignition of the biomass fuel. The product gases are combusted in the flare built up as part of the gasification system. The gasification medium is air. The air to fuel ratio is adjusted to produce a gas with acceptably high heating value and low pollutants. Within this frame, different types of biomass, namely wood chips, barks, olive pomace and hazelnut shells are to be processed. The developed downdraft gasifier appears to handle the investigated biomass sources in a technically and environmentally feasible manner. This paper summarizes selected design related issues along with the results obtained with wood chips and hazelnut shells. (author)

  3. Nasal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation impairs heated humidification: A neonatal bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Tim L; Czernik, Christoph; Bührer, Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd; Fischer, Hendrik S

    2017-11-01

    Nasal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) is a novel mode of non-invasive ventilation used in neonates. However, upper airway obstructions due to viscous secretions have been described as specific adverse effects. We hypothesized that high-frequency oscillations reduce air humidity in the oropharynx, resulting in upper airway desiccation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of nHFOV ventilatory settings on oropharyngeal gas conditions. NHFOV or nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) was applied, along with heated humidification, to a previously established neonatal bench model that simulates oropharyngeal gas conditions during spontaneous breathing through an open mouth. A digital thermo-hygro sensor measured oropharyngeal temperature (T) and humidity at various nHFOV frequencies (7, 10, 13 Hz), amplitudes (10, 20, 30 cmH 2 O), and inspiratory-to-expiratory (I:E) ratios (25:75, 33:66, 50:50), and also during nCPAP. Relative humidity was always >99%, but nHFOV resulted in lower mean T and absolute humidity (AH) in comparison to nCPAP (P humidification during nHFOV. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m 3 h −1 ) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD 5 /COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L −1 for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L −1 for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L −1 on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L −1 . There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  5. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ullery, Mark L.

    2014-10-01

    A range of wastewaters and substrates were examined using mini microbial electrolysis cells (mini MECs) to see if they could be used to predict the performance of larger-scale cube MECs. COD removals and coulombic efficiencies corresponded well between the two reactor designs for individual samples, with 66-92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW) and domestic wastewaters (DW). Hydrogen was recovered from all samples in cube MECs, but gas composition and volume varied significantly between samples. Evidence for direct conversion of substrate to methane was observed with two of the industrial wastewater samples (IW-1 and IW-3). Overall, mini MECs provided organic treatment data that corresponded well with larger scale reactor results, and therefore it was concluded that they can be a useful platform for screening wastewater sources. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Passive flux meter measurement of water and nutrient flux in saturated porous media: bench-scale laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W; Hatfield, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    The passive nutrient flux meter (PNFM) is introduced for simultaneous measurement of both water and nutrient flux through saturated porous media. The PNFM comprises a porous sorbent pre-equilibrated with a suite of alcohol tracers, which have different partitioning coefficients. Water flux was estimated based on the loss of loaded resident tracers during deployment, while nutrient flux was quantified based on the nutrient solute mass captured on the sorbent. An anionic resin, Lewatit 6328 A, was used as a permeable sorbent and phosphate (PO4(3-)) was the nutrient studied. The phosphate sorption capacity of the resin was measured in batch equilibration tests as 56 mg PO4(3-) g(-1), which was determined to be adequate capacity to retain PO4(3-) loads intercepted over typical PNFM deployment periods in most natural systems. The PNFM design was validated with bench-scale laboratory tests for a range of 9.8 to 28.3 cm d(-1) Darcy velocities and 6 to 43 h deployment durations. Nutrient and water fluxes measured by the PNFM averaged within 6 and 12% of the applied values, respectively, indicating that the PNFM shows promise as a tool for simultaneous measurement of water and nutrient fluxes.

  7. In-situ biogas upgrading during anaerobic digestion of food waste amended with walnut shell biochar at bench scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Shen, Yanwen; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia A; Schoene, Robin P; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2017-06-01

    A modified version of an in-situ CO 2 removal process was applied during anaerobic digestion of food waste with two types of walnut shell biochar at bench scale under batch operating mode. Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8.4 vs. 5.6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23.4 vs. 0.3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0.2 vs. 40% wt% of ash). The 0.96-3.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters produced biogas with 77.5%-98.1% CH 4 content by removing 40%-96% of the CO 2 compared with the control digesters at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions. In a direct comparison at 1.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 , the fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters (85.7% CH 4 content and 61% CO 2 removal) outperformed the coarse walnut shell biochar amended digesters (78.9% CH 4 content and 51% CO 2 removal). Biochar addition also increased alkalinity as CaCO 3 from 2800 mg L -1 in the control digesters to 4800-6800 mg L -1 , providing process stability for food waste anaerobic digestion.

  8. Bench-scale crossflow filtration of Hanford tank C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110 sludge slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1997-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has a bench-scale crossflow filter installed in a shielded hot cell for testing radioactive feeds. During FY97 experiments were conducted on slurries from radioactive Hanford waste from tanks C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110. Each tank was tested at three slurry concentrations (8, 1.5, and 0.05 wt% solids). A two-parameter central composite design which tested transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. Crossflow filtration was found to remove solids effectively, as judged by filtrate clarity and radiochemical analysis. If the filtrates from these tests were immobilized in a glass matrix, the resulting transuranic and ( 90 Sr) activity would not breach low activity waste glass limits of 100nCi/g (TRU) and 20 μCi/ml ( 90 Sr). Two exceptions were the transuranic activity in filtrates from processing 1.5 and 8 wt% C-106 tank waste. Subsequent analyses indicated that the source of the TRU activity in the filtrate was most likely due to soluble activity, but obviously proved ineffective at removing the soluble plutonium species. Re-testing of the C-106 supported this hypothesis. These data suggest the need to control carbonate and pH when processing tank wastes for immobilization

  9. Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics

  10. Production of uranium hexafluoride by the catalysed fluorox process: pilot plant and supporting bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janov, J.; Charlton, B.G.; LePage, A.H.; Vilkaitis, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of producing UF 6 by the catalysed reaction of UF 4 with oxygen (the Fluorox process) was investigated in a 150 mm diameter fluidised bed reactor and in supporting bench-scale experiments. The rate of the Fluorox reaction in batch experiments was increased by an order of magnitude with 1 to 5 per cent catalyst (containing 3 to 4 per cent platinum on alumina). The maximum UF 6 production rate at 650 deg. C was 0.9 kg h -1 . However, the platinum catalyst was completely poisoned after production of only 1 and 20 kg UF 6 per kg of catalyst when using respectively French and British UF 4 . Regeneration of the catalyst was demonstrated to be technically feasible by washing with water or ammonium oxalate solution or treating with hydrogen and hydrogen fluoride at 350-650 deg. C. However, since the very fast rate of poisoning would necessitate higher catalyst concentrations and/or frequent regeneration, the catalysed Fluorox process in unlikely to be economically competitive with the direct fluorination of UF 4

  11. Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bench-scale study of the effect of phosphate on an aerobic iron oxidation plant for mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Judith S; Wiacek, Claudia; Janneck, Eberhard; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    At the opencast pit Nochten acidic iron- and sulfate-rich mine waters are treated biotechnologically in a mine-water treatment plant by microbial iron oxidation. Due to the low phosphate concentration in such waters the treatment plant was simulated in bench-scale to investigate the influence of addition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on chemical and biological parameters of the mine-water treatment. As a result of the phosphate addition the number of cells increased, which resulted in an increase of the iron oxidation rate in the reactor with phosphate addition by a factor of 1.7 compared to a reference approach without phosphate addition. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis during the cultivation revealed a shift of the microbial community depending on the phosphate addition. While almost exclusively iron-oxidizing bacteria related to "Ferrovum" sp. were detected with phosphate addition, the microbial community was more diverse without phosphate addition. In the latter case, iron-oxidizing bacteria ("Ferrovum" sp., Acidithiobacillus spp.) as well as non-iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidiphilium sp.) were identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Humidification during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for adults: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikata, Yusuke; Imanaka, Hideaki; Ueta, Masahiko; Nishimura, Masaji

    2010-12-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has recently been applied to acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. However, the issue of humidification during HFOV has not been investigated. In a bench study, we evaluated humidification during HFOV for adults to test if adequate humidification was achieved in 2 different HFOV systems. We tested 2 brands of adult HFOV ventilators, the R100 (Metran, Japan) and the 3100B (SensorMedics, CA), under identical bias flow. A heated humidifier consisting of porous hollow fiber (Hummax II, Metran) was set for the R100, and a passover-type heated humidifier (MR850, Fisher & Paykel) was set for the 3100B, while inspiratory heating wire was applied to both systems. Each ventilator was connected to a lung model in an incubator. Absolute humidity, relative humidity and temperature at the airway opening were measured using a hygrometer under a variety of ventilatory settings: 3 stroke volumes/amplitudes, 3 frequencies, and 2 mean airway pressures. The R100 ventilator showed higher absolute humidity, higher relative humidity, and lower temperature than the 3100B. In the R100, as stroke volume and frequency increased, absolute humidity and temperature increased. In the 3100B, amplitude, frequency, and mean airway pressure minimally affected absolute humidity and temperature. Relative humidity was almost 100% in the R100, while it was 80.5±2.3% in the 3100B. Humidification during HFOV for adults was affected by stroke volume and frequency in the R100, but was not in the 3100B. Absolute humidity was above 33 mgH_2 O/L in these 2 systems under a range of settings.

  14. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes' of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  15. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  16. Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation.The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70 degrees C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques.Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and engineering development have been completed for a pilot plant-scale MEO system, and numerous data have been gathered on the efficacy of the process for a wide variety of anticipated waste components. This presentation will review the data collected at LLNL for a bench scale system based primarily on the use of a Ag(II) mediator in a nitric acid electrolyte; results

  17. Kinetics experiments and bench-scale system: Background, design, and preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofer, C.K.

    1987-10-01

    The project, Supercritical Water Oxidation of Hazardous Chemical Waste, is a Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Research and Development task being carried out by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its objective is to obtain information for use in understanding the basic technology and for scaling up and applying oxidation in supercritical water as a viable process for treating a variety of DOE-DP waste streams. This report gives the background and rationale for kinetics experiments on oxidation in supercritical water being carried out as a part of this HAZWRAP Research and Development task. It discusses supercritical fluid properties and their relevance to applying this process to the destruction of hazardous wastes. An overview is given of the small emerging industry based on applications of supercritical water oxidation. Factors that could lead to additional applications are listed. Modeling studies are described as a basis for the experimental design. The report describes plug flow reactor and batch reactor systems, and presents preliminary results. 28 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Development of a bench-scale fluidized bed combustor (FBC) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high technological level of equipment for combustion of fuels, as well as the necessity for rational and efficient use of non-renewable energy resources, has resulted demanding requirements that must be fulfilled by equipment for energy production, via combustion. These requirements form the characteristics of ...

  19. Uncertainty Quantification Analysis of Both Experimental and CFD Simulation Data of a Bench-scale Fluidized Bed Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahnam, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Gel, Aytekin [ALPEMI Consulting, LLC, Phoeniz, AZ (United States); Subramaniyan, Arun K. [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Musser, Jordan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Dietiker, Jean-Francois [West Virginia Univ. Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-10-02

    Adequate assessment of the uncertainties in modeling and simulation is becoming an integral part of the simulation based engineering design. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the application of non-intrusive Bayesian uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodology in multiphase (gas-solid) flows with experimental and simulation data, as part of our research efforts to determine the most suited approach for UQ of a bench scale fluidized bed gasifier. UQ analysis was first performed on the available experimental data. Global sensitivity analysis performed as part of the UQ analysis shows that among the three operating factors, steam to oxygen ratio has the most influence on syngas composition in the bench-scale gasifier experiments. An analysis for forward propagation of uncertainties was performed and results show that an increase in steam to oxygen ratio leads to an increase in H2 mole fraction and a decrease in CO mole fraction. These findings are in agreement with the ANOVA analysis performed in the reference experimental study. Another contribution in addition to the UQ analysis is the optimization-based approach to guide to identify next best set of additional experimental samples, should the possibility arise for additional experiments. Hence, the surrogate models constructed as part of the UQ analysis is employed to improve the information gain and make incremental recommendation, should the possibility to add more experiments arise. In the second step, series of simulations were carried out with the open-source computational fluid dynamics software MFiX to reproduce the experimental conditions, where three operating factors, i.e., coal flow rate, coal particle diameter, and steam-to-oxygen ratio, were systematically varied to understand their effect on the syngas composition. Bayesian UQ analysis was performed on the numerical results. As part of Bayesian UQ analysis, a global sensitivity analysis was performed based on the simulation results, which shows

  20. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis of rice straw using bench-scale auger, batch and fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.; Ashwath, Nanjappa; Kongkasawan, Jinjuta

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiencies of three pyrolysis reactors (bench-scale auger, batch, and fluidized bed) were investigated using rice straw as the feedstock at a temperature of 500 °C. The highest bio-oil yield of 43% was obtained from the fluidized bed reactor, while the maximum bio-char yield of 48% was obtained from the batch reactor. Similar bio-oil yields were obtained from the auger and batch type reactors. The GCMS and FTIR were used to evaluate the liquid products from all reactors. The best quality bio-oil and bio-char from the batch reactor was determined to have a heating value of 31 MJ/kg and 19 MJ/kg, respectively. The highest alkali mineral was found in the bio-char produced from the auger reactor. The energy conversion efficiencies of the three reactors indicated that the majority of the energy (50–64%) was in the bio-char products from the auger and batch reactors, while the bio-oil from the fluidized bed reactor contained the highest energy (47%). A Sankey diagram has been produced to show the flows of product energy from each pyrolysis process. The result will help determine which conversion process would be optimal for producing specific products of bio-char, bio-oil, and gas depending on the needs. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis products from auger, batch, and fluidized bed reactor were examined. • O/C ratios of bio-oils stayed in specific ranges depending on the process reactors. • The largest quantity of bio-oil from fluidized, while the best quality from batch. • The highest alkali concentration of 37 g/kg included in the auger based bio-char. • Sankey diagram was used to understand the energy distribution from reactors.

  1. Astrophysics on the Lab Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…

  2. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Buddle, Stanlee [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Caraher, Joel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Chen, Wei [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Doherty, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Farnum, Rachel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Giammattei, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Hancu, Dan [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Perry, Robert [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Rubinsztajn, Gosia; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2017-05-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO2 with at least 95% CO2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. In the first budget period of the project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major

  3. Influence of toluene and salinity on biosurfactant production by Bacillus sp.: scale up from flasks to a bench-scale bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristina Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To select the best biosurfactant producer, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus megatherium, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis were cultured in flasks on media with different salinity [low salinity (LS, Bushnell-Haas (BH and artificial sea water (SW media] supplemented or not with toluene as a model pollutant. Toluene inhibited the growth of all microorganisms and stimulated the biosurfactant production. B. subtilis exhibited the best performance, being able to lower the surface tension (ST in the LS medium to 65.5 mN/min in the absence of toluene, and to 46.5 mN/min in the BH medium in the presence of toluene, corresponding to ST reductions of 13.0 and 27.5 mN/m, respectively. Scaling up the process to a bench-scale fermentor, the best results were obtained in the LS medium, where B. subtilis was able to reduce the toluene concentration from 26.0 to 4.3 g/L within 12 h and ST by 17.2 mN/m within 18 h. The results of this study point out that B. subtilis is an interesting biosurfactant producer, which could be used in the bioremediation of toluene-contaminated water.

  4. Change in power output across a high-repetition set of bench throws and jump squats in highly trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2007-11-01

    Athletes experienced in maximal-power and power-endurance training performed 1 set of 2 common power training exercises in an effort to determine the effects of moderately high repetitions upon power output levels throughout the set. Twenty-four and 15 athletes, respectively, performed a set of 10 repetitions in both the bench throw (BT P60) and jump squat exercise (JS P60) with a resistance of 60 kg. For both exercises, power output was highest on either the second (JS P60) or the third repetition (BT P60) and was then maintained until the fifth repetition. Significant declines in power output occurred from the sixth repetition onwards until the 10th repetition (11.2% for BT P60 and 5% for JS P60 by the 10th repetition). These findings suggest that athletes attempting to increase maximal power limit their repetitions to 2 to 5 when using resistances of 35 to 45% 1RM in these exercises.

  5. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  6. Loading intensity prediction by velocity and the OMNI-RES 0–10 scale in bench press

    OpenAIRE

    Naclerio, Fernando; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the possibility of using movement velocity and the perceived exertion as indicators of relative load in the bench press exercise. Three hundred eight young, healthy, resistance trained athletes (242 male and 66 female) performed a progressive strength test up to the one-repetition maximum for the individual determination of the full load-velocity and load-exertion relationships. Longitudinal regression models were used to predict the relative load from the average velocity...

  7. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  8. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH) 2 . The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH) 2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Paul M.; Fimmen, Ryan; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  10. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  11. Enriched-air fluidized bed gasification using bench and pilot scale reactors of dairy manure with sand bedding based on response surface methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Maglinao, Amado L.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Rodriguez-Alejandro, David Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Enriched-air gasification was performed in fluidized bed reactors using the processed dairy manure which was mixed with sand bedding. The effects of temperature, modified equivalence ratio (ER_m), and oxygen concentration on the gas products were investigated based on the statistical models using a bench-scale reactor in order to obtain empirical correlations. Then, the empirical equations were applied to compare the produced gases from a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier. The empirical and actual H_2 and CH_4 compositions were within a 10% error, while the sum of produced CO and CO_2 gases showed similar composition within 3% error. The most influential factors for the syngas heating value were temperature followed by the oxygen concentration and ER (equivalence ratio). The composition of H_2 (2.1–11.5%) and CO (5.9–20.3%) rose with an increase in temperature and oxygen concentration. The variation of CO_2 (16.8–31.6%) was mainly affected by the degree of oxygen concentration in the gasifying agent. The ranges of the LHV (lower heating value), carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were discussed. An economic review showed favorable indications for on-site dairy manure gasification process for electric power based on the depreciable payback period and the power production costs. - Highlights: • Sand mixed dairy manure obtained directly from a dairy farm was processed and used. • Response surface methodology was used to investigate the enriched-air gasification. • Syngas results from bench and pilot scale gasifiers were compared and reviewed. • A highest LVH of 8 MJ/Nm"3 was obtained from the enriched-air gasification. • The power production costs were determined to be $0.053/kWh

  12. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  13. Hydropyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse: effect of sample configuration on bio-oil yields and structures from two bench-scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pindoria, R.V.; Chatzakis, I.N.; Lim, J.-Y.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    1999-01-01

    A wire-mesh reactor has been used as base-case in the study of product yields and structures from the pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of a sample of sugar cane bagasse in a fixed bed `hot-rod` reactor. Results from the two reactors have been compared to determine how best to assess bench-scale data which might be used for eventual process development. Experiments have been carried out at 600{degree}C at pressures up to 70 bar. Structural features of the bio-oils have been examined by size exclusion chromatography and FT-infrared spectroscopy. In both reactors the effect of increasing pressure was to reduce the bio-oil and total volatile yields: hydropyrolysis bio-oil yields were marginally higher than pyrolysis yields under equivalent operating conditions. The data indicate that about one-third of the original biomass may be converted to oil by direct pyrolysis. 33 refs., 10 figs.

  14. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  15. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  16. Differential impact of flow and mouth leak on oropharyngeal humidification during high-flow nasal cannula: a neonatal bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Tim Leon; Czernik, Christoph; Bührer, Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd; Fischer, Hendrik Stefan

    2018-03-09

    Heated humidification is paramount during neonatal high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy. However, there is little knowledge about the influence of flow rate and mouth leak on oropharyngeal humidification and temperature. The effect of the Optiflow HFNC on oropharyngeal gas conditioning was investigated at flow rates of 4, 6 and 8 L min -1 with and without mouth leak in a bench model simulating physiological oropharyngeal air conditions during spontaneous breathing. Temperature and absolute humidity (AH) were measured using a digital thermo-hygrosensor. Without mouth leak, oropharyngeal temperature and AH increased significantly with increasing flow (P < 0.001). Mouth leak did not affect this increase up to 6 L min -1 , but at 8 L min -1 , temperature and AH plateaued, and the effect of mouth leak became statistically significant (P < 0.001). Mouth leak during HFNC had a negative impact on oropharyngeal gas conditioning when high flows were applied. However, temperature and AH always remained clinically acceptable.

  17. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil

  18. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Wolf; Gacem, Riad; Anderlei, Tibor; Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Lattermann, Clemens; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-12-02

    Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham's π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/- 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale.

  19. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  20. Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Purser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1 to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3. It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2] represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data.

  1. Highly Efficient Lead Distribution by Magnetic Sewage Sludge Biochar: Sorption Mechanisms and Bench Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifthikar, Jerosha; Wang, Jia; Wang, Qiliang; Wang, Ting; Wang, Huabin; Khan, Aimal; Jawad, Ali; Sun, Tingting; Jiao, Xiang; Chen, Zhuqi

    2017-08-01

    Highly efficient magnetic sewage sludge biochar (MSSBC) discloses feasible fabrication process with lower production cost, superior adsorption capacity, usage of waste sewage sludge as resource, selected by external magnetic field and exceptional regeneration property. 2gL -1 MSSBC exhibited a high adsorption capacity of 249.00mgg -1 in 200ppmPb(II) and the lead-MSSBC equilibrium was achieved within one hour, owing to the existence of the copious active sites. The adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order model while the adsorption isotherm could be fitted by Langmuir model. Mechanism study demonstrated the adsorption involved electrostatic attraction, ion exchange, inner-sphere complexation and formation of co-precipitates at the surface of MSSBC. Additionally, adsorption performance maintained remarkable in a broad pH window. These outcomes demonstrated the promising waste resource utilization by a feasible approach that turns the solid waste of sewage sludge into biochar adsorbent with auspicious applications in elimination of Pb(II) from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distal clavicular osteolysis in adults: association with bench pressing intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, Mika T.; Morrison, William B.; Zoga, Adam C.; Roedl, Johannes B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) and bench pressing intensity. From a retrospective review of MRI shoulder reports of individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, 262 male patients with DCO and 227 age-matched male patients without DCO were selected. All patients had completed a bench pressing questionnaire. The patients' bench pressing frequency (times per week), duration (years of bench pressing), bench pressing weight (maximum bench pressing weight with one repetition = 1RM) and the ratio of bench pressing weight to body weight were compared between both groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that 56 % (146/262) of patients with DCO were high-intensity bench pressers (1RM more than 1.5 times the body weight) compared to 6 % (14/227) in patients without DCO. High-intensity bench pressing was a risk factor for DCO (OR = 19; 95 %CI = 11-35; p 1 x /week) and duration (>5 years) of bench pressing were risk factors. In bench pressers who suffered from DCO, the mean 1RM was 283 lbs (±SD 57) compared to 209 lbs (±SD 60) in bench pressers not affected by DCO (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). High-intensity, but not low-intensity bench pressing is a risk factor for DCO. (orig.)

  3. Cesium Removal From Tanks 241-AN-103 and 241-SX-105 and 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 Composite For Testing In Bench Scale Steam Reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.; Huber, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  4. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  5. A bench-scale study on the removal and recovery of phosphate by hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Fang, Wenkan; Xing, Mingchao; Wu, Deyi, E-mail: dywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Owing to the easy magnetic separation from water for reuse, magnetic nanoparticles have drawn great interest as adsorbents. Herein hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2}) were created by a facile method and a bench–scale study was undertaken to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism to remove phosphate at low concentrations. Results indicated that phosphate removal by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} was fast (95% of phosphate removal within 10 min) and nearly complete removal could be achieved at the adsorbent dosage >0.6 g/L. In tap water or wastewater where competitive anions coexist, regulation of pH was found to be quite effective to augment the performance of phosphate removal. In pH–lowered adsorption systems, phosphate removal followed a good pattern similarly to pure water, i.e., a continuous high efficiency removal followed by a rapid saturation. Adsorption–desorption–regeneration studies showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} could be repeatedly used for phosphate removal and adsorbed phosphate could be stripped for recovery. The fractionation of adsorbed phosphorus suggested that NaOH-P fraction was dominant. We also found that the adsorption reaction of phosphate with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} shifted the isoelectric point of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} from ~9.0 to ~3.0. FTIR measurements further showed the direct coordination of phosphate onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. The formation of the monodentate (ZrO)PO{sub 2}(OH) complex was proposed. - Highlights: • Hydrous zirconia–coated magnetite was used for phosphate capture. • Regulation of pH was able to enhance P removal in the presence of coexisting ions. • Phosphate was coordinated onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. • The material could be easily separated from water for reuse by a magnet. • Desorption of phosphate from the material could be achieved with NaOH treatment.

  6. Humidification performance of two high-flow nasal cannula devices: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikata, Yusuke; Izawa, Masayo; Okuda, Nao; Itagaki, Taiga; Nakataki, Emiko; Onodera, Mutsuo; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2014-08-01

    Delivering heated and humidified medical gas at 20-60 L/min, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) creates low levels of PEEP and ameliorates respiratory mechanics. It has become a common therapy for patients with respiratory failure. However, independent measurement of heat and humidity during HFNC and comparison of HFNC devices are lacking. We evaluated 2 HFNC (Airvo 2 and Optiflow system) devices. Each HFNC was connected to simulated external nares using the manufacturer's standard circuit. The Airvo 2 outlet-chamber temperature was set at 37°C. The Optiflow system incorporated an O2/air blender and a heated humidifier, which was set at 40°C/3. For both systems, HFNC flow was tested at 20, 40, and 50 L/min. Simulating spontaneous breathing using a mechanical ventilator and TTL test lung, we tested tidal volumes (VT) of 300, 500, and 700 mL, and breathing frequencies of 10 and 20 breaths/min. The TTL was connected to the simulated external nares with a standard ventilator circuit. To prevent condensation, the circuit was placed in an incubator maintained at 37°C. Small, medium, and large nasal prongs were tested. Absolute humidity (AH) of inspired gas was measured at the simulated external nares. At 20, 40, and 50 L/min of flow, respective AH values for the Airvo 2 were 35.3 ± 2.0, 37.1 ± 2.2, and 37.6 ± 2.1 mg/L, and for the Optiflow system, 33.1 ± 1.5, 35.9 ± 1.7, and 36.2 ± 1.8 mg/L. AH was lower at 20 L/min of HFNC flow than at 40 and 50 L/min (P 30 mg/L.

  7. Characterization of L-asparaginase from marine-derived Aspergillus niger AKV-MKBU, its antiproliferative activity and bench scale production using industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Anjana K; Sachaniya, Bhumi; Dudhagara, Dushyant; Panseriya, Haresh Z; Gosai, Haren; Rawal, Rakesh; Dave, Bharti P

    2018-03-01

    L-asparaginase (LA), an enzyme with anticancer activities, produced by marine-derived Aspergillus niger was subjected to purification and characterization. The purified enzyme was observed to have molecular weight ∼90KDa. The enzyme retained activity over a wide range of pH, i.e. pH 4-10. The enzyme was quite stable in temperature range 20-40°C. Tween 80 and Triton X-100 were observed to enhance LA activity while inhibition of LA activity was observed in presence of heavy metals. The values for K m was found to be 0.8141 mM and V max was 6.228μM/mg/min. The enzyme exhibited noteworthy antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines tested. Successful bench scale production (in 5L bioreacator) of LA using groundnut oil cake as low cost substrate has also been carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flexible Bench-Scale Recirculating Flow CPC Photoreactor for Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Removable TiO2 Immobilized on PET Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. EL-Mekkawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 immobilized on polyethylene (PET nonwoven sheet was used in the solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. TiO2 Evonik Aeroxide P25 was used in this study. The amount of loaded TiO2 on PET was approximately 24%. Immobilization of TiO2 on PET was conducted by dip coating process followed by exposing to mild heat and pressure. TiO2/PET sheets were wrapped on removable Teflon rods inside home-made bench-scale recirculating flow Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC photoreactor prototype (platform 0.7 × 0.2 × 0.4 m3. CPC photoreactor is made up of seven low iron borosilicate glass tubes connected in series. CPC reflectors are made of stainless steel 304. The prototype was mounted on a platform tilted at 30°N local latitude in Cairo. A centrifugal pump was used to circulate water containing methylene blue (MB dye inside the glass tubes. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of MB using TiO2/PET was achieved upon the exposure to direct sunlight. Chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses reveal the complete mineralization of MB. Durability of TiO2/PET composite was also tested under sunlight irradiation. Results indicate only 6% reduction in the amount of TiO2 after seven cycles. No significant change was observed for the physicochemical characteristics of TiO2/PET after the successive irradiation processes.

  9. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Topical Report EH&S Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Herwig, Mark; Giolando, Salvatore; Green, Dianne; Morall, Donna

    2016-05-11

    GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2 capture solvent (award number DEFE0013687). As part of this program, a technology EH&S assessment (Subtask 5.1) has been completed for a CO2 capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. The assessment focuses on two chemicals used in the process, the aminosilicone solvent, GAP-0, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA), the GAP-0 carbamate formed upon reaction of the GAP-0 with CO2, and two potential byproducts formed in the process, GAP-0/SOx salts and amine-terminated, urea-containing silicone (also referred to as “ureas” in this report). The EH&S assessment identifies and estimates the magnitude of the potential air and water emissions and solid waste generated by the process and reviews the toxicological profiles of the chemicals associated with the process. Details regarding regulatory requirements, engineering controls, and storage and handling procedures are also provided in the following sections.

  10. Bench scale model studies on sanitary landfill leachate treatment with M. oleifera seed extract and hollow fibre micro-filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muyibi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-based study using a Bench Scale model of four unit operations made up of coagulation (using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a coagulant, flocculation, sedimentation and micro-filtration, have been adopted to treat the leachate from Air Hitman Sanitary Landfill at Puchong in Malaysia. M. oleifera dosages of 150 and 175 mg/L had achieved 43.8% Cadmium removal, 21.2% Total Chromium removal, 66.8% Lead removal and 16% Iron removal. It also removed 55.4% of Total Suspended Solids, 10% of Total Dissolved Solids and 24.2% of Volatile Suspended Solids. Micro-filtration hollow fibre membrane decreased the turbidity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, volatile suspended solids, and organic matter in the leachate by 98.3%, 96.7%, 20.8%, 36.6% and 21.9% respectively. Overall heavy metals removal after micro-filtration using hollow fibre membrane was 94% for Cadmium, 29.8% for Total Chromium, 73.2% for Lead, and 18.3% for Iron. The results have shown that M. oleifera is a promising natural polymer for removing heavy metals from leachates and may be used as a pre-treatment to eliminate a portion of the toxic heavy metals, which limits the activity of micro organisms in the leachates.

  11. Determination and modeling of the influence of the fluid-dynamics in hydro-treating bench scale plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, T.

    1999-09-16

    At an industrial scale, the hydro-treating of oil fractions is carried out in multiphase fixed bed reactors. The oil and hydrogen cross the catalyst bed, usually in co-current downflow. Since the product specifications are steadily becoming more severe, the testing of new catalysts and of modified operating conditions in pilot plants becomes increasingly important. Although these pilot plants are frequently by a factor of 100 000 smaller than the industrial units, they still have to allow the up-scaling to industrial units. In the literature relatively low conversion degrees in pilot plants are frequently reported, especially in downflow. The significantly lower fluid velocities in pilot plants seem to be responsible for such differences, as the influence of fluid-dynamic non-idealities and of the extra-particle mass transfer phenomena increases with a decrease of the fluid velocities. In the present work, the influence of important fluid-dynamic non-idealities on the hydro-treating of gas oil fractions in pilot plants was examined. This was done on the one hand in experiments with different pilot plants and on the other hand by simulations with an especially developed multiphase model. The phenomena were considered as well in an isolated manner. In order to examine any interactions with the chemical reactions, they were also studied in a reactive system. This methodology was applied to the phenomena, 'axial dispersion'and 'gas-liquid mass transfer'. (author)

  12. CFD modeling of space-time evolution of fast pyrolysis products in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, A.A.; Mtui, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    A model for the evolution of pyrolysis products in a fluidized bed has been developed. In this study the unsteady constitutive transport equations for inert gas flow and decomposition kinetics were modeled using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT-12. The Eulerarian-Eulerian multiphase model system described herein is a fluidized bed of sand externally heated to a predetermined temperature prior to introduction of agricultural biomass. We predict the spontaneous emergence of pyrolysis vapors, char and non-condensable (permanent) gases and confirm the observation that the kinetics are fast and that bio-oil vapor evolution is accomplished in a few seconds, and occupying two-thirds of the spatial volume of the reactor as widely reported in the open literature. The model could be advantageous in the virtual design of fast pyrolysis reactors and their optimization to meet economic scales required for distributed or satellite units. - Highlights: ► We model the evolution of pyrolysis products in a fluidized bed via CFD. ► We predict the spontaneous emergence of pyrolysis products. ► We confirm the experimental observation that the kinetics are fast. ► And that bio-oil vapor evolution is accomplished in a few seconds. ► The model is advantageous in the virtual design of fast pyrolysis reactors.

  13. Distal clavicular osteolysis in adults: association with bench pressing intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, Mika T.; Morrison, William B.; Zoga, Adam C.; Roedl, Johannes B. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Interventions, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ciccotti, Michael G. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) and bench pressing intensity. From a retrospective review of MRI shoulder reports of individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, 262 male patients with DCO and 227 age-matched male patients without DCO were selected. All patients had completed a bench pressing questionnaire. The patients' bench pressing frequency (times per week), duration (years of bench pressing), bench pressing weight (maximum bench pressing weight with one repetition = 1RM) and the ratio of bench pressing weight to body weight were compared between both groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that 56 % (146/262) of patients with DCO were high-intensity bench pressers (1RM more than 1.5 times the body weight) compared to 6 % (14/227) in patients without DCO. High-intensity bench pressing was a risk factor for DCO (OR = 19; 95 %CI = 11-35; p < 0.001). Low-intensity bench pressing (1RM less than 1.5 times the body weight) was not a risk factor for DCO (OR = 0.6; 95 % CI = 0.4-0.8). High frequency (>1 x /week) and duration (>5 years) of bench pressing were risk factors. In bench pressers who suffered from DCO, the mean 1RM was 283 lbs (±SD 57) compared to 209 lbs (±SD 60) in bench pressers not affected by DCO (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). High-intensity, but not low-intensity bench pressing is a risk factor for DCO. (orig.)

  14. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a PhaseChanging Absorbent: Techno-Economic Analysis Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Spiry, Irina [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States)

    2017-01-27

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing CO2 capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2 capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. This report presents system and economic analysis for a process that uses a phase changing aminosilicone solvent to remove CO2 from pulverized coal (PC) power plant flue gas. The aminosilicone solvent is a pure 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (GAP-0). Performance of the phase-changing aminosilicone technology is compared to that of a conventional carbon capture system using aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA). This analysis demonstrates that the aminosilicone process has significant advantages relative to an MEA-based system. The first-year CO2 removal cost for the phase-changing CO2 capture process is $52.1/tonne, compared to $66.4/tonne for the aqueous amine process. The phase-changing CO2 capture process is less costly than MEA because of advantageous solvent properties that include higher working capacity, lower corrosivity, lower vapor pressure, and lower heat capacity. The phase-changing aminosilicone process has approximately 32% lower equipment capital cost compared to that of the aqueous amine process. However, this solvent is susceptible to thermal degradation at CSTR desorber operating temperatures, which could add as much as $88/tonne to the CO2 capture cost associated with solvent makeup. Future work is focused on mitigating this critical risk by developing an advanced low-temperature desorber that can deliver comparable desorption performance and significantly reduced

  15. The effects of physical separtation treatment on the removal of uranium from contaminated soils at Fernald: A bench-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, K.G.; Krstich, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A bench-scale treatability study incorporating the use of physical separation techniques and chemical dispersants/extractants was conducted on uranium contaminated soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. The soils contained approximately 497 and 450 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of total uranium, respectively. Geotechnical characterization indicated that 77.4 and 74.6 percent of the soil was in the less that 50 micrometer (μm) size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils, respectively. An initial characterization effort indicated that uranium was distributed among all particle size fractions. After each soil was dispersed in water, it was noted that the uranium concentrated in the sand and clay fractions for the ID-A soil (1028 and 1475 mg kg -1 , respectively) and the clay fraction for ID-B soil (2710 mg kg -1 ). Four 1 millimolar (mM) sodium reagent solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and a sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite mixture) and potable water were evaluated for effectiveness in dispersing each soil into single grain separates and extracting total uranium from each of the resulting particle size fractions. Dilute sodium solutions were more effective than water in dispersing the soil. The use of dispersants, as compared to water, on the less than 2 mm size fraction causes a shift in the distribution of uranium out of the sand fraction and into the silt and clay fractions for ID-A soil and into the clay fraction for the ID-B soil. Attrition scrubbing tests were conducted on the less than 2 mm size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils using water and three alkaline extraction solutions, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate. There was little difference among the chemical extractants on their effectiveness in removing uranium from the greater than 53 μm (sand) or less than 53 μm (silt and clay) soil fraction

  16. Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations for solvent-based carbon capture. Part 2: Chemical absorption across a wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Lai, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Whyatt, Greg [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Marcy, Peter W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Los Alamos NM; Sun, Xin [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge TN

    2017-10-24

    The first part of this paper (Part 1) presents a numerical model for non-reactive physical mass transfer across a wetted wall column (WWC). In Part 2, we improved the existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate chemical absorption occurring in a WWC as a bench-scale study of solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. To generate data for WWC model validation, CO2 mass transfer across a monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent was first measured on a WWC experimental apparatus. The numerical model developed in this work has the ability to account for both chemical absorption and desorption of CO2 in MEA. In addition, the overall mass transfer coefficient predicted using traditional/empirical correlations is conducted and compared with CFD prediction results for both steady and wavy falling films. A Bayesian statistical calibration algorithm is adopted to calibrate the reaction rate constants in chemical absorption/desorption of CO2 across a falling film of MEA. The posterior distributions of the two transport properties, i.e., Henry’s constant and gas diffusivity in the non-reacting nitrous oxide (N2O)/MEA system obtained from Part 1 of this study, serves as priors for the calibration of CO2 reaction rate constants after using the N2O/CO2 analogy method. The calibrated model can be used to predict the CO2 mass transfer in a WWC for a wider range of operating conditions.

