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Sample records for beltsville human nutrition

  1. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  2. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  3. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  4. Ecological approaches to human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Fanzo, Jessica; Palm, Cheryl; Remans, Roseline

    2011-03-01

    Malnutrition affects a large number of people throughout the developing world. Approaches to reducing malnutrition rarely focus on ecology and agriculture to simultaneously improve human nutrition and environmental sustainability. However, evidence suggests that interdisciplinary approaches that combine the knowledge bases of these disciplines can serve as a central strategy in alleviating hidden hunger for the world's poorest. To describe the role that ecological knowledge plays in alleviating hidden hunger, considering human nutrition as an overlooked ecosystem service. We review existing literature and propose a framework that expands on earlier work on econutrition. We provide novel evidence from case studies conducted by the authors in western Kenya and propose a framework for interdisciplinary collaboration to alleviate hidden hunger, increase agricultural productivity, and improve environmental sustainability. Our review supports the concept that an integrated approach will impact human nutrition. We provide evidence that increased functional agrobiodiversity can alleviate anemia, and interventions that contribute to environmental sustainability can have both direct and indirect effects on human health and nutritional well-being. Integrated and interdisciplinary approaches are critical to reaching development goals. Ecologists must begin to consider not only how their field can contribute to biodiversity conservation, but also, the relationship between biodiversity and provisioning of nontraditional ecosystem services such as human health. Likewise, nutritionists and agronomists must recognize that many of the solutions to increasing human wellbeing and health can best be achieved by focusing on a healthy environment and the conservation of ecosystem services.

  5. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  6. Progress in Human Nutrition, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margen, Sheldon, Ed.

    In view of the international character of nutrition and interrelationships and meaning of food to all people, this annual series of open-ended books has been started to direct attention to the aspects of human nutrition in regard to the quality of life. It is believed the study of the action nutrients, their interrelationships, and their ingestion…

  7. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health, a report of a. World Heatth Organisation Expert Committee, contains material contributed by numerous experts consulted in different specialised fields, together with the conClusions reached and recommendations made by the Expert. Consultation. The nineteen nutritionally ...

  8. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  9. Food & Fitness. Directory. Human Nutrition Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the following regulatory and food service agencies of the Department of Agriculture are described: (1) Agricultural Research Service; (2) Cooperative State Research Service; (3) Economic Research Service; (4) Human Nutrition Information Service; (5) Office of Grants and Program Systems; (6) Office of International Cooperation and…

  10. The NOMA track module on nutrition, human rights and governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NOMA track module on nutrition, human rights and governance: Part 2. ... each offering a Master's degree in nutrition, collaboratively developed the ... process, emerging themes were used to compile a code list for content analysis of the ...

  11. Nutrition, epigenetic mechanisms, and human disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maulik, Nilanjana; Maulik, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    .... The text discusses the basics of nutrigenomics and epigenetic regulation, types of nutrition influencing genetic imprinting, and the role of nutrition in modulating an individual's predisposition to disease...

  12. Comparative evaluation of Nabi and Beltsville extenders for cryopreservation of rooster semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Mohammad Mahdi; Kohram, Hamid; Zhandi, Mahdi; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Sharideh, Hossein; Zare-Shahaneh, Ahmad; Esmaili, Vahid

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the new rooster semen freezing extender which is containing a low level of glycerol and soybean lecithin as an alternative protective agent in the extender. The aim of the first experiment was to evaluate a new extender for freeze-thawing rooster semen known as "Nabi" extender compared to Beltsville. Second experiment was also performed to determine whether the Nabi extender has negative reactions on fertilization after artificial insemination (AI) or no. In the first experiment, post-thaw motion parameters, mitochondrial function and sperm apoptosis were analyzed using Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA), rhodamine-123 and Annexin-V, respectively for frozen-thawed semen in Nabi and Beltsville extender. Results showed that total motility, progressive motility, velocity parameters (VCL, VSL, VAP, LIN and STR) and live spermatozoa with active mitochondria were significantly higher in Nabi compare to Beltsville extender (P rooster sperm in vitro quality compared to Beltsville extender. The fertility rates of insemination in hens with freeze-thaw sperm were comparable with fresh sperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stable isotopes for improving human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uauy, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The developing regions of the world are undergoing a rapid demographic and epidemiological transition. The number of child deaths and disease, and their causes, are important markers for this change and serve as indices of human development. More important to society at large is the change in the pattern of child growth of the survivors. Although they survive, a large proportion of children in developing countries fail to grow physically and develop mentally, thereby affecting not only health but also educational performance and economic productivity. National development is retarded at its root. In societies undergoing demographic transition, decreases in fertility rates usually lag behind changes in mortality by several decades. Thus, rapid population growth is typical of this transition. Dietary determinants of nutrition and health of populations undergoing transition also change. Typically, predominantly cereal-based food consumption patterns change to ones incorporating a greater proportion of animal food products, higher total fat and saturated fats, and a progressive inclusion of industrially processed food in the diet. The rural poor come to the cities and become the urban poor. They tend to live in precarious housing in unsanitary environments. Working merely for subsistence, they place great demands on governments to provide health and education services. The political dimension of these unsatisfied demands, in terms of unmet basic human needs, characterises life in developing societies. This situation not only fuels political struggles but is also the cause of great frustration to concerned scientists and health professionals. The impact of nutrition on infant survival and child growth is at the heart of what matters in the developing regions of the world. Most countries undergoing the nutrition transition have supplementary feeding programs and other major nutrition interventions targeted mainly at the urban and rural poor. For example, a

  14. CHICKEN MEAT IN HUMAN NUTRITION FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The meat of chicken is very significant animal food in human nutrition. Because of high nutrition value, characterized by high protein content and relatively low fat content, it is also considered as dietetic product. The aim of our research was to analyze chemical composition of muscles of "white" and "red" meat (mucles of breast and thighs with drumsticks regarding the contents of protein, fat, ash, water, macro and microelements. The composition of saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids was also analysed. The content of basic nutritive matters in white and red meat was as follows: protein 24.15% and 20.96% resp., water 74.01% and 74.56% resp., fat 0.62% and 3.29% resp., ash 1.22% and 1.19% resp. The following contents of macro and trace elements were determined in 100 g white and red meat: K 359.22 mg and 322.00 mg resp., Mg 39.35 mg and 27.11 mg resp., Na 61.86 mg and 86.45 mg resp., Mn 0.08 mg and 0.09 mg resp., Zn 1.09 mg and 2.30 mg resp., Fe 1.79 mg and 1.98 mg resp. PUFA omega 3 (C 18:3ω3, C 20:5ω3, C 22:5ω3 and C 22:6ω3 and PUFA omega 6 (C18:2ω6, C 20:2ω6 and C 20:4ω6 fatty acids ratio in white and red meat was 3.11 and 4.43 resp.

  15. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (ω-6 with relative “deficiency” of ω-3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the ω-6 / ω-3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.Keywords: animal products, polyunsaturated fatty acids, meat, milk, nutrients.

  16. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from 3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (-6 with relative “deficiency” of -3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the -6 / -3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.

  17. Nutritional Habits According to Human Chronotype and Nutritional Status of Morningness and Eveningness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktas, Nese; Erman, K. Alparslan; Mert, Zekai

    2018-01-01

    Sixty one female and eighty one male volunteers participated in the study that aims to assess the nutrition habits according to human chronotype and nutritional status of morningness and eveningness. Chronotype was assessed by Turkish version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and the other questionnaire prepared to assess of nutritional…

  18. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: Proceedings of the ninth nestle international nutrition symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 9th Nestle Nutrition Symposium on “Nutrition and the Biology of Human Ageing” is presented at a time of unprecedented demographic change worldwide. The UN population division forecasts that the number of people living over age 65 will rise to almost 1 billion (12% percent of the world’s populat...

  19. Stable isotope utilization for research on human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjeux, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of nutritional molecule metabolism research, this paper presents the various stable isotopes used as labels for biological molecules, the reasons for their application in human nutritional study (mainly because of their non toxicity) and the various analysis methods (isotope ratio mass spectrometry, coupled gaseous chromatography and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance). Several application examples in nutrition research are then discussed: metabolic conversion measurement for a molecule into its different metabolites, energetic losses. 23 refs

  20. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  1. The NOMA track module on nutrition, human rights and governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A module on nutrition, human rights and governance was developed and presented jointly by academic institutions in Norway, South Africa and Uganda, under the NOrway MAsters (NOMA) programme, for their respective Master's degree programmes in nutrition. Consisting of three study units, it was ...

  2. Nutritional contribution of plant foods to human diet in evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnorr, Stephanie Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Diets and food are indisputably core facets of human society. The great apes still rely on plants to supply most of their nutritional needs. Humans, however consume a diet that is nearly unrecognizable from that of early hominin and human ancestors. While the virtues of plant foods are widely

  3. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children.

  4. [Nutritional epigenetics and epigenetic effects of human breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoyanova, O L; Borovik, T E

    The article provides an overview of the current literature on nutritional epigenetics. There are currently actively studied hypothesis that nutrition especially in early life or in critical periods of the development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health in adults. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the possible effects of nutrients on gene expression. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related disorders. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and some its components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are stillunclear.

  5. Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, G M; Laxmaiah, A

    2008-08-01

    Human development index (HDI) is extensively used to measure the standard of living of a country. India made a study progress in the HDI value. Extreme poverty is concentrated in rural areas of northern States while income growth has been dynamic in southern States and urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess the trends in HDI, human poverty index (HPI) and incidence of poverty among Indian states, the socio-economic, health, and diet and nutritional indicators which determine the HDI, changes in protein and calorie adequacy status of rural population, and also trends in malnutrition among children in India. The variations in socio-economic, demographic and dietary indicators by grades of HDI were studied. The trends in poverty and nutrition were also studied. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to analyse data. While India's HDI value has improved over a time; our rank did not improve much compared to other developing countries. Human poverty has not reduced considerably as per the HPI values. The undernutrition among preschool children is still a major public health problem in India. The incidence of poverty at different levels of calorie requirement has not reduced in both rural and urban areas. The time trends in nutritional status of pre-school children showed that, even though, there is an improvement in stunting over the years, the trend in wasting and underweight has not improved much. Proper nutrition and health awareness are important to tackle the health hazards of developmental transition. Despite several national nutrition programmes in operation, we could not make a significant dent in the area of health and nutrition. The changing dietary practices of the urban population, especially the middle class, are of concern. Further studies are needed to measure the human development and poverty situation of different sections of the population in India using an index, which includes both income indicators and non income

  6. Teaching Methods in Nutrition: Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiak, John J.

    This article presents a teaching methodology for free radical theory and discusses the role of antioxidants in human health. Free radicals are a normal byproduct of respiration, which allows the body to use oxygen, liberate energy, and dispose of harmful substances. The body's antioxidants and nutritional antioxidants quench most of the free…

  7. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  8. Supporting nutrition and health throughout the human life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is a partner in addressing nutrition and health problems in more than 50 countries in collaboration with Member State counterparts, other United Nations organizations, and donors. In the general public, few people are aware that the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency extends beyond the realms of the nuclear power and safeguarding against the misuse of radioactive materials. Indeed, for many years now Agency activities in research and technical co-operation include a strong emphasis on isotope techniques as tools to evaluate human nutritional status and the nutritional quality of foods within the context of national development programmes. These techniques are considered the best methods for measuring the uptake and bioavailability of many important vitamins and minerals. Thus, they are well-suited for determining the success of food supplementation programmes and other interventions aimed at fighting many forms of malnutrition found throughout the world. (IAEA)

  9. Hotspots of human nutrition: Micronutrient supply, demand, and pollinator dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombeck, E.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Mueller, M.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    While our caloric needs can mostly be met by wind-pollinated crops such as cereals, a recent analysis of USDA data shows that animal-pollinated crops contain the vast majority of many essential nutrients, including vitamins A and C, calcium, fluoride, and folic acid. In this work we combined global crop yield data with data on nutritional content in each crop to map nutrient production around the world, and to illustrate the value of pollination services to human nutrition. Spatially explicit crop yields (at 5 min resolution) were multiplied by crop nutrient content and by crop dependence on pollination to map where reductions in total nutrient production would occur if pollination services were removed. Nutrient demand maps (human nutrient requirements multiplied by population density) were generated to identify regions where local reduction in pollination services could threaten nutritional security. Nutrient deficiency maps (nutrient supply minus nutrient demand) were also created to identify hotspots where local crop production is not adequate to meet local nutritional needs.

  10. Milk nutritional composition and its role in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paula C

    2014-06-01

    Dairy and milk consumption are frequently included as important elements in a healthy and balanced diet. It is the first food for mammals and provides all the necessary energy and nutrients to ensure proper growth and development, being crucial in respect to bone mass formation. However, several controversies arise from consumption of dairy and milk products during adulthood, especially because it refers to milk from other species. Despite these controversies, epidemiologic studies confirm the nutritional importance of milk in the human diet and reinforce the possible role of its consumption in preventing several chronic conditions like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), some forms of cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Lactose malabsorption symptoms and cow milk protein allergy are generally considered to be the adverse reactions to milk consumption. The present article reviews the main aspects of milk nutritional composition and establishes several associations between its nutritious role, health promotion, and disease prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium in edible insects and its use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the most problematic substances in human nutrition. Nutrition in the present population is not optimal, because of insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products. Due to the expanding interest of specialists and the general public about entomophagy, as well as increase of the EU interest in this type of food, there is a need to consider the use of edible insects as an alternative source of nutrition. From the perspective of edible insects as a source of calcium, edible insects could be considered as a possible source of calcium for enriching the diet and also as a substitute for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to other categories of foods rich in calcium. Of the six analysed species of edible insect, Bombyx mori had the highest calcium content, almost comparable to semi-skimmed cow's milk. Gryllus assimillis can also be a rich source of calcium as well as other analysed species. The lowest content of calcium was detected in Zophobas morio. Common meat (chicken, beef, pork has lower calcium content comparing with all analysed species of edible insect (Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Gryllus assimillis, Locusta migratoria, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio. Therefore, the selected species of edible insect could serve as an alternative source of calcium for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to soy. Phosphorus level in human body is closely related to calcium in the calcium-phosphate metabolism, therefore phosphorus level was detected in these samples too. Bombyx mori had the highest phosphorus content and the lowest content of phosphorus was measured in Zophobas morio samples.

  12. Tryptophan Biochemistry: Structural, Nutritional, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palego, Lionella; Betti, Laura; Rossi, Alessandra; Giannaccini, Gino

    2016-01-01

    L-Tryptophan is the unique protein amino acid (AA) bearing an indole ring: its biotransformation in living organisms contributes either to keeping this chemical group in cells and tissues or to breaking it, by generating in both cases a variety of bioactive molecules. Investigations on the biology of Trp highlight the pleiotropic effects of its small derivatives on homeostasis processes. In addition to protein turn-over, in humans the pathways of Trp indole derivatives cover the synthesis of the neurotransmitter/hormone serotonin (5-HT), the pineal gland melatonin (MLT), and the trace amine tryptamine. The breakdown of the Trp indole ring defines instead the "kynurenine shunt" which produces cell-response adapters as L-kynurenine, kynurenic and quinolinic acids, or the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). This review aims therefore at tracing a "map" of the main molecular effectors in human tryptophan (Trp) research, starting from the chemistry of this AA, dealing then with its biosphere distribution and nutritional value for humans, also focusing on some proteins responsible for its tissue-dependent uptake and biotransformation. We will thus underscore the role of Trp biochemistry in the pathogenesis of human complex diseases/syndromes primarily involving the gut, neuroimmunoendocrine/stress responses, and the CNS, supporting the use of -Omics approaches in this field.

  13. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  14. Nutritional management of acute pancreatitis in a human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-26

    Aug 26, 2013 ... one-day history of severe abdominal pain and difficulty breathing. In casualty, the ... parenteral nutrition (TPN) was made, and a central venous port (CVP) .... catheter-related sepsis and metabolic disturbances, if nutritional.

  15. Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazer, Fuller W.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Johnson, Gregory A.; Kim, Sung Woo; Knabe, Darrell A.; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; McKnight, Jason R.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses. On a pergram basis, proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for proline are particularly high during the life cycle. While most mammals (including humans and pigs) can synthesize proline from arginine and glutamine/glutamate, rates of endogenous synthesis are inadequate for neonates, birds, and fish. Thus, work with young pigs (a widely used animal model for studying infant nutrition) has shown that supplementing 0.0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, 1.4, and 2.1% proline to a proline-free chemically defined diet containing 0.48% arginine and 2% glutamate dose dependently improved daily growth rate and feed efficiency while reducing concentrations of urea in plasma. Additionally, maximal growth performance of chickens depended on at least 0.8% proline in the diet. Likewise, dietary supplementation with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28% hydroxyproline (a metabolite of proline) to a plant protein-based diet enhanced weight gains of salmon. Based on its regulatory roles in cellular biochemistry, proline can be considered as a functional amino acid for mammalian, avian, and aquatic species. Further research is warranted to develop effective strategies of dietary supplementation with proline or hydroxyproline to benefit health, growth, and development of animals and humans. PMID:20697752

  16. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistrian, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) reviewed and discussed the specific gaps and tasks for the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element related to nutrition identified in the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan. There was general consensus that the described gaps and proposed tasks were critical to future NASA mission success. The SRP acknowledged the high scientific quality of the work currently being undertaken by the Nutritional Biochemistry group under the direction of Dr. Scott Smith. In review of the entire HRP, four new gaps were identified that complement the Element's existing research activities. Given the limitations of ground-based analogs for many of the unique physiological and metabolic alterations in space, future studies are needed to quantify nutritional factors that change during actual space flight. In addition, future tasks should seek to better evaluate the time course of physiological and metabolic alterations during flight to better predict alterations during longer duration missions. Finally, given the recent data suggesting a potential role for increased inflammatory responses during space flight, the role of inflammation needs to be explored in detail, including the development of potential countermeasures and new ground based analogs, if this possibility is confirmed.

  17. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Brennan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind—food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world’s population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...

  18. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Charles

    2012-11-21

    There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind-food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world's population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...].

  19. Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics--the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates--is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO₂ levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals.

  20. Human health and nutrition: How isotopes are helping to overcome ''hidden hunger''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Fjeld, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    In a number of ways, the work of the IAEA is contributing to efforts directed at overcoming hidden hunger and other nutrition problems. The rationale for the IAEA's involvement is twofold. First, adequate nutrition is an essential component of any strategy for improving health, and the IAEA's Statute specifically identifies ''enlarging the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity'' as the major objective of programmes. Second, isotope techniques have a wide variety of applications -some of them unique - for targeted research in human nutrition, for assessing nutritional status, and for monitoring the effectiveness of nutritional intervention programmes. This article provides a brief overview of these techniques and their main applications in areas of human nutrition

  1. Measuring the Effects of Nutrition on Human Development and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Ibrahim Q.

    1974-01-01

    Food and nutrition affect the course in physical development that our bodies will follow. Our emotional make-up and mental behavior may be influenced by diet, but the direct relationship between these aspects of development and nutrition needs further study. A new research approach is described. (Author/RH)

  2. Effects of adding different levels of Glutamine to modified Beltsville extender on the survival of frozen rooster semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiabani, Aytak Bakhshayesh; Moghaddam, Gholamali; Kia, Hossein Daghigh

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of l-glutamine on the quality of frozen-thawed rooster semen. Semen samples were collected from eight mature roosters (Ross 308). After initial semen assessments, samples of adequate quality were mixed together and diluted with modified Beltsville extender without l-glutamine (control) and supplemented with 2.5, 5, and 7.5mM l-glutamine. Semen straws were subjected to cryopreservation and evaluated twice at 15-day intervals. After thawing, sperm viability, total and progressive sperm motilities were measured by Eosin-Nigrosine and Computer-Aided Sperm Analysis (CASA), respectively. The results showed that sperm functions decreased on day 30 compared to day 15. The extender supplemented with 5mM glutamine improved (prooster sperm to be frozen for longer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving Wellness on Campus: Service Learning in a Human Nutrition Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bonnie

    2003-01-01

    In a human nutrition class, students are paired with university faculty or staff volunteer participants. Students teach their service learning partners how to record their food consumption and physical activity during a typical 7-day period. Using these data, students complete nutritional assessments of their partners. (Contains 2 figures.)

  4. The evolution of human phenotypic plasticity: age and nutritional status at maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Timothy B

    2003-08-01

    Several evolutionary optimal models of human plasticity in age and nutritional status at reproductive maturation are proposed and their dynamics examined. These models differ from previously published models because fertility is not assumed to be a function of body size or nutritional status. Further, the models are based on explicitly human demographic patterns, that is, model human life-tables, model human fertility tables, and, a nutrient flow-based model of maternal nutritional status. Infant survival (instead of fertility as in previous models) is assumed to be a function of maternal nutritional status. Two basic models are examined. In the first the cost of reproduction is assumed to be a constant proportion of total nutrient flow. In the second the cost of reproduction is constant for each birth. The constant proportion model predicts a negative slope of age and nutritional status at maturation. The constant cost per birth model predicts a positive slope of age and nutritional status at maturation. Either model can account for the secular decline in menarche observed over the last several centuries in Europe. A search of the growth literature failed to find definitive empirical documentation of human phenotypic plasticity in age and nutritional status at maturation. Most research strategies confound genetics with phenotypic plasticity. The one study that reports secular trends suggests a marginally insignificant, but positive slope. This view tends to support the constant cost per birth model.

  5. Developmental process and early phases of implementation for the United States Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research National Nutrition Research Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Congress first called for improved coordination of human nutrition research within and among federal departments and agencies in the 1977 Farm Bill. Today, the Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and commu...

  6. Nutrigenomics in human nutrition – an overview | Gibney | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  8. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and health. ... the widest array of complex scientific, economic, environmental and political issues. ... investment in research and extrapolation of information towards appropriate ...

  9. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  10. Human nutrition in cold and high terrestrial altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K. K.; Kumar, Ratan

    1992-03-01

    The calorie and nutritional requirements for a man working in an alien hostile environment of cold regions and high altitude are described and compared to those of normal requirements. Carbohydrates, fats and vitamins fulfilling the caloric and nutritional requirements are generally available in adequate amounts except under conditions of appetite loss. However, the proteins and amino acids should be provided in such a way as to meet the altered behavioral and metabolic requirements. Work in extreme cold requires fulfilling enhanced calorie needs. In high mountainous regions, cold combined with hypoxia produced loss of appetite and necessitated designing of special foods.

  11. Use of stable isotopes in human nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, the Laboratory of Nutrition of the Department of Animal Biology of the Faculty of Science and Technology of UCAD has been using stable isotopic techniques for nearly twenty years. Stable isotopes were applied to different target populations to measure milk production, exclusive breastfeeding, body composition, micronutrient bioavailability and total energy expenditure.The application of stable isotopic techniques in nutrition has contributed to advocacy for exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months in Senegal. It enabled government decision-makers to obtain essential information on the quality of foods needed for optimal effect during pregnancy and for infant growth and the results were reflected in the national policy on micronutrient supplementation.

  12. Improved nutrition in the first 1000 days and adult human capital and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to review why the first 1000 days of life are a vulnerable period of human development and the long-term effects of a nutrition experiment carried out in Guatemala (1969-1977). In 1969-77, a supplement called Atole, containing high quality protein, energy and micronutrients, was provided to women during pregnancy and lactation and to children nutritional requirements, greater susceptibility to infections, high sensitivity to programming effects and full dependence on others for care, nutrition, and social interaction. Compared with Fresco, Atole improved total nutrient intakes (protein, energy, and micronutrients) and reduced stunting, but only in children nutrition intervention. This provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children in low income countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Nutrition and human immunodeficiency virus infection in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To review the relationship between nutrition and paediatric HIV infection, and to discuss treatment options and their applicability to situations with scarce resources. Results. Growth failure and malnutrition are frequent complications of paediatric lllV infection. Intra-uterine growth of infants born to HIV-seropositive ...

  14. Plant metabolomics and its potential application for human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Brouwer, I.D.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing interest in the use of metabolomic technologies for a wide range of biological targets, food applications related to nutrition and quality are rapidly emerging. Metabolomics offers us the opportunity to gain deeper insights into, and have better control of, the fundamental

  15. Breakfast in human nutrition: The international breakfast research initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibney, Michael J.; Barr, Susan I.; Bellisle, France

    2018-01-01

    to relate breakfast nutrient intakes to overall diet quality. The present review describes a novel and harmonised approach to the study of the nutritional impact of breakfast through The International Breakfast research Initiative involving national dietary survey data from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain...

  16. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on nutrition and metabolism research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Stein, T Peter; Habold, Caroline; Coxam, Veronique; O' Gorman, Donal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition has multiple roles during space flight from providing sufficient nutrients to meet the metabolic needs of the body and to maintain good health, to the beneficial psychosocial aspects related to the meals. Nutrition is central to the functioning of the body; poor nutrition compromises all the physiological systems. Nutrition is therefore likely to have a key role in counteracting the negative effects of space flight (e.g., radiation, immune deficits, oxidative stress, and bone and muscle loss). As missions increase in duration, any dietary/nutritional deficiencies will become progressively more detrimental. Moreover, it has been recognized that the human diet contains, in addition to essential macronutrients, a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive micronutrients that may confer significant long-term health benefits. It is therefore critical that astronauts be adequately nourished during missions. Problems of nutritional origin are often treatable by simply providing the appropriate nutrients and adequate recommendations. This review highlights six key issues that have been identified as space research priorities in nutrition field: in-flight energy balance; altered feeding behavior; development of metabolic stress; micronutrient deficiency; alteration of gut microflora; and altered fluid and electrolytes balance. For each of these topics, relevance for space exploration, knowledge gaps and proposed investigations are described. Finally, the nutritional questions related to bioastronautics research are very relevant to multiple ground-based-related health issues. The potential spin-offs are both interesting scientifically and potentially of great clinical importance.

  17. Pharma-Nutritional Properties of Olive Oil Phenols. Transfer of New Findings to Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, M Carmen; Tomé-Carneiro, Joao; Dávalos, Alberto; Visioli, Francesco

    2018-06-11

    The Mediterranean diet has been long associated with improved cardiovascular prognosis, chemoprevention, and lower incidence of neurodegeneration. Of the multiple components of this diet, olive oil stands out because its use has historically been limited to the Mediterranean basin. The health benefits of olive oil and some of its components are being rapidly decoded. In this paper we review the most recent pharma-nutritional investigations on olive oil biophenols and their health effects, chiefly focusing on recent findings that elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action.

  18. Pharma-Nutritional Properties of Olive Oil Phenols. Transfer of New Findings to Human Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Crespo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been long associated with improved cardiovascular prognosis, chemoprevention, and lower incidence of neurodegeneration. Of the multiple components of this diet, olive oil stands out because its use has historically been limited to the Mediterranean basin. The health benefits of olive oil and some of its components are being rapidly decoded. In this paper we review the most recent pharma-nutritional investigations on olive oil biophenols and their health effects, chiefly focusing on recent findings that elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action.

  19. Dietary essentiality of “nutritionally non-essential amino acids” for animals and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-01-01

    Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids (AA) had traditionally been classified as nutritionally essential (indispensable) or non-essential (dispensable) for animals and humans. Nutritionally essential AA (EAA) are defined as either those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized de novo in animal cells or those that normally are insufficiently synthesized de novo by the animal organism relative to its needs for maintenance, growth, development, and health and which must be prov...

  20. Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Johnson, Gregory A.; Kim, Sung Woo; Knabe, Darrell A.; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; McKnight, Jason R.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses. On a pergram basis, proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for pr...

  1. A human rights approach to the health implications of food and nutrition insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Ana; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2017-01-01

    Food and nutrition insecurity continues to pose a serious global challenge, reflecting government shortcomings in meeting international obligations to ensure the availability, accessibility, and quality of food and to ensure the highest attainable standard of health of their peoples. With global drivers like climate change, urbanization, greater armed conflict, and the globalization of unhealthy diet, particularly in under-resourced countries, food insecurity is rapidly becoming an even greater challenge for those living in poverty. International human rights law can serve a critical role in guiding governments that are struggling to protect the health of their populations, particularly among the most susceptible groups, in responding to food and nutrition insecurity. This article explores and advocates for a human rights approach to food and nutrition security, specifically identifying legal mechanisms to "domesticate" relevant international human rights standards through national policy. Recognizing nutrition security as a determinant of public health, this article recognizes the important links between the four main elements of food security (i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access) and the normative attributes of the right to health and the right to food (i.e., availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality). In drawing from the evolution of international human rights instruments, official documents issued by international human rights treaty bodies, as well as past scholarship at the intersection of the right to health and right to food, this article interprets and articulates the intersectional rights-based obligations of national governments in the face of food and nutrition insecurity.

  2. Recent advances in knowledge of zinc nutrition and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hotz, Christine; Rivera, Juan A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2009-03-01

    Zinc deficiency increases the risk and severity of a variety of infections, restricts physical growth, and affects specific outcomes of pregnancy. Global recognition of the importance of zinc nutrition in public health has expanded dramatically in recent years, and more experience has accumulated on the design and implementation of zinc intervention programs. Therefore, the Steering Committee of the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) completed a second IZiNCG technical document that reexamines the latest information on the intervention strategies that have been developed to enhance zinc nutrition and control zinc deficiency. In particular, the document reviews the current evidence regarding preventive zinc supplementation and the role of zinc as adjunctive therapy for selected infections, zinc fortification, and dietary diversification or modification strategies, including the promotion and protection of breastfeeding and biofortification. The purposes of this introductory paper are to summarize new guidelines on the assessment of population zinc status, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and IZiNCG, and to provide an overview on several new advances in zinc metabolism. The following papers will then review the intervention strategies individually.

  3. Developmental Process and Early Phases of Implementation for the US Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research National Nutrition Research Roadmap 2016-2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, Sheila E; Ballard, Rachel M; Starke-Reed, Pamela E; Galuska, Deborah A; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2017-10-01

    The Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and communication among federal agencies engaged in nutrition research and with facilitating the development and updating of plans for federal research programs to meet current and future domestic and international needs for nutrition. The ICHNR is co-chaired by the USDA Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics and Chief Scientist and the US Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Health and is made up of >10 departments and agencies. Once the ICHNR was reassembled after a 10-y hiatus, the ICHNR recognized a need for a written roadmap to identify critical human nutrition research gaps and opportunities. This commentary provides an overview of the process the ICHNR undertook to develop a first-of-its-kind National Nutrition Research Roadmap, which was publicly released on 4 March 2016. The primary audience for the Roadmap is federal science agency leaders, along with relevant program and policy staff who rely on federally supported human nutrition research, in addition to the broader scientific community. The Roadmap is framed around the following 3 questions: 1 ) How can we better understand and define eating patterns to improve and sustain health? 2 ) What can be done to help people choose healthy eating patterns? 3 ) How can we develop and engage innovative methods and systems to accelerate discoveries in human nutrition? Within these 3 questions, 11 topical areas were identified on the basis of the following criteria: population impact, feasibility given current technological capacities, and emerging scientific opportunities. This commentary highlights initial federal and some professional research society efforts to address the Roadmap's research and resource priorities. We conclude by noting examples of early collaborations and partnerships to move human nutrition research forward in the 21st century. © 2017

  4. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-06-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems. In relation to appetite regulation, plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 are similar in pigs and humans, while peptide YY in pigs is ten to twenty times higher and ghrelin two to five times lower than in humans. Pigs are an excellent model for human studies for vagal nerve function related to the hormonal regulation of food intake. Similarly, the study of gut barrier functions reveals conserved defence mechanisms between the two species particularly in functional permeability. However, human data are scant for some of the defence systems and nutritional programming. The pig model has been valuable for studying the changes in human microbiota following nutritional interventions. In particular, the use of human flora-associated pigs is a useful model for infants, but the long-term stability of the implanted human microbiota in pigs remains to be investigated. The similarity of the pig and human brain anatomy and development is paradigmatic. Brain explorations and therapies described in pig, when compared with available human data, highlight their value in nutritional neuroscience, particularly regarding functional neuroimaging techniques.

  5. Development of professional practice through problem-based learning in human nutrition and Dietetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-López Ma Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although competency-based education is well established in health care education, research shows that the competencies do not always match the reality of clinical workplaces, especially in nutrition area. Student of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, have reported shortcomings in their general competencies, such as organizational skills, teamwork, knowledge to develop proposals for intervention. Were given to students a problem-based learning (PBL activity with collaborative learning competence for to investigate their evolutions in collaborative learning and the knowledge in nutrition education. The results suggest that the PBL provided better preparation with respect to several of the competencies. The effect of PBL for the experienced students' collaborative learning and education nutrition competencies is especially promising in the professional development of future nutritionists.

  6. Breakfast in Human Nutrition: The International Breakfast Research Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Gibney

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast is often referred to as the most important meal of the day and in recent years has been implicated in weight control, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cognitive performance although, at present, the literature remains inconclusive as to the precise health benefits of breakfast. There are extensive reports of breakfast’s contributions to daily food and nutrient intakes, as well as many studies that have compared daily food and nutrient intakes by breakfast consumers and skippers. However, significant variation exists in the definitions of breakfast and breakfast skippers, and in methods used to relate breakfast nutrient intakes to overall diet quality. The present review describes a novel and harmonised approach to the study of the nutritional impact of breakfast through The International Breakfast research Initiative involving national dietary survey data from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, the UK and the USA. It is anticipated that the analysis of such data along harmonised lines, will allow the project to achieve its primary goal of exploring approaches to defining optimal breakfast food and nutrient intakes. Such data will be of value to public health nutrition policy-makers and food manufacturers and will also allow consistent messaging to help consumers to optimize food choices at breakfast.

  7. USDA food and nutrient databases provide the infrastructure for food and nutrition research, policy, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Holden, Joanne M; Harris, Ellen

    2013-02-01

    The USDA food and nutrient databases provide the basic infrastructure for food and nutrition research, nutrition monitoring, policy, and dietary practice. They have had a long history that goes back to 1892 and are unique, as they are the only databases available in the public domain that perform these functions. There are 4 major food and nutrient databases released by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), part of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service. These include the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, and the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database. The users of the databases are diverse and include federal agencies, the food industry, health professionals, restaurants, software application developers, academia and research organizations, international organizations, and foreign governments, among others. Many of these users have partnered with BHNRC to leverage funds and/or scientific expertise to work toward common goals. The use of the databases has increased tremendously in the past few years, especially the breadth of uses. These new uses of the data are bound to increase with the increased availability of technology and public health emphasis on diet-related measures such as sodium and energy reduction. Hence, continued improvement of the databases is important, so that they can better address these challenges and provide reliable and accurate data.

  8. Integrative Physiology: At the Crossroads of Nutrition, Microbiota, Animal Physiology, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulier, François; MacNeil, Lesley T; Lee, Won-Jae; Rawls, John F; Cani, Patrice D; Schwarzer, Martin; Zhao, Liping; Simpson, Stephen J

    2017-03-07

    Nutrition is paramount in shaping all aspects of animal biology. In addition, the influence of the intestinal microbiota on physiology is now widely recognized. Given that diet also shapes the intestinal microbiota, this raises the question of how the nutritional environment and microbial assemblages together influence animal physiology. This research field constitutes a new frontier in the field of organismal biology that needs to be addressed. Here we review recent studies using animal models and humans and propose an integrative framework within which to define the study of the diet-physiology-microbiota systems and ultimately link it to human health. Nutritional Geometry sits centrally in the proposed framework and offers means to define diet compositions that are optimal for individuals and populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. USDA Human Nutrition Research and Education Activities. A Report to Congress Covering the Period January-December 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Jacqueline; And Others

    This document is the sixth annual, legislatively mandated report on the human nutrition research and education activities of the United States Department of Agriculture for fiscal year 1992 in which directions and highlights are emphasized. The report contains six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 covers human nutrition research…

  10. Nutritional ecology of entomophagy in humans and other primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2013-01-01

    Entomophagy is widespread among nonhuman primates and is common among many human communities. However, the extent and patterns of entomophagy vary substantially both in humans and nonhuman primates. Here we synthesize the literature to examine why humans and other primates eat insects and what accounts for the variation in the extent to which they do so. Variation in the availability of insects is clearly important, but less understood is the role of nutrients in entomophagy. We apply a multidimensional analytical approach, the right-angled mixture triangle, to published data on the macronutrient compositions of insects to address this. Results showed that insects eaten by humans spanned a wide range of protein-to-fat ratios but were generally nutrient dense, whereas insects with high protein-to-fat ratios were eaten by nonhuman primates. Although suggestive, our survey exposes a need for additional, standardized, data.

  11. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  12. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  13. Nutrition studies with human volunteers, designs and compliance to good clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    2002-01-01

    In vitro experiments with cell cultures, studies with the TNO gastrointestinal model, animal experiments, and studies with human volunteers are used in nutrition research on the assessment of efficacy and safety of ingredients that can be used as bio actives in functional foods, functional drinks

  14. Do anabolic nutritional supplements stimulate human growth hormone secretion in elderly women with heart failure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ellen T.H.C.; Schutzler, Scott E.; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Azhar, Gohar; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment has gained attention over the past decade as a treatment for heart failure. Human growth hormone (HGH) must be administered by injections (usually daily), so there is considerable advantage to stimulation of endogenous secretion by amino acid-based nutritional

  15. Measurement of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements in human milk and commercially available milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Suma; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Nair, M.G.; Ravi, Prabhat; Bhati, Sharda

    2011-01-01

    Milk is considered to be a complete food and an almost indispensable part of the diets of infants and children. In this paper we present the concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements such as Th, Cs, Co, Rb, Fe, Ca and Zn present in human milk and commercially available milk. The trace elements in human and other milk samples were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The results show that higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Ca and Rb were found in ordinary milk samples in comparison with the human milk samples. Whereas, a higher concentrations of Fe and Co were observed in human milk samples. These data will be useful for the nutritional and biokinetic studies of these elements in infants and children of different age groups. (author)

  16. The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and human exposure to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M

    2012-02-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in using human biomonitoring - the measurement of chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in biological specimens/body fluids - for investigating exposure to environmental chemicals. General population human biomonitoring programs are useful for investigating human exposure to environmental chemicals and an important tool for integrating environment and health. One of these programs, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), conducted in the United States is designed to collect data on the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized, civilian U.S. population. NHANES includes a physical examination, collecting a detailed medical history, and collecting biological specimens (i.e., blood and urine). These biological specimens can be used to assess exposure to environmental chemicals. NHANES human biomonitoring data can be used to establish reference ranges for selected chemicals, provide exposure data for risk assessment, and monitor exposure trends. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Nutrition modulation of human aging: The calorie restriction paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sai Krupa; Balasubramanian, Priya; Weerasekara, Yasoma K

    2017-11-05

    Globally, the aging population is growing rapidly, creating an urgent need to attenuate age-related health conditions, including metabolic disease and disability. A promising strategy for healthy aging based on consistently positive results from studies with a variety of species, including non-human primates (NHP), is calorie restriction (CR), or the restriction of energy intake while maintaining intake of essential nutrients. The burgeoning evidence for this approach in humans is reviewed and the major study to date to address this question, CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), is described. CALERIE findings indicate the feasibility of CR in non-obese humans, confirm observations in NHP, and are consistent with improvements in disease risk reduction and potential anti-aging effects. Finally, the mechanisms of CR in humans are reviewed which sums up the fact that evolutionarily conserved mechanisms mediate the anti-aging effects of CR. Overall, the prospect for further research in both NHP and humans is highly encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond diet reconstruction: stable isotope applications to human physiology, health, and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from soft or mineralized tissues is a direct and widely-used technique for modeling diets. In addition to its continued role in paleodiet analysis, stable isotope analysis is now contributing to studies of physiology, disease, and nutrition in archaeological and living human populations. In humans and other animals, dietary uptake and distribution of carbon and nitrogen among mineralized and soft tissue is carried out with varying efficiency due to factors of internal biology. Human pathophysiologies may lead to pathology-influenced isotopic fractionation that can be exploited to understand not just skeletal health and diet, but physiological health and nutrition. This study reviews examples from human biology, non-human animal ecology, biomedicine, and bioarchaeology demonstrating how stable isotope analyses are usefully applied to the study of physiological adaptation and adaptability. Suggestions are made for future directions in applying stable isotope analysis to the study of nutritional stress, disease, and growth and development in living and past human populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjörg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion. No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account.

  20. IgY antibodies in human nutrition for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sandra; Schubert, Andreas; Zajac, Julia; Dyck, Terry; Oelkrug, Christopher

    2015-10-20

    Oral administration of preformed specific antibodies is an attractive approach against infections of the digestive system in humans and animals in times of increasing antibiotic resistances. Previous studies showed a positive effect of egg yolk IgY antibodies on bacterial intoxications in animals and humans. Immunization of chickens with specific antigens offers the possibility to create various forms of antibodies. Research shows that orally applied IgY's isolated from egg yolks can passively cure or prevent diseases of the digestive system. The use of these alternative therapeutic drugs provides further advantages: (1) The production of IgY's is a non-invasive alternative to current methods; (2) The keeping of chickens is inexpensive; (3) The animals are easy to handle; (4) It avoids repetitive bleeding of laboratory animals; (5) It is also very cost effective regarding the high IgY concentration within the egg yolk. Novel targets of these antigen specific antibodies are Helicobacter pylori and also molecules involved in signaling pathways in gastric cancer. Furthermore, also dental caries causing bacteria like Streptococcus mutans or opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients are possible targets. Therefore, IgY's included in food for human consumption may be able to prevent or cure human diseases.

  1. Sulfur in human nutrition - effects beyond protein synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertjan Schaafsma

    2008-01-01

    That sulfur is essential to humans is based on the requirement of S-animo acids for normal growth and maintenance of nitrogen balance and not on the optimization of metabolic proccesses involving the synthesis of non-protein sulphur containing compounds. This paper reviews the significance of sulfur

  2. Enzymatic modification of phospholipids forfunctional applications and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Vikbjerg, Anders / Falk; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    analogs based on the latest understanding of pivotal role of phospholipids in manifold biological processes, exploration of remarkable application potentials of phospholipids in meliorating human health, as well as development of new chemical and biotechnological approaches applied to the modification...... design. This will of course provide fundamental bases also for the development of enzymatic technology to produce structured or modified phospholipids....

  3. Control of water infiltration into near surface low-level waste disposal units. Final report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1997-09-01

    This study''s objective was to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work was carried out in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration were investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management

  4. Nutrition and muscle loss in humans during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    The protein loss in humans during spaceflight is partly due to a normal adaptive response to a decreased work load on the muscles involved in weight bearing. The process is mediated by changes in prostaglandin release, secondary to the decrease in tension on the affected muscles. On missions, where there is a high level of physical demands on the astronauts, there tends to be an energy deficit, which adds to the muscle protein loss and depletes the body fat reserves. While the adaptive response is a normal part of homeostasis, the additional protein loss from an energy deficit can, in the long run, have a negative effect on health and capability of humans to live and work in space and afterward return to Earth.

  5. Interactions with human nutrition and other indices of population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The contamination of food is an important pathway involved in the internal combination of humans. The site-related critical foodstuffs can be grouped into three main categories: dairy products; aquatic animals, such as fish, molluscs and crustaceans; and other typical foods. The concentration factor plays a more important role than the amount of a certain food consumed. Semi-natural and natural ecosystems are of special interest in this content because they can provide critical pathways for radionuclide transfer to humans, and they can also act as temporary sinks or long-term sources for radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere. From the viewpoint of population health, another important role is played by the countermeasures. The reference values commonly adopted in radiation protection are conservative and they have been established for planning practices that could provide future sources of irradiation. After a large release of radionuclides, the evaluation of the problem must be as realistic as possible, otherwise the countermeasures will imply consequences worse than those produced by the accident itself (without any further intervention). This criterion was clearly stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but it was frequently neglected after the Chernobyl accident. The results of a survey on the number of induced abortions following this incident are reported. These suggest that moral and ethical problems are involved above and beyond any economical implications. (Author)

  6. Nutrition Support Team Guide to Maternal Diet for the Human-Milk-Fed Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Kathleen; DeFranco, Emily A; Kleiman, Jeanne; Rogers, Lynette K; Morrow, Ardythe L; Valentine, Christina J

    2018-03-30

    Human milk feeding is encouraged for all infants; however, the mammary gland depends on maternal dietary intake of vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, D, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, and iodine. Nutrition support team knowledge of maternal feeding guidelines for these nutrient sources can therefore impact infant intake. We hypothesized that these key nutrients for lactation in the mother's diet would be less than the dietary guidelines in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of nutrition data collected during a randomized, controlled trial. Dietary records were analyzed from 16 mothers (13 with singleton and 3 with multiple births) completing the study. Mean dietary intakes of selected nutrients were calculated and compared with the current dietary reference intakes. Mean maternal dietary intake for singletons was significantly (P vitamin A (58%), vitamin D (44%), and choline (58%);) DHA comprised only 5% of the current expert recommendation. Based on singleton recommendations, mothers to twins consumed an adequate intake except for DHA. Women providing breast milk for singleton preterm infants did not consume dietary reference intakes for key nutrients. Twin mothers' diets were adequate except for DHA, but these guidelines are based on singleton pregnancies and remain poorly understood for twin needs. The nutrition support team can have a unique role in maternal dietary education to impact human milk nutrient delivery to the infant. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Elevating optimal human nutrition to a central goal of plant breeding and production of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, David C; Morris, Cindy E; Dratz, Edward A; Pilgeram, Alice

    2009-11-01

    High-yielding cereals and other staples have produced adequate calories to ward off starvation for much of the world over several decades. However, deficiencies in certain amino acids, minerals, vitamins and fatty acids in staple crops, and animal diets derived from them, have aggravated the problem of malnutrition and the increasing incidence of certain chronic diseases in nominally well-nourished people (the so-called diseases of civilization). Enhanced global nutrition has great potential to reduce acute and chronic disease, the need for health care, the cost of health care, and to increase educational attainment, economic productivity and the quality of life. However, nutrition is currently not an important driver of most plant breeding efforts, and there are only a few well-known efforts to breed crops that are adapted to the needs of optimal human nutrition. Technological tools are available to greatly enhance the nutritional value of our staple crops. However, enhanced nutrition in major crops might only be achieved if nutritional traits are introduced in tandem with important agronomic yield drivers, such as resistance to emerging pests or diseases, to drought and salinity, to herbicides, parasitic plants, frost or heat. In this way we might circumvent a natural tendency for high yield and low production cost to effectively select against the best human nutrition. Here we discuss the need and means for agriculture, food processing, food transport, sociology, nutrition and medicine to be integrated into new approaches to food production with optimal human nutrition as a principle goal.

  8. Safety assessment of menaquinone-7 for use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaias Ravishankar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K occurs widely in foods and has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, as well as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiosteoporosis properties. A previous study indicates that long-chain menaquinone-7 may be more bioavailable than vitamin K and short-chain menaquinones. In the present study, acute, subacute toxicity and genotoxicity assays were carried out to evaluate the safety of oral menaquinone-7 in albino Wistar rats. Oral administration of menaquinone-7, at a concentration of 2000 mg/kg, did not cause toxic symptoms in either male or female rats. A subacute toxicity study also proved the safety and tolerance of prolonged treatment (for 90 days with menaquinone-7 in rats, as evidenced by biochemical, hematological, and urine parameters as well as by histopathological analysis. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity studies were performed by comet, micronucleus, and Ames tests on Salmonella typhimurium strains, which showed cellular safety and nonmutagenicity of menaquinone-7. The results indicate the safety of menaquinone-7 for human consumption.

  9. Cyclodextrins in Food Technology and Human Nutrition: Benefits and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyvesi, É; Vikmon, M; Szente, L

    2016-09-09

    Cyclodextrins are tasteless, odorless, nondigestible, noncaloric, noncariogenic saccharides, which reduce the digestion of carbohydrates and lipids. They have low glycemic index and decrease the glycemic index of the food. They are either non- or only partly digestible by the enzymes of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and fermented by the gut microflora. Based on these properties, cyclodextrins are dietary fibers useful for controlling the body weight and blood lipid profile. They are prebiotics, improve the intestinal microflora by selective proliferation of bifidobacteria. These antiobesity and anti-diabetic effects make them bioactive food supplements and nutraceuticals. In this review, these features are evaluated for α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins, which are the cyclodextrin variants approved by authorities for food applications. The mechanisms behind these effects are reviewed together with the applications as solubilizers, stabilizers of dietary lipids, such as unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, vitamins, flavonoids, carotenoids and other nutraceuticals. The recent applications of cyclodextrins for reducing unwanted components, such as trans-fats, allergens, mycotoxins, acrylamides, bitter compounds, as well as in smart active packaging of foods are also overviewed.

  10. Palm oil and human health. Meeting report of NFI: Nutrition Foundation of Italy symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Franca; Galli, Claudio; Ghiselli, Andrea; Lercker, Giovanni; La Vecchia, Carlo; Maffeis, Claudio; Agostoni, Carlo; Ballardini, Donatella; Brignoli, Ovidio; Faggiano, Pompilio; Giacco, Rosalba; Macca, Claudio; Magni, Paolo; Marelli, Giuseppe; Marrocco, Walter; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Mureddu, Gian Francesco; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Stella, Roberto; Troiano, Ersilia; Verduci, Elvira; Volpe, Roberto; Poli, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    The use of palm oil by the food industry is increasingly criticized, especially in Italy, for its purported negative effects on human health and environment. This paper summarizes the conclusions of a Symposium on this topic, gathered by the Nutrition Foundation of Italy, among experts representing a number of Italian Medical and Nutritional Scientific Societies. Toxicological and environmental issues were not considered. Participants agreed that: no evidence does exist on the specific health effects of palm oil consumption as compared to other saturated fatty acids-rich fats; the stereospecific distribution of saturated fatty acids in the triacylglycerol molecule of palm oil limits their absorption rate and metabolic effects; in agreement with International guidelines, saturated fatty acids intake should be kept palm oil consumption on human health (and specifically on CVD or cancer risk) can be foreseen.

  11. Mineral, amino acid, and hormonal composition of chicken eggshell powder and the evaluation of its use in human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Pakan, [No Value; Hofstede, GJH; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Veer, E; De Vries, PJF

    2000-01-01

    Chicken eggshell powder (ESP) might be an attractive source of Ca for human nutrition. To study its nutritional value, we analyzed minerals, amino acids, and hormones in commercially available Slovakian ESP. The mineral composition was compared with three Dutch ESP samples that differed in feed and

  12. Characteristics of the regional human milk bank in Poland - donors, recipients and nutritional value of human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarska, Olga; Zielińska, Monika; Pawlus, Beata; Wesołowska, Aleksandra

    In case of shortage of breast milk despite proper lactation care or the poor state of the mother’s health, breast milk from human milk bank is recommended for feeding preterm infants This study retrospectively evaluated the first year of the operation of the Regional Human Milk Bank Data concerning donors was collected in the human milk bank during the cooperation. The clinical characteristics of the recipients was made on the basis of medical documentation from the Holy Family Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Analysis of nutritional value was performed with the human milk analyzer (MIRIS AB) In the first year of activity, 45 voluntary donors established cooperation, donating from 650 to 32030 ml of human milk. The content of nutrients in milk provided by donors was variable - protein 0.4-1.5 g / 100 ml, fat 1.1-7.4 g / 100 ml, carbohydrates 6.3-7.9 g / 100 ml. The average length of using donated human milk was 4 days and the average volume of milk for one infant was 282 ml The donor profiles have a significant impact on the milk composition form HMB. The nutritional value can be improved by recruitment donors from mothers that gave birth prematurely and by beginning donation at earlier stages of lactation as soon as lactation is stabilized. In case of shortage of mothers own milk the immediate implementation of donors milk as a short-term support can significantly reduce the food intolerance incidence in the group of prematurely born infants

  13. Major Findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Robert W; Grotte, Nathaniel

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700 (Cambridge University Press) The book is built on the authors' work with 300 years of height and nutrition data and discusses their findings in the context of technophysio evolution, a uniquely modern form of rapid physiological development, the result of humanity's ability to control its environment and create technological innovations to adapt to it.

  14. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques in human nutrition research as exemplified by research programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    In human nutrition research, nuclear analytical techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA), are used mainly for the in vitro study of trace elements. According to work sponsored by the IAEA, up to 15 trace elements and 5 minor elements of nutritional interest may be determined in biological materials by NAA with good accuracy and precision. A programme is described in which NAA was used for the determination of 14 trace elements and one minor element in human milk. NAA also plays an important role in the certification of reference materials for nutritional studies. (author) 17 refs.; 6 tables

  15. [Nutritional components and sub-chronic toxicity of genetically modified rice expressing human lactoferrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichun; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2012-01-01

    To compare the nutritional components of genetically modified rice expressing human lactoferrin (hLf) with its parental rice, and to observe the sub-chronic toxicity of hLf rice. The nutritional components of hLf rice and its parental rice were determined by the National Standard Methods. Eighty weanling Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups based on their gender and body weight: group A (hLf rice high-dose group with 71.45% rice), group B (hLf rice medium-dose group with 35. 725% rice), group C (parental rice group with 71.01% rice) and group D (AIN-93G diet group), and the latter two groups were used as the control. Body weight, dietary intake, blood routine test, blood biochemical examination, organ coefficient, bone density and the pathology of organs were investigated at the end of a 90-day feeding experiment. Except for human lactoferrin and Fe, there was no difference of main nutritional components, minerals and vitamins between groups. The differences of some indicators of blood routine (WBC, HGB, RBC and MCH), blood biochemistry (AST and GLU), organ coefficient and bone density between group A and B (hLf rice) with group C (parental rice) or group D (AIN-93G) were significant, while no difference of other indicators. Although some differences were observed, all indicators were still in the normal reference range. Therefore, there was no sign of toxic and adverse effects for hLf rice on rats.

  16. Brain imaging and human nutrition: which measures to use in intervention studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Babiloni, Claudio; Sijben, John W; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the life span, the brain is a metabolically highly active organ that uses a large proportion of total nutrient and energy intake. Furthermore, the development and repair of neural tissue depend on the proper intake of essential structural nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. Therefore, what we eat, or refrain from eating, may have an important impact on our cognitive ability and mental performance. Two of the key areas in which diet is thought to play an important role are in optimizing neurodevelopment in children and in preventing neurodegeneration and cognitive decline during aging. From early development to aging, brain imaging can detect structural, functional, and metabolic changes in humans and modifications due to altered nutrition or to additional nutritional supplementation. Inclusion of imaging measures in clinical studies can increase understanding with regard to the modification of brain structure, metabolism, and functional endpoints and may provide early sensitive measures of long-term effects. In this symposium, the utility of existing brain imaging technologies to assess the effects of nutritional intervention in humans is described. Examples of current research showing the utility of these markers are reviewed.

  17. Isotope techniques in human studies of zinc nutrition. Report of an IAEA consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting was convened by the IAEA in November 1996 to review current knowledge of the role of zinc in human nutrition - with particular reference to (1) relevant public health issues in developing countries, and (2) the role that isotope techniques can play in increasing our understanding of some of these matters. More specifically, the Consultants Group was invited to advise the Agency on its future programmes in this area. It was concluded that there is now abundant scientific evidence that zinc deficiency of nutritional origin is a widespread phenomenon with important health consequences, particularly in developing countries. Even mild zinc deficiency is now thought to contribute to pregnancy complications, low birth weight, impaired immune competence, maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, and growth failure in infancy and childhood. Hence zinc deficiency may have far-reaching consequences for maternal, infant and child health in many developing countries. Isotope techniques - mainly using stable isotopes of zinc, but in some cases using radioisotopes - provide many possibilities 'for improving our understanding of the basic biochemical and metabolic functions of zinc, and for increasing our knowledge of the roles of this essential micronutrient in human nutrition. Through the use of isotope techniques, we may also expect to be better able to assess, and to increase, the efficacy of dietary and other intervention programmes designed to improve the nutritional status of developing country populations whose intakes are below the levels needed to achieve optimal health. This report briefly reviews some of these isotope techniques and makes recommendations on their use in IAEA research and technical co-operation programmes

  18. Isotope techniques in human studies of zinc nutrition. Report of an IAEA consultants` meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    A Consultants` Meeting was convened by the IAEA in November 1996 to review current knowledge of the role of zinc in human nutrition - with particular reference to (1) relevant public health issues in developing countries, and (2) the role that isotope techniques can play in increasing our understanding of some of these matters. More specifically, the Consultants Group was invited to advise the Agency on its future programmes in this area. It was concluded that there is now abundant scientific evidence that zinc deficiency of nutritional origin is a widespread phenomenon with important health consequences, particularly in developing countries. Even mild zinc deficiency is now thought to contribute to pregnancy complications, low birth weight, impaired immune competence, maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, and growth failure in infancy and childhood. Hence zinc deficiency may have far-reaching consequences for maternal, infant and child health in many developing countries. Isotope techniques - mainly using stable isotopes of zinc, but in some cases using radioisotopes - provide many possibilities `for improving our understanding of the basic biochemical and metabolic functions of zinc, and for increasing our knowledge of the roles of this essential micronutrient in human nutrition. Through the use of isotope techniques, we may also expect to be better able to assess, and to increase, the efficacy of dietary and other intervention programmes designed to improve the nutritional status of developing country populations whose intakes are below the levels needed to achieve optimal health. This report briefly reviews some of these isotope techniques and makes recommendations on their use in IAEA research and technical co-operation programmes

  19. Pollination and Plant Resources Change the Nutritional Quality of Almonds for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Kremen, Claire; Garber, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Insect-pollinated crops provide important nutrients for human health. Pollination, water and nutrients available to crops can influence yield, but it is not known if the nutritional value of the crop is also influenced. Almonds are an important source of critical nutrients for human health such as unsaturated fat and vitamin E. We manipulated the pollination of almond trees and the resources available to the trees, to investigate the impact on the nutritional composition of the crop. The pollination treatments were: (a) exclusion of pollinators to initiate self-pollination and (b) hand cross-pollination; the plant resource treatments were: (c) reduced water and (d) no fertilizer. In an orchard in northern California, trees were exposed to a single treatment or a combination of two (one pollination and one resource). Both the fat and vitamin E composition of the nuts were highly influenced by pollination. Lower proportions of oleic to linoleic acid, which are less desirable from both a health and commercial perspective, were produced by the self-pollinated trees. However, higher levels of vitamin E were found in the self-pollinated nuts. In some cases, combined changes in pollination and plant resources sharpened the pollination effects, even when plant resources were not influencing the nutrients as an individual treatment. This study highlights the importance of insects as providers of cross-pollination for fruit quality that can affect human health, and, for the first time, shows that other environmental factors can sharpen the effect of pollination. This contributes to an emerging field of research investigating the complexity of interactions of ecosystem services affecting the nutritional value and commercial quality of crops. PMID:24587215

  20. Nutritional Ingredients Modulate Adipokine Secretion and Inflammation in Human Primary Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romacho, Tania; Glosse, Philipp; Richter, Isabel; Elsen, Manuela; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; van Tol, Eric A.; Eckel, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional factors such as casein hydrolysates and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been proposed to exert beneficial metabolic effects. We aimed to investigate how a casein hydrolysate (eCH) and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could affect human primary adipocyte function in vitro. Incubation conditions with the different nutritional factors were validated by assessing cell vitality with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and neutral red incorporation. Intracellular triglyceride content was assessed with Oil Red O staining. The effect of eCH, a non-peptidic amino acid mixture (AA), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on adiponectin and leptin secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intracellular adiponectin expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were analyzed by Western blot, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) release was explored by ELISA. The eCH concentration dependently increased adiponectin secretion in human primary adipocytes through its intrinsic peptide bioactivity, since the non-peptidic mixture, AA, could not mimic eCH’s effects on adiponectin secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and DHA combined with arachidonic acid (ARA) upregulated adiponectin secretion. However, only DHA and DHA/ARA exerted a potentanti-inflammatory effect reflected by prevention of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced NF-κB activation and MCP-1 secretion in human adipocytes. eCH and DHA alone or in combination with ARA, may hold the key for nutritional programming through their anti-inflammatory action to prevent diseases with low-grade chronic inflammation such as obesity or diabetes. PMID:25629558

  1. Nutritional Ingredients Modulate Adipokine Secretion and Inflammation in Human Primary Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Romacho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors such as casein hydrolysates and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been proposed to exert beneficial metabolic effects. We aimed to investigate how a casein hydrolysate (eCH and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could affect human primary adipocyte function in vitro. Incubation conditions with the different nutritional factors were validated by assessing cell vitality with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and neutral red incorporation. Intracellular triglyceride content was assessed with Oil Red O staining. The effect of eCH, a non-peptidic amino acid mixture (AA, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs on adiponectin and leptin secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Intracellular adiponectin expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation were analyzed by Western blot, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 release was explored by ELISA. The eCH concentration dependently increased adiponectin secretion in human primary adipocytes through its intrinsic peptide bioactivity, since the non-peptidic mixture, AA, could not mimic eCH’s effects on adiponectin secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and DHA combined with arachidonic acid (ARA upregulated adiponectin secretion. However, only DHA and DHA/ARA exerted a potentanti-inflammatory effect reflected by prevention of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α induced NF-κB activation and MCP-1 secretion in human adipocytes. eCH and DHA alone or in combination with ARA, may hold the key for nutritional programming through their anti-inflammatory action to prevent diseases with low-grade chronic inflammation such as obesity or diabetes.

  2. Region-wide assessment of the capacity for human nutrition training in West Africa: current situation, challenges, and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of information on existing nutrition training programs in West Africa. A preliminary step in the process of developing a comprehensive framework to strengthen human capacity for nutrition is to conduct an inventory of existing training programs. Objective: This study was conducted to provide baseline data on university-level nutrition training programs that exist in the 16 countries in West Africa. It also aimed to identify existing gaps in nutrition training and propose solutions to address them. Design: Participating institutions were identified based on information provided by in-country key informants, UNICEF offices or through internet searches. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews during on-site visits or through self-administered questionnaires. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results: In total, 83 nutrition degree programs comprising 32 B.Sc. programs, 34 M.Sc. programs, and 17 Ph.D. programs were identified in the region. More than half of these programs were in Nigeria. Six countries (Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, The Gambia, and Togo offered no nutrition degree program. The programs in francophone countries were generally established more recently than those in anglophone countries (age: 3.5 years vs. 21.4 years. Programs were predominantly (78% run by government-supported institutions. They did not provide a comprehensive coverage of all essential aspects of human nutrition. They were heavily oriented to food science (46%, with little emphasis on public health nutrition (24% or overnutrition (2%. Annual student intakes per program in 2013 ranged from 3 to 262; 7 to 40; and 3 to 10, respectively, for bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs while the number of graduates produced annually per country ranged from 6 to 271; 3 to 64; and 1 to 18, respectively. External collaboration only existed in 15% of the programs. In-service training programs on

  3. [Human nutrition with reference to animals as sources of protein (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijn, J F

    1981-03-01

    In achieving adequate nutrition for all people in the world foods of animal origin are indispensable to supply sufficient protein and essential nutrients. All foods of animal origin have a number of characteristics in common, in view of which they should be regarded as highly valuable human food because of the considerable biological value of the proteins, their ready digestibility and their palatability. A number of nutritional features of animal versus vegetable protein are discussed. Several queries have to be placed against the health aspects of the copious consumption of animal protein as has increasingly become the practice in Europe. The consumption of dishes prepared from food of animal origin high in protein will inevitably be associated with a high fat content. It is not likely that, specifically, the incidence of human cancer will also be increased by the allegedly carcinogenic effects of meat persé, however using nitrite in meats may be hazardous when consumption of meat is considerable because of the carcinogenic effects of nitrosamines. In addition, there are drawbacks to the copious consumption of food of animal origin as part of the daily diet because of the high fat content and low dietary fibre content of this food. A conference of managers in the animal-food industry and experts from the professional medical and dietetic organizations would be a desirable improvement in achieving an optimum situation. Sufficient production and distribution will not fully ensure adequate nutrition of animal origin. Its valuable nutrients must be available from food which is acceptable to the individual consumer. Those factors which decide what is eaten and why, are not known to a sufficient extent. Cultural and environmental factors also play a highly decisive role in the matter. There are religious rules regarding food of animal origin, which obtain for large sections of the population all over the world. Other practices concerning the consumption of food of

  4. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND LOCAL ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: TASKS AND POSSIBILITIES FOR THE HUMAN HEALTHY NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SEREGI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The positive nutritional effects of PUFA in the human diet nowadays are wellknown. The presence of PUFA in food of animal origin is first of all influenced by the feeding. The animal feeds rich in omega-3 PUFA are considered as basic feeds, such as meadow, grass, hay, green forage, grains etc. In the newly accessed EU countries the traditional breeding methods are typical (housing, lairage, pasture. This tendency is reflected also in the composition of local breeds: the so called indigenous, traditional breeds are characteristic. The development and expansion of local breeding methods is of crucial importance for the viable region, the protection (many times the restoration of environment and for the above mentioned human nutritional advantages. With modern control methods of origin, with adherence of food-safety rules, the local commercialization of the traditional foods can be solved, as many positive examples show in different countries. The need for diverse, tasteful and safe products of special quality is also increasing. Our aim is to support and favour the local, traditional breeding for direct commercialization with ensuring the proper conditions, financial support and legislation.

  5. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa—Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-01-01

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas. PMID:28036008

  6. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa—Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurencia Govender

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  7. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-12-27

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  8. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A.; Márquez, Ana L.; Vargas, J. Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met.

  9. Resource conflict and cooperation between human host and gut microbiota: implications for nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Helen; Alcock, Joe; Aktipis, Athena

    2016-05-01

    Diet has been known to play an important role in human health since at least the time period of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. In the last decade, research has revealed that microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract, known as the gut microbiota, are critical factors in human health. This paper draws on concepts of cooperation and conflict from ecology and evolutionary biology to make predictions about host-microbiota interactions involving nutrients. To optimally extract energy from some resources (e.g., fiber), hosts require cooperation from microbes. Other nutrients can be utilized by both hosts and microbes (e.g., simple sugars, iron) in their ingested form, which may lead to greater conflict over these resources. This framework predicts that some negative health effects of foods are driven by the direct effects of these foods on human physiology and by indirect effects resulting from microbiome-host competition and conflict (e.g., increased invasiveness and inflammation). Similarly, beneficial effects of some foods on host health may be enhanced by resource sharing and other cooperative behaviors between host and microbes that may downregulate inflammation and virulence. Given that some foods cultivate cooperation between hosts and microbes while others agitate conflict, host-microbe interactions may be novel targets for interventions aimed at improving nutrition and human health. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Micronutrient Composition of 35 Food Fishes from India and Their Significance in Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bimal P; Sankar, T V; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Dayal, J Syama; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Mitra, Tandrima; Karunakaran, D; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-12-01

    The micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) are required in small amounts but are essential for health, development, and growth. Micronutrient deficiencies, which affect over two billion people around the globe, are the leading cause of many ailments including mental retardation, preventable blindness, and death during childbirth. Fish is an important dietary source of micronutrients and plays important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, micronutrient composition of 35 food fishes (includes both finfishes and shellfishes) was investigated from varying aquatic habitats. Macrominerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se) were determined by either atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Phosphorus content was determined either spectrophotometrically or by ICP-AES. Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis showed that, in general, the marine fishes were rich in sodium and potassium; small indigenous fishes (SIFs) in calcium, iron, and manganese; coldwater fishes in selenium; and the brackishwater fishes in phosphorous. The marine fishes Sardinella longiceps and Epinephelus spp. and the SIFs were rich in all fat-soluble vitamins. All these recommendations were made according to the potential contribution (daily value %) of the species to the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Information on the micronutrients generated would enhance the utility of fish in both community and clinical nutrition.

  11. [Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics - application of „omics” technologies in optimization of human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are perceived as one of the most important research areas ensuring better understanding of an impact of nutrition on human health. Since such researches are interdisciplinary in type, there is a problem with their widespread acceptance and practical clinical application of obtained results. Understanding the new ideas and hypotheses published in researches on nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics requires some knowledge of genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and capabilities and limitations that are associated with the use of statistical and bioinformatic analysis, and above all „omics” research technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics). Highly efficient genome and proteome analysis techniques allow to obtain data necessary for profiling of an individual patient. The main problem is still our insufficient knowledge of cell physiology and biochemistry. The vast amount of information is obtained with the use of „omics” technologies what makes it difficult to interpret and infer. An unquestionable advantage of this type of research is the possibility to utilize system analysis (system biology) which is important in the context of a holistic interpretation of biological phenomena. This review is an attempt to present the main hypotheses and objectives which are carried out by researchers in nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics. This article describes the most important directions of research and anticipated results that are related to the practical use of nutritional genomics as well as the critical assessment of the possible impact of future developments on public health.