  17. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Coal Mine Water: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have establishe...

  18. Calibration bench of flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, J.; Da Costa, D.; Calvet, A.; Vieuxmaire, C.

    1966-01-01

    This equipment is devoted to the comparison of signals from two turbines installed in the Cabri experimental loop. The signal is compared to the standard turbine. The characteristics and the performance of the calibration bench are presented. (A.L.B.)

  19. Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations for solvent-based carbon capture. Part 2: Chemical absorption across a wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate; Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate; Lai, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate; Whyatt, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Energy and Environment Directorate; Marcy, Peter W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sun, Xin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2017-10-24

    Part 1 of this paper presents a numerical model for non-reactive physical mass transfer across a wetted wall column (WWC). In Part 2, we improved the existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate chemical absorption occurring in a WWC as a bench-scale study of solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. In this study, to generate data for WWC model validation, CO2 mass transfer across a monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent was first measured on a WWC experimental apparatus. The numerical model developed in this work can account for both chemical absorption and desorption of CO2 in MEA. In addition, the overall mass transfer coefficient predicted using traditional/empirical correlations is conducted and compared with CFD prediction results for both steady and wavy falling films. A Bayesian statistical calibration algorithm is adopted to calibrate the reaction rate constants in chemical absorption/desorption of CO2 across a falling film of MEA. The posterior distributions of the two transport properties, i.e., Henry's constant and gas diffusivity in the non-reacting nitrous oxide (N2O)/MEA system obtained from Part 1 of this study, serves as priors for the calibration of CO2 reaction rate constants after using the N2O/CO2 analogy method. Finally, the calibrated model can be used to predict the CO2 mass transfer in a WWC for a wider range of operating conditions.

  20. Application of high-throughput mini-bioreactor system for systematic scale-down modeling, process characterization, and control strategy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Vijay; Kwiatkowski, Chris; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput systems and processes have typically been targeted for process development and optimization in the bioprocessing industry. For process characterization, bench scale bioreactors have been the system of choice. Due to the need for performing different process conditions for multiple process parameters, the process characterization studies typically span several months and are considered time and resource intensive. In this study, we have shown the application of a high-throughput mini-bioreactor system viz. the Advanced Microscale Bioreactor (ambr15(TM) ), to perform process characterization in less than a month and develop an input control strategy. As a pre-requisite to process characterization, a scale-down model was first developed in the ambr system (15 mL) using statistical multivariate analysis techniques that showed comparability with both manufacturing scale (15,000 L) and bench scale (5 L). Volumetric sparge rates were matched between ambr and manufacturing scale, and the ambr process matched the pCO2 profiles as well as several other process and product quality parameters. The scale-down model was used to perform the process characterization DoE study and product quality results were generated. Upon comparison with DoE data from the bench scale bioreactors, similar effects of process parameters on process yield and product quality were identified between the two systems. We used the ambr data for setting action limits for the critical controlled parameters (CCPs), which were comparable to those from bench scale bioreactor data. In other words, the current work shows that the ambr15(TM) system is capable of replacing the bench scale bioreactor system for routine process development and process characterization. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. A Methodology for Reducing Bench Strength in Information Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major risks in information technology (IT project execution is the non-availability of resources with required skill sets to meet the project demands. To mitigate this risk, almost every IT organization maintains a portion of their resources on bench. The bench strength reduces the delay in starting the project due to the non-availability of skilled resources. But bench strength or buffer is cost to the company. A medium scale Indian IT company incurs around USD 142,347 monthly on maintaining the bench strength. Hence this study is undertaken to develop a methodology to reduce the bench strength in IT companies. The proposed methodology is to obtain an optimum mix of resources from bench and through recruitment to meet the demands at a minimum cost. This is done by formulating the problem as an integer programming problem. The problem aims to minimize the total cost of obtaining the skilled resources without violating the constraints on demand, bench strength availability and recruitment lead time. The problem can be solved using Microsoft excel solver function or any other optimization packages like CPLEX, Gurobi, etc. A case study on the application of proposed methodology is also discussed in the paper. The case study showed that the proposed methodology is superior to the existing practice of maintaining large bench strengths to meet the demands for resources with various skills.

  2. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  3. In-vivo monitoring of acute DSS-Colitis using Colonoscopy, high resolution Ultrasound and bench-top Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walldorf, J.; Hermann, M.; Pohl, S.; Zipprich, A.; Porzner, M.; Seufferlein, T.; Metz, H.; Maeder, K.; Christ, B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate (colour Doppler-) high-resolution-ultrasound (hrUS) and bench-top magnetic resonance imaging (btMRI) as new methods to monitor experimental colitis. hrUS, btMRI and endoscopy were performed in mice without colitis (n = 15), in mice with acute colitis (n = 14) and in mice with acute colitis and simultaneous treatment with infliximab (n = 19). Determination of colon wall thickness using hrUS (32 MHz) and measurement of the cross-sectional colonic areas by btMRI allowed discrimination between the treatment groups (mean a vs. b vs. c - btMRI: 922 vs. 2051 vs. 1472 pixel, hrUS: 0.26 vs. 0.45 vs. 0.31 mm). btMRI, endoscopy, hrUS and colour Doppler-hrUS correlated to histological scoring (p < 0.05), while endoscopy and btMRI correlated to post-mortem colon length (p < 0.05). The innovative in vivo techniques btMRI and hrUS are safe and technically feasible. They differentiate between distinct grades of colitis in an experimental setting, and correlate with established post-mortem parameters. In addition to endoscopic procedures, these techniques provide information regarding colon wall thickness and perfusion. Depending on the availability of these techniques, their application increases the value of in vivo monitoring in experimental acute colitis in small rodents. (orig.)

  4. Efficient DNA fingerprinting based on the targeted sequencing of active retrotransposon insertion sites using a bench-top high-throughput sequencing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Yuki; Yamamoto, Ayaka; Shindo, Akiko; Tahara, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    In many crop species, DNA fingerprinting is required for the precise identification of cultivars to protect the rights of breeders. Many families of retrotransposons have multiple copies throughout the eukaryotic genome and their integrated copies are inherited genetically. Thus, their insertion polymorphisms among cultivars are useful for DNA fingerprinting. In this study, we conducted a DNA fingerprinting based on the insertion polymorphisms of active retrotransposon families (Rtsp-1 and LIb) in sweet potato. Using 38 cultivars, we identified 2,024 insertion sites in the two families with an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Of these insertion sites, 91.4% appeared to be polymorphic among the cultivars and 376 cultivar-specific insertion sites were identified, which were converted directly into cultivar-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using these insertion sites, which corresponded well with known pedigree information, thereby indicating their suitability for genetic diversity studies. Thus, the genome-wide comparative analysis of active retrotransposon insertion sites using the bench-top MiSeq sequencing platform is highly effective for DNA fingerprinting without any requirement for whole genome sequence information. This approach may facilitate the development of practical polymerase chain reaction-based cultivar diagnostic system and could also be applied to the determination of genetic relationships. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  5. In-vivo monitoring of acute DSS-Colitis using Colonoscopy, high resolution Ultrasound and bench-top Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walldorf, J.; Hermann, M.; Pohl, S.; Zipprich, A. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Halle (Germany); Porzner, M.; Seufferlein, T. [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm (Germany); Metz, H.; Maeder, K. [Martin Luther University, Institut of Pharmacy, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Christ, B. [University of Leipzig, Department of Surgery II, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate (colour Doppler-) high-resolution-ultrasound (hrUS) and bench-top magnetic resonance imaging (btMRI) as new methods to monitor experimental colitis. hrUS, btMRI and endoscopy were performed in mice without colitis (n = 15), in mice with acute colitis (n = 14) and in mice with acute colitis and simultaneous treatment with infliximab (n = 19). Determination of colon wall thickness using hrUS (32 MHz) and measurement of the cross-sectional colonic areas by btMRI allowed discrimination between the treatment groups (mean a vs. b vs. c - btMRI: 922 vs. 2051 vs. 1472 pixel, hrUS: 0.26 vs. 0.45 vs. 0.31 mm). btMRI, endoscopy, hrUS and colour Doppler-hrUS correlated to histological scoring (p < 0.05), while endoscopy and btMRI correlated to post-mortem colon length (p < 0.05). The innovative in vivo techniques btMRI and hrUS are safe and technically feasible. They differentiate between distinct grades of colitis in an experimental setting, and correlate with established post-mortem parameters. In addition to endoscopic procedures, these techniques provide information regarding colon wall thickness and perfusion. Depending on the availability of these techniques, their application increases the value of in vivo monitoring in experimental acute colitis in small rodents. (orig.)

  6. Characterization of High-Power Turbomachinery Tilting Pad Journal Bearings: First Results Obtained on a Novel Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ciulli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tilting pad journal bearings are usually employed in turbomachines for their stable behavior at high rotational speeds. Devoted test rigs have been realized to validate the predictions of theoretical models. However, the design of new high-performance and large-size bearings needs to be supported by experimental investigations on high-performance large test rigs. The main characteristics of a recently built facility for testing large tilting pad journal bearings with diameters from 150 to 300 mm are described in this work. The test rig is versatile and can be used to test bearings of different size, configurations and to investigate the influence of many parameters, even the effect of misalignment. Sample results of the static characterization of a four-pad high-performance tilting pad journal bearing are reported evidencing some transient effects. A few sample dynamic results are also reported. The presented experimental results demonstrated the capabilities of the rig for investigating the static and the dynamic characteristics of the bearings accurately measuring slow and fast variables.

  7. ESPRESSO optical bench: from mind to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenegi, F.; Santana, S.; Gómez, J.; Rodilla, E.; Hughes, I.; Mégevand, D.; Rebolo, R.; Riva, M.; Luis-Simoes, R.

    2016-07-01

    ESPRESSO [1] is a high-resolution spectrograph under development for the VLT telescope. In general, the Optical Bench (OB) structure can be considered as a 3D one, conformed by welding thin plates of Structural Steel (St-52) with a nickelplated surface treatment, combined for getting maximum stiffness and minimum weight, that will be finally re-machined to get stringent geometrical and dimensional tolerances at I/Fs positions. TIG conventional welding procedure has been selected to minimize the cost and facilitate the own welding process. This solution follows the inheritance from HARPS [2] due to its success to achieve the required performance for the bench. This paper contains an overview of the whole process of designing and manufacturing the Optical Bench of ESPRESSO, from the very first beginning with the specifications to the current status of the bench with its integration on the Spectrograph (including the Finite Element Models and the delivery of the final structure by the supplier) and lessons learned.

  8. Effect of Tidal Cycling Rate on the Distribution and Abundance of Nitrogen-Oxidizing Bacteria in a Bench-Scale Fill-and-Drain Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Battistelli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most domestic wastewater can be effectively treated for secondary uses by engineered biological systems. These systems rely on microbial activity to reduce nitrogen (N content of the reclaimed water. Such systems often employ a tidal-flow process to minimize space requirements for the coupling of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic processes. In this study, laboratory-scale tidal-flow treatment systems were studied to determine how the frequency and duration of tidal cycling may impact reactor performance. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and epifluorescence microscopy were used to enumerate the key functional groups of bacteria responsible for nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox, and N-removal efficiency was calculated via a mass-balance approach. When water was cycled (i.e., reactors were filled and drained at high frequencies (16–24 cycles day−1, nitrate accumulated in the columns—presumably due to inadequate periods of anoxia that limited denitrification. At lower frequencies, such as 4 cycles day−1, nearly complete N removal was achieved (80–90%. These fill-and-drain systems enriched heavily for nitrifiers, with relatively few anammox-capable organisms. The microbial community produced was robust, surviving well through short (up to 3 h anaerobic periods and frequent system-wide perturbation.

  9. A flexible well-mixed milliliter-scale reactor with high oxygen transfer rate for microbial cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolic, Andrijana; Larsson, Hilde Kristina; Hugelier, Siewert

    2016-01-01

    solution and replacement for existing microtiter plates, shaken flasks and bench scale bioreactors. In this work, a new design of a milliliter-scale bioreactor system is presented and characterized. The entire system consists of a platform with gas connections, heater, temperature sensor and optical fibers...... on the one side and a bioreactor with special designed magnetic stirrer and non-invasive optical sensors for measurement of pH, dissolved oxygen and optical density on the other side. The system has a high level of flexibility in terms of volume (0.5–2 mL), aeration (sparging and surface aeration) and mixing...

  10. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  11. Radioactive Demonstration Of Final Mineralized Waste Forms For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste By Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Using The Bench Scale Reformer Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-01-01

    . The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of 125/129 I and 99 Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  12. Scaling violations at ultra-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the features of high energy lepton-hadron scattering, including the observed (Bjorken) scaling behavior. The cross-sections where all hadron final states are summed over, are examined and the general formulas for the differential cross-section are examined. The subjects of scaling, breaking and phenomenological consequences are studied, and a list of what ultra-high energy neutrino physics can teach QCD is given

  13. Comparison of force exerted on the sternum during a sneeze versus during low-, moderate-, and high-intensity bench press resistance exercise with and without the valsalva maneuver in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jenny; Schmid, Jack; Parker, Robert D; Coast, J Richard; Cheng, Dunlei; Killian, Aaron D; McCray, Stephanie; Strauss, Danielle; McLeroy Dejong, Sandra; Berbarie, Rafic

    2014-03-15

    Sternal precautions are intended to prevent complications after median sternotomy, but little data exist to support the consensus recommendations. To better characterize the forces on the sternum that can occur during everyday events, we conducted a prospective nonrandomized study of 41 healthy volunteers that evaluated the force exerted during bench press resistance exercise and while sneezing. A balloon-tipped esophageal catheter, inserted through the subject's nose and advanced into the thoracic cavity, was used to measure the intrathoracic pressure differential during the study activities. After the 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) was assessed, the subject performed the bench press at the following intensities, first with controlled breathing and then with the Valsalva maneuver: 40% of 1-RM (low), 70% of 1-RM (moderate), and 1-RM (high). Next, various nasal irritants were used to induce a sneeze. The forces on the sternum were calculated according to a cylindrical model, and a 2-tailed paired t test was used to compare the mean force exerted during a sneeze with the mean force exerted during each of the 6 bench press exercises. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean force from a sneeze (41.0 kg) and the mean total force exerted during moderate-intensity bench press exercise with breathing (41.4 kg). In conclusion, current guidelines and recommendations limit patient activity after a median sternotomy. Because these patients can repeatedly withstand a sneeze, our study indicates that they can withstand the forces from more strenuous activities than are currently allowed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effects of Bench Press Variations in Competitive Athletes on Muscle Activity and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeterbakken, Atle Hole; Mo, Dag-André; Scott, Suzanne; Andersen, Vidar

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the EMG activity performing 6RM competition style bench press (flat bench-wide grip) with 1) medium and narrow grip widths on a flat bench and 1) inclined and declined bench positions with a wide grip. Twelve bench press athletes competing at national and international level participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in the pectoralis major, anterior and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi. Non-significant differences in activation were observed between the three bench positions with the exception of 58.5-62.6% lower triceps brachii activation, but 48.3-68.7% greater biceps brachii activation in the inclined bench compared with the flat and declined bench position. Comparing the three grip widths, non-significant differences in activations were observed, with the exception of 25.9-30.5% lower EMG activity in the biceps brachii using a narrow grip, compared to the medium and wide grip conditions. The 6-RM loads were 5.8-11.1% greater using a medium and wide grip compared to narrow grip width and 18.5-21.5% lower in the inclined bench position compared with flat and declined. Comparing the EMG activity during the competition bench press style with either the inclined and declined bench position (wide grip) or using a narrow and medium grip (flat bench), only resulted in different EMG activity in the biceps- and triceps brachii. The 6RM loads varied with each bench press variation and we recommend the use of a wide grip on a flat bench during high load hypertrophy training to bench press athletes.

  15. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  16. Bench-Scale Study of Hydrogen Separation Using Pre-Commercial Membranes; Estudio, a Escala de Planta Piloto, del Proceso de Separacion de Hidrogeno mediante Membranas Pre-Comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Hervas, J. M.; Marano, M.

    2011-11-10

    This report compiles the research undertaken by CIEMAT over 2009-2011 in the sub-project 8 Purification and Separation of Hydrogen of the PSE H2ENOV Project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN. Permeability and hydrogen selectivity of a pre-commercial palladium membrane was studied at bench scale level. The effect of main operating parameters - pressure, temperature and feed-flow-rate- on permeate flow-rate was determined. The influence of other gas components on hydrogen permeation was evaluated. Mixtures of H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} were studied. Although nitrogen and carbon dioxide did not permeate, both components decreased hydrogen permeation rate. Operating the membrane for around 1000 h under various conditions showed a small decrease in hydrogen permeation, but not in selectivity. A literature review was done in order to identify causes for permeation inhibition and reduction and for the definition of procedures for membrane regeneration. (Author) 29 refs.

  17. Performance analysis of K-based KEP-CO2P1 solid sorbents in a bench-scale continuous dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Cheol; Jo, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Yong; Moon, Jong-Ho; Yi, Chang-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chong Kul; Lee, Joong Beom [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute (KEPCORI) have been developing a CO{sub 2} capture technology using dry sorbents. In this study, KEP-CO2P1, a potassium-based dry sorbent manufactured by a spray-drying method, was used. We employed a bench-scale dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture fluidized-bed process capable of capturing 0.5 ton CO{sub 2}/day at most. We investigated the sorbent performance in continuous operation mode with solid circulation between a fast fluidized-bed-type carbonator and a bubbling fluidizedbed- type regenerator. We used a slip stream of a real flue gas from 2MWe coal-fired circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) power facilities installed at KIER. Throughout more than 50 hours of continuous operation, the temperature of the carbonator was maintained around 70-80 .deg. C using a jacket-type heat exchanger, while that of the regenerator was kept above 180 .deg. C using an electric furnace. The differential pressure of both the carbonator and regenerator was maintained at a stable level. The maximum CO{sub 2} removal was greater than 90%, and the average CO{sub 2} removal was about 83% during 50 hours of continuous operation.

  18. Scale hierarchy in high-temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Because of asymptotic freedom, QCD becomes weakly interacting at high temperature: this is the reason for the transition to a deconfined phase in Yang-Mills theory at temperature $T_c$. At high temperature $T \\gg T_c$, the smallness of the running coupling $g$ induces a hierachy betwen the "hard", "soft" and "ultrasoft" energy scales $T$, $g T$ and $g^2 T$. This hierarchy allows for a very successful effective treatment where the "hard" and the "soft" modes are successively integrated out. However, it is not clear how high a temperature is necessary to achieve such a scale hierarchy. By numerical simulations, we show that the required temperatures are extremely high. Thus, the quantitative success of the effective theory down to temperatures of a few $T_c$ appears surprising a posteriori.

  19. Geometrical scaling in high energy hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.

    1984-06-01

    The concept of geometrical scaling for high energy elastic hadron scattering is analyzed and its basic equations are solved in a consistent way. It is shown that they are applicable to a rather small interval of momentum transfers, e.g. maximally for |t| 2 for pp scattering at the ISR energies. (author)

  20. Increasing Desalination by Mitigating Anolyte pH Imbalance Using Catholyte Effluent Addition in a Multi-Anode Bench Scale Microbial Desalination Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Robert J.; Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) uses exoelectrogenic bacteria to oxidize organic matter while desalinating water. Protons produced from the oxidation of organics at the anode result in anolyte acidification and reduce performance. A new method was used here to mitigate anolyte acidification based on adding non-buffered saline catholyte effluent from a previous cycle to the anolyte at the beginning of the next cycle. This method was tested using a larger-scale MDC (267 mL) containing four anode brushes and a three cell pair membrane stack. With an anolyte salt concentration increased by an equivalent of 75 mM NaCl using the catholyte effluent, salinity was reduced by 26.0 ± 0.5% (35 g/L NaCl initial solution) in a 10 h cycle, compared to 18.1 ± 2.0% without catholyte addition. This improvement was primarily due to the increase in buffering capacity of the anolyte, although increased conductivity slightly improved performance as well. There was some substrate loss from the anolyte by diffusion into the membrane stack, but this was decreased from 11% to 2.6% by increasing the anolyte conductivity (7.6 to 14 mS/cm). These results demonstrated that catholyte effluent can be utilized as a useful product for mitigating anolyte acidification and improving MDC performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and recycle water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing Desalination by Mitigating Anolyte pH Imbalance Using Catholyte Effluent Addition in a Multi-Anode Bench Scale Microbial Desalination Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Robert J.

    2013-09-03

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) uses exoelectrogenic bacteria to oxidize organic matter while desalinating water. Protons produced from the oxidation of organics at the anode result in anolyte acidification and reduce performance. A new method was used here to mitigate anolyte acidification based on adding non-buffered saline catholyte effluent from a previous cycle to the anolyte at the beginning of the next cycle. This method was tested using a larger-scale MDC (267 mL) containing four anode brushes and a three cell pair membrane stack. With an anolyte salt concentration increased by an equivalent of 75 mM NaCl using the catholyte effluent, salinity was reduced by 26.0 ± 0.5% (35 g/L NaCl initial solution) in a 10 h cycle, compared to 18.1 ± 2.0% without catholyte addition. This improvement was primarily due to the increase in buffering capacity of the anolyte, although increased conductivity slightly improved performance as well. There was some substrate loss from the anolyte by diffusion into the membrane stack, but this was decreased from 11% to 2.6% by increasing the anolyte conductivity (7.6 to 14 mS/cm). These results demonstrated that catholyte effluent can be utilized as a useful product for mitigating anolyte acidification and improving MDC performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Bench-scale feasibility testing of pulsed-air technology for in-tank mixing of dry cementitious solids with tank liquids and settled solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Hymas, C.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the results of testing performed to determine the feasibility of using a pulsed-air mixing technology (equipment developed by Pulsair Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA) to mix cementitious dry solids with supernatant and settled solids within a horizontal tank. The mixing technology is being considered to provide in situ stabilization of the open-quotes Vclose quotes tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The testing was performed in a vessel roughly 1/6 the scale of the INEEL tanks. The tests used a fine soil to simulate settled solids and water to simulate tank supernatants. The cementitious dry materials consisted of Portland cement and Aquaset-2H (a product of Fluid Tech Inc. consisting of clay and Portland cement). Two scoping tests were conducted to allow suitable mixing parameters to be selected. The scoping tests used only visual observations during grout disassembly to assess mixing performance. After the scoping tests indicated the approach may be feasible, an additional two mixing tests were conducted. In addition to visual observations during disassembly of the solidified grout, these tests included addition of chemical tracers and chemical analysis of samples to determine the degree of mixing uniformity achieved. The final two mixing tests demonstrated that the pulsed-air mixing technique is capable of producing slurries containing substantially more cementitious dry solids than indicated by the formulations suggested by INEEL staff. Including additional cement in the formulation may have benefits in terms of increasing mobilization of solids, reducing water separation during curing, and increasing the strength of the solidified product. During addition to the tank, the cementitious solids had a tendency to form clumps which broke down with continued mixing

  4. Robust AIC with High Breakdown Scale Estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrya Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Akaike Information Criterion (AIC based on least squares (LS regression minimizes the sum of the squared residuals; LS is sensitive to outlier observations. Alternative criterion, which is less sensitive to outlying observation, has been proposed; examples are robust AIC (RAIC, robust Mallows Cp (RCp, and robust Bayesian information criterion (RBIC. In this paper, we propose a robust AIC by replacing the scale estimate with a high breakdown point estimate of scale. The robustness of the proposed methods is studied through its influence function. We show that, the proposed robust AIC is effective in selecting accurate models in the presence of outliers and high leverage points, through simulated and real data examples.

  5. Unparticles: Scales and high energy probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, Myron; Feng, Jonathan L.; Rajaraman, Arvind; Shirman, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Unparticles from hidden conformal sectors provide qualitatively new possibilities for physics beyond the standard model. In the theoretical framework of minimal models, we clarify the relation between energy scales entering various phenomenological analyses. We show that these relations always counteract the effective field theory intuition that higher dimension operators are more highly suppressed, and that the requirement of a significant conformal window places strong constraints on possible unparticle signals. With these considerations in mind, we examine some of the most robust and sensitive probes and explore novel effects of unparticles on gauge coupling evolution and fermion production at high energy colliders. These constraints are presented both as bounds on four-fermion interaction scales and as constraints on the fundamental parameter space of minimal models

  6. TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR OUT-OF-TANK DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE VIA WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY: PHASE I - BENCH SCALE TESTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Wusu, K

    2006-01-01

    Tank 48H return to service is critical to the processing of high level waste (HLW) at Savannah River Site (SRS). Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) management has the goal of returning Tank 48H to routine service by January 2010 or as soon as practical. Tank 48H currently holds legacy material containing organic tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds from the operation of the In-Tank Precipitation process. This material is not compatible with the waste treatment facilities at SRS and must be removed or undergo treatment to destroy the organic compounds before the tank can be returned to Tank Farm service. Tank 48H currently contains ∼240,000 gallons of alkaline slurry with about 2 wt % potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). The main radioactive component in Tank 48H is 137 Cs. The waste also contains ∼0.15 wt % Monosodium Titanate (MST) which has adsorbed 90 Sr, U, and Pu isotopes. A System Engineering Evaluation of technologies/ideas for the treatment of TPB identified Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) as a leading alternative technology to the baseline aggregation approach. Over 75 technologies/ideas were evaluated overall. Forty-one technologies/ideas passed the initial screening evaluation. The 41 technologies/ideas were then combined to 16 complete solutions for the disposition of TPB and evaluated in detail. Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is an aqueous phase process in which soluble or suspended waste components are oxidized using molecular oxygen contained in air. The process operates at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 to 320 C and 7 to 210 atmospheres, respectively. The products of the reaction are CO 2 , H 2 O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). The basic flow scheme for a typical WAO system is as follows. The waste solution or slurry is pumped through a high-pressure feed pump. An air stream containing sufficient oxygen to meet the oxygen requirements of the waste stream is injected into the pressurized

  7. Polymeric Traypack Integrity: Bench-Scale Unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canavan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Additional experimentation was conducted to determine the applicability of the unit for non-destructive residual gas testing since current destructive tests represent a substantial continuing expense...

  8. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  9. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  10. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  11. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  12. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful

  13. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology under Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant (research on liquefaction by bench scale equipment, and research on solid-liquid separation method); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bench scale sochi ni yoru ekika kenkyu, koeki bunriho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. As element studies for supplementing and supporting a 2.4 t/day PDU (process development unit), in the research using a 0.1 t/day bench scale continuous type equipment of fiscal 1981, a hydrogenation experiment was conducted for anthracene oil and also, an examination was made on the reaction conditions of Taiheiyo coal and Horonai coal, as well as on the catalyst and reaction ratio and on the product material distribution. A medium oil equalizing test was performed using Taiheiyo coal in order to obtain knowledge about equalized medium oil. Liquefaction characteristics in the preheating process and reaction process were elucidated by means of a semi-batch device. Comparative studies were made between domestic and overseas coals, in coal properties and liquefaction characteristics using a shaking type autoclave. The performance of iron-sulfur based catalysts was also examined. In the research on a solid-liquid separation method, the basic properties of coal liquefied crude oil were measured such as general properties, solid grading distribution and distillation characteristics, with the basic tests carried out for standing separation, filtrating separation and centrifuging separation, providing selected materials of the solid-liquid separation method suitable for the crude oil produced by the direct hydro-liquefaction method. In addition, studies were conducted on the use of residual oil generated by solid-liquid separation, providing knowledge of the viscosity and thermal cracking. (NEDO)

  14. Laboratory-scale method for enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibble Clare J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening new lignocellulosic biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process relevant conditions is a key factor in the development of economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. Shake flasks, the reaction vessel commonly used for screening enzymatic saccharifications of cellulosic biomass, do not provide adequate mixing at high-solids concentrations when shaking is not supplemented with hand mixing. Results We identified roller bottle reactors (RBRs as laboratory-scale reaction vessels that can provide adequate mixing for enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids biomass loadings without any additional hand mixing. Using the RBRs, we developed a method for screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. RBRs were shown to be scalable between 125 mL and 2 L. Results from enzymatic saccharifications of five biomass pretreatments of different severities and two enzyme preparations suggest that this system will work well for a variety of biomass substrates and enzyme systems. A study of intermittent mixing regimes suggests that mass transfer limitations of enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids loadings are significant but can be mitigated with a relatively low amount of mixing input. Conclusion Effective initial mixing to promote good enzyme distribution and continued, but not necessarily continuous, mixing is necessary in order to facilitate high biomass conversion rates. The simplicity and robustness of the bench-scale RBR system, combined with its ability to accommodate numerous reaction vessels, will be useful in screening new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at high-solids loadings.

  15. The CHEOPS calibration bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildi, F.; Chazelas, B.; Deline, A.; Sarajlic, M.; Sordet, M.

    2017-09-01

    CHEOPS is an ESA Class S Mission aiming at the characterization of exoplanets through the precise measurement of their radius, using the transit method [1]. To achieve this goal, the payload is designed to be a high precision "absolute" photometer, looking at one star at a time. It will be able to cover la large fraction of the sky by repointing. Its launch is expected at the end of 2017 [2, this conference]. CHEOPS' main science is the measure of the transit of exoplanets of radius ranging from 1 to 6 Earth radii orbiting bright stars. The required photometric stability to reach this goal is of 20 ppm in 6 hours for a 9th magnitude star. The CHEOPS' only instrument is a Ritchey-Chretien style telescope with 300 mm effective aperture diameter, which provides a defocussed image of the target star on a single frame-transfer backside illuminated CCD detector cooled to -40°C and stabilized within 10 mK [2]. CHEOPS being in a LEO, it is equipped with a high performance baffle. The spacecraft platform provides a pointing stability of < 2 arcsec rms. This relatively modest pointing performance makes high quality flat-fielding necessary In the rest of this article we will refer to the only CHEOPS instrument simply as "CHEOP" Its behavior will be calibrated thoroughly on the ground and only a small subset of the calibrations can be redone in flight. The main focuses of the calibrations are the photonic gain stability and sensibility to the environment variations and the Flat field that has to be known at a precision better than 0.1%.

  16. High Titer Ethanol and Lignosulfonate Production from SPORL Pretreated Poplar at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Haifeng [Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Zhu, J. Y., E-mail: jzhu@fs.fed.us; Gleisner, Roland [Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Qiu, Xueqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Horn, Eric [BioPulping International, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L.) wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH 1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS). An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) of 3.3 was used to scale the sulfite pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L{sup -1} with a yield of 247 L tonne wood{sup -1} was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL)-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH) content, though it was less sulfonated and had a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing. The conversion efficiency achieved through process integration and simplification, demonstrated here, has significant importance to the entire supply chain of biofuel production from woody biomass.

  17. High titer ethanol and lignosulfonate production from SPORL pretreated poplar at pilot-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyong (J.Y. eZhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L. wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH  1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS. An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF of 3.3 was used to scale the pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L-1 with a yield of 247 L tonne wood-1 was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from SPORL-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH content although it is less sulfonated and has a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing.

  18. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...

  19. Automatic integrated testing bench for tubes in translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufayet, J.P.; Perdijon, J.

    1976-01-01

    All the nondestructive tests required for receiving the cladding tubes intended for fast nuclear reactor are integrated on this bench: quality control by eddy currents and ultra-sounds, thickness and (inner and outer) diameter measurement. The linear displacement of the tube allows very high rates to be attained [fr

  20. Optimization of a micro-scale, high throughput process development tool and the demonstration of comparable process performance and product quality with biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven T; Stewart, Kevin D; Afdahl, Chris; Patel, Rohan; Newell, Kelcy J

    2017-07-14

    In this paper, we discuss the optimization and implementation of a high throughput process development (HTPD) tool that utilizes commercially available micro-liter sized column technology for the purification of multiple clinically significant monoclonal antibodies. Chromatographic profiles generated using this optimized tool are shown to overlay with comparable profiles from the conventional bench-scale and clinical manufacturing scale. Further, all product quality attributes measured are comparable across scales for the mAb purifications. In addition to supporting chromatography process development efforts (e.g., optimization screening), comparable product quality results at all scales makes this tool is an appropriate scale model to enable purification and product quality comparisons of HTPD bioreactors conditions. The ability to perform up to 8 chromatography purifications in parallel with reduced material requirements per run creates opportunities for gathering more process knowledge in less time. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A test-bench for measurement of electrical static parameters of strip silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Elsha, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control. (author)

  2. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  3. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh K. [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  4. Development of an Attitude Scale towards High School Physics Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavas, Pervin Ünlü; Çagan, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Likert type attitude scale for high school students with regard to high school physics lessons. The research was carried out with high school students who were studying in Ankara. First, the opinions of 105 high school students about physics lessons were obtained and then 55 scale items were determined from…

  5. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: bench mark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations representative of the wetwell of Mark I BWR's have predicted pressures and related phenomena. However, calculational predictions for purposes of engineering decision will be possible only if the code can be verified, i.e., shown to compute in accord with measured values. Described in the report is a set of single downcomer spherical flask bench mark experiments designed to produce quantitative data to validate various air-water dynamic computations; the experiments were performed since relevant bench mark data were not available from outside sources. Secondary purposes of the study were to provide a test bed for the instrumentation and post-experiment data processing techniques to be used in the Laboratory's reactor safety research program and to provide additional masurements for the air-water scaling study

  6. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater storage provides a large natural buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). With this global groundwater model we eventually intend to simulate the changes in the groundwater system over time that result from variations in recharge and abstraction. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013), combined with our estimate of aquifer thickness for sedimentary basins. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. Based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run the model with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observed that most variance in groundwater

  7. A new BETSI test bench at CEA/Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyckees, S.; Adroit, G.; Delferriere, O.; Duperrier, R.; Gauthier, Y.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Mateo, C.M.; Napoly, O.; Pottin, B.; Sauce, Y.; Senee, F.; Tuske, O.; Vacher, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the nineties, CEA has undertaken to develop the production of high intensity light ion beams from plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). Important results were obtained with the SILHI source in pulsed or continuous mode. Presently, CEA/Saclay is now involved in the construction of different injectors dedicated to large infrastructures like IFMIF or SPIRAL2. Other installations are also interested by high intensity ion sources like ESS or FAIR. To improve and test new sources, a new test bench named BETSI (Banc d'Etudes et de Tests des Sources d'Ions) has been operating for several years. Low energy beam line diagnostics consist of a Faraday cup, cameras and a species analyzer. The SILHI emittance scanner can also be installed on the beam line. On this test bench, different permanent magnet source configurations are tested. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  8. Cellular and Molecular Anesthesia: from Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabbagh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellular and Molecular Anesthesia: from Bench to BedsideIn the current practice of anesthesia, each day, anesthesiologists deal with a great work: they use the cellular mechanisms of drug molecules to induce their desired effects for induction and maintenance of anesthesia to achieve appropriate tolerance of surgery and its pain, modulation of stress response, sedation needed for performing a variety of procedures, emergency anesthesia care, acute and chronic pain management or other everyday jobs of anesthesiologists during perioperative period.As a matter of fact, molecular anesthesia has been cited for more than 6 decades though in avery limited scale. In 1956, the molecular mechanisms of morphine and pethidine are described (1. Pauling in 1961 published an article in Science describing a molecular theorey for general anesthesia (2.In its report “the World in 2025”, Thomson Reuters has predicted clinical medicine would be the most active research front; while molecular biology has the 9th rank (3. But are we still practicing in clinic the same as today?In fact, the future trend of anesthesia is highly dependent on finding the novel cellular and molecular mechanisms and the possible interactions of the newly discovered molecules and inreraction mechanisms with organ systems. Today, we emphasize on the role of pharmacologists, physiologists, immunologists, anatomists, embryologists, geneticians, cellular medicine specialists, physicists and other basic science specialists; some very interesting examples are published in this volume of the Journal (4-7.However, changes that have well started now would “revolutionize” our daily practice during the next decade in such a way that it will change the basis of medicine: presumably we will have a new model medicine known as “personalized medicine” or “precision medicine”. In this approach, the content of each patient’s genes accompanied with his/her cellular and molecular analysis is

  9. Simulation of Induction Traction Drive with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Girts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of supercapacitor energy storage system for induction traction drive test bench that replaces a real electric public transport for performing testing and researches. The suitability and usage of such bench for research purposes is explained and the importance of the development of software mathematical model for performing simulations to be done before physical implementation measures is reasoned. The working principle of the bench and applied components are described. A virtual model of the bench was built and simulations were performed using Matlab/Simulink software. The basic topology of the virtual bench model is described as well. The calculations of this work show the scaling of supercapacitor energy storage system by setting different limits of working voltage range in order to adjust them to test bench parameters, whereas the modelling compares two simulation cases – the application of less supercapacitors and the application of more supercapacitors with the same common rated voltage. The autonomous mode simulations were also performed. Simulation results are analyzed and recommendations for the application of the supercapacitor energy storage system, with respect to initial supercapacitor circuit voltage, are given.

  10. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p bench press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  11. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2012-01-01

    rates of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other....... The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production...

  12. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, R; Menanteau, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>10(5) K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  13. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, R., E-mail: romain.lemaire@mines-douai.fr; Menanteau, S. [Mines Douai, EI, F-59508 Douai (France)

    2016-01-15

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>10{sup 5} K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  14. Influence of bench angle on upper extremity muscular activation during bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauver, Jakob D; Cayot, Trent E; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the muscular activation of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and triceps brachii during a free-weight barbell bench press performed at 0°, 30°, 45° and -15° bench angles. Fourteen healthy resistance trained males (age 21.4 ± 0.4 years) participated in this study. One set of six repetitions for each bench press conditions at 65% one repetition maximum were performed. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was utilised to examine the muscular activation of the selected muscles during the eccentric and concentric phases. In addition, each phase was subdivided into 25% contraction durations, resulting in four separate time points for comparison between bench conditions. The sEMG of upper pectoralis displayed no difference during any of the bench conditions when examining the complete concentric contraction, however differences during 26-50% contraction duration were found for both the 30° [122.5 ± 10.1% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)] and 45° (124 ± 9.1% MVIC) bench condition, resulting in greater sEMG compared to horizontal (98.2 ± 5.4% MVIC) and -15 (96.1 ± 5.5% MVIC). The sEMG of lower pectoralis was greater during -15° (100.4 ± 5.7% MVIC), 30° (86.6 ± 4.8% MVIC) and horizontal (100.1 ± 5.2% MVIC) bench conditions compared to the 45° (71.9 ± 4.5% MVIC) for the whole concentric contraction. The results of this study support the use of a horizontal bench to achieve muscular activation of both the upper and lower heads of the pectoralis. However, a bench incline angle of 30° or 45° resulted in greater muscular activation during certain time points, suggesting that it is important to consider how muscular activation is affected at various time points when selecting bench press exercises.

  15. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisano, Junji; Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  16. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisano, Junji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8584 (Japan); Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-12

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  17. Grout Placement and Property Evaluation for Closing Hanford High-Level Waste Tanks - Scale-Up Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANGTON, CHRISTINE

    2003-01-01

    Hanford has 149 single-shell high level waste (HLW) tanks that were constructed between 1943 and 1964. Many of these tanks have leaked or are suspected of leaking HLW into the soil above the ground water. Consequently, a major effort is ongoing to transfer the liquid portion of the waste to the 28 newer, double-shell tanks. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to develop grout formulations for the three-layer closure concept selected by CH2M HILL for closing Tank C-106. These grout formulations were also evaluated for use as fill materials in the next six tanks scheduled to be closed. The overall scope consisted of both bench-scale testing to confirm mix designs and scale-up testing to confirm placement properties. This report provides results of the scale-up testing for the three-phase tank closure strategy. It also contains information on grouts for equipment and riser filling. The three-phase fill strategy is summarized as follows: Phase I fill encapsulates and minimizes dispersion of the residual waste in the tank. This fill is referred to as the Stabilization Layer and consists of the Stabilization Grout. The Phase II fill provides structural stability to the tank system and prevents subsidence. It is referred to as the Structural Layer and consists of the Structural Grout. A final Phase III fill consists of a grout designed to provide protection against intrusion and is referred to as the Capping Layer or Capping Grout

  18. Study and designing of the ''caliprax'' measurement bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriere, J.Ch.

    2001-09-01

    Probing the matter in order to check its elementary constituents, that is the goal of the particle physic. In this field, the experiments consist in colliding highly energetic particle beams and observing the new born particles. These observations are based on big particle detectors whose running is dependant on the precise knowledge of their geometry (position of the detection chambers). To achieve this, the detectors are equipped with alignment sensors, which have to be calibrated before. This document describes the study and the making of a calibration bench for the 'Praxial' (PRoximity AXIAL) type sensors, and other works related to these sensors. In a first part, we determine and apply a method to set the tools used to fix the sensor stands on the detection chambers. These settings are made with the use of a tridimensional measuring machine. Then, we study the stands themselves. These investigations concern mechanics: positioning quality of the sensors in their stands, bending of the supports due to the tightening. In this part too, the studies are in the field of dimensional metrology. After this, the works are reoriented toward the bench, with the choice of the displacement sensors among two different technologies: optical, with the Rasnik system, and mechanical, with linear probes as LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer). Following the discovery of an ambiguity on the Rasnik system, we go on the tests to understand its behaviour. We introduce the theory of the alignment sensors calibration, which is based on a minimization calculation. The computer programs are explained in a chapter, and in an other, the implementation of the quality assurance procedures. An other part describes the mechanical studies and the problems they cause. Because of a delay onset of the project, we make a model of the bench. This dummy allows us to test every single function of the final bench. With this device, we record manually the first calibration data and use them

  19. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hornung, Thomas; Meier, Michael; Pinkel, Christoph; Lausen, Georg

    A meaningful analysis and comparison of both existing storage schemes for RDF data and evaluation approaches for SPARQL queries necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. We present SP2Bench, a publicly available, language-specific performance benchmark for the SPARQL query language. SP2Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror vital key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. In this chapter, we discuss requirements and desiderata for SPARQL benchmarks and present the SP2Bench framework, including its data generator, benchmark queries and performance metrics.

  20. Test Bench Development for Femur Stability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel SANCHEZ-CABALLERO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the design and development of a test bench for humanfemurs. The main uses of this test bench will run from artificial femurs comparisonwith real femurs, to join stability assessment after bone a fracture repair. Amongthis uses is specially designed for condylar fractures testing. The test bench isdeveloped from a self-made existing tensile/compression testing machine. Thedesign procedure is supported by a literature review about the bone mechanicalbehavior and composition generally and the knee joint performance and repairparticularly. On the basis of this review, the machine was designed to simulate theadduction and abduction movements of the joint. The magnitudes to be measuredare: the compression force, the bone displacement (vertical and the knee jointrotation

  1. The national hydrologic bench-mark network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ernest D.; Biesecker, J.E.

    1971-01-01

    The United States is undergoing a dramatic growth of population and demands on its natural resources. The effects are widespread and often produce significant alterations of the environment. The hydrologic bench-mark network was established to provide data on stream basins which are little affected by these changes. The network is made up of selected stream basins which are not expected to be significantly altered by man. Data obtained from these basins can be used to document natural changes in hydrologic characteristics with time, to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic structure of natural basins, and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. There are 57 bench-mark basins in 37 States. These basins are in areas having a wide variety of climate and topography. The bench-mark basins and the types of data collected in the basins are described.

  2. System of Thermal Balance Maintenance in Modern Test Benches for Centrifugal Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article “Systems of the heat balance maintenance in modern test benches for centrifugal pumps” makes the case to include cooling systems of a working fluid (heat setting in test bench for impeller pumps. It briefly summarizes an experience of bench building to test centrifugal pumps, developed at the BMSTU Department E-10 over the last 10 years. The article gives the formulas and the algorithm to calculate the heat capacity of different types of impeller pumps when tested at the bench as ell as to determine the heating time of the liquid in the bench without external cooling. Based on analysis of the power balance of a centrifugal pump, it is shown that about 90% of the pump unit-consumed electric power in terminals is used for heating up the working fluid in the loop of the test bench. The article gives examples of elementary heat calculation of the pump operation within the test bench. It presents the main types of systems to maintain thermal balance, their advantages, disadvantages and possible applications. The cooling system schemes for open and closed version of the benches both with built-in and with an independent cooling circuit are analysed. The paper separately considers options of such systems for large benches using the cooling tower as a cooling device in the loop, and to test the pumps using the hydraulic fluids other than water, including those at high temperatures of working fluids; in the latter case a diagram of dual-circuit cooling system "liquid-liquid-air" is shown. The paper depicts a necessity to use ethylene glycol coolant in the two-loop cooling bench. It provides an example of combining the functions of cooling and filtration in a single cooling circuit. Criteria for effectiveness of these systems are stated. Possible ways for developing systems to maintain a thermal balance, modern methods of regulation and control are described. In particular, the paper shows the efficiency of frequency control of the

  3. A Novel 100 kW Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Emulation Test Bench for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Nonlinear Magnetics

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Alexander; Richter, Jan; Gommeringer, Mario; Wersal, Thomas; Braun, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a high dynamic power hardware-inthe-loop (PHIL) emulation test bench to mimic arbitrary permanent magnet synchronous machines with nonlinear magnetics. The proposed PHIL test bench is composed of a high performance real-time simulation system to calculate the machine behaviour and a seven level modular multiphase multilevel converter to emulate the power flow of the virtual machine. The PHIL test bench is parametrized for an automotive synchronous machine and controlled by...

  4. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship of pectoralis major muscle size with bench press and bench throw performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Tohdoh, Yukihiro; Hirayama, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of muscle size indices of the pectoralis major muscle with bench press and bench throw performances in 18 male collegiate athletes. The maximal cross-sectional area (MCSAMAx) and volume (MV) of the pectoralis major muscle were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. First, subjects were tested for their one repetition maximum bench press strength (1RMBP) using a Smith machine. At a later date, subjects performed bench throws using the Smith machine with several different loads ranging from 30.0 kg to 90% of 1RMBP. Barbell positions were measured by a linear position transducer, and bench throw power was calculated using a dynamic equation. Three trials were performed for each load. In all the trials, the maximal peak power was adopted as bench throw peak power (PPBT). The 1RMBP was significantly correlated with MCSAMAx. Similarly, the correlation coefficient between MV and PPBT was significant. In contrast to the y-intercept of the MV-PPBT regression line, that of the MCSAMAx-1RMBP regression line was not significantly different from 0. These results suggested that, although the dependence on pectoralis major muscle size is slightly different between bench press strength and bench throw power, the pectoralis major muscle size has a significant impact on bench press and throw performances. Greater muscle size leads to heavier body weight, which can be a negative factor in some sports. We therefore recommend that athletes and their coaches develop training programs for improving sports performance by balancing the advantage of increased muscle size and the potential disadvantage of increased body weight.

  6. Evaluation of the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process Using a Bench-Scale, 20-L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Results of Test 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program (SPP) is to evaluate the presently available technologies and select the most effective approach for treatment of high-level waste salt solutions currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. One of the three technologies currently being developed for this application is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) to precipitate and remove radioactive cesium from the waste and monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb and remove radioactive strontium and actinides. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-L-capacity continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system. Since March 1999, five operating campaigns of the 20-L CSTR have been conducted. The ultimate goal is to verify that this process, under certain extremes of operating conditions, can meet the minimum treatment criteria necessary for processing and disposing of the salt waste at the Savannah River Saltstone Facility. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and total alpha nuclides are 137 Cs and 90 Sr are to obtain decontamination factors (DFs) of 40,000 (99.998% removal) and 26 (96.15% removal), respectively. (DF is mathematically defined as the concentration of contaminant in the waste feed divided by the concentration of contaminant in the effluent stream.)

  7. High throughput automated microbial bioreactor system used for clone selection and rapid scale-down process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Betts, John P J; Walker, Kelly L; Robinson, Colin; Zoro, Barney; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2018-01-01

    High throughput automated fermentation systems have become a useful tool in early bioprocess development. In this study, we investigated a 24 x 15 mL single use microbioreactor system, ambr 15f, designed for microbial culture. We compared the fed-batch growth and production capabilities of this system for two Escherichia coli strains, BL21 (DE3) and MC4100, and two industrially relevant molecules, hGH and scFv. In addition, different carbon sources were tested using bolus, linear or exponential feeding strategies, showing the capacity of the ambr 15f system to handle automated feeding. We used power per unit volume (P/V) as a scale criterion to compare the ambr 15f with 1 L stirred bioreactors which were previously scaled-up to 20 L with a different biological system, thus showing a potential 1,300 fold scale comparability in terms of both growth and product yield. By exposing the cells grown in the ambr 15f system to a level of shear expected in an industrial centrifuge, we determined that the cells are as robust as those from a bench scale bioreactor. These results provide evidence that the ambr 15f system is an efficient high throughput microbial system that can be used for strain and molecule selection as well as rapid scale-up. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:58-68, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. On dark matter selected high-scale supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Department of Physics, Chongqing University,Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2015-03-11

    The prediction for the Higgs mass in the dark matter selected high-scale SUSY is explored. We show the bounds on SUSY-breaking scale in models of SM +w-tilde and SM +h-tilde/s-tilde due to the observed Higgs mass at the LHC. We propose that effective theory below scale m-tilde described by SM +w-tilde is possibly realized in gauge mediation with multiple spurion fields that exhibit significant mass hierarchy, and that by SM +h-tilde/s-tilde can be realized with direct singlet-messenger-messenger coupling for singlet Yukawa coupling λ∼(v/m-tilde){sup 1/2}g{sub SM}. Finally, the constraint on high-scale SUSY is investigated in the light of inflation physics if these two subjects are directly related.

  9. Virtual Reality Compared with Bench-Top Simulation in the Acquisition of Arthroscopic Skill: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszek, Daniel; You, Daniel; Chang, Justues; Pickell, Michael; Hesse, Daniel; Hopman, Wilma M; Borschneck, Daniel; Bardana, Davide

    2017-04-05

    Work-hour restrictions as set forth by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and other governing bodies have forced training programs to seek out new learning tools to accelerate acquisition of both medical skills and knowledge. As a result, competency-based training has become an important part of residency training. The purpose of this study was to directly compare arthroscopic skill acquisition in both high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulator models and to assess skill transfer from either modality to a cadaveric specimen, simulating intraoperative conditions. Forty surgical novices (pre-clerkship-level medical students) voluntarily participated in this trial. Baseline demographic data, as well as data on arthroscopic knowledge and skill, were collected prior to training. Subjects were randomized to 5-week independent training sessions on a high-fidelity virtual reality arthroscopic simulator or on a bench-top arthroscopic setup, or to an untrained control group. Post-training, subjects were asked to perform a diagnostic arthroscopy on both simulators and in a simulated intraoperative environment on a cadaveric knee. A more difficult surprise task was also incorporated to evaluate skill transfer. Subjects were evaluated using the Global Rating Scale (GRS), the 14-point arthroscopic checklist, and a timer to determine procedural efficiency (time per task). Secondary outcomes focused on objective measures of virtual reality simulator motion analysis. Trainees on both simulators demonstrated a significant improvement (p virtual reality simulation group consistently outperformed the bench-top model group in the diagnostic arthroscopy crossover tests and in the simulated cadaveric setup. Furthermore, the virtual reality group demonstrated superior skill transfer in the surprise skill transfer task. Both high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulation trainings were effective in arthroscopic skill acquisition. High-fidelity virtual reality

  10. Focus point in dark matter selected high-scale supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Department of Physics, Chongqing University,Chongqing, 401331 P.R. (China)

    2015-03-19

    In this paper, we explore conditions for focus point in the high-scale supersymmetry with the weak-scale gaugino masses. In this context the tension between the naturalness and LHC 2013 data about supersymmetry as well as the cold dark matter candidate are addressed simultaneously. It is shown that the observed Higgs mass can be satisfied in a wide classes of new models, which are realized by employing the non-minimal gauge mediation.

  11. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Principles of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an autologous Stem Cell Transplant · Slide 8 · Conditioning · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Stem Cell Transplantation · Slide 13.

  12. Mathematical Lens: How Much Can You Bench?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognese, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    "How Much Can You Bench?" appears in the "Mathematical Lens" section of "Mathematics Teacher." "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." This month the mathematics behind the photograph includes finding areas…

  13. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum after bench press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is often associated with asthma and mainly affects adolescent males with a tall, thin body habitus. A 17-year-old man complained of chest and pharyngeal pain after bench press training and spontaneous pneumomediastinum was diagnosed. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain of uncertain cause.

  14. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2014-01-01

    ; a concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  15. RemBench: A Digital Workbench for Rembrandt Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Suzan; Van Leeuwen, Rudie; Gerritsen, G.H.; Boves, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present RemBench, a search engine for research into the life and works of Rembrandt van Rijn. RemBench combines the data from four different databases behind one interface using federated search technology. Metadata filtering is enabled through faceted search. RemBench enables art

  16. An elegant Breadboard of the optical bench for eLISA/NGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcio, Luigi; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Diekmann, Christian; Fitzsimons, Ewan D.; Heinzel, Gerhard; Hogenhuis, Harm; Killow, Christian J.; Lieser, Maike; Nikolov, Susanne; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Pijnenburg, Joep; Robertson, David I.; Taylor, Alasdair; Tröbs, Michael; Ward, Harry; Weise, Dennis

    2017-11-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, as well as its reformulated European-only evolution, the New Gravitational-Wave Observatory, both employ heterodyne laser interferometry on million kilometer scale arm lengths in a triangular spacecraft formation, to observe gravitational waves at frequencies between 3 × 10-5 Hz and 1 Hz. The Optical Bench as central payload element realizes both the inter-spacecraft as well as local laser metrology with respect to inertial proof masses, and provides further functions, such as point-ahead accommodation, acquisition sensing, transmit beam conditioning, optical power monitoring, and laser redundancy switching. These functions have been combined in a detailed design of an Optical Bench Elegant Breadboard, which is currently under assembly and integration. We present an overview of the realization and current performances of the Optical Bench subsystems, which employ ultraprecise piezo mechanism, ultrastable assembly techniques, and shot noise limited RF detection to achieve translation and tilt metrology at Picometer and Nanoradian noise levels.

  17. Universal Scaling in Highly Doped Conducting Polymer Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronemeijer, A. J.; Huisman, E. H.; Katsouras, I.; van Hal, P. A.; Geuns, T. C. T.; Blom, P. W. M.; van der Molen, S. J.; de Leeuw, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical transport of a highly doped disordered conducting polymer, viz. poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene stabilized with poly-4-styrenesulphonic acid, is investigated as a function of bias and temperature. The transport shows universal power-law scaling with both bias and temperature. All

  18. Universal scaling in highly doped conducting polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronemeijer, A.J.; Huisman, E.H.; Katsouras, I.; Hal, P.A. van; Geuns, T.C.T.; Blom, P.W.M.; Molen, S.J. van der; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2010-01-01

    Electrical transport of a highly doped disordered conducting polymer, viz. poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene stabilized with poly-4-styrenesulphonic acid, is investigated as a function of bias and temperature. The transport shows universal power-law scaling with both bias and temperature. All

  19. Scaling laws in high energy electron-nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemtob, M.

    1980-11-01

    We survey the parton model description of high momentum transfer electron scattering processes with nuclei. We discuss both nucleon and quark parton models and confront the patterns of scaling laws violations, induced by binding effects, in the former, and perturbative QCD effects, in the latter

  20. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  1. Combining high-scale inflation with low-energy SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Dutta, Koushik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Halter, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut

    2011-12-15

    We propose a general scenario for moduli stabilization where low-energy supersymmetry can be accommodated with a high scale of inflation. The key ingredient is that the stabilization of the modulus field during and after inflation is not associated with a single, common scale, but relies on two different mechanisms. We illustrate this general scenario in a simple example, where during inflation the modulus is stabilized with a large mass by a Kaehler potential coupling to the field which provides the inflationary vacuum energy via its F-term. After inflation, the modulus is stabilized, for instance, by a KKLT superpotential. (orig.)

  2. SAFIRA project B.3.3: in-situ-treatment of contaminated ground water by catalytic oxidation. Final report; Sanierungsforschung in regional kontaminierten Aquiferen (SAFIRA). Projekt B.3.3: In situ-Behandlung von kontaminierten Grundwaessern durch katalytische Oxidation. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen im Labormassstab. Teilvorhaben 2: Tests in der bench-scale-Anlage und Teilvorhaben 3: Die Erprobung in der Pilotanlage am Modellstandort. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, J.; Haentzschel, D.; Freier, U.; Wecks, M.

    2003-06-27

    A new technology for treatment of contaminated ground water was developed. In this process heterogeneous catalysts (full metal catalyst, mixed oxide catalyst or iron-containing zeolites) in combination with hydrogen peroxide are used. In the reactor catalytic oxidation and aerob biological degradation occur simultaneously. A complete degradation of chlorobenzene was observed in a bench-scale-equipment (2 liter) and also in the pilot plant at the model site located in Bitterfeld (30 liter reactor). The technology can be applied to the ground and waste water treatment. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Behandlung von Grundwaessern, die mit organischen Schadstoffen belastet sind, wurde ein neuartiges Verfahren entwickelt. Bei der katalytischen Oxidation werden heterogene Katalysatoren in Form von Vollmetall-, Mischoxid- und Traegerkatalysatoren in Verbindung mit Wasserstoffperoxid als Oxidationsmittel eingesetzt. In den Katalysereaktoren laufen die heterogen-katalytische Oxidation und der aerob-biologische Abbau nebeneinander ab. Es werden synergistische Effekte erzielt. Mit dem Verfahren wurde in einer bench-scale-Angle (2 Liter) und in der Pilotanlage am Modellstandort in Bitterfeld (30 l Reaktor) der Schadstoff Chlorbenzol vollstaendig umgesetzt. Das Verfahren kann zur Grund- und Abwasserbehandlung eingesetzt werden. (orig.)

  3. Bench press exercise: the key points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, J; Laffaye, G; Chaouachi, A; Chamari, K

    2015-06-01

    The bench press exercise (BPE) is receiving increasing interest as a field testing, training/therapeutic modality to improve neuromuscular performance or to increase bone mass density. Several studies have been performed using BPE as a standard for increasing upper-limb strength. For this purpose, the position of the bar, the loads, the sets, the number of repetitions, the recovery time in-between sets, the movement speed, the muscular work and the use of the determination of the one repetition maximum (1-RM) are the classical tools investigated in the literature that have been shown to affect the BPE effect on neuromuscular. The goal of the present short review is to make a picture of the current knowledge on the bench press exercise, which could be very helpful for a better understanding of this standard movement and its effects. Based on the related literature, several recommendations on these key points are presented here.

  4. A PMT-Block test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adragna, P.; Antonaki, A.

    2006-01-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported

  5. A PMT-Block test bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adragna, P [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Fermi' , Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Universita degli studi di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Antonaki, A [Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications, P.O. Box 17214, Athens 10024 (Greece); National Capodistrian University of Athens, 30 Panepistimiou st., Athens 10679 (Greece)] (and others)

    2006-08-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported.

  6. High-K Strategy Scale: A Measure of the High-K Independent Criterion of Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Giosan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at testing whether factors documented in the literature as being indicators of a high-K reproductive strategy have effects on fitness in extant humans. A 26-item High-K Strategy Scale comprising these factors was developed and tested on 250 respondents. Items tapping into health and attractiveness, upward mobility, social capital and risks consideration, were included in the scale. As expected, the scale showed a significant correlation with perceived offspring quality and a weak, but significant association with actual number of children. The scale had a high reliability coefficient (Cronbach's Alpha = .92. Expected correlations were found between the scale and number of medical diagnoses, education, perceived social support, and number of previous marriages, strengthening the scale's construct validity. Implications of the results are discussed.

  7. Signatures of High-Scale Supersymmetry at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Spiropulu, Maria; Treille, D

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss the experimental signatures at the LHC of a novel paradigm-shift away from naturalness, suggested by the cosmological constant problem and the multitude of vacua in string theory. In the new paradigm supersymmetry can be broken near the unification scale, and the only light superparticles are the gauginos and higgsinos, which account for the successful unification of gauge couplings. This framework removes all the phenomenological difficulties of standard SUSY. The mass of the Higgs is in the range 120-160 GeV. Measuring the couplings of the Higgs to the gauginos and higgsinos precicely tests for high-scale SUSY. The gluino is strikingly long lived, and a measurement of its lifetime can determine the SUSY breaking scale. Signatures at the LHC detectors include out-of-time energy depositions, displaced vertices, and intermittent tracks.

  8. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T.L. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (United States); Denault, R.P. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  9. Multi-scale Analysis of High Resolution Topography: Feature Extraction and Identification of Landscape Characteristic Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Sangireddy, H.; Stark, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of digital terrain data, detailed information on terrain characteristics and on scale and location of geomorphic features is available over extended areas. Our ability to observe landscapes and quantify topographic patterns has greatly improved, including the estimation of fluxes of mass and energy across landscapes. Challenges still remain in the analysis of high resolution topography data; the presence of features such as roads, for example, challenges classic methods for feature extraction and large data volumes require computationally efficient extraction and analysis methods. Moreover, opportunities exist to define new robust metrics of landscape characterization for landscape comparison and model validation. In this presentation we cover recent research in multi-scale and objective analysis of high resolution topography data. We show how the analysis of the probability density function of topographic attributes such as slope, curvature, and topographic index contains useful information for feature localization and extraction. The analysis of how the distributions change across scales, quantified by the behavior of modal values and interquartile range, allows the identification of landscape characteristic scales, such as terrain roughness. The methods are introduced on synthetic signals in one and two dimensions and then applied to a variety of landscapes of different characteristics. Validation of the methods includes the analysis of modeled landscapes where the noise distribution is known and features of interest easily measured.

  10. Acute chest pain after bench press exercise in a healthy young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smereck, Janet A; Papafilippaki, Argyro; Sudarshan, Sawali

    2016-01-01

    Bench press exercise, which involves repetitive lifting of weights to full arm extension while lying supine on a narrow bench, has been associated with complications ranging in acuity from simple pectoral muscle strain, to aortic and coronary artery dissection. A 39-year-old man, physically fit and previously asymptomatic, presented with acute chest pain following bench press exercise. Diagnostic evaluation led to the discovery of critical multivessel coronary occlusive disease, and subsequently, highly elevated levels of lipoprotein (a). Judicious use of ancillary testing may identify the presence of "high-risk" conditions in a seemingly "low-risk" patient. Emergency department evaluation of the young adult with acute chest pain must take into consideration an extended spectrum of potential etiologies, so as to best guide appropriate management.

  11. Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

  12. Sepsis: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliézer Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a syndrome related to severe infections. It is defined as the systemic host response to microorganisms in previously sterile tissues and is characterized by end-organ dysfunction away from the primary site of infection. The normal host response to infection is complex and aims to identify and control pathogen invasion, as well as to start immediate tissue repair. Both the cellular and humoral immune systems are activated, giving rise to both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory responses. The chain of events that leads to sepsis is derived from the exacerbation of these mechanisms, promoting massive liberation of mediators and the progression of multiple organ dysfunction. Despite increasing knowledge about the pathophysiological pathways and processes involved in sepsis, morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. A large number of immunomodulatory agents have been studied in experimental and clinical settings in an attempt to find an efficacious anti-inflammatory drug that reduces mortality. Even though preclinical results had been promising, the vast majority of these trials actually showed little success in reducing the overwhelmingly high mortality rate of septic shock patients as compared with that of other critically ill intensive care unit patients. Clinical management usually begins with prompt recognition, determination of the probable infection site, early administration of antibiotics, and resuscitation protocols based on "early-goal" directed therapy. In this review, we address the research efforts that have been targeting risk factor identification, including genetics, pathophysiological mechanisms and strategies to recognize and treat these patients as early as possible.

  13. Some general scaling rules in high energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Idh, J.; Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.

    1988-09-01

    We show, using the Fritiof model scenario that the wide variation in the number of participating nucleons tend to drown other dynamical variations in the measurables of high energy ion collisions. We propose a set if general scaling laws for inclusive distributions in which it is the mean multiplicity and the mean transverse energy from each source which are the measurables in the interactions. (authors)

  14. Dynamic balance abilities of collegiate men for the bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Timothy J; Radlo, Steven J; Smith, Thomas J; Woodward, Ryan W

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamic balance detection ability of college men for the bench press exercise. Thirty-five college men (mean ± SD: age = 22.4 ± 2.76 years, bench press experience = 8.3 ± 2.79 years, and estimated 1RM = 120.1 ± 21.8 kg) completed 1 repetition of the bench press repetitions for each of 3 bar loading arrangements. In a randomized fashion, subjects performed the bench press with a 20-kg barbell loaded with one of the following: a balanced load, one 20-kg plate on each side; an imbalanced asymmetrical load, one 20-kg plate on one side and a 20-kg plate plus a 1.25-kg plate on the other side; or an imbalanced asymmetrical center of mass, 20-kg plate on one side and sixteen 1.25-kg plates on the other side. Subjects were blindfolded and wore ear protection throughout all testing to decrease the ability to otherwise detect loads. Binomial data analysis indicated that subjects correctly detected the imbalance of the imbalanced asymmetrical center of mass condition (p[correct detection] = 0.89, p < 0.01) but did not correctly detect the balanced condition (p[correct detection] = 0.46, p = 0.74) or the imbalanced asymmetrical condition (p[correct detection] = 0.60, p = 0.31). Although it appears that a substantial shift in the center of mass of plates leads to the detection of barbell imbalance, minor changes of the addition of 1.25 kg (2.5 lb) to the asymmetrical condition did not result in consistent detection. Our data indicate that the establishment of a biofeedback loop capable of determining balance detection was only realized under a high degree of imbalance. Although balance detection was not present in either the even or the slightly uneven loading condition, the inclusion of balance training for upper body may be futile if exercises are unable to establish such a feedback loop and thus eliciting an improvement of balance performance.

  15. Design and construction of the HESR BPM prototype wire test bench at COSY, Forschungzentrum Juelich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Sudharsan; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Boehme, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics 4(IKP-4), of the Research Center Juelich (FZJ), is in charge of building and commissioning the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) within the international facility, Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) are an essential instrument for any accelerator allowing operators to accurately monitor and control the accelerated beam. The demand for a BPM test bench will be showcased which will help to assess the design's ability to meet the system requirements. The weight is on the factors considered for the development of the initial test bench, its functional components, the metrology tests for ensuring positional measurement accuracy, and the design modifications from metrology investigations leading to the conceptual development of a new test bench.

  16. Inter- and intrasubject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press with slow and fast velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Kristiansen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effect of low and high bar velocity on inter- and intra-subject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press. Thirteen trained male subjects underwent two exercise conditions, i.e. a slow and a fast velocity bench press. Surface electromyography was recorded from thirteen...... to describe the dataset variability. For the second activation coefficient, the inter-subject similarity within the fast velocity condition was greater than the intra-subject similarity of the activation coefficient across the conditions. An opposite pattern was observed for the first muscle synergy vector...

  17. High Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Scale-up and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Ben [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Turk, Brian [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Denton, David [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Gasification is a technology for clean energy conversion of diverse feedstocks into a wide variety of useful products such as chemicals, fertilizers, fuels, electric power, and hydrogen. Existing technologies can be employed to clean the syngas from gasification processes to meet the demands of such applications, but they are expensive to build and operate and consume a significant fraction of overall parasitic energy requirements, thus lowering overall process efficiency. RTI International has developed a warm syngas desulfurization process (WDP) utilizing a transport-bed reactor design and a proprietary attrition-resistant, high-capacity solid sorbent with excellent performance replicated at lab, bench, and pilot scales. Results indicated that WDP technology can improve both efficiency and cost of gasification plants. The WDP technology achieved ~99.9% removal of total sulfur (as either H2S or COS) from coal-derived syngas at temperatures as high as 600°C and over a wide range of pressures (20-80 bar, pressure independent performance) and sulfur concentrations. Based on the success of these tests, RTI negotiated a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy for precommercial testing of this technology at Tampa Electric Company’s Polk Power Station IGCC facility in Tampa, Florida. The project scope also included a sweet water-gas-shift process for hydrogen enrichment and an activated amine process for 90+% total carbon capture. Because the activated amine process provides some additional non-selective sulfur removal, the integration of these processes was expected to reduce overall sulfur in the syngas to sub-ppmv concentrations, suitable for most syngas applications. The overall objective of this project was to mitigate the technical risks associated with the scale up and integration of the WDP and carbon dioxide capture technologies, enabling subsequent commercial-scale demonstration. The warm syngas cleanup pre-commercial test unit

  18. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R.; Arpesella, C.

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.)

  19. Towards a large scale high energy cosmic neutrino undersea detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, R.; Berthier, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Arpesella, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique] [and others

    1997-06-01

    ANTARES collaboration proposes to study high energy cosmic neutrinos by using a deep sea Cherenkov detector. The potential interest of such a study for astrophysicists and particle physicists is developed. The different origins of cosmic neutrinos are reviewed. In order to observe with relevant statistic the flux of neutrinos from extra-galactic sources, a km-scale detector is necessary. The feasibility of such a detector is studied. A variety of technical problems have been solved. Some of them are standard for particle physicists: choice of photo-multipliers, monitoring, trigger, electronics, data acquisition, detector optimization. Others are more specific of sea science engineering particularly: detector deployment in deep sea, data transmission through optical cables, bio-fouling, effect of sea current. The solutions are presented and the sea engineering part involving detector installation will be tested near French coasts. It is scheduled to build a reduced-scale demonstrator within the next 2 years. (A.C.) 50 refs.

  20. Research on Test-bench for Sonic Logging Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianping Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the test-bench for sonic logging tool is proposed and designed to realize automatic calibration and testing of the sonic logging tool. The test-bench System consists of Host Computer, Embedded Controlling Board, and functional boards. The Host Computer serves as the Human Machine Interface (HMI and processes uploaded data. The software running on Host Computer is designed on VC++, which is developed based on multithreading, Dynamic Linkable Library (DLL and Multiple Document Interface (MDI techniques. The Embedded Controlling Board uses ARM7 as the microcontroller and communicates with Host Computer via Ethernet. The Embedded Controlling Board software is realized based on embedded uclinux operating system with a layered architecture. The functional boards are designed based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and provide test interfaces for the logging tool. The functional board software is divided into independent sub-modules that can repeatedly be used by various functional boards and then integrated those sub-modules in the top layer. With the layered architecture and modularized design, the software system is highly reliable and extensible. With the help of designed system, a test has been conducted quickly and successfully on the electronic receiving cabin of the sonic logging tool. It demonstrated that the system could greatly improve the production efficiency of the sonic logging tool.

  1. Innovative lightweight substrate for stable optical benches and mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugi Grond, E.; Herren, A.; Mérillat, S.; Fermé, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    High precision space optics, such as spectrometers, relay optics, and filters, require ultra stable, lightweight platforms. These equipped platforms have on one side to survive the launch loads, on the other side they have to maintain their stability also under the varying thermal loads occurring in space. Typically such platforms have their equipment (prisms, etalons, beam expanders, etc.) mounted by means of classical bonding, hydro-catalytic bonding or optical contacting. Therefore such an optical bench requires to provide an excellent flatness, minimal roughness and is usually made of the same material as the equipment it carries (glass, glass ceramics). For space systems, mass is a big penalty, therefore such optical platforms are in most cases light weighted by means of machining features (i.e. pockets). Besides of being not extremely mass efficient, such pockets reduce the load carrying capability of the base material significantly. The challenge for Oerlikon Space, in this context, was to develop, qualify and deliver such optical benches, providing a substantial mass reduction compared to actual light weighted systems, while maintaining most of the full load carrying capacity of the base material. Additionally such a substrate can find an attractive application for mirror substrates. The results of the first development and of the first test results will be presented.