  12. NUTRITION AND VASCULAR SUPPLY OF RETINAL GANGLION CELLS DURING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRutkowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the roles of the different vascular beds nourishing the inner retina (retinal ganglion cells during normal development of the human eye and using our own tissue specimens to support our conclusions.Methods. An extensive search of the appropriate literature included PubMed, Google scholar, and numerous available textbooks. In addition, choroidal and retinal NADPH-diaphorase stained whole mount preparations were investigated.Results. The first critical interaction between vascular bed and retinal ganglion cell (RGC formation occurs in the 6th-8th month of gestation leading to a massive reduction of RGCs mainly in the peripheral retina. The first three years of age are characterized by an intense growth of the eyeball to near adult size. In the adult eye, the influence of the choroid on inner retinal nutrition was determined by examining the peripheral retinal watershed zones in more detail.Conclusion. This delicately balanced situation of retinal ganglion cell nutrition is described in the different regions of the eye, and a new graphic presentation is introduced to combine morphological measurements and clinical visual field data.

  13. A review of metabolic potential of human gut microbiome in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monika; Verma, Manoj Kumar; Chauhan, Nar Singh

    2018-03-01

    The human gut contains a plethora of microbes, providing a platform for metabolic interaction between the host and microbiota. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota act as a link between gut microbiota and its host. These metabolites act as messengers having the capacity to alter the gut microbiota. Recent advances in the characterization of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic relationship with the host have provided a platform to decode metabolic interactions. The human gut microbiota, a crucial component for dietary metabolism, is shaped by the genetic, epigenetic and dietary factors. The metabolic potential of gut microbiota explains its significance in host health and diseases. The knowledge of interactions between microbiota and host metabolism, as well as modification of microbial ecology, is really beneficial to have effective therapeutic treatments for many diet-related diseases in near future. This review cumulates the information to map the role of human gut microbiota in dietary component metabolism, the role of gut microbes derived metabolites in human health and host-microbe metabolic interactions in health and diseases.

  14. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBDG

    Associates of the Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of ... nutrition), the role of animal source foods as part of a healthy diet requires continuous investment ... Keywords: Animal source foods, livestock products, nutrition, health ..... sensation of fullness that persists after eating until hunger returns (Benelam, ...

  15. Nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, and phytotherapy for improvement of human health: a perspective on plant biotechnology application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Plants are one of the most important resources of human foods and medicines. Rapidly increasing knowledge on nutrition, medicine, and plant biotechnology has dramatically changed the concepts about food, health and agriculture, and brought in a revolution on them. Nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have emerged as new concepts and healing systems have quickly and widely spread in recent years. Strong recommendations for consumption of nutraceuticals, natural plant foods, and the use of nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have become progressively popular to improve health, and to prevent and treat diseases. With these trends, improving the dietary nutritional values of fruits, vegetables and other crops or even bioactive components in folk herbals has become targets of the blooming plant biotechnology industry. This review attempts to display and remark on these aspects. It summarizes the progress made on nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, phytotherapy, and their related epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. It also covers markets of these health-promoting products and disease-preventing or healing systems, as well as regulations behind them that direct the development of biotechnology study and application. Finally, related patents are listed and briefly analyzed, regarding of plant biotechnological research and progress on transgenic crops to improve nutritional value, phytotherapy efficiency, or to produce pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites or high-valued protein medicines such as vaccines and antibodies.

  16. The effects of different levels of vitamin E and vitamin C in modified Beltsville extender on rooster post-thawed sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mahmood Reza; Kohram, Hamid; Zare Shahaneh, Ahmad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Sharideh, Hossein; Nabi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative damage of sperm by means of reactive oxygen species generated by the cellular components of semen is one of the main reason of declined motility and fertility of sperm during the freeze-thawing process. This study was conducted to determine the influence of vitamin C and vitamin E on rooster post-thawed sperm motility, viability and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Semen samples from 10 sexually-mature Ross 308 breeder roosters were collected and pooled, divided into nine equal parts and diluted with modified Beltsville extender containing with no antioxidants (control), or containing 100 (C100), 200 (C200), 400 (C400), 800 (C800) µg/mL vitamin C, and 2 (E2), 5 (E5), 10 (E10) and 15 (E15) µg/mL vitamin E. After thawing, total and progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and semen MDA level were assessed. The results shown that C200 and E5 extenders resulted in higher total motility (p rooster spermatozoa.

  17. The effects of different levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase in modified Beltsville extender on rooster post-thawed sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mahmood Reza; Kohram, Hamid; Zare-Shahaneh, Ahmad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Sharideh, Hossein; Nabi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative damage of sperm by means of reactive oxygen species generated by the cellular components of semen is one of the main reasons for decreased sperm motility and fertility during the freeze-thawing process. This study was conducted to determine the influence of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) on rooster sperm motility, viability and MDA level after freezing and thawing. Semen samples from 10 sexually-mature Ross 308 breeder roosters were collected and pooled, divided into nine equal parts and diluted with modified Beltsville extender containing no antioxidants (control), or supplemented with 50, 100, 200 and 300 μg/mL CAT, or 50, 100, 200 and 300 U/mL SOD. After thawing, sperm motility and motion parameters were assessed using a CASA system. Sperm viability and MDA level were assessed by eosin-nigrosin and MDA test, respectively. The results of this experiment showed that the extender supplemented with 100 and 200 μg CAT, and 50 U SOD had the highest sperm motility (Prooster semen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units. Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland: Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1994-12-01

    The project objective is to assess means for controlling waste infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large scale lysimeters (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, MD and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of LLW, uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three concepts are under investigation: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and bioengineering water management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earth (clay). The conductive layer barrier is a special case of the capillary barrier and it requires a flow layer (e.g. fine sandy loam) over a capillary break. As long as unsaturated conditions are maintained water is conducted by the flow layer to below the waste. This barrier is most efficient at low flow rates and is thus best placed below a resistive layer barrier. Such a combination of the resistive layer over the conductive layer barrier promises to be highly effective provided there is no appreciable subsidence. Bioengineering water management is a surface cover that is designed to accommodate subsidence. It consists of impermeable panels which enhance run-off and limit infiltration. Vegetation is planted in narrow openings between panels to transpire water from below the panels. This system has successfully dewatered two lysimeters thus demonstrating that this procedure could be used for remedial action (drying out) existing water-logged disposal sites at low cost

  19. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units - progress report on field experiments at a Humid Region Site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.; Ridky, R.W.; Schulz, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g. clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry to waste and without institutional care. These various concepts are being assessed in six large (70 x 45 x 10 each) lysimeters at Beltsville, Maryland. 6 refs., 21 figs

  20. Stable isotopes in human nutrition research. Final report on an IAEA co-ordinated research programme, Vienna, Austria, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Applications of Stable Isotope Tracers in Human Nutrition Research was established by the Agency in October 1988 and was completed in 1992. At various times during this period the CRP encompassed 16 participants in 16 countries. Its general objective was to help establish competence in the use of stable isotope techniques, particularly in developing countries, and particularly with reference to applications of 2 H, 13 C, 15 N, and 18 O in human nutrition research. Thereby it was hoped that it would be possible (i) to identify centres and scientists throughout the developing world who could use stable isotopes in human nutrition research, (ii) to assess the need for methodological adaptations for isotope-based methods in developing countries, and (iii) to advance the competence of the participants in using stable isotopes as tracers of human metabolism. In addition it was expected that the CRP would make a study of some major questions which have been identified by international groups of nutrition experts, particularly in areas relating to energy and protein metabolism. This document comprises copies of the working papers submitted by all CRP participants who contributed a final report on their project. These reports include details of the rationale, methods, results and interpretations from each of the respective studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Family and Consumer Sciences Focus on the Human Dimension: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Katherine L.; Chipman, Helen; Forstadt, Leslie A.; Rasco, Mattie R.; Sellers, Debra M.; Stephenson, Laura; York, De'Shoin A.

    2017-01-01

    The history of family and consumer sciences (FCS) and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is discussed with an emphasis on the critical importance of the human dimension. EFNEP's focus on people, education for change, accountability, strategic partnerships, and public value are highlighted as an example and model for…

  2. Getting the Dimensions Right - Human Nutrition as Key for the Control of Regional Nitrogen Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zessner, M.; Thaler, S.; Ruzicka, K.; Natho, S.

    2009-04-01

    The western society is rested upon a strong animal-based (meat, eggs, milk) nutrition, which is far of a healthy balanced diet. Furthermore, the production of animal based food consumes five to six times more resources (e.g.: area, fertilizer) compared to plant-based food and is closely connected to environmental pollution (e.g.: emission of greenhouse gases, water pollution). Especially the regional nitrogen turnover is highly driven by the request from human nutrition on agricultural production. While the efficiency of the transfer of applied nitrogen into the product is 60 - 70 % for vegetarian food, it is 15 - 25 % for animal based food. This contribution is going to demonstrate the most important nitrogen fluxes on national scale in Austria calculated using a national material flow analysis. The national nitrogen balance is driven by the production of nitrogen fertiliser and import of fooder. The airborne transport of reactive nitrogen (NOX and NHX) plays a decisive role within this balance. The main losses into the environment occur during the agricultural production process. Losses to the atmosphere exceed losses to groundwater and surface waters. After introduction of nitrogen removal at treatment plants, emissions to surface waters are dominated by land use driven fluxes via groundwater. The influence of nitrogen depositions on land (agricultural area, forest and mountain regions) on nitrogen emissions to the water system is in the same order of magnitude as the direct emissions due to fertiliser application - especially in a country as Austria with high shares of mountainous and silvicultural areas. Sources for depositions of reactive nitrogen are mainly NH3 emissions to the air from animal husbandry and NOX emissions to the air from traffic. Both substance are matter of transboundary transport and thus are highly influenced by activities outside a specific country or river catchment. Management of nitrogen on a national or catchment scale has therefore

  3. Found in Translation: What’s going on at the USDA’s Beltsville Bee Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical research discoveries follow a twisting path. Basic research driven by the human need to understand nature can, often years or even decades later, lead to huge advances that benefit people or the environment. Alternatively, sure-thing tests of a new product, management strategy, or breeding...

  4. Red palm oil: nutritional, physiological and therapeutic roles in improving human wellbeing and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntibeju, O O; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J

    2009-01-01

    The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease has created a growing interest in dietary red palm oil research. Also, the link between nutrition and health, oxidative stress and the severity or progression of disease has stimulated further interest in the potential role of red palm oil (a natural antioxidant product) to improve oxidative status by reducing oxidative stress in patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic diseases. In spite of its level of saturated fatty acid content (50%), red palm oil has not been found to promote atherosclerosis and/or arterial thrombosis. This is probably due to the ratio of its saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid content and its high concentration of antioxidants such as beta-carotene, tocotrienols, tocopherols and vitamin E. It has also been reported that the consumption of red palm oil reduces the level of endogenous cholesterol, and this seems to be due to the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar isomeric position of its fatty acids. The benefits of red palm oil to health include a reduction in the risk of arterial thrombosis and/or atherosclerosis, inhibition of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, a reduction in oxidative stress and a reduction in blood pressure. It has also been shown that dietary red palm oil, taken in moderation in animals and humans, promotes the efficient utilisation of nutrients, activates hepatic drug metabolising enzymes, facilitates the haemoglobinisation of red blood cells and improves immune function. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the nutritional, physiological and biochemical roles of red palm oil in improving wellbeing and quality of life.

  5. Accurate measurement of stable isotopes 46Ca and 48Ca in human feces, plasma, and urine in relation to human nutrition of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janghorbani, M.; Sundaresan, A.; Young, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method based on Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) is described which allows simultaneous measurement of two stable isotopes of calcium, 46 Ca and 48 Ca, in human feces, plasma, and urine for the purpose of studying human nutrition and metabolism of calcium. It is shown that these measurements can be made with relative analytical precision of 1-5% depending on the particulars of a given experiment. The method has been applied in humans and data are given showing that kinetics of plasma appearance of 46 Ca administered orally with food can be readily investigated. This method allows investigation of a number of important nutritional and metabolic issues in all human population groups without regard to radioisotope safety considerations, and should prove especially helpful in relation to studies of calcium bioavailability from different foods in a variety of population groups for whom use of radiocalcium is not warranted. (Auth.)

  6. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B.; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis.

  7. Nutrition During Pregnancy Impacts Offspring’s Epigenetic Status—Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Aisling A. Geraghty; Karen L. Lindsay; Goiuri Alberdi; Fionnuala M. McAuliffe; Eileen R. Gibney

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring?s epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients...

  8. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Y.T. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao (China); Benzie, I.F.F. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: iris.benzie@inet.polyu.edu.hk; Collins, A.R. [Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Choi, S.W. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yow, C.M.N. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tse, M.M.Y. [School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-10-15

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in

  9. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, Y.T.; Benzie, I.F.F.; Collins, A.R.; Choi, S.W.; Cheng, C.Y.; Yow, C.M.N.; Tse, M.M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H 2 O 2 ) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in Trolox

  10. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units. Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland: Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1995-04-01

    This study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (75 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care

  11. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units: Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    This study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care

  12. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units-progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.; Ridky, R.W.; Schulz, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    The study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75'x45'x10') at Beltsville, MD, and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste and without institutional care

  13. Use of boar spermatozoa for artificial insemination. III. Fecundity of boar spermatozoa stored in Beltsville liquid and Kiev extenders for three days at 18 C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L A; Aalbers, J G; Willems, C M; Rademaker, J H; Rexroad, C E

    1982-01-01

    A field trial was conducted on several hundred farms in The Netherlands to compare the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa stored for 1, 2, or 3 d at 18 C in either Kiev or Beltsville liquid extender (BL-1). Two storage volumes (25 and 100 ml) were used. Twelve Dutch Landrace boars, all in routine commercial artificial insemination service, provided the semen in twice-a-week collections. Over an 8-wk period in March and April, 1979, 2,849 sows and gilts were inseminated. Farrowing rates were higher (P less than .0001) with Kiev extender than with BL-1 extender (69.3 vs 60.5%) when semen was used over a 3 d period. The volume at which the semen was extended and stored had no effect on any parameter. Farrowing rate declined significantly when semen stored at 18 C for more than 2 d was used (74.5% vs 64.7% with semen stored for 1 and 3 in Kiev extender; 65.9% vs 52.7% with semen stored for 1 and 3 d in BL-1 extender). The farrowing rate, total number of pigs/litter and live pigs/litter were significantly higher for sows than for gilts inseminated with similar extended semen. On the basis of the results of this trial, Kiev extender appears to be more suitable as a diluent for liquid semen than does BL-1. AI with semen extended and stored for 3 d at 18 C can be expected to result in a lower farrowing rate than AI with semen stored for 1 or 2 d.

  14. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Fitó

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data.

  15. The use of stable isotopes as minerals tracers in human nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The idea of using stable isotopes as tracers in metabolic studies of vital systems started when it was noted that stable isotopes have the ability to unite with biomolecules.The article aims to review the methods used to measure quantities of tracer in doses given to donors orally or via intravenous injection, determinants of detection and their estimation as well as the use of mass spectrometer and other devices to measure different stable isotopes. In fact, the use of stable isotopes in nutrition research is an essential technique in order to understand many of the processes related to minerals absorption and the human body composition of water, fat and bones, transportation of food components within the body and estimation of the ages of red blood cells. It is possible to use the secretion of stable isotopes taken by injection to determine the paths of excretion or estimate self-retaining material by the intestine. The stable isotope technology helps to know the mechanics of minerals absorption and excretion in the body. It was possible to find out metabolic reactions of metals using mathematical models based on the measurement of tracers amount in biological fluids in order to know the absorbance situation of metals in the body.

  16. [Iron nutrition in Mapuche infants fed with human milk (2d phase)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E; Hertrampf, E; Rodríguez, E; Illanes, J C; Palacios, L; Llaguno, S; Lettelier, A

    1990-01-01

    Blood hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin were measured in 140 healthy rural mapuche (southern Chile's indigenous ethnic group) infants aged 8 to 15 months: 90 had been exclusively breast fed for the first 5 or 6 months of life, then solid foods were introduced but cow's milk was never given to them. The remaining 50, which were all weaned at nearly 4 months of age and then given cow's milk and solid foods at the corresponding age, were designated as controls. Anemia was detected in 4.5% of breast fed infants and in 38% of controls. Evidence of iron deficient erythropoiesis was found in 5% and 81% of cases and controls, respectively. Human milk apparently protects this ethnic group from iron deficiency anemia and this protection seems to be better in mapuche infants than in other groups of chilean infants, because these late have shown 30% incidence of anemia around the first year of life in other studies. More studies on differences in iron nutritional state among mapuche and non mapuche are needed and are under way.

  17. The effect of nutritional quality on comparing environmental impacts of human diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Gerber, P.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies support the general conclusion that plant-based diets have a lower environmental impact than animal-based diets. These studies, however, do not account for the nutritional quality of diets. The main objective of our study, therefore, was to explore if accounting for nutritional

  18. Roles of isotopic techniques in human nutrition evaluations. Report of an IAEA consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A nutrition consultants' meeting was convened by the IAEA for an advice on technical and programmatic issues related to isotope based nutritional evaluations. The salient recommendation from the consultants was for the IAEA to try to inaugurate a multi-national programme for using isotopes in evaluations that would have substantial practical relevance to public health policy. 6 refs

  19. Parenteral nutrition facilitates activation of coagulation but not of fibrinolysis during human endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Braxton, C. C.; Coyle, S. M.; Roth, M.; ten Cate, J. W.; Lowry, S. F.

    1998-01-01

    Venous thrombosis and bacterial infections are common complications of parenteral nutrition. To test the hypothesis that infection facilitates activation of coagulation during parenteral nutrition, healthy subjects were intravenously injected with endotoxin (2 ng/kg) after they had received either 1

  20. Roles of isotopic techniques in human nutrition evaluations. Report of an IAEA consultants` meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    A nutrition consultants` meeting was convened by the IAEA for an advice on technical and programmatic issues related to isotope based nutritional evaluations. The salient recommendation from the consultants was for the IAEA to try to inaugurate a multi-national programme for using isotopes in evaluations that would have substantial practical relevance to public health policy. 6 refs.

  1. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata) on human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingolo, Catharina E; Braga, João M A; Vieira, Ana C M; Moura, Mirian R L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2012-12-01

    Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts) has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g) and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses) revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.

  2. Nutrition during Pregnancy Impacts Offspring's Epigenetic Status—Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling A. Geraghty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring's epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients and methyl donors such as folate and B vitamins. Evidence suggests that maternal nutrition does not largely influence global methylation patterns, particularly in nutrient-replete populations; however, an important impact on gene-specific methylation is observed. A link is shown between maternal nutrition and the methylome of the offspring; however, there remains a paucity of research. With the potential to use DNA methylation patterns at birth to predict health of the child in later life, it is vital that further research be carried out.

  3. Enteral nutrients potentiate glucagon-like peptide-2 action and reduce dependence on parenteral nutrition in a rat model of human intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkman, Adam S; Murali, Sangita G; Hitt, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    human SBS and requires parenteral nutrition (PN). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups and maintained with PN for 18 days: total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone, TPN + GLP-2 (100 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), PN + EN + GLP-2(7 days), PN + EN + GLP-2(18 days), and a nonsurgical oral...

  4. Assessment of the Nutritional Value of Plant-Based Diets in Relation to Human Carbohydrates: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Aberoumand; S.S. Deokule

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate which plant foods are suitable for high temperature foodprocesses. Plant foods are the only sources of dietary fiber. Carbohydrates are the major nutrients of fruits andvegetables and human nutrition. Sugars are determined in the combined extracts using high-performance liquidchromatography (HPLC) with a universal evaporative light scattering detector. Results showed that thatfructose, glucose, sucrose contents were high in Cordia myxa (9.38, 12.75, 29.09%)...

  5. Global Analysis of Food and Nutrition: What the Human Body Wants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Foo, Mathias; Sung, Jaeyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2014-03-01

    There is currently an abundance of quantitative information regarding foods we consume, such as their total nutrient composition and daily nutritional requirements. In this study, we systematically analyzed such large-scale data of foods to better understand how the composition of foods affects their overall nutritional value. Herein, we constructed two types of networks that reflect nutritional data from about 700 food products: 1) The Food-food Network, in which each edge connects a pair of foods having similar nutritional contents; and 2) the Nutrient-nutrient Network, which is based on co-occurrence patterns of different nutrients across foods. By adopting the insight we obtained from the topological properties of these networks, we present a novel measure to quantify the overall nutritional value of a food, which we call the Nutritional Fitness (NF). Some nutrients can hinder foods from having high NF, acting as ``nutritional bottlenecks.'' Interestingly, a food's NF is not only affected by individual nutrients, but also pairs of nutrients. To this effect, foods with very high NFs tend to have unique nutrient pairs not observed from the majority of foods. To summarize, our study provides insight into how NF and nutrients are intricately related.

  6. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  7. [Nutritional characterization of produced fish for human consumption in Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Aide; Gómez, Elieth; Mayorga, Yamile; Triana, Cora Yohanna

    2008-03-01

    This research involves the nutritional characterization of the most commonly cultivated fish in the region. The species under study were: Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), tilapia roja (Oreocliromis sp), cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), bocachico (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae) and catfish (Pseudoplatystoma faciatum). A sea fish, coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), was used as reference because it is the imported species most used in the region, and it also contains n-3 fatty acids. For each fish sample moisture, ash, protein content, total fat, minerals (iron, calcium and phosphorous) and a fatty acid profile were determined. Results show a total protein content in between 16.4 and 22.6 g/100 g fillet for fresh water fish. Total fat amounts for trout are the highest (8.1 g/100 g fillet), while catfish has the lowest fat content (0.4 g/100 g fillet). Trout was found to be the most important source of n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) and phosphorous, with values ranging from 0.25% to 0.52%, and 250 to 346 mg/100 g fillet, respectively. Catfish and trout exhibited the highest iron content, with values ranging from 3 to 6mg/100 g fillet. Salmon, on the other hand, showed a high n-3 fatty acid content of 1.16% to 2.25%, when compared to fresh water fish. Calcium content is low in all species under scrutiny. Fresh water fish, other than trout, show no significant amount of n-3 fatty acids. However, all of them are a good source of protein. The obtained results allowed to determine the profile of oily acids of produced fish for human consumption in the region, demonstrating that the trout is the species with major quantity of oily acids n-3 specially DHA and of the minerals the phosphorus. Other species (kinds) catfish, bocachico, tilapia and cachama, are not a source of oily acids n-3, but they are an important source of protein.

  8. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martemucci Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

  9. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974; Part 7-Nutrition and Government; and Part 7A-Appendix. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, Second Session. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 21, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs opened with a statement by Senator McGovern, chairman. The Panel on Nutrition and Government then delivered its report and recommendations to the committee. The panel was concerned with surveillance, research, the training of professional personnel, and the overall…

  10. Inclusion of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes as a source of higher plant mineral nutrition in BTLSS mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Anischenko, Olesya; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    Human exometabolites inclusion into an intrasystem mass exchange will allow increasing of a closure level of a biological-technical life support system (BTLSS). Previously at the IBP SB RAS it was shown that human mineralized exometabolites could be incorporated in the BTLSS mass exchange as a mineral nutrition source for higher plants. However, it is not known how that combined use of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes in the capacity of nutrient medium, being a part of the BTLSS consumer wastes, will affect the plant productivity. Several wheat vegetations were grown in an uneven-aged conveyor on a neutral substrate. A mixture of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes was used as a nutrient solution in the experiment treatment and human mineralized exometabolites were used in the control. Consequently, a high wheat yield in the experiment treatment practically equal to the control yield was obtained. Thus, mineralized fish wastes can be an additional source of macro-and micronutrients for plants, and use of such wastes for the plant mineral nutrition allows increasing of BTLSS closure level.

  11. AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION IN THE LINE OF HUMAN EVOLUTION IS THE ONSET OF NUTRITIONAL METABOLIC DISEASES, EPIDEMIC OF CANCER AND THE INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Soroush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    This study goes deeply through the nutrition of the first primate and analyses the nutrition in the line of human evolution. Simply dividing the shifts in the nutrition through the human evolution, it is obvious that some elements in the diet are more important than the others. Since the beginning of the Neolithic, the ratio of plant-to-animal foods in the diet has sharply increased from an average of probably 65% to 35% during Paleolithic times to as high as 90% to 10% since the advent of ag...

  12. AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION IN THE LINE OF HUMAN EVOLUTION IS THE ONSET OF NUTRITIONAL METABOLIC DISEASES, EPIDEMIC OF CANCER AND THE INFECTIOUS DISEASES - Somayeh Zaminpira - Sorush Niknamian

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Sorush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    This study goes deeply through the nutrition of the first primate and analyses the nutrition in the line of human evolution. Simply dividing the shifts in the nutrition through the human evolution, it is obvious that some elements in the diet are more important than the others. Since the beginning of the Neolithic, the ratio of plant-to-animal foods in the diet has sharply increased from an average of probably 65% to 35% during Paleolithic times to as high as 90% to 10% since the advent of ag...

  13. The Relationship between Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Offspring Kidney Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qi Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and changes in health status. However, evidence from human studies are yet to be synthesised. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to systematically review current research on the relationship between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring kidney structure and function in humans. A search of five databases identified 9501 articles, of which three experimental and seven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Nutrients reviewed to date included vitamin A (n = 3, folate and vitamin B12 (n = 2, iron (n = 1, vitamin D (n = 1, total energy (n = 2 and protein (n = 1. Seven studies were assessed as being of “positive” and three of “neutral” quality. A variety of populations were studied, with limited studies investigating maternal nutrition during pregnancy, while measurements of offspring kidney outcomes were diverse across studies. There was a lack of consistency in the timing of follow-up for offspring kidney structure and/or function assessments, thus limiting comparability between studies. Deficiencies in maternal folate, vitamin A, and total energy during pregnancy were associated with detrimental impacts on kidney structure and function, measured by kidney volume, proteinuria, eGFRcystC and mean creatinine clearance in the offspring. Additional experimental and longitudinal prospective studies are warranted to confirm this relationship, especially in Indigenous populations where the risk of renal disease is greater.

  14. The Relationship between Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Offspring Kidney Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Qi; Collins, Clare E.; Gordon, Adrienne; Rae, Kym M.; Pringle, Kirsty G.

    2018-01-01

    The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and changes in health status. However, evidence from human studies are yet to be synthesised. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to systematically review current research on the relationship between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring kidney structure and function in humans. A search of five databases identified 9501 articles, of which three experimental and seven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Nutrients reviewed to date included vitamin A (n = 3), folate and vitamin B12 (n = 2), iron (n = 1), vitamin D (n = 1), total energy (n = 2) and protein (n = 1). Seven studies were assessed as being of “positive” and three of “neutral” quality. A variety of populations were studied, with limited studies investigating maternal nutrition during pregnancy, while measurements of offspring kidney outcomes were diverse across studies. There was a lack of consistency in the timing of follow-up for offspring kidney structure and/or function assessments, thus limiting comparability between studies. Deficiencies in maternal folate, vitamin A, and total energy during pregnancy were associated with detrimental impacts on kidney structure and function, measured by kidney volume, proteinuria, eGFRcystC and mean creatinine clearance in the offspring. Additional experimental and longitudinal prospective studies are warranted to confirm this relationship, especially in Indigenous populations where the risk of renal disease is greater. PMID:29466283

  15. The nutritive and immunoprotective quality of human milk beyond 1 year postpartum: are lactation-duration-based donor exclusions justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Allen, Jonathan C

    2013-08-01

    Donor human milk is critical for the fragile preterm infant who does not have access to his or her mother's milk, improving survival rates and quality of survival and decreasing hospital stay. Despite the opening of donor milk banks around the world, shortages continue as demand for donor milk exceeds supply. One potential means of increasing supply is by reducing exclusion criteria that prohibit mothers from donating milk based on duration of lactation. Minimal research has been done on the composition of human milk during the second year of lactation, with most research focusing on the nutritive compounds and not the immunoprotective compounds. Several immunoprotective compounds, including lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and oligosaccharides, are abundant in human milk compared to bovine-based infant formula and are partially or fully retained during Holder pasteurization, making them an important differentiating feature of donor milk. A PubMed search was conducted to review studies in human milk composition during the second year of lactation. Limitations of existing research include sample collection protocols, small study sizes, and use of populations that may have been at risk for nutritional deficiencies. Stable concentrations of several components were reported including protein, lactose, iron, copper, lactoferrin, and secretory immunoglobulin A. Lysozyme concentration increased during extended lactation, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined into the second year. Conflicting findings were reported on fat content, and no information was available regarding oligosaccharide content. More research is needed to create evidence-based guidelines regarding the nutritive and immunoprotective value of donor milk throughout the course of lactation.

  16. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  17. On the role and fate of sugars in human nutrition and health. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, A; Bonet, M L; Picó, C

    2009-03-01

    The recently implemented European Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods is fuelling scientific research efforts in the food and health arena. Essentially, it is now established that only claims that are scientifically substantiated will be allowed. Because this new legislation covers the idea that foods with health or nutritional claims might be perceived by consumers as having a health advantage over products without claims, it introduces a further requirement (enclosing the new concept of 'nutrient profile') to avoid a situation where claims could mislead consumers when trying to make healthy choices in the context of a balanced diet. Thus, only those foods having an appropriate nutrition profile (composition of different nutrients such as sugars and other substances with particularly relevant nutritional or physiological effects) will be allowed to bear claims. A scientific expert workshop was organized to critically review the available evidence behind current intake recommendations for sugars, focusing on the strength/gaps of the scientific evidence available and the identification of those fields where further research is needed. Work was distributed in the following topics covering potential effects of dietary sugars on (i) body weight control; (ii) diabetes-insulin resistance; (iii) dental health and (iv) micronutrient dilution. New approaches, including intervention studies and the application of nutrigenomic technologies, should be undertaken and interpreted bearing in mind that foods, food components and their combinations can have both positive and negative effects on health, thus requiring benefit-risk analysis.

  18. Nutritional Ketosis and Mitohormesis: Potential Implications for Mitochondrial Function and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamena, Frederick A.

    2018-01-01

    Impaired mitochondrial function often results in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is involved in the etiology of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Moderate levels of mitochondrial ROS, however, can protect against chronic disease by inducing upregulation of mitochondrial capacity and endogenous antioxidant defense. This phenomenon, referred to as mitohormesis, is induced through increased reliance on mitochondrial respiration, which can occur through diet or exercise. Nutritional ketosis is a safe and physiological metabolic state induced through a ketogenic diet low in carbohydrate and moderate in protein. Such a diet increases reliance on mitochondrial respiration and may, therefore, induce mitohormesis. Furthermore, the ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is elevated during nutritional ketosis to levels no greater than those resulting from fasting, acts as a signaling molecule in addition to its traditionally known role as an energy substrate. BHB signaling induces adaptations similar to mitohormesis, thereby expanding the potential benefit of nutritional ketosis beyond carbohydrate restriction. This review describes the evidence supporting enhancement of mitochondrial function and endogenous antioxidant defense in response to nutritional ketosis, as well as the potential mechanisms leading to these adaptations. PMID:29607218

  19. Impact of Nutrition Transition and Resulting Morbidities on Economic and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Rajagopal; Ruchi, Vaidya; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition transition is an adverse outcome of rapid economic development and globalization. The present review documents the pattern of nutrition and health transition among different food groups leading to the growing global and national epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Studies published in various national and international journals were searched using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines from the year 2000 to 2015. Literature was reviewed to gather data pertaining to nutrition and health transition and economic burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Diets are changing globally towards higher intakes of simple and refined carbohydrates (including sugar), fat and lower intake of complex carbohydrates. The upsurge of co-morbidities arising from nutrition transition is a serious threat worldwide especially in developing countries like India, which in turn poses a huge impact on economic development of the nation. Better awareness and encouragement of using healthier diet option can help to combat the epidemic of NCDs in the developing world. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Rapid preparation of pyrogen-free 2H2(18)O for human-nutrition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.W.; Leggitt, J.L.; Clarke, L.L.; Klein, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a compact ultrafiltration system for the removal of pyrogens and bacteria from water labeled with the stable isotopes of deuterium and oxygen-18. The ultrafiltration system is constructed from readily available commercial components and can achieve complete removal of pyrogens and bacteria from 1L contaminated water within 30 min. By use of our procedure, loss of the isotopically labeled water by retention in the filtration system was minimal. The purified water is suitable for both oral and intravenous administration to healthy human subjects participating in nutrition studies

  1. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units - Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, Edward [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ridky, Robert W [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Schulz, Robert K [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75x45x10') at Beltsville, MD, and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: 1) resistive layer barrier, 2) conductive layer barrier, and 3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste and without institutional care. As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, a bioengineering management cover might well be the cover of choice during tho active subsidence phase of a waste disposal unit. Some maintenance is required during that period. Final

  2. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units - Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Edward; Ridky, Robert W.; Schulz, Robert K.

    1992-01-01

    The study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75x45x10') at Beltsville, MD, and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: 1) resistive layer barrier, 2) conductive layer barrier, and 3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste and without institutional care. As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, a bioengineering management cover might well be the cover of choice during tho active subsidence phase of a waste disposal unit. Some maintenance is required during that period. Final

  3. Paradoxical Regulation of Human FGF21 by Both Fasting and Feeding Signals: Is FGF21 a Nutritional Adaptation Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebanso, Takashi; Taketani, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hironori; Amo, Kikuko; Ominami, Hirokazu; Arai, Hidekazu; Takei, Yuichiro; Masuda, Masashi; Tanimura, Ayako; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Takeda, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a metabolic hormone involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in mouse, but the regulatory mechanisms and actions of FGF21 in humans remain unclear. Here we have investigated the regulatory mechanisms of the human FGF21 gene at the transcriptional level. A deletion study of the human FGF21 promoter (−1672 to +230 bp) revealed two fasting signals, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and glucagon signals, that independently induced human FGF21 gene transcription in mouse primary hepatocytes. In addition, two feeding signals, glucose and xylitol, also dose-dependently induced human FGF21 gene transcription and mRNA expression in both human HepG2 cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. FGF21 protein expression and secretion were also induced by high glucose stimulation. The human FGF21 promoter (−1672 to +230 bp) was found to have a carbohydrate-responsive element at −380 to −366 bp, which is distinct from the PPAR response element (PPRE). Knock-down of the carbohydrate response element binding protein by RNAi diminished glucose-induced human FGF21 transcription. Moreover, we found that a region from −555 to −443 bp of the human FGF21 promoter region exerts an important role in the activation of basic transcription. In conclusion, human FGF21 gene expression is paradoxically and independently regulated by both fasting and feeding signals. These regulatory mechanisms suggest that human FGF21 is increased with nutritional crisis, including starvation and overfeeding. PMID:21829679

  4. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Nutrition Education--1973. Part 6--Phosphate Research and Dental Decay. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., April 16, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate include testimony on the subject of research into the use of phosphates to prevent dental decay. The purpose of the hearing was to explore certain dental health questions raised during the committee's recent hearings on the Television Advertising of…

  5. Maize—A potential source of human nutrition and health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajamul Rouf Shah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize or corn (Zea mays L. is an important cereal crop of the world. It is a source of nutrition as well as phytochemical compounds. Phytochemicals play an important role in preventing chronic diseases. It contains various major phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phytosterols. It is believed to have potential anti-HIV activity due to the presence of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA lectin or GNA-maize. A tablespoon of maize oil satisfies the requirements for essential fatty acids for a healthy child or adult. Decoction of maize silk, roots, leaves, and cob are used for bladder problems, nausea, vomiting, and stomach complaints. Zein an alcohol-soluble prolamine found in maize endosperm has unique novel applications in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical areas. Resistant starch (RS from maize reduces the risk of cecal cancer, atherosclerosis, and obesity-related complications. This review presents a detailed view on the nutritional and potential health benefits of maize.