  2. Design of full scale debris washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Dosani, M.A.; Wentz, J.A.; Patkar, A.N.; Barkley, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1987, IT Environmental Programs Inc. (ITEP, a subsidiary of International Technology Corporation) in conjunction with EPA/RREL in Cincinnati, Ohio, have been developing and conducting bench scale and pilot scale testing of a transportable debris washing system which can be used on-site for the decontamination of debris. During the initial phase of the debris decontamination project, a series of bench scale tests were performed in the laboratory to assess the ability of the system to remove contaminants from debris and to facilitate selection of the most efficient surfactant solution. Five nonionic, non-toxic, low foaming, surfactant solution (BG-5, MC-2000, LF-330, BB-100, and L-433) were selected for an experimental evaluation to determine their capacity to solubilize and remove contaminants from the surfaces of corroded steel places. The pieces of corroded steel were coated with a heavy grease mixture prepared in the laboratory and these pieces of debris were placed in a bench scale spray tank on a metal tray and subjected in a high-pressure spray for each surfactant solution for 15 minutes. At the end of the spray cycle, The tray was transferred to a second bench scale system, a high-turbulence wash tank, where the debris was washed for 30 minutes with the same surfactant solution as the used in the spray tank. After the was cycle was completed, the tray was removed from the wash tank and the debris was allowed to air-dry. Before and after treatment, surface-wipe samples were obtained from each of the six pieces of debris and were analyzed for oil and graese. Based on the results, BG-5 was selected as the solution best suited for cleaning grease-laden, metallic debris. 2 refs

  3. Controlling high-throughput manufacturing at the nano-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Khershed P.

    2013-09-01

    Interest in nano-scale manufacturing research and development is growing. The reason is to accelerate the translation of discoveries and inventions of nanoscience and nanotechnology into products that would benefit industry, economy and society. Ongoing research in nanomanufacturing is focused primarily on developing novel nanofabrication techniques for a variety of applications—materials, energy, electronics, photonics, biomedical, etc. Our goal is to foster the development of high-throughput methods of fabricating nano-enabled products. Large-area parallel processing and highspeed continuous processing are high-throughput means for mass production. An example of large-area processing is step-and-repeat nanoimprinting, by which nanostructures are reproduced again and again over a large area, such as a 12 in wafer. Roll-to-roll processing is an example of continuous processing, by which it is possible to print and imprint multi-level nanostructures and nanodevices on a moving flexible substrate. The big pay-off is high-volume production and low unit cost. However, the anticipated cost benefits can only be realized if the increased production rate is accompanied by high yields of high quality products. To ensure product quality, we need to design and construct manufacturing systems such that the processes can be closely monitored and controlled. One approach is to bring cyber-physical systems (CPS) concepts to nanomanufacturing. CPS involves the control of a physical system such as manufacturing through modeling, computation, communication and control. Such a closely coupled system will involve in-situ metrology and closed-loop control of the physical processes guided by physics-based models and driven by appropriate instrumentation, sensing and actuation. This paper will discuss these ideas in the context of controlling high-throughput manufacturing at the nano-scale.

  4. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  5. From high-scale leptogenesis to low-scale one-loop neutrino mass generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Gu, Pei-Hong

    2018-02-01

    We show that a high-scale leptogenesis can be consistent with a low-scale one-loop neutrino mass generation. Our models are based on the SU(3)c × SU(2)L × U(1)Y × U(1) B - L gauge groups. Except a complex singlet scalar for the U(1) B - L symmetry breaking, the other new scalars and fermions (one scalar doublet, two or more real scalar singlets/triplets and three right-handed neutrinos) are odd under an unbroken Z2 discrete symmetry. The real scalar decays can produce an asymmetry stored in the new scalar doublet which subsequently decays into the standard model lepton doublets and the right-handed neutrinos. The lepton asymmetry in the standard model leptons then can be partially converted to a baryon asymmetry by the sphaleron processes. By integrating out the heavy scalar singlets/triplets, we can realize an effective theory to radiatively generate the small neutrino masses at the TeV scale. Furthermore, the lightest right-handed neutrino can serve as a dark matter candidate.

  6. Diagnostics at JINR LHEP photogun bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozdrin, M.A.; Balalykin, N.I.; Minashkin, V.F.; Shirkov, G.D.

    2016-01-01

    The photoinjector electron beam quality dramatically depends on the laser driver beam quality. For laser beam diagnostics a 'virtual cathode' system was realized at the JINR LHEP photogun bench. The system allows one to image laser beam profile at the cathode. The AVINE software complex developed in DESY Zeuthen is being used for imaging. Equipment for emittance measurement using the slit method was installed. The original emittance calculation software EmCa was created and tested with the laser beam.

  7. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Stopczynski

    Full Text Available This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics for a densely connected population of 1000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.

  8. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  9. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Combined torrefaction and pelletization is used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. In the present study, a single-pellet press tool was used to screen for the effects of pellet die temperature, moisture cont...... of the torrefied pellets was higher and the particle size distribution after grinding the pellets was more uniform compared to conventional wood pellets....

  10. Thymol Hydrogenation in Bench Scale Trickle Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudas, J.; Hanika, Jiří; Lepuru, J.; Barkhuysen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 255-262 ISSN 0352-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thymol hydrogenation * trickle bed reactor * gas-liquid-solid reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2005

  11. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  12. Implementation of Canflex bundle manufacture - from 'bench scale' to production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, A.

    1999-01-01

    Zircatec Precision Industries (ZPI) has been involved with the development of the 43 element Canflex bundle design since 1986. This development included several 'prototype' campaigns involving the manufacture of small quantities of test bundles using enriched fuel. Manufacturing and inspection methods for this fuel were developed at ZPI as the design progressed. The most recent campaign involved the production of 26 bundles of the final Canflex design for a demonstration irradiation in the Point Lepreau Generating Station. This presentation will explore issues pertaining to the introduction of a new product line from initial trial quantities to full production levels. The Canflex fuel experience and a brief review of development efforts will be used as an example. (author)

  13. Comparison of Myoelectric Activity of a Selection of Upper Extremity Muscles while Doing Bench Press in Two Training Methods of TRX and Barbell Bench Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Zibaei

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Considering these results it can be maintained that TRX bench press resistance training can be an alternative and effective practice for barbell bench press because, given the results, it can be appreciated that TRX bench press, dips low in the trunk, can lead to muscle activity close to the level of muscle activity during the barbell bench press drill.

  14. Engineering-scale vitrification of commercial high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Hanson, M.S.; Knowlton, D.E.

    1980-04-01

    To date, technology for immobilizing commercial high-level waste (HLW) has been extensively developed, and two major demonstration projects have been completed, the Waste Solidification Engineering Prototypes (WSEP) Program and the Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (NWVP). The feasibility of radioactive waste solidification was demonstrated in the WSEP program between 1966 and 1970 (McElroy et al. 1972) using simulated power-reactor waste composed of nonradioactive chemicals and HLW from spent, Hanford reactor fuel. Thirty-three engineering-scale canisters of solidified HLW were produced during the operations. In early 79, the NWVP demonstrated the vitrification of HLW from the processing of actual commercial nuclear fuel. This program consisted of two parts, (1) waste preparation and (2) vitrification by spray calcination and in-can melting. This report presents results from the NWVP

  15. Evaporation at microscopic scale and at high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecek, V.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis theoretically investigates the transport processes in the vicinity of the triple gas-liquid-solid contact line and its impact on macroscopic evaporation. In the first part of the thesis, the hydrodynamics close to the contact line at partial wetting is studied. Specifically, evaporation into the atmosphere of pure vapor driven by heating of the substrate is considered. The question of singularity relaxation is addressed. The main finding of the thesis is that the Kelvin effect (dependence of saturation temperature on pressure) is sufficient by itself to relax the hydrodynamic contact line singularity. The proposed microregion (the contact line vicinity) model for small interface slopes is solved numerically. Asymptotic solutions are found for some specific cases. The governing length scales of the problem are identified and the multi-scale nature of the phenomenon is addressed. Parametric studies revealing the role of the thermal resistance of vapor-liquid interface, slip length, thermo-capillary term, the vapor recoil and surface forces are also performed. An extension of the lubrication approximation for high slopes of the gas-liquid interface at evaporation is discussed. In the second part of the thesis, the previously established microregion model is coupled to a simplified single vapor bubble growth numerical simulation. The bubble departure from the heater at boiling is also studied. It was proposed in the thesis, that under high heat loads, the increase of the apparent contact angle causes the vapor bubble to spread over the heated substrate. Such a behavior may cause the heater dry-out that occurs during the boiling crisis. (author) [fr

  16. Dynamic MTF, an innovative test bench for detector characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Rossi; Raphaël, Lardière; Delmonte, Stephane

    2017-11-01

    PLEIADES HR are High Resolution satellites for Earth observation. Placed at 695km they reach a 0.7m spatial resolution. To allow such performances, the detectors are working in a TDI mode (Time and Delay Integration) which consists in a continuous charge transfer from one line to the consecutive one while the image is passing on the detector. The spatial resolution, one of the most important parameter to test, is characterized by the MTF (Modulation Transfer Function). Usually, detectors are tested in a staring mode. For a higher level of performances assessment, a dedicated bench has been set-up, allowing detectors' MTF characterization in the TDI mode. Accuracy and reproducibility are impressive, opening the door to new perspectives in term of HR imaging systems testing.

  17. Generalized Nonlinear Chirp Scaling Algorithm for High-Resolution Highly Squint SAR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tianzhu; He, Zhihua; He, Feng; Dong, Zhen; Wu, Manqing

    2017-11-07

    This paper presents a modified approach for high-resolution, highly squint synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data processing. Several nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) algorithms have been proposed to solve the azimuth variance of the frequency modulation rates that are caused by the linear range walk correction (LRWC). However, the azimuth depth of focusing (ADOF) is not handled well by these algorithms. The generalized nonlinear chirp scaling (GNLCS) algorithm that is proposed in this paper uses the method of series reverse (MSR) to improve the ADOF and focusing precision. It also introduces a high order processing kernel to avoid the range block processing. Simulation results show that the GNLCS algorithm can enlarge the ADOF and focusing precision for high-resolution highly squint SAR data.

  18. Generalized Nonlinear Chirp Scaling Algorithm for High-Resolution Highly Squint SAR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhu Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified approach for high-resolution, highly squint synthetic aperture radar (SAR data processing. Several nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS algorithms have been proposed to solve the azimuth variance of the frequency modulation rates that are caused by the linear range walk correction (LRWC. However, the azimuth depth of focusing (ADOF is not handled well by these algorithms. The generalized nonlinear chirp scaling (GNLCS algorithm that is proposed in this paper uses the method of series reverse (MSR to improve the ADOF and focusing precision. It also introduces a high order processing kernel to avoid the range block processing. Simulation results show that the GNLCS algorithm can enlarge the ADOF and focusing precision for high-resolution highly squint SAR data.

  19. Geologic bench marks by terrestrial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Harold E.

    1973-01-01

    A photograph made with a level camera, if taken at a known height above a permanent mark on the ground, can be later repeated with exactness for measurement of changes in terrain. Such a photograph is one of several means for establishing a geologic bench mark and is especially useful for monitoring the subtle qualities of a landscape that are otherwise hard to map and describe, including the effects of man's use. Moreover, the geometry of such a photograph provides the same angular measurements between objects as can be made with a transit. A measurement of distance on a single photograph, however, requires control points. These can be surveyed at any convenient time, not necessarily when the initial photograph is made. Distances can also be determined by simple stereophotography from a base line of suitable length.

  20. Kinematics and kinetics of the bench-press and bench-pull exercises in a strength-trained sporting population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Simon N; Cronin, John B; Hume, Patria A; Slyfield, David

    2009-09-01

    Understanding how loading affects power production in resistance training is a key step in identifying the most optimal way of training muscular power - an essential trait in most sporting movements. Twelve elite male sailors with extensive strength-training experience participated in a comparison of kinematics and kinetics from the upper body musculature, with upper body push (bench press) and pull (bench pull) movements performed across loads of 10-100% of one repetition maximum (1RM). 1RM strength and force were shown to be greater in the bench press, while velocity and power outputs were greater for the bench pull across the range of loads. While power output was at a similar level for the two movements at a low load (10% 1RM), significantly greater power outputs were observed for the bench pull in comparison to the bench press with increased load. Power output (Pmax) was maximized at higher relative loads for both mean and peak power in the bench pull (78.6 +/- 5.7% and 70.4 +/- 5.4% of 1RM) compared to the bench press (53.3 +/- 1.7% and 49.7 +/- 4.4% of 1RM). Findings can most likely be attributed to differences in muscle architecture, which may have training implications for these muscles.

  1. Terrace erosion and sediment transport model: a new tool for soil conservation planning in bench-terraced steeplands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing soil erosion remains a major problem in Java's uplands. To elucidate the causes for this lack of impact, runoff and erosion processes were studied at a variety of spatial scales within a volcanic catchment in West Java. Research indicated that soil loss occurs via

  2. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-10

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  3. Study on high density multi-scale calculation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Nakada, H.; Nishikawa, T.; Yamamoto, N.; Yokokawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    To understand degradation of nuclear materials under irradiation, it is essential to know as much about each phenomenon observed from multi-scale points of view; they are micro-scale in atomic-level, macro-level in structural scale and intermediate level. In this study for application to meso-scale materials (100A ∼ 2μm), computer technology approaching from micro- and macro-scales was developed including modeling and computer application using computational science and technology method. And environmental condition of grid technology for multi-scale calculation was prepared. The software and MD (molecular dynamics) stencil for verifying the multi-scale calculation were improved and their movement was confirmed. (A. Hishinuma)

  4. The Fermi scale as a focus point of high-scale gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, F.; Buchmueller, W.

    2012-01-15

    We consider the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with large scalar and gaugino mass terms at the GUT scale, which are generated predominantly by gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. For certain ratios of GUT-scale masses, determined by the messenger indices, large radiative corrections lead to a small electroweak scale in a way which resembles the well-known focus point mechanism. The Fermi scale, the gravitino mass and the higgsino masses are of comparable size. For a Higgs mass of about 124 GeV all other superparticles have masses outside the reach of the LHC. (orig.)

  5. RPE and Velocity Relationships for the Back Squat, Bench Press, and Deadlift in Powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Eric R; Storey, Adam; Cross, Matt R; Brown, Scott R; Lenetsky, Seth; Ramsay, Hamish; Dillen, Carolina; Zourdos, Michael C

    2017-02-01

    Helms, ER, Storey, A, Cross, MR, Browm, SR, Lenetsky, S, Ramsay, H, Dillen, C, and Zourdos, MC. RPE and velocity relationships for the back squat, bench press, and deadlift in powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 292-297, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare average concentric velocity (ACV) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) based on repetitions in reserve on the squat, bench press, and deadlift. Fifteen powerlifters (3 women and 12 men, mean age 28.4 ± 8.5 years) worked up to a one repetition maximum (1RM) on each lift. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded on all sets, and the ACV was recorded for all sets performed at 80% of estimated 1RM and higher, up to 1RM. Rating of perceived exertion at 1RM on squat, bench press, and deadlift was 9.6 ± 0.5, 9.7 ± 0.4, and 9.6 ± 0.5, respectively and was not significantly different (p > 0.05). The ACV at 1RM on squat, bench press and deadlift was 0.23 ± 0.05, 0.10 ± 0.04, and 0.14 ± 0.05 m·second, respectively. Squat was faster than both bench press and deadlift (p > 0.001), and deadlift was faster than bench press (p = 0.05). Very strong relationships (r = 0.88-0.91) between percentage 1RM and RPE were observed on each lift. The ACV showed strong (r = -0.79 to -0.87) and very strong (r = -0.90 to 92) inverse relationships with RPE and percentage 1RM on each lift, respectively. We conclude that RPE may be a useful tool for prescribing intensity for squat, bench press, and deadlift in powerlifters, in addition to traditional methods such as percentage of 1RM. Despite high correlations between percentage 1RM and ACV, a "velocity load profile" should be developed to prescribe intensity on an individual basis with appropriate accuracy.

  6. Reconciliation of high energy scale models of inflation with Planck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Shiu, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale M. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, M has an upper bound of a few tens of H, with H being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for M ∼ 20H, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that such a choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple ½m 2 φ 2 chaotic model with the Planck data [1-3

  7. Operationalization of the Russian Version of Highly Sensitive Person Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Регина Вячеславовна Ершова

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to operationalize a Russian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS. The empirical data were collected in two ways: active, through oral advertising and inviting those who wish to take part in the study (snowball technique and passive (placement of ads about taking part in a research in social networks VKontakte and Facebook. As a result, 350 university students (117 men, 233 women, an average age of 18,2 (± 1,7 applied to a research laboratory and filled out the HSPS questionnaire, and another 510 respondents (380 women, 130 men, average age 22,6 ( ± 7,9 filled the HSPS online. The results of the study did not confirm the one-dimensional model of the construct, proposed by Aron & Aron (1997, as well as the most commonly used in the English-language studies three-factor solution. The hierarchical claster and confirmatory analyses used in the operationalization procedure allowed us to conclude that the variance of the Russian version of HSPS is best described in the framework of a two-factor model including the two separate subscales: Ease of Excitation (EOE, Low threshold of sensitivity (LTS. Sensory Processing Sensitivity may be defined as an increased susceptibility to external and internal stimuli, realized through negative emotional responses and deep susceptibility (distress to excessive stimulation.

  8. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  9. Enabling High Performance Large Scale Dense Problems through KBLAS

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelfattah, Ahmad

    2014-05-04

    KBLAS (KAUST BLAS) is a small library that provides highly optimized BLAS routines on systems accelerated with GPUs. KBLAS is entirely written in CUDA C, and targets NVIDIA GPUs with compute capability 2.0 (Fermi) or higher. The current focus is on level-2 BLAS routines, namely the general matrix vector multiplication (GEMV) kernel, and the symmetric/hermitian matrix vector multiplication (SYMV/HEMV) kernel. KBLAS provides these two kernels in all four precisions (s, d, c, and z), with support to multi-GPU systems. Through advanced optimization techniques that target latency hiding and pushing memory bandwidth to the limit, KBLAS outperforms state-of-the-art kernels by 20-90% improvement. Competitors include CUBLAS-5.5, MAGMABLAS-1.4.0, and CULAR17. The SYMV/HEMV kernel from KBLAS has been adopted by NVIDIA, and should appear in CUBLAS-6.0. KBLAS has been used in large scale simulations of multi-object adaptive optics.

  10. Validation of SCALE code package on high performance neutron shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Jecmenica, R.; Smuc, T.

    1999-01-01

    The shielding ability and other properties of new high performance neutron shielding materials from the KRAFTON series have been recently published. A comparison of the published experimental and MCNP results for the two materials of the KRAFTON series, with our own calculations has been done. Two control modules of the SCALE-4.4 code system have been used, one of them based on one dimensional radiation transport analysis (SAS1) and other based on the three dimensional Monte Carlo method (SAS3). The comparison of the calculated neutron dose equivalent rates shows a good agreement between experimental and calculated results for the KRAFTON-N2 material.. Our results indicate that the N2-M-N2 sandwich type is approximately 10% inferior as neutron shield to the KRAFTON-N2 material. All values of neutron dose equivalent obtained by SAS1 are approximately 25% lower in comparison with the SAS3 results, which indicates proportions of discrepancies introduced by one-dimensional geometry approximation.(author)

  11. Bench for mechanical cleaning of circular welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklifasovskij, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    A special bench for weld reinforcement removal and mechanical cleaning of the heat affected zones was designed to provide for a possibility of an ultrasonic testing of welded joints in the course of steam generator section fabrication. The bench comprises a mechanized roller support for fixing and rotating the workpiece; a lap-cutting device for external machining; milling/grinding tractor for internal machining and a delivery table for tractor approach and departure. The bench performance and overall view are presented. The operation succession is described

  12. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  13. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  14. Validity of the Myotest® in measuring force and power production in the squat and bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Brett A; Solomon-Hill, Glenn; Flanagan, Shawn D; Earp, Jacob E; Luk, Hui-Ying; Dobbins, Kathryn A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Fragala, Maren S; Ho, Jen-Yu; Hatfield, Disa L; Vingren, Jakob L; Denegar, Craig R; Volek, Jeff S; Kupchak, Brian R; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the concurrent validity of a bar-mounted Myotest® instrument in measuring the force and power production in the squat and bench press exercises when compared to the gold standard of a computerized linear transducer and force platform system. Fifty-four men (bench press: 39-171 kg; squat: 75-221 kg) and 43 women (bench press: 18-80 kg; squat: 30-115 kg) (age range 18-30 years) performed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength test in bench press and squat exercises. Power testing consisted of the jump squat and the bench throw at 30% of each subject's 1RM. During each measurement, both the Myotest® instrument and the Celesco linear transducer of the directly interfaced BMS system (Ballistic Measurement System [BMS] Innervations Inc, Fitness Technology force plate, Skye, South Australia, Australia) were mounted to the weight bar. A strong, positive correlation (r) between the Myotest and BMS systems and a high correlation of determination (R2) was demonstrated for bench throw force (r = 0.95, p bench throw power (r = 0.96, p < 0.05) (R2 = 0.93); squat jump force (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) (R2 = 0.97); and squat jump power (r = 0.91, p < 0.05) (R2 = 0.82). In conclusion, when fixed on the bar in the vertical axis, the Myotest is a valid field instrument for measuring force and power in commonly used exercise movements.

  15. A bench-top K X-ray fluorescence system for quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticles for biological sample diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, K., E-mail: k.ricketts@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Surgery and Interventional Sciences, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Guazzoni, C.; Castoldi, A. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria Politecnico di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano P.za Leonardo da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Royle, G. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-21

    Gold nanoparticles can be targeted to biomarkers to give functional information on a range of tumour characteristics. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques offer potential quantitative measurement of the distribution of such heavy metal nanoparticles. Biologists are developing 3D tissue engineered cellular models on the centimetre scale to optimise targeting techniques of nanoparticles to a range of tumour characteristics. Here we present a high energy bench-top K-X-ray fluorescence system designed for sensitivity to bulk measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration for intended use in such thick biological samples. Previous work has demonstrated use of a L-XRF system in measuring gold concentrations but being a low energy technique it is restricted to thin samples or superficial tumours. The presented system comprised a high purity germanium detector and filtered tungsten X-ray source, capable of quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration of thicker samples. The developed system achieved a measured detection limit of between 0.2 and 0.6 mgAu/ml, meeting specifications of biologists and being approximately one order of magnitude better than the detection limit of alternative K-XRF nanoparticle detection techniques. The scatter-corrected K-XRF signal of gold was linear with GNP concentrations down to the detection limit, thus demonstrating potential in GNP concentration quantification. The K-XRF system demonstrated between 5 and 9 times less sensitivity than a previous L-XRF bench-top system, due to a fundamental limitation of lower photoelectric interaction probabilities at higher K-edge energies. Importantly, the K-XRF technique is however less affected by overlying thickness, and so offers future potential in interrogating thick biological samples.

  16. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  17. Multi-Scale Simulation of High Energy Density Ionic Liquids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voth, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this AFOSR project was the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of ionic liquid structure, dynamics, and interfacial properties, as well as multi-scale descriptions of these novel liquids (e.g...

  18. Why is the supersymmetry breaking scale unnaturally high?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldstein, Brian, E-mail: bfeldste@gmail.com [Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-03-13

    Evidence is mounting that natural supersymmetry at the weak scale is not realized in nature. On the other hand, string theory suggests that supersymmetry may be present at some energy scale, and gauge coupling unification implies that energy scale may be relatively low. A puzzling question is then why nature would prefer a low, but not completely natural supersymmetry breaking scale. Here we offer one possible explanation, which simultaneously addresses also the strong CP and μ problems. We introduce an axion, and suppose that the Peccei–Quinn and supersymmetry breaking scales are connected. If we further assume that R-parity is not conserved, then the axion is required to be dark matter, and the Peccei–Quinn/supersymmetry breaking scale is required to be at least ∼10{sup 12} GeV. Gravity mediation then yields scalar superpartners with masses of at least ∼100 TeV. The gauginos are likely to obtain loop-factor suppressed masses through anomaly mediation and higgsino threshold corrections, and thus may be accessible at the LHC. The axion should be probed at phase II of the ADMX experiment, and signs of R-parity violation may be seen in the properties of the gauginos.

  19. Retrofit designs for small bench-type blood cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes several retrofit designs to correct operational problems associated with small bench-type blood cell counters. Replacement electronic circuits as well as modifications to the vacuum systems are discussed.

  20. Additive Manufactured Coronagraph Bench for Detection of Exoplanets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to use additive manufacturing (AM) to build a Coronagraph Bench engineering test unit.  The versatility inherent in the 3D-printing process allows for a...

  1. Effect of nutrient sources on bench scale vinegar production using response surface methodology Efeito das fontes de nutrientes sobre a produção de vinagre em escala de bancada, usando-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma M. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate on a bench scale, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient source concentrations in vinegar production, a process that is used by small scale industries in the State of Paraiba. The response surface methodology has been utilized for modeling and optimization of the fermentation process. Initially a 2³ complete factorial design was used, where the effects of initial concentrations of ethyl alcohol, phosphorous and nitrogen sources were observed. After this analysis the concentration range of the nutrient variables were extended and a two level plus a star configuration factorial experimental design was performed. The experimental values are well represented by the linear and quadratic model equations obtained. The optimum concentration of ethanol was 4% in which the yield and the productivity of the acetic acid were maximized to the values of 70% and 0.87 g L-1 h-1 respectively, for a 24 hours fermentation period. The evaluation of the quadratic models showed that the yield of vinegar is maximized from 28.1 to 51.04% and the productivity from 0.69 to 1.29 g L-1 h-1 when the concentration of the nitrogen nutrient in the medium is increased from 0.2 to 2.3 g mL-1. Thus, at the optimized nitrogen nutrient concentration both the yield and the productivity of the vinegar are increased by 1.85 times.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho, estudar em escala de bancada, os efeitos de concentrações de fontes dos nutrientes nitrogênio e fósforo sobre a produção de vinagre de álcool, um processo muito utilizado nas indústrias de pequeno porte do Estado da Paraíba. A metodologia de superfície de resposta foi usada na modelagem e otimização de processo de fermentação acética. Inicialmente, a metodologia de planejamento fatorial completo 2³ foi utilizada, onde os efeitos das concentrações iniciais de etanol, de fontes de fósforo e de nitrogênio foram observados. Após esta análise as faixas das

  2. Development and validity of a scale of perception of velocity in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Iker J; Chirosa, Ignacio J; Chirosa, Luis J; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM]) were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale) was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81) was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96). This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power. Key PointsMeasurement of perception of velocity can complement other scales of perception such as the 15 category Borg scale or the OMNI-RES.The results obtained in this study show that there was a positive correlation between the perceived velocity measured by the scale and actual velocityRegular use of the new scale of perceived velocity in external resistance training provides athletes with continuous feedback of execution velocity in each repetition and set, especially with high power loads.

  3. The high velocity, high adiabat, ``Bigfoot'' campaign and tests of indirect-drive implosion scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    To achieve hotspot ignition, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions must achieve high hotspot internal energy that is inertially confined by a dense shell of DT fuel. To accomplish this, implosions are designed to achieve high peak implosion velocity, good energy coupling between the hotspot and imploding shell, and high areal-density at stagnation. However, experiments have shown that achieving these simultaneously is extremely challenging, partly because of inherent tradeoffs between these three interrelated requirements. The Bigfoot approach is to intentionally trade off high convergence, and therefore areal-density, in favor of high implosion velocity and good coupling between the hotspot and shell. This is done by intentionally colliding the shocks in the DT ice layer. This results in a short laser pulse which improves hohlraum symmetry and predictability while the reduced compression improves hydrodynamic stability. The results of this campaign will be reviewed and include demonstrated low-mode symmetry control at two different hohlraum geometries (5.75 mm and 5.4 mm diameters) and at two different target scales (5.4 mm and 6.0 mm hohlraum diameters) spanning 300-430 TW in laser power and 0.8-1.7 MJ in laser energy. Results of the 10% scaling between these designs for the hohlraum and capsule will be presented. Hydrodynamic instability growth from engineering features like the capsule fill tube are currently thought to be a significant perturbation to the target performance and a major factor in reducing its performance compared to calculations. Evidence supporting this hypothesis as well as plans going forward will be presented. Ongoing experiments are attempting to measure the impact on target performance from increase in target scale, and the preliminary results will also be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. HEV Test Bench Based on CAN Bus Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng ZHAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HEV test bench based on Controller Area Network bus was studied and developed. Control system of HEV power test bench used the CAN bus technology. The application of CAN bus technology on control system development has opened up a new research direction for domestic automobile experimental platform. The HEV power control system development work was completed, including power master controller, electric throttle controller, driving simulation platform, CAN2.0 B communication protocol procedures for formulation, CAN communication monitoring system, the simulation model based on MATLAB code automatic generation technology research, etc. Maximum absorption power of the test bench is 90 kW, the test bench top speed is 6000 r/min, the CAN communication data baud rate is 10~500 k, the conventional electric measurement parameter part precision satisfies the requirement of development of HEV. On the HEV test bench the result of regenerative braking experiment shows that the result got by the test bench was closer to the results got by outdoor road test. And the fuel consumption experiment test results show that the HEV fuel consumption and the charge-discharge character are in linear relationship. The establishment of the test platform for the evaluation of the development of hybrid electric vehicle and power provides physical simulation and test platform.

  5. Higgsino dark matter in high-scale supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Natsumi

    2014-11-01

    We study a supersymmetric (SUSY) Standard Model in which a Higgsino is light enough to be dark matter, while the other SUSY particles are much heavier than the weak scale. We carefully treat the effects of heavy SUSY particles to the Higgsino nature, especially taking into account the renormalization effects due to the large hierarchy between the Higgsino and the SUSY breaking scales. Inelastic scattering of the Higgsino dark matter with a nucleus is studied, and the constraints on the scattering by the direct detection experiments are discussed. This gives an upper limit on the new physics scale. Bounds on the dark matter-nucleon elastic scattering, the electric dipole moments, and direct production of Higgsinos, on the other hand, give a lower limit. We show the current status on the limits and discuss the future prospects.

  6. Supersymmetric moduli stabilization and high-scale inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Wieck, Clemens; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    We study the back-reaction of moduli fields on the inflaton potential in generic models of F-term inflation. We derive the moduli corrections as a power series in the ratio of Hubble scale and modulus mass. The general result is illustrated with two examples, hybrid inflation and chaotic inflation. We find that in both cases the decoupling of moduli dynamics and inflation requires moduli masses close to the scale of grand unification. For smaller moduli masses the CMB observables are strongly affected.

  7. Correlating optical bench performance with clinical defocus curves in varifocal and trifocal intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Puche, Ana B; Alió, Jorge L; MacRae, Scott; Zheleznyak, Len; Sala, Esperanza; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the correlations existing between a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and a varifocal IOL using the "ex vivo" optical bench through-focus image quality analysis and the clinical visual performance in real patients by study of the defocus curves. This prospective, consecutive, nonrandomized, comparative study included a total of 64 eyes of 42 patients. Three groups of eyes were differentiated according to the IOL implanted: 22 eyes implanted with the varifocal Lentis Mplus LS-313 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany); 22 eyes implanted with the trifocal FineVision IOL (Physiol, Liege, Belgium), and 20 eyes implanted with the monofocal Acrysof SA60AT IOL (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). Visual outcomes and defocus curve were evaluated postoperatively. Optical bench through-focus performance was quantified by computing an image quality metric and the cross-correlation coefficient between an unaberrated reference image and captured retinal images from a model eye with a 3.0-mm artificial pupil. Statistically significant differences among defocus curves of different IOLs were detected for the levels of defocus from -4.00 to -1.00 diopters (D) (P < .01). Significant correlations were found between the optical bench image quality metric results and logMAR visual acuity scale in all groups (Lentis Mplus group: r = -0.97, P < .01; FineVision group: r = -0.82, P < .01; Acrys of group: r = -0.99, P < .01). Linear predicting models were obtained. Significant correlations were found between logMAR visual acuity and image quality metric for the multifocal and monofocal IOLs analyzed. This finding enables surgeons to predict visual outcomes from the optical bench analysis. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Development of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Quanser Bench-Top Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, M. H.; Mansor, H.; Gunawan, T. S.

    2017-11-01

    Bench-top helicopter is a laboratory scale helicopter that usually used as a testing bench of the real helicopter behavior. This helicopter is a 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF) helicopter which works by three different axes wshich are elevation, pitch and travel. Thus, fuzzy logic controller has been proposed to be implemented into Quanser bench-top helicopter because of its ability to work with non-linear system. The objective for this project is to design and apply fuzzy logic controller for Quanser bench-top helicopter. Other than that, fuzzy logic controller performance system has been simulated to analyze and verify its behavior over existing PID controller by using Matlab & Simulink software. In this research, fuzzy logic controller has been designed to control the elevation angle. After simulation has been performed, it can be seen that simulation result shows that fuzzy logic elevation control is working for 4°, 5° and 6°. These three angles produce zero steady state error and has a fast response. Other than that, performance comparisons have been performed between fuzzy logic controller and PID controller. Fuzzy logic elevation control has a better performance compared to PID controller where lower percentage overshoot and faster settling time have been achieved in 4°, 5° and 6° step response test. Both controller are have zero steady state error but fuzzy logic controller is managed to produce a better performance in term of settling time and percentage overshoot which make the proposed controller is reliable compared to the existing PID controller.

  9. Velocity- and power-load relationships of the bench pull vs. bench press exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Medina, L; González-Badillo, J J; Pérez, C E; Pallarés, J G

    2014-03-01

    This study compared the velocity- and power-load relationships of the antagonistic upper-body exercises of prone bench pull (PBP) and bench press (BP). 75 resistance-trained athletes performed a progressive loading test in each exercise up to the one-repetition maximum (1RM) in random order. Velocity and power output across the 30-100% 1RM were significantly higher for PBP, whereas 1RM strength was greater for BP. A very close relationship was observed between relative load and mean propulsive velocity for both BP (R2=0.97) and PBP (R2=0.94) which enables us to estimate %1RM from velocity using the obtained prediction equations. Important differences in the load that maximizes power output (Pmax) and the power profiles of both exercises were found according to the outcome variable used: mean (MP), peak (PP) or mean propulsive power (MPP). When MP was considered, the Pmax load was higher (56% BP, 70% PBP) than when PP (37% BP, 41% PBP) or MPP (37% BP, 46% PBP) were used. For each variable there was a broad range of loads at which power output was not significantly different. The differing velocity- and power-load relationships between PBP and BP seem attributable to the distinct muscle architecture and moment arm levers involved in these exercises. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Effects of Bench Press Variations in Competitive Athletes on Muscle Activity and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Saeterbakken, Atle Hole; Mo, Dag-Andr?; Scott, Suzanne; Andersen, Vidar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to compare the EMG activity performing 6RM competition style bench press (flat bench-wide grip) with 1) medium and narrow grip widths on a flat bench and 1) inclined and declined bench positions with a wide grip. Twelve bench press athletes competing at national and international level participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in the pectoralis major, anterior and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi. Non-signific...

  11. Matter composition at high density by effective scaled lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Chang Ho; Min, Dong Pil [Dept. of Physics, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    We investigate the matter composition at around the neutron star densities with a model lagrangian satisfying Brown-Rho scaling law. We calculate the neutron star properties such as maximum mass, radius, hyperon compositions and central density. We compare our results with those of Walecka model. (orig.)

  12. Time-dependent scaling patterns in high frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Noemi; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-10-01

    We measure the influence of different time-scales on the intraday dynamics of financial markets. This is obtained by decomposing financial time series into simple oscillations associated with distinct time-scales. We propose two new time-varying measures of complexity: 1) an amplitude scaling exponent and 2) an entropy-like measure. We apply these measures to intraday, 30-second sampled prices of various stock market indices. Our results reveal intraday trends where different time-horizons contribute with variable relative amplitudes over the course of the trading day. Our findings indicate that the time series we analysed have a non-stationary multifractal nature with predominantly persistent behaviour at the middle of the trading session and anti-persistent behaviour at the opening and at the closing of the session. We demonstrate that these patterns are statistically significant, robust, reproducible and characteristic of each stock market. We argue that any modelling, analytics or trading strategy must take into account these non-stationary intraday scaling patterns.

  13. A flux-scaling scenario for high-scale moduli stabilization in string theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Blumenhagen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tree-level moduli stabilization via geometric and non-geometric fluxes in type IIB orientifolds on Calabi–Yau manifolds is investigated. The focus is on stable non-supersymmetric minima, where all moduli are fixed except for some massless axions. The scenario includes the purely axionic orientifold-odd moduli. A set of vacua allowing for parametric control over the moduli vacuum expectation values and their masses is presented, featuring a specific scaling with the fluxes. Uplift mechanisms and supersymmetry breaking soft masses on MSSM-like D7-branes are discussed as well. This scenario provides a complete effective framework for realizing the idea of F-term axion monodromy inflation in string theory. It is argued that, with all masses close to the Planck and GUT scales, one is confronted with working at the threshold of controlling all mass hierarchies.

  14. A flux-scaling scenario for high-scale moduli stabilization in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Font, Anamaría [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany); Fuchs, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Herschmann, Daniela, E-mail: herschma@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Plauschinn, Erik [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Sekiguchi, Yuta; Wolf, Florian [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Tree-level moduli stabilization via geometric and non-geometric fluxes in type IIB orientifolds on Calabi–Yau manifolds is investigated. The focus is on stable non-supersymmetric minima, where all moduli are fixed except for some massless axions. The scenario includes the purely axionic orientifold-odd moduli. A set of vacua allowing for parametric control over the moduli vacuum expectation values and their masses is presented, featuring a specific scaling with the fluxes. Uplift mechanisms and supersymmetry breaking soft masses on MSSM-like D7-branes are discussed as well. This scenario provides a complete effective framework for realizing the idea of F-term axion monodromy inflation in string theory. It is argued that, with all masses close to the Planck and GUT scales, one is confronted with working at the threshold of controlling all mass hierarchies.

  15. ESA NEOCC effort to eliminate high Palermo Scale virtual impactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, M.; Koschny, D.; Hainaut, O.; Bernardi, F.

    2014-07-01

    At the moment of this writing about 4 % of the known near-Earth objects are known to have at least one future close approach scenario with a non-negligible collision probability within the next century, as routinely computed by the NEODyS and Sentry systems. The most straightforward way to improve the knowledge of the future dynamics of an NEO in order to exclude (or possibly confirm) some of these possible future impact is to obtain additional astrometric observations of the object as soon as it becomes observable again. In particular, since a large fraction (>98 %) of the known objects currently recognized as possible future impactors have been observed during a single opposition, this usually corresponds to obtaining a new set of observations during a second opposition, a so called ''recovery''. However, in some cases the future observability windows for the target after the discovery apparition may be very limited, either because the object is intrinsically small (and therefore requires a very close and consequently rare approach to become observable) or because its orbital dynamic prevents the observability from the ground for a long timespan (as in the case of quasi-resonant objects with a long synodic period). When this happens, the only short-term way to clarify an impact scenario is to look toward the past, and investigate the possibility that unrecognized detections of the object are already present in the databases of old astronomical images, which are often archived by professional telescopes and made available to the community a few months to years after they are exposed. We will here present an effort lead by the newly formed ESA NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) in Frascati to pursue both these avenues with the intent of improving the orbital knowledge of the highest-rated possible impactors, as defined by the Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale (PS in the following). As an example of our ongoing observational activities, we will first present our

  16. A high-resolution global-scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water. It plays a vital role in satisfying basic needs for drinking water, agriculture and industrial activities. During times of drought groundwater sustains baseflow to rivers and wetlands, thereby supporting ecosystems. Most global-scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, mainly due to lack of geohydrological data at the global scale. For the simulation of lateral flow and groundwater head dynamics, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system is needed, especially for GHMs that run at finer resolutions. In this study we present a global-scale groundwater model (run at 6' resolution) using MODFLOW to construct an equilibrium water table at its natural state as the result of long-term climatic forcing. The used aquifer schematization and properties are based on available global data sets of lithology and transmissivities combined with the estimated thickness of an upper, unconfined aquifer. This model is forced with outputs from the land-surface PCRaster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) model, specifically net recharge and surface water levels. A sensitivity analysis, in which the model was run with various parameter settings, showed that variation in saturated conductivity has the largest impact on the groundwater levels simulated. Validation with observed groundwater heads showed that groundwater heads are reasonably well simulated for many regions of the world, especially for sediment basins (R2 = 0.95). The simulated regional-scale groundwater patterns and flow paths demonstrate the relevance of lateral groundwater flow in GHMs. Inter-basin groundwater flows can be a significant part of a basin's water budget and help to sustain river baseflows, especially during droughts. Also, water availability of larger aquifer systems can be positively affected by additional recharge from inter-basin groundwater flows.

  17. A real scale simulator for high frequency LEMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, D.; Serafin, D.

    1991-01-01

    The real scale simulator is described which was designed by the Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (CEG) to study the coupling of fast rise time Lightning Electromagnetic pulse in a fighter aircraft. The system capability of generating the right electromagnetic environment was studied using a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) computer program. First, data of inside stresses are shown. Then, a time domain and a frequency domain approach is exposed and compared.

  18. Design and test of the benches for the magnetic measurement of the LHC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billan, J.; Buckley, J.; Saban, R.; Sievers, P.; Walckiers, L.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic measurement of more than 1,300 LHC dipoles comprises the content of higher harmonic field components, field direction and field integrals. The measurements will be carried out along a warm bore installed inside the magnet cold bore, thus allowing the use of rotating coils at room temperature. This coil, together with Hall and NMR detectors is mounted at one end of a 12.5 m long shaft which is specially designed for very high rotational stiffness and which is controlled from its far end by a motor, an angular encoder and a level meter, all standard components placed outside the magnetic field without space restrictions. Particular emphasis has been put on the user-friendliness of the bench and its automated, computer-controlled operation requiring a minimum of staff, an important issue during production measurements of large series of magnets. The bench and its performed and precision achieved during its commissioning are described

  19. Interset stretching does not influence the kinematic profile of consecutive bench-press sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, David; Izquierdo, Mikel; Rodríguez, Sergio; González-Calvo, Gustavo; Sainz, Nuria; Abadía, Olaia; Herrero, Azael J

    2010-05-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the role of interset stretching on the time course of acceleration portion AP and mean velocity profile during the concentric phase of 2 bench-press sets with a submaximal load (60% of the 1 repetition maximum). Twenty-five college students carried out, in 3 different days, 2 consecutive bench-press sets leading to failure, performing between sets static stretching, ballistic stretching, or no stretching. Acceleration portion and lifting velocity patterns of the concentric phase were not altered during the second set, regardless of the stretching treatment performed. However, when velocity was expressed in absolute terms, static stretching reduced significantly (p velocity during the second set compared to the first one. Therefore, if maintenance of a high absolute velocity over consecutive sets is important for training-related adaptations, static stretching should be avoided or replaced by ballistic stretching.

  20. Inter- and Intrasubject Similarity of Muscle Synergies During Bench Press With Slow and Fast Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Afshin; Kristiansen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effect of low and high bar velocity on inter- and intrasubject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press. A total of 13 trained male subjects underwent two exercise conditions: a slow- and a fast-velocity bench press. Surface electromyography was recorded from 13 muscles, and muscle synergies were extracted using a nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm. The intrasubject similarity across conditions and intersubject similarity within conditions were computed for muscle synergy vectors and activation coefficients. Two muscle synergies were sufficient to describe the dataset variability. For the second synergy activation coefficient, the intersubject similarity within the fast-velocity condition was greater than the intrasubject similarity of the activation coefficient across the conditions. An opposite pattern was observed for the first muscle synergy vector. We concluded that the activation coefficients are robust within conditions, indicating a robust temporal pattern of muscular activity across individuals, but the muscle synergy vector seemed to be individually assigned.

  1. Pollution effects on stone benches of the Eagle Warriors Precinct at the Major Temple, Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Gallardo, M.L.; Grimaldi, D.M.; Roman-Berrelleza, J.A.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J.L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M.A.; Morales, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    During Major Temple archaeological site excavations in Downtown Mexico City, the precinct of one of the most important Mexica military caste, the Eagle Warriors, was discovered. The ceremonial enclosure is composed of three rooms surrounded by paintings on 11 stone benches placed against the walls. Nowadays, these paintings and the stones present the effects of different deterioration processes produced by the underground water level, high humidity, and the presence of soil, water, and air pollutants. Ion beam analysis of samples from the benches and wall paintings was performed using PIXE and RBS techniques. Using enrichment factors of elements relative to iron concentrations, possible contamination by sulfur and chlorine salts was found, as well as airborne zinc scavenged by rain

  2. Elbow joint fatigue and bench-press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Po; Chou, You-Li; Chen, Feng-Chun; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    Bench-press exercises are among the most common form of training exercise for the upper extremity because they yield a notable improvement in both muscle strength and muscle endurance. The literature contains various investigations into the effects of different bench-press positions on the degree of muscle activation. However, the effects of fatigue on the muscular performance and kinetics of the elbow joint are not understood fully. To investigate the effects of fatigue on the kinetics and myodynamic performance of the elbow joint in bench-press training. Controlled laboratory study. Motion research laboratory. A total of 18 physically healthy male students (age = 19.6 ± 0.8 years, height = 168.7 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 69.6 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the investigation. All participants were right-hand dominant, and none had a history of upper extremity injuries or disorders. Participants performed bench-press training until fatigued. Maximal possible number of repetitions, cycle time, myodynamic decline rate, elbow-joint force, and elbow-joint moment. We observed a difference in cycle time in the initial (2.1 ± 0.42 seconds) and fatigue (2.58 ± 0.46 seconds) stages of the bench-press exercise (P = .04). As the participants fatigued, we observed an increase in the medial-lateral force (P = .03) and internal-external moment (P ≤ .04) acting on the elbow joint. Moreover, a reduction in the elbow muscle strength was observed in the elbow extension-flexion (P ≤ .003) and forearm supination-pronation (P ≤ .001) conditions. The results suggest that performing bench-press exercises to the point of fatigue increases elbow-joint loading and may further increase the risk of injury. Therefore, when clinicians design bench-press exercise regimens for general athletic training, muscle strengthening, or physical rehabilitation, they should control carefully the maximal number of repetitions.

  3. Movement Features Which Describe the Flat Bench Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Henryk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In sport technique studies, motion features can be useful as they have a certain defined measure [1]. In this work, we examined the following three features: the structure of the movement (all the characteristics of the movement, the fluency of the movement, and the rhythm of the movement. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of the selected movement features in the evaluation of the flat bench press. The protocol of the study included a flat bench press with free weights and a “touch-and-go” technique. Material and methods. The study involved twenty healthy men; however, only two were selected for analysis. The first subject was a 25-year-old powerlifter (body mass = 95 kg; body height = 182 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 145 kg. The second one was a 25-year-old bodybuilder (body mass = 77 kg; body height = 175 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 100 kg. The subjects performed consecutive sets of a single repetition of flat bench pressing with an increasing load (70, 80, 90, and 100% 1-RM, with the anticipated maximum weight, until the completion of one repetition maximum. Multidimensional movement analysis was made with the measuring system Smart-E (BTS, Italy, which consisted of six infrared cameras (120 Hz and a wireless module to measure muscle bioelectric activity (Pocket EMG. Results. It was demonstrated that the internal structure of the bench press performed by the bodybuilder and the powerlifter was different. As the time-history of barbell kinematics (the acceleration-time curve showed, with increased loading of the barbell, the rhythm of the flat bench press changed, and the fluidity of the movement worsened.

  4. Low field scaling properties of high Tc superconductor glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannella, C.; Fruchter, L.; Chappert, C.

    We show that the zero field cooling (ZFC) M/H curves of both the YBaCuO and the LaSrCuO granular superconductor glasses (SuG) are subjected to scaling when plotted against the reduced variable t/H1/ψ . The breaking of the scaling for too weak or too strong magnetic fields is discussed and justified by the introduction of a phenomenological fractal picture, describing the behaviour of the disordered intergranular junction network. Nous montrons que les courbes M/H caractéristiques des verres de supraconducteurs granulaires sont sujettes à une loi d'échelle lorsqu'elles sont tracées en fonction de la variable réduite t/H1/ψ. La brisure de la loi d'échelle pour des champs trop forts ou trop faibles est justifiée par l'introduction d'un modèle phénoménologique fractal capable de décrire le comportement d'un réseau désordonné des jonctions.

  5. Surfactant from neonatal to pediatric ICU: bench and bedside evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, A; Brat, R; Aguilera, S S; Tissieres, P; De Luca, D

    2014-12-01

    Surfactant is a cornerstone of neonatal critical care for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome of preterm babies. However, other indications have been studied for various clinical conditions both in term neonates and in children beyond neonatal age. A high degree of evidence is not yet available in some cases and this is due to the complex and not yet totally understood physiopathology of the different types of pediatric and neonatal lung injury. We here summarise the state of the art of the bench and bedside knowledge about surfactant use for the respiratory conditions usually cared for in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units. Future research direction will also be presented. On the whole, surfactant is able to improve oxygenation in infection related respiratory failure, pulmonary hemorrhage and meconium aspiration syndrome. Bronchoalveolar lavage with surfactant solution is currently the only means to reduce mortality or need for extracorporeal life support in neonates with meconium aspiration. While surfactant bolus or lavage only improves the oxygenation and ventilatory requirements in other types of postneonatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there seems to be a reduction in the mortality of small infants with RSV-related ARDS.

  6. Effect of different pushing speeds on bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, J; Mignogna, P; Mignardi, S; Tonni, F; D'Ottavio, S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on muscular strength after a 3-week training with the bench-press at a fixed pushing of 80-100% maximal speed (FPS) and self-selected pushing speed (SPS). 20 resistance-trained subjects were divided at random in 2 groups differing only regarding the pushing speed: in the FPS group (n=10) it was equal to 80-100% of the maximal speed while in the SPS group (n=10) the pushing speed was self-selected. Both groups were trained twice a week for 3 weeks with a load equal to 85% of 1RM and monitored with the encoder. Before and after the training we measured pushing speed and maximum load. Significant differences between and within the 2 groups were pointed out using a 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures. After 3 weeks a significant improvement was shown especially in the FPS group: the maximum load improved by 10.20% and the maximal speed by 2.22%, while in the SPS group the effect was <1%. This study shows that a high velocity training is required to increase the muscle strength further in subjects with a long training experience and this is possible by measuring the individual performance speed for each load. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. New pocket tools for Physics: create a star on one's laboratory bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousserie, D.

    2001-01-01

    Big science means huge investment in giant physics instruments like particle accelerators or fusion reactors. Today this way of making physics enters in competition with more bench-scale research, this research requires less financial means and then can be developed in university laboratories. This trend has been made possible by the recent technological progress in the field of power lasers. A source of X-radiation, similar to that obtained from a big synchrotron can be designed by using adequate lasers. Thermonuclear reactions have been recently produced in laser targets. (A.C.)

  8. Test-retest reliability of barbell velocity during the free-weight bench-press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Dillon, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate test-retest reliability statistics for peak barbell velocity during the free-weight bench-press exercise for loads corresponding to 10-90% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Twenty-one healthy, resistance-trained men (mean ± SD age = 23.5 ± 2.7 years; body mass = 90.5 ± 14.6 kg; 1RM bench press = 125.4 ± 18.4 kg) volunteered for this study. A minimum of 48 hours after a maximal strength testing and familiarization session, the subjects performed single repetitions of the free-weight bench-press exercise at each tenth percentile (10-90%) of the 1RM on 2 separate occasions. For each repetition, the subjects were instructed to press the barbell as rapidly as possible, and peak barbell velocity was measured with a Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (model 2,1) and corresponding standard errors of measurement (expressed as percentages of the mean barbell velocity values) were 0.717 (4.2%), 0.572 (5.0%), 0.805 (3.1%), 0.669 (4.7%), 0.790 (4.6%), 0.785 (4.8%), 0.811 (5.8%), 0.714 (10.3%), and 0.594 (12.6%) for the weights corresponding to 10-90% 1RM. There were no mean differences between the barbell velocity values from trials 1 and 2. These results indicated moderate to high test-retest reliability for barbell velocity from 10 to 70% 1RM but decreased consistency at 80 and 90% 1RM. When examining barbell velocity during the free-weight bench-press exercise, greater measurement error must be overcome at 80 and 90% 1RM to be confident that an observed change is meaningful.

  9. The influence of isometric preload on power expressed during bench press in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Merni, Franco

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the power expressed during the bench press exercise in resistance-trained men following different pre-activation conditions. Twenty-two trained men (age 24.1 ± 1.7 years, height 178.6 ± 6.1 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 10.6 kg) completed a maximal effort bench press (1-RM) test (100.0 kg ± 8.1 kg). In a subsequent assessment, each participant performed concentric bench press movements with loads of 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of their 1-RM preceded by either a concentric contraction (CC), a low isometric preload (LIP; 70% 1-RM) or a high isometric preload (HIP; 100% 1-RM) conditions. All movements were performed in a Smith machine with a settable quick-release device. Participants performed all three conditions in randomized fashion. Results indicated that power outputs during the bench press exercise following HIP were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CC at 20% 1-RM (+9%), 30% 1-RM (+16%) and 40% 1-RM (+14%), and LIP at 20% 1-RM (+4%), 30% 1-RM (+20%) and 40% 1-RM (+15%). No differences were found between conditions at 50% 1-RM. Area under the force-power curve with HIP was greater (p < 0.05) than with CC and LIP. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that the use of a HIP (100% 1-RM) in trained participants results in significantly greater power output during the concentric phase of a multi-joint exercise when compared to standard concentric movement.

  10. CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; Snopok, P.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS)...

  11. Analysis of Muscle Activity Utilizing Bench Presses in the AnyBody Simulation Modelling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiu Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the AnyBody human modeling system with identical weights and varying grip distance (40.0 cm, 50.0 cm, and 60.0 cm, the stress distribution for the pectoralis and the muscle of upper extremity during a bench press was simulated, and the surface myoelectricity (EMG method was validated. Methods. The physical parameters driving the model of the human body were selected as weights of 35.0% (25.0 kg and grip distances. Conclusion. The validation of AnyBody software was proved as a high validity by using EMG test of four muscles’ activity compared to AnyBody software. During a bench press, the pectoralis major is the main muscle, the pectoralis major discharge increases with the height of barbell increases, and the pectoralis major discharge decreases as the short grip width increases. When the grip width equals the shoulder width, the value of pectoralis minor is lowest; when the grip width is smaller or larger than the shoulder width, the value is larger. As the short grip distance increases, the discharge of posterior deltoid muscle and triceps surface myoelectricity increases; thus, as the short grip distance increases, the deltoid muscle and triceps assist the pectoralis major during a bench press.

  12. Inter-Investigator Reliability of Anthropometric Prediction of 1RM Bench Press in College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Richard M; Arabas, Jana L; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inter-investigator differences in anthropometric assessments on the prediction of one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press in college football players. Division-II players (n = 34, age = 20.4 ± 1.2 y, 182.3 ± 6.6 cm, 99.1 ± 18.4 kg) were measured for selected anthropometric variables and 1RM bench press at the conclusion of a heavy resistance training program. Triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfolds were measured in triplicate by three investigators and used to estimate %fat. Arm circumference was measured around a flexed biceps muscle and was corrected for triceps skinfold to estimate muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Chest circumference was measured at mid-expiration. Significant differences among the testers were evident in six of the nine anthropometric variables, with the least experienced tester being significantly different from the other testers on seven variables, although average differences among investigators ranged from 1-2% for circumferences to 4-9% for skinfolds. The two more experienced testers were significantly different on only one variable. Overall agreement among testers was high (ICC>0.895) for each variable, with low coefficients of variation (CVbench press using a non-performance anthropometric equation. Minimal experience in anthropometry may not impede strength and conditioning specialists from accurately estimating 1RM bench press.

  13. High-rate, High Temperature Acetotrophic Methanogenesis Governed by a Three Population Consortium in Anaerobic Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Dang; Jensen, Paul; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Beckmann, Sabrina; Manefield, Mike; Batstone, Damien

    2016-01-01

    A combination of acetate oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis has been previously identified to enable high-rate methanogenesis at high temperatures (55 to 65°C), but this capability had not been linked to any key organisms. This study combined RNA-stable isotope probing on 13C-labelled acetate and 16S amplicon sequencing to identify the active micro-organisms involved in high-rate methanogenesis. Active biomass was harvested from three bench-scale thermophilic bioreactors treating waste...

  14. Large scale high strain-rate tests of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the stages of development of some innovative equipment, based on Hopkinson bar techniques, for performing large scale dynamic tests of concrete specimens. The activity is centered at the recently upgraded HOPLAB facility, which is basically a split Hopkinson bar with a total length of approximately 200 m and with bar diameters of 72 mm. Through pre-tensioning and suddenly releasing a steel cable, force pulses of up to 2 MN, 250 μs rise time and 40 ms duration can be generated and applied to the specimen tested. The dynamic compression loading has first been treated and several modifications in the basic configuration have been introduced. Twin incident and transmitter bars have been installed with strong steel plates at their ends where large specimens can be accommodated. A series of calibration and qualification tests has been conducted and the first real tests on concrete cylindrical specimens of 20cm diameter and up to 40cm length have commenced. Preliminary results from the analysis of the recorded signals indicate proper Hopkinson bar testing conditions and reliable functioning of the facility.

  15. Description and evaluation of a bench porcine model for teaching surgical residents vascular anastomosis skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauch Karl-Walter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous models, of variable quality, exist to impart the complex skills required to perform vascular anastomosis. These models differ with regard to the kinds of materials used, as well as their sizes, the time needed for their preparation, their availability, and the associated costs. The present study describes a bench model that uses formalin-fixed porcine aorta, and its evaluation by young surgical residents during a recent skills course. Findings The aortic segments used were a by-product of slaughtering. They were fixed and stored after harvesting for eventual use. Ten young surgical residents participated, and each performed one end-to-side vascular anastomosis. The evaluation was a questionnaire maintaining anonymity of the participant containing questions addressing particular aspects of the model and the experiences of the trainee, along with their ratings concerning the need for a training course to learn vascular anastomosis techniques. The scoring on the survey was done using a global 6-point rating scale (Likert Scale. In addition, we ranked the present model by reviewing the current literature for models that address vascular anastomosis skills. The trainees who participated were within their first two years of training (1.25 ± 0.46. A strong agreement in terms of the necessity of training for vascular anastomosis techniques was evident among the participating trainees (5.90 ± 0.32, who had only few prior manual experiences (total number 1.50 ± 0.53. The query revealed a strong agreement that porcine aorta is a suitable model that fits the needs for training vascular anastomosis skills (5.70 ± 0.48. Only a few bench models designed to teach surgical residents vascular anastomosis techniques were available in the literature. Conclusions The preparatory and financial resources needed to perform anastomosis skills training using porcine aorta are few. The presented bench model appears to be appropriate for

  16. On locally uniformly linearizable high breakdown location and scale functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives two constructions of a weighted mean which has a large domain, is affinely equivariant, has a locally high breakdown point and is locally uniformly linearizable. One construction is based on $M$-functionals with smooth defining $\\psi$- and $\\chi$ -functions which are used to

  17. Enabling High Performance Large Scale Dense Problems through KBLAS

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelfattah, Ahmad; Keyes, David E.; Ltaief, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    KBLAS (KAUST BLAS) is a small library that provides highly optimized BLAS routines on systems accelerated with GPUs. KBLAS is entirely written in CUDA C, and targets NVIDIA GPUs with compute capability 2.0 (Fermi) or higher. The current focus

  18. High Arctic Nitrous Oxide Emissions Found on Large Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J. P.; Sayres, D. S.; Dobosy, R.; Anderson, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    As the planet warms, greenhouse gas emissions from thawing permafrost can potentially increase the net radiative forcing in our climate structure. However, knowledge about Arctic N2O emissions is particularly sparse. Increasing evidence suggests emissions from permafrost thaw may be a significant natural source of N2O. This evidence, though, is either based on lab experiments or in situ chamber studies, which have extremely limited spatial coverage. Consequently, it has not been confirmed to what extent these high emissions are representative of broader arctic regions. Using an airborne eddy covariance flux technique, we measured N2O fluxes over large regions of Alaska in August 2013. From these measurements, we directly show that large areas of this Arctic region have high N2O emissions.

  19. Double disordered YBCO coated conductors of industrial scale: high currents in high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraimov, D; Francis, A; Jaroszynski, J; McCallister, J; Polyanskii, A; Santos, M; Viouchkov, Y L; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Rossi, L; Barth, C; Senatore, C; Dietrich, R; Rutt, A; Schlenga, K; Usoskin, A; Majkic, G S; Selvamanickam, V

    2015-01-01

    A significant increase of critical current in high magnetic field, up to 31 T, was recorded in long tapes manufactured by employing a double-disorder route. In a double-disordered high-temperature superconductor (HTS), a superimposing of intrinsic and extrinsic disorder takes place in a way that (i) the intrinsic disorder is caused by local stoichiometry deviations that lead to defects of crystallinity that serve as pining centers in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x−δ matrix and (ii) the extrinsic disorder is introduced via embedded atoms or particles of foreign material (e.g. barium zirconate), which create a set of lattice defects. We analyzed possible technological reasons for this current gain. The properties of these tapes over a wider field-temperature range as well as field anisotropy were also studied. Record values of critical current as high as 309 A at 31 T, 500 A at 18 Tm and 1200 A at 5 T were found in 4 mm wide tape at 4.2 K and B perpendicular to tape surface. HTS layers were processed in medium-scale equipment that allows a maximum batch length of 250 m while 22 m long batches were provided for investigation. Abnormally high ratios (up to 10) of critical current density measured at 4.2 K, 19 T to critical current density measured at 77 K, self-field were observed in tapes with the highest in-field critical current. Anisotropy of the critical current as well as angular dependences of n and α values were investigated. The temperature dependence of critical current is presented for temperatures between 4.2 and 40 K. Prospects for the suppression of the dog-bone effect by Cu plating and upscale of processing chain to >500 m piece length are discussed. (paper)

  20. Double disordered YBCO coated conductors of industrial scale: high currents in high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraimov, D.; Ballarino, A.; Barth, C.; Bottura, L.; Dietrich, R.; Francis, A.; Jaroszynski, J.; Majkic, G. S.; McCallister, J.; Polyanskii, A.; Rossi, L.; Rutt, A.; Santos, M.; Schlenga, K.; Selvamanickam, V.; Senatore, C.; Usoskin, A.; Viouchkov, Y. L.

    2015-11-01

    A significant increase of critical current in high magnetic field, up to 31 T, was recorded in long tapes manufactured by employing a double-disorder route. In a double-disordered high-temperature superconductor (HTS), a superimposing of intrinsic and extrinsic disorder takes place in a way that (i) the intrinsic disorder is caused by local stoichiometry deviations that lead to defects of crystallinity that serve as pining centers in the YBa2Cu3O x-δ matrix and (ii) the extrinsic disorder is introduced via embedded atoms or particles of foreign material (e.g. barium zirconate), which create a set of lattice defects. We analyzed possible technological reasons for this current gain. The properties of these tapes over a wider field-temperature range as well as field anisotropy were also studied. Record values of critical current as high as 309 A at 31 T, 500 A at 18 Tm and 1200 A at 5 T were found in 4 mm wide tape at 4.2 K and B perpendicular to tape surface. HTS layers were processed in medium-scale equipment that allows a maximum batch length of 250 m while 22 m long batches were provided for investigation. Abnormally high ratios (up to 10) of critical current density measured at 4.2 K, 19 T to critical current density measured at 77 K, self-field were observed in tapes with the highest in-field critical current. Anisotropy of the critical current as well as angular dependences of n and α values were investigated. The temperature dependence of critical current is presented for temperatures between 4.2 and 40 K. Prospects for the suppression of the dog-bone effect by Cu plating and upscale of processing chain to >500 m piece length are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of anti-scale property of CrN coatings at high temperature and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tomomi; Iwai, Yoshiro; Uno, Ryoji; Yoshinaga, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that oxide scale which adheres to the inner wall of the nozzle in nuclear power plant causes a serious problem. This study was carried out to obtain the knowledge about initiation and deposition behavior of oxide scale on the surface of SUS304 stainless steel and the evaluation of anti-scale property of chromium nitride (CrN) coatings at high temperature and high pressure. SUS304 stainless steel and CrN coating specimens were heated in water up to 200degC for more than 250 hours. Obtained results are summarized as follows. Initiation of the scale started from corrosive part of SUS304 stainless steel and the scale grows by deposition of magnetite particles. CrN coating can be applied to prevent the initiation and deposition of oxide scale. (author)

  2. High-precision micro/nano-scale machining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shiv G.; Bourne, Keith Allen; DeVor, Richard E.

    2014-08-19

    A high precision micro/nanoscale machining system. A multi-axis movement machine provides relative movement along multiple axes between a workpiece and a tool holder. A cutting tool is disposed on a flexible cantilever held by the tool holder, the tool holder being movable to provide at least two of the axes to set the angle and distance of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. A feedback control system uses measurement of deflection of the cantilever during cutting to maintain a desired cantilever deflection and hence a desired load on the cutting tool.

  3. Influence of the "Slingshot" bench press training aid on bench press kinematics and neuromuscular activity in competitive powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, James H; Hunter, Angus; Di Virgilio, Thomas; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hamilton, D Lee

    2017-02-13

    This study examined the acute effects of the 'Slingshot' on bench-press performance, prime-mover surface electromyographic (sEMG) amplitude, and barbell velocity during maximal and submaximal bench-pressing in competitive male powerlifters. Fifteen male powerlifters (mean ± SD age: 27.05 ± 5.94 years; mass: 94.15kg; 1RM bench-press: 139.7 ± 16.79kg) participated in the study. Bench-press strength, average barbell velocity, and sEMG amplitude of the prime mover muscles (triceps brachii, pectoralis major and anterior deltoid) were measured during two conditions; 'Raw' (without use of any assistance) and 'Slingshot' [using the 'Slingshot' to perform both the weight achieved during 'Raw' 1RM testing (Raw max/SS), and absolute 1RM using the 'Slingshot' (SS)]. The results showed that the 'Slingshot' significantly increased bench press 1RM performance by a mean ± SD of 20.67kg ± 3.4kg. Barbell velocity and stick point analysis indicate that this improvement is likely driven by an increase in peak and pre-stick barbell velocity as triceps RMS was lower throughout all rep max phases with the 'Slingshot'. The 'Slingshot' also caused reductions in RMS, specifically of the triceps at all rep ranges but barbell velocity was better maintained in the last reps of all sets. These data indicate that the 'Slingshot' specifically de-loaded the triceps muscle throughout all rep ranges and provide assistance to maintaining barbell velocity under fatigue during later repetitions of multiple-repetition sets. The 'Slingshot' training aid could therefore be used in de-load phases of bench press training or as an over-reaching and velocity training aid.

  4. QCD jet evolution at high and low scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jan-Christopher

    2008-07-01

    The formation of jets of hadrons is a basic manifestation of the strong interaction as explored in and measured by high-energy physics collider experiments. Jets appear as narrow cones of particles that yield energy deposits in the calorimeters of the detectors. Invoking Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - the underlying theory of the strong interaction and one of the four fundamental forces of nature - leads to predictions and models, which describe the initiation, evolution and hadronization of jets. Good precision and quality of theoretical results and approaches to jet physics are necessary and thus vital for the successful accomplishment of the challenges in elementary particle physics, the current (e.g. proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron) as well as the upcoming ones (e.g. proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). In this thesis various aspects of the eld of QCD jet physics are addressed, all of which under the common denominator of validating and improving the simulations computed by Monte Carlo event generators, in particular that of SHERPA, which has been developed in Dresden. Therefor the following questions were investigated, and, respective results have been achieved: - The method of merging tree-level matrix elements with parton showers has been critically verified against other merging approaches for inclusive gauge boson production at Tevatron and LHC energies. Also, the genesis of dibosons has been studied in comparison to next-to-leading order predictions in the strong coupling and other Monte Carlo generator approaches. These studies triggered improvements of the method of SHERPA, and, finally, important results have been derived, proving its relevance for ongoing and future experimental analyses. In its present form this method hence exhibits a very modern, state-of-the-art, approach to multijet production and evolution in high-energy particle collisions. - A new shower model based on QCD colour dipoles and their

  5. QCD jet evolution at high and low scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jan-Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The formation of jets of hadrons is a basic manifestation of the strong interaction as explored in and measured by high-energy physics collider experiments. Jets appear as narrow cones of particles that yield energy deposits in the calorimeters of the detectors. Invoking Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - the underlying theory of the strong interaction and one of the four fundamental forces of nature - leads to predictions and models, which describe the initiation, evolution and hadronization of jets. Good precision and quality of theoretical results and approaches to jet physics are necessary and thus vital for the successful accomplishment of the challenges in elementary particle physics, the current (e.g. proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron) as well as the upcoming ones (e.g. proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). In this thesis various aspects of the eld of QCD jet physics are addressed, all of which under the common denominator of validating and improving the simulations computed by Monte Carlo event generators, in particular that of SHERPA, which has been developed in Dresden. Therefor the following questions were investigated, and, respective results have been achieved: - The method of merging tree-level matrix elements with parton showers has been critically verified against other merging approaches for inclusive gauge boson production at Tevatron and LHC energies. Also, the genesis of dibosons has been studied in comparison to next-to-leading order predictions in the strong coupling and other Monte Carlo generator approaches. These studies triggered improvements of the method of SHERPA, and, finally, important results have been derived, proving its relevance for ongoing and future experimental analyses. In its present form this method hence exhibits a very modern, state-of-the-art, approach to multijet production and evolution in high-energy particle collisions. - A new shower model based on QCD colour dipoles and their

  6. Towards Chip Scale Liquid Chromatography and High Throughput Immunosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Jing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    This work describes several research projects aimed towards developing new instruments and novel methods for high throughput chemical and biological analysis. Approaches are taken in two directions. The first direction takes advantage of well-established semiconductor fabrication techniques and applies them to miniaturize instruments that are workhorses in analytical laboratories. Specifically, the first part of this work focused on the development of micropumps and microvalves for controlled fluid delivery. The mechanism of these micropumps and microvalves relies on the electrochemically-induced surface tension change at a mercury/electrolyte interface. A miniaturized flow injection analysis device was integrated and flow injection analyses were demonstrated. In the second part of this work, microfluidic chips were also designed, fabricated, and tested. Separations of two fluorescent dyes were demonstrated in microfabricated channels, based on an open-tubular liquid chromatography (OT LC) or an electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) format. A reduction in instrument size can potentially increase analysis speed, and allow exceedingly small amounts of sample to be analyzed under diverse separation conditions. The second direction explores the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a signal transduction method for immunoassay analysis. It takes advantage of the improved detection sensitivity as a result of surface enhancement on colloidal gold, the narrow width of Raman band, and the stability of Raman scattering signals to distinguish several different species simultaneously without exploiting spatially-separated addresses on a biochip. By labeling gold nanoparticles with different Raman reporters in conjunction with different detection antibodies, a simultaneous detection of a dual-analyte immunoassay was demonstrated. Using this scheme for quantitative analysis was also studied and preliminary dose-response curves from an immunoassay of a

  7. EMG analysis and modelling of flat bench press using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of particular muscle groups during the Flat Bench Press (FBP) with different external loads. Additionally, the authors attempted to determine whether regression models or Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can predict FBP results more precisely and whether they can ...

  8. Test benches for studying the properties of car tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. Yu.; Fedotov, A. I.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The article describes the design of the measuring systems of test benches used to study the properties of elastic tyres. The bench has two autonomous systems - for testing the braking properties of elastic tyres rolling in a plane parallel way and for testing tyre slip properties. The system for testing braking properties determines experimental characteristics of elastic tyres as the following dependencies: longitudinal response vs time, braking torque vs slip, angular velocity vs slip, and longitudinal response vs slip. The system for studying tyre slip properties determines both steady (dependence of the lateral response in a contact area on the slipping angle) and non-steady characteristics (time variation of the slipping angle as a result of turning from -40 to +40 degrees) of tyre slip. The article presents the diagrams of bench tests of elastic tyres. The experimental results show metrological parameters and functional capabilities of the bench for studying tyre properties in driving and braking modes. The metrological indices of the recorded parameters of the measuring system for studying tyre properties are presented in the table.

  9. ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Stavarache, Lucia Larise; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; McNamara, Danielle S.; Bianco, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Dascalu, M., Stavarache, L.L., Dessus, P., Trausan-Matu, S., McNamara, D.S., & Bianco, M. (2015). ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework. In G. Conole, T. Klobucar, C. Rensing, J. Konert & É. Lavoué (Eds.), 10th European Conf. on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 505–508). Toledo,

  10. Bench Blasting Design for Optimum Recovery of Blocks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research work, breaking factor is used in place of powder factor since breaking is required not powder. The aim of this research work is to establish a standard breaking factor for bench blasting in dimension quarries that will improve recovery. Two cases were considered. In case 1, gun powder is used for basal ...

  11. Calibration bench of flowmeters; Banc d'etalonnage de debitmetres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremond, J; Da Costa, D; Calvet, A; Vieuxmaire, C

    1966-07-01

    This equipment is devoted to the comparison of signals from two turbines installed in the Cabri experimental loop. The signal is compared to the standard turbine. The characteristics and the performance of the calibration bench are presented. (A.L.B.)