  6. Stable isotope usage in developing countries: Safe tracer tools to measure human nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; Klein, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    How many calories are used when a nursing mother feeds her infant? How much milk does an infant receive in one week? What is the impact of the environment on the energy needs of children? How adequately does dietary protein sustain the synthesis of body constituents? What types of foods best nourish a child recovering from intestinal diseases such as diarrhoea? Quantitative answers to questions such as these can be obtained from the use of stable, non-radioactive isotopic tracers. Answers to these questions are important in assessing the nutritional status of infants, children, pregnant women and nursing mothers, as well as that of individuals who subsist on marginal food supplies. Because stable isotopic tracers are completely safe and without hazard, they can be used freely in health, nutrition, and agriculture studies in all populations

  7. The Gut Microbiota, Food Science, and Human Nutrition: A Timely Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Michael J; Lebrilla, Carlito; Shapiro, Howard-Yana; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2017-08-09

    Analytic advances are enabling more precise definitions of the molecular composition of key food staples incorporated into contemporary diets and how the nutrient landscapes of these staples vary as a function of cultivar and food processing methods. This knowledge, combined with insights about the interrelationship between consumer microbiota configurations and biotransformation of food ingredients, should have a number of effects on agriculture, food production, and strategies for improving the nutritional value of foods and health status. These effects include decision-making about which cultivars of current or future food staples to incorporate into existing and future food systems, and which components of waste streams from current or future food manufacturing processes have nutritional value that is worth capturing. They can also guide which technologies should be applied, or need to be developed, to produce foods that support efficient microbial biotransformation of their ingredients into metabolic products that sustain health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The NOMA track module on nutrition human rights and governance: Part 1 Perceptions held by Master's students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Marais

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. A module on nutrition, human rights and governance was developed and presented jointly by academic institutions in Norway, South Africa and Uganda, under the NOrway MAsters (NOMA programme, for their respective Master’s degree programmes in nutrition. Consisting of three study units, it was presented consecutively in the three countries, with each study unit building on the previous one.Objectives. To document the perceptions of participating students on various aspects of the module, informing future curriculum endeavours.Methods. A mixed methods approach was followed. A module evaluation form completed by students for each study unit was analysed. In-depth telephonic interviews were voice recorded and transcribed. Through an inductive process, emerging themes were used to compile a code list and content analysis of the unstructured data.Results. An overall positive module evaluation by 20 participants (91% response rate can be ascribed to the module content, enlightening study visits, expertise of lecturers and an interactive teaching style. Logistical issues regarding time management and administrative differences among the academic institutions caused some concerns. Students experienced some resistance against qualitative research in natural science faculties. Students benefited from being exposed to different teaching styles and education systems at universities in differentcountries. Constructive alignment of teaching and learning activities could be optimised through involvement and empowerment of all relevant lecturers.Conclusion. Successful implementation of the module not only provides nutrition Master’s students with knowledge to operationalise a human rights-based approach during future interactions in their professional practice, but also serves as an example of the benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary and transnational collaboration in module development.

  9. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  10. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata on human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina E. Fingolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.Inflorescências de bananeira são popularmente conhecidas como "umbigos", e esses são usados no Brasil como complementos nutricionais. No entanto, o valor nutricional das inflorescências (flores masculinas e brácteas de bananeira nunca foi estudado. Portanto, o material vegetal de Musa acuminata cultivar "ouro" foi coletado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil e, em seguida, submetido aos procedimentos químicos para determinar a sua composição nutricional. As análises foram realizadas em triplicata. A análise da composição da amostra apresentou teor percentual médio de umidade, proteína, lipídeos e cinza de 8,21, 14,50, 4,04 e 14,43, respectivamente. As inflorescências secas mostraram significativo complemento nutritivo baseado no alto conteúdo de potássio (5.008,26 mg / 100 g e de fibra 49,83% (lignina, celulose e hemiceluloses revelando importantes propriedades funcional e nutritiva. Em uma avaliação paralela, o estudo

  11. Position paper on vegetarian diets from the working group of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, C; Baroni, L; Bertini, I; Ciappellano, S; Fabbri, A; Papa, M; Pellegrini, N; Sbarbati, R; Scarino, M L; Siani, V; Sieri, S

    2017-12-01

    Interest in vegetarian diets is growing in Italy and elsewhere, as government agencies and health/nutrition organizations are emphasizing that regular consumption of plant foods may provide health benefits and help prevent certain diseases. We conducted a Pubmed search, up to September, 2015, for studies on key nutrients (proteins, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids) in vegetarian diets. From 295 eligible publications the following emerged: Vegetarians should be encouraged to supplement their diets with a reliable source of vitamin B12 (vitamin-fortified foods or supplements). Since the plant protein digestibility is lower than that of animal proteins it may be appropriate for vegetarians to consume more proteins than recommended for the general population. Vegetarians should also be encouraged to habitually consume good sources of calcium, iron and zinc - particularly vegetables that are low in oxalate and phytate (e.g. Brassicaceae), nuts and seeds, and calcium-rich mineral water. Calcium, iron, and zinc bioavailability can be improved by soaking, germination, and sour-dough leavening that lower the phytate content of pulses and cereals. Vegetarians can ensure good n-3 fatty acid status by habitually consuming good sources of a-linolenic acid (walnuts, flaxseeds, chia seeds, and their oils) and limiting linoleic acid intake (corn and sunflower oils). Well-planned vegetarian diets that include a wide variety of plant foods, and a reliable source of vitamin B12, provide adequate nutrient intake. Government agencies and health/nutrition organizations should provide more educational resources to help Italians consume nutritionally adequate vegetarian diets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  13. Genetic diversity for grain Zn concentration in finger millet genotypes: Potential for improving human Zn nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramegowda Yamunarani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half of the world population suffers from micronutrient malnutrition, particularly Zn deficiency. It is important to understand genetic variation for uptake and translocation behaviors of Zn in relevant crop species to increase Zn concentration in edible parts. In the present study, genetic variation in grain Zn concentration of 319 finger millet genotypes was assessed. Large genetic variation was found among the genotypes, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 86 μg g− 1 grain. Uptake and translocation studies with Zn/65Zn application in 12 selected low-Zn genotypes showed wide variation in root uptake and shoot translocation, with genotypes GEC331 and GEC164 showing greater uptake and translocation. Genotypes GEC164 and GEC543 showed increased grain Zn concentration. Genotypes GEC331 and GEC164 also showed improved yield under Zn treatment. Appreciable variation in grain Zn concentration among finger millet genotypes found in this study offers opportunities to improve Zn nutrition through breeding.

  14. Human nutrition and adaptation in Brazilian Amazon fishing areas: contributions to health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ferreira de Souza Aguiar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for equity in access to services is presently an important principle in public policies for health in Brazil. Social inequalities in the Amazonia occur at high levels comparatively to the other regions in the country; and, within Amazonia, they particularly affect rural communities. The present study aims to appreciate associations between food and nutritional profile, adaptive strategies, and epidemiology in these communities, specially in areas of artisanal fishery, and also to suggest general lines of appropriated health policies. The construction of a context of equitable assistance and of sustainable health, without significant damage to biodiversity, depends on the capacity of public power in exploring the relationships between use and management of natural resources and the quality of life of riverine man.

  15. Transgenic mammalian species, generated by somatic cell cloning, in biomedicine, biopharmaceutical industry and human nutrition/dietetics--recent achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiec, M; Skrzyszowska, M

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cell cloning technology in mammals promotes the multiplication of productively-valuable genetically engineered individuals, and consequently allows also for standardization of transgenic farm animal-derived products, which, in the context of market requirements, will have growing significance. Gene farming is one of the most promising areas in modern biotechnology. The use of live bioreactors for the expression of human genes in the lactating mammary gland of transgenic animals seems to be the most cost-effective method for the production/processing of valuable recombinant therapeutic proteins. Among the transgenic farm livestock species used so far, cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and rabbits are useful candidates for the expression of tens to hundreds of grams of genetically-engineered proteins or xenogeneic biopreparations in the milk. At the beginning of the new millennium, a revolution in the treatment of disease is taking shape due to the emergence of new therapies based on recombinant human proteins. The ever-growing demand for such pharmaceutical or nutriceutical proteins is an important driving force for the development of safe and large-scale production platforms. The aim of this paper is to present an overall survey of the state of the art in investigations which provide the current knowledge for deciphering the possibilities of practical application of the transgenic mammalian species generated by somatic cell cloning in biomedicine, the biopharmaceutical industry, human nutrition/dietetics and agriculture.

  16. Food and fuel : a hidden dimension in human nutrition : a study on the relationship between nutrition security and fuelwood availability in Ntcheu District, Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.D.

    1994-01-01

    Fuelwood is the main source of energy for rural households in developing countries and is predominantly used for food preparation and processing. Due to rapid deforestation, the supply of fuelwood is threatened. Many factors influence household food and nutrition security, but so far the

  17. Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Henrike; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Salminen, Seppo; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-10-14

    Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding.

  18. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreimer, Aimee R.; Brennan, Paul; Kuhs, Krystle A. Lang; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsague, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renee Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larranaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Ramon Quiros, J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The

  19. Development of Scientific Thinking Facilitated by Reflective Self-Assessment in a Communication-Intensive Food Science and Human Nutrition Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrich, Suzanne; Licklider, Barbara; Thompson, Katherine; Thompson, Janette; Haynes, Cynthia; Wiersema, Jan

    2018-01-01

    A one-credit seminar on controversies in food science and human nutrition was a platform to introduce students to learning frameworks for thinking-like-a-scientist. We hypothesized that explicitly engaging students in thinking about their thinking abilities within these frameworks would enhance their self-perception of scientific thinking, an…

  20. Cereal grains for nutrition and health benefits: Overview of results from in vitro, animal and human studies in the HEALTHGRAIN project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björck, I.; Östman, E.; Kristensen, M.; Mateo Anson, N.; Price, R.K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Havenaar, R.; Bach Knudsen, K.E.; Frid, A.; Mykkänen, H.; Welch, R.W.; Riccardi, G.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole grain intake to the prevention of the metabolic syndrome, obesity and associated chronic diseases such as CVD and T2D. The Nutrition module within the HEALTHGRAIN project, included 10 partners and undertook in vitro, animal and human in vivo studies with the

  1. Proceedings of the 2013 A.S.P.E.N. Research workshop: the interface between nutrition and the gut microbiome: implications and applications for human health [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverdy, John; Gilbert, Jack; DeFazio, Jennifer R; Sadowsky, Michael J; Chang, Eugene B; Morowitz, Michael J; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2014-02-01

    The human and earth microbiomes are among the most important biological agents in understanding and preventing disease. Technology is advancing at a fast pace and allowing for high-resolution analysis of the composition and function of our microbial partners across regions, space, and time. Bioinformaticists and biostatisticians are developing ever more elegant displays to understand the generated megadatasets. A virtual cyberinfrastructure of search engines to cross-reference the rapidly developing data is emerging in line with technologic advances. Nutrition science will reap the benefits of this new field, and its role in preserving the earth and the humans who inhabit it will become evidently clear. In this report we highlight some of the topics of an A.S.P.E.N.-sponsored symposium held during Clinical Nutrition Week in 2013 that address the importance of the human microbiome to human health and disease.

  2. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data......Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine....... Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...

  3. The value of flavonoids for the human nutrition: Short review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald P. Hoensch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are phytochemicals and belong to the polyphenols. A wide variety of beneficial factors has been attributed to their mode of action. Some of their activities concerns the inhibition of inflammatory pathways and the down regulation of genes involved in chronic inflammatory disease states. These genes enhance the inflammatory signaling pathways leading to expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Flavonoids from fruits, vegetable and tea compounds can block many proinflammatory proteins and thus function as natural inhibitors of inflammation. Instead of using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs natural inhibitors could possibly be used to suppress the intensity of the inflammation in the chronically inflamed mucosa in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Natural inhibitors like flavonoids are xenobiotics which are metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 enzymes and conjugating protective enzymes. Flavonoids can induce these protective enzymes by upregulation and thereby could act as protective metabolic barrier within the intestinal mucosa. The nutritional value of flavonoids is probably related to their anti-inflammatory activity and through this mechanism responsible for prevention of neoplasia. The evidence for their clinical efficacy as essential compounds is still preliminary at best and limited but suggestive.

  4. Trace elements in human milk. Part of a coordinated programme on comparative methods for the study of trace elements in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.

    1981-01-01

    New analytical methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis were developed for the determination of Sn, V, I and Se at nanogram levels in biological materials, particularly in milk and other foodstuffs. By the application of these and similar methods, results for trace elements in human and cow's milk were collected from which the normal concentration ranges of up to 12 trace elements were established. Significant data on vanadium levels were also collected allowing assessment of the dietary intake and body pool of this element and a reappraisal of its significance in nutrition. Similar data on a smaller scale were also collected for tin. Results were also obtained for several different trace elements in a range of biological reference materials

  5. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced. It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct

  6. Integration of datasets from different analytical techniques to assess the impact of nutrition on human metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVernocchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria colonizing the human intestinal tract exhibit a high phylogenetic diversity that reflects their immense metabolic potentials. The catalytic activity of gut microbes has an important impact on gastrointestinal (GI functions and host health. The microbial conversion of carbohydrates and other food components leads to the formation of a large number of compounds that affect the host metabolome and have beneficial or adverse effects on human health. Meabolomics is a metabolic-biology system approach focused on the metabolic responses understanding of living systems to physio-pathological stimuli by using multivariate statistical data on human body fluids obtained by different instrumental techniques. A metabolomic approach based on an analytical platform could be able to separate, detect, characterize and quantify a wide range of metabolites and its metabolic pathways. This approach has been recently applied to study the metabolic changes triggered in the gut microbiota by specific diet components and diet variations, specific diseases, probiotic and synbiotic food intake.This review describes the metabolomic data obtained by analyzing human fluids by using different techniques and particularly Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Solid-phase Micro Extraction (GC-MS/SPME, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy. This instrumental approach have a good potential in the identification and detection of specific food intake and diseases biomarkers.

  7. Brain, nutrition and metabolism : Studies in lean, obese and insulin resistant humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, R.I.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes studies on the effects of obesity, weight loss and meal timing on the human brain and glucose metabolism. We investigated effects of meal timing during a hypocaloric diet and weight loss on brain serotonin transporters (SERT) and dopamine transporters (DAT), neuronal activity

  8. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  9. Is the world supply of omega-3 fatty acids adequate for optimal human nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Norman; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    To delineate the available sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for human consumption and to determine if the available supply is capable of supplying the nutrient levels recommended by expert bodies. There are converging opinions among experts, professional organizations and health professionals that a recommendation for a daily individual consumption of 500 mg of EPA/DHA would provide health benefits, and this translates to an annual human consumption of 1.3 million metric tons. Current human consumption of EPA/DHA is estimated to be only a small fraction of this amount and many people may suffer from suboptimal health as a result of low intake. EPA and DHA originate in the phytoplankton and are made available in the human food chain mainly through fish and other seafood. The fish catch is not elastic and in fact has long since reached a plateau. Aquaculture has grown rapidly, but most of the fish oil produced is currently being used to support aquaculture feed and so this would appear to limit aquaculture growth - or at least the growth in availability of fish sources of EPA/DHA. Vegetable oil-derived alpha-linolenic acid, though relatively plentiful, is converted only at a trace level in humans to DHA and not very efficiently to EPA, and so cannot fill this gap. Microbial EPA/DHA production can in the future be increased, although this oil is likely to remain more expensive than fish oil. Plant sources of EPA and DHA have now been produced in the laboratory via transgenic means and will eventually clear regulatory hurdles for commercialization, but societal acceptance remains in question. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various sources of omega-3 fatty acids within the context of the potential world demand for these nutrients. In summary, it is concluded that fish and vegetable oil sources will not be adequate to meet future needs, but that algal oil and terrestrial plants modified genetically to produce EPA and DHA

  10. Aspects of gastrointestinal immunology and nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castello-Branco Luiz RR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal surfaces have a fundamental participation in many aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection pathogenesis. In Brazilian HIV-1 infected subjects, loss of weight and appetite are among the most debilitating symptoms. In this review we describe a defined mucosal immunogen that has profound but transient effects on HIV viral load, and we suggest that gut associated lymphoid tissue under constant immunostimulation is likely to provide a major contribution to the total levels of HIV. We also show that hypermetabolism appears to play a role in the wasting process in Brazilian patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis.

  11. The Study of some nutritional and pharmacological aspects of human radioactive contamination by cesium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1988-04-01

    Foodchains are significant vectors of internal human radioactive contamination. Way of life, especially feeding habits are at present strikingly evolving under the influence of a better knowledge of food requirements and availability, greater use of additives, new technologies, economical, social and psychological factors. As a consequence, Cs and Pu in the diet vary, in spite of their unchanged concentration in the environment. Between source term and effective dose rate, many factors arise that lead to dose factor variability which must be quantified. These considerations should lead to a new optimization of radiological food control [fr

  12. Both base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair in humans are influenced by nutritional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Asgeir; Karlsen, Anette; Azqueta, Amaya; Tirado, Anna Estaban; Blomhoff, Rune; Collins, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Lack of reliable assays for DNA repair has largely prevented measurements of DNA repair from being included in human biomonitoring studies. Using newly developed modifications of the comet assay we tested whether a fruit- and antioxidant-rich plant-based intervention could affect base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) in a group of 102 male volunteers. BER and NER repair capacities were measured in lymphocytes before and after a dietary intervention lasting 8 weeks. The study had one control group, one group consuming three kiwifruits per day and one group consuming a variety of antioxidant-rich fruits and plant products in addition to their normal diet. DNA strand breaks were reduced following consumption of both kiwifruits (13%, p = 0.05) and antioxidant-rich plant products (20%, p = 0.02). Increased BER (55%, p = 0.01) and reduced NER (-39%, p plant products. Reduced NER was also observed in the kiwifruit group (-38%, p = 0.05), but BER was not affected in this group. Here we have demonstrated that DNA repair is affected by diet and that modified versions of the comet assay can be used to assess activity of different DNA repair pathways in human biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Mechanisms of dietary response in mice and primates: a role for EGR1 in regulating the reaction to human-specific nutritional content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Weng

    Full Text Available Humans have a widely different diet from other primate species, and are dependent on its high nutritional content. The molecular mechanisms responsible for adaptation to the human diet are currently unknown. Here, we addressed this question by investigating whether the gene expression response observed in mice fed human and chimpanzee diets involves the same regulatory mechanisms as expression differences between humans and chimpanzees.Using mouse and primate transcriptomic data, we identified the transcription factor EGR1 (early growth response 1 as a putative regulator of diet-related differential gene expression between human and chimpanzee livers. Specifically, we predict that EGR1 regulates the response to the high caloric content of human diets. However, we also show that close to 90% of the dietary response to the primate diet found in mice, is not observed in primates. This might be explained by changes in tissue-specific gene expression between taxa.Our results suggest that the gene expression response to the nutritionally rich human diet is partially mediated by the transcription factor EGR1. While this EGR1-driven response is conserved between mice and primates, the bulk of the mouse response to human and chimpanzee dietary differences is not observed in primates. This result highlights the rapid evolution of diet-related expression regulation and underscores potential limitations of mouse models in dietary studies.

  14. [Analysis of the mainstreaming of the perspective of the Human Right to Adequate Food in the institutional design of the National School Nutrition Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Renata Lopes; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Lanes; Sperandio, Naiara; Priore, Sílvia Eloíza

    2014-01-01

    Being a signatory to international agreements that recognize the Human Right to Adequate Food (HRAF) and having enshrined this right into its Constitution, the Brazilian state imposes a duty to provide, protect and promote the HRAF. For this it is necessary to incorporate the principles of the HRAF into the process of planning and executing the actions of Food and Nutrition Security (FNS). The objective was to analyze the process of mainstreaming of the HRAF in the new institutional design of the National School Nutrition Program (NSNP). This is in line with the principles laid down in General Comment No 12 of the Guide for Policy Analysis and Public Programs and nutritional Food Security under the Perspective of Human Rights and the Organic Law on Food and Nutrition Security (OLFNS). The results show that the new regulatory framework of the NSNP indicates a paradigm shift that is characterized by a gradual decline in the perception of NSNP as policy of a welfare nature. Concomitantly, there is an increase in the concept of the benefit of school food as a right, with the caveat that the construction of a new regulatory framework, although essential, is not sufficient for full implementation of the HRAF.

  15. Comparison of the effects of enteral feeding with continuous and intermittent parenteral nutrition on hepatic triglyceride secretion in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabel-Martinez, L.; Skinner, C.; Parkin, A.; Hall, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride turnover was measured during steady-state conditions in 22 postoperative patients. Nine had received nutritional support with an enteral regimen, seven had received an equivalent regimen as continuous parenteral nutrition, and six received the same parenteral regimen as a cyclical infusion. After 5 days of nutritional support, each patient received an intravenous bolus of tritiated glycerol. Plasma radiolabeled triglyceride content was measured during the subsequent 24 hours. The data were analyzed by means of a simple deterministic model of plasma triglyceride kinetics and compared with the results obtained by stochastic analysis. The rates of hepatic triglyceride secretion obtained by deterministic analysis were higher than those obtained by the stochastic approach. However, the mode of delivery of the nutritional regimen did not affect the rate of hepatic triglyceride secretion regardless of the method of analysis. The results suggest that neither complete nutritional bypass of the gastrointestinal tract nor interruption of parenteral nutrition in an attempt to mimic normal eating has any effect on hepatic triglyceride secretion. Any beneficial effect that enteral feeding or cyclical parenteral nutrition may have on liver dysfunction associated with standard parenteral nutrition appears to be unrelated to changes in hepatic triglyceride secretion

  16. Redox homeostasis in stomach medium by foods: The Postprandial Oxidative Stress Index (POSI) for balancing nutrition and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Joseph; Selhub, Jacob; Shpaizer, Adi; Rabkin, Boris; Shacham, Inbal; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-08-01

    Red-meat lipid peroxidation in the stomach results in postprandial oxidative stress (POS) which is characterized by the generation of a variety of reactive cytotoxic aldehydes including malondialdehyde (MDA). MDA is absorbed in the blood system reacts with cell proteins to form adducts resulting in advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs), producing dysfunctional proteins and cellular responses. The pathological consequences of ALEs tissue damage include inflammation and increased risk for many chronic diseases that are associated with a Western-type diet. In earlier studies we used the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) condition to show that the in vitro generation of MDA from red meat closely resembles that in human blood after consumption the same amount of meat. In vivo and in vitro MDA generations were similarly suppressed by polyphenol-rich beverages (red wine and coffee) consumed with the meal. The present study uses the in vitro SGF to assess the capacity of more than 50 foods of plant origin to suppress red meat peroxidation and formation of MDA. The results were calculated as reducing POS index (rPOSI) which represents the capacity in percent of 100g of the food used to inhibit lipid peroxidation of 200g red-meat a POSI enhancer (ePOSI). The index permitted to extrapolate the need of rPOSI from a food alone or in ensemble such Greek salad, to neutralize an ePOSI in stomach medium, (ePOS-rPOSI=0). The correlation between the rPOSI and polyphenols in the tested foods was R 2 =0.75. The Index was validated by comparison of the predicted rPOSI for a portion of Greek salad or red-wine to real inhibition of POS enhancers. The POS Index permit to better balancing nutrition for human health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Redox homeostasis in stomach medium by foods: The Postprandial Oxidative Stress Index (POSI for balancing nutrition and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kanner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Red-meat lipid peroxidation in the stomach results in postprandial oxidative stress (POS which is characterized by the generation of a variety of reactive cytotoxic aldehydes including malondialdehyde (MDA. MDA is absorbed in the blood system reacts with cell proteins to form adducts resulting in advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs, producing dysfunctional proteins and cellular responses. The pathological consequences of ALEs tissue damage include inflammation and increased risk for many chronic diseases that are associated with a Western-type diet. In earlier studies we used the simulated gastric fluid (SGF condition to show that the in vitro generation of MDA from red meat closely resembles that in human blood after consumption the same amount of meat. In vivo and in vitro MDA generations were similarly suppressed by polyphenol-rich beverages (red wine and coffee consumed with the meal. The present study uses the in vitro SGF to assess the capacity of more than 50 foods of plant origin to suppress red meat peroxidation and formation of MDA. The results were calculated as reducing POS index (rPOSI which represents the capacity in percent of 100 g of the food used to inhibit lipid peroxidation of 200 g red-meat a POSI enhancer (ePOSI. The index permitted to extrapolate the need of rPOSI from a food alone or in ensemble such Greek salad, to neutralize an ePOSI in stomach medium, (ePOS–rPOSI=0. The correlation between the rPOSI and polyphenols in the tested foods was R2=0.75. The Index was validated by comparison of the predicted rPOSI for a portion of Greek salad or red-wine to real inhibition of POS enhancers. The POS Index permit to better balancing nutrition for human health. Keywords: Stomach, Red-meat, Lipid-peroxidation, Malondialdehyde – MDA, Postprandial, Polyphenols

  18. Nutritional attitudes of homosexual people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Chongqing, Southwest China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjie; Ma, Rui; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    This article aimed at understanding nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of homosexual persons living with HIV/AIDS in Chongqing, China. A cross sectional design using a valid and reliable survey was used. The survey was completed in Chongqing, Southwest China (n = 172). Knowledge of nutrition was deficient regarding sources of nutrients such as calcium and iron, relationships between diet/nutrients and disease, and only 36.1% of participants knew about the Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese. Eating habits did not meet the nutritional requirements, and a majority (59.3%) did not eat breakfast every day. The average score on the knowledge quiz was 51.8%. This study showed that homosexual persons with HIV/AIDS in China longed for nutrition knowledge, and this was supported by objective data. Efforts and targeted education programs aiming to improve their nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors need to be emphasized.

  19. Co-ordinated research programme on applications of stable isotope tracers in human nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) was formally established by the Agency in October 1988, and has since then expanded to encompass 13 participants in 13 countries. Its general objective is to help establish competence in the use of stable isotope techniques, particularly in developing countries, and particularly with reference to applications of 2 H, 13 C, 15 N, and 18 O. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM). Working papers (progress reports) presented by the participants are included as annexes together with a preliminary report on the results of a series of intercomparison exercises involving enriched stable isotope reference materials containing 2 H, 13 C, 15 N and 18 O. For the future it was agreed that more work needs to be done to harmonize the analytical techniques being used, and to obtain support for new CRPs relating to human energy expenditure studies in pregnancy, lactation, growth and other conditions, and to studies of nitrogen turnover in relation to malnutrition and liver function. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in daily nutrition and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Geir; Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care. From a clinical point of view, very few papers deal with this concern, whereas most of the evidence reported focuses on in vitro and animal models, which study the activity of phytochemicals contained in the daily diet. A fundamental issue addressed by dietitians deals with the role exerted by redox-derived reactive species. Most plant polyphenols act as antioxidants, but recent evidence supports the idea that these compounds primarily activate a mild oxidative stress to elicit a positive, beneficial response from cells. How these compounds may act upon the detoxifying system exerting a scavenging role from reactive oxygen or nitrogen species is still a matter of debate; however, it can be argued that their role is even more complex than expected, acting as signaling molecules in the cross-talk mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum and in enzymatic pathways involved in the energetic balance. In this relationship, a fundamental role is played by the brain-adipose tissue-gut axis. The aim of this review was to elucidate this topic and the state of art about the role of reactive species in cell signaling and the function of metabolism and survival to reappraise the role of plant-derived chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Iain F H

    2005-09-01

    It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tones. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there is considerable disagreement about the advisability of using such crops, particularly in Europe. Obviously, the safety of the food derived from the GM crops is a primary consideration. Safety assessment relies on establishing that the food is substantially equivalent to its non-GM counterpart and specific testing for allergenicity of proteins and toxicity of metabolites and the whole food. There appears to be international agreement on the principles of safety assessment. Safety to the environment is equally important, but will not be covered in this presentation. The public's perception of the risk of new technology is critical to its acceptance. Perception of risk, in turn, depends on the credibility of the source of the information and trust in the regulatory process. In many countries, the public appears to have lost its trust in the scientists and government dealing with GM food, making the acceptability of GM crops uncertain. Of equal importance are the socio-economic factors that impinge on the viability of GM produce. These include intellectual property protection, trade liberalization (through subsidy and tariff barriers in developed countries) and the intensity of bio safety regulations. The socio-economic interests of developed and developing countries may diverge and may even be contradictory in any one country. Acceptance of GM crops will thus depend on detailed issues surrounding particular crops and economies.

  2. What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purchase, Iain F.H.

    2005-01-01

    It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tonnes. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there is considerable disagreement about the advisability of using such crops, particularly in Europe. Obviously, the safety of the food derived from the GM crops is a primary consideration. Safety assessment relies on establishing that the food is substantially equivalent to its non-GM counterpart and specific testing for allergenicity of proteins and toxicity of metabolites and the whole food. There appears to be international agreement on the principles of safety assessment. Safety to the environment is equally important, but will not be covered in this presentation. The public's perception of the risk of new technology is critical to its acceptance. Perception of risk, in turn, depends on the credibility of the source of the information and trust in the regulatory process. In many countries, the public appears to have lost its trust in the scientists and government dealing with GM food, making the acceptability of GM crops uncertain. Of equal importance are the socio-economic factors that impinge on the viability of GM produce. These include intellectual property protection, trade liberalisation (through subsidy and tariff barriers in developed countries) and the intensity of bio safety regulations. The socio-economic interests of developed and developing countries may diverge and may even be contradictory in any one country. Acceptance of GM crops will thus depend on detailed issues surrounding particular crops and economies

  3. What determines the acceptability of genetically modified food that can improve human nutrition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purchase, Iain F.H. [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    It has been predicted that by 2025 there will be an annual shortfall of cereals for feeding the human population of 68.5 million tonnes. One possible solution is the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which are already grown extensively (59 million ha of GM crops were planted in 2002) in the USA, South America, Africa and China. Nevertheless, there is considerable disagreement about the advisability of using such crops, particularly in Europe. Obviously, the safety of the food derived from the GM crops is a primary consideration. Safety assessment relies on establishing that the food is substantially equivalent to its non-GM counterpart and specific testing for allergenicity of proteins and toxicity of metabolites and the whole food. There appears to be international agreement on the principles of safety assessment. Safety to the environment is equally important, but will not be covered in this presentation. The public's perception of the risk of new technology is critical to its acceptance. Perception of risk, in turn, depends on the credibility of the source of the information and trust in the regulatory process. In many countries, the public appears to have lost its trust in the scientists and government dealing with GM food, making the acceptability of GM crops uncertain. Of equal importance are the socio-economic factors that impinge on the viability of GM produce. These include intellectual property protection, trade liberalisation (through subsidy and tariff barriers in developed countries) and the intensity of bio safety regulations. The socio-economic interests of developed and developing countries may diverge and may even be contradictory in any one country. Acceptance of GM crops will thus depend on detailed issues surrounding particular crops and economies.

  4. Hexapeptides from human milk prevent the induction of oxidative stress from parenteral nutrition in the newborn guinea pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloudi, Khalil; Tsopmo, Apollinaire; Friel, James K.; Rouleau, Thérèse; Comte, Blandine; Lavoie, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In preterm neonates, peroxides contaminating total parenteral nutrition (TPN) contribute to oxidative stress, which is suspected to be a strong inducer of hepatic complications related to prematurity. Recently, others reported that hexapeptides derived from human milk (HM) exerted free radical–scavenging activities in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the capacity of these hexapeptides to limit the generation of peroxides in TPN and to prevent TPN-induced hepatic oxidative stress. METHODS At 3 d of life, guinea pigs were infused, through a catheter in jugular vein, with TPN containing or not peptide-A (YGYTGA) or peptide-B (ISELGW). Peroxide concentrations were measured in TPN solutions, whereas glutathione, glutathionyl-1,4-dihydroxynonenal (GS-HNE) and mRNA levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were determined in liver after 4 d of infusion. RESULTS The addition of peptide-A to TPN allowed a reduction in peroxide contamination by half. In vivo, peptide-A or peptide-B corrected the hepatic oxidative status induced by TPN. Indeed, both peptides lowered the hepatic redox potential of glutathione and the level of GS-HNE, a marker of lipid peroxidation. As compared with animals infused with TPN without peptide, the hepatic mRNA levels of IL-1 and TNFα were lower in animals infused with TPN containing peptide-A or peptide-B. DISCUSSION These results suggest that the addition of YGYTGA or ISELGW to TPN will reduce oxidative stress in newborns. The reduction in mRNA of two proinflammatory cytokines could be important for the incidence of hepatic complications related to TPN. PMID:22337230

  5. Polysaccharide utilization loci and nutritional specialization in a dominant group of butyrate-producing human colonic Firmicutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Paul O; Martin, Jennifer C; Lawley, Trevor D; Browne, Hilary P; Harris, Hugh M B; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Duncan, Sylvia H; O'Toole, Paul W; Scott, Karen P; Flint, Harry J

    2016-02-01

    Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are the predominant bacterial phyla colonizing the healthy human large intestine. Whilst both ferment dietary fibre, genes responsible for this important activity have been analysed only in the Bacteroidetes , with very little known about the Firmicutes . This work investigates the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in a group of Firmicutes , Roseburia spp. and Eubacterium rectale , which play an important role in producing butyrate from dietary carbohydrates and in health maintenance. Genome sequences of 11 strains representing E. rectale and four Roseburia spp. were analysed for carbohydrate-active genes. Following assembly into a pan-genome, core, variable and unique genes were identified. The 1840 CAZyme genes identified in the pan-genome were assigned to 538 orthologous groups, of which only 26 were present in all strains, indicating considerable inter-strain variability. This analysis was used to categorize the 11 strains into four carbohydrate utilization ecotypes (CUEs), which were shown to correspond to utilization of different carbohydrates for growth. Many glycoside hydrolase genes were found linked to genes encoding oligosaccharide transporters and regulatory elements in the genomes of Roseburia spp. and E. rectale , forming distinct polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). Whilst PULs are also a common feature in Bacteroidetes , key differences were noted in these Firmicutes , including the absence of close homologues of Bacteroides polysaccharide utilization genes, hence we refer to Gram-positive PULs (gpPULs). Most CAZyme genes in the Roseburia / E. rectale group are organized into gpPULs. Variation in gpPULs can explain the high degree of nutritional specialization at the species level within this group.