  12. Construction and Bench Testing of a Rotatable Collimator for the LHC Collimation Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Phase II upgrade to the LHC collimation system calls for complementing the 30 high robust Phase I graphite secondary collimators with 30 high Z Phase II collimators. The Phase II collimators must be robust in various operating conditions and accident scenarios. This paper reports on the final construction and testing of the prototype collimator to be installed in the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN. Bench-top measurements will demonstrate that the device is fully operational and has the mechanical and vacuum characteristics acceptable for installation in the SPS.

  13. A Study on introduction of Bench Marking in the power industry - concentrated on the Bench Marking issue in the power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuck Soo [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    Recently it takes too much pains for enterprises to be adapted to the more complicated social structure. There are no guarantees to survive in competition only with improving service quality of a product, reducing cost by improving production efficiency, and reducing labors. To survive in a keen competition, it is important to acquire new management techniques and management theories. Among them, a benchmarking technique, improving competitive power through the analysis of top-ranking companies or companies with excellent results in a comparative sector, is in the spotlight recently. Therefore, the approaches to bench marking were discussed with the focus on the adaptation of KEPCO with a new paradigm. However, this study contained the limit of applying benchmarking technique due to its huge scale. Therefore, it was focused on brining up benchmarking issue by reflecting the basic problems of power industry to the developed countries. (author). 29 refs., 16 figs., 41 tabs.

  14. Bench press and push-up at comparable levels of muscle activity results in similar strength gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martin, Fernando; Tella, Victor; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) exercise evaluation is commonly used to measure the intensity of muscle contraction. Although researchers assume that biomechanically comparable resistance exercises with similar high EMG levels will produce similar strength gains over the long term, no studies have actually corroborated this hypothesis. This study evaluated EMG levels during 6 repetition maximum (6RM) bench press and push-up, and subsequently performed a 5-week training period where subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups (i.e., 6RM bench press group, 6RM elastic band push-up group, or control group) to evaluate muscle strength gains. Thirty university students with advanced resistance training experience participated in the 2-part study. During the training period, exercises were performed using the same loads and variables that were used during the EMG data collection. At baseline, EMG amplitude showed no significant difference between 6RM bench press and band push-up. Significant differences among the groups were found for percent change (Δ) between pretest and posttest for 6RM (p = 0.017) and for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (p bench press group and 6RM elastic band push-up group improved their 1RM and 6RM (Δ ranging from 13.65 to 22.21) tests significantly with similar gains, whereas control group remains unchanged. Thus, when the EMG values are comparable and the same conditions are reproduced, the aforementioned exercises can provide similar muscle strength gains.

  15. Comparison of concentric and eccentric bench press repetitions to failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stephen B; Brown, Lee E; Hooker, Steven P; Swan, Pamela D; Buman, Matthew P; Alvar, Brent A; Black, Laurie E

    2015-04-01

    Eccentric muscle actions (ECC) are characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Muscles acting eccentrically are capable of producing higher levels of force compared with muscles acting concentrically. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ECC bench press yields greater strength than concentric (CON) as determined by 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Additionally, a comparison was made examining differences in the number of repetitions to failure at different relative intensities of 1RM. Thirty healthy men (age = 24.63 ± 5.6 years) were tested for 1RM in CON and ECC bench press and the number of repetitions completed at 60, 70, 80, and 90% 1RM. For CON repetitions, the weight was mechanically lowered to the chest, and the participant pressed it up until the elbows were fully extended. The ECC bench press consisted of lowering a barbell from a fully extended elbow position to the chest in a continuous controlled manner for 3 seconds as determined by electronic metronome. Paired t-tests showed that ECC 1RM (115.99 ± 31.08 kg) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater than CON 1RM (93.56 ± 26.56 kg), and the number of repetitions completed at 90% 1RM was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in ECC (7.67 ± 3.24) as compared with CON (4.57 ± 2.21). There were no significant differences in number of completed repetitions during CON and ECC bench press at 60, 70, and 80% 1RM. These data indicate that ECC actions yield increased force capabilities (∼120%) as compared with CON in the bench press and may be less prone to fatigue, especially at higher intensities. These differences suggest a need to develop unique strategies for training eccentrically.

  16. High-resolution Statistics of Solar Wind Turbulence at Kinetic Scales Using the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T. N.; Maruca, B. A. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Fuselier, S. A.; Burch, J. L. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Phan, T. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Torbert, R. B. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J., E-mail: chasapis@udel.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Cluster missions obtained in the solar wind, we examine second-order and fourth-order structure functions at varying spatial lags normalized to ion inertial scales. The analysis includes direct two-spacecraft results and single-spacecraft results employing the familiar Taylor frozen-in flow approximation. Several familiar statistical results, including the spectral distribution of energy, and the sale-dependent kurtosis, are extended down to unprecedented spatial scales of ∼6 km, approaching electron scales. The Taylor approximation is also confirmed at those small scales, although small deviations are present in the kinetic range. The kurtosis is seen to attain very high values at sub-proton scales, supporting the previously reported suggestion that monofractal behavior may be due to high-frequency plasma waves at kinetic scales.

  17. Cost-benefit of bench terraces, a case study in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, H.; Graaff, de J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil and water conservation measures like bench terraces can reduce erosion in highland crop production. A cost-benefit analysis for 11 cases of bench terraces was undertaken on the basis of both measured data and data obtained from farmers. It showed that the profitability of bench terraces was

  18. Reliability assessment of ballistic jump squats and bench throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Joseph A; Pandorf, Clay E; Montain, Scott J; Castellani, John W; Tuckow, Alexander P; Nindl, Bradley C

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the test-retest reliability and coefficient of variation of 2 novel physical performance tests. Ten healthy men (22.0 +/- 3.0 years, 87.0 +/- 8.0 kg, 20.0 +/- 5.0% body fat) performed 30 continuous and dynamic jump squats (JS) and bench throws (BT) on 4 separate occasions. The movements were performed under loaded conditions utilizing 30% of subject's predetermined 1 repetition maximum in the back squat and bench press. Mean power (MP; W), peak power (PP; W), mean velocity (MV; m.s(-1)), peak velocity (PV; m.s(-1)), and total work (TW; J) were assessed using a ballistic measurement system (Innervations Inc., Muncie, IN). Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with Duncan's post hoc test when mean differences were p < or = 0.05. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV%) were also calculated. All values are presented as mean +/- SE. BT variables were statistically similar across the 4 sessions: MP (350.0 +/- 13.9 W), PP (431.4 +/- 18.5 W) MV (1.6 +/- 0.03 m.s(-1)), PV (2.0 +/- 0.03 m.s(-1)), and TW (199.1 +/- 7.2 J). For JS, session 3 PP (1,669.8 +/- 111.2 W) was significantly greater vs. sessions 1, 2, and 4 (1,601.2 +/- 58.4 W). Session 4 MP (1,403.2 +/- 88.6 W) and MV (1.9 +/- 0.1 m.s(-1)) for JS were significantly lower during sessions 1, 2, and 3 (MP: 1,479.4.5 +/- 44.8 W, MV: 2.0 +/- 0.05 m.s(-1)). TW (834.7 +/- 24.3 J) and PV (2.2 +/- 0.04 m.s(-1)) were statistically similar during all sessions for JS. The CVs ranged from 3.0 to 7.6% for the BT and 3.2 to 5.7% for the JS. ICCs for MP, PP, MV, PV, and TW were 0.92, 0.95, 0.94, 0.91, and 0.95, respectively, during BT. ICCs during JS for MP, PP, MV, PV, and TW were 0.96, 0.98, 0.94, 0.94, and 0.89, respectively. The results of the current study support the use of a 30 continuous and dynamic BT protocol as a reliable upper-body physical performance test, which can be administered with

  19. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale test of a railcar and spent-nuclear-fuel shipping cask in a high-velocity impact against a rigid barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes the mathematical analysis, the physical scale modeling, and a full-scale crash test of a railcar spent-nuclear-fuel shipping system. The mathematical analysis utilized a lumped-parameter model to predict the structural response of the railcar and the shipping cask. The physical scale modeling analysis consisted of two crash tests that used 1/8-scale models to assess railcar and shipping cask damage. The full-scale crash test, conducted with retired railcar equipment, was carefully monitored with onboard instrumentation and high-speed photography. Results of the mathematical and scale modeling analyses are compared with the full-scale test. 29 figures

  20. Identification of fine scale and landscape scale drivers of urban aboveground carbon stocks using high-resolution modeling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Johansen, Kasper; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive A; Wu, Dan; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2018-05-01

    Urban areas are sources of land use change and CO 2 emissions that contribute to global climate change. Despite this, assessments of urban vegetation carbon stocks often fail to identify important landscape-scale drivers of variation in urban carbon, especially the potential effects of landscape structure variables at different spatial scales. We combined field measurements with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data to build high-resolution models of woody plant aboveground carbon across the urban portion of Brisbane, Australia, and then identified landscape scale drivers of these carbon stocks. First, we used LiDAR data to quantify the extent and vertical structure of vegetation across the city at high resolution (5×5m). Next, we paired this data with aboveground carbon measurements at 219 sites to create boosted regression tree models and map aboveground carbon across the city. We then used these maps to determine how spatial variation in land cover/land use and landscape structure affects these carbon stocks. Foliage densities above 5m height, tree canopy height, and the presence of ground openings had the strongest relationships with aboveground carbon. Using these fine-scale relationships, we estimate that 2.2±0.4 TgC are stored aboveground in the urban portion of Brisbane, with mean densities of 32.6±5.8MgCha -1 calculated across the entire urban land area, and 110.9±19.7MgCha -1 calculated within treed areas. Predicted carbon densities within treed areas showed strong positive relationships with the proportion of surrounding tree cover and how clumped that tree cover was at both 1km 2 and 1ha resolutions. Our models predict that even dense urban areas with low tree cover can have high carbon densities at fine scales. We conclude that actions and policies aimed at increasing urban carbon should focus on those areas where urban tree cover is most fragmented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sub-Scale Re-entry Capsule Drop via High Altitude Balloons

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project objective is to develop and test a sub-scale version of the Maraia Entry Capsule on a high altitude balloon. The capsule is released at 100,000 ft. The...

  2. Experimental design of high energy electron gun by means of scaling rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of the design of a new family of electron guns by means of scaling theory of electron-optical devices (EOD) is presented. According to the theory, EOD with a relatively big space charge, as in high energy Pierce type electron guns used in technological equipment, generally cannot be scaled, because of their nonlinear space charge nature. Therefore, the scaling rules are applied here only to the anode zone of the gun, where the electron beam perveance is small, and the cathode lens of gun with considerable space charge remains unchanged. The procedure for scaling a 25 kV and 150 mA gun with cylindrical electron beam into a high voltage 75 kV and 150 mA electron system is given. An experimental investigation proved the high technological quality of a high voltage gun constructed according to the above conception. (author)

  3. Clearing up the hazy road from bench to bedside: A framework for integrating the fourth hurdle into translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jürgen H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New products evolving from research and development can only be translated to medical practice on a large scale if they are reimbursed by third-party payers. Yet the decision processes regarding reimbursement are highly complex and internationally heterogeneous. This study develops a process-oriented framework for monitoring these so-called fourth hurdle procedures in the context of product development from bench to bedside. The framework is suitable both for new drugs and other medical technologies. Methods The study is based on expert interviews and literature searches, as well as an analysis of 47 websites of coverage decision-makers in England, Germany and the USA. Results Eight key steps for monitoring fourth hurdle procedures from a company perspective were determined: entering the scope of a healthcare payer; trigger of decision process; assessment; appraisal; setting level of reimbursement; establishing rules for service provision; formal and informal participation; and publication of the decision and supplementary information. Details are given for the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, the German Federal Joint Committee, Medicare's National and Local Coverage Determinations, and for Blue Cross Blue Shield companies. Conclusion Coverage determination decisions for new procedures tend to be less formalized than for novel drugs. The analysis of coverage procedures and requirements shows that the proof of patient benefit is essential. Cost-effectiveness is likely to gain importance in future.

  4. Cross-sectional fluctuation scaling in the high-frequency illiquidity of Chinese stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Gao, Xing-Lu; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-03-01

    Taylor's law of temporal and ensemble fluctuation scaling has been ubiquitously observed in diverse complex systems including financial markets. Stock illiquidity is an important nonadditive financial quantity, which is found to comply with Taylor's temporal fluctuation scaling law. In this paper, we perform the cross-sectional analysis of the 1 min high-frequency illiquidity time series of Chinese stocks and unveil the presence of Taylor's law of ensemble fluctuation scaling. The estimated daily Taylor scaling exponent fluctuates around 1.442. We find that Taylor's scaling exponents of stock illiquidity do not relate to the ensemble mean and ensemble variety of returns. Our analysis uncovers a new scaling law of financial markets and might stimulate further investigations for a better understanding of financial markets' dynamics.

  5. Converting Hangar High Expansion Foam Systems to Prevent Cockpit Damage: Full-Scale Validation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AFCEC-CO-TY-TR-2018-0001 CONVERTING HANGAR HIGH EXPANSION FOAM SYSTEMS TO PREVENT COCKPIT DAMAGE: FULL-SCALE VALIDATION TESTS Gerard G...manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation , or approval by the United States Air Force. The views and...09-2017 Final Test Report May 2017 Converting Hangar High Expansion Foam Systems to Prevent Cockpit Damage: Full-Scale Validation Tests N00173-15-D

  6. High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Lin, Y.M.; Bol, A.A.; Jenkins, K.A.; Xia, F.; Farmer, D.B.; Zu, Y.; Avouris, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to its high carrier mobility and saturation velocity, graphene has attracted enormous attention in recent years In particular, high-performance graphene transistors for radio-frequency (r.f.) applications are of great interest. Synthesis of large-scale graphene sheets of high quality and at

  7. Monitoring of noninvasive ventilation by built-in software of home bilevel ventilators: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contal, Olivier; Vignaux, Laurence; Combescure, Christophe; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Jolliet, Philippe; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2012-02-01

    Current bilevel positive-pressure ventilators for home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) provide physicians with software that records items important for patient monitoring, such as compliance, tidal volume (Vt), and leaks. However, to our knowledge, the validity of this information has not yet been independently assessed. Testing was done for seven home ventilators on a bench model adapted to simulate NIV and generate unintentional leaks (ie, other than of the mask exhalation valve). Five levels of leaks were simulated using a computer-driven solenoid valve (0-60 L/min) at different levels of inspiratory pressure (15 and 25 cm H(2)O) and at a fixed expiratory pressure (5 cm H(2)O), for a total of 10 conditions. Bench data were compared with results retrieved from ventilator software for leaks and Vt. For assessing leaks, three of the devices tested were highly reliable, with a small bias (0.3-0.9 L/min), narrow limits of agreement (LA), and high correlations (R(2), 0.993-0.997) when comparing ventilator software and bench results; conversely, for four ventilators, bias ranged from -6.0 L/min to -25.9 L/min, exceeding -10 L/min for two devices, with wide LA and lower correlations (R(2), 0.70-0.98). Bias for leaks increased markedly with the importance of leaks in three devices. Vt was underestimated by all devices, and bias (range, 66-236 mL) increased with higher insufflation pressures. Only two devices had a bias ventilation must be aware of differences in the estimation of leaks and Vt by ventilator software. Also, leaks are reported in different ways according to the device used.

  8. Macroscopic High-Temperature Structural Analysis Model of Small-Scale PCHE Prototype (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Lee, Heong Yeon; Hong, Sung Deok; Park, Hong Yoon

    2011-01-01

    The IHX (intermediate heat exchanger) of a VHTR (very high-temperature reactor) is a core component that transfers the high heat generated by the VHTR at 950 .deg. C to a hydrogen production plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute manufactured a small-scale prototype of a PCHE (printed circuit heat exchanger) that was being considered as a candidate for the IHX. In this study, as a part of high-temperature structural integrity evaluation of the small-scale PCHE prototype, we carried out high-temperature structural analysis modeling and macroscopic thermal and elastic structural analysis for the small-scale PCHE prototype under small-scale gas-loop test conditions. The modeling and analysis were performed as a precedent study prior to the performance test in the small-scale gas loop. The results obtained in this study will be compared with the test results for the small-scale PCHE. Moreover, these results will be used in the design of a medium-scale PCHE prototype

  9. Development of a new bench for puncturing of irradiated fuel rods in STAR hot laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitprez, B.; Silvestre, P.; Valenza, P.; Boulore, A.; David, T.

    2018-01-01

    A new device for puncturing of irradiated fuel rods in commercial power plants has been designed by Fuel Research Department of CEA Cadarache in order to provide experimental data of high precision on fuel pins with various designs. It will replace the current set-up that has been used since 1998 in hot cell 2 of STAR facility with more than 200 rod puncturing experiments. Based on this consistent experimental feedback, the heavy-duty technique of rod perforation by clad punching has been preserved for the new bench. The method of double expansion of rod gases is also retained since it allows upgrading the confidence interval of volumetric results obtained from rod puncturing. Furthermore, many evolutions have been introduced in the new design in order to improve its reliability, to make the maintenance easier by remote handling and to reduce experimental uncertainties. Tightness components have been studied with Sealing Laboratory Maestral at Pierrelatte so as to make them able to work under mixed pressure conditions (from vacuum at 10-5 mbar up to pressure at 50 bars) and to lengthen their lifetime under permanent gamma irradiation in hot cell. Bench ergonomics has been optimized to make its operating by remote handling easier and to secure the critical phases of a puncturing experiment. A high pressure gas line equipped with high precision pressure sensors out of cell can be connected to the bench in cell for calibration purposes. Uncertainty analyses using Monte Carlo calculations have been performed in order to optimize capacity of the different volumes of the apparatus according to volumetric characteristics of the rod to be punctured. At last this device is composed of independent modules which allow puncturing fuel pins out of different geometries (PWR, BWR, VVER). After leak tests of the device and remote handling simulation in a mock-up cell, several punctures of calibrated specimens have been performed in 2016. The bench will be implemented soon in hot

  10. Academic self-efficacy for high school scale: search for psychometrics evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soely Polydoro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the adaptation and the search for psychometrics evidence of an academic self-efficacy scale. High school students (N = 453 participated of the research (mean age 15.93; SD 1.2. The Academic Self-efficacy Scale for High School is an adapted scale composed of 16 items and organized into three factors: self-efficacy for learning, self-efficacy to act in school life, and self-efficacy for the career decision. Through exploratory factor analysis, a KMO = 0.90 was verified, and 56.57% of the variance was explained. The internal consistency was 0.88. The scale demonstrated good conditions to identify academic self-efficacy of high school students.

  11. Wind Generators Test Bench. Optimal Design of PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDORACHE, T.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel and robust strategy for the optimal design of the drive system integrated in a wind generators test bench. The PI regulator coefficients used in control systems are usually computed based on simplified hypotheses and then tuned manually so as the system response meet certain specifications in terms of stability, accuracy and speed. The proposed methodology permits the automatic identification of PI regulator coefficients using intelligent optimization algorithms, the initial guess for the search procedure being determined based on particular simplified hypotheses. The proposed procedure can help the design engineers to drastically reduce the effort for finding the best PI regulator coefficients offering a range of feasible solutions depending on the imposed optimum criteria. The characteristics and performances of the optimization strategy are highlighted by using it for the design of a DC motor drive system used to simulate the wind prime mover integrated in a wind generators test bench.

  12. Improvement of bench life-tests for automotive batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, G.

    A common method for rating the endurance of automotive batteries is the bench life-test according to DIN, IEC, SAE or JIS. With an increasing number of maintenance-free batteries on the market, the application of these tests becomes more problematic. This is due to a step-by-step capacity decline during cycling if the content of autimony in the grid-alloy is decreased. The degradation in performance is caused by the phenomenon of acid stratification. Because this debilitating effect occurs only rarely in service (vehicle movement) if charging and discharging is well balanced, there is a need for a new bench life-test with conditions that are more representative of practical conditions. Research has shown that the main changes should be: (i) an accelerated (moved) battery during cycling; (ii) slightly lower charging or discharging capacity amplitude, also with a lower mean value.

  13. The R and D D's bearing test benches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In power generation plants, rotating machines are involved in energy transformation processes and safety systems. The bearings supporting the rotors and the thrust bearings play a crucial role in the reliability of these machines. The phenomena encountered straddle several disciplines: hydrodynamics, tribology, thermomechanics, materials and vibrations in a specific environment, namely: thin fluid film, solid mechanical components and shaft rotation. Means of analysing the behaviour of these components (bearings and thrust bearings) have been developed and implemented. These consists of the EDYOS (Etude Dynamique des Organes de Supportage) code for dynamically studying bearing devices and several related bench tests. In reality, in order to understand the complex physical phenomena encountered in these components, it is vital to carry out analyses and experimental validations. Since these investigations cannot be carried out on actual machines, test benches have been built which can subject the sample bearings to the equivalent stresses. (author)

  14. Development of training simulator based on critical assemblies test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narozhnyi, A.T.; Vorontsov, S.V.; Golubeva, O.A.; Dyudyaev, A.M.; Il'in, V.I.; Kuvshinov, M.I.; Panin, A.V.; Peshekhonov, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    When preparing critical mass experiment, multiplying system (MS) parts are assembled manually. This work is connected with maximum professional risk to personnel. Personnel training and keeping the skill of working experts is the important factor of nuclear safety maintenance. For this purpose authors develop a training simulator based on functioning critical assemblies test bench (CATB), allowing simulation of the MS assemblage using training mockups made of inert materials. The control program traces the current status of MS under simulation. A change in the assembly neutron physical parameters is mapped in readings of the regular devices. The simulator information support is provided by the computer database on physical characteristics of typical MS components The work in the training mode ensures complete simulation of real MS assemblage on the critical test bench. It makes it possible to elaborate the procedures related to CATB operation in a standard mode safely and effectively and simulate possible abnormal situations. (author)

  15. On line isotopic separator test benches at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, R.; Bru, B.; Joubert, A.; Leroy, R.; Obert, J.; Putaux, J.C.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.; Orr, N.; Steckmeyer, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A first version of isotopic separator on line test bench has been built in order to test the feasibility of the production of radioactive species from 96 MeV/u of 20 Ne impinging a thick target of MgO. This test bench was equipped with a very compact ECR ion source (Nanogan) entirely made from permanent magnets and operating at 10 Ghz. 18 Ne 2,4+ ; 19N e 1,2,3,4+ and 23,24 Ne 1+ has been produced and ionized. A new more performing separator (SIRa) allowing the use of different types of ion sources will be completed by the end of 1993. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Thiomers--from bench to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonengel, Sonja; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-12-10

    Thiolated polymers or designated thiomers are obtained by immobilization of sulhydryl bearing ligands on the polymeric backbone of well-established polymers such as poly(acrylates) or chitosans. This functionalization leads to significantly improved mucoadhesive properties compared to the corresponding unmodified polymers, as disulfide bonds between thiol groups of thiomers and cysteine-rich glycoproteins of the mucus gel layer are formed. Furthermore, enzyme- and efflux-pump inhibiting as well as improved permeation-enhancing properties are advantages of thiolization. By the covalent attachment of mercaptonicotinamide substructures via disulfide bonds to thiolated polymers these properties are even substantially further improved and stability towards oxidation even in aqueous media can be provided. Meanwhile, more than 50 research groups worldwide are working on thiolated polymers. For certain thiomers the scale up process for industrial production has already been done and GMP material is available. Furthermore, safety of thiolated poly(acrylic acid), thiolated chitosan and thiolated hyaluronic acid could be demonstrated via orientating studies in human volunteers and via various clinical trials. The first product (Lacrimera® eye drops, Croma-Pharma) containing a chitosan-N-acetylcysteine conjugate for treatment of dry eye syndrome will enter the European market this year. It is the only product providing a sustained protective effect on the ocular surface due to its comparatively much more prolonged residence time worldwide. Various further products utilizing, for instance, thiolated hyaluronic acid in ocular surgery are in the pipeline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulation of the LHC injection kicker impedance test bench

    CERN Document Server

    Tsutsui, H

    2003-01-01

    The coupling impedance measurements of the LHC injection kicker test bench are simulated by HFSS code. The simulation gives qualitatively good agreement with the measurement. In order to damp the resonances, some ferrite rings are tested in the simulation. Longitudinal resonances are damped by a ferrite ring of large tan$\\delta_{\\mu}$. The effect of the ferrite ring is small for damping the transverse impedance resonance around 30 MHz.

  18. Full-Scale and Bench-Scale Studies on the Removal of Strontium from Water (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strontium (Sr) is a natural and commonly occurring alkaline earth metal which has an oxidation state of +2 under normal environmental conditions. Stable strontium is suspended in water and is dissolved after water runs through rocks and soil. It behaves very similar to calcium. G...

  19. Experience gained in pilot-scale and bench-scale fluidised beds processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available for clean coal technology thrust COMMISSIONED PLANTS Slagment Hot Gas Generator Client : Slagment Bed area : 25 m2 Plant purpose : A 10 MW plant for the combustion of duff coal at greater than 98% burnout to provide hot gases for the drying...

  20. Large scale modulation of high frequency acoustic waves in periodic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Claude; Rallu, Antoine; Hans, Stephane

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with the description of the modulation at large scale of high frequency acoustic waves in gas saturated periodic porous media. High frequencies mean local dynamics at the pore scale and therefore absence of scale separation in the usual sense of homogenization. However, although the pressure is spatially varying in the pores (according to periodic eigenmodes), the mode amplitude can present a large scale modulation, thereby introducing another type of scale separation to which the asymptotic multi-scale procedure applies. The approach is first presented on a periodic network of inter-connected Helmholtz resonators. The equations governing the modulations carried by periodic eigenmodes, at frequencies close to their eigenfrequency, are derived. The number of cells on which the carrying periodic mode is defined is therefore a parameter of the modeling. In a second part, the asymptotic approach is developed for periodic porous media saturated by a perfect gas. Using the "multicells" periodic condition, one obtains the family of equations governing the amplitude modulation at large scale of high frequency waves. The significant difference between modulations of simple and multiple mode are evidenced and discussed. The features of the modulation (anisotropy, width of frequency band) are also analyzed.

  1. A virtual model of the bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Rambaud, Olivier; Bourdin, Muriel; Mariot, Jean-Pierre

    2009-08-07

    The objective of this study was to design and validate a three degrees of freedom model in the sagittal plane for the bench press exercise. The mechanical model was based on rigid segments connected by revolute and prismatic pairs, which enabled a kinematic approach and global force estimation. The method requires only three simple measurements: (i) horizontal position of the hand (x(0)); (ii) vertical displacement of the barbell (Z) and (iii) elbow angle (theta). Eight adult male throwers performed maximal concentric bench press exercises against different masses. The kinematic results showed that the vertical displacement of each segment and the global centre of mass followed the vertical displacement of the lifted mass. Consequently, the vertical velocity and acceleration of the combined centre of mass and the lifted mass were identical. Finally, for each lifted mass, there were no practical differences between forces calculated from the bench press model and those simultaneously measured with a force platform. The error was lower than 2.5%. The validity of the mechanical method was also highlighted by a standard error of the estimate (SEE) ranging from 2.0 to 6.6N in absolute terms, a coefficient of variation (CV) or =0.99 for all the lifts (pbench press exercises in both field and laboratory conditions.

  2. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics of diesel engine by on-board and test bench measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di; Hu, Wei; Li, Peng; Ren, Jin; Chen, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the emission characteristics of ultrafine particles based on test bench and on-board measurements. The bench test results showed the ultrafine particle number concentration of the diesel engine to be in the range of (0.56-8.35) x 10(8) cm(-3). The on-board measurement results illustrated that the ultrafine particles were strongly correlated with changes in real-world driving cycles. The particle number concentration was down to 2.0 x 10(6) cm(-3) and 2.7 x 10(7) cm(-3) under decelerating and idling operations and as high as 5.0 x 10(8) cm(-3) under accelerating operation. It was also indicated that the particle number measured by the two methods increased with the growth of engine load at each engine speed in both cases. The particle number presented a "U" shaped distribution with changing speed at high engine load conditions, which implies that the particle number will reach its lowest level at medium engine speeds. The particle sizes of both measurements showed single mode distributions. The peak of particle size was located at about 50-80 nm in the accumulation mode particle range. Nucleation mode particles will significantly increase at low engine load operations like idling and decelerating caused by the high concentration of unburned organic compounds.

  3. Free-Weight Augmentation With Elastic Bands Improves Bench Press Kinematics in Professional Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, David; Hernández-Sánchez, Sonsoles; Martín, Esperanza; Marín, Pedro J; Zarzosa, Fernando; Herrero, Azael J

    2016-09-01

    García-López, D, Hernández-Sánchez, S, Martín, E, Marín, PJ, Zarzosa, F, and Herrero, AJ. Free-weight augmentation with elastic bands improves bench press kinematics in professional rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2493-2499, 2016-This study aimed to investigate the effects of combining elastic bands to free weight resistance (EB + FWR) on the acceleration-deceleration and velocity profiles of the bench press in professional rugby players and recreationally trained subjects. Sixteen male subjects (8 rugby players and 8 recreationally trained subjects) were randomly assigned to complete 2 experimental conditions in a crossover fashion: EB + FWR and FWR. In both conditions, subjects performed 1 bench press set to volitional exhaustion with a load equivalent to the 85% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). In the EB + FWR condition, the contribution of elastic resistance was approximately 20% of the selected load (85% 1RM). Results indicate that EB + FWR condition increased significantly the range of concentric movement in which the barbell is accelerated. This increase was significantly higher in rugby players (35%) in comparison with recreationally trained subjects (13%). Maximal velocity was also increased in EB + FWR (17%), when compared with FWR condition. These results suggest that when combined with variable resistance (i.e., EB), the external resistance seems to be more evenly distributed over the full range of motion, decreasing the need for dramatic deceleration at the end of the concentric phase. The present data also indicate that the kinematic benefits of an EB + FWR approach seems to be more prominent in athletes from modalities in which high level of strength and power are required (i.e., rugby players).

  4. Periprosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical and Bench Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Legout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The incidence is low but probably underestimated. Despite a significant basic and clinical research in this field, many questions concerning the definition of prosthetic infection as well the diagnosis and the management of these infections remained unanswered. We review the current literature about the new diagnostic methods, the management and the prevention of prosthetic joint infections.

  5. Utilization of institutional delivery service and associated factors in Bench Maji zone, Southwest Ethiopia: community based, cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadele, Niguse; Lamaro, Tafesse

    2017-02-01

    At the end of Millennium development goals, Ethiopia was included among 10 countries which constitutes about 59% of maternal deaths due to complications of pregnancy and/or childbirth every year globally. Institutional delivery, which is believed to contribute in reduction of maternal mortality is still low. Hence this study was conducted in order to assess utilization of institutional delivery and related factors in Bench Maji zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was employed from September 1st - 30th, 2015 in Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia where 765 mothers who deliver 2 years preceding the study provided data for this research. Data were collected by enumerators who were trained. In addition to descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Statistical significance was considered at a p-value delivery which was significant. In Bench Maji Zone institutional delivery was shown to be comparatively good compared to other studies in the region and in Ethiopia in general even though it is below the health sector transformation plan of Ethiopia which aimed to increase deliveries attended by skilled health personnel to 95%. Empowering women, increasing awareness about institutional delivery and proper scaling up of antenatal care services which is an entry point for institutional delivery are recommended.

  6. Qualification of an out-of-pile Thermohydraulic test Bench (BETHY) developed to calibrate calorimetric cells under specific JHR experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vita, C.; Brun, J.; Carette, M.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.F.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Online in-pile measurement methods are crucial during irradiations in material testing reactors to better understand the behavior of materials under accelerated ageing conditions and of nuclear fuels under high irradiation levels. Thus, the construction of a new Material Testing Reactor such as the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) leads to new research and development programs devoted to innovative instrumentation and measurement methods. The presented works are performed in the framework of the IN-CORE program, 'Instrumentation for Nuclear radiations and Calorimetry Online in Reactor', between CEA and Aix-Marseille University. The program aim is to develop experimental devices and test bench to quantify more precisely the nuclear heating parameter in the JHR experimental channels. This in-pile parameter is usually measured by means of calorimeter or gamma thermometer. This paper focuses on a new out-of-pile test bench called BETHY. This bench was developed to study the response of a differential calorimeter during its preliminary calibration step according to specific thermal and hydraulic conditions occurring inside one type of JHR core channel. The first section of this paper is dedicated to a detailed description of the bench. The second part presents the study of the thermal characteristics established in the bench for two main thermal running modes. The last one concerns the calibration curve of the reference cell of the differential calorimeter in the case of homogenous temperature. (authors)

  7. Design features of a full-scale high-level waste vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, D.H.; Bonner, W.F.

    1976-08-01

    A system has been designed and is currently under construction for vitrification of commercial high-level waste. The process consists of a spray calciner coupled to an in-can melter. Due to the high radiation levels expected, this equipment is designed for totally remote operation and maintenance. The in-cell arrangement of this equipment has been developed cooperatively with a nuclear fuel reprocessor. The system will be demonstrated both full scale with nonradioactive simulated waste and pilot scale with actual high-level waste

  8. Validity and Reliability of the Academic Resilience Scale in Turkish High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the validity and reliability of the academic resilience scale in Turkish high school. The participances of the study includes 378 high school students in total (192 female and 186 male). A set of analyses were conducted in order to determine the validity and reliability of the study. Firstly, both exploratory…

  9. Landscape-scale patterns of fire and drought on the high plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette Ford; Charles Jackson; Matthew Reeves; Benjamin Bird; Dave Turner

    2015-01-01

    We examine 31 years (1982-2012) of temperature, precipitation and natural wildfire occurrence data for Federal and Tribal lands to determine landscape-scale patterns of drought and fire on the southern and central High Plains of the western United States. The High Plains states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and...

  10. Bench evaluation of 7 home-care ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Rodriquez, Dario; Hanseman, Dennis; Branson, Richard D

    2011-11-01

    Portable ventilators continue to decrease in size while increasing in performance. We bench-tested the triggering, battery duration, and tidal volume (V(T)) of 7 portable ventilators: LTV 1000, LTV 1200, Puritan Bennett 540, Trilogy, Vela, iVent 101, and HT50. We tested triggering with a modified dual-chamber test lung to simulate spontaneous breathing with weak, normal, and strong inspiratory effort. We measured battery duration by fully charging the battery and operating the ventilator with a V(T) of 500 mL, a respiratory rate of 20 breaths/min, and PEEP of 5 cm H(2)O until breath-delivery ceased. We tested V(T) accuracy with pediatric ventilation scenarios (V(T) 50 mL or 100 mL, respiratory rate 50 breaths/min, inspiratory time 0.3 s, and PEEP 5 cm H(2)O) and an adult ventilation scenario (V(T) 400 mL, respiratory rate 30 breaths/min, inspiratory time 0.5 s, and PEEP 5 cm H(2)O). We measured and analyzed airway pressure, volume, and flow signals. At the adult settings the measured V(T) range was 362-426 mL. On the pediatric settings the measured V(T) range was 51-182 mL at the set V(T) of 50 mL, and 90-141 mL at the set V(T) of 100 mL. The V(T) delivered by the Vela at both the 50 mL and 100 mL, and by the HT50 at 100 mL, did not meet the American Society for Testing and Materials standard for V(T) accuracy. Triggering response and battery duration ranged widely among the tested ventilators. There was wide variability in battery duration and triggering sensitivity. Five of the ventilators performed adequately in V(T) delivery across several settings. The combination of high respiratory rate and low V(T) presented problems for 2 of the ventilators.

  11. Paleoclimatic scales in the past 800ka based on the high resolution EDC dust record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Fabrice; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2017-04-01

    Dust fluxes from the East Antarctic EPICA Dome C ice-core with unprecedented near complete 25 year resolution over more than 800 kyrs are systematically analyzed over 8 glacial-interglacial cycles and within each cycle over 8 "phases", each "phase" a successive segments of a cycle. This is the first scaling analysis that has documented systematic changes within the ice age cycle while confirming the relative robustness of the cycle itself over 8 cycles. We find that whereas there is relatively little systematic variation from one ice age to another, there is a strong dependency of the scale by scale variability (as revealed by scaling fluctuation analysis) on the phase of the ice age. The analysis reveales that the transition scale from macroweather to climate (from fluctuations decreasing with scale to fluctuation increasing with scale) starts off in the range 1 - 2kyrs in the first two phases (i.e. at the end of a cycle), but then decreases to ca. 300 years over the last 6 phases (the long glacial inception). A long transition scale means that fluctuations at a fixed scale (e.g. 10 kyr) will be small since they have not had much of a range of time scales over which to develop. We also consider the intermittency, the tendency for the series to be "spiky", non Gaussian. We find a similar transition for medium intermittency - comparable to turbulence - to high intermittency over the middle phases (intermediate glacial conditions). Finally, we examine the probability distributions of concentration changes at the 25 year scale. This shows that the fluctuations are of the extreme power law, "fat tailed" type associated with "black swan" events.

  12. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  13. Joint Multi-scale Convolution Neural Network for Scene Classification of High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Zhuo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High resolution remote sensing imagery scene classification is important for automatic complex scene recognition, which is the key technology for military and disaster relief, etc. In this paper, we propose a novel joint multi-scale convolution neural network (JMCNN method using a limited amount of image data for high resolution remote sensing imagery scene classification. Different from traditional convolutional neural network, the proposed JMCNN is an end-to-end training model with joint enhanced high-level feature representation, which includes multi-channel feature extractor, joint multi-scale feature fusion and Softmax classifier. Multi-channel and scale convolutional extractors are used to extract scene middle features, firstly. Then, in order to achieve enhanced high-level feature representation in a limit dataset, joint multi-scale feature fusion is proposed to combine multi-channel and scale features using two feature fusions. Finally, enhanced high-level feature representation can be used for classification by Softmax. Experiments were conducted using two limit public UCM and SIRI datasets. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, the JMCNN achieved improved performance and great robustness with average accuracies of 89.3% and 88.3% on the two datasets.

  14. A comparison of muscle activation between a Smith machine and free weight bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Evan E; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A; Khamoui, Andy V; Tran, Tai T; Uribe, Brandon P

    2010-03-01

    The bench press exercise exists in multiple forms including the machine and free weight bench press. It is not clear though how each mode differs in its effect on muscle activation. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and pectoralis major during a Smith machine and free weight bench press at lower (70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and higher (90% 1RM) intensities. Normalized electromyography amplitude values were used during the concentric phase of the bench press to compare muscle activity between a free weight and Smith machine bench press. Participants were classified as either experienced or inexperienced bench pressers. Two testing sessions were used, each of which entailed either all free weight or all Smith machine testing. In each testing session, each participant's 1RM was established followed by 2 repetitions at 70% of 1RM and 2 repetitions at 90% of 1RM. Results indicated greater activation of the medial deltoid on the free weight bench press than on the Smith machine bench press. Also, there was greater muscle activation at the 90% 1RM load than at the 70% 1RM load. The results of this study suggest that strength coaches should consider choosing the free weight bench press over the Smith machine bench press because of its potential for greater upper-body muscular development.

  15. The Big Bang on the laboratory bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Ch.; Daninos, F.; Baruch, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    For a few fractions of a second after the Big-Bang, the temperature of the universe reached several thousands milliards degrees and till now quarks and gluons have been thought to be dissociated in a kind of primordial plasma but recent experimental results from the RHIC (relativistic heavy ions collider in Brookhaven) show that the quark and gluon plasma flows like a fluid and that the interaction between quarks generates that flow. Another feature of the quark and gluon plasma is an ability to behave like an almost perfect gas: it shows very low viscosity and reaches thermal equilibrium very quickly. Alice, a huge particle detection system that will equip the future LHC (large hadron collider in CERN), will shed light on an energy range that has been scarcely touched by RHIC. Confirmation of RHIC results is expected but the discovery of totally new phenomena like the creation of mini black holes or the existence of extra spatial dimensions remains possible. Another issue concerns nucleosynthesis and the problem that nuclear models predict a ratio of helium 7 in stars 3 times as high as what is really found in the oldest stars of our galaxy. (A.C.)

  16. Thermophilic xylanases: from bench to bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Abdul; Liu, Junquan; Rahim, Kashif; Jiang, Wei; Lou, Huiqiang

    2018-01-17

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a valuable raw material. As technology has evolved, industrial interest in new ways to take advantage of this raw material has grown. Biomass is treated with different microbial cells or enzymes under ideal industrial conditions to produce the desired products. Xylanases are the key enzymes that degrade the xylosidic linkages in the xylan backbone of the biomass, and commercial enzymes are categorized into different glycoside hydrolase families. Thermophilic microorganisms are excellent sources of industrially relevant thermostable enzymes that can withstand the harsh conditions of industrial processing. Thermostable xylanases display high-specific activity at elevated temperatures and distinguish themselves in biochemical properties, structures, and modes of action from their mesophilic counterparts. Natural xylanases can be further improved through genetic engineering. Rapid progress with genome editing, writing, and synthetic biological techniques have provided unlimited potential to produce thermophilic xylanases in their natural hosts or cell factories including bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. This review will discuss the biotechnological potential of xylanases from thermophilic microorganisms and the ways they are being optimized and produced for various industrial applications.

  17. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF A SOCIAL SKILLS SCALE FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Y; Lin, C-K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a social skills scale for high school students in Taiwan. This study adopted stratified random sampling. A total of 1,729 high school students were included. The students ranged in age from 16 to 18 years. A Social Skills Scale was developed for this study and was designed for classroom teachers to fill out. The test-retest reliability of this scale was tested by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine construct validity. The Social Skills Scale had good overall test-retest reliability of .92, and the internal consistency of the five subscales was above .90. The results of the factor analysis showed that the Social Skills Scale covered the five domains of classroom learning skills, communication skills, individual initiative skills, interaction skills, and job-related social skills, and the five factors explained 68.34% of the variance. Thus, the Social Skills Scale had good reliability and validity and would be applicable to and could be promoted for use in schools.

  18. Parameterizing Subgrid-Scale Orographic Drag in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, M. D.; Olson, J.; Kenyon, J.; Smirnova, T. G.; Brown, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of wind forecasts in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is improved when the drag forces imparted on atmospheric flow by subgrid-scale orography are included. Without such parameterizations, only the terrain resolved by the model grid, along with the small-scale obstacles parameterized by the roughness lengths can have an effect on the flow. This neglects the impacts of subgrid-scale terrain variations, which typically leads to wind speeds that are too strong. Using statistical information about the subgrid-scale orography, such as the mean and variance of the topographic height within a grid cell, the drag forces due to flow blocking, gravity wave drag, and turbulent form drag are estimated and distributed vertically throughout the grid cell column. We recently implemented the small-scale gravity wave drag paramterization of Steeneveld et al. (2008) and Tsiringakis et al. (2017) for stable planetary boundary layers, and the turbulent form drag parameterization of Beljaars et al. (2004) in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) NWP model developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a result, a high surface wind speed bias in the model has been reduced and small improvement to the maintenance of stable layers has also been found. We present the results of experiments with the subgrid-scale orographic drag parameterization for the regional HRRR model, as well as for a global model in development at NOAA, showing the direct and indirect impacts.

  19. Relationships between Mechanical Variables in the Traditional and Close-Grip Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Callaghan, Samuel J; Moreno, Matthew R; Risso, Fabrice G; Liu, Tricia M; Stage, Alyssa A; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Lazar, Adrina; Davis, DeShaun L; Orjalo, Ashley J

    2017-12-01

    The study aim was to determine relationships between mechanical variables in the one-repetition maximum (1RM) traditional bench press (TBP) and close-grip bench press (CGBP). Twenty resistance-trained men completed a TBP and CGBP 1RM. The TBP was performed with the preferred grip; the CGBP with a grip width of 95% biacromial distance. A linear position transducer measured: lift distance and duration; work; and peak and mean power, velocity, and force. Paired samples t-tests (p velocity was greater for the CGBP (d = 0.50-1.29). The 1RM TBP correlated with CGBP 1RM, power, and force (r = 0.685-0.982). TBP work correlated with CGBP 1RM, lift distance, power, force, and work (r = 0.542-0.931). TBP power correlated with CGBP 1RM, power, force, velocity, and work (r = 0.484-0.704). TBP peak and mean force related to CGBP 1RM, power, and force (r = 0.596-0.980). Due to relationships between the load, work, power, and force for the TBP and CGBP, the CGBP could provide similar strength adaptations to the TBP with long-term use. The velocity profile for the CGBP was different to that of the TBP. The CGBP could be used specifically to improve high-velocity, upper-body pushing movements.

  20. Time course for arm and chest muscle thickness changes following bench press training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Riki; Thiebaud, Robert S.; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Loftin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of hypertrophic adaptations in both the upper arm and trunk muscles following high-intensity bench press training. Seven previously untrained young men (aged 25 ± 3 years) performed free-weight bench press training 3 days (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) per week for 24 weeks. Training intensity and volume were set at 75% of one repetition maximum (1-RM) and 30 repetitions (3 sets of 10 repetitions, with 2−3 min of rest between sets), respectively. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound at three sites: the biceps and triceps brachii and the pectoralis major. Measurements were taken a week prior to the start of training, before the training session on every Monday and 3 days after the final training session. Pairwise comparisons from baseline revealed that pectoralis major MTH significantly increased after week-1 (p = 0.002), triceps MTH increased after week-5 (p = 0.001) and 1-RM strength increased after week-3 (p = 0.001) while no changes were observed in the biceps MTH from baseline. Significant muscle hypertrophy was observed earlier in the chest compared to that of the triceps. Our results indicate that the time course of the muscle hypertrophic response differs between the upper arm and chest. PMID:24265879

  1. The use of scaling laws for the design of high beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauel, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several different empirical scaling laws for the tokamak energy confinement time are used to estimate the auxiliary heating power required for a laboratory experiment capable of testing tokamak confinement at high beta and techniques to access the second stability regime. Since operating experience in the second stability regime does not yet exist, these laws predict a wide range of possible power requirements, especially at large aspect ratios. However, by examining a model DT fusion power reactor with reasonable restrictions on the fusion island weight, neutron loading, and maximum magnetic field of the external coils, only a limited range of operating conditions are found for both first and second regime tokamaks, and only a subset of the scaling laws predict ignition. These particular scaling laws are then used to set confinement goals which if demonstrated by the laboratory experiment would indicate favourable scaling to a reactor. (author)

  2. Resolution, Scales and Predictability: Is High Resolution Detrimental To Predictability At Extended Forecast Times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, F.

    The traditional views hold that high-resolution limited area models (LAMs) down- scale large-scale lateral boundary information, and that predictability of small scales is short. Inspection of various rms fits/errors has contributed to these views. It would follow that the skill of LAMs should visibly deteriorate compared to that of their driver models at more extended forecast times. The limited area Eta Model at NCEP has an additional handicap of being driven by LBCs of the previous Avn global model run, at 0000 and 1200 UTC estimated to amount to about an 8 h loss in accuracy. This should make its relative skill compared to that of the Avn deteriorate even faster. These views are challenged by various Eta results including rms fits to raobs out to 84 h. It is argued that it is the largest scales that contribute the most to the skill of the Eta relative to that of the Avn.

  3. Probing high scale physics with top quarks at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhe

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) running at TeV scale, we are expecting to find the deviations from the Standard Model in the experiments, and understanding what is the origin of these deviations. Being the heaviest elementary particle observed so far in the experiments with the mass at the electroweak scale, top quark is a powerful probe for new phenomena of high scale physics at the LHC. Therefore, we concentrate on studying the high scale physics phenomena with top quark pair production or decay at the LHC. In this thesis, we study the discovery potential of string resonances decaying to t/tbar final state, and examine the possibility of observing baryon-number-violating top-quark production or decay, at the LHC. We point out that string resonances for a string scale below 4 TeV can be detected via the t/tbar channel, by reconstructing center-of-mass frame kinematics of the resonances from either the t/tbar semi-leptonic decay or recent techniques of identifying highly boosted tops. For the study of baryon-number-violating processes, by a model independent effective approach and focusing on operators with minimal mass-dimension, we find that corresponding effective coefficients could be directly probed at the LHC already with an integrated luminosity of 1 inverse femtobarns at 7 TeV, and further constrained with 30 (100) inverse femtobarns at 7 (14) TeV.

  4. Ultimate Scaling of High-κ Gate Dielectrics: Higher-κ or Interfacial Layer Scavenging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ando

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Current status and challenges of aggressive equivalent-oxide-thickness (EOT scaling of high-κ gate dielectrics via higher-κ ( > 20 materials and interfacial layer (IL scavenging techniques are reviewed. La-based higher-κ materials show aggressive EOT scaling (0.5–0.8 nm, but with effective workfunction (EWF values suitable only for n-type field-effect-transistor (FET. Further exploration for p-type FET-compatible higher-κ materials is needed. Meanwhile, IL scavenging is a promising approach to extend Hf-based high-κ dielectrics to future nodes. Remote IL scavenging techniques enable EOT scaling below 0.5 nm. Mobility-EOT trends in the literature suggest that short-channel performance improvement is attainable with aggressive EOT scaling via IL scavenging or La-silicate formation. However, extreme IL scaling (e.g., zero-IL is accompanied by loss of EWF control and with severe penalty in reliability. Therefore, highly precise IL thickness control in an ultra-thin IL regime ( < 0.5 nm will be the key technology to satisfy both performance and reliability requirements for future CMOS devices.

  5. Development of an optical inspection bench for the inspection of internal surfaces of 650 MHz SCRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokil, S.V.; Kane, G.V.; Raghavendra, S.; Chauhan, S.K.; Rajpoot, D.S.; Oraon, B.; Om Prakash; Joshi, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    An optical inspection system has been developed for inspection of internal surfaces of 650 MHz superconducting RF cavities. The cavity parts are welded either using Electron Beam or Laser Beam Welding for making a good quality of weld joints. Surface defects like pits, scratches, welding spatters etc. on the internal surface of the cavity deteriorates cavity performance. Surface quality of the cavity equator joint plays an important role in the cavity performance. To study the quality of equator surface, the inspection bench offers high resolution images with a linear resolution of 45 m/pixel at a distance of ∼200 mm. The bench comprises of two major sub-systems, optical imaging system and cavity positioning system. A digital camera and multi coloured illumination system is used to obtain high resolution images. The camera is mounted inside a long cylindrical tube. The cylindrical tube can be inserted into a SCRF cavity. The length of the cylinder is long enough to inspect five-cell 650 MHz SCRF cavity. The cavity is placed on a set of PTFE rollers, which are mounted on a trolley. The cavity can be moved linearly with the help of ball screw-servomotor mechanism. The camera along with cylindrical tube can be rotated around its axis with a stepper motor to scan the cavity's internal surface. The paper presents the details about the optical inspection bench and optical inspection results. (author)

  6. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millan, Maria S, E-mail: francisco.alba-bueno@upc.edu, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departamento de Optica y Optometria, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C/ Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  7. Developing Local Scale, High Resolution, Data to Interface with Numerical Storm Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkop, R.; Becker, A.; Stempel, P.

    2017-12-01

    High resolution, physical storm models that can rapidly predict storm surge, inundation, rainfall, wind velocity and wave height at the intra-facility scale for any storm affecting Rhode Island have been developed by Researchers at the University of Rhode Island's (URI's) Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO) (Ginis et al., 2017). At the same time, URI's Marine Affairs Department has developed methods that inhere individual geographic points into GSO's models and enable the models to accurately incorporate local scale, high resolution data (Stempel et al., 2017). This combination allows URI's storm models to predict any storm's impacts on individual Rhode Island facilities in near real time. The research presented here determines how a coastal Rhode Island town's critical facility managers (FMs) perceive their assets as being vulnerable to quantifiable hurricane-related forces at the individual facility scale and explores methods to elicit this information from FMs in a format usable for incorporation into URI's storm models.

  8. Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A Silva; Santos, A Costa; E Sousa, J Alves; Forbes, A B

    2015-01-01

    Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment

  9. STS-65 crewmembers participate in bench review at Boeing Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Attired in clean suits, STS-65 Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb (left) and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai examine the contents of a stowage locker during a bench review at Boeing's Flight Equipment Processing Facility (FEPF) near the Johnson Space Center (JSC). In the background, Commander Robert D. Cabana inspects additional equipment to be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the scheduled July flight of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission. Mukai represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Scott A. Wickes.

  10. High-resolution chemical composition of geothermal scalings from Hungary: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Ronny; Dietzel, Martin; Deák, József; Leis, Albrecht; Mindszenty, Andrea; Demeny, Attila

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal fluids originating from several hundreds to thousands meters depth mostly hold a high potential for secondary mineral precipitation (scaling) due to high total dissolved solid contents at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The precipitation of e.g. carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and silica has shown to cause severe problems in geothermal heat and electric power production, when clogging of drill-holes, downhole pumps, pipes and heat exchangers occurs (e.g. deep geothermal doublet systems). Ongoing scaling reduces the efficiency in energy extraction and might even question the abandonment of installations in worst cases. In an attempt to study scaling processes both temporally and spatially we collected mineral precipitates from selected sites in Hungary (Bükfürdo, Szechenyi, Szentes, Igal, Hajduszoboszlo). The samples of up to 8 cm thickness were recovered from different positions of the geothermal systems and precipitated from waters of various temperatures (40-120 °C) and variable overall chemical composition. Most of these scalings show fine lamination patterns representing mineral deposition from weeks up to 45 years at our study sites. Solid-fluid interaction over time captured in the samples are investigated applying high-resolution analytical techniques such as laser-ablation mass-spectrometry and electron microprobe, micromill-sampling for stable isotope analysis, and micro-XRD combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. A detailed investigation of the processes determining the formation and growth of precipitates can help to elucidate the short-term versus long-term geothermal performance with regard to anthropogenic and natural reservoir and production dynamics. Changes in fluid chemistry, temperature, pressure, pH, degassing rate (CO2) and flow rate are reflected by the mineralogical, chemical and isotopic composition of the precipitates. Consequently, this high-resolution approach is intended as a contribution to decipher the

  11. Comparative tests of bench equipment for fuel control system testing of gas-turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendaleva, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The relevance of interlaboratory comparative researches is confirmed by attention of world metrological community to this field of activity. Use of the interlaboratory comparative research methodology not only for single gages collation, but also for bench equipment complexes, such as modeling stands for fuel control system testing of gas-turbine engine, is offered. In this case a comparative measure of different bench equipment will be the control fuel pump. Ensuring traceability of measuring result received at test benches of various air enterprises, development and introduction of national standards to practice of bench tests and, eventually, improvement of quality and safety of a aircraft equipment is result of this approach.

  12. Bench-marking beam-beam simulations using coherent quadrupole effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnagopal, S.; Chin, Y.H.

    1992-06-01

    Computer simulations are used extensively in the study of the beam-beam interaction. The proliferation of such codes raises the important question of their reliability, and motivates the development of a dependable set of bench-marks. We argue that rather than detailed quantitative comparisons, the ability of different codes to predict the same qualitative physics should be used as a criterion for such bench-marks. We use the striking phenomenon of coherent quadrupole oscillations as one such bench-mark, and demonstrate that our codes do indeed observe this behaviour. We also suggest some other tests that could be used as bench-marks

  13. Bench-marking beam-beam simulations using coherent quadrupole effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnagopal, S.; Chin, Y.H.

    1992-01-01

    Computer simulations are used extensively in the study of the beam-beam interaction. The proliferation of such codes raises the important question of their reliability, and motivates the development of a dependable set of bench-marks. We argue that rather than detailed quantitative comparisons, the ability of different codes to predict the same qualitative physics should be used as a criterion for such bench-marks. We use the striking phenomenon of coherent quadrupole oscillations as one such bench-mark, and demonstrate that our codes do indeed observe this behavior. We also suggest some other tests that could be used as bench-marks

  14. Spectral classification of medium-scale high-latitude F region plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Szuszczewicz, E.P.; Sachs Freeman Associates, Bowie, MD)

    1985-01-01

    The high-latitude ionosphere represents a highly structured plasma. Rodriguez and Szuszczewicz (1984) reported a wide range of plasma density irregularities (150 km to 75 m) at high latitudes near 200 km. They have shown that the small-scale irregularities (7.5 km to 75 m) populated the dayside oval more often than the other phenomenological regions. It was suggested that in the lower F region the chemical recombination is fast enough to remove small-scale irregularities before convection can transport them large distances, leaving structured particle precipitation as the dominant source term for irregularities. The present paper provides the results of spectral analyses of pulsed plasma probe data collected in situ aboard the STP/S3-4 satellite during the period March-September 1978. A quantitative description of irregularity spectra in the high-latitude lower F region plasma density is given. 22 references

  15. Double disordered YBCO coated conductors of industrial scale: high currents in high magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Abraimov D; Ballarino A; Barth C; Bottura L; Dietrich R; Francis A; Jaroszynski J; Majkic G S; McCallister J; Polyanskii A; Rossi L; Rutt A; Santos M; Schlenga K; Selvamanickam V

    2015-01-01

    A significant increase of critical current in high magnetic field up to 31 T was recorded in long tapes manufactured by employing a double disorder route. In a double disordered high temperature superconductor (HTS) a superimposing of intrinsic and extrinsic disorder takes place in a way that (i) the intrinsic disorder is caused by local stoichiometry deviations that lead to defects of crystallinity that serve as pining centers in the YBa2Cu3O x-d matrix and (ii) the extrinsic disorder is in...

  16. A multi-scale approach for high cycle anisotropic fatigue resistance: Application to forged components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milesi, M.; Chastel, Y.; Hachem, E.; Bernacki, M.; Loge, R.E.; Bouchard, P.O.

    2010-01-01

    Forged components exhibit good mechanical strength, particularly in terms of high cycle fatigue properties. This is due to the specific microstructure resulting from large plastic deformation as in a forging process. The goal of this study is to account for critical phenomena such as the anisotropy of the fatigue resistance in order to perform high cycle fatigue simulations on industrial forged components. Standard high cycle fatigue criteria usually give good results for isotropic behaviors but are not suitable for components with anisotropic features. The aim is to represent explicitly this anisotropy at a lower scale compared to the process scale and determined local coefficients needed to simulate a real case. We developed a multi-scale approach by considering the statistical morphology and mechanical characteristics of the microstructure to represent explicitly each element. From stochastic experimental data, realistic microstructures were reconstructed in order to perform high cycle fatigue simulations on it with different orientations. The meshing was improved by a local refinement of each interface and simulations were performed on each representative elementary volume. The local mechanical anisotropy is taken into account through the distribution of particles. Fatigue parameters identified at the microscale can then be used at the macroscale on the forged component. The linkage of these data and the process scale is the fiber vector and the deformation state, used to calculate global mechanical anisotropy. Numerical results reveal an expected behavior compared to experimental tendencies. We proved numerically the dependence of the anisotropy direction and the deformation state on the endurance limit evolution.

  17. Multi-Scale Factor Analysis of High-Dimensional Brain Signals

    KAUST Repository

    Ting, Chee-Ming; Ombao, Hernando; Salleh, Sh-Hussain

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to modeling high-dimensional networks with a large number of nodes arranged in a hierarchical and modular structure. We propose a novel multi-scale factor analysis (MSFA) model which partitions the massive

  18. The Strauss and Carpenter Prognostic Scale in subjects clinically at high risk of psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieman, D. H.; Velthorst, E.; Becker, H. E.; de Haan, L.; Dingemans, P. M.; Linszen, D. H.; Birchwood, M.; Patterson, P.; Salokangas, R. K. R.; Heinimaa, M.; Heinz, A.; Juckel, G.; von Reventlow, H. G.; Morrison, A.; Schultze-Lutter, F.; Klosterkötter, J.; Ruhrmann, S.; McGorry, Patrick D.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Knapp, Martin; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Klaassen, Rianne; Picker, Heinz; Neumann, Meike; Brockhaus-Dumke, Anke; Pukrop, Ralf; Svirskis, Tanja; Huttunen, Jukka; Laine, Tiina; Ilonen, Tuula; Ristkari, Terja; Hietala, Jarmo; Skeate, Amanda; Gudlowski, Yehonala; Ozgürdal, Seza; French, Paul; Stevens, Helen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the predictive value of the Strauss and Carpenter Prognostic Scale (SCPS) for transition to a first psychotic episode in subjects clinically at high risk (CHR) of psychosis. Two hundred and forty-four CHR subjects participating in the European Prediction of Psychosis Study were

  19. Exploratory Factor Analysis Study for the Scale of High School Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Gökhan; Aslan, Aysegül; Yadigaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    It is important to develop students' positive attitudes chemistry lessons in school because research has suggested that attitudes are linked with academic achievement. Therefore, how to evaluate the attitudes is an important topic in education. The purpose of this study was to develop a Likert-type scale that could measure high school students'…

  20. Microbial diversity in a full-scale anaerobic reactor treating high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial characteristics in the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) of a full-scale high concentration cassava alcohol wastewater plant capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon removal were analyzed using cultivation-independent molecular methods. Forty-five bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 24 ...

  1. Athletes' Perceptions of Coaching Competency Scale II-High School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Chase, Melissa A.; Beauchamp, Mark R.; Jackson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this validity study was to improve measurement of athletes' evaluations of their head coach's coaching competency, an important multidimensional construct in models of coaching effectiveness. A revised version of the Coaching Competency Scale (CCS) was developed for athletes of high school teams (APCCS II-HST). Data were collected…

  2. High scale parity invariance as a solution to the SUSY CP problem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that if the supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) emerges as the low energy limit of a high scale left–right symmetric gauge structure, the number of uncontrollable CP violating phases of MSSM are drastically reduced. In particular it guarantees the vanishing of the dangerous phases that were at the root of the ...

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction (K-Scale) in Japanese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Dongil; Aum, Narae; Choi, Jung-Seok; Cheng, Cecilia; Ko, Huei-Chen; Watanabe, Hiroko

    2017-03-01

    The Korean Scale for Internet Addiction (K-Scale) was developed in Korea for assessing addictive internet behaviors. This study aims to adopt K-Scale and examine its psychometric properties in Japanese adolescents. In 2014, 589 (36.0% boys) high school students (Grade 10-12) from Japan completed a survey, including items of Japanese versions of K-Scale and Smartphone Scale for Smartphone Addiction (S-Scale). Model fit indices of the original four-factor structure, three-factor structure obtained from exploratory factor analysis, and improved two-factor structure of K-Scale were computed using confirmatory factor analysis, with internal reliability of included items reported. The convergent validity of K-Scale was tested against self-rated internet addiction, and S-Scale using multiple regression models. The results showed that a second-order two-factor 13-item structure was the most parsimonious model (NFI=0.919, NNFI=0.935, CFI=0.949, and RMSEA=0.05) with good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.87). The two factors revealed were "Disturbance of Adaptation and Life Orientation" and "Withdrawal and Tolerance". Moreover, the correlation between internet user classifications defined by K-Scale and self-rating was significant. K-Scale total score was significantly and positively associated with S-Scale total (adjusted R 2 =0.440) and subscale scores (adjusted R 2 =0.439). In conclusion, K-Scale is a valid and reliable assessment scale of internet addiction for Japanese high school students after modifications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Scaling of black silicon processing time by high repetition rate femtosecond lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing of silicon substrates is performed by femtosecond laser irradiation at high repetition rates. Various fabrication parameters are optimized in order to achieve very high absorptance in the visible region from the micro-structured silicon wafer as compared to the unstructured one. A 70-fold reduction of the processing time is demonstrated by increasing the laser repetition rate from 1 kHz to 200 kHz. Further scaling up to 1 MHz can be foreseen.

  5. Z-scaling in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zborovsky, I.; Tokarev, M.V.; Panebrattsev, Yu.A.; Skoro, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    New scaling, z-scaling, in the inclusive particle production in pA collisions is studied. The scaling function H A (z) is expressed via the inclusive cross section of particle production Ed 3 σ/dq 3 and the particle multiplicity density dN/dη at pseudorapidity η=0 in the corresponding nucleon-nucleon (NN) center-of-mass (CMS) system. The dependence of H A (z) on scaling variable z, the center-of-mass energy √, and the detection angle θ is investigated. The available experimental data on inclusive particle production (π ± , K ± ) in pA interactions at high energies are used to verify the universality of z-scaling found in hadron-hadron collisions. The A-dependence of H A (z) for π + -meson production is studied. It is shown that the experimental data >from pd collisions confirm the scaling properties of the function H d (z). Some predictions for H au (z) concerning production of π + -mesons in pAu interaction using the HIJING Monte Carlo code have been made. The obtained results can be of interest for future experiments at RHI and LHC in searching the signals of quark-gluon plasma formation

  6. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-05-27

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was deermined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  7. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was determined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  8. Two scale damage model and related numerical issues for thermo-mechanical high cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmorat, R.; Kane, A.; Seyedi, M.; Sermage, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    On the idea that fatigue damage is localized at the microscopic scale, a scale smaller than the mesoscopic one of the Representative Volume Element (RVE), a three-dimensional two scale damage model has been proposed for High Cycle Fatigue applications. It is extended here to aniso-thermal cases and then to thermo-mechanical fatigue. The modeling consists in the micro-mechanics analysis of a weak micro-inclusion subjected to plasticity and damage embedded in an elastic meso-element (the RVE of continuum mechanics). The consideration of plasticity coupled with damage equations at micro-scale, altogether with Eshelby-Kroner localization law, allows to compute the value of microscopic damage up to failure for any kind of loading, 1D or 3D, cyclic or random, isothermal or aniso-thermal, mechanical, thermal or thermo-mechanical. A robust numerical scheme is proposed in order to make the computations fast. A post-processor for damage and fatigue (DAMAGE-2005) has been developed. It applies to complex thermo-mechanical loadings. Examples of the representation by the two scale damage model of physical phenomena related to High Cycle Fatigue are given such as the mean stress effect, the non-linear accumulation of damage. Examples of thermal and thermo-mechanical fatigue as well as complex applications on real size testing structure subjected to thermo-mechanical fatigue are detailed. (authors)

  9. Global scaling analysis for the pebble bed advanced high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, E.D.; Peterson, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    Scaled Integral Effects Test (IET) facilities play a critical role in the design certification process of innovative reactor designs. Best-estimate system analysis codes, which minimize deliberate conservatism, require confirmatory data during the validation process to ensure an acceptable level of accuracy as defined by the regulator. The modular Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), with a nominal power output of 900 MWth, is the most recent UC Berkeley design for a liquid fluoride salt cooled, solid fuel reactor. The PB-AHTR takes advantage of technologies developed for gas-cooled high temperature thermal and fast reactors, sodium fast reactors, and molten salt reactors. In this paper, non-dimensional scaling groups and similarity criteria are presented at the global system level for a loss of forced circulation transient, where single-phase natural circulation is the primary mechanism for decay heat removal following a primary pump trip. Due to very large margin to fuel damage temperatures, the peak metal temperature of primary-loop components was identified as the key safety parameter of interest. Fractional Scaling Analysis (FSA) methods were used to quantify the intensity of each transfer process during the transient and subsequently rank them by their relative importance while identifying key sources of distortion between the prototype and model. The results show that the development of a scaling hierarchy at the global system level informs the bottom-up scaling analysis. (author)

  10. A New Approach to EMG Analysis of Closed-Circuit Movements Such as the Flat Bench Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Golas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The bench press (BP is a complex exercise demanding high neuromuscular activity. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify the patterns of muscular activity of the prime movers on both sides of an elite powerlifter. Methods: A World Champion (RAW PR 320 kg participated in the study (age: 34 years; body mass: 103 kg; body height 1.72 m; one-repetition maximum (1 RM flat bench press: 220 kg. The subject performed one repetition of the flat bench press with: 70% 1 RM (150 kg and 90% 1 RM (200 kg in tempos: 2 s eccentric and 1 s concentric phase; 6 s eccentric and 1 s concentric phase. The activity was recorded for: pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii (lateral and long head. Results: The total sum of peak muscle activity for the four analyzed muscles during both phases of the BP with the different loads and tempos was significantly different, and greater on the right side of the body. Conclusions: The use of lighter loads activate muscle groups in a different activation level, allowing for a greater muscle control. Lifting submaximal and maximal loads causes an activation of most motor units involved in the movement. Experienced athletes have a stabilized neuromuscular pattern for lifting which has different bilateral activity contribution.

  11. Scaling of chaotic multiplicity: A new observation in high-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ghosh, P.; Roy, J.

    1990-01-01

    We analyze high-energy-interaction data to study the dependence of chaotic multiplicity on the pseudorapidity window and propose a new scaling function bar Ψ(bar z)=left-angle n 1 right-angle/left-angle n right-angle max where left-angle n 1 right-angle is the chaotic multiplicity and bar z=left-angle n right-angle/left-angle n right-angle max is the reduced multiplicity, following the quantum-optical concept of particle production. It has been observed that the proposed ''chaotic multiplicity scaling'' is obeyed by pp, p bar p, and AA collisions at different available energies

  12. Generalized z-scaling in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zborovsky, I.; Tokarev, M.

    2006-01-01

    New generalization of z-scaling in inclusive particle production is proposed. The scaling variable z is a fractal measure which depends on kinematical characteristics of the underlying subprocess expressed in terms of the momentum fractions x 1 and x 2 of the incoming protons. In the generalized approach, the x 1 and x 2 are functions of the momentum fractions y a and y b of the scattered and recoil constituents carried out by the inclusive particle and recoil object, respectively. The scaling function ψ(z) for charged and identified hadrons produced in proton-proton collisions is constructed. The fractal dimensions and heat capacity of the produced medium entering definition of the z are established to obtain energy, angular and multiplicity independence of the ψ(z). The scheme allows unique description of data on inclusive cross sections of charged particles, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and lambdas at high energies. The obtained results are of interest to use z-scaling as a tool for searching for new physics phenomena of particle production in high transverse momentum and high multiplicity region at the proton-proton colliders RHIC and LHC

  13. The Berg Balance Scale has high intra- and inter-rater reliability but absolute reliability varies across the scale: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Stephen; Marquez, Jodie; Chiarelli, Pauline

    2013-06-01

    What is the intra-rater and inter-rater relative reliability of the Berg Balance Scale? What is the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale? Does the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale vary across the scale? Systematic review with meta-analysis of reliability studies. Any clinical population that has undergone assessment with the Berg Balance Scale. Relative intra-rater reliability, relative inter-rater reliability, and absolute reliability. Eleven studies involving 668 participants were included in the review. The relative intrarater reliability of the Berg Balance Scale was high, with a pooled estimate of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). Relative inter-rater reliability was also high, with a pooled estimate of 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.98). A ceiling effect of the Berg Balance Scale was evident for some participants. In the analysis of absolute reliability, all of the relevant studies had an average score of 20 or above on the 0 to 56 point Berg Balance Scale. The absolute reliability across this part of the scale, as measured by the minimal detectable change with 95% confidence, varied between 2.8 points and 6.6 points. The Berg Balance Scale has a higher absolute reliability when close to 56 points due to the ceiling effect. We identified no data that estimated the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale among participants with a mean score below 20 out of 56. The Berg Balance Scale has acceptable reliability, although it might not detect modest, clinically important changes in balance in individual subjects. The review was only able to comment on the absolute reliability of the Berg Balance Scale among people with moderately poor to normal balance. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  14. Streamflow characteristics at hydrologic bench-mark stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Hydrologic Bench-Mark Network was established in the 1960's. Its objectives were to document the hydrologic characteristics of representative undeveloped watersheds nationwide and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. The network, which consists of 57 streamflow gaging stations and one lake-stage station in 39 States, is planned for permanent operation. This interim report describes streamflow characteristics at each bench-mark site and identifies time trends in annual streamflow that have occurred during the data-collection period. The streamflow characteristics presented for each streamflow station are (1) flood and low-flow frequencies, (2) flow duration, (3) annual mean flow, and (4) the serial correlation coefficient for annual mean discharge. In addition, Kendall's tau is computed as an indicator of time trend in annual discharges. The period of record for most stations was 13 to 17 years, although several stations had longer periods of record. The longest period was 65 years for Merced River near Yosemite, Calif. Records of flow at 6 of 57 streamflow sites in the network showed a statistically significant change in annual mean discharge over the period of record, based on computations of Kendall's tau. The values of Kendall's tau ranged from -0.533 to 0.648. An examination of climatological records showed that changes in precipitation were most likely the cause for the change in annual mean discharge.