  6. Improving nutrition through nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Good nutrition is essential to health and quality of life. As a United Nations agency dedicated to helping Member States achieve their social and economic goals, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recognizes the importance of good nutrition and is working to address the problems underlying poor nutrition. In fact, many Agency activities serve basic human needs, by applying nuclear science to increase food production, improve health care, improve management of water resources, and assess sources of environmental pollution. Global progress in reducing malnutrition throughout the human life cycle has been slow and patchy. In its 2000 Report on the World Nutrition Situation, the United Nations Sub Committee on Nutrition estimated that in developing countries 182 million children under five years of age are chronically undernourished and 150 million are underweight. An estimated 30 million infants are born each year with impaired growth due to poor nutrition during pregnancy. Worldwide, renewed international commitments have been made to address this situation, and the IAEA is a vital partner in these efforts. Nuclear science provides valuable tools for monitoring factors that influence nutrition, such as micronutrients, body composition, and breast milk uptake. Through its sub-programme on nutrition, the Agency is helping countries to use isotope applications and other nuclear techniques to their nutritional problems and is supporting leading-edge research on the interaction between nutrition and environmental pollution and infection with the ultimate goal of improving human nutrition

  7. Fighting against a misconception about the Energy Yielding Metabolism: a proposal for starting the teaching of human nutrition in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Souza Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that undergraduate and high school students share two contradictory concep- tions  regarding  the  energy  yielding  metabolism  (EYM:  the  incorrect  notion  that only glucose can be used for ATP  production together  with  more appropriated conception  according  to which other molecules,  mainly  lipids can also be used for ATP  production.  We have  deepened  the  study  about the origin of such conceptual  profile. Using questionnaires, we have determined that 7th grade school students do not  present  the  erroneous  conception,  but those  from the 8th  grade  (and  later  grades do.  This  finding has led us to  propose  the  hypothesis  that the wrong conception  may  emerge as a result of formal learning during 8th grade.  Indeed, the analysis of 8th grade textbooks  showed that the carbohydrates were associated  mainly  with  energy production by the  cells, while proteins  and  lipids were regarded  only as structural and storage  molecules, respectively.  In addition, only the glycolytic pathway was taught in high school, reinforcing  the  misconception.   We have also demonstrated that the conceptual  profile was widely distributed among students from different schools of different regions of the Rio de Janeiro  state,  reinforcing the importance of reformulation of the teaching of EYM-related topics  both  in grade  and  high schools.  Here we describe  the  development and  the  evaluation of an investigation-based approach  to human  nutrition to be used with  8th grade  students.  This  method- ology is based  in the  use of the  nutritional tables  found  in Brazilian  food packages  and  allows the students to identify not only which of the main nutrients do contain  calories (and thus can be used for,, energy production,, but the amount of calories found in 1g of each of them.  The methodology wastested

  8. Nutrition Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...

  9. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  10. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  11. Thymic function and T cell parameters in a natural human experimental model of seasonal infectious diseases and nutritional burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Gareth

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study exploits a natural human experimental model of subsistence farmers experiencing chronic and seasonally modified food shortages and infectious burden. Two seasons existed, one of increased deprivation and infections (Jul-Dec, another of abundance and low infections (Jan-Jun; referred to as the hungry/high infection and harvest/low infection seasons respectively. Prior analysis showed a 10-fold excess in infectious disease associated mortality in young adults born in the hungry/high infection versus harvest/low infection season, and reduced thymic output and T cell counts in infancy. Here we report findings on the role of early life stressors as contributors to the onset of T cell immunological defects in later life. Methods We hypothesised that season of birth effects on thymic function and T cell immunity would be detectable in young adults since Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated this to be the time of greatest mortality divergence. T cell subset analyses by flow-cytometry, sjTRECs, TCRVβ repertoire and telomere length by PCR, were performed on samples from 60 males (18-23 y selected to represent births in the hungry/high infection and harvest/low infection Results Total lymphocyte counts were normal and did not differ by birth season. CD3+ and CD4+ but not CD8+ counts were lower for those born during the hungry/high infection season. CD8+ telomere length also tended to be shorter. Overall, CD8+ TCRVβ repertoire skewing was observed with 'public' expressions and deletions seen in TCRVβ12/22 and TCRVβ24, respectively but no apparent effect of birth season. Conclusions We conclude that, although thymic function was unchanged, the CD4+ and CD3+ counts, and CD8+ telomere length results suggested that aspects of adult T cell immunity were under the influence of early life stressors. The endemicity of CMV and HBV suggested that chronic infections may modulate immunity through T cell repertoire development. The

  12. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  13. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Folake Samuel Editor-in-Chief, Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences Department of Human Nutrition Faculty of Public Health University of Ibadan Nigeria njns2013@gmail.com. Editor-in-Chief - NJNS. Department of Human Nutrition. Faculty of Public Health. University of Ibadan. Nigeria.

  14. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  15. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  16. Blood group astrology - why the AB0 blood groups do not determine the human character nor the appropriate nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gajšek Grbec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AB0 blood groups are inherited markers on blood cells. Since their discovery, there were numerous attempts to be attributed a wide variety of biological functions they don’t possess. The purpose of this article is primarily to inform the professional, as well as lay public that the theory of healthy nutrition based on AB0 blood groups represents nothing more than a pseudoscience used for mass exploitation and commercial purposes. ABO blood groups were attributed such characteristics by naturopathic doctor Peter D'Adamo, who on the basis of false methods and erroneous assumptions wrote a bestseller "Eat Right For Your Type". It claims that the blood groupsAB0 represent a "key to the functioning of our immune system" and that the blood group based diet represents a “key to the health of every man”. As in the case of nutrition based on the ABO blood groups, the scientific knowledge in the field of immunohematology is misused to mislead the lay public, we are obliged to explain the real meaning and the role of blood groups in health and disease, the misuse of blood groups in relation to healthy nutrition.

  17. Capable and credible? Challenging nutrition science : Challenging nutrition science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, Bart; Wolters, Anna; Feskens, Edith F; Brouns, Fred; Huber, Machteld; Maeckelberghe, Els L M; Navis, Gerjan; Ockhuizen, Theo; Plat, Jogchum; Sikkema, Jan; Stasse-Wolthuis, Marianne; van 't Veer, Pieter; Verweij, Marcel; de Vries, Jan

    Nutrition science has enriched our understanding of how to stay healthy by producing valuable knowledge about the interaction of nutrients, food, and the human body. Nutrition science also has raised societal awareness about the links between food consumption and well-being, and provided the basis

  18. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  19. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  20. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  1. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  2. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  3. Evaluation of human milk titratable acidity before and after addition of a nutritional supplement for preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Iáskara do Vale Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The study observed no significant differences in Dornic acidity of raw human milk and pasteurized human milk; however, the dilution of a human milk supplementation caused a significant increase in acidity. Further investigations are necessary on the influence of this finding on the quality of supplemented milk and its consequences on the health of preterm infants.

  4. Nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Abstract: This ... most frequently diagnosed in elderly (>65 years), ..... WHO (2002) Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva ...

  5. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  6. Short Communication Biochemical Nutritional Parameters in Breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-07

    Apr 7, 2011 ... The production of human milk (lactogenesis) is dependent on factors in ... assessed the impact which HIV infection might have on the nutritional quality of human breast milk and plasma ..... Developing Gut and of Human Milk.

  7. [Nutrition therapy of cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövey, József

    2017-09-20

    The majority of cancer patients becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Malnutrition deteriorates the efficiency of all kinds of oncologic interventions. As a consequence of it, treatment-related toxicity increases, hospital stay is lengthened, chances of cure and survival as well as the quality of life of the patients worsen. Nutritional status therefore influences all aspects of outcome of oncology care. In spite of this the use of nutritional therapy varies across health care providers but its application is far from being sufficient during active oncology interventions as well as rehabilitation and supportive care. It threatens not only the outcome and quality of life of cancer patients but also the success of oncologic treatments which often demand high input of human and financial resources. Meanwhile application of nutritional therapy is legally regulated in Hungary and a very recent update of the European guideline on cancer patient nutrition published in 2017 is available. Moreover, cost effectiveness of nutritional therapy has been proven in a number of studies. In this review we present the basics of nutritional therapy including nutritional screening and evaluation, nutritional plan, the role of nutrition support teams, oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition, the use of different drugs and special nutrients and the follow-up of the patients.

  8. The Integrated Impact of Diet on Human Immune Response, the Gut Microbiota, and Nutritional Status During Adaptation to a Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, G. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Young, M.; Kloeris, V.; Crucian, B.; Smith, S. M.; Lorenzi, H.

    2018-01-01

    Spaceflight impacts human physiology, including well documented immune system dysregulation. Diet, immune function, and the microbiome are interlinked, but diet is the only one of these factors that we have the ability to easily, and significantly, alter on Earth or during flight. As we understand dietary impacts on physiology more thoroughly, we may then improve the spaceflight diet to improve crew health and potentially reduce spaceflight-associated physiological alterations. It is expected that increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and bioactive compounds (e.g., omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids) and therefore enhancing overall nutritional intake from the nominal shelf-stable, fully-processed space food system could serve as a countermeasure to improve human immunological profiles, the taxonomic profile of the gut microbiota, and nutritional status, especially where currently dysregulated during spaceflight. This interdisciplinary study will determine the effect of the current shelf-stable spaceflight diet compared to an "enhanced" shelf-stable spaceflight diet (25% more foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids, and more fruits, and vegetables in general). The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 2017 missions, consisting of four 45-day missions with closed chamber confinement and realistic mission simulation in a high-fidelity mock space vehicle, will serve as a platform to replicate mission stressors and the effects on crew biochemistry, immunology, and the gut microbiome. Bio sampling of crewmembers is scheduled for selected intervals pre- and in-mission. Data collection also includes dietary intake recording. Outcome measures will include immune markers (e.g., peripheral leukocyte distribution, inflammatory cytokine profiles, T cell function), the taxonomic and metatranscriptomic profile of the gut microbiome, and nutritional status biomarkers and metabolites. Statistical evaluations will determine physiological

  9. Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Functional Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a good source of nutritional components and essential nutrients, including minerals and amino acids, and have functional properties, which, if properly utilized, can improve human nutrition and health. Keywords: Grewia tenax, Physicochemical, Amino acids, Nutrition, Functional properties, Minerals, Volatile compounds ...

  10. Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C

    2010-01-01

    Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Table showing nutritional plant list

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... To consider food as medicine is part of a culture and a millennial human ... propagation, and introduction of nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the .... some respondents also mentioned that these plants were being ...

  12. Avaliação nutricional em pacientes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Nutritional assessment in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mendes Reis Barbosa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes infectados com o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana ou com Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida freqüentemente apresentam desnutrição protéico-energética, com manifestações heterogêneas, as quais dependem do estado de saúde prévio do paciente. O estado nutricional deve ser avaliado e monitorado cuidadosamente para que o plano terapêutico possa ser efetivo. Uma avaliação nutricional abrangente é fundamental; além disso, toda a equipe de profissionais da saúde e os próprios pacientes devem estar atentos para uma ação precoce e integrada.Patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus or with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome often present protein-energy malnutrition. The manifestations are heterogeneous and depend on the patient's previous health status. The nutritional status must be assessed and carefully controlled, so that satisfactory results can be achieved and the therapeutic plan can be effective. A complete detailed nutritional assessment is fundamental; besides, the health professional team and the patients themselves need to be aware of the symptoms and the disease progress, in order to take an early and integrated action.

  13. Nutrient Intakes per 1000 Kilocalories: 2011-2012 What We Eat in America, NHANES Tables 41-44

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 and released 4 additional summary data tables for this latest 2-year survey release...

  14. Co-ordinated research project on application of isotopic and nuclear techniques in the study of nutrition-pollution interactions and their impact on the nutritional status of human subjects in developing country populations. Report on the 2. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is actively contributing through coordinated research project mechanisms to the development of isotopic techniques applicable for pollution-nutrition interactions. This CRP is based on the recommendations of a consultants' meeting on: 'Nuclear Analytical and Isotope Techniques for assessing nutrition-pollution interactions', NAHRES-62. The main objective of the CRP is to provide a scientific basis for better assessment of selected pollutants and nutrients in biological samples with a view to elucidate their interactions and the impact on human health. Results of this study will enhance the existing body of knowledge on nutrition-pollution interactions mechanisms and can be used to develop preventive strategies. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Use of non-invasive specimens (e.g. breast milk, blood, hair, urine, placenta, eventually adipose tissue for organic pollutants) as indicators to monitor the interaction between the environmental pollution (both organic and inorganic) and nutritional status. Development of protocols to assess the health impact of environmental conditions on populations living under the risk of malnutrition. Validated procedures for chemical analysis in selected environment and nutritional specimens for research in the pollutant-nutrition interaction

  15. Examination of the roles and capacities of duty bearers responsible for protecting the human rights to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing in Ugandan children's homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Monica; Rukooko, Archangel Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Andreassen, Bård A

    2018-04-17

    The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best interest of the nation's children. Despite being protected under international and national law, Uganda is not providing adequate child protection, including safeguarding children's food security. Numerous privately owned and unregulated children's homes face this problem. The overall aim of the study was to examine to what extent children's homes' operations are consistent with the right to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing of children. We performed a qualitative role- and capacity analysis of duty bearers with human rights duties towards children living in children's homes. We studied three groups of duty bearers: caretakers working in private children's homes, State actors working in government and its institutions, and non-State actors working in civil society organizations. A human rights based approach guided all aspects of the study. An analysis of the roles, performance and capacities of duty bearers was employed, with individual face-to-face structured qualitative in-depth interviews, self-administered structured questionnaires, and a structured observational study, as well as a desk review of relevant literature. The State of Uganda's efforts to respect and realize its obligations towards children living in children's homes is inadequate. There are numerous capacity gaps among the duty bearers, and the concepts of human rights and the best interest of the child are not well understood among the duty bearers. The efforts of the State of Uganda to realize its human rights obligations towards children in children's homes are lacking in important areas. Hence the State does not fulfill its minimum obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to ensure all children freedom from hunger. There is a need

  16. Influence of keeping pheasants in captivity vs. nature on the biological value of meat and its use in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucak, Zvonimir; Skrivanko, Mario; Posavcević, Stefica; Periskić, Marin; Bosković, Ivica; Jumić, Vlado

    2008-09-01

    The life of game birds (pheasants) in nature is coupled with a number of difficulties in all seasons of the year. This refers to finding food, breeding, laying eggs, raising the young, fleeing from their natural enemies and lack of protection from unfavorable climatic conditions. The pheasants that live in captivity--aviaries for pheasants--do not have such difficulties--they are fed regularly by quality feed for pheasants, they are protected from bad weather and natural enemies. Our research was aimed at determining the biological value of meat of pheasants grown in the two different settings--in captivity and in nature. The highest weight achieved wild pheasant males (1232.4 +/- 147.36 g). The differences between tested pheasant groups were statistically very high significant (P nutrition.

  17. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Nutrition Education--1973. Parts 3, 4, and 5--TV Advertising of Food to Children. Washington, D.C., March 5, 6, and 12, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs are organized in several parts (See UD 013 650 for Parts 1, 2, and 2A). The purpose of these hearings is to review the quality of advertising now being directed at children, and the health implications of that advertising; as well as what steps can be taken to use…

  18. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  19. Cuidado nutricional hospitalar: percepção de nutricionistas para atendimento humanizado Hospital nutritional care: perception of the nutritionist for humanized attendance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiani Gotâma Tasca Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa identificou as ações de cuidado alimentar e nutricional considerando as perspectivas da equipe de nutricionistas de um hospital de referência para a Política Nacional de Humanização (PNH. A partir de uma abordagem qualitativa, utilizou-se a técnica de grupos focais. A pesquisa envolveu treze nutricionistas, que foram divididas em dois grupos de acordo com o tempo de serviço, seguindo critérios de homogeneidade. As entrevistas foram desenvolvidas para análise da categoria: ser nutricionista para um atendimento humanizado, buscando-se conhecer as seguintes ações da prática destes profissionais: avaliação nutricional do paciente; planejamento, implementação e avaliação do cuidado nutricional e alimentar. A análise do conteúdo foi utilizada como técnica para sistematização das informações obtidas, agrupando-as em unidades de significado. O estudo revelou que há priorização do atendimento individualizado em função do número de leitos e de atividades burocráticas, falta de autonomia em relação à prescrição de dietas, dificuldades de interação com outros profissionais de saúde e entre as nutricionistas das áreas clínica e produção de refeições. Os resultados deste estudo poderão oferecer aos profissionais subsídios que fundamentem ações para a construção de um modelo de cuidado alimentar e nutricional humanizado em hospitais.The research analyzed the actions of alimentary and nutritional care considering the perspectives of the nutritionists in a hospital reference for the National Politics of Humanization (PNH. From a qualitative approach, a focal group technique was used. The nutritionists were divided in two groups by working time, following homogeneity criteria. The interviews were developed for analysis of the category: Being a nutritionist for a humanized assistance, seeking to understand these professionals following actions: nutritional evaluation of the patient; planning

  20. Nutritional adequacy of a novel human milk fortifier from donkey milk in feeding preterm infants: study protocol of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Tonetto, Paola; Peila, Chiara; Cresi, Francesco; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Moro, Guido E; Spada, Elena; Milani, Silvano; Giribaldi, Marzia; Antoniazzi, Sara; Conti, Amedeo; Cavallarin, Laura

    2018-01-09

    Fortification of human milk is a standard practice for feeding very low birth weight infants. However, preterm infants often still experience suboptimal growth and feeding intolerance. New fortification strategies and different commercially available fortifiers have been developed. Commercially available fortifiers are constituted by a blend of ingredients from different sources, including plant oils and bovine milk proteins, thus presenting remarkable differences in the quality of macronutrients with respect to human milk. Based on the consideration that donkey milk has been suggested as a valid alternative for children allergic to cow's milk proteins, due to its biochemical similarity to human milk, we hypothesized that donkey milk could be a suitable ingredient for developing an innovative human milk fortifier. The aim of the study is to evaluate feeding tolerance, growth and clinical short and long-term outcomes in a population of preterm infants fed with a novel multi-component fortifier and a protein concentrate derived from donkey milk, in comparison to an analogous population fed with traditional fortifier and protein supplement containing bovine milk proteins. The study has been designed as a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial. Infants born milk-based multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement, or a combination of a novel multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement derived from donkey milk. The fortification protocol followed is the same for the two groups, and the two diets were designed to be isoproteic and isocaloric. Weight, length and head circumference are measured; feeding tolerance is assessed by a standardized protocol. The occurrence of sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis and adverse effects are monitored. This is the first clinical study investigating the use of a human milk fortifier derived from donkey milk for the nutrition of preterm infants. If donkey milk derived products will be shown to improve the feeding

  1. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  2. Optimizing Perioperative Nutrition in Pediatric Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Nicki L; Mullins, Lucille; Pearo, Brittany; Spoede, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Nutrition status prior to surgery and nutrition rehabilitation after surgery can affect the morbidity and mortality of pediatric patients. A comprehensive approach to nutrition in pediatric surgical patients is important and includes preoperative assessment, perioperative nutrition considerations, and postoperative recovery. A thorough nutrition assessment to identify patients who are at nutrition risk prior to surgery is important so that the nutrition status can be optimized prior to the procedure to minimize suboptimal outcomes. Preoperative malnutrition is associated with increased complications and mean hospital days following surgery. Enteral and parenteral nutrition can be used in cases where food intake is inadequate to maintain and possibly improve nutrition status, especially in the 7-10 days prior to surgery. In the perioperative period, fasting should be limited to restricting solid foods and non-human milk 6 hours prior to the procedure and allowing clear liquids until 2 hours prior to the procedure. Postoperatively, early feeding has been shown to resolve postoperative ileus earlier, decrease infection rates, promote wound healing, and reduce length of hospital stay. If nutrition cannot be provided orally, then nutrition through either enteral or parenteral means should be initiated within 24-48 hours of surgery. Practitioners should identify those patients who are at the highest nutrition risk for postsurgical complications and provide guidance for optimal nutrition during the perioperative and postoperative period. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. Evaluation of human milk titratable acidity before and after addition of a nutritional supplement for preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Iáskara do Vale Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the initial Dornic acidity in raw human milk, after pasteurization and after heating and dilution of a dietary supplement for preterm infants. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive, and experimental study was carried out with a convenience sample at the human milk bank at a Brazilian public maternity, with specialized care for pregnant women and newborns at risk. The eligibility criteria for the study sample included 93 frozen raw human milk in suitable containers with volumes ≥100 mL and initial Dornic acidity ≤8° Dornic (ºD. Milk acidity of human milk was measured in four stages: in raw human milk (initial; after pasteurization; after the heating of pasteurized milk and dilution of the supplement; and after thirty minutes of supplementation. Results: The initial acidity was 3.8° D ± 1.3 (95% CI: 3.56-4.09 with no significant difference in Dornic acidity in pasteurized milk, which was 3.6° D ± 1.2 (95% CI: 3.36-3.87. The dilution of the supplement in pasteurized milk that was heated significantly increased mean Dornic acidity to 18.6 °D ± 2.2 (95% CI: 18.18-19.11, which remained high after thirty minutes of supplementation at 17.8 °D ± 2.2 (95% CI: 17.36-18.27, considering p < 0.05. Conclusions: The study observed no significant differences in Dornic acidity of raw human milk and pasteurized human milk; however, the dilution of a human milk supplementation caused a significant increase in acidity. Further investigations are necessary on the influence of this finding on the quality of supplemented milk and its consequences on the health of preterm infants.

  4. Evaluation of human milk titratable acidity before and after addition of a nutritional supplement for preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cibelle Iáskara do Vale; Dametto, Juliana Fernandes Dos Santos; Oliveira, Janaína Cavalcanti Costa

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the initial Dornic acidity in raw human milk, after pasteurization and after heating and dilution of a dietary supplement for preterm infants. A quantitative, descriptive, and experimental study was carried out with a convenience sample at the human milk bank at a Brazilian public maternity, with specialized care for pregnant women and newborns at risk. The eligibility criteria for the study sample included 93 frozen raw human milk in suitable containers with volumes ≥100mL and initial Dornic acidity ≤8° Dornic (°D). Milk acidity of human milk was measured in four stages: in raw human milk (initial); after pasteurization; after the heating of pasteurized milk and dilution of the supplement; and after thirty minutes of supplementation. The initial acidity was 3.8°D±1.3 (95% CI: 3.56-4.09) with no significant difference in Dornic acidity in pasteurized milk, which was 3.6°D±1.2 (95% CI: 3.36-3.87). The dilution of the supplement in pasteurized milk that was heated significantly increased mean Dornic acidity to 18.6°D±2.2 (95% CI: 18.18-19.11), which remained high after thirty minutes of supplementation at 17.8°D±2.2 (95% CI: 17.36-18.27), considering praw human milk and pasteurized human milk; however, the dilution of a human milk supplementation caused a significant increase in acidity. Further investigations are necessary on the influence of this finding on the quality of supplemented milk and its consequences on the health of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  5. Parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised.

  6. Mining microarray datasets in nutrition: expression of the GPR120 (n-3 fatty acid receptor/sensor) gene is down-regulated in human adipocytes by macrophage secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayhurn, Paul; Denyer, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Microarray datasets are a rich source of information in nutritional investigation. Targeted mining of microarray data following initial, non-biased bioinformatic analysis can provide key insight into specific genes and metabolic processes of interest. Microarrays from human adipocytes were examined to explore the effects of macrophage secretions on the expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) genes that encode fatty acid receptors/sensors. Exposure of the adipocytes to macrophage-conditioned medium for 4 or 24 h had no effect on GPR40 and GPR43 expression, but there was a marked stimulation of GPR84 expression (receptor for medium-chain fatty acids), the mRNA level increasing 13·5-fold at 24 h relative to unconditioned medium. Importantly, expression of GPR120, which encodes an n-3 PUFA receptor/sensor, was strongly inhibited by the conditioned medium (15-fold decrease in mRNA at 24 h). Macrophage secretions have major effects on the expression of fatty acid receptor/sensor genes in human adipocytes, which may lead to an augmentation of the inflammatory response in adipose tissue in obesity.

  7. The nutrition of the human meniscus: A computational analysis investigating the effect of vascular recession on tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travascio, Francesco; Jackson, Alicia R

    2017-08-16

    The meniscus is essential to the functioning of the knee, offering load support, congruency, lubrication, and protection to the underlying cartilage. Meniscus degeneration affects ∼35% of the population, and potentially leads to knee osteoarthritis. The etiology of meniscal degeneration remains to be elucidated, although many factors have been considered. However, the role of nutritional supply to meniscus cells in the pathogenesis of meniscus degeneration has been so far overlooked. Nutrients are delivered to meniscal cells through the surrounding synovial fluid and the blood vessels present in the outer region of the meniscus. During maturation, vascularization progressively recedes up to the outer 10% of the tissue, leaving the majority avascular. It has been hypothesized that vascular recession might significantly reduce the nutrient supply to cells, thus contributing to meniscus degeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular recession on nutrient levels available to meniscus cells. This was done by developing a novel computational model for meniscus homeostasis based on mixture theory. It was found that transvascular transport of nutrients in the vascularized region of the meniscus contributes to more than 40% of the glucose content in the core of the tissue. However, vascular recession does not significantly alter nutrient levels in the meniscus, reducing at most 5% of the nutrient content in the central portion of the tissue. Therefore, our analysis suggests that reduced vascularity is not likely a primary initiating source in tissue degeneration. However, it does feasibly play a key role in inability for self-repair, as seen clinically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  9. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  10. Upgrading plant amino acids through cattle to improve the nutritional value for humans: effects of different production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M; Sonesson, U; Hessle, A

    2017-03-01

    Efficiency in animal protein production can be defined in different ways, for example the amount of human-digestible essential amino acids (HDEAA) in the feed ration relative to the amount of HDEAA in the animal products. Cattle production systems are characterised by great diversity and a wide variety of feeds and feed ration compositions, due to ruminants' ability to digest fibrous materials inedible to humans such as roughage and by-products from the food and biofuel industries. This study examined the upgrading of protein quality through cattle by determining the quantity of HDEAA in feeds and animal products and comparing different milk and beef production systems. Four different systems for milk and beef production were designed, a reference production system for milk and beef representing typical Swedish production systems today and three alternative improved systems: (i) intensive cattle production based on maize silage, (ii) intensive systems based on food industry by-products for dairy cows and high-quality forage for beef cattle, and (iii) extensive systems based on forage with only small amounts of concentrate. In all four production systems, the quantity of HDEAA in the products (milk and meat) generally exceeded the quantity of HDEAA in the feeds. The intensive production models for beef calves generally resulted in output of the same magnitude as input for most HDEAA. However, in beef production based on calves from dairy cows, the intensive rearing systems resulted in lower output than input of HDEAA. For the extensive models, the amounts of HDEAA in meat were of the same magnitude as the amounts in the feeds. The extensive models with beef calves from suckler cows resulted in higher output in meat than input in feeds for all HDEAA. It was concluded that feeding cattle plants for production of milk and meat, instead of using the plants directly as human food, generally results in an upgrading of both the quantity and quality of protein, especially

  11. Nutritional evaluation of cereal mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An advisory group of experts, comprising nutritionists, analysts and plant breeders, discussed the desirability of nutritional goals for plant breeding and attempted to specify the deficiencies of various cereal crops in essential nutrients. It considered the plant factors influencing the value for human and animal nutrition and the feasibility of improving these by genetic and plant breeding methods. Methods of assaying nutritional quality were discussed, particularly in relation to the need for rapid, inexpensive methods capable of being used as screening procedures in plant breeding programmes. The proceedings contain 9 scientific papers and a conclusion and recommendations, including a review of the chemical cuzymatic, microbiological and animal assay techniques that are available

  12. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  13. Research and Development on Food Nutrition Statistical Analysis Software System

    OpenAIRE

    Du Li; Ke Yun

    2013-01-01

    Designing and developing a set of food nutrition component statistical analysis software can realize the automation of nutrition calculation, improve the nutrition processional professional’s working efficiency and achieve the informatization of the nutrition propaganda and education. In the software development process, the software engineering method and database technology are used to calculate the human daily nutritional intake and the intelligent system is used to evaluate the user’s hea...

  14. An Overview of Plant Phenolic Compounds and Their Importance in Human Nutrition and Management of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the biosynthesis process of phenolic compounds in plants is summarized, which includes the shikimate, pentose phosphate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Plant phenolic compounds can act as antioxidants, structural polymers (lignin, attractants (flavonoids and carotenoids, UV screens (flavonoids, signal compounds (salicylic acid and flavonoids and defense response chemicals (tannins and phytoalexins. From a human physiological standpoint, phenolic compounds are vital in defense responses, such as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. Therefore, it is beneficial to eat such plant foods that have a high antioxidant compound content, which will cut down the incidence of certain chronic diseases, for instance diabetes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases, through the management of oxidative stress. Furthermore, berries and other fruits with low-amylase and high-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be regarded as candidate food items in the control of the early stages of hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Pro-inflammatory wnt5a and anti-inflammatory sFRP5 are differentially regulated by nutritional factors in obese human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M Schulte

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These inflammatory cells affect adipocytes not only by classical cytokines but also by the secreted glycopeptide wnt5a. Healthy adipocytes are able to release the wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5. This protective effect, however, was found to be diminished in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine (1 whether obese human subjects exhibit increased serum concentrations of wnt5a and (2 whether wnt5a and/or sFRP5 serum concentrations in obese subjects can be influenced by caloric restriction.23 obese human subjects (BMI 44.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2 and 12 age- and sex-matched lean controls (BMI 22.3 ± 0.4 kg/m(2 were included in the study. Obese subjects were treated with a very low-calorie diet (approximately 800 kcal/d for 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and wnt5a and sFRP5 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA. sFRP5 expression in human adipose tissue biopsies was further determined on protein level by immunohistology.Pro-inflammatory wnt5a was not measurable in any serum sample of lean control subjects. In patients with obesity, however, wnt5a became significantly detectable consistent with low grade inflammation in such subjects. Caloric restriction resulted in a weight loss from 131.9 ± 4.0 to 112.3 ± 3.2 kg in the obese patients group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of HOMA-IR and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these metabolic improvements were associated with a significant increase in serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory factor and wnt5a-inhibitor sFRP5.Obesity is associated with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory wnt5a in humans. Furthermore, caloric restriction beneficially affects serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory sFRP5 in such subjects. These findings suggest a

  16. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  17. Nutrigenomics : exploiting systems biology in the nutrition and health arena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Stierum, R.

    2002-01-01

    Nutritional sciences are discovering the application of the so-called 'omics' sciences. Propelled by the recent unravelling of the human genome and the coinciding technological developments, genotyping, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are now available to nutritional research. In the

  18. Enteral nutrients potentiate glucagon-like peptide-2 action and reduce dependence on parenteral nutrition in a rat model of human intestinal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Adam S.; Murali, Sangita G.; Hitt, Stacy; Solverson, Patrick M.; Holst, Jens J.

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent, proglucagon-derived gut hormone that shows promise for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Our objective was to investigate how combination GLP-2 + enteral nutrients (EN) affects intestinal adaption in a rat model that mimics severe human SBS and requires parenteral nutrition (PN). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups and maintained with PN for 18 days: total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone, TPN + GLP-2 (100 μg·kg−1·day−1), PN + EN + GLP-2(7 days), PN + EN + GLP-2(18 days), and a nonsurgical oral reference group. Animals underwent massive distal bowel resection followed by jejunocolic anastomosis and placement of jugular catheters. Starting on postoperative day 4, rats in the EN groups were allowed ad libitum access to EN. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 had their rate of PN reduced by 0.25 ml/day starting on postoperative day 6. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 demonstrated significantly greater body weight gain with similar energy intake and a safe 80% reduction in PN compared with TPN ± GLP-2. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 for 7 or 18 days showed similar body weight gain, residual jejunal length, and digestive capacity. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 showed increased jejunal GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) expression. Treatment with TPN + GLP-2 demonstrated increased jejunal expression of epidermal growth factor. Cessation of GLP-2 after 7 days with continued EN sustained the majority of intestinal adaption and significantly increased expression of colonic proglucagon compared with PN + EN + GLP-2 for 18 days, and increased plasma GLP-2 concentrations compared with TPN alone. In summary, EN potentiate the intestinotrophic actions of GLP-2 by improving body weight gain allowing for a safe 80% reduction in PN with increased jejunal expression of GLP-2R, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 following distal bowel

  19. Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO₂depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loladze, Irakli

    2014-05-07

    Mineral malnutrition stemming from undiversified plant-based diets is a top global challenge. In C3 plants (e.g., rice, wheat), elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) reduce protein and nitrogen concentrations, and can increase the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; mainly starch, sugars). However, contradictory findings have obscured the effect of eCO2 on the ionome-the mineral and trace-element composition-of plants. Consequently, CO2-induced shifts in plant quality have been ignored in the estimation of the impact of global change on humans. This study shows that eCO2 reduces the overall mineral concentrations (-8%, 95% confidence interval: -9.1 to -6.9, p carbon:minerals in C3 plants. The meta-analysis of 7761 observations, including 2264 observations at state of the art FACE centers, covers 130 species/cultivars. The attained statistical power reveals that the shift is systemic and global. Its potential to exacerbate the prevalence of 'hidden hunger' and obesity is discussed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02245.001. Copyright © 2014, Loladze.

  20. Resveratrol Based Oral Nutritional Supplement Produces Long-Term Beneficial Effects on Structure and Visual Function in Human Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Richer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Longevinex® (L/RV is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC oral resveratrol (RV based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac reperfusion injury, clinical retinal neovascularization, and stem cell survival. We previously reported our short-term findings for dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients. Today we report long term (two to three year clinical efficacy. Methods: We treated three patients including a patient with an AMD treatment resistant variant (polypoidal retinal vasculature disease. We evaluated two clinical measures of ocular structure (fundus autofluorescent imaging and spectral domain optical coherence extended depth choroidal imaging and qualitatively appraised changes in macular pigment volume. We further evaluated three clinical measures of visual function (Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare recovery to a cone photo-stress stimulus. Results: We observed broad bilateral improvements in ocular structure and function over a long time period, opposite to what might be expected due to aging and the natural progression of the patient’s pathophysiology. No side effects were observed. Conclusions: These three cases demonstrate that application of epigenetics has long-term efficacy against AMD retinal disease, when the retinal specialist has exhausted other therapeutic modalities.