  15. Effects of different vibration exercises on bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, P J; Torres-Luque, G; Hernández-García, R; García-López, D; Garatachea, N

    2011-10-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the effects of different vibration recovery strategies via feet or hands on the number of repetitions performed and on mean velocity, peak velocity and blood lactate concentration during consecutive bench-press sets. 9 elite judo athletes performed 3 sets of bench press at 60% of one-repetition maximum (1RM), leading to failure and allowing a 180 s rest period between sets. During the rest period, 1 of the 3 following procedures was performed: 150 s rest plus 30 s push-up vibration exercise (Push-up), 150 s rest plus 30 s squat vibration exercise (Squat) or 180 s only rest (Passive). Statistical analysis revealed that the Squat condition resulted in a significant increase in the number of repetitions achieved, in comparison with all other rest strategies. However, kinematic parameters and blood lactate concentration were not affected by vibration. These data suggest that a vibration stimulus applied to the feet, between sets, can result in positive improvements in upper body resistance exercise performance. Although the mechanisms are not fully understood, this positive effect of vibration could be due to an increased motor cortex excitability and voluntary drive. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Muscle synergies during bench press are reliable across days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Mathias; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-10-01

    Muscle synergies have been investigated during different types of human movement using nonnegative matrix factorization. However, there are not any reports available on the reliability of the method. To evaluate between-day reliability, 21 subjects performed bench press, in two test sessions separated by approximately 7days. The movement consisted of 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 60% of the three repetition maximum in bench press. Muscle synergies were extracted from electromyography data of 13 muscles, using nonnegative matrix factorization. To evaluate between-day reliability, we performed a cross-correlation analysis and a cross-validation analysis, in which the synergy components extracted in the first test session were recomputed, using the fixed synergy components from the second test session. Two muscle synergies accounted for >90% of the total variance, and reflected the concentric and eccentric phase, respectively. The cross-correlation values were strong to very strong (r-values between 0.58 and 0.89), while the cross-validation values ranged from substantial to almost perfect (ICC3, 1 values between 0.70 and 0.95). The present findings revealed that the same general structure of the muscle synergies was present across days and the extraction of muscle synergies is thus deemed reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  18. LiveBench-1: continuous benchmarking of protein structure prediction servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujnicki, J M; Elofsson, A; Fischer, D; Rychlewski, L

    2001-02-01

    We present a novel, continuous approach aimed at the large-scale assessment of the performance of available fold-recognition servers. Six popular servers were investigated: PDB-Blast, FFAS, T98-lib, GenTHREADER, 3D-PSSM, and INBGU. The assessment was conducted using as prediction targets a large number of selected protein structures released from October 1999 to April 2000. A target was selected if its sequence showed no significant similarity to any of the proteins previously available in the structural database. Overall, the servers were able to produce structurally similar models for one-half of the targets, but significantly accurate sequence-structure alignments were produced for only one-third of the targets. We further classified the targets into two sets: easy and hard. We found that all servers were able to find the correct answer for the vast majority of the easy targets if a structurally similar fold was present in the server's fold libraries. However, among the hard targets--where standard methods such as PSI-BLAST fail--the most sensitive fold-recognition servers were able to produce similar models for only 40% of the cases, half of which had a significantly accurate sequence-structure alignment. Among the hard targets, the presence of updated libraries appeared to be less critical for the ranking. An "ideally combined consensus" prediction, where the results of all servers are considered, would increase the percentage of correct assignments by 50%. Each server had a number of cases with a correct assignment, where the assignments of all the other servers were wrong. This emphasizes the benefits of considering more than one server in difficult prediction tasks. The LiveBench program (http://BioInfo.PL/LiveBench) is being continued, and all interested developers are cordially invited to join.

  19. Investigation of multi-scale flash-weakening of rock surfaces during high speed slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbery, M. R.; Saber, O.; Chester, F. M.; Chester, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    A significant reduction in the coefficient of friction of rock can occur if sliding velocity approaches seismic rates as a consequence of weakening of microscopic sliding contacts by flash heating. Using a high-acceleration and -speed biaxial apparatus equipped with a high-speed Infra-Red (IR) camera to capture thermographs of the sliding surface, we have documented the heterogeneous distribution of temperature on flash-heated decimetric surfaces characterized by linear arrays of high-temperature, mm-size spots, and streaks. Numerical models that are informed by the character of flash heated surfaces and that consider the coupling of changes in temperature and changes in the friction of contacts, supports the hypothesis that independent mechanisms of flash weakening operate at different contact scales. Here, we report on new experiments that provide additional constraints on the life-times and rest-times of populations of millimeter-scale contacts. Rock friction experiments conducted on Westerly granite samples in a double-direct shear configuration achieve velocity steps from 1 mm/s to 900 mm/s at 100g accelerations over 2 mm of displacement with normal stresses of 22-36 MPa and 30 mm of displacement during sustained high-speed sliding. Sliding surfaces are machined to roughness similar to natural fault surfaces and that allow us to control the characteristics of millimeter-scale contact populations. Thermographs of the sliding surface show temperatures up to 200 C on millimeter-scale contacts, in agreement with 1-D heat conduction model estimates of 180 C. Preliminary comparison of thermal modeling results and experiment observations demonstrate that we can distinguish the different life-times and rest-times of contacts in thermographs and the corresponding frictional weakening behaviors. Continued work on machined surfaces that lead to different contact population characteristics will be used to test the multi-scale and multi-mechanism hypothesis for flash

  20. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  1. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-28

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  2. Skin and scales of teleost fish: Simple structure but high performance and multiple functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-08-01

    Natural and man-made structural materials perform similar functions such as structural support or protection. Therefore they rely on the same types of properties: strength, robustness, lightweight. Nature can therefore provide a significant source of inspiration for new and alternative engineering designs. We report here some results regarding a very common, yet largely unknown, type of biological material: fish skin. Within a thin, flexible and lightweight layer, fish skins display a variety of strain stiffening and stabilizing mechanisms which promote multiple functions such as protection, robustness and swimming efficiency. We particularly discuss four important features pertaining to scaled skins: (a) a strongly elastic tensile behavior that is independent from the presence of rigid scales, (b) a compressive response that prevents buckling and wrinkling instabilities, which are usually predominant for thin membranes, (c) a bending response that displays nonlinear stiffening mechanisms arising from geometric constraints between neighboring scales and (d) a robust structure that preserves the above characteristics upon the loss or damage of structural elements. These important properties make fish skin an attractive model for the development of very thin and flexible armors and protective layers, especially when combined with the high penetration resistance of individual scales. Scaled structures inspired by fish skin could find applications in ultra-light and flexible armor systems, flexible electronics or the design of smart and adaptive morphing structures for aerospace vehicles.

  3. Solar wind fluctuations at large scale: A comparison between low and high solar activity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavassano, B.; Bruno, R.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the Sun's activity cycle on the solar wind fluctuations at time scales from 1 hour to 3 days in the inner heliosphere (0.3 to 1 AU) is investigated. Hourly averages of plasma and magnetic field data by Helios spacecraft are used. Since fluctuations behave quite differently with changing scale, the analysis is performed separately for two different ranges in time scale. Between 1 and 6 hours Alfvenic fluctuations and pressure-balanced structures are extensively observed. At low solar activity and close to 0.3 AU, Alfvenic fluctuations are more frequent than pressure-balanced structures. This predominance, however, weakens for rising solar activity and radial distance, to the point that a role exchange, in terms of occurrence rate, is found at the maximum of the cycle close to 1 AU. On the other hand, in all cases Alfvenic fluctuations have a larger amplitude than pressure-balanced structures. On the whole, the Alfvenic contribution to the solar wind energy spectrum comes out to be dominant at all solar activity conditions. At scales from 0.5 to 3 days the most important feature is the growth, as the solar wind expansion develops, of strong positive correlations between magnetic and thermal pressures. These structures are progressively built up by the interaction between different wind flows. This effect is more pronounced at low than at high activity. Our findings support the conclusion that the solar cycle evolution of the large-scale velocity pattern is the factor governing the observed variations

  4. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a 'hydrogen economy.' The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  5. High-throughput micro-scale cultivations and chromatography modeling: Powerful tools for integrated process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Pascal; Hahn, Tobias; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Upstream processes are rather complex to design and the productivity of cells under suitable cultivation conditions is hard to predict. The method of choice for examining the design space is to execute high-throughput cultivation screenings in micro-scale format. Various predictive in silico models have been developed for many downstream processes, leading to a reduction of time and material costs. This paper presents a combined optimization approach based on high-throughput micro-scale cultivation experiments and chromatography modeling. The overall optimized system must not necessarily be the one with highest product titers, but the one resulting in an overall superior process performance in up- and downstream. The methodology is presented in a case study for the Cherry-tagged enzyme Glutathione-S-Transferase from Escherichia coli SE1. The Cherry-Tag™ (Delphi Genetics, Belgium) which can be fused to any target protein allows for direct product analytics by simple VIS absorption measurements. High-throughput cultivations were carried out in a 48-well format in a BioLector micro-scale cultivation system (m2p-Labs, Germany). The downstream process optimization for a set of randomly picked upstream conditions producing high yields was performed in silico using a chromatography modeling software developed in-house (ChromX). The suggested in silico-optimized operational modes for product capturing were validated subsequently. The overall best system was chosen based on a combination of excellent up- and downstream performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Demonstration-Scale High-Cell-Density Fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Cang; Zhu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Pichia pastoris has been one of the most successful heterologous overexpression systems in generating proteins for large-scale production through high-cell-density fermentation. However, optimizing conditions of the large-scale high-cell-density fermentation for biochemistry and industrialization is usually a laborious and time-consuming process. Furthermore, it is often difficult to produce authentic proteins in large quantities, which is a major obstacle for functional and structural features analysis and industrial application. For these reasons, we have developed a protocol for efficient demonstration-scale high-cell-density fermentation of P. pastoris, which employs a new methanol-feeding strategy-biomass-stat strategy and a strategy of increased air pressure instead of pure oxygen supplement. The protocol included three typical stages of glycerol batch fermentation (initial culture phase), glycerol fed-batch fermentation (biomass accumulation phase), and methanol fed-batch fermentation (induction phase), which allows direct online-monitoring of fermentation conditions, including broth pH, temperature, DO, anti-foam generation, and feeding of glycerol and methanol. Using this protocol, production of the recombinant β-xylosidase of Lentinula edodes origin in 1000-L scale fermentation can be up to ~900 mg/L or 9.4 mg/g cells (dry cell weight, intracellular expression), with the specific production rate and average specific production of 0.1 mg/g/h and 0.081 mg/g/h, respectively. The methodology described in this protocol can be easily transferred to other systems, and eligible to scale up for a large number of proteins used in either the scientific studies or commercial purposes.

  7. The effects of rest interval length on acute bench press performance: the influence of gender and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Chiarello, Christina M; Sacco, Anthony J; Hoffman, Jay R; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ross, Ryan E; Kang, Jie

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rest interval (RI) length on bench press performance in subjects with disparity in maximum strength. Two cohorts of subjects performed 3 bench press protocols in random order consisting of 3 sets of up to 10 repetitions with 75% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) using either 1-, 2-, or 3-minute RIs between sets. In the first cohort, 22 men and women were studied to investigate gender influence. In the second cohort, 23 men were tested for 1RM bench press strength and placed into a low 1RM (mean = 80.7 ± 7.5 kg) or high 1RM (mean = 140.6 ± 11.9 kg) experimental group. The number of successful repetitions completed, average power, and velocity for each set were recorded. Women performed significantly more repetitions than men with 1-minute (26.9 ± 4.4 vs. 21.1 ± 3.5), 2-minute (29.0 ± 2.0 vs. 24.0 ± 4.5), and 3-minute (29.7 ± 1.8 vs. 25.8 ± 5.1) RIs. The magnitude of decline in average velocity and power was significantly higher in men than in women. Total number of repetitions performed was significantly greater in the low 1RM group than in the high 1RM group at 1-minute (21.6 ± 5.0 vs. 18.1 ± 2.0) and 2-minute RIs (24.2 ± 5.4 vs. 21.3 ± 2.8). Significant negative correlations were observed between 1RM bench press and total number of repetitions completed for 1- and 2-minute RIs (r = -0.558 and -0.490, respectively). These data indicate that maximal strength plays a role in bench press performance with varying RIs and suggest that shorter RIs may suffice in women to attain a specific volume.

  8. Development of 1RM Prediction Equations for Bench Press in Moderately Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Jordan W; Abel, Mark G; Mullineaux, David R; Yates, James W

    2016-10-01

    Macht, JW, Abel, MG, Mullineaux, DR, and Yates, JW. Development of 1RM prediction equations for bench press in moderately trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2901-2906, 2016-There are a variety of established 1 repetition maximum (1RM) prediction equations, however, very few prediction equations use anthropometric characteristics exclusively or in part, to estimate 1RM strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an original 1RM prediction equation for bench press using anthropometric and performance characteristics in moderately trained male subjects. Sixty male subjects (21.2 ± 2.4 years) completed a 1RM bench press and were randomly assigned a load to complete as many repetitions as possible. In addition, body composition, upper-body anthropometric characteristics, and handgrip strength were assessed. Regression analysis was used to develop a performance-based 1RM prediction equation: 1RM = 1.20 repetition weight + 2.19 repetitions to fatigue - 0.56 biacromial width (cm) + 9.6 (R = 0.99, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 3.5 kg). Regression analysis to develop a nonperformance-based 1RM prediction equation yielded: 1RM (kg) = 0.997 cross-sectional area (CSA) (cm) + 0.401 chest circumference (cm) - 0.385%fat - 0.185 arm length (cm) + 36.7 (R = 0.81, SEE = 13.0 kg). The performance prediction equations developed in this study had high validity coefficients, minimal mean bias, and small limits of agreement. The anthropometric equations had moderately high validity coefficient but larger limits of agreement. The practical applications of this study indicate that the inclusion of anthropometric characteristics and performance variables produce a valid prediction equation for 1RM strength. In addition, the CSA of the arm uses a simple nonperformance method of estimating the lifter's 1RM. This information may be used to predict the starting load for a lifter performing a 1RM prediction protocol or a 1RM testing protocol.

  9. Machine Shop I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section C--Hand and Bench Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains two learning activity packets (LAPs) for the "hand and bench work" instructional area of a Machine Shop I course. The two LAPs cover the following topics: hand and bench work and pedestal grinder. Each LAP contains a cover sheet that describes its purpose, an introduction, and the tasks included in the LAP;…

  10. Principles of developing the bench mark net for radioecological monitoring in the territory of Byelorussia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshkevich, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of developing the radioecological monitoring bench mark net proposed include the regularity pattern of reference point setting, the bench mark net hierarchy, accounting for a land-tenure structure and the landscape and geochemical conditions of the radionuclide migration as well as a passport system and informational adequacy. The expression has been obtained for determining the location of sampling points

  11. Association Between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; Pstrength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recreation Sports to host Sixth Annual Bench Press Competition March 17

    OpenAIRE

    Kropff, Catherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Music will blare, red and white lights will flash, and fans will cheer at the Sixth Annual Bench Press Competition to be held Saturday, March 17 at Virginia Tech. Participants will go to the bench to show their lifting skills beginning at 10 a.m. in War Memorial Gym.

  13. [A man with a painful upper arm after bench press exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Ben C T; van der Veen, Hugo C; van Raay, Jos J A M

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male bodybuilder presented with pain and a haematoma of his right upper arm after bench press exercises. Suspicion of a pectoralis muscle tear was confirmed by MRI and surgical repair was performed. Ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle are rare, but may occur in young male bodybuilders, typically after bench press exercises.

  14. Validity and reliability of a novel iPhone app for the measurement of barbell velocity and 1RM on the bench-press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Marchante, David; Muñoz-López, Mario; Jiménez, Sergio L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the validity and reliability of a novel iPhone app (named: PowerLift) for the measurement of mean velocity on the bench-press exercise. Additionally, the accuracy of the estimation of the 1-Repetition maximum (1RM) using the load-velocity relationship was tested. To do this, 10 powerlifters (Mean (SD): age = 26.5 ± 6.5 years; bench press 1RM · kg -1  = 1.34 ± 0.25) completed an incremental test on the bench-press exercise with 5 different loads (75-100% 1RM), while the mean velocity of the barbell was registered using a linear transducer (LT) and Powerlift. Results showed a very high correlation between the LT and the app (r = 0.94, SEE = 0.028 m · s -1 ) for the measurement of mean velocity. Bland-Altman plots (R 2  = 0.011) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.965) revealed a very high agreement between both devices. A systematic bias by which the app registered slightly higher values than the LT (P velocity in the bench-press exercise.

  15. Multi-scale high-performance fluid flow: Simulations through porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Perović, Nevena

    2016-08-03

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations on geometrically complex domains such as porous media require high geometric discretisation for accurately capturing the tested physical phenomena. Moreover, when considering a large area and analysing local effects, it is necessary to deploy a multi-scale approach that is both memory-intensive and time-consuming. Hence, this type of analysis must be conducted on a high-performance parallel computing infrastructure. In this paper, the coupling of two different scales based on the Navier–Stokes equations and Darcy\\'s law is described followed by the generation of complex geometries, and their discretisation and numerical treatment. Subsequently, the necessary parallelisation techniques and a rather specific tool, which is capable of retrieving data from the supercomputing servers and visualising them during the computation runtime (i.e. in situ) are described. All advantages and possible drawbacks of this approach, together with the preliminary results and sensitivity analyses are discussed in detail.

  16. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  17. Wafer-scale integrated micro-supercapacitors on an ultrathin and highly flexible biomedical platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jimin; Meng, Chuizhou; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2015-02-01

    We present wafer-scale integrated micro-supercapacitors on an ultrathin and highly flexible parylene platform, as progress toward sustainably powering biomedical microsystems suitable for implantable and wearable applications. All-solid-state, low-profile (supercapacitors are formed on an ultrathin (~20 μm) freestanding parylene film by a wafer-scale parylene packaging process in combination with a polyaniline (PANI) nanowire growth technique assisted by surface plasma treatment. These micro-supercapacitors are highly flexible and shown to be resilient toward flexural stress. Further, direct integration of micro-supercapacitors into a radio frequency (RF) rectifying circuit is achieved on a single parylene platform, yielding a complete RF energy harvesting microsystem. The system discharging rate is shown to improve by ~17 times in the presence of the integrated micro-supercapacitors. This result suggests that the integrated micro-supercapacitor technology described herein is a promising strategy for sustainably powering biomedical microsystems dedicated to implantable and wearable applications.

  18. Perhaps a new unified scaling variable for describing the low- and high-psub(T) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaglobeli, N.S.; Esakia, S.M.; Khujadze, A.M.; Kuratashvili, G.O.; Topuria, T.P.; Garsevanishvili, V.R.

    1982-09-01

    A new scale invariant parametrization of single particle inclusive spectra in hadron-hadron collisions is proposed. The variable introduced goes over to the well-known scaling variables xsub(F)=2psub(z)/√s and xsub(T)=2psub(T)/√s in the high-psub(z) and high-psub(T) limits, respectively. Some ''critical'' surfaces are found in the phase space of produced particles, which determine the boundary of the regions with significantly different characteristics (in particular, angular distributions) of generated particles. In one of these two regions a naive statistical model seems to be in good agreement with the data, whereas it does not work in the other region. (author)

  19. Reliability and validity of academic motivation scale for sports high school students’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslofça Fehime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test validity and reliability of Academic Motivation Scale (AMS for sports high school students. The research conducted with 357 volunteered girls (n=117 and boys (n=240. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that Chi square (χ2, degrees of freedom (df and χ2/df ratio were 1102.90, 341 and 3.234, respectively. Goodness of Fit Index, Comparative Fit Index, Non-normed Fit Index and Incremental Fit Index were between 0.92-0.95. Additionally, Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index, An Average Errors Square Root and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation were 0.88, 0.070 and 0.079, respectively. Subscale reliability coefficients were between 0.77 and 0.86. Test-retest correlations of AMS were found between 0.79 and 0.91. Results showed that scale was suitable for determination of sports high school students’ academicals motivation levels.

  20. Nanometer-scale patterning of high-Tc superconductors for Josephson junction-based digital circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, J.R.; Plut, T.A.; Corless, R.F.; Martens, J.S.; Berkowitz, S.; Char, K.; Johansson, M.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A straightforward method for nanometer-scale patterning of high-T c superconductor thin films is discussed. The technique combines direct-write electron beam lithography with well-controlled aqueous etches and is applied to the fabrication of Josephson junction nanobridges in high-quality, epitaxial thin-film YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . We present the results of our studies of the dimensions, yield, uniformity, and mechanism of the junctions along with the performance of a representative digital circuit based on these junctions. Direct current junction parameter statistics measured at 77 K show critical currents of 27.5 μA±13% for a sample set of 220 junctions. The Josephson behavior of the nanobridge is believed to arise from the aggregation of oxygen vacancies in the nanometer-scale bridge

  1. Multi-scale high-performance fluid flow: Simulations through porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Perović, Nevena; Frisch, Jé rô me; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; Rank, Ernst; Mundani, Ralf Peter

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations on geometrically complex domains such as porous media require high geometric discretisation for accurately capturing the tested physical phenomena. Moreover, when considering a large area and analysing local effects, it is necessary to deploy a multi-scale approach that is both memory-intensive and time-consuming. Hence, this type of analysis must be conducted on a high-performance parallel computing infrastructure. In this paper, the coupling of two different scales based on the Navier–Stokes equations and Darcy's law is described followed by the generation of complex geometries, and their discretisation and numerical treatment. Subsequently, the necessary parallelisation techniques and a rather specific tool, which is capable of retrieving data from the supercomputing servers and visualising them during the computation runtime (i.e. in situ) are described. All advantages and possible drawbacks of this approach, together with the preliminary results and sensitivity analyses are discussed in detail.

  2. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  3. Analysis of plasma channels in mm-scale plasmas formed by high intensity laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, R; Habara, H; Iwawaki, T; Uematsu, Y; Tanaka, K A; Ivancic, S; Anderson, K; Haberberger, D; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Sakagami, H

    2016-01-01

    A plasma channel created by a high intensity infrared laser beam was observed in a long scale-length plasma (L ∼ 240 μm) with the angular filter refractometry technique, which indicated a stable channel formation up to the critical density. We analyzed the observed plasma channel using a rigorous ray-tracing technique, which provides a deep understanding of the evolution of the channel formation. (paper)

  4. Big Data solutions on a small scale: Evaluating accessible high-performance computing for social research

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Dhiraj; Bowman, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Though full of promise, Big Data research success is often contingent on access to the newest, most advanced, and often expensive hardware systems and the expertise needed to build and implement such systems. As a result, the accessibility of the growing number of Big Data-capable technology solutions has often been the preserve of business analytics. Pay as you store/process services like Amazon Web Services have opened up possibilities for smaller scale Big Data projects. There is high dema...

  5. Use of Gilliam Asperger's disorder scale in differentiating high and low functioning autism and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Murray, Michael J; Morrow, Jill D; Yurich, Kirsten K L; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the validity of Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale (GADS), although it is widely used. This study of 199 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder, 195 with low functioning autism, and 83 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed high classification accuracy (autism vs. ADHD) for clinicians' GADS Quotients (92%), and somewhat lower accuracy (77%) for parents' Quotients. Both children with high and low functioning autism had clinicians' Quotients (M=99 and 101, respectively) similar to the Asperger's Disorder mean of 100 for the GADS normative sample. Children with high functioning autism scored significantly higher on the cognitive patterns subscale than children with low functioning autism, and the latter had higher scores on the remaining subscales: social interaction, restricted patterns of behavior, and pragmatic skills. Using the clinicians' Quotient and Cognitive Patterns score, 70% of children were correctly identified as having high or low functioning autism or ADHD.

  6. A Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) bench static system to study bacteria inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortese, Pietro; Dellacasa, Giuseppe; Gemme, Roberto; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Motta, Francesca; Paganoni, Marco; Pizzichemi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology is a promising non-thermal processing method for inactivation of microorganisms. A small PEF bench system able to treat a 0.4 ml static liquid volume has been built and tested at the laboratories of the Universita del Piemonte Orientale in Alessandria, Italy. The technique used to produce the required fields consists of charging high voltage cables of various lengths and subsequently discharge them on a cylindrical cell. The pulse intensity can be adjusted to reach a maximum electric field in the cell of about 35 kV/cm and the pulse frequency can reach 10 Hz. We describe the PEF system in some detail and, as a benchmark of its performances, we report preliminary results obtained on Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) at 10 9 Cfu/ml concentration suspended in a McIlvaine buffer (pH 7.2).

  7. Regional Scale High Resolution δ18O Prediction in Precipitation Using MODIS EVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cho-Ying; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Shou-De; Lo, Yi-Chen; Huang, Bo-Wen; Hatch, Kent A.; Shiu, Hau-Jie; You, Cheng-Feng; Chang, Yuan-Mou; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The natural variation in stable water isotope ratio data, also known as water isoscape, is a spatiotemporal fingerprint and a powerful natural tracer that has been widely applied in disciplines as diverse as hydrology, paleoclimatology, ecology and forensic investigation. Although much effort has been devoted to developing a predictive water isoscape model, it remains a central challenge for scientists to generate high accuracy, fine scale spatiotemporal water isoscape prediction. Here we develop a novel approach of using the MODIS-EVI (the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer-Enhanced Vegetation Index), to predict δ18O in precipitation at the regional scale. Using a structural equation model, we show that the EVI and precipitated δ18O are highly correlated and thus the EVI is a good predictor of precipitated δ18O. We then test the predictability of our EVI-δ18O model and demonstrate that our approach can provide high accuracy with fine spatial (250×250 m) and temporal (16 days) scale δ18O predictions (annual and monthly predictabilities [r] are 0.96 and 0.80, respectively). We conclude the merging of the EVI and δ18O in precipitation can greatly extend the spatial and temporal data availability and thus enhance the applicability for both the EVI and water isoscape. PMID:23029053

  8. Large-scale DNA Barcode Library Generation for Biomolecule Identification in High-throughput Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Eli; Sheridan, Paul; Tremmel, Georg; Miyano, Satoru; Sugano, Sumio

    2017-10-24

    High-throughput screens allow for the identification of specific biomolecules with characteristics of interest. In barcoded screens, DNA barcodes are linked to target biomolecules in a manner allowing for the target molecules making up a library to be identified by sequencing the DNA barcodes using Next Generation Sequencing. To be useful in experimental settings, the DNA barcodes in a library must satisfy certain constraints related to GC content, homopolymer length, Hamming distance, and blacklisted subsequences. Here we report a novel framework to quickly generate large-scale libraries of DNA barcodes for use in high-throughput screens. We show that our framework dramatically reduces the computation time required to generate large-scale DNA barcode libraries, compared with a naїve approach to DNA barcode library generation. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that our framework is able to generate a library consisting of one million DNA barcodes for use in a fragment antibody phage display screening experiment. We also report generating a general purpose one billion DNA barcode library, the largest such library yet reported in literature. Our results demonstrate the value of our novel large-scale DNA barcode library generation framework for use in high-throughput screening applications.

  9. MULTI-SCALE SEGMENTATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BY INTEGRATING MULTIPLE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Di

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of multi-scale segmentation algorithms are not aiming at high resolution remote sensing images and have difficulty to communicate and use layers’ information. In view of them, we proposes a method of multi-scale segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images by integrating multiple features. First, Canny operator is used to extract edge information, and then band weighted distance function is built to obtain the edge weight. According to the criterion, the initial segmentation objects of color images can be gained by Kruskal minimum spanning tree algorithm. Finally segmentation images are got by the adaptive rule of Mumford–Shah region merging combination with spectral and texture information. The proposed method is evaluated precisely using analog images and ZY-3 satellite images through quantitative and qualitative analysis. The experimental results show that the multi-scale segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images by integrating multiple features outperformed the software eCognition fractal network evolution algorithm (highest-resolution network evolution that FNEA on the accuracy and slightly inferior to FNEA on the efficiency.

  10. Scaling up high throughput field phenotyping of corn and soy research plots using ground rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshlov, Boyan; Nakarmi, Akash; Baldwin, Steven; Essner, Scott; French, Jasenka

    2017-05-01

    Crop improvement programs require large and meticulous selection processes that effectively and accurately collect and analyze data to generate quality plant products as efficiently as possible, develop superior cropping and/or crop improvement methods. Typically, data collection for such testing is performed by field teams using hand-held instruments or manually-controlled devices. Although steps are taken to reduce error, the data collected in such manner can be unreliable due to human error and fatigue, which reduces the ability to make accurate selection decisions. Monsanto engineering teams have developed a high-clearance mobile platform (Rover) as a step towards high throughput and high accuracy phenotyping at an industrial scale. The rovers are equipped with GPS navigation, multiple cameras and sensors and on-board computers to acquire data and compute plant vigor metrics per plot. The supporting IT systems enable automatic path planning, plot identification, image and point cloud data QA/QC and near real-time analysis where results are streamed to enterprise databases for additional statistical analysis and product advancement decisions. Since the rover program was launched in North America in 2013, the number of research plots we can analyze in a growing season has expanded dramatically. This work describes some of the successes and challenges in scaling up of the rover platform for automated phenotyping to enable science at scale.

  11. Development of Real-Time Dual-Display Handheld and Bench-Top Hybrid-Mode SD-OCTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hyun Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a dual-display handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT system for retina and optic-nerve-head diagnosis beyond the volunteer motion constraints is reported. The developed system is portable and easily movable, containing the compact portable OCT system that includes the handheld probe and computer. Eye posterior chambers were diagnosed using the handheld probe, and the probe could be fixed to the bench-top cradle depending on the volunteers’ physical condition. The images obtained using this handheld probe were displayed in real time on the computer monitor and on a small secondary built-in monitor; the displayed images were saved using the handheld probe’s built-in button. Large-scale signal-processing procedures such as k-domain linearization, fast Fourier transform (FFT, and log-scaling signal processing can be rapidly applied using graphics-processing-unit (GPU accelerated processing rather than central-processing-unit (CPU processing. The Labview-based system resolution is 1,024 × 512 pixels, and the frame rate is 56 frames/s, useful for real-time display. The 3D images of the posterior chambers including the retina, optic-nerve head, blood vessels, and optic nerve were composed using real-time displayed images with 500 × 500 × 500 pixel resolution. A handheld and bench-top hybrid mode with a dual-display handheld OCT was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method.

  12. On the use of multi-dimensional scaling and electromagnetic tracking in high dose rate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Th I.; Ermer, M.; Salas-González, D.; Kellermeier, M.; Strnad, V.; Bert, Ch; Hensel, B.; Tomé, A. M.; Lang, E. W.

    2017-10-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy affords a frequent reassurance of the precise dwell positions of the radiation source. The current investigation proposes a multi-dimensional scaling transformation of both data sets to estimate dwell positions without any external reference. Furthermore, the related distributions of dwell positions are characterized by uni—or bi—modal heavy—tailed distributions. The latter are well represented by α—stable distributions. The newly proposed data analysis provides dwell position deviations with high accuracy, and, furthermore, offers a convenient visualization of the actual shapes of the catheters which guide the radiation source during the treatment.

  13. Comparison of scale/triton and helios burnup calculations for high burnup LWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittelbach, S.; Mispagel, T.; Phlippen, P.W. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The presented analyses provide information about the suitability of the lattice burnup code HELIOS and the recently developed code SCALE/TRITON for the prediction of isotopic compositions of high burnup LWR fuel. The accurate prediction of the isotopic inventory of high burnt spent fuel is a prerequisite for safety analyses in and outside of the reactor core, safe loading of spent fuel into storage casks, design of next generation spent fuel casks and for any consideration of burnup credit. Depletion analyses are performed with both burnup codes for PWR and BWR fuel samples which were irradiated far beyond 50 GWd/t within the LWR-PROTEUS Phase II project. (orig.)

  14. Academic Motivation Scale: adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Juliana Beatriz; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Boubeta, Antonio Rial; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández

    2012-01-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students) verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality.

  15. Characterisation of oxidised aluminium powder: Validation of a new anodic oxidation bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas, E-mail: Nicolas.Gascoin@univ-orleans.fr [PRISME Institute, Orleans University, 63 avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges (France); Gillard, Philippe; Baudry, Guillaume [PRISME Institute, Orleans University, 63 avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges (France)

    2009-11-15

    Aluminium powder is of major interest in many applications but it presents a risk due to its high explosibility, particularly when dispersed in air. The safety is directly linked to the particles oxidation because the Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE), which is required to initiate an Al dust explosion, increases with the oxide layer thickness. This study provides a controlled method to furnish reproducible homogeneous set of powder for such safety studies. Thanks to a new experimental bench, the influence on the oxidation rate of seven treatment parameters is investigated (current density, time of treatment, acid concentration, mass of powder, particles size, stirring, neutralisation by ammonia solution). The oxide content is plotted versus the current density, the time and the acid concentration to provide reference curves for further elaboration of oxidised powder. The particles size of sieved powder is measured before and after treatment by different methods (optical and Scanning Electron Microscopes, laser measurement). A high refinement of the powder in terms of size distribution is achieved thanks to the employed sieving. The present bench and the elaborated procedure are of great interest to provide well-calibrated oxidised powder directly available for safety studies. The time must be adjusted, depending on the wanted oxide content - from 2 to 18 wt.% - and the other treatment parameters must be kept constant: acid concentration (5 wt.%), current density (1 A dm{sup -2}), treated powder (20 g). In these conditions, the ratio of the oxide layer thickness on the particles diameter is found to be constant for a given oxide content whatever the particles size.

  16. Characterisation of oxidised aluminium powder: Validation of a new anodic oxidation bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Baudry, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium powder is of major interest in many applications but it presents a risk due to its high explosibility, particularly when dispersed in air. The safety is directly linked to the particles oxidation because the Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE), which is required to initiate an Al dust explosion, increases with the oxide layer thickness. This study provides a controlled method to furnish reproducible homogeneous set of powder for such safety studies. Thanks to a new experimental bench, the influence on the oxidation rate of seven treatment parameters is investigated (current density, time of treatment, acid concentration, mass of powder, particles size, stirring, neutralisation by ammonia solution). The oxide content is plotted versus the current density, the time and the acid concentration to provide reference curves for further elaboration of oxidised powder. The particles size of sieved powder is measured before and after treatment by different methods (optical and Scanning Electron Microscopes, laser measurement). A high refinement of the powder in terms of size distribution is achieved thanks to the employed sieving. The present bench and the elaborated procedure are of great interest to provide well-calibrated oxidised powder directly available for safety studies. The time must be adjusted, depending on the wanted oxide content - from 2 to 18 wt.% - and the other treatment parameters must be kept constant: acid concentration (5 wt.%), current density (1 A dm -2 ), treated powder (20 g). In these conditions, the ratio of the oxide layer thickness on the particles diameter is found to be constant for a given oxide content whatever the particles size.

  17. Effects of Pre-exhaustion on the Patterns of Muscular Activity in the Flat Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaś, Artur; Maszczyk, Adam; Pietraszewski, Przemyslaw; Stastny, Petr; Tufano, James J; Zając, Adam

    2017-07-01

    Gołaś, A, Maszczyk, A, Pietraszewski, P, Stastny, P, Tufano, JJ, and Zając, A. Effects of pre-exhaustion on the patterns of muscular activity in the flat bench press. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1919-1924, 2017-Pre-exhaustion (PE) has been applied in resistance training (RT) to manipulate the order of performing 2 resistance exercises, a single-joint exercise to momentary exhaustion, followed by a multi-joint movement that includes the same muscle group. This method ensures greater recruitment of muscles or muscle groups in the multi-joint exercise to further increase muscle strength and overcome strength plateaus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle activity by electromyography during high-intensity (95% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) bench press (BP), before and after PE of the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles to determine the effects of PE of the prime movers. Eight healthy athletes, experienced in RT, participated in the study. There were 4 sessions in the experiment. Session 1 was aimed at determination of 1RM during a flat BP. Sessions 2, 3, and 4 consisted of performing a BP after PE of the muscles studied by the incline dumbbell fly, front deltoid raise, and lying triceps extension exercise. Peak concentric TB activation after TB PE (mean ± SD, 147.76 ± 18.6%) was significantly greater by analysis of variance (η = 0.82, F = 5.45, p = 0.004) compared with peak TB activation (114.77 ± 19.4%) before TB PE. The statistical analysis for PM and AD did not show any significant differences. Coaches should not expect the usefulness of PE protocol to elicit higher PM or AD activity or fatigue, but they can use it to increase TB activity before high-intensity BP exercise.

  18. The Association between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H.; Brown, Justin C.; Gater, David R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective One-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength is considered the gold standard to quantify upper-body muscular strength. Isometric handgrip strength is frequently used as a surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors. The relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength, however, has not been characterized among BrCa survivors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling BrCa survivors. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Results Among 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: −8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; Pstrength (R2=0.23). Conclusions Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. PMID:27543047

  19. Old star clusters: Bench tests of low mass stellar models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaris M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Old star clusters in the Milky Way and external galaxies have been (and still are traditionally used to constrain the age of the universe and the timescales of galaxy formation. A parallel avenue of old star cluster research considers these objects as bench tests of low-mass stellar models. This short review will highlight some recent tests of stellar evolution models that make use of photometric and spectroscopic observations of resolved old star clusters. In some cases these tests have pointed to additional physical processes efficient in low-mass stars, that are not routinely included in model computations. Moreover, recent results from the Kepler mission about the old open cluster NGC6791 are adding new tight constraints to the models.

  20. Studies of cooling tower components on the Mistral test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, G.

    1992-07-01

    The conception of a humid air cooling tower with natural or forced draught, requires the knowledge of the thermal and aerodynamic exchange surfaces performances. Several points, among which the distribution nozzles and drift eliminators efficiencies, or the mechanical behavior of the components, should be considered. In order to be able to test this type of equipment and analyse its behavior, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE set up in 1987 of a large dimensions test bench: MISTRAL. The investigations performed over the 3000 working hours of MISTRAL concern mainly the optimization of the counterflow and crossflow exchange surfaces proposed by the industrial cooling tower equipment suppliers. The quality of the experimental results is assured by the implementation of an extensive instrumentation on the air and water circuits, and by a severe control of the tests conditions