  1. Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO2 depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loladze, Irakli

    2014-01-01

    Mineral malnutrition stemming from undiversified plant-based diets is a top global challenge. In C3 plants (e.g., rice, wheat), elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) reduce protein and nitrogen concentrations, and can increase the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; mainly starch, sugars). However, contradictory findings have obscured the effect of eCO2 on the ionome—the mineral and trace-element composition—of plants. Consequently, CO2-induced shifts in plant quality have been ignored in the estimation of the impact of global change on humans. This study shows that eCO2 reduces the overall mineral concentrations (−8%, 95% confidence interval: −9.1 to −6.9, p carbon:minerals in C3 plants. The meta-analysis of 7761 observations, including 2264 observations at state of the art FACE centers, covers 130 species/cultivars. The attained statistical power reveals that the shift is systemic and global. Its potential to exacerbate the prevalence of ‘hidden hunger’ and obesity is discussed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02245.001 PMID:24867639

  2. Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Murgia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene–nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice.

  3. Nutrition and acute schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Brazil, nutritional deficiency diseases and schistosomiasis mansoni overlap. An experimental model, wich reproduces the marasmatic clinical form of protein-energy malnutrition, was developed in this laboratory to study these interactions. Albino Swiss mice were fed with a food association ingested usually by human populations in northeast Brazil. This diet (Regional Basic Diet - RBD has negative effects on the growth, food intake and protein utilization in infected mice (acute phase of murine schistosomiasis. Nitrogen balance studies have also shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni has apparently no effect on protein intestinal absorption in well nourished mice. However, the lowest absorption ratios have been detected among RBD - fed infected animals, suggesting that suprerimposed schistosome infection aggravated the nutritional status of the undernourished host. The serum proteins electrophoretic pattern, as far as albumins are concerned, is quite similar for non-infected undernourished and infected well-fed animals. So, the significance of albumins as a biochemical indicator of the nutritional status of human populations residing in endemic foci of Manson's schistosomiasis, is discussable.

  4. A NUTRITION OVERVIEW THROUGH CENTURIES. THE PRESENT-DAY NEED OF NUTRITIONAL EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Simona ILAŞ

    2015-01-01

    The type of alimentation and the food quality of individuals has undergone remarkable changes along with the progress of the human species. This study contains an historical overview regarding human nutrition from the primitive forms until the paradoxes of contemporary alimentation. Nutritional education aims to inform and to train a person about food choices, dosage and cooking, how to identify authentic food and to understand the value of nutrition. Children need a balanced diet in order to...

  5. Climate change and nutrition: creating a climate for nutrition security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, M C; Crahay, P; Mahy, L; Zanev, C; Neira, M; Msangi, S; Brown, R; Scaramella, C; Costa Coitinho, D; Müller, A

    2013-12-01

    ), and policies and actions formulated by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Improved multi-sectoral coordination and political will is required to integrate nutrition-sensitive actions into climate-resilient sustainable development efforts in the UNFCCC work and in the post 2015 development agenda. Placing human rights at the center of strategies to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change and international solidarity is essential to advance sustainable development and to create a climate for nutrition security.

  6. Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzi, G

    2000-03-01

    Even though no unambiguous proof for enhanced performance during high-intensity exercise has yet been reported, the creatine administration is charged to improve physical performance and has become a popular practice among subjects participating in different sports. Appropriate creatine dosage may be also used as a medicinal product since, in accordance with the Council Directive 65/65/CEE, any substance which may be administered with a view to restoring, correcting or modifying physiological functions in human beings is considered a medicinal product. Thus, quality, efficacy and safety must characterize the substance. In biochemical terms, creatine administration enhances both creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations, allowing for an increased total creatine pool in skeletal muscle. In thermodynamics terms, creatine interferes with the creatine-creatine kinase-phosphocreatine circuit, which is related to the mitochondrial function as a highly organized system for the energy control of the subcellular adenylate pool. In pharmacokinetics terms, creatine entry into skeletal muscle is initially dependent on the extracellular concentration, but the creatine transport is subsequently down-regulated. In pharmacodynamics terms, the creatine enhances the possibility to maintain power output during brief periods of high-intensity exercises. In spite of uncontrolled daily dosage and long-term administration, no research on creatine safety in humans has been set up by specific standard protocol of clinical pharmacology and toxicology, as currently occurs in phase I for the products for human use. More or less documented side effects induced by creatine are weight gain; influence on insulin production; feedback inhibition of endogenous creatine synthesis; long-term damages on renal function. A major point that related to the quality of creatine products is the amount of creatine ingested in relation to the amount of contaminants present. During the production of creatine

  7. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward Jm; Young, Scott D; Odee, David W; Ander, E Louise; Broadley, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iodine (I), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana). In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS. This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a fresh vegetable or in powdered form

  8. Co-ordinated research project on application of isotopic nuclear techniques in the study of nutrition-pollution interactions and their impact on the nutritional status of human subjects in developing country populations. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are being affected by numerous kinds of anthropogenic activities. Rapid and uncontrolled industrial growth in most part of the developing world has aggravated environmental contamination, some of which are potent pollutants. It is common knowledge that such pollutants significantly affect human health, as is the case with heavy metals and with organic dusts as an emerging concern. There is a distinction between pollution and contamination, in that a contaminant may be present in a given medium with or without causing harmful effects. Pollutants are regarded as agents causing harm to the environment subsequently leading to impairment of human health. Certain pollutants (e.g. lead absorption by anaemic subjects) cause ill health effects including deterioration of the nutritional status of individuals. Up until now, nutritional status and environmental pollution have mostly been treated as separate issues and there is very little information available about their relationship. Yet, previous studies have indicated that nutrition and pollution are interconnected with regard to their effects on human health. In recent years, a great deal of effort has been put into developing sensitive methods of measuring pollutants both in the environment and biological systems. However, the quantitative evaluation of impacts on health is still in its infancy and therefore far from satisfaction. To monitor the interaction between environmental pollution and nutrition, as well as health status, some indicators exist. Breast milk is an example of an indicator used for Real Time Monitoring (RTM). It has been demonstrated that the effect of the presence of pollutants in breast milk has an effect on morbidity and growth faltering in the nursing infant. Similarly, other non-invasive indicators such as urine and saliva and less invasive ones, as whole blood have commonly been used to monitor some pollutants (e.g. toxic metals). Placenta can also be employed as a dual

  9. Networking to Improve Nutrition Policy Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sonia A.; Blanck, Heidi M.; Cradock, Angie; Gortmaker, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Effective nutrition and obesity policies that improve the food environments in which Americans live, work, and play can have positive effects on the quality of human diets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) conducts transdisciplinary practice-based policy research and evaluation to foster understanding of the effectiveness of nutrition policies. The articles in this special collection bring to light a...

  10. Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megson, David, E-mail: dpmegson@hotmail.co.uk [Biogeochemistry Research Centre, SoGEES, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); O’Sullivan, Gwen [Department of Environmental Science, Mount Royal University, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary, Alberta, T3E 6K6 (Canada); Comber, Sean; Worsfold, Paul J.; Lohan, Maeve C. [Biogeochemistry Research Centre, SoGEES, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Edwards, Melanie R.; Shields, Walter J. [Exponent Inc., 15375 Southeast 30th Place, Bellevue, WA 98007 (United States); Sandau, Courtney D. [Chemistry Matters Inc., 2120 1st Avenue NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 0B5 (Canada); Patterson, Donald G. [Exponent Inc., One Capital City Plaza, Suite 1620, 3350 Peachtree Road, Atlanta, GA 30326 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In human exposure studies involving Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), it is useful to establish when an individual was potentially exposed. Age dating PCB exposure is complex but assessments can be made because different PCB congeners have different residence times in the human body. The less chlorinated congeners generally tend to have shorter residence times because they are biotransformed and eliminated faster than more chlorinated congeners. Therefore, the presence of high proportions of less chlorinated congeners is often indicative of recent exposure. The 2003–04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset contains results for the concentration of 37 PCBs in a sub-sample of the US population. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NHANES data showed that less chlorinated congeners are not always biotransformed faster than higher chlorinated compounds. For example, PCB 28 (a tri-chlorobiphenyl) appears to be more resistant to biotransformation than PCB 101 and 110 (penta-chlorobiphenyls). Using statistical analysis of the NHANES data in conjunction with previously published studies on PCB persistence in humans, it was possible to identify the structural relationships that determine if a PCB is likely to be from a recent exposure (termed ‘episodic’) or from steady state exposure. Congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2,5- and 2,3,6-positions appear to be more susceptible to biotransformation whereas congeners with chlorine bonds in the 2,3,4- 2,4,5- 3,4,5- and 2,3,4,5-positions appear to be more persistent. This work shows that future investigations to date PCB exposure would benefit from the analysis of a wide range of congeners, including the selection of key congeners based not only on the degree of chlorination but also on the positions of the chlorine atoms on the biphenyl. - Highlights: • NHANES data was used to compare the PCB signature of different aged participants. • PCB residence time may be explained by the number

  11. Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megson, David; O’Sullivan, Gwen; Comber, Sean; Worsfold, Paul J.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Edwards, Melanie R.; Shields, Walter J.; Sandau, Courtney D.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    In human exposure studies involving Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), it is useful to establish when an individual was potentially exposed. Age dating PCB exposure is complex but assessments can be made because different PCB congeners have different residence times in the human body. The less chlorinated congeners generally tend to have shorter residence times because they are biotransformed and eliminated faster than more chlorinated congeners. Therefore, the presence of high proportions of less chlorinated congeners is often indicative of recent exposure. The 2003–04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset contains results for the concentration of 37 PCBs in a sub-sample of the US population. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NHANES data showed that less chlorinated congeners are not always biotransformed faster than higher chlorinated compounds. For example, PCB 28 (a tri-chlorobiphenyl) appears to be more resistant to biotransformation than PCB 101 and 110 (penta-chlorobiphenyls). Using statistical analysis of the NHANES data in conjunction with previously published studies on PCB persistence in humans, it was possible to identify the structural relationships that determine if a PCB is likely to be from a recent exposure (termed ‘episodic’) or from steady state exposure. Congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2,5- and 2,3,6-positions appear to be more susceptible to biotransformation whereas congeners with chlorine bonds in the 2,3,4- 2,4,5- 3,4,5- and 2,3,4,5-positions appear to be more persistent. This work shows that future investigations to date PCB exposure would benefit from the analysis of a wide range of congeners, including the selection of key congeners based not only on the degree of chlorination but also on the positions of the chlorine atoms on the biphenyl. - Highlights: • NHANES data was used to compare the PCB signature of different aged participants. • PCB residence time may be explained by the number

  12. Nutritional requirements of the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel L

    2004-02-01

    The presence or development of malnutrition during critical illness has been unequivocally associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people. Recognition that malnutrition may similarly affect veterinary patients emphasizes the need to properly address the nutritional requirements of hospitalized dogs and cats. Because of a lack in veterinary studies evaluating the nutritional requirements of critically ill small animals, current recommendations for nutritional support of veterinary patients are based largely on sound clinical judgment and the best information available, including data from experimental animal models and human studies. This, however, should not discourage the veterinary practitioner from implementing nutritional support in critically ill patients. Similar to many supportive measures of critically ill patients, nutritional interventions can have a significant impact on patient morbidity and may even improve survival. The first step of nutritional support is to identify patients most likely to benefit from nutritional intervention. Careful assessment of the patient and appraisal of its nutritional needs provide the basis for a nutritional plan, which includes choosing the optimal route of nutritional support, determining the number of calories to provide, and determining the composition of the diet. Ultimately, the success of the nutritional management of critically ill dogs and cats will depend on close monitoring and frequent reassessment.

  13. Capable and credible? Challenging nutrition science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, Bart; Wolters, Anna; Feskens, Edith F.; Brouns, Fred; Huber, Machteld; Maeckelberghe, Els L.M.; Navis, Gerjan; Ockhuizen, Theo; Plat, Jogchum; Sikkema, Jan; Stasse-Wolthuis, Marianne; Veer, van 't Pieter; Verweij, Marcel; Vries, de Jan

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition science has enriched our understanding of how to stay healthy by producing valuable knowledge about the interaction of nutrients, food, and the human body. Nutrition science also has raised societal awareness about the links between food consumption and well-being, and provided the basis

  14. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  15. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  16. Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BACK Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  17. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  18. Flavonoid intake from food and beverages: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008, Tables 1-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has released 4 flavonoid intake data tables that make available, for the first time, nationally representative estimates of the intake of 29 individual flavonoids in six classes (as well as the sum of those flavonoids)...

  19. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Modulation of metabolism through nutrition and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary role of the dairy cow is to help provide high-quality protein and other nutrients through lactation to the human diet. It is clear that these high-producing and long lactations are stressful on the cows, and minor changes in nutrition and management can have significant impacts on profi...

  20. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  1. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  2. Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2014-07-01

    Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era and in the Age of Enlightenment, various personalities practiced vegetarianism. The first vegetarian society was started in England in 1847. The International Vegetarian Society was founded in 1908 and the first vegan society began in 1944. Prominent vegetarians during this time included Sylvester Graham, John Harvey Kellogg, and Maximilian Bircher-Benner. A paradigm shift occurred at the turn of the 21st century. The former prejudices that vegetarianism leads to malnutrition were replaced by scientific evidence showing that vegetarian nutrition reduces the risk of most contemporary diseases. Today, vegetarian nutrition has a growing international following and is increasingly accepted. The main reasons for this trend are health concerns and ethical, ecologic, and social issues. The future of vegetarian nutrition is promising because sustainable nutrition is crucial for the well-being of humankind. An increasing number of people do not want animals to suffer nor do they want climate change; they want to avoid preventable diseases and to secure a livable future for generations to come. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Nutritional Composition of African Locust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most logical approach towards the improvement and efficient use of indigenous fruits to supply nutritional requirement for human diet is through the investigation of their nutritional values. This study was carried out to investigate the nutritional value of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) fruit collected from two ...

  4. Managing Agricultural Biodiversity for Nutrition, Health, Livelihoods ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Agricultural Biodiversity for Nutrition, Health, Livelihoods and ... on local ecosystems and human resources can provide sustainable solutions to ... and health among the rural and urban poor through increased dietary diversity.

  5. CONCEPTS IN HUMAN NUTRITION AND ANIMAL FEEDING New Reference Values for nutrient intake in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (DACH-reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Günther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance to their very good collaboration through decades especially at the “3 Countries Meetings” the Nutrition Societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (D, A, CH decided to prepare new Reference Values for nutrient intake as a joint edition in the year 2000. The Reference Values consist of two parts: Part 1, Nutritive aspects of nutrients. Part 2, Preventive aspect of nutrient and food components. The Reference Values presented should protect almost all individuals of the respective group against potential damage to health from their diet and provide a basis for full functional capacity. In detail recommendations, estimates or guideline values are presented for the different nutrients. Total fat should not exceed 30% of energy, saturated fatty acids should not provide more than 10% of energy and polyunsaturated fatty acids 7% of energy with n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 5:1. Preventive aspect concern the prophylaxis of nutrition-related diseases.

  6. Impact of household food insecurity on the nutritional status and the response to therapeutic feeding of people living with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahwere P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paluku Bahwere1,2,*, Hedwig Deconinck3,*, Theresa Banda1,*, Angella Mtimuni1,*, Steve Collins1,* 1Valid International, Oxford, United Kingdom; 2Center of Research in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium; 3Save the Children, Westport, CT, USA *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The role of household food security (HFS in the occurrence of wasting and the response to food-based intervention in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV, especially adults, is still controversial and needs investigation.Methods: Face-to-face interviews to collect data for Coping Strategies Index score and Dietary Diversity Score estimation were conducted during a noncontrolled and nonrandomized study assessing the effectiveness of ready-to-use therapeutic food in the treatment of wasting in adults with HIV. Coping Strategies Index score and Dietary Diversity Score were used to determine HFS, and the participants and tertiles of Coping Strategies Index score were used to categorize HFS.Results: The study showed that most participants were from food insecure households at admission, only 2.7% (5/187 ate food from six different food groups the day before enrolment, and 93% (180/194 were applying forms of coping strategy. Acute malnutrition was rare among <5-year-old children from participants’ households, but the average (standard deviation mid-upper arm circumference of other adults in the same households were 272.7 (42.1 mm, 254.8 (33.8 mm, and 249.8 (31.7 mm for those from the best, middle, and worst tertile of HFS, respectively (P = 0.021. Median weight gain was lower in participants from the worst HFS tertile than in those from the other two tertiles combined during therapeutic feeding phase (0.0 [–2.1 to 2.6] kg versus 1.9 [–1.7 to 6.0] kg; P = 0.052 and after ready-to-use therapeutic food discontinuation (–1.9 [–5.2 to 4.2] kg

  7. Military Nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    2000-01-01

    ... on health safety and performance, the PBRC performs the following eight research tasks: 1) Clinical Laboratory for Human and Food Samples performs laboratory analysis of samples from studies conducted...

  8. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  9. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  10. 77 FR 71003 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Nutrition AGENCY: President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, Office of the Assistant Secretary... Nutrition (PCFSN) will hold a meeting (Webinar format only). The meeting will be open to the public... Nutrition, Department of Health and Human Services, 1101 Wootton Parkway, Suite 560, Rockville, MD 20852...

  11. Nutritional Intervention Package to Insure 1000 Safe Days from Conception to the First Two Years of Life and Implication on Human Capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshafei, Moetazza; Hussein, Laila

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Egypt is not one of the countries doing well in nutrition during the critical window of development that starts during a mother’s pregnancy and goes through her child’s second birthday. The critical 1000-day window from pregnancy to a child’s second birthday is crucial to developing a child’s cognitive capacity and physical growth. Many of these babies are born with low birth weight which is an indicator of malnourished mother, malnourished children are therefore less likely to develop to their full potential. Recent WHO data Low Birth Weight Deaths in Egypt 13,6%. Furthermore, 30-39 % of Egyptian children under age 5 are stunted due to chronic malnutrition. Preventing under nutrition, means more than just providing food to the hungry. It is a long-term investment in our future, with generational payoff. Save The Children has highlighted six low-cost nutrition interventions for this period: iron, folate, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, vitamin A, zinc and hygiene High protein diet is unaffordable by the poor; solutions are to be discussed with low cost high protein nutritional intervention. The at most objective is strategic preventive and intervention measures to reduce maternal hunger and children malnutrition to achieve the Millennium development Goal 2015 specially child stunting. The study will be conducted on pregnant, lactating women visiting the out-patient clinic of tertiary maternal hospital ( Giza/Egypt) and their of springs till two years of life. Approval was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee. An Integrated Nutrition intervention Project (INP) will be implemented to them,daily prenatal food supplementation to women with a body mass index ≤ 18.5 kg/m2, providing 25 % of the daily energy requirement. Advanced nutritious food product will be used in infant 8 m - 2 years. Starting from September 2013 collecting data of deliveries and prevalence of LBW as well as incidence of neonatal mortality, to design requirements and

  12. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system.

  13. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.

  14. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise - nutrition; Exercise - fluids; Exercise - hydration ... Bird R. Nutrition. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  15. Nutrition and OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta ( ... no foods or supplements that will cure OI. Nutrition Related Problems Difficulties eating solid food have been ...

  16. Nutrition.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gov Sites FAQ Contact Us En Español Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Browse by ... FAQs USDA Research, Education, and Economics Resources Welcome Nutrition.gov is a USDA-sponsored website that offers ...

  17. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  18. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  19. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition and COPD Most people are surprised to learn ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  20. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  1. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  2. The new nutrition science: sustainability and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2005-09-01

    To show that nutrition science is anchored in food systems and is influenced by the social, through the environmental to the cosmological, life's connections and rhythms. To indicate that an integrative approach is now becoming possible with advances in food technology, in the understanding of food choice and of human behaviour, and in a preparedness to recognise nutritional inputs in the full sweep of life-long well-being and health outcomes. An analysis of the much broader understanding of nutritionally related diseases from an ecological perspective, with attention to economic development, beginning with poverty alleviation. Recognition that the biological dimension of nutrition science is undergoing a profound reappraisal; that technologies will allow us to change the course of nutritionally related diseases for the better; and that nutrition science will find partners in information technology and telecommunications, food technology and energy technology. A new generation of nutrition scientists can help build a new economy that supports development amongst communities, whether close or distant from each other. The opportunities for this kind of development to be realised between Asia, Latin America and Africa are considerable. At all times, however, nutrition scientists must uphold the paramount importance of good governance, conflict resolution and maternal literacy if their work is to achieve its growing potential.

  3. Weight and Glucose Reduction Observed with a Combination of Nutritional Agents in Rodent Models Does Not Translate to Humans in a Randomized Clinical Trial with Healthy Volunteers and Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Hodge

    Full Text Available Nutritional agents have modest efficacy in reducing weight and blood glucose in animal models and humans, but combinations are less well characterized. GSK2890457 (GSK457 is a combination of 4 nutritional agents, discovered by the systematic assessment of 16 potential components using the diet-induced obese mouse model, which was subsequently evaluated in a human study.In the diet-induced obese mouse model, GSK457 (15% w/w in chow given with a long-acting glucagon-like peptide -1 receptor agonist, exendin-4 AlbudAb, produced weight loss of 30.8% after 28 days of treatment. In db/db mice, a model of diabetes, GSK457 (10% w/w combined with the exendin-4 AlbudAb reduced glucose by 217 mg/dL and HbA1c by 1.2% after 14 days.GSK457 was evaluated in a 6 week randomized, placebo-controlled study that enrolled healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes to investigate changes in weight and glucose. In healthy subjects, GSK457 well tolerated when titrated up to 40 g/day, and it reduced systemic exposure of metformin by ~ 30%. In subjects with diabetes taking liraglutide 1.8 mg/day, GSK457 did not reduce weight, but it slightly decreased mean glucose by 0.356 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.409, 0.698 and HbAlc by 0.065% (95% CI: -0.495, 0.365, compared to placebo. In subjects with diabetes taking metformin, weight increased in the GSK457-treated group [adjusted mean % increase from baseline: 1.26% (95% CI: -0.24, 2.75], and mean glucose and HbA1c were decreased slightly compared to placebo [adjusted mean glucose change from baseline: -1.22 mmol/L (95% CI: -2.45, 0.01; adjusted mean HbA1c change from baseline: -0.219% (95% CI: -0.910, 0.472].Our data demonstrate remarkable effects of GSK457 in rodent models of obesity and diabetes, but a marked lack of translation to humans. Caution should be exercised with nutritional agents when predicting human efficacy from rodent models of obesity and diabetes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01725126.

  4. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  5. War in former Yugoslavia: Coping with Nutritional Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; James, W. Philip. T.

    1998-01-01

    of food supply; anthropometric measures; in search of the most vulnerable; assessing food security; assessing nutritional deficiencies-protein and micronutrient issues; public health issues in former Yugoslavia-infant feeding practices, developing nutrition expertise in modern public health......This chapter in the text book "Essentials of Human Nutrition" published by OUP explores war in former Yugoslavia and the accompanying nutritional issues. Areas of focus include: emergency food aid; how much energy?; nutritional surveillance-a re-evaluation of its role in wartime; the quality...

  6. Moleculer nutritional immunology and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rüksan Çehreli

    2018-01-01

    The immune system composed of cells that are sensitive to a series of surrounding factors and forming an integrated network. During the last decade a significant increase in the number of studies demonstrated that diet components released from adipocytes and metabolic pathways, affected the immune system and highly contributed to the human health.T-cells are significantly affected by nutrition. Decrease in glucose uptake and metabolism, cytokine synthesis, T-cell proliferation and survival in...

  7. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  8. Networking to Improve Nutrition Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sonia A; Blanck, Heidi M; Cradock, Angie; Gortmaker, Steven

    2015-09-10

    Effective nutrition and obesity policies that improve the food environments in which Americans live, work, and play can have positive effects on the quality of human diets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) conducts transdisciplinary practice-based policy research and evaluation to foster understanding of the effectiveness of nutrition policies. The articles in this special collection bring to light a set of policies that are being used across the United States. They add to the larger picture of policies that can work together over time to improve diet and health.

  9. Analysis of nutrition-relevant trace elements in human blood and serum by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosnach, Hagen; Mages, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    In clinical service laboratories, one of the most common analytical tasks with regard to inorganic traces is the determination of the nutrition-relevant elements Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se. Because of the high numbers of samples and the commercial character of these analyses, a time-consuming sample preparation must be avoided. In this presentation, the results of total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements with a low-power system and different sample preparation procedures are compared with those derived from analysis with common methods like Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The results of these investigations indicate that the optimal total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the nutrition-relevant elements Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se can be performed by preparing whole blood and serum samples after dilution with ultrapure water and transferring 10 μl of internally standardized sample to an unsiliconized quartz glass sample carrier with subsequent drying in a laboratory oven. Suitable measurement time was found to be 600 s. The enhanced sample preparation by means of microwave or open digestion, in parts combined with cold plasma ashing, led to an improvement of detection limits by a factor of 2 for serum samples while for whole blood samples an improvement was only observed for samples prepared by means of microwave digestion. As the matrix elements P, S, Cl, and for whole blood Fe have a major influence on the detection limits, most probably a further enhancement of analytical quality requires the removal of the organic matrix. However, for the routine analysis of the nutrition-relevant elements, the dilution preparation was found to be sufficient.

  10. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  11. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  12. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...

  13. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  14. 45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section 1308.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START...

  15. Food and nutrition security public initiatives from a human and socioeconomic development perspective: mapping experiences within the 1996 World Food Summit signatories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Marie Agnès; Chaves-Dos-Santos, Sandra Maria

    2014-03-01

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. In a global scenario where hunger and obesity affect millions of people, public actions have been developed towards Food and Nutrition Security (FNS). In 1996 during the World Food Summit, 186 countries signed the Rome Declaration, committing themselves to assess and address Food and Nutrition Insecurity. In this exploratory study, we compile secondary internet data using keywords in four languages to map the global distribution, among signatories, of FNS public initiatives and assess their association with key national-level socioeconomic indicators. As a result, we found FNS public policies in 123 countries, reports on the state of FNS in 139 countries, and the presence of both in 114 countries (61%). The proportion of countries with any type of, as well as with specific, FNS policy or diagnostic was higher in least developed countries. There was a statistically significant association between these proportions and selected national-level socioeconomic variables. The results are discussed along with population vulnerability, international cooperation mechanisms and political discourse and how these factors impact the existence of FNS public actions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional Aspects of Dysphagia Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, C; Brito-de la Fuente, E; Clavé, P; Costa, A; Assegehegn, G

    This chapter describes the nutritional aspects of dysphagia management by starting with the definition of these two conditions (dysphagia and malnutrition) that share three main clinical characteristics: (a) their prevalence is very high, (b) they can lead to severe complications, and (c) they are frequently underrecognized and neglected conditions. From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia can result from oropharyngeal and/or esophageal causes; from a pathophysiological perspective, dysphagia can be caused by organic or structural diseases (either benign or malignant) or diseases causing impaired physiology (mainly motility and/or perception disorders). This chapter gathers up-to-date information on the screening and diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the consequences of dysphagia (aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration), and on the nutritional management of dysphagic patients. Concerning this last topic, this chapter reviews the rheological aspects of swallowing and dysphagia (including shear and elongational flows) and its influence on the characteristics of the enteral nutrition for dysphagia management (solid/semisolid foods and thickened liquids; ready-to-use oral nutritional supplements and thickening powders), with special focus on the real characteristics of the bolus after mixing with human saliva. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  18. ["Care" and public nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prével, Yves

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the

  19. Taking a bite out of nutrition and arbovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Weger-Lucarelli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is a key factor in host-pathogen defense. Malnutrition can increase both host susceptibility and severity of infection through a number of pathways, and infection itself can promote nutritional deterioration and further susceptibility. Nutritional status can also strongly influence response to vaccination or therapeutic pharmaceuticals. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses have a long history of infecting humans, resulting in regular pandemics as well as an increasing frequency of autochthonous transmission. Interestingly, aside from host-related factors, nutrition could also play a role in the competence of vectors required for transmission of these viruses. Nutritional status of the host and vector could even influence viral evolution itself. Therefore, it is vital to understand the role of nutrition in the arbovirus lifecycle. This Review will focus on nutritional factors that could influence susceptibility and severity of infection in the host, response to prophylactic and therapeutic strategies, vector competence, and viral evolution.

  20. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part 10--Micronutrient Supplements for School Lunch Program. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., December 7, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    Contents of these hearings include the statement and testimony of the following witnesses: (1) Alan Young, Research Administrator, Research and Development Division, A. H. Robins Co.; Chairman, Board of Directors, Vitamin Information Bureau; (2) Dr. Joseph M. White, Nutritional and Medical Consultant, Miles Laboratories; (3) Dr. George Briggs,…

  1. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Hefferon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  2. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  3. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira

    2011-01-01

    "Evaluating dietary intake, determining energy metabolism, and conducting other nutritional assessments are essential in understanding the relationships between diet, exercise, health, and physical...

  4. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  5. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solution Center NOVEL Project Parenteral Nutrition Resources Intravenous Lipid Emulsions (ILE) Video Series SmartPN Practice and Research Toolkits Publications & ASPEN Journals Journal of Parenteral and ...

  6. A NUTRITION OVERVIEW THROUGH CENTURIES. THE PRESENT-DAY NEED OF NUTRITIONAL EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona ILAŞ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The type of alimentation and the food quality of individuals has undergone remarkable changes along with the progress of the human species. This study contains an historical overview regarding human nutrition from the primitive forms until the paradoxes of contemporary alimentation. Nutritional education aims to inform and to train a person about food choices, dosage and cooking, how to identify authentic food and to understand the value of nutrition. Children need a balanced diet in order to grow and to become healthy adults. The importance of nutritional education in school is discussed taking into account the need of creating healthy eating habits which should be followed through the whole life, but also the lack of physical activity to children.

  7. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  8. Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body; food & nutrition; food and nutrition; food and nutrition articles; information about nutrition; health & nutrition; health and nutrition; health and nutrition articles; health and nutrition facts; health nutrition; nutrition and health; nutrition health; nutrition health articles; healthy; a healthy diet; diet healthy; eating healthy; healthy diet; healthy diets; nutrition diet; diet and nutrition; diet and nutrition articles; diet and nutrition article; diet nutrition; nutrition and diet; article on nutrition; article about nutrition; articles on nutrition; facts about nutrition; good nutrition; nutrition article; nutrition articles; healthy tips; eat healthy tips; eating healthy tips; healthy diet tips; healthy eating tip; healthy eating tips; healthy food tips; should eat; reasons why you should eat healthy; why people should eat healthy; why should I eat healthy; why should people eat healthy; why should we eat healthy; why should you eat healthy; why we should eat healthy; why you should eat healthy; healthy diet; a healthy diet; diets healthy eating; eat a healthy diet; eat healthy diet; eating a healthy diet; eating healthy diet; eating healthy diets; healthy diet; way to eat; best way to eat healthy; easy way to eat healthy; easy ways to eat healthy; healthy way of eating; healthy way to eat; healthy ways of eating; healthy ways to eat; ways to eat healthy; benefits; benefits eating healthy; benefits for eating healthy; benefits from eating healthy; benefits of eating healthy; benefits of healthy eating; benefits on eating healthy; benefits to eating healthy; eating healthy benefits; health benefits of eating healthy; eat healthier; eat healthier; eating healthier; healthier eating; healthier ways to eat; how can I eat healthier; how do I eat healthier; how to eat healthier; how to start eating healthier; tips to eat healthier; ways to start eating healthier

  9. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  10. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Chibarabada, Tendai; Modi, Albert

    2016-01-06

    Whereas sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region's agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  11. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region’s agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  12. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  13. 42 CFR 414.64 - Payment for medical nutrition therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for medical nutrition therapy. 414.64 Section 414.64 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Other Practitioners § 414.64 Payment for medical nutrition therapy. (a) Payment under the physician fee...

  14. 42 CFR 410.132 - Medical nutrition therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical nutrition therapy. 410.132 Section 410.132 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical Nutrition Therapy § 410.132 Medical...

  15. Assessment of Nutritional Practices of Pregnant Mothers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life, health and development throughout the entire life span. The nutrition requirement varies with respect to age, gender and during physiological changes such as pregnancy. Pregnancy is a critical phase in a woman's life, when the expectant mother needs optimal nutrients of ...

  16. socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr

    7. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ... 90% of domestic responsibilities and are national resource managers and environmental ..... Education exposes one to better ways of managing resources and doing ... human nutrition basics, as well as rules for healthy eating. ... Second Edition.

  17. Nutritional status and food intake data on children and adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-15

    Feb 15, 2012 ... Department of Food and Nutrition Consumer Sciences, Durban University of Technology. Oldewage-Theron W ... that indicated the nutritional status and food consumption patterns of children in ..... nutrient requirements, and eating behaviour, lifestyle, human ..... Foods and beverages that make significant ...

  18. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  19. Systems biology of personalized nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the

  20. [Nutrition and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusion of a recent systematic review of the literature on the relation between nutrition, physical activity and cancer is that more than 30% of all cases of cancer can be prevented by improving nutrition and increasing physical activity. In The Netherlands, 1 out of 100 men and 1 out of 160

  1. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  2. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  3. You Score With Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  4. Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, C M; McElrath, T F; Scholl, T O

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy is a primary goal of the American Academy of Pediatrics and of many health providers. Nevertheless, many adolescents become pregnant every year in America. Pediatricians therefore should be aware of nutritional recommendations for pregnant adolescents to provide optimal care. The importance of nutrition during pregnancy is here reviewed from a pediatric perspective. Pregnancy, particularly during adolescence, is a time of extreme nutritional risk. The adolescents most likely to become pregnant are often those with inadequate nutritional status and unfavorable socio-economic background. There is increasing evidence of competition for nutrients between the growing pregnant adolescent and her fetus. Also, the prenatal environment has been implicated in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in both the mother and her offspring. Many adolescents have poor diet quality and poor knowledge of appropriate nutrition; these habits may not change during pregnancy. Current knowledge and recommendations regarding the intake of energy, calcium, and folate are discussed in detail.

  5. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  6. Nutrition, poverty alleviation, and development in Central America and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Maarten D C

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews research with policy relevance for food and nutrition in Central America and similar areas. The research was conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during the last three decades of the past millennium (1970-99). Six policy areas were selected for this review: agricultural commercialization and rural development; wage and price policies; human resource development; social safety nets, particularly complementary food programs; multi-sectoral nutrition planning; and food and nutrition monitoring for policy formulation. The contents and major conclusions of the work are described, as well as their public policy implications.

  7. A brief nutritional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Food irradiation is a preservation method comparable to others that use heat. Some advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Ionizing radiations provided by specific radioactive substances: Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137, or by machines (electron accelerators and X-ray devices), are employed to eliminate living organisms which are harmful to human health or cause food spoilage. Several applications are listed. As any other food preservation method, it does not substitute good manufacturing practices but complements them. Being perhaps the most studied food preservation method, its wholesomeness is guaranteed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the American Medical Association, The American Dietists Association, among others. Like in any other food preservation method, some nutritional and sensory losses can occur after an irradiation treatment; so, processing conditions are chosen to minimize these changes. Generally, nutrients are well protected within the food because there are many different molecules able to react with radiation. Some significant nutrient losses referred to in literature are usually found only when irradiating experimental mixtures of an isolated diluted food component and water. The evaluation concludes that macro nutrients like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are scarcely altered in their nutritional value after a treatment carried out under good irradiation practices. Regarding micro nutrients, minerals are stable, and some vitamins are slightly sensitive, mainly thiamine, ascorbic acid, and tocopherols, being their losses smaller than 15 - 20% which are comparable with those found in foods preserved by other methods. Besides, the impact that food irradiation would have on consumers' vitamins intake should be assessed considering the whole diet contribution, as many products are not likely to be irradiated. Confidence in food irradiation is such

  8. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Improving selenium nutritional value of major crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrient efficiency and development of nutrient-dense crops continue to be one of the most important global challenges. Se is an essential micronutrient to humans and serves as a cancer preventative agent. In order to improve Se nutritional and health promoting values in food crops, a better un...

  10. Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbouin-Rerolle, Pascale

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the principles of food preservation, food preservation techniques, and nutrition-related consequences of food processing. All foodstuffs in their natural state will deteriorate and become unfit for human consumption due to internal factors, such as enzyme activity, or external factors, such as insects, rodents, and…

  11. Cereal grains for nutrition and health benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björck, Inger; Östman, Elin; Kristensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole grain intake to the prevention of the metabolic syndrome, obesity and associated chronic diseases such as CVD and T2D. The Nutrition module within the HEALTHGRAIN project, included 10 partners and undertook in vitro, animal and human in vivo studies...

  12. Recent advances in primate nutritional ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, Nicoletta

    2017-04-01

    Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences. From a nutritional perspective, several theories including energy and protein-to-fiber maximization, nutrient mixing, and toxin avoidance, have been proposed to explain the food choices of non-human primates. However, more recently, analytical frameworks such as nutritional geometry have been incorporated into primatology to explore, using a multivariate approach, the synergistic effects of multiple nutrients, secondary metabolites, and energy requirements on primate food choice. Dietary strategies associated with nutrient balancing highlight the tradeoffs that primates face in bypassing or selecting particular feeding sites and food items. In this Special Issue, the authors bring together a set of studies focusing on the nutritional ecology of a diverse set of primate taxa characterized by marked differences in dietary emphasis. The authors present, compare, and discuss the diversity of strategies used by primates in diet selection, and how species differences in ecology, physiology, anatomy, and phylogeny can affect patterns of nutrient choice and nutrient balancing. The use of a nutritionally explicit analytical framework is fundamental to identify the nutritional requirements of different individuals of a given species, and through its application, direct conservation efforts can be applied to regenerate and protect specific foods and food patches that offer the opportunity of a

  13. 76 FR 22397 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Nutrition AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Secretary, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition. ACTION: Notice of... Nutrition (PCFSN) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. [[Page 22398

  14. 77 FR 22321 - Meeting of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Nutrition AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Secretary, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition. ACTION: Notice of... Nutrition (PCFSN) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting will be...

  15. Entrance Qualifications Affect the Performance of Nutrition Students at University: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Xu, Wen Li

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of admissions qualifications on the subsequent academic performances of BSc nutrition students at a UK university. Entrance qualifications for three groups (Grp01, Grp02, Grp03) reading for a BSc(Hons) degree in, Dietetics, Food & Nutrition or Human Nutrition (n = 105) were determined from their UCAS…

  16. Highlights of the 2012 research workshop: Using nutrigenomics and metabolomics in clinical nutrition research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Research Workshop, "Using Nutrigenomics and Metabolomics in Clinical Nutrition Research," was held on January 21, 2012, in Orlando, Florida. The conference brought together experts in human nutrition who use nutrigenomic and meta...

  17. Nutritional composition of five food trees species products used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional composition of five food trees species products used in human diet during food shortage period in Burkina Faso. Thiombiano Daniabla Natacha Edwige, Parkouda Charles, Lamien Nieyidouba, Sere Aminata, Castro-Euler Ana Margarida, Boussim Issaka Joseph ...

  18. Nutrition and Goiter Status of Primary School Children in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    Sanusi R. A. and Ekerette N. N.. Department of Human Nutrition, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) has continued to be of significant health problem in some communities.

  19. Improvement of nutritional quality and antioxidant activities of yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... help the human body and animals to reduce the oxidative damage (Yang ... antioxidant level and some nutritional quality of low cost substrate ..... anti-aging, anti-carcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti- ... in muscle food. J. Agric.

  20. Probiotics and prebiotics: prospects for public health and nutritional recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Salminen, Seppo; Merenstein, Daniel J.; Gibson, Glenn R.; Petschow, Bryon W.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Jacques, Paul; Pot, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are useful interventions for improving human health through direct or indirect effects on the colonizing microbiota. However, translation of these research findings into nutritional recommendations and public health policy endorsements has not been achieved in a manner

  1. Nutrition and Imagenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Allende, Miguel Angel

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present the close, although little explored, relationship between Nutrition and Imagenology, relying mainly on an important number of images which will allow us to explain all the ways an Imagenology can influence upon the nutritional support of a patient.We primarily emphasize the diagnostic aspects of non-operated patients, as well as of those who have undergone surgical treatment, by showing both normality and the resulting surgical complications. We finally describe several interventionist Imagenology techniques used to achieve an adequate enteral nutrition

  2. Role of Proteins and of Some Bioactive Peptides on the Nutritional Quality of Donkey Milk and Their Impact on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Donkey milk could be considered a good and safer alternative, compared to other types of milk, for infants affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, when breastfeeding is not possible. Interestingly, donkey milk has low allergenicity, mainly due to the low total casein amount, and the content of some whey proteins that act as bioactive peptides. The amount of lysozyme, an antibacterial agent, is 1.0 g/L, similar to human milk. Lactoferrin content is 0.08 g/L, with this protein being involved in the regulation of iron homoeostasis, anti-microbial and anti-viral functions, and protection against cancer development. Lactoperoxidase, another protein with antibacterial function, is present in donkey milk, but in very low quantities (0.11 mg/L. β-lactoglobulin content in donkey milk is 3.75 g/L—this protein is able to bind and transport several hydrophobic molecules. Donkey milk’s α-lactalbumin concentration is 1.8 g/L, very close to that of human milk. α-lactalbumin shows antiviral, antitumor, and anti-stress properties. Therefore, donkey milk can be considered as a set of nutraceuticals properties and a beverage suitable, not only for the growing infants, but for all ages, especially for convalescents and for the elderly.

  3. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  4. Targeted metabolomics profiles are strongly correlated with nutritional patterns in women

    OpenAIRE

    Menni, Cristina; Zhai, Guangju; MacGregor, Alexander; Prehn, Cornelia; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Suhre, Karsten; Adamski, Jerzy; Cassidy, Aedin; Illig, Thomas; Spector, Tim D.; Valdes, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in human metabolism and health. Metabolomics is a promising tool for clinical, genetic and nutritional studies. A key question is to what extent metabolomic profiles reflect nutritional patterns in an epidemiological setting. We assessed the relationship between metabolomic profiles and nutritional intake in women from a large cross-sectional community study. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were applied to 1,003 women from the TwinsUK cohort with targete...

  5. Nutrition screening: science behind simplicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition screening triggers entry into the nutrition care process.1 Screening has informally been described as simple, quick or low-intensity proxy for more complex procedures. More formal definitions for the nutrition setting have been proposed, describing nutrition screening as a process of identifying patients, clients, or ...

  6. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Perdue Pledges Support on the Long Road to Recovery 4/5 USDA Continues Disaster Assistance in Puerto Rico USDA is continuing its efforts to address the nutrition needs of Puerto Rican residents affected by Hurricanes ...

  7. Nutrition in children posttransplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    status and to detect, prevent and treat late-onset complications such as obesity ... potential, prevent further liver injury, promote liver regeneration, minimise risk of infection and .... Campos ACL, Matias JEF and Coelho JCU. Nutritional Aspects ...

  8. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  9. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  10. The eNutrition Academy: Supporting a New Generation of Nutritional Scientists around the World12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Catherine; Amuna, Paul; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Zotor, Francis B; Donovan, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition training and building capacity to provide a competent workforce to support national and regional efforts to combat malnutrition remain a major challenge in Africa and other developing regions of the world. The capacity to provide the necessary intellectual drive for nutrition research, policy, and practice in countries lacking in readiness for nutrition actions is imperative to improve the health of their people. To help address this need, the eNutrition Academy (eNA) was formed as a global partnership organization by the African Nutrition Society, the Federation of African Nutrition Societies, the Nutrition Society of the United Kingdom and Ireland, the ASN, and the International Union of Nutritional Sciences, supported by Cambridge University Press. The primary objective of this partnership is to provide an online learning platform that is free to access, enabling users to benefit from a wide range of learning materials from basic tools to more-advanced learning materials for teachers and researchers in developing countries. The goal of this article was to summarize the findings of a symposium held at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2015, which explored the themes of international capacity development, with a particular focus on the African continent, online learning, and the eNA e-learning platform. Given the vast human capacity present in Africa that is poised to create new solutions to address the public health needs of the continent, now is an opportune time to establish South-North and South-South partnerships to develop the next generation of African nutritional scientists. PMID:27180382

  11. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  12. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progressi...

  13. Nutrition and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  14. Animal Model of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus with Pathophysiological Resemblance to the Human Condition Induced by Multiple Factors (Nutritional, Pharmacological, and Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Abdul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to develop an experimental gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM animal model in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were fed with high fat sucrose diet, impregnated, and induced with Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide on gestational day 0 (D0. Sleeping patterns of the rats were also manipulated to induce stress, a lifestyle factor that contributes to GDM. Rats were tested for glycemic parameters (glucose, C-peptide, and insulin, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL, genes affecting insulin signaling (IRS-2, AKT-1, and PCK-1, glucose transporters (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GPX on D6 and D21. GDM rats showed possible insulin resistance as evidenced by high expression of proinflammatory cytokines, PCK-1 and CRP. Furthermore, low levels of IRS-2 and AKT-1 genes and downregulation of GLUT-4 from the initial to final phases indicate possible defect of insulin signaling. GDM rats also showed an impairment of antioxidant status and a hyperlipidemic state. Additionally, GDM rats exhibited significantly higher body weight and blood glucose and lower plasma insulin level and C-peptide than control. Based on the findings outlined, the current GDM animal model closely replicates the disease state in human and can serve as a reference for future investigations.

  15. Polyphenols from Root, Tubercles and Grains Cropped in Brazil: Chemical and Nutritional Characterization and Their Effects on Human Health and Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego dos Santos Baião

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (polyphenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that exert beneficial and protective actions on human health, playing roles such as enzymatic reaction inhibitors and cofactors, toxic chemicals scavengers and biochemical reaction substrates, increasing the absorption of essential nutrients and selectively inhibiting deleterious intestinal bacteria. Polyphenols present in some commodity grains, such as soy and cocoa beans, as well as in other vegetables considered security foods for developing countries, including cassava, taro and beetroot, all of them cropped in Brazil, have been identified and quantified in order to point out their bioavailability and the adequate dietary intake to promote health. The effects of the flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds present in these vegetables, their metabolism and their effects on preventing chronic and degenerative disorders like cancers, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and neurological diseases are herein discussed based on recent epidemiological studies.

  16. Polyphenols from Root, Tubercles and Grains Cropped in Brazil: Chemical and Nutritional Characterization and Their Effects on Human Health and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Baião, Diego; Silva de Freitas, Cyntia; da Silva, Davi; Ribeiro Pereira, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that exert beneficial and protective actions on human health, playing roles such as enzymatic reaction inhibitors and cofactors, toxic chemicals scavengers and biochemical reaction substrates, increasing the absorption of essential nutrients and selectively inhibiting deleterious intestinal bacteria. Polyphenols present in some commodity grains, such as soy and cocoa beans, as well as in other vegetables considered security foods for developing countries, including cassava, taro and beetroot, all of them cropped in Brazil, have been identified and quantified in order to point out their bioavailability and the adequate dietary intake to promote health. The effects of the flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds present in these vegetables, their metabolism and their effects on preventing chronic and degenerative disorders like cancers, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and neurological diseases are herein discussed based on recent epidemiological studies. PMID:28930173

  17. IAEA/WHO programme on iron nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    For many years, both the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency have sponsored research related to the subject of iron deficiency in humans. About four years ago their collective efforts were brought into focus in a co-ordinated research programme on iron nutrition. This may not yet be the 'large co-operative effort' which Dr. Moore envisioned, but it has the same objectives. Through modest financial assistance, the central supply of certain essential materials, and the effective exchange of information among collaborating scientists, the programme attempts to understand the state of iron nutrition in several societies and to identify means by which it can be improved. For two reasons, the emphasis of this co-ordinated programme is on iron nutrition in the developing countries. First, nutrition in general and iron nutrition in particular are more often marginal in these countries than in the developed countries, and second, the developing countries have fewer resources of their own to devote to this problem

  18. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at

  19. Nutrition security under extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrition security under extreme events. Zero hunger being one of the Sustainable Development Goal from the United Nations, food security has become a trending research topic. However extreme events impact on global food security is not yet 100% understood and there is a lack of comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of global food trade and nutrition security to improve countries resilience to extreme events. In a globalized world, food is still a highly regulated commodity and a strategic resource. A drought happening in a net food-exporter will have little to no effect on its own population but the repercussion on net food-importers can be extreme. In this project, we propose a methodology to describe and quantify the impact of a local drought to human health at a global scale. For this purpose, nutrition supply and global trade data from FAOSTAT have been used with domestic food production from national agencies and FAOSTAT, global precipitation from the Climate Research Unit and health data from the World Health Organization. A modified Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) has been developed to measure the level of resilience of one country to a drought happening in another country. This index describes how a country is dependent of importation and how diverse are its importation. Losses of production and exportation due to extreme events have been calculated using yield data and a simple food balance at country scale. Results show that countries the most affected by global droughts are the one with the highest dependency to one exporting country. Changes induced by droughts also disturbed their domestic proteins, fat and calories supply resulting most of the time in a higher intake of calories or fat over proteins.

  20. Does Aquaculture Support the Needs of Nutritionally Vulnerable Nations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Golden

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture now supplies half of the fish consumed directly by humans. We evaluate whether aquaculture, given current patterns of production and distribution, supports the needs of poor and food-insecure populations throughout the world. We begin by identifying 41 seafood-reliant nutritionally vulnerable nations (NVNs, and ask whether aquaculture meets human nutritional demand directly via domestic production or trade, or indirectly via purchase of nutritionally rich dietary substitutes. We find that a limited number of NVNs have domestically farmed seafood, and of those, only specific aquaculture approaches (e.g., freshwater in some locations have the potential to benefit nutritionally vulnerable populations. While assessment of aquaculture's direct contribution via trade is constrained by data limitations, we find that it is unlikely to contribute substantially to human nutrition in vulnerable groups, as most exported aquaculture consists of high-value species for international markets. We also determine that subpopulations who benefit from aquaculture profits are likely not the same subpopulations who are nutritionally vulnerable, and more research is needed to understand the impacts of aquaculture income gains. Finally, we discuss the relationship of aquaculture to existing trends in capture fisheries in NVNs, and suggest strategies to create lasting solutions to nutritional security, without exacerbating existing challenges in access to food and land resources.

  1. Importancia de la fibra dietética para la nutrición humana Importance of dietary fibre for human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Cabrera Llano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La inclusión de la fibra dietética en la dieta diaria de los seres humanos parece desempeñar una importante función para la prevención y el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades crónicas. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo brindar una actualización sobre los avances recientes publicados acerca de la utilidad de la fibra dietética en la salud y contra las enfermedades. Entre los beneficios que aporta un ingreso adecuado de fibra dietética, se encuentran la disminución de la presión arterial, la reducción del riesgo de cáncer colorrectal, el efecto hipocolesterolemizante, menor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y un mejor control de la diabetes mellitus II. Aunque se postulan diferentes mecanismos por los cuales reporta los beneficios, aún no hay resultados concluyentes, pero sí está establecido que el aumento en el ingreso dietético de cereales, leguminosas, frutas y vegetales, favorece la preservación de la salud y el control de algunas enfermedades crónicas.The inclusion of dietary fiber in the daily diet of the human beings seems to play an important role for the prevention and treatment of some chronic diseases. The purpose of this review is to offer an updating on the publication of the latest advances related to the usefulness of the dietary fiber for health and against the diseases. The decrease of arterial hypertension, the reduction of the risk for colorectal cancer, the colesterol lowering effect, the lower risk for cardiovascular disease, and the better control of type 2 diabetes mellitus, are among the benefits of an adequate intake of dietary fiber. Although there have been proposed different mechanisms through which the benefits are reported, there are no conclusive results yet, but it is established that the increase of cereals, legumes, fruit and vegetables in the diet favors the preservation of health and the control of some chronic diseases.

  2. Combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To review and discuss the evidence and arguments to combine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the ICU, in particular with reference to the Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients (EPaNIC) study. The EPaNIC study shows an advantage in terms of discharges alive from the ICU when parenteral nutrition is delayed to day 8 as compared with combining enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition from day 3 of ICU stay. The difference between the guidelines from the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Europe and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition/Society of Critical Care Medicine in North America concerning the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition during the initial week of ICU stay was reviewed. The EPaNIC study clearly demonstrates that early parenteral nutrition in the ICU is not in the best interests of most patients. Exactly at what time point the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition should be considered is still an open question.

  3. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  4. Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward J; Storey, Ryan; Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2017-08-01

    Bouldering competitions are held up to International level and governed by the International Federation of Sport Climbing. Bouldering has been selected to feature at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, however, physiological qualities and nutritional requirements to optimize performance remain inadequately defined due to large gaps in the literature. The primary goals of training include optimizing the capacity of the anaerobic energy systems and developing sport-specific strength, with emphasis on the isometric function of the forearm flexors responsible for grip. Bouldering athletes typically possess a lean physique, similar to the characteristics of sport climbers with reported body fat values of 6-12%. Athletes strive for a low body weight to improve power to weight ratio and limit the load on the extremities. Specialized nutritional support is uncommon and poor nutritional practices such as chronic carbohydrate restriction are prevalent, compromising the health of the athletes. The high intensity nature of bouldering demands a focus on adequate carbohydrate availability. Protein intake and timing should be structured to maximize muscle protein synthesis and recovery, with the literature suggesting 0.25-0.3 g/kg in 3-4 hr intervals. Supplementing with creatine and b-alanine may provide some benefit by augmenting the capacity of the anaerobic systems. Boulderers are encouraged to seek advice from nutrition experts to enhance performance, particularly important when weight loss is the desired outcome. Further research is warranted across all nutritional aspects of bouldering which is summarized in this review.

  5. The History and Sociology of Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Veselov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history and sociology of food in the context of discussion about Boris Mironov’s monograph, “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity.” According to Veselov, Mironov was among the first researchers to study nutrition in Russian history. For the first time in Russian historiography, he analyzed the fundamentally important questions of the nutrition of all social classes in the period of the Empire from the point of view of quantity, quality, and conformity with the physiological needs of human beings. Veselov considers that Mironov’s approach has an integrative and systematic character. It is not limited to the study of cultural practices and rituals, or to the symbolic meanings of food. Mironov also analyzes what, when, and how much people ate, evaluates the adequacy of nutrition, its impact on human health and labor efficiency, and also the modernization of consumption. Veselov suggests that Mironov’s findings, according to which the nutrition of the urban and rural population in the Imperial period was more or less satisfactory, are thoroughly and convincingly substantiated, and that this became possible due to the fact that the modernization of consumption and production of food products took place in close interaction.

  6. Nutritional Sustainability of Pet Foods12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S.; Carter, Rebecca A.; Yount, Tracy P.; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  7. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lauren Ball,1 Jennifer Crowley,2 Celia Laur,3 Minha Rajput-Ray,3 Stephen Gillam,4 Sumantra Ray3 1Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1 the approach to medical nutrition education, 2 evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3 areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the

  8. Nutrition: the new world disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Scale up 'we are what we eat' and nutrition is revealed as an aspect of world governance. The quality and nature of food systems has always tended to determine not only the health and welfare but also the fate of nations. The independence of nations depends on their development of their own human and natural resources, including food systems, which, if resilient, are indigenous, traditional, or evolved over time to climate, terrain and culture. Rapid adoption of untested or foreign food systems is hazardous not only to health, but also to security and sovereignty. Immediate gain may cause permanent loss. Dietary guidelines that recommend strange foods are liable to disrupt previous established food cultures. Since the 1960s the 'green revolution' has increased crop yield, and has also accelerated the exodus of hundreds of millions of farmers and their families from the land into lives of misery in mega-cities. This is a root cause of increased global inequity, instability and violence. 'Free trade' of food, in which value is determined by price, is imposed by dominant governments in alliance with industry when they believe they can thereby control the markets. The World Trade Organization and other agencies coordinate the work of transnational corporations that are the modern equivalents of the East India companies. Scientists should consider the wider dimensions of their work, nutrition scientists not least, because of the key place of food systems in all societies.

  9. [Nutritional management in geriatric traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.

  10. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  11. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS......: Patients diagnosed before the age of 4 (median 1.4) years displayed the classic clinical signs of rickets, whereas patients diagnosed after the age of 4 (median 12.5) years had few clinical signs and unspecific symptoms. Ethnic Danish patients were only diagnosed before age 24 months, and they accounted...

  12. Nutrition and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology.

  13. Nutrition and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  14. Nutrition in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the fundamental factors that influence the effectiveness of physical activity, increase efficiency and replenishment of muscle mass, balances the ratio of energy consumed and restored. The diet of an athlete can and should be built on common foods available and prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles of healthy eating. The need for major macronutrients and micronutrients is determined by the need for energy, the intensity of sweating and the goals for building muscle mass. Depending on the intensity of the proposed load including competition, there are individual nutritional needs and, if necessary, various food supplements may be used. The basic principles of sport nutrition are described in this article

  15. Evaluating evidence-based health care teaching and learning in the undergraduate human nutrition; occupational therapy; physiotherapy; and speech, language and hearing therapy programs at a sub-Saharan African academic institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonees, Anel; Rohwer, Anke; Young, Taryn

    2017-01-01

    It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning. We reviewed all module outlines (n = 89) from HN, PT and SLHT. The OT curriculum was being revised at that time and could not be included. Six lecturers each from HN and OT, and five lecturers each from PT and SLHT participated in the focus groups. Thirty percent (53/176) of invited students responded to the survey. EBHC competencies were addressed to varying degrees in the four programs, although EBHC teaching and learning mostly occurred implicitly. Learning outcomes referring to EBHC focused on enabling competencies (e.g., critical thinking, biostatistics, epidemiology) and were concentrated in theoretical modules. Key competencies (e.g., asking questions, searching databases, critical appraisal) were rarely addressed explicitly. Students felt that EBHC learning should be integrated throughout the four year study period to allow for repetition, consolidation and application of knowledge and skills. Lecturers highlighted several challenges to teaching and practising EBHC, including lack of

  16. Nutrition in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Osama; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd-Yusof

    2016-12-01

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a key component of diabetes management. The importance of balancing macronutrients, reducing carbohydrate load, lowering glycemic index, and implementing an overall healthy dietary pattern are emerging as better approaches for MNT in diabetes. Recent research points to improved glycemic control, reduction in body weight, and improvement in many cardiovascular risk factors when these approaches are provided by registered dietitians or health care providers. This review article discusses the current evidence about the role of sensible nutrition in diabetes management. Specific eating plans for weight reduction and for patients with type 1 diabetes are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrition and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Filteau, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    , which is mainly synergistic and operating at different levels. HIV infection increases energy and nutrient requirements, yet it reduces food security. The result is nutritional deficiencies, which increase progression of HIV infection. Both undernutrition and food insecurity may also lead to increased...... risk of transmission. Nutritional intake and status may affect metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, some of which may affect body composition, and increase risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, HIV is transmitted through breastfeeding, causing a serious infant feeding dilemma for which...

  18. Clinical avian nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR Appendix C to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Raw Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Raw Fruits and Vegetables C Appendix C to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. C Appendix C to Part 101—Nutrition Facts...

  20. Nutritional support and dietary interventions for women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Papavasiliou,Kleopatra; Papakonstantinou,Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Kleopatra Papavasiliou, Emilia Papakonstantinou Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in reproductive-aged women, which leads to reproductive, metabolic and hormonal abnormalities. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, polycystic ovaries, gonadotropin abnormalities, obesity, adipose tissu...

  1. Graduate level training in nutrition: an integrated model for capacity building- a national report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslam, Robabeh; Ghassemi, Hossein; Galal, Osman; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Omidvar, Nasrin; Nourmohammadi, Issa; Tuazon, Ma Antonia G

    2015-03-01

    Iran has been active in human nutrition training for the past five decades, but the existing curricular programs do not equip the graduates with the knowledge and skills required for solving food security and nutritional problems of the country. Given this, the Nutrition Department (ND) of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) initiated a curricular reform to develop responsive graduate programs in key areas of nutrition that fill the existing gaps in nutrition training with the goal of improving nutrition policy-making and program development, implementation and evaluation. ND called for a request for proposals for a project entitled "Graduate Level Training in Nutrition". Specifically, with technical assistance from leading academic institutions in Asia, North America and UK, seven new graduate programs were housed in three separate institutions, but coordinated so that together they form a broad multidisciplinary resource for graduate education and research. These seven-degree programs are MSc and PhD in Molecular/Cellular Nutrition, MSc and PhD in Nutritional Epidemiology, MSc and PhD in Food Policy and Nutrition Intervention, and MSc in Community Nutrition. The programs were prepared in collaboration and active participation of selected faculty members of the three Iranian universities, International Union of Nutritional Sciences and the University of Philippines at Los Baños. The development of these programs was made possible through a loan from the World Bank, under the Second Primary Health and Nutrition Project in the MOHME.

  2. Nutritional and Anti – Nutritional Composition of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the nutritional and anti – nutritional composition of the African palmyrah palm (Borassus aethiopum). Subjects/ Materials and Methods: Studies were conducted on the proximate composition, vitamin C, total carotenoids and some anti-nutritional factors / toxins of the fresh seedling of the African ...

  3. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and provide incomes to families. Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Capricorn Municipality, ...

  4. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  5. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  6. Towards implementation of optimum nutrition and better clinical nutrition support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C. F.; Prins, F.; van Kempen, A.; Tepaske, R.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical Nutrition Support--defined as nutrition for hospitalized patients suffering from metabolic stress--plays a limited role in the therapeutic routine of the physician. This is not surprising as most research in the field of clinical nutrition is disappointing with regard to the objective

  7. NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE IN PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz D. O. MIRANDA DA CRUZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: A review of phenylketonuria (PKU an autosomal recessive genetic desorder discovered and described in 1934 is presented and discussed. Excess phenylalanine is transamined and its presence or metabolites may cause brain damage. Hydroxylation is the most important determinant of phenylalanine homeostasis in humans. It has been shown a great geographic and ethnic variation in the presence of PKU. Neonatal screening is the main method to detect babies with this desorder. Restriction of phenylalanine intake is the most effective PKU treatment. There are several well balanced commercial formulas low in this amino acid. They should be introduced as soon as the positive PKU test is confirmed and be kept for a long time. Present knowledge allows the possibility of pregnancy of PKU girls, under dietary control. Alternative treatments have been proposed for PKU and great advance has lately been achieved on the genetic and nutricional aspects of the disease. KEYWORDS: Phenylketonuria; children; phenylalanine, nutrition PKU.

  8. Biotin: From Nutrition to Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Donald M

    2017-08-01

    Although frank symptomatic biotin deficiency is rare, some evidence suggests that marginal biotin deficiency occurs spontaneously in a substantial proportion of women during normal human pregnancy and might confer an increased risk of birth defects. Herein I review 1 ) advances in assessing biotin status, including the relation between acylcarnitine excretion and biotin status; 2 ) recent studies of biotin status in pregnancy; 3 ) advances in understanding the role of biotin in gene expression and the potential roles of biotinylated proteins that are neither histones nor carboxylases; and 4 ) novel large-dose biotin supplementation as therapy for multiple sclerosis. The review concludes with a summary of recent studies that have reported potentially dangerous erroneous results in individuals consuming large amounts of biotin for measurements of various plasma hormones for common clinical assays that use streptavidin-biotin technology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Nutrition and Respiratory Health—Feature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn S. Berthon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet and nutrition may be important modifiable risk factors for the development, progression and management of obstructive lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This review examines the relationship between dietary patterns, nutrient intake and weight status in obstructive lung diseases, at different life stages, from in-utero influences through childhood and into adulthood. In vitro and animal studies suggest important roles for various nutrients, some of which are supported by epidemiological studies. However, few well-designed human intervention trials are available to definitively assess the efficacy of different approaches to nutritional management of respiratory diseases. Evidence for the impact of higher intakes of fruit and vegetables is amongst the strongest, yet other dietary nutrients and dietary patterns require evidence from human clinical studies before conclusions can be made about their effectiveness.

  10. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  11. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored CE Programs Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  12. Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    ...., second only to smoking. The purpose of this study is to explore the nutritional lifestyle of college women, and to determine if there are differences in nutritional lifestyle, as well as, perception of health status...

  13. CONFERENCE CHEVREUL Nutrition research: the industrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korver Onno

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of nutrition research in an industrial setting is the marketing of products. Since consumers cannot see from the product whether it is healthy, communication to the consumer about the nutritional and health values of the products is essential. Industrial nutrition research therefore has to provide the scientific dossier to underpin the claims and other communication on and around the product as well as the scientific basis for the communication. These two lines are illustrated in figure 1. For scientific audiences the steps to collect the scientific evidence are obvious: first screening for new ideas on the basis of scientific developments and business options, then identifying ingredients that can deliver the health benefit, followed by mechanistic and bioavailability studies and finally human intervention trials. The communication line is less obvious for most scientifically oriented audiences. Experience has shown that an information cascade has to be followed: during the execution of the research work close contact with academic experts (a true dialogue is essential, when the research data are available information of a wide selection of health professionals (e.g. physicians, dieticians, science journalists is taking place and only after this step communication to the consumer starts. The communication with the scientific experts (the first step of the cascade obviously has to be in the hands of the nutrition research group of the industry involved. In Unilever this is the Unilever Nutrition Centre based in Vlaardingen in the Netherlands. Their role in the scientific dialogue is outlined in figure 2. The fact that the “Medaille Chevreul” has been awarded twice to members of the Unilever Nutrition Centre in the last two decades, illustrates that the UNC is considered to be a group with a truly scientific tradition.

  14. Gauging food and nutritional care quality in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diez-Garcia Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food and nutritional care quality must be assessed and scored, so as to improve health institution efficacy. This study aimed to detect and compare actions related to food and nutritional care quality in public and private hospitals. Methods Investigation of the Hospital Food and Nutrition Service (HFNS of 37 hospitals by means of structured interviews assessing two quality control corpora, namely nutritional care quality (NCQ and hospital food service quality (FSQ. HFNS was also evaluated with respect to human resources per hospital bed and per produced meal. Results Comparison between public and private institutions revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the number of hospital beds per HFNS staff member (p = 0.02 and per dietitian (p  Conclusions Food and nutritional care in hospital is still incipient, and actions concerning both nutritional care and food service take place on an irregular basis. It is clear that the design of food and nutritional care in hospital indicators is mandatory, and that guidelines for the development of actions as well as qualification and assessment of nutritional care are urgent.

  15. Can metabotyping help deliver the promise of personalised nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Clare B; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Michael J; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-02-01

    Over a decade since the completion of the human genome sequence, the promise of personalised nutrition available to all has yet to become a reality. While the definition was originally very gene-focused, in recent years, a model of personalised nutrition has emerged with the incorporation of dietary, phenotypic and genotypic information at various levels. Developing on from the idea of personalised nutrition, the concept of targeted nutrition has evolved which refers to the delivery of tailored dietary advice at a group level rather than at an individual level. Central to this concept is metabotyping or metabolic phenotyping, which is the ability to group similar individuals together based on their metabolic or phenotypic profiles. Applications of the metabotyping concept extend from the nutrition to the medical literature. While there are many examples of the metabotype approach, there is a dearth in the literature with regard to the development of tailored interventions for groups of individuals. This review will first explore the effectiveness of personalised nutrition in motivating behaviour change and secondly, examine potential novel ways for the delivery of personalised advice at a population level through a metabotyping approach. Based on recent findings from our work, we will demonstrate a novel strategy for the delivery of tailored dietary advice at a group level using this concept. In general, there is a strong emerging evidence to support the effectiveness of personalised nutrition; future work should ascertain if targeted nutrition can motivate behaviour change in a similar manner.

  16. Nutrition of the transition cow

    OpenAIRE

    BEŇASOVÁ, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis titled Nutrition of the transition cow deals with nutrition of dairy cows in peripartum period with regard to prevention of development of metabolic diseases. Anatomy of digestive system and physiology of digestive processes are briefly described. Characteristic of nutrients and of the most common feeds used for nutrition of dairy cattle serves as introduction to formulation of dairy rations. Metabolic diseases caused by inadequate nutrition in transition period are the b...

  17. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thureen, Patti J; Hay, William W

    2006-01-01

    ..., the volume highlights the important longterm effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function. Written by an authoritative, international team of cont...

  18. Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J.J. van Neerven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow’s milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies. In addition, nutrition can also have indirect effects on allergic sensitization. This includes the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, which influences intrauterine development, as well as breastmilk composition. These include the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women that influences intrauterine development as well as breastmilk composition, effects of food processing that may enhance allergenicity of foods, and effects via modulation of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. This editorial review provides a brief overview of recent developments related to nutrition and the development and management of allergic diseases.

  19. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation; Institute of Medicine

    ... and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recomposed styles, version ...

  20. Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to

  1. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  2. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda van Eysinga, J.P.N.L.; Smilde, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a guide to diagnosing nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums. Deficiencies and toxicities are included, fifteen in all. Colour plates and descriptions are given for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, boron, copper, manganese, iron and zinc deficiency and for

  4. Cystic fibrosis - nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and crackers, muffins, or trail mix. Try to eat regularly, even if it is only a few bites. Or, include a nutrition supplement or milkshake. Be flexible. If you aren't hungry at dinner time, make breakfast, mid-morning snacks, and lunch ...

  5. Food security and nutrition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Efforts to improve one of the world's most resilient staples — cassava — have paid off, with lasting and, in some instances, dra- matic benefits. Plant breeding has increased this starchy root's nutritional value and dis- ease resistance, saving countless lives. IDRC has long recognized cassava, also known as manioc, as an ...

  6. [Nutritional support in sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Leyba, C; López Martínez, J; Blesa Malpica, A L

    2005-06-01

    Although it is considered that metabolic and nutritional support must be part of the management of septic patients, it has not been conclusively shown that nutritional support will improve survival or complications from sepsis. Specific data on this issue are scarce since there are few studies that have investigated specialized nutritional support in septic patients. Thus, most of the recommendations are based on outcomes obtained in severely ill patients with different pathologies. It is assumed that nutritional support should be carried out through the enteral route whenever possible, as in other critically ill patients. The energetic waste in these patients is highly variable, although in general terms the hypermetabolic situation may be classified as moderate. An adjustment factor of 1.25-1.30 is recommended for the Harris-Benedict's equation to calculate the caloric intake. Septic patients should receive a hyperproteic intake. The amount of glucose administered should not exceed 70% of non-protein calories, and lipids intake should not exceed 40%. With regards to micronutrients, it is recommended to increase the supply of those with antioxidant properties (vitamin E, carotenes, vitamin C, selenium). There are data to consider that the use of diets enriched with pharmaco-nutrients (both with parenteral and enteral routes) may be beneficial in septic patients, although there is some controversy when interpreting the outcomes.

  7. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  8. Maternal nutrition in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... Results: Undernutrition in women aged 15–49 years decreased from ... Food restrictions/taboos are common with proteins and vegetable. ... This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the ... economic resources—all critical toward good nutrition that ..... Indian J Pediatr 2004;71:1007-14. 23.

  9. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  10. Nutritional disturbances by adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Stassart, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional disturbances are frequent by adolescents. That is a psychological defense against dependance toward the mother but also a middle to remain in a childish position i.e. either as a fat baby - in the fall of obesity- or as the ideal pre- or bisexual great child - in the case of anorexia.

  11. Joint data analysis in nutritional epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinart, Mariona; Nimptsch, Katharina; Bouwman, Jildau

    2018-01-01

    activity, sedentary behavior, anthropometric measures, and sociodemographic and health status), main health-related outcomes, and laboratory measurements (traditional and omics biomarkers) was developed and circulated to those European research groups participating in the ENPADASI under the strategic...... for the study data were identified to facilitate data integration. Conclusions: Combining study data sets will enable sufficiently powered, refined investigations to increase the knowledge and understanding of the relation between food, nutrition, and human health. Furthermore, the minimal requirements...

  12. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these ...

  13. The rationale for consuming protein blends in sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gregory L

    2009-08-01

    Protein is considered by many to be the most important macronutrient for humans because of the numerous roles protein plays in the body. Protein needs have been compared across several population groups, including athletes and other exercising individuals. Many researchers have compared the effects of ingesting animal and vegetable protein sources and their implications on sports performance. Recently, blends of dairy protein and soy protein have appeared in commercial sports nutrition products such as nutrition bars and ready-to-drink and powdered beverages. This review will focus on the potential nutritional advantages of combining whey protein, casein, and isolated soy protein.

  14. Nutrition and Liver Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan A

    2017-01-01

    Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions. At the level of the whole body, this is achieved through dietary supply and the capacity of the body to transform the substrates and cofactors necessary for metabolism. All of these domains (diet, metabolic capacity, activity of the microbiome, body composition and the level of demand for energy and nutrients) are influenced by levels of physical activity and can vary according to physiological and pathological disease states. The liver plays a central role in establishing and maintaining these regulated processes. Its capacity to achieve and maintain these functional capabilities is established during one's early life. When these capabilities are exceeded and the ability to maintain the milieu interieur is compromised, ill-health supervenes. Stress tests that assess flow through gateway pathways can be used to determine the maximal capacity and functional reserve for critical functions. The inability of the liver to reliably integrate body lipid metabolism and the accumulation of abnormal lipid are obvious manifestations of impaired regulation both in situations of weight loss, for example, the fatty liver of severe malnutrition, and in situations of energy excess, as in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The use of stable isotopic probes and the more recent definition of the variability in the metabolome in different nutritional and pathological states indicate the great potential for clinical tools

  15. Home parenteral nutrition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousova, J.; Rouskova, B.; Styblova, J.

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition delivered at home presents a major improvement in the quality of life of children dependent on long term parenteral nutrition. Indications, technical conditions, logistics, complications, prognosis of home parenteral nutrition as well as some health-care issues to be addressed by pediatric practitioner are summarized. (author)

  16. Personalised nutrition: Status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost, H.G.; Gibney, M.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Görman, U.; Hesketh, J.E.; Mueller, M.; Ommen, B. van; Williams, C.M.; Mathers, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing

  17. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  18. State of nutrition support teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  19. Nutrition communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are frequently confronted with patients who suffer from obesity or other nutrition-related diseases, such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. There is increasing evidence that nutrition communication is effective in changing nutrition behaviour. Moreover, it is widely

  20. Nutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  1. Impacts of prenatal nutrition on animal production and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2017-01-01

    The concept of foetal programming (FP) originated from human epidemiological studies, where foetal life nutrition was linked to health and disease status later in life. Since the proposal of this phenomenon, it has been evaluated in various animal models to gain further insights into the mechanisms...... programming in animals born precocial, such as sheep. Appropriate attention to the nutrition of the late pregnant dam should therefore be a priority in animal production systems....

  2. The Nutrition Challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Fanzo

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to some of the most nutritionally insecure people in the world. Poor infrastructure and limited resources compounded with conflict, HIV, and poor access to health services are factors that contribute to the staggering levels of malnutrition and food insecurity on the continent. Despite these enormous challenges, some countries in Africa are making progress towards food and nutrition security and there has never been a better time to work towards improved human devel...

  3. Increasing CO2 threatens human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary deficiencies of zinc and iron are a major global public health problem. An estimated two billion people suffer these deficiencies causing a loss of 63 million life years annually. Most of these people depend upon grains and legumes as their primary dietary source of zinc and iron. This manu...

  4. Nutrition: assessment of human exposure to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Zuraidah Abdullah Munir; Suziana Ismail; Abd Khalik Wood; Suhaimi Hamzah; Syamsiah Abdul Rahman; Wee Boon Siong; Suhaimi Alias; Nazatul Ashita Abdullah Salim

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the research are (I) to determine the essential and toxic elements in foodstuffs, (II) to study the sufficient elemental levels in foodstuff for the dietary intake, (III) to assess the relationship of the essential and toxic elements intake to the types of diet and (IV) to compare the food quality of Malaysian various cuisine on essential and toxic elements

  5. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  6. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition education...

  7. Evidence-Based Guideline of the German Nutrition Society: Carbohydrate Intake and Prevention of Nutrition-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hauner, Hans;Bechthold, Angela;Boeing, Heiner;Brönstrup, Anja;Buyken, Anette;Leschik-Bonnet, Eva;Linseisen, Jakob;Schulze, Matthias;Strohm, Daniela;Wolfram, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The relative contribution of nutrition-related chronic diseases to the total disease burden of the society and the health care costs has risen continuously over the last decades. Thus, there is an urgent necessity to better exploit the potential of dietary prevention of diseases. Carbohydrates play a major role in human nutrition – next to fat, carbohydrates are the second biggest group of energy-yielding nutrients. Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinaemia, hypertension, metabol...

  8. Increased nutritional value in food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Nieves; Antolín, M Carmen

    2017-09-01

    Modern agriculture and horticulture must combine two objectives that seem to be almost mutually exclusive: to satisfy the nutritional needs of an increasing human population and to minimize the negative impact on the environment. These two objectives are included in the Goal 2 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations: 'End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture'. Enhancing the nutritional levels of vegetables would improve nutrient intake without requiring an increase in consumption. In this context, the use of beneficial rhizospheric microorganisms for improving, not only growth and yield, but also the nutrient quality of crops represents a promising tool that may respond to the challenges for modern agriculture and horticulture and represents an alternative to the genetic engineering of crops. This paper summarizes the state of the art, the current difficulties associated to the use of rhizospheric microorganisms as enhancers of the nutritional quality of food crops as well as the future prospects. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. COMMERCIAL BABY PORRIDGES IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issue of the most important product among additional food for infants — baby porridges. It includes historical data on usage of various cereal crops in human nutrition. A special significance of porridges in culture of food and traditions of Russian population is highlighted. The authors give information about nutritional value and chemical composition of different cereals — buckwheat, rice, pearl-barley, millet, oats etc. A special attention is given to differences in concentrations of nutrients and micronutrients manufactured by different ways from the same kind of cereal. The necessity to feed infants with commercial baby porridges is based in the article. There are also represented characteristics of various commercial porridges for nutrition of infants: hypoallergenic, glutenfree and containing gluten, enriched with pre- and probiotics. The article also contains data on nutritional value of milk and milk-free porridges. The authors raised a discussion on possibility and standards of usage of different additional components, such as sugar, maltodextrin, honey, vanillin, vegetable oils in production of infant porridges. The selection of certain type of porridges as additional food for healthy and infants with different diseases and digestive disorders is based.

  10. IAEA Nobel Peace fund schools for nutrition. Combating child malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    fight against malnutrition by providing technical expertise in the use of stable isotope techniques in the development and evaluation of nutritional interventions. Stable isotope techniques have been used as research tools in nutrition for many years. However, the application of these techniques in nutrition programme development and evaluation is a relatively new approach, where the IAEA has a unique opportunity to contribute. Stable isotope techniques add value by increasing the sensitivity and specificity of measurements as compared to conventional techniques. The IAEA has supported numerous activities in infant nutrition where stable isotope techniques have been applied. These include projects to measure human milk intake in breast-fed infants, muscle mass in lactating mothers, and bioavailability of iron in infants and young children. IAEA Nobel Prize Fund Schools for Nutrition. The Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize to the IAEA and Director General ElBaradei in equal shares. The IAEA's Board of Governors subsequently decided that the IAEA's share of the prestigious prize would be used to fund fellowships and training to improve cancer management and childhood nutrition in the developing world. In nutrition, the IAEA Nobel Cancer and Nutrition Fund is focused on capacity building in the use of nuclear techniques to develop and evaluate interventions to contribute to improved nutrition and health for children. Fund-supported fellowship awards are targeting young professionals, especially women, from developing countries, through the IAEA's Technical Cooperation (TC) Programme. Alongside such awards, regional events - IAEA Nobel Peace Prize Fund Schools for Nutrition - have been organized in Africa, Asia and the Pacific and in Latin America during 2006 and 2007. The aims of the IAEA Nobel Peace Prize Fund Schools in Nutrition are to: raise awareness of the IAEA's activities in human nutrition; and disseminate information about the usefulness

  11. Graduate Level Training in Nutrition: An Integrated Model for Capacity Building- A National Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEIKHOLESLAM, Robabeh; GHASSEMI, Hossein; GALAL, Osman; DJAZAYERY, Abolghassem; OMIDVAR, Nasrin; NOURMOHAMMADI, Issa; TUAZON, Ma. Antonia G.

    2015-01-01

    Iran has been active in human nutrition training for the past five decades, but the existing curricular programs do not equip the graduates with the knowledge and skills required for solving food security and nutritional problems of the country. Given this, the Nutrition Department (ND) of Iran’s Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) initiated a curricular reform to develop responsive graduate programs in key areas of nutrition that fill the existing gaps in nutrition training with the goal of improving nutrition policy-making and program development, implementation and evaluation. ND called for a request for proposals for a project entitled “Graduate Level Training in Nutrition”. Specifically, with technical assistance from leading academic institutions in Asia, North America and UK, seven new graduate programs were housed in three separate institutions, but coordinated so that together they form a broad multidisciplinary resource for graduate education and research. These seven-degree programs are MSc and PhD in Molecular/Cellular Nutrition, MSc and PhD in Nutritional Epidemiology, MSc and PhD in Food Policy and Nutrition Intervention, and MSc in Community Nutrition. The programs were prepared in collaboration and active participation of selected faculty members of the three Iranian universities, International Union of Nutritional Sciences and the University of Philippines at Los Baños. The development of these programs was made possible through a loan from the World Bank, under the Second Primary Health and Nutrition Project in the MOHME. PMID:25905083

  12. Perioperative nutritional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; García Unzueta, María Teresa; Ortiz Espejo, María; Hernández González, Miriam; Morán López, Ruth; Amado Señaris, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between preoperative malnutrition and morbi-mortality has been documented for years. Despite the existence of tools that allow its detection, and therefore treat this entity, their introduction into clinical practice is not wide-spread. Both perioperative insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with increased perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The intake of carbohydrate-rich drinks 2-4h prior to surgery reduces insulin resistance. In the immediate postoperative period, the enteral route is safe and well tolerated and its early use reduces hospital stay and postoperative complications compared with parenteral nutritional support. Inmunonutrition has been proven effective to decrease postoperative complications and hospital stay. In view of these data we opted for the adoption of these measures replacing bowel rest and the indiscriminate use of postoperative parenteral nutrition. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute nutritional axonal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; Logigian, Eric L

    2018-01-01

    This study describes clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features of a severe acute axonal polyneuropathy common to patients with acute nutritional deficiency in the setting of alcoholism, bariatric surgery (BS), or anorexia. Retrospective analysis of clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory data of patients with acute axonal neuropathy. Thirteen patients were identified with a severe, painful, sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy that developed over 2-12 weeks with sensory ataxia, areflexia, variable muscle weakness, poor nutritional status, and weight loss, often with prolonged vomiting and normal cerebrospinal fluid protein. Vitamin B6 was low in half and thiamine was low in all patients when obtained before supplementation. Patients improved with weight gain and vitamin supplementation, with motor greater than sensory recovery. We suggest that acute or subacute axonal neuropathy in patients with weight loss or vomiting associated with alcohol abuse, BS, or dietary deficiency is one syndrome, caused by micronutrient deficiencies. Muscle Nerve 57: 33-39, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. School nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M; Kiely, D; Mulvihill, M; Winters, A; Bollard, C; Hamilton, A; Corrigan, C; Moore, E

    1993-05-01

    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  15. Nutrition - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Italiano) Japanese (日本語) Karen (S’gaw Karen) Kirundi (Rundi) Korean (한국어) Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Nepali (नेपाली) Pashto (Pax̌tō / پښتو ) Portuguese (português) ... Agriculture MyPlate Icon - English HTML ... Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion U.S. Department of Agriculture Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) Expand Section Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a ...

  16. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  17. Nutrition and pubertal development

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compar...

  18. Dairy cow nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tame, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  19. Child nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to reduce malnutrition, particularly in densely populated, peri-urban areas, is considered a priority among governments around the world. The problem is especially acute in Africa due to the high prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency. The International Atomic Energy Agency is providing technical support to a community nutrition programme in Senegal where nuclear techniques help to monitor the programme's effectiveness in order to ensure that it produces maximum benefits on vulnerable groups (women and children). (IAEA)

  20. Nutrition in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reci Meseri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is defined as decreased ability of heart due to various reasons. It%u2019s seen 2-3% but the prevalence increases sharply after the age of seventy. The objectives of nutrition therapy in heart failure are to prevent from water retention and edema, to avoid from hard digestion and to offer a balanced diet. In order to avoid fluid retention and edema, daily sodium and fluid intake must be monitored carefully. Main dilemma of the heart failure patients is the obesity-cachexia dilemma. Since one of the main reasons of heart failure is cardiovascular diseases, in first phase, the patient may be obese. In the later phases, cachexia may show up. It was shown that cachexia is associated with mortality. Within this period, patients should not be over-fed and the patient should pass from catabolic state to anabolic state slowly. If the gastrointestinal track is functional oral/enteral feeding must be preferred. Multi vitamin and mineral supportsmay be beneficial, which may replace the increased loss, increase anti-inflammatory response and be anti-oxidants. Large, controlled and well-designed studies must be conducted in order to evaluate the benefits of nutritional practices such as nutritional assessment, enteral feeding and nutrient supports in heart failure patients.

  1. Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Weickert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM. Chronic oversupply of energy from food, together with inadequate physical activity, have been recognized as the most relevant factors leading to overweight, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and finally T2DM. Conversely, energy reduced diets almost invariably to facilitate weight loss and reduce abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. However, sustained weight loss is generally difficult to achieve, and distinct metabolic characteristics in patients with T2DM further compromise success. Therefore, investigating the effects of modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic diets is an interesting concept that may lead to additional important insights. Metabolic effects of various different dietary concepts and strategies have been claimed, but results from randomized controlled studies and particularly from longer-term-controlled interventions in humans are often lacking. However, some of these concepts are supported by recent research, at least in animal models and short-term studies in humans. This paper provides an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the modulation of insulin resistance, which includes the discussion of weight-loss-independent metabolic effects of commonly used dietary concepts.

  2. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K

    1980-01-01

    The practice of sprouting of cereal grains has become popular in the western world. Sprouted grains are thought of as having exceptional nutritive value. Sprouting is easy and can be done without sophisticated equipment. Untreated seeds of good quality and high germination percentage are placed in an environment of adequate water, a desirable temperature, and a certain composition of gases in the atmosphere for several days for sprouting. The sprouts can be kept for a few days to over a week under refrigeration. They can be used in many different foods including breakfast items, salads, soups, casseroles, pasta, and baked products. Sprouting of grains causes increased enzyme activity, a loss of total dry matter, an increase in total protein, a change in amino acid composition, a decrease in starch, increases in sugars, a slight increase in crude fat and crude fiber, and slightly higher amounts of certain vitamins and minerals. Most of the increases in nutrients are not true increases, however. They simply reflect the loss of dry matter, mainly in the form of carbohydrates, due to respiration during sprouting. As total carbohydrates decreases, the percentage of other nutrients increases. There are no nutritional evaluations of cereal sprouts in humans. Animal studies with cattle, pigs, chickens, and rats have failed to show a superior nutritive value of sprouted grains over ungerminated grains. Studies with humans are not likely to produce more encouraging results.

  4. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  5. Nutrition and Prevention of Alzheimer’s dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Jicha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A nutritional approach to prevent, slow, or halt the progression of disease is a promising strategy that has been widely investigated. Much epidemiologic data suggests that nutritional intake may influence the development and progression of AD. Modifiable, environmental causes of AD include potential metabolic derangements caused by dietary insufficiency and or excess that may be corrected by nutritional supplementation and or dietary modification. Many nutritional supplements contain a myriad of health promoting constituents (anti-oxidants, vitamins, trace minerals, flavonoids, lipids,…etc. that may have novel mechanisms of action affecting cellular health and regeneration, the aging process itself, or may specifically disrupt pathogenic pathways in the development of AD. Nutritional modifications have the advantage of being cost effective, easy to implement, socially acceptable and generally safe and devoid of significant adverse events in most cases. Many nutritional interventions have been studied and continue to be evaluated in hopes of finding a successful agent, combination of agents, or dietary modifications that can be used for the prevention and or treatment of AD. The current review focuses on several key nutritional compounds and dietary modifications that have been studied in humans, and further discusses the rationale underlying their potential utility for the prevention and treatment of AD.

  6. Nutritional knowledge assessment of syrian university students

    OpenAIRE

    Louay Labban

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition knowledge is one of the factors that affect nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and societies. Nutrition knowledge is an important tool in assessing the nutritional status of an individual, group or community. Researchers have been trying to design and develop reliable and valid questionnaires that distinguish and measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary behavior and diet-health awareness. Many studies have shown that nutrition knowledge ...

  7. Maternal nutrition and optimal infant feeding practices: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Kalhan, Satish C; Hay, William W

    2007-02-01

    Much recent attention has been paid to the effect of the fetal environment on not only healthy birth outcomes but also long-term health outcomes, including a role as an antecedent to adult diseases. A major gap in our understanding of these relations, however, is the effect of maternal nutrition and nutrient transport on healthy fetal growth and development. In addition, this gap precludes evidence-based recommendations about how to best feed preterm infants. The biological role of the mother and the effect of her nutritional status on infant feeding extend to postnatal infant feeding practices. Currently, evidence is incomplete about not only the composition of human milk, but also the maternal nutritional needs to support extended lactation and the appropriate nutrient composition of foods that will be used to complement breastfeeding at least through the first year of life. Consequently, a conference, organized by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, and the US Department of Agriculture Children's Nutrition Research Center was held to explore current knowledge and develop a research agenda to address maternal nutrition and infant feeding practices. These proceedings contain presentations about the effect of maternal nutrition and the placental environment on fetal growth and birth outcomes, as well as issues pertaining to feeding preterm and full-term infants.

  8. Health Scenario of Major Tribals of Northern Orissa in Relation to Human Growth, Development and Nutrition and the Role of Genetic Factors in Smell and Tasting Abilities in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgir RS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of physical growth and development of children depends primarily upon the genetic endowments, nutritional status, psychosocial attitude and surrounding physical environmental conditions. School going children are the most important segment of the society who are affected by under- and mal-nutrition. Good nutrition is an indispensable component of healthy life. Tribal children studying in Ashram schools can be taken as representatives of the predominant tribes of the area. This study was aimed at evaluating the health profile in relation to growth, development and nutrition of a randomly selected cross section of 1038 Ashram school children aged six through 15 years in the state of Orissa. Following the standard methodology, it was noticed that nutritional complications are compounded due to ignorance, bad food habits, food fads, and poverty. About 71% of the Ashram school children showed mild to moderate anemia. According to different grades of malnutrition, the frequency of grade III malnutrition was very low in Ashram-school boys (1.4% and girls (3.5%, with an average of 2.3%. The grade I as well as grade II malnutrition was also higher in girls (grade II =24.3%; grade I= 37.6% as compared to boys (grade II=16.7%; grade I=31.5% with an average of 19.9% and 34.1%, respectively for grade II and grade I malnutrition. There was a consistent pattern of increase in height and weight in the year six through fifteen of age, showing that height and weight of the Ashram school children increases with the corresponding advancement of age in both boys and girls. In general, the girls were shorter and lighter in weight than the boys. This pattern is consistent in the present study of Ashram school children in Orissa. It has been observed that apart from the genetic potential, the intra-uterine environment, mother’s nutritional status before, during and post pregnancy, and neonatal nutrition and associated traditional behavior drastically

  9. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...

  10. Nutritional education from Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ramona Betancourt Betancourt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional education is current topic, constituting a necessity in the contemporary world, given mainly by the contribution that it makes in maintaining the human health under good conditions. Starting from this problem, it is presented this article whose objective is: to show the potential ities that the discipline Cellular and Molecular Biology offers, for the treatment of these contents, since this discipline is worked in the second semester of first year and first semester of in the formation of professors of the Biology - Geography and Bio logy - C hemistry careers which can contribute to the development of knowledge, habits and abilities that allows them to appropriate of responsible behaviours for the achievement of correct nutritional habits.

  11. The IAEA Focuses on Global Nutritional Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2014-01-01

    For over fifty years, the IAEA has been helping its Member States to harness peaceful nuclear science and technology to bring demonstrable benefits to their people. Nutrition is one area in which the IAEA’s partnership with Member States has steadily deepened. This issue of the IAEA Bulletin focuses on the IAEA’s work in nutrition. Topics include our initiatives to measure human milk intake in breastfed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and the bioavailability of iron in infants and young children. We also look at the paradox of the simultaneous occurrence of both undernutrition and overnutrition that is often found within communities, and even households, across the globe. The IAEA is committed to doing everything it can to make peaceful nuclear technology available to help give all the children of the world a brighter future

  12. The IAEA Focuses On Global Nutritional Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2014-01-01

    For over fifty years, the IAEA has been helping its Member States to harness peaceful nuclear science and technology to bring demonstrable benefits to their people. Nutrition is one area in which the IAEA’s partnership with Member States has steadily deepened. This issue of the IAEA Bulletin focuses on the IAEA’s work in nutrition. Topics include our initiatives to measure human milk intake in breastfed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and the bioavailability of iron in infants and young children. We also look at the paradox of the simultaneous occurrence of both undernutrition and overnutrition that is often found within communities, and even households, across the globe. The IAEA is committed to doing everything it can to make peaceful nuclear technology available to help give all the children of the world a brighter future

  13. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  14. Nutritional aspects to prevent heart diseases in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major health complications currently in various societies. Management of heart diseases as a prevention step or as treatment with low-cost procedures like lifestyle modifications including nutrition are important current trends. Although the term nutrition dates back to 2 past centuries, Persian physicians contributed to this term at least from 1000 years ago. Rhazes (865-925 AD) was one of the pioneers in this field. He preferred using foods in treating illnesses. "Foods and drinks" were 1 subject from 6 principles (Setteh Zarorieh) that Persian physicians believed can affect human health. In this review, we described some medieval Persian views on the role of nutrition in heart diseases and compare their prescriptions with current findings. Interestingly, current investigations mostly support Persian medicine principles. Historically, this work shows that the concept of nutrition in heart diseases has had a successful background at least from 1000 years ago in Persia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. [Services portfolio of a department of endocrinology and clinical nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Delgado, Almudena; Gómez Enterría, Pilar; Tinahones Madueño, Francisco

    2011-03-01

    Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition are branches of Medicine that deal with the study of physiology of body glands and hormones and their disorders, intermediate metabolism of nutrients, enteral and parenteral nutrition, promotion of health by prevention of diet-related diseases, and appropriate use of the diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive tools related to these disciplines. Development of Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition support services requires accurate definition and management of a number of complex resources, both human and material, as well as adequate planning of the care provided. It is therefore essential to know the services portfolio of an ideal Department of Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition because this is a useful, valid and necessary tool to optimize the available resources, to increase efficiency, and to improve the quality of care. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. A Summary of Pathways or Mechanisms Linking Preconception Maternal Nutrition with Birth Outcomes123

    OpenAIRE

    King, Janet C

    2016-01-01

    Population, human, animal, tissue, and molecular studies show collectively and consistently that maternal nutrition in the pre- or periconception period influences fetal growth and development, which subsequently affects the individual?s long-term health. It is known that nutrition during pregnancy is an important determinant of the offspring?s growth and health. However, now there is evidence that the mother?s nutritional status at conception also influences pregnancy outcome and long-term h...

  17. Nutrition guidelines for undergraduate medical curricula: a six-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, Jennifer; Ball, Lauren; Laur, Celia; Wall, Clare; Arroll, Bruce; Poole, Phillippa; Ray, Sumantra

    2015-01-01

    Jennifer Crowley,1 Lauren Ball,2 Celia Laur,3 Clare Wall,1 Bruce Arroll,4 Phillippa Poole,5 Sumantra Ray3 1Discipline of Nutrition, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of General Practice and Pri...

  18. The Interface of Nutritional Practices of Selected Basketball Players of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, On Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene, Alagbu Chukwubikem; Agwubuike, E. O

    2012-01-01

    The nutritional practices of athletes are critical to sports performance, since good result is the goal or expectations of all sports stake-holders, coaches, sports administrators/managers and spectators alike, therefore the issue of good nutrition regarding these ?human machines? (athletes), calls for serious attention. This research, therefore tried to examine the nutritional practices of some selected Basketball players of Nnamdi Azikiwe University (UNIZIK) Awka, in Anambra State of Nigeri...

  19. The nutrition/excretion system of urban areas: socioecological regimes and transitions.

    OpenAIRE

    Esculier , Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition and excretion are fundamental physiological needs for all human beings. Analysis of their materiality, from the cellular scale up to the great planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles, shows that nutrition and excretion form a system. The focus of our study is the sustainability of the nutrition/excretion systems of urban areas, which we have sought to assess by analysing substance flows.The most relevant of these substances seems to be nitrogen, so by assessing urban nitrogen flows we...

  20. Nutrition in acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Mussi Guimarães

    Full Text Available Nutritional status has been considered to be one of the possible determinants of mortality rates in cases of acute renal failure (ARF. However, most studies evaluating possible mortality indicators in ARF cases have not focused on the nutritional status, possibly because of the difficulties involved in assessing the nutritional status of critically ill patients. Although the traditional methods for assessing nutritional status are used for ARF patients, they are not the best choice in this population. The use of nutritional support for these patients has produced conflicting results regarding morbidity and mortality. This review covers the mechanisms and indicators of malnutrition in ARF cases and the types of nutritional support that may be used.

  1. Parenteral nutrition in malnourished patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichvarova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition became a routine therapeutic option in malnourished patients, if conventional nutritional enteral support is not effective. Cachexia and malnutrition prolong the wound healing, contribute to immunosuppression, increase morbidity and the cost of treatment. Using of a malnutrition protocol as a screening tool is necessary to sort out malnourished patients. Parenteral nutrition is therefore an important part of the multimodal therapy and from the medical and the ethical point of view is a great mistake not to feed a patient. (author)

  2. Nutrition guidelines for undergraduate medical curricula: a six-country comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowley J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Crowley,1 Lauren Ball,2 Celia Laur,3 Clare Wall,1 Bruce Arroll,4 Phillippa Poole,5 Sumantra Ray3 1Discipline of Nutrition, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, 5Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Aim: To assess nutrition curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medical education in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand to highlight potential opportunities for shared learning on the advancement of nutrition in medical education. Methods: A comprehensive list of professional bodies, councils, organizations, and other groups relevant to education or nutrition was compiled for each country after a review of relevant white and gray literature. All documents that were published from 2000 onwards, and that provided guidance on nutrition education within undergraduate medical education for one of the identified countries were included in the review. Each curriculum guideline was evaluated for 1 the organization's or group's role in undergraduate medical education; 2 the extent of nutrition-related recommendations; and 3 mandatory implementation. Results: In the countries reviewed, a total of six nutrition-related curriculum guidelines were identified. All countries, aside from the Republic of Ireland, currently have externally visible curriculum guidelines to inform medical schools in undergraduate nutrition education, yet there is little evidence of mandatory enforcement. Curriculum guidelines predominantly focus on basic nutrition principles, nutrition assessment, the role

  3. The changing nutrition scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  4. The changing nutrition scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ′Green Revolution fatigue′. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  5. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  6. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S

  7. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  8. Nutritional support of reptile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voe, Ryan S

    2014-05-01

    Providing nutritional support to reptile patients is a challenging and often misunderstood task. Ill reptiles are frequently anorexic and can benefit greatly from appropriate nutrition delivered via a variety of assist-feeding techniques. Neonatal reptiles can also be very challenging patients because many fail to thrive without significant efforts to establish normal feeding behaviors. This article presents ideas supporting the benefit of timely nutritional support as well as specific recommendations for implementation of assist feeding. Also discussed are a few nutritional issues that affect captive reptile species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man running - Protein and the Athlete - ...

  10. Parenteral Nutrition in Liver Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Chiarla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit a very large number of experiments have assessed the impact of various substrates on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, a limited number of clinical studies have evaluated artificial nutrition in liver resection patients. This is a peculiar topic because many patients do not need artificial nutrition, while several patients need it because of malnutrition and/or prolonged inability to feeding caused by complications. The optimal nutritional regimen to support liver regeneration, within other postoperative problems or complications, is not yet exactly defined. This short review addresses relevant aspects and potential developments in the issue of postoperative parenteral nutrition after liver resection.

  11. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrition in Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Reci Meseri

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is defined as decreased ability of heart due to various reasons. It%u2019s seen 2-3% but the prevalence increases sharply after the age of seventy. The objectives of nutrition therapy in heart failure are to prevent from water retention and edema, to avoid from hard digestion and to offer a balanced diet. In order to avoid fluid retention and edema, daily sodium and fluid intake must be monitored carefully. Main dilemma of the heart failure patients is the obesity-cachexia dilem...

  13. Energy - environment - nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The special edition contains contributions made by different authors on the array of problems presented by the environment, energy, and nutrition, biosphere and man, economic growth and energy supplies for future security, new environmental awareness, - the end of market economy., power plant safety, conditions for the evolution of mankind, policy and criminal law demonstrated by means of environmental protection. The concept of ecology and the development of world energy supplies are documented. The bibliography report goes into detail as far as studies are concerned which deal with the hazards of nuclear power plants, related pros and cons, with the energy crisis in general, and with nuclear weapons. (HSCH) [de

  14. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services to... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public...

  15. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goals. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to.... (b) Requirement. The State agency shall integrate nutrition education into FMNP operations and may...

  16. Effect of a nutrition education programme on nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, the prevalence of chronic and acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency is high in young children, especially in developing countries. Nutrition education is an important intervention to address these challenges. Objective. To determine the nutritional (anthropometric and micronutrient) status of ...

  17. Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.

  18. Nutritional requirements and parenteral nutrition in preterm infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provision of appropriate nutritional requirements soon after birth is critical for normal development and growth of preterm infants. Preterm infants are often not able to tolerate volumes of oral feeds that will provide adequate daily requirements for growth within the first week or two of life, therefore parenteral nutrition is often ...

  19. The effect of Integrated nutrition care intervention on the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to adequate nutrition in children is essential for the attainment of high standards of health. The health and nutritional status of orphans and vulnerable children is important as it affects their growth, health and mental development. However, these children suffer from malnutrition as they have limited access to ...

  20. [Nutritional risk screening and nutrition assessment for gastrointestinal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-ping; Li, Ling-ling; He, Qing; Li, Yun; Song, Hu; Lin, Yi-jia; Peng, Jun-sheng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the nutritional status, and provide evidence for nutritional treatment option. A total of 452 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were selected, including 156 gastric cancer,117 colon cancer, and 180 rectal cancer. The nutritional risk screening 2002(NRS2002) was applied to grade the nutritional risk. A multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure the patients' body composition. Albumin (Alb), prealbumin(PA), transferring(Tf), retinol binding protein(RBP), red blood cell(RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit(Hct) were measured after fasting. The rate of patients with NRS2002 score more than 3 was 70.5%(110/156) for gastric cancer, 53.8%(63/117) for colon cancer, and 46.7%(86/180) for rectal cancer. The score for impaired nutritional status more than 1 for gastric cancer was higher than that for colorectal cancer(Pgastric cancer(Pgastric cancer patients as compared to colorectal cancer patients(Pgastric cancer patients(Pgastric cancer and colon cancer(Pgastric cancer are prone to fat loss and therefore have a higher nutritional risk and malnutrition than those with colorectal cancer. Combination of body composition analysis and laboratory examination may achieve comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional status of patients, and provide the evidence of nutritional therapy by being combined with NRS2002 score